WorldWideScience

Sample records for open space refuse

  1. Land reclamation in the refuse dump of open coal mines and its following ecology principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jun-fu; WANG Xiu-lan

    2006-01-01

    Through the research on the model of the land reclamation in the refuse dump of Heidaigou open coal mines, it was concerned that ecology was the theoretical basic for the land reclamation of open coal mines. According to the principle of ecological substituting, the land reclamation can be divided into three stages: water and soil conservation,ecological performance and economic performance. Taking the land reclamation in the refuse dump of Heidaigou open coal mines as the practical example, explained the application of the ecological substituting principle on the land reclamation in the open coal mines.

  2. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis of open lactic acid fermentation of kitchen refuse using rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kenji; Mori, Masatsugu; Fujii, Akira; Iwami, Yuko; Chukeatirote, Ekachai; Shirai, Yoshihito

    2004-01-01

    Reproducible amounts of lactic acid accumulate in minced kitchen refuse under open conditions with intermittent pH neutralization [Sakai et al., Food Sci. Technol. Res., 6, 140 (2000)]. Here, we showed that such pH-controlled open fermentation of kitchen refuse reproducibly resulted a selective proliferation of a major lactic acid bacterial (LAB) species. In one experiment, the predominant microorganisms isolated during the early phase (6 h) were Gammaproteobacteria. In contrast, those that predominated during the late phase (48 h) were always Lactobacillus plantarum in three independent experiments. To further quantify the microbial community within open lactic acid fermentation, we performed fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis targeting 16S (23S) rRNA. We designed two new group-specific DNA probes: LAC722(L) was active for most LAB including the genera Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc and Weisella, whereas Lplan477 was specific for L. plantarum and its related species. We then optimized sample preparation using lysozyme and hybridization conditions including temperature, as well as the formamide concentration and the salt concentration in the washing buffer. We succeeded in quantification of microorganisms in semi-solid, complex biological materials such as minced kitchen refuse by taking color microphotographs in modified RGB balance on pre-coated slides. FISH analysis of the fermentation of kitchen refuse indicated that control of the pH swing leads to domination by the LAB population in minced kitchen refuse under open conditions. We also confirmed that L. plantarum, which generates lactic acid in high quantities but with low optical activity, became the dominant microorganism in kitchen refuse during the late phase of open fermentation.

  3. Open Spaces, Public Spaces, Publics, Open-minded Places

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Bravo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In 1993 a double issue of the international architectural review (published in Italy “Casabella” was dedicated to “The design of open spaces”. Different positions and scholars and diverse point of views explored this complex theme, trying to explain the reasons, the modes and the possibilities of a new strategy in design research and practice. The starting point was the very term “open space”, which doesn’t belong to the classical vocabulary of architectural theory, with no reference to modern town planning manuals.Nowadays the difference between “open space”, as indicated in regulations of urban city spaces, and “public space” has found new declensions related to public life of groups or individuals, taking place in consolidated environments as well as in peripheral areas or in residual spaces up to edge cities, able to give values and functions to neglected or abandoned places. Next to public meeting spaces, such as large congress hall, fair precincts, political or cultural events, shopping centers, and to waiting spaces, such as offices, public institutions, underground stations, airports, many public spaces do not have an architectural connotation: life can be found at the corner of two suburban roads, where spontaneous conversation or some kind of special event slowly starts to layer, indicating a kind of rituality, or in anonymous suburban places where minority ethnic or immigrant groups gather, becoming places of solidarity and sharing. All these expressions, as already Vittorio Gregotti pointed out in his introductory essay on Casabella, articulate in a new way the demands for public space and for its architectural definition.

  4. Around Refuse The Hour, Kentridge and his Space-Time of Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Le Borgne

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with a creative process born in the intersection of stage, cinema and visual arts: the one of William Kentridge. In the polymorphic work of the South African artist, his movement between different forms of expression holds a key-role in his way of working. Taken between an installation and an exhibition, the progress around his show Refuse The Hour (2012 gives a relevant ground for the analysis of the stakes in a process of creation in movement between various artistic fields. From the studio to rehearsals, and through a rhythm of collective work, this text investigates the genetics of the show crossed by different space-times of creation.

  5. Application of waste mushroom on land reclamation in the refuse dump of Haizhou Open-pit Mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jun-fu; WANG Xiu-lan

    2009-01-01

    In order to rapidly increase the degree of maturation of the soil in land reclama-tion of the refuse dump of the Haizhou open-pit mines,the application of waste mushroom in the process of soil improvement in the dump was studied.Through the research on plant growth,root development and microbial changes in soil and change of physical and chemical characteristics of the plot,the result shows that waste mushroom can increase the degree of maturation of the soil and improve soil fertility.

  6. Using Open Space Technology for School Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, David

    2002-01-01

    Describes a theory referred to as Open Space Technology (OST), which holds that the most productive learning in conference settings takes place in the open space between formally scheduled conference sessions. Argues that OST can be applied to staff development days and other educational development programs. (Contains 10 references.) (NB)

  7. The Spaces of Open-Source Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Emil; Plesner, Ursula

    constructed by the Alternative as techniques for practicing open-source politics, and observe that physical and digital spaces create a vacillation between openness and closure. This vacillation produces a dialectic relationship between practices of imagination and affirmation. Curiously, it seems...

  8. 46 CFR 45.149 - Machinery space openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 45.149 Section 45.149 Shipping... Assignment § 45.149 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space openings in position 1 or 2 must be framed... funnel or machinery space ventilator that must be kept open for the essential operations of the ship...

  9. School Refusal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Mary

    2008-01-01

    School attendance is an ongoing concern for administrators, particularly in middle level and high school. Frequent absences affect student learning, test scores, and social development. Absenteeism is often the result of emotional disorders, such as anxiety or depression. Administrators who understand the causes of school refusal behavior and are…

  10. Open space preservation, property value, and optimal spatial configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong Jiang; Stephen K. Swallow

    2007-01-01

    The public has increasingly demonstrated a strong support for open space preservation. How to finance the socially efficient level of open space with the optimal spatial structure is of high policy relevance to local governments. In this study, we developed a spatially explicit open space model to help identify the socially optimal amount and optimal spatial...

  11. Restorative urban open space: Exploring the spatial configuration of human emotional fulfilment in urban open space

    OpenAIRE

    Thwaites, K.; Helleur, E.; Simkins, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    The capacity of outdoor settings to benefit human well being is well established by research. Examples of restorative settings can be found throughout history and are still applied today in health-care facilities, as healing or restorative gardens for the sick, but their wider significance in the urban public realm remains insufficiently explored. A conceptual framework for restorative urban open space based on mosaics of linked and nested spaces woven into the urban fabric is presented. The ...

  12. 46 CFR 42.15-35 - Machinery space openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 42.15-35 Section 42.15-35... BY SEA Conditions of Assignment of Freeboard § 42.15-35 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space..., funnel, or machinery space ventilators in an exposed position on the freeboard or superstructure...

  13. Soil water deficit and vegetation restoration in the refuse dumps of the Heidaigou open-pit coal mine, Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Huang; Peng Zhang; YiGang Hu; Yang Zhao

    2016-01-01

    The sustainability of ecosystem restoration of refuse dumps in open-pit coal mines depends on plant species selection, their configuration, and the optimal usage of water resources. This study is based on field experiments in the northern refuse dump of the Heidaigou open-pit coal mine in Inner Mongolia of China established in 1995. Eight plant configurations, including trees, shrubs, grasses, and their combinations, as well as the adjacent community of natural vegetation, were selected. The succession of the revegetated plants, soil water storage, the spatiotemporal distribution of plant water deficits degree and its compensation degree were also studied. Results indicated that the vegetation cover (shrubs and herbaceous cover), richness, abundance, soil nutrients (soil organic matter, N and P), and biological soil crust coverage on the soil surface are significantly influenced by the vegetation configurations. The average soil water storage values in the shrub + grass and grass communities throughout the growing season are 208.69 mm and 206.55 mm, which are the closest to that of in the natural vegetation community (215.87 mm). Plant water deficits degree in the grass and shrub + grass communities were the lowest, but the degrees of water deficit compensation in these configuration were larger than those of the other vegetation configurations. Differences in plant water deficit degree and water compensation among the different config-urations were significant (P <0.05). Plant water deficit degrees were predominantly minimal on the surface, increased with increasing soil depth, and remained stable at 80 cm soil depth. The soil moisture compensation in the natural vegetation, shrub + grass, and grass communities changed at 10%, while that in other vegetation communities changed between 20% and 40%. Overall, we conclude that the shrub + grass and grass configuration modes are the optimal vegetation restoration models in terms of ecohydrology for future ecological

  14. Space as an open plasma laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos

    2011-10-01

    Ionospheric heaters supplemented by ground and space based diagnostic instruments have for a long time being used to conduct plasma physics, geophysical and radio science investigations. The recently completed HF transmitter associated with the High Frequency Active Ionospheric Research Program (HAARP), far exceeds the capabilities of previous ionospheric heaters and allows for new frontier research in plasma physics, geophysics and radio science. The transmitter radiates 3.6 MW of HF power in the 2.8-10.0 MHz frequency range. The beam-width varies from 15-5 degrees, corresponding to 20-30 dB gain and resulting in Effective Radiating Power (ERP) between.36-4.0 GW. The antenna can point to any direction in a cone of 30 degrees from the vertical, with a reposition time of 15 degrees in 15 microseconds resulting in super-luminous scanning speeds. The transmitter can synthesize essentially any desired waveform in linear and circular polarization. We present a number of HAARP experiments that used space as an open plasma laboratory. The experiments cover the areas of (i) Artificial ULF/ELF/VLF generation and injection in the magnetosphere (ii) Studies of wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere (iii) Langmuir turbulence, parametric instabilities, electron acceleration and optical emissions (iv) Artificial ionization. Ionospheric heaters supplemented by ground and space based diagnostic instruments have for a long time being used to conduct plasma physics, geophysical and radio science investigations. The recently completed HF transmitter associated with the High Frequency Active Ionospheric Research Program (HAARP), far exceeds the capabilities of previous ionospheric heaters and allows for new frontier research in plasma physics, geophysics and radio science. The transmitter radiates 3.6 MW of HF power in the 2.8-10.0 MHz frequency range. The beam-width varies from 15-5 degrees, corresponding to 20-30 dB gain and resulting in Effective Radiating Power (ERP

  15. Elements that influence living quality in open urban space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Krajner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of people living in cities in Slovenia is increasing. There fore, the city spreads, urban space is created mostly by different buildings with minimum of open space, usually designed for parking spaces. But despite the fact, that urban structure is spreading, and there should be more of public open spaces, or green open spaces, those are in many cases reached by developers as well. Despite global worming, higher temperatures in city centres and what appears to be what citizens want, the urban open spaces are not big enough, and are usually not designed with key elements, to improve quality of lifestyle in the urban space such as trees, water or natural elements. Therefore at all levels of urban planning it is necessary to strive for larger amount of space that could be designed as public open space or green space to improve quality of life in the city.

  16. Sound preferences in urban open public spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jian; Yang, Wei

    2003-10-01

    This paper studies people's perception of sound, based on an intensive questionnaire survey in fourteen urban open public spaces of five European countries. The questionnaire includes identification of recognized sounds, classification of sound preference, and indication of wanted and unwanted sounds. The results indicate three facets to people's sound preferences. First, people generally prefer natural and culture-related sounds rather than artificial sounds. Vehicle sounds and construction sounds are regarded as the most unpopular, whereas sounds from human activities are normally rated as neutral. Second, cultural background and long-term environmental experience play an important role in people's judgment of sound preference. People from a similar environment may show a similar tendency on their sound preferences, which can be defined as macro-preference. Third, personal differences, such as age and gender, further influence people's sound preference, which can be defined as micro-preference. For example, with increasing age, a higher percentage of people are favorable to, or tolerate, sounds relating to nature, culture or human activities. Male and female exhibit only slight differences. [Work supported by the European Commission.

  17. 78 FR 18416 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Open Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory.... 92-463, 5 U.S.C. App. 2), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Commercial Space...

  18. 78 FR 53496 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Open Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory.... 92-463, 5 U.S.C. App. 2), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Commercial Space...

  19. Courts and open spaces in the Late Helladic III Argolid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siennicka, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    and significance of courts and other open spaces in the Mycenaean settlements in the Argolid during the Palatial and Post-Palatial periods (c. 15th–11th centuries BC). Various categories of areas, like courts, open spaces and open-air areas are discussed, with an emphasis on their functions and status. Courts......While space remains a neglected subject in research on Mycenaean settlements, archaeological and ethnographical studies devoted to social meaning of places and areas used by the inhabitants of the prehistoric and other communities increase in number. This paper aims to review the use...... and open spaces are considered as reflecting patterns of spatial organization in the settlements and of the diverse activities of their residents. The differences between the use of open areas in the acropoleis and in the lower towns are pointed out, as well as changes in the use patterns after the fall...

  20. 30 CFR 77.214 - Refuse piles; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; general. 77.214 Section 77.214... Installations § 77.214 Refuse piles; general. (a) Refuse piles constructed on or after July 1, 1971, shall be..., tipples, or other surface installations and such piles shall not be located over abandoned openings...

  1. Wide Open Spaces: Wikis Ready or Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Remember when the Internet was about opening up access to information and breaking down the barriers between content creators and content consumers? Think back to when spam was just a meatlike substance. To those heady days when Timothy Leary was predicting that the PC would be the LSD of the nineties. Before the DMCA. Before eBay. Back when the…

  2. Wide Open Spaces: Wikis Ready or Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Remember when the Internet was about opening up access to information and breaking down the barriers between content creators and content consumers? Think back to when spam was just a meatlike substance. To those heady days when Timothy Leary was predicting that the PC would be the LSD of the nineties. Before the DMCA. Before eBay. Back when the…

  3. Hyperconnectivity, Attribute-Space Connectivity and Path Openings : Theoretical Relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, M.H.F.; Wilkinson, MHF; Roerdink, JBTM

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the relationship of hyperconnected filters with path openings and attribute-space connected filters is studied. Using a recently developed axiomatic framework based on hyperconnectivity operators, which are the hyperconnected equivalents of connectivity openings, it is shown that path

  4. An Open Specification for Space Project Mission Operations Control Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, A.; Heuser, W. R.

    1995-01-01

    An 'open specification' for Space Project Mission Operations Control Architectures is under development in the Spacecraft Control Working Group of the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astro- nautics. This architecture identifies 5 basic elements incorporated in the design of similar operations systems: Data, System Management, Control Interface, Decision Support Engine, & Space Messaging Service.

  5. 77 FR 52108 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Open Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation... Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 5 U.S.C. App. 2), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Commercial...

  6. Healthy campus by open space design: Approaches and guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Siu Yu Lau

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the architectural and landscape design strategies and intentions for green, open spaces facilities targeting stress alleviation for learning environments such as those of university campuses in a compact urban setting. Literature reviews provide three prevailing perspectives for physical design pedagogical operatives: healing gardens where greenery and plants produce restorative effects; flexible spaces that accommodate functional needs of different activities; and green buildings that incorporate open space as a catalyst for integrated eco-system. Corresponding design approaches (landscape design, spatial design and green design are scrutinized by case study. A comparison of two university campuses with different urban contexts is conducted to identify challenges and opportunities for applying these design approaches. For a compact campus, high-dense surroundings may limit the size of an open space and may handicap circulation and accessibility; on the other side, a small open space may provide its users more intimate contact with natural restorative elements and also a more controllable microclimate for physical comfort. A healthy campus should encompass diverse open spaces to satisfy different purposes. Finally, a framework that integrates the three approaches is combined to produce a sustainable design rubric.

  7. DESIGN OF URBAN OPEN SPACES FOR USER NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerrin İnan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The researches done in both the natural and built environments suggest that inspired design can make significant improvements in the lives of people and the environment. While considerable numbers of studies have been done on user needs and conflicts in open space, no single document integrates all of this knowledge and makes it available to professionals, students and researchers. This article aims to review and synthesize the knowledge addressing basic user needs that include comfort, relaxation, passive and active engagements, privatization of public space etc. Also gives some suggestions for reducing conflict among various groups competing for the use of open space in order to be created successful urban open spaces. More researches in the form of new case studies needed to show how user needs can be effectively translated into design. Programming, planning, design and management based on human needs will be essential to the future development of open spaces as well as the growth of the professions designing for open spaces.

  8. Open problems in the geometry and analysis of Banach spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Guirao, Antonio J; Zizler, Václav

    2016-01-01

    This is a collection of some easily-formulated problems that remain open in the study of the geometry and analysis of Banach spaces. Assuming the reader has a working familiarity with the basic results of Banach space theory, the authors focus on concepts of basic linear geometry, convexity, approximation, optimization, differentiability, renormings, weak compact generating, Schauder bases and biorthogonal systems, fixed points, topology and nonlinear geometry. The main purpose of this work is to help convince young researchers in Functional Analysis that the theory of Banach spaces is a fertile field of research, full of interesting open problems. Inside the Banach space area, the text should help expose young researchers to the depth and breadth of the work that remains, and to provide the perspective necessary to choose a direction for further study. Some of the problems presented herein are longstanding open problems, some are recent, some are more important and some are only "local" problems. Some would ...

  9. A Monstrous Alliance: Open Architecture and Common Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Kodalak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary built environment is absorbed by a dualist spatial organisation model divided between public and private space. Within this restrictive grammar, public space, despite its democratic promise, is heavily indoctrinated and anesthetised under the hegemony of regulatory apparatuses and control mechanisms, whereas private space has catalysed, if not directly engendered, prevalent spatial problems, such as ever-increasing slums, discriminatory gentrification and ecological catastrophes, despite its self-approving assurance. Underneath this dysfunctional couple lies common space, a third category that constitutes the shared spatial commonwealth of our entire natural and cultural milieu.The multitude, as an emerging body of self-organising political and spatial actors, has already started to unearth the potential of common space, actualising emergent and interactive spatial configurations all around the world. In this new, self-organisational model, architects do not become obsolete; rather, they leave behind their conventional roles as submissive experts and cosmetic speculators. By becoming anomalous architects, they affirm and augment the opening of spatial and architectural milieus to a myriad of new possibilities.This article theorises the possibility of a monstrous alliance between anomalous architects and the multitude, between open architectures and common space. Two specific case studies accompany these theoretical frameworks: the Gezi Event (Istanbul, 2013 demonstrates the actual emancipation of common space through the self-organising activity of the multitude, while Open-Cube (Antalya, 2013 attests to an early open architecture experiment based on the potentiating activity of the anomalous architect. 

  10. Soundscape of Urban Open Spaces in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui

    This study aims to investigate the soundscape of urban open spaces in Hong Kong. Open space in densely populated cities has been considered as an important asset for urban inhabitants in that they afford opportunities for leisure, recreation and an active involvement with nature. For quite a long time, visual aesthetic was the dominant consideration in open space design and other senses were given less concern. Continuous stream of attention-demanding sounds from the noisy environment may bombard these open spaces, rendering them no longer able to satisfy the eye alone. Sound and consequently the acoustic environment are receiving increasing attention. This study used noise mapping technique supplemented by GIS spatial analysis tools to delineate quiet open spaces with traffic noise exposure less than 60 dB (A) L10, 1h and conducted field observations to determine their usages. The identified quiet open spaces are either concentrated in hilly and remote areas with low accessibility, or sporadically scattered among tall buildings. Some large urban parks and small sitting-out areas are even located in the center of the city. Larger open spaces serve group visits, such as hiking and sightseeing, while smaller ones are easily accessible to local residents for social and recreational purposes. The acoustic environment III urban open spaces varies with space and time. To characterize the acoustic quality of soundscapes in the quiet open spaces, sound walk and field recording were undertaken place in 25 selected study sites. Despite the dominance of traffic noise, soundscapes in the urban open spaces are also shaped by natural sounds. Sounds from birds and water are common and prevalent particularly in gardens and playgrounds. Soundscape approach is a human-centered point of view. How the visitors perceive and evaluate sounds and the acoustic quality has great implication for soundscape design. On-site interview of 1,610 visitors unravels human preference of individual

  11. OPEN PUBLIC SPACE ATTRIBUTES AND CATEGORIES – COMPLEXITY AND MEASURABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Čavić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the field of architectural and urban research, this work addresses the complexity of contemporary public space, both in a conceptual and concrete sense. It aims at systematizing spatial attributes and their categories and discussing spatial complexity and measurability, all this in order to reach a more comprehensive understanding, description and analysis of public space. Our aim is to improve everyday usage of open public space and we acknowledged users as its crucial factor. There are numerous investigations on the complex urban and architectural reality of public space that recognise importance of users. However, we did not find any that would holistically account for what users find essential in public space. Based on the incompleteness of existing approaches on open public space and the importance of users for their success, this paper proposes a user-orientated approach. Through an initial survey directed to users, we collected the most important aspects of public spaces in the way that contemporary humans see them. The gathered data is analysed and coded into spatial attributes from which their role in the complexity of open public space and measurability are discussed. The work results in an inventory of attributes that users find salient in public spaces. It does not discuss their qualitative values or contribution in generating spatial realities. It aims to define them clearly so that any further logical argumentation on open space concerning users may be solidly constructed. Finally, through categorisation of attributes it proposes the disciplinary levels necessary for the analysis of complex urban-architectural reality

  12. Open space suitability analysis for emergency shelter after an earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Anhorn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In an emergency situation shelter space is crucial for people affected by natural hazards. Emergency planners in disaster relief and mass care can greatly benefit from a sound methodology that identifies suitable shelter areas and sites where shelter services need to be improved. A methodology to rank suitability of open spaces for contingency planning and placement of shelter in the immediate aftermath of a disaster is introduced. The Open Space Suitability Index (OSSI uses the combination of two different measures: a qualitative evaluation criterion for the suitability and manageability of open spaces to be used as shelter sites, and a second quantitative criterion using a capacitated accessibility analysis based on network analysis. For the qualitative assessment, implementation issues, environmental considerations, and basic utility supply are the main categories to rank candidate shelter sites. Geographic Information System (GIS is used to reveal spatial patterns of shelter demand. Advantages and limitations of this method are discussed on the basis of a case study in Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC. According to the results, out of 410 open spaces under investigation, 12.2% have to be considered not suitable (Category D and E while 10.7% are Category A and 17.6% are Category B. Almost two third (59.5% are fairly suitable (Category C.

  13. Book Review: Opening Space Research: Dreams, Technology, and Scientific Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Gregory A.

    2012-05-01

    In Opening Space Research: Dreams, Technology, and Scientific Discovery, George Ludwig takes the reader behind the scenes of space exploration in the 1950s. The well-known episodes in this history—such as the stories of Sputnik, Laika the cosmodog, and the founding of NASA—are here placed in the rich context of the scientific and technical goals that motivated Ludwig and his fellow researchers. Ludwig relates the personal experiences of the many engineers, physicists, and university students who made possible humanity’s first ventures into space.

  14. A Discourse Approach to Theorising HRD: Opening a Discursive Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, Aileen; Sambrook, Sally; Garavan, Tom; Valentin, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss how a discourse approach to theorising human resource development (HRD) can open a "discursive space" to challenge dominant discourses within the field; enabling a more critical discourse to emerge. Design/methodology/approach: Discusses two approaches to discourse analysis, a "practice" and a…

  15. A Discourse Approach to Theorising HRD: Opening a Discursive Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, Aileen; Sambrook, Sally; Garavan, Tom; Valentin, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss how a discourse approach to theorising human resource development (HRD) can open a "discursive space" to challenge dominant discourses within the field; enabling a more critical discourse to emerge. Design/methodology/approach: Discusses two approaches to discourse analysis, a "practice" and a…

  16. Opening Spaces for Critical Literacy: Introducing Books to Young Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labadie, Meredith; Wetzel, Melissa Mosley; Rogers, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    How might book introductions open up spaces for critical literacy? This is the research question we asked while examining the records of teaching and learning within a yearlong teacher-research project in a second grade classroom. We designed a series of literacy units focused on themes of human rights, freedom, peace, and civil rights. Our focus…

  17. $\\gamma^{*}$-semi-open Sets in Topological Spaces-II

    CERN Document Server

    Hussain, Sabir

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we continue studying the properties of $\\gamma^{*}$-semi-open sets in topological spaces introduced by S. Hussain, B. Ahmad and T. Noiri[8]. We also introduce and discuss the $\\gamma^{*}$-semi-continuous functions which generalize semi-continuous functions defined by N. Levine [10].

  18. Interactive human behavior analysis in open or public spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hung, H.; Odobez, J.M.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    In the past years, efforts in surveillance and open space analysis have focused on traditional computer vision problems like scene modeling or object detection and tracking. Research on human behavior recognition have tended to work on predefined simple activities such as running, jumping or left lu

  19. An Open and Holistic Approach for Geo and Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschel, Bernd; Seelus, Christoph; Neher, Günther; Toshihiko, Iyemori; Yatagai, Akiyo; Koyama, Yukinobu; Murayama, Yasuhiro; King, Todd; Hughes, Steve; Fung, Shing; Galkin, Ivan; Hapgood, Mike; Belehaki, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Geo and space sciences thus far have been very successful, even often an open, cross-domain and holistic approach did not play an essential role. But this situation is changing rapidly. The research focus is shifting into more complex, non-linear and multi-domain specified phenomena, such as e.g. climate change or space environment. This kind of phenomena only can be understood step by step using the holistic idea. So, what is necessary for a successful cross-domain and holistic approach in geo and space sciences? Research and science in general become more and more dependent from a rich fundus of multi-domain data sources, related context information and the use of highly advanced technologies in data processing. Such buzzword phrases as Big Data and Deep Learning are reflecting this development. Big Data also addresses the real exponential growing of data and information produced by measurements or simulations. Deep Learning technology may help to detect new patterns and relationships in data describing high sophisticated natural phenomena. And further on, we should not forget science and humanities are only two sides of the same medal in the continuing human process of knowledge discovery. The concept of Open Data or in particular the open access to scientific data is addressing the free and open availability of -at least publicly founded and generated- data. The open availability of data covers the free use, reuse and redistribution of data which have been established with the formation of World Data Centers already more than 50 years ago. So, we should not forget, the foundation for open data is the responsibility of the individual scientist up until the big science institutions and organizations for a sustainable management of data. Other challenges are discovering and collecting the appropriate data, and preferably all of them or at least the majority of the right data. Therefore a network of individual or even better institutional catalog-based and at least

  20. 14 CFR 121.586 - Authority to refuse transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority to refuse transportation. 121.586 Section 121.586 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... transportation. (a) No certificate holder may refuse transportation to a passenger on the basis that, because...

  1. Decomposition theorem in ideal topological spaces via a*-I-open sets and Asemi*-I-open sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Omeri, W.; Noorani, Mohd. Salmi.; AL-Omari, A.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate some properties of a*-I-open set [3] and Asemi*-I-open sets defined in [3] in ideal topological space. The relationships of other related classes of sets are investigated. Also, a new decomposition of continuous functions is obtained by using δβA-I-open and SA*-set functions in an ideal topological space.

  2. Open Education as a Way for Space Education in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshev, V. V.; Karp, K. A.

    2002-01-01

    low level of state financial support. As a result there is a decreasing education quality. Scientific research was always an integral part of education and an alternative way for education financial support. But today the level of such support is too low as well. High experience of Russian space education system is not useful completely. This paper shows, that at present an open education could be a new step of space education in Russia. discussed in the paper. of students per one professor and also the number of students, which pay for education. New technology based on Internet technology would provide high methodology and technical level of education. The open education guarantees training in different areas and specialties on international standard level. education process, new education technology, new equipment of education system, new ways of financial support, international cooperation in education process, new professors and staffs in education system, increasing the level of salary for staff and comfortable conditions for students are discussed at the first. free education period, both traditional and new education methods are very important on the other side. about 4-5 years. The necessity of international educational system integration has to be taken into account. The international standard request, educational courses in different languages and free market conditions have to be under consideration. The partially ready open space education is discussed also. That system can be started even today.

  3. Generalizations of γ-open set in topological spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Baby; Paul, Arnab

    2016-06-01

    The main aim of this work is to study three generalized forms of γ-open set due to D. Andrijevic (D. Andrijevic, On the Topology Generated by pre-open sets, Presented at the Sixth Prague Topological Symposium, 39 (1987), 367-376)in a topological space. Out of which the dual appearance of one is the stronger form of b-locally closed set in the sense of Arafa A. Nasef (A. A Nasef,On b-locally closed sets and related topics, CHAOS SOLITONS & FRACTALS 12(2001) 1909-1915). Also, we introduce the concept of different types of continuity and study their basic properties by using these newly defined sets. Finally, we establish the interrelationships among themselves together with some already existing generalized forms of continuity.

  4. Linguistic Landscape and Space: A Multimodal Analysis of Linguistic landscape in Robot Open Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the linguistic landscape in an indoor public place, Robot Open Space in Zhongguancun Dream Laboratory, which is a building housing a handful of innovative entrepreneurial enterprises. The subject of analysis in this present paper is the impact of different spaces on the features of linguistic landscape. Each of the three major sub-spaces in the company Robot Open Space has different functions and the linguistic landscape with its different features varies accordingly. This present study has the following contributions. First, the shift of analytical attention from the outdoor linguistic landscape to the indoor linguistic landscape provides a new angle for LL analysis and further expands the scenery of linguistic landscape. Then, the newly establish analytical framework, the “multimodal model for linguistic landscape analysis” enrich the current theoretical models that is quite rare. Last, the qualitative analysis of the linguistic landscapes in different spaces shed light on the correlation between space and linguistic landscape, indicating that space is an integral factor to be considered when it comes to LL analysis.Keywords: linguistic landscape; multimodal model; qualitative analysis; space

  5. Hybrid open public space of landscape elements and built structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Bence

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The trend today in the cities in Europe and elsewhere is in combining landscape elements, built structure and different uses into a complex urban structure. Physical and program interweaving of landscape elements and built structure enables the consumers daily practice of leisure programs – relaxation, recreation and experiencing other cultural, educational and social events in the public green space. On the basis of determinate social changes and new approaches in urban planning practice, analyses of architectural and urban case studies from the point of view of integrating the landscape elements into the urban structure, the article defines the phenomenon of hybrid open public space and proposes methodical guidelines for the planning.

  6. Economic analysis of open space box model utilization in spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Atif F.; Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    It is a known fact that the amount of data about space that is stored is getting larger on an everyday basis. However, the utilization of Big Data and related tools to perform ETL (Extract, Transform and Load) applications will soon be pervasive in the space sciences. We have entered in a crucial time where using Big Data can be the difference (for terrestrial applications) between organizations underperforming and outperforming their peers. The same is true for NASA and other space agencies, as well as for individual missions and the highly-competitive process of mission data analysis and publication. In most industries, conventional opponents and new candidates alike will influence data-driven approaches to revolutionize and capture the value of Big Data archives. The Open Space Box Model is poised to take the proverbial "giant leap", as it provides autonomic data processing and communications for spacecraft. We can find economic value generated from such use of data processing in our earthly organizations in every sector, such as healthcare, retail. We also can easily find retailers, performing research on Big Data, by utilizing sensors driven embedded data in products within their stores and warehouses to determine how these products are actually used in the real world.

  7. OMAC4S- Open Modular Avionics for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpel, H.-J.; Willich, G.; Vogel, T.; Schuettauf, A.; Pletner, S.; Schoen, F.; Fidi, C.; Loetzke, M.; Dittrich, L.; Schuelke, P.; Wolf, T.

    2013-08-01

    Today's spacecraft avionics architecture is characterised by a broad variety of processing modules, operating systems and interfaces for exchanging data between different processing modules. The software that implements most of the satellite functionality has to deal with this fact and is one of the reasons why software has become one of the major cost drivers in satellite projects. Similar problems have triggered developments in other industrial domains like AUTOSAR in the automotive area or Integrated Modular Architecture (IMA) in the aerospace industry [8]. All these initiatives are based on the definition of standards for computing platforms and the interfaces between these platforms. The goals of the Open Modular Avionics Architecture for Space Applications (OMAC4S) initiative started by Astrium, Fraunhofer FOKUS, STI, SYSGO and TTTech are to outline a solution that helps to reduce complexity and costs for space avionics significantly. This initiative is partly funded by the German national space agency (DLR) through the project On-Board Computer System Architecture (OBC-SA). In this paper we describe how standardization and the usage of already proven technologies from other industrial domains will help to limit the effect of the software development on schedule and costs of satellite projects. In addition we will demonstrate a migration path to make these technologies available for space applications.

  8. Personal Spaces in Public Repositories as a Facilitator for Open Educational Resource Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Anat; Reisman, Sorel; Sperling, Barbra Bied

    2015-01-01

    Learning object repositories are a shared, open and public space; however, the possibility and ability of personal expression in an open, global, public space is crucial. The aim of this study is to explore personal spaces in a big learning object repository as a facilitator for adoption of Open Educational Resources (OER) into teaching practices…

  9. Public evaluation of open space in Illinois: citizen support for natural area acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backlund, Erik A; Stewart, William P; McDonald, Cary; Miller, Craig

    2004-11-01

    Numerous studies have indicated a broad-based support for open space preservation and protection. Research also has characterized the public values and rationale that underlie the widespread support for open space. In recognition of the widespread public support for open space, various levels of government have implemented programs to provide public access to open space. There are many different types of open space, ranging from golf courses, ball parks, wildlife areas, and prairies, to name a few. This paper addresses questions related to the types of open space that should be prioritized by planners and natural resource managers. The results of this study are based on a stratified random sample of 5000 households in Illinois that were sent a questionnaire related to their support for various types of open space. Through a comparatively simple action grid analysis, the open space types that should be prioritized for public access include forest areas, stream corridors, wildlife habitat, and lakes/ponds. These were the open space types rated of the highest importance, yet were also the open space types rated the lowest in respondent satisfaction. This kind of analysis does not require the technical expertise of other options for land-use prioritizations (e.g., conjoint analysis, contingent valuation), yet provides important policy directives for planners. Although open space funds often allow for purchase of developed sites such as golf courses, ball parks, and community parks, this study indicates that undeveloped (or nature-based) open space lands are most needed in Illinois.

  10. Open Space Box: communication to support Big Data in orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Atif F.; Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    Communication to and from a small spacecraft can be at an extremely slow Baud rate, means both sending and receiving any communication will take some time. Extract, Transform and Load tools designed to transmit and receive data needs to have a flexible protocol. The Open Space Box model provides this base for smaller spacecraft to provide users data in a fashion that is pervasive within satellites as well as the ground stations. It also autonomically distinguishes data streams and disseminates relevant information to the related end users. Streaming Data can also be considered the generation of Big Data. At a ground station, the receiving of data can create the problem of Big Data and its management. Messages are sent in batch mode and communications are done using MapReduce.

  11. Spotting East African mammals in open savannah from space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Yang

    Full Text Available Knowledge of population dynamics is essential for managing and conserving wildlife. Traditional methods of counting wild animals such as aerial survey or ground counts not only disturb animals, but also can be labour intensive and costly. New, commercially available very high-resolution satellite images offer great potential for accurate estimates of animal abundance over large open areas. However, little research has been conducted in the area of satellite-aided wildlife census, although computer processing speeds and image analysis algorithms have vastly improved. This paper explores the possibility of detecting large animals in the open savannah of Maasai Mara National Reserve, Kenya from very high-resolution GeoEye-1 satellite images. A hybrid image classification method was employed for this specific purpose by incorporating the advantages of both pixel-based and object-based image classification approaches. This was performed in two steps: firstly, a pixel-based image classification method, i.e., artificial neural network was applied to classify potential targets with similar spectral reflectance at pixel level; and then an object-based image classification method was used to further differentiate animal targets from the surrounding landscapes through the applications of expert knowledge. As a result, the large animals in two pilot study areas were successfully detected with an average count error of 8.2%, omission error of 6.6% and commission error of 13.7%. The results of the study show for the first time that it is feasible to perform automated detection and counting of large wild animals in open savannahs from space, and therefore provide a complementary and alternative approach to the conventional wildlife survey techniques.

  12. Refusal to medical interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, G; Herreros, B; Pacho, E

    2014-10-01

    Refusal to medical interventions is the not acceptance, voluntary and free, of an indicated medical intervention. What the physician should do in case of refusal? It is understandable that the rejection of a validated medical intervention is difficult to accept by the responsible physician when raises the conflict protection of life versus freedom of choice. Therefore it is important to follow some steps to incorporate the most relevant aspects of the conflict. These steps include: 1) Give complete information to patients, informing on possible alternatives, 2) determine whether the patient can decide (age, competency and level of capacity), 3) to ascertain whether the decision is free, 4) analyze the decision with the patient, 5) to persuade, 6) if the patient kept in the rejection decision, consider conscientious objection, 7) take the decision based on the named criteria, 8) finally, if the rejection is accepted, offer available alternatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Refusing What We Are

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul

    In an interview, Michel Foucault (1983: 336) said that the target today perhaps “is not to discover what we are but to refuse what we are… to promote new forms of subjectivity”. Protest actions by a range of new social movements have been studied extensively, but few studies have focused...... on the communicative practices and mediated actions in which new identities and forms of subjectivity are discursively produced, contingently achieved and made visible in situ. This paper investigates what Foucault called ‘counter-conducts’, practices in which alternative modes of subjectivation and of being governed...

  14. Cesium Diffusion through Angstrom-Scale Open Spaces in Clay Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Koichiro; Sato, Kiminori; Nakata, Masataka

    2017-03-01

    Saponite clay minerals possess the local molecular structures, where one and two nanosheets are inserted into interlayer spaces forming open spaces with their sizes of ˜3 and ˜9 Å, respectively. Here, Cs diffusion via the above-mentioned open spaces is highlighted based on the results of open space analysis using positronium (Ps) lifetime spectroscopy coupled with a conventional diffusion experiment. A population of Cs is found to significantly migrate in the saponite clay yielding a diffusion coefficient of ˜2.0 × 10-7 cm2 s-1 with an application of Fick's second law, which arises from overall diffusion contributed from open spaces with a variety of sizes. On the other hand, the diffusion coefficient solely attributable to the angstrom-scale open space is ˜2.5 × 10-8 cm2 s-1, which amounts to more than ˜10% than that of overall diffusion.

  15. Public open space, physical activity, urban design and public health: Concepts, methods and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Mavoa, Suzanne; Villanueva, Karen; Sugiyama, Takemi; Badland, Hannah; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Owen, Neville; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-05-01

    Public open spaces such as parks and green spaces are key built environment elements within neighbourhoods for encouraging a variety of physical activity behaviours. Over the past decade, there has been a burgeoning number of active living research studies examining the influence of public open space on physical activity. However, the evidence shows mixed associations between different aspects of public open space (e.g., proximity, size, quality) and physical activity. These inconsistencies hinder the development of specific evidence-based guidelines for urban designers and policy-makers for (re)designing public open space to encourage physical activity. This paper aims to move this research agenda forward, by identifying key conceptual and methodological issues that may contribute to inconsistencies in research examining relations between public open space and physical activity.

  16. The value of urban open space: meta-analyses of contingent valuation and hedonic pricing results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brander, Luke M; Koetse, Mark J

    2011-10-01

    Urban open space provides a number of valuable services to urban populations, including recreational opportunities, aesthetic enjoyment, environmental functions, and may also be associated with existence values. In separate meta-analyses of the contingent valuation (CV) and hedonic pricing (HP) literature we examine which physical, socio-economic, and study characteristics determine the value of open space. The dependent variable in the CV meta-regression is defined as the value of open space per hectare per year in 2003 US$, and in the HP model as the percentage change in house price for a 10 m decrease in distance to open space. Using a multi-level modelling approach we find in both the CV and HP analyses that there is a positive and significant relationship between the value of urban open space and population density, indicating that scarcity and crowdedness matter, and that the value of open space does not vary significantly with income. Further, urban parks are more highly valued than other types of urban open space (forests, agricultural and undeveloped land) and methodological differences in study design have a large influence on estimated values from both CV and HP. We also find important regional differences in preferences for urban open space, which suggests that the potential for transferring estimated values between regions is likely to be limited. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An Urban Open Space Extraction Method:Combining Spectral and Geometric Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Guobin; Dan G. Blumberg

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces an advanced method based on remote sensing and Geographic Information System for urban open space extraction combining spectral and geometric characteristics. From both semantic and remote sensing perspectives, a hybrid hierarchy structure and class organization of open space are issues and mapped from one to another. Based on per-pixel and segmentation mechanism separately, two classification approaches are performed. Owing to prior of spatial aggregation and spectral contribution, the segmentation-based classification exhibits its superiority over a pixel-based classification. Finally a GIS-based post procedure is hired to eliminate some unsuitable open space components in both spatial and numerical constraints on the one hand, and separate open space some fabrics from fused remote sensing classes by defining their Shape Index on the other hand. The case study of Beer Sheva based on ASTER data proves this method is a feasible way for open space extraction.

  18. Recycling of aged refuse from a closed landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Youcai; Song, Liyan; Huang, Renhua; Song, Lijie; Li, Xiong

    2007-04-01

    In this study, refuse excavated from a typical refuse landfill in Shanghai after 8-10 years of placement was characterized in terms of particle size, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and biodegradable matter. The refuse contained a large and diverse population of micro-organisms with a high capacity for decomposing refractory organic matter present in some wastewaters, including leachate. It was found that the aged refuse was quite stable after about a decade of decomposition in the warm, humid climate of southern China. The fine fractions resembled and had the properties of black soil, a medium that is suitable for green construction, organic fertilizer, or as bioreactor media for biological treatment of organic wastewaters. Excavation of the aged refuse would make about 50% of the space available for fresh refuse. The plastics, glass, textiles, and cans can be readily mechanically separated and recycled after cleaning. It is estimated that at least 200 millions tonnes of such aged refuse are available in China alone, and at least 10 times that much is buried worldwide. Hence, the evaluation of mined landfill waste and consideration of its potential uses is of great significance.

  19. Gauge Theories on Open Lie Algebra Noncommutative Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, A.; Akant, L.

    It is shown that noncommutative spaces, which are quotients of associative algebras by ideals generated by highly nonlinear relations of a particular type, admit extremely simple formulae for deformed or star products. Explicit construction of these star products is carried out. Quantum gauge theories are formulated on these spaces, and the Seiberg-Witten map is worked out in detail.

  20. Open Problem: Kernel methods on manifolds and metric spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aasa; Hauberg, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Radial kernels are well-suited for machine learning over general geodesic metric spaces, where pairwise distances are often the only computable quantity available. We have recently shown that geodesic exponential kernels are only positive definite for all bandwidths when the input space has strong...

  1. Open Data and Open Science for better Research in the Geo and Space Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschel, B.; Seelus, C.; Neher, G.; Iyemori, T.; Koyama, Y.; Yatagai, A. I.; Murayama, Y.; King, T. A.; Hughes, S.; Fung, S. F.; Galkin, I. A.; Hapgood, M. A.; Belehaki, A.

    2015-12-01

    Main open data principles had been worked out in the run-up and finally adopted in the Open Data Charta at the G8 summit in Lough Erne, Northern Ireland in June 2013. Important principles are also valid for science data, such as Open Data by Default, Quality and Quantity, Useable by All, Releasing Data for Improved Governance, Releasing Data for Innovation. There is also an explicit relationship to such areas of high values as earth observation, education and geospatial data. The European union implementation plan of the Open Data Charta identifies among other things objectives such as making data available in an open format, enabling semantic interoperability, ensuring quality, documentation and where appropriate reconciliation across different data sources, implementing software solutionsallowing easy management, publication or visualization of datasets and simplifying clearance of intellectual property rights.Open Science is not just a list of already for a longer time known principles but stands for a lot of initiatives and projects around a better handling of scientific data and openly shared scientific knowledge. It is also about transparency in methodology and collection of data, availability and reuse of scientific data, public accessibility to scientific communication and using of social media to facility scientific collaboration. Some projects are concentrating on open sharing of free and open source software and even further hardware in kind of processing capabilities. In addition question about the mashup of data and publication and an open peer review process are addressed.Following the principles of open data and open science the newest results of the collaboration efforts in mashing up the data servers related to the Japanese IUGONET, the European Union ESPAS and the GFZ ISDC semantic Web projects will be presented here. The semantic Web based approach for the mashup is focusing on the design and implementation of a common but still distributed data

  2. 75 FR 54002 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Open Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory.... 92-463, 5 U.S.C. App. 2), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Commercial Space...

  3. 77 FR 16891 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Open Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory.... 92-463, 5 U.S.C. App. 2), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Commercial Space...

  4. 76 FR 17474 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Open Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory.... 92-463, 5 U.S.C. App. 2), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Commercial Space...

  5. 78 FR 69742 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Open Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory.... 92-463, 5 U.S.C. App. 2), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Commercial Space...

  6. Next Generation Space Interconnect Standard (NGSIS): a modular open standards approach for high performance interconnects for space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Charles Patrick

    2017-04-01

    The Next Generation Space Interconnect Standard (NGSIS) effort is a Government-Industry collaboration effort to define a set of standards for interconnects between space system components with the goal of cost effectively removing bandwidth as a constraint for future space systems. The NGSIS team has selected the ANSI/VITA 65 OpenVPXTM standard family for the physical baseline. The RapidIO protocol has been selected as the basis for the digital data transport. The NGSIS standards are developed to provide sufficient flexibility to enable users to implement a variety of system configurations, while meeting goals for interoperability and robustness for space. The NGSIS approach and effort represents a radical departure from past approaches to achieve a Modular Open System Architecture (MOSA) for space systems and serves as an exemplar for the civil, commercial, and military Space communities as well as a broader high reliability terrestrial market.

  7. Remaking Nigeria’s Urbanism: Assessing and Redressing the Dearth of Open Spaces in Benin City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndubisi Onwuanyi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Unplanned land use in most Nigerian cities has meant that all urban land needs are not adequately provided for within their landscapes. Open spaces are either conspicuously missing or inadequate. There is a tendency for existing open spaces to be lost to urban development pressure and a disregard for zoning. This paper identifies available and accessible open spaces in Benin City and assesses their adequacy using as a guide standards established in two selected international jurisdictions, discusses the potential benefits of open space to the city on the one hand and its residents on the other given the incipient impacts of global warming and climate change, and the prospects of mitigation by greening the city even in its already built-up state. Data is sourced from journals, reports, archival records and inspections of the urban environment. The findings confirm a great dearth of open spaces as well as deteriorating urban environmental conditions which have implications for health, well-being and urban sustainability. The recommendations are that future expansions of the city space incorporate adequate provisions for open spaces, whilst within the existing built-up city, solutions be sought in the creation of greenways, green paths, private green spaces, promoting street trees and the conversion of brownfield sites to green areas.

  8. Exploring Open-Ended Design Space of Mechatronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun; Wang, J.; Goodman, E.

    2004-01-01

    To realize design automation of mechatronic systems, there are two major issues to be dealt with: open-topology generation of mechatronic systems and simulation or analysis of those models. For the first issue, we exploit the strong topology exploration capability of genetic programming to create...

  9. Open-Space Lab Provides Data on a New Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreamer, Ralph

    1972-01-01

    Describes the Jenkins Elementary School which not only serves as a neighborhood elementary education facility, but also provides students at Millersville State College, Pennsylvania, an opportunity to learn, work with, and observe the many different concepts embodied in open education. (Author/MB)

  10. Auditory Perception in an Open Space: Detection and Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    line of sight provides attenuation of about 5 dB or more across most of the auditory frequency range, and higher barriers can attenuate sound by as much...distance estimation to, various sound sources spread across a large open field. This report presents results of the detection and recognition tasks. Both...acoustic (target sound and noise level) and meteorological (wind direction and strength, temperature, atmospheric pressure, humidity) data were

  11. Space Application for ITMA ASIA + CITME 2010 Exhibition Opens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ 28 April 2009 - Leading textile machinery manufacturers from around the world are invited to apply for space at the second combined ITMA ASIA + CITME exhibition to be held at the Shanghai New International Expo Cen-tre from 22 to 26 June 2010.

  12. Homology of the open moduli space of curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ib Henning

    2012-01-01

    This is a survey on the proof of a generalized version of the Mumford conjecture obtained in joint work with M. Weiss stating that a certain map between some classifying spaces which a priori have different natures induces an isomorphism at the level of integral homology. We also discuss our proof...

  13. Distribution of green open space in Malang City based on multispectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasyim, A. W.; Hernawan, F. P.

    2017-06-01

    Green open space is one of the land that its existence is quite important in urban areas where the minimum area is set to reach 30% of the total area of the city. Malang which has an area of 110,6 square kilometers, is one of the major cities in East Java Province that is prone to over-land conversion due to development needs. In support of the green space program, calculation of green space is needed precisely so that remote sensing which has high accuracy is now used for measurement of green space. This study aims to analyze the area of green open space in Malang by using Landsat 8 image in 2015. The method used was the vegetation index that is Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). From the study obtained the calculation of green open space was better to use the vegetation index method to avoid the occurrence of misclassification of other types of land use. The results of the calculation of green open space using NDVI found that the area of green open space in Malang City in 2015 reached 39% of the total area.

  14. Open string fluctuations in AdS space with and without torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, A.L.; Lomholt, Michael Andersen

    2003-01-01

    The equations of motion and boundary conditions for the fluctuations around a classical open string, in a curved space-time with torsion, are considered in compact and world-sheet covariant form. The rigidly rotating open strings in anti-de Sitter space with and without torsion are investigated i...... dangerous than expected in these cases. The general formalism can be straightforwardly used also to study the (bosonic part of the) fluctuations around the closed strings, recently considered in connection with the AdS/conformal field theory duality, on AdS ×S and AdS ×S ×T .......The equations of motion and boundary conditions for the fluctuations around a classical open string, in a curved space-time with torsion, are considered in compact and world-sheet covariant form. The rigidly rotating open strings in anti-de Sitter space with and without torsion are investigated...

  15. Automatic Open Space Area Extraction and Change Detection from High Resolution Urban Satellite Images

    CERN Document Server

    Kodge, B G

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study efficient and reliable automatic extraction algorithm to find out the open space area from the high resolution urban satellite imagery, and to detect changes from the extracted open space area during the period 2003, 2006 and 2008. This automatic extraction and change detection algorithm uses some filters, segmentation and grouping that are applied on satellite images. The resultant images may be used to calculate the total available open space area and the built up area. It may also be used to compare the difference between present and past open space area using historical urban satellite images of that same projection, which is an important geo spatial data management application.

  16. On some classes of nearly open sets in nano topological spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.  A. Nasef

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the aims of this paper is to study some near nano open sets in nano topological spaces. Secondly, some properties for near nano open (closed sets. Also, we introduce the notion of nano β-continuity and we study the relationships between some types of nano continuous functions between nano topological spaces. Finally, we introduce two application examples in nano topology.

  17. Exploring Open-Ended Design Space of Mechatronic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhun Fan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available To realize design automation of mechatronic systems, there are two major issues to be dealt with: open-topology generation of mechatronic systems and simulation or analysis of those models. For the first issue, we exploit the strong topology exploration capability of genetic programming to create and evolve structures representing mechatronic systems. With the use of ERCs (ephemeral random constants in genetic programming, we can evolve the sizing of mechatronic system components together with the system structures simultaneously. The second issue, simulation and analysis of those system models, is made more complex when the systems are mixed-energy-domain systems. We take advantage of bond graphs as a tool for multi- or mixed-domain modeling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Because there are many considerations in mechatronic system design that are not completely captured by a bond graph, it is beneficial to generate multiple solutions, allowing the designer more latitude in choosing a model to implement. The approach in this paper is capable of providing a variety of design choices to the designer for further analysis, comparison and trade-off study. The approach is shown to be efficient and effective and is demonstrated in an example of open-ended real-world mechatronic system design application, a typewriter re-design problem.

  18. DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF SMART-CMD IN THE OPEN EDUCATIONAL SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin P. Dinnik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the work we highlight need to transform the educational-methodical complex in Smart-EMC in the open education space. For example, the modular structure of the discipline of the Insurance is demonstrated the composition and features of the Smart-EMC. The author depicts methodical techniques for teaching in open education system. 

  19. Exploring Open-Ended Design Space of Mechatronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun; Wang, J.; Goodman, E.

    2004-01-01

    To realize design automation of mechatronic systems, there are two major issues to be dealt with: open-topology generation of mechatronic systems and simulation or analysis of those models. For the first issue, we exploit the strong topology exploration capability of genetic programming to create...... and evolve structures representing mechatronic systems. With the help of ERCs (ephemeral random constants) in genetic programming, we can also evolve the sizing of mechatronic system components along with the structures. The second issue, simulation and analysis of those system models, is made more complex...... when they represent mixed-energy-domain systems. We take advantage of bond graphs as a tool for multi- or mixed-domain modeling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Because there are many considerations in mechatronic system design that are not completely captured by a bond graph, we would like...

  20. Alternative utilization of underground spaces with abandoned mine openings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, So Keul; Cho, Won Jai; Han, Kong Chang; Choi, Sung Oong [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Utilization of the openings of the abandoned mines could be planned by the principal parameters such as location and geotechnical impact. The local governments have not only to lead the each stage of the utilization project from the very beginning of conceptual design up to the construction stage, but also to promote the project for the development of public purpose. The possible tentative candidates for the utilization of the abandoned mine openings which are supported by the local governments could be summarized as follows. a. The Gahak mine of Kwangmyung, Kyunggi: The mine caverns which have been served as the storage of the pickled fishes, could be reexcavated by taking into consideration the geotechnical parameters for the public use such as: 1) Training center for the youth, 2) Fermentation and storehouse of marine products, 3) Sightseeing resort, 4) Sports and leisure complex, 5) Underground parking lot, 6) Underground shopping mall and chilled room storage, 7) Library, concert hall and museum. b. Hamtae mine of Taebaek, Kangwon: The Hambaek main haulage way and its shaft should be investigated in detail in order to find out a possible use as the underground challenging park of the coal mining operation. c. Mines of Boryung and Hongsung, Chungnam: Lots of mine caverns have been used as the storehouse for the pickled shrimp. However, they have to be promoted to a large scale industries. d. Imgok mine of Kwangju and Palbong mine of Jeongeup, Chunbuk: Mine caverns which have been used as the storehouse of pickles, need a detailed investigation for alternative promotion. e. Yongho mine of Pusan Dalsung mine of Taegu: Both of the mines are located near metropolitan communities. Reconstruction of the old mine caverns of the Yongho mine is highly recommended for a public use. The caverns of the Dalsung mine could be utilized as the storage facilities. Detailed geotechnical survey and sit investigation could be suggested to design the recommended facilities for both

  1. Opening Spaces of Academic Culture: Doors of Perception; Heaven and Hell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Chad; Whitman, Kirsty

    2016-01-01

    Academic culture is a distinct and unique field, and perhaps may best be conceptualised as a space. Although access to university has traditionally been restricted, recent efforts on a number of fronts have attempted to "open" the space of the academy. In particular, enabling programmes such as Preparatory Programs and Foundation Courses…

  2. 76 FR 51461 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Open Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation... Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 5 U.S.C. App. 2), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Commercial...

  3. 75 FR 16901 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Open Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory.... 92-463, 5 U.S.C. App. 2), notice is hereby given of the meetings of the Commercial...

  4. Optimizing Ocean Space: Co-siting Open Ocean Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, B. L.; Wickliffe, L. C.; Morris, J. A., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    In January of 2016, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service released the Gulf Aquaculture Plan (GAP) to manage the development of environmentally sound and economically sustainable open ocean finfish aquaculture in the Gulf of Mexico (inside the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ]). The GAP provides the first regulatory framework for aquaculture in federal waters with estimated production of 64 million pounds of finfish, and an estimated economic impact of $264 million annually. The Gulf of Mexico is one of the most industrialized ocean basins in the world, with many existing ocean uses including oil and natural gas production, shipping and commerce, commercial fishing operations, and many protected areas to ensure conservation of valuable ecosystem resources and services. NOAA utilized spatial planning procedures and tools identifying suitable sites for establishing aquaculture through exclusion analyses using authoritative federal and state data housed in a centralized geodatabase. Through a highly collaborative, multi-agency effort a mock permitting exercise was conducted to illustrate the regulatory decision-making process for the Gulf. Further decision-making occurred through exploring co-siting opportunities with oil and natural gas platforms. Logistical co-siting was conducted to reduce overall operational costs by looking at distance to major port and commodity tonnage at each port. Importantly, the process of co-siting allows aquaculture to be coupled with other benefits, including the availability of previously established infrastructure and the reduction of environmental impacts.

  5. An open cycle gas core fusion rocket for space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammash, T.; Godfrey, T.

    A nuclear propulsion system that utilizes fusion reactions to heat a plasma in a magnetically confined device is examined as a potential rocket. It makes use of a high density plasma in a magnetic mirror geometry with a collision mean free path much shorter than its length. Under these conditions the plasma behaves like a fluid with confinement properties dictated by gasdynamic laws. Accordingly, the plasma escape from the device is analogous to the flow of a gas into vacuum from a vessel with a hole. Such a system is capable of producing a very high specific impulse albeit at modest thrust. One approach for enhancing the thrust is to use an auxiliary hydrogen propellant that could be regeneratively heated before it is introduced into the reactor chamber. As is flows past the fusion plasma it will be further heated by the radiation (bremsstrahlung and synchrotron) emanating from the plasma, and upon emergence from the nozzle it will generate the desired thrust. The system thus functions much like an open cycle gas core rocket with very attractive propulsive capabilities. In this paper we present the underlying physics principles of such a concept and assess its capability by applying the results to a round trip mission to Mars. It is shown that the propulsion parameters exceed those of a gas core fission reactor and without many of major hydrodynamic problems confronted by the latter.

  6. Exploring Open-Ended Design Space of Mechatronic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhun Fan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available To realize design automation of mechatronic systems, there are two major issues to be dealt with: opentopology generation of mechatronic systems and simulation or analysis of those models. For the first issue, we exploit the strong topology exploration capability of genetic programming to create and evolve structures representing mechatronic systems. With the use of ERCs (ephemeral random constants in genetic programming, we can evolve the sizing of mechatronic system components together with the system structures simultaneously. The second issue, simulation and analysis of those system models, is made more complex when the systems are mixed-energy-domain systems. We take advantage of bond graphs as a tool for multi- or mixed-domain modeling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Because there are many considerations in mechatronic system design that are not completely captured by a bond graph, it is beneficial to generate multiple solutions, allowing the designer more latitude in choosing a model to implement. The approach in this paper is capable of providing a variety of design choices to the designer for further analysis, comparison and trade-off study. The approach is shown to be efficient and effective and is demonstrated in an example of open-ended real-world mechatronic system design application, a typewriter re-design problem.

  7. Open Cultural Spaces in Search of New Frontiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Švob-Đokić

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Crossing cultural borders opens up a new creativity, new expectations and new emptiness that provoke fear and existential nausea. Are we lost forever, in a specific historical time, in a specific culture, or in a specific geographical location? Are we forgotten in transitions, translations and intercultural misunderstandings? Are we bound to remain foreigners forever? In order to provide some answers, we hurriedly establish new borders and define new relations between the recently-established entities, a new creativity or a new understanding and knowledge that can help us to survive the confrontation with a limitless nihility. In the age of globalisation, an increased effort to position cultural creativity and cultural identification within the local, now multicultural and largely redefined context, is strongly felt. How does this affect people and societies? What are the limits of transgressions between cultures and different cultural values? How can the new cultural identities be redefined? The answers to these questions can turn out to be very different, but they seem to be confined to at least two already discernible directions: cultural hybridisation (García Canclini and the emergence of virtual cultures that promote de-standardised identities.

  8. Valuing urban open space using the travel-cost method and the implications of measurement error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanauer, Merlin M; Reid, John

    2017-08-01

    Urbanization has placed pressure on open space within and adjacent to cities. In recent decades, a greater awareness has developed to the fact that individuals derive multiple benefits from urban open space. Given the location, there is often a high opportunity cost to preserving urban open space, thus it is important for both public and private stakeholders to justify such investments. The goals of this study are twofold. First, we use detailed surveys and precise, accessible, mapping methods to demonstrate how travel-cost methods can be applied to the valuation of urban open space. Second, we assess the degree to which typical methods of estimating travel times, and thus travel costs, introduce bias to the estimates of welfare. The site we study is Taylor Mountain Regional Park, a 1100-acre space located immediately adjacent to Santa Rosa, California, which is the largest city (∼170,000 population) in Sonoma County and lies 50 miles north of San Francisco. We estimate that the average per trip access value (consumer surplus) is $13.70. We also demonstrate that typical methods of measuring travel costs significantly understate these welfare measures. Our study provides policy-relevant results and highlights the sensitivity of urban open space travel-cost studies to bias stemming from travel-cost measurement error. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Economics of Peppers and Salad Cucumbers Production on an Open Land and in a Protected Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Pozderec

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The research is based on the economic analysis of growing peppers (Capsicum annum L. and salad cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L. in an open land and in a protected space. For this purpose the simulation models were developed for the growing of the peppers and salad cucumbers that were based on the technological-economic input data for two growing systems, in the open and in the protected space. The results of the economic analysis show that the growing of peppers and salad cucumbers in the protected space is more profi table than growing them in the open land. The growing of salad cucumbers in the protected space has proven to be more reasonable than growing peppers, as the coefficient of economics (Ce of growing salad cucumbers reached the value Ce = 1.4, while the value in growing peppers was Ce = 1.1. This was also confirmed with two scenarios that were analysed using the sensitivity analysis.

  10. Economics of Peppers and Salad Cucumbers Production on an Open Land and in a Protected Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Pozderec

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The research is based on the economic analysis of growing peppers (Capsicum annum L. and salad cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L. in an open land and in a protected space. For this purpose the simulation models were developed for the growing of the peppers and salad cucumbers that were based on the technological-economic input data for two growing systems, in the open and in the protected space. The results of the economic analysis show that the growing of peppers and salad cucumbers in the protected space is more profi table than growing them in the open land. The growing of salad cucumbers in the protected space has proven to be more reasonable than growing peppers, as the coefficient of economics (Ce of growing salad cucumbers reached the value Ce = 1.4, while the value in growing peppers was Ce = 1.1. This was also confirmed with two scenarios that were analysed using the sensitivity analysis.

  11. The Impact of Green Open Space on Community Attachment—A Case Study of Three Communities in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuemei Zhu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With the development of urbanization in China, the quality of urban life and community attachment have attracted increasing attention of the governments and society. Existing research on community attachment has mainly examined how individual characteristics affect community attachment, such as their length of residence and socioeconomic status. However, some scholars have become interested in exploring the effects of green open space on community attachment. This research examined whether the distribution of green open space in communities had significant effects on community attachment, and both the impact and path were also investigated. Through a questionnaire survey, relevant data in three communities of Beijing were collected. The impact of green open space layout on community attachment was evaluated by using hierarchical regression, and the impact path was examined by using a structural equation model. The results showed that green open space in a community had significant effects on the community attachment, with centralized green open space layout having a greater effect than that of dispersed green open space. Moreover, the more complex the shape of green open space is, the greater the impact is. The degree of satisfaction with the green open space had direct effects on the community attachment. The accessibility and perceived area of green open space could indirectly have an impact on the community attachment by affecting the degree of satisfaction with the green open space. Nevertheless, residents’ perceived importance of green open space could affect the community attachment directly and indirectly, as it affects the degree of satisfaction.

  12. The geography of recreational open space: influence of neighborhood racial composition and neighborhood poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dustin T; Kawachi, Ichiro; White, Kellee; Williams, David R

    2013-08-01

    The geography of recreational open space might be inequitable in terms of minority neighborhood racial/ethnic composition and neighborhood poverty, perhaps due in part to residential segregation. This study evaluated the association between minority neighborhood racial/ethnic composition, neighborhood poverty, and recreational open space in Boston, Massachusetts (US). Across Boston census tracts, we computed percent non-Hispanic Black, percent Hispanic, and percent families in poverty as well as recreational open space density. We evaluated spatial autocorrelation in study variables and in the ordinary least squares (OLS) regression residuals via the Global Moran's I. We then computed Spearman correlations between the census tract socio-demographic characteristics and recreational open space density, including correlations adjusted for spatial autocorrelation. After this, we computed OLS regressions or spatial regressions as appropriate. Significant positive spatial autocorrelation was found for neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics (all p value = 0.001). We found marginally significant positive spatial autocorrelation in recreational open space (Global Moran's I = 0.082; p value = 0.053). However, we found no spatial autocorrelation in the OLS regression residuals, which indicated that spatial models were not appropriate. There was a negative correlation between census tract percent non-Hispanic Black and recreational open space density (r S = -0.22; conventional p value = 0.005; spatially adjusted p value = 0.019) as well as a negative correlation between predominantly non-Hispanic Black census tracts (>60 % non-Hispanic Black in a census tract) and recreational open space density (r S = -0.23; conventional p value = 0.003; spatially adjusted p value = 0.007). In bivariate and multivariate OLS models, percent non-Hispanic Black in a census tract and predominantly Black census tracts were associated with

  13. A Study on Distribution Patterns of Soil Microorganisms in Refuse Dumps on Heidaigou Open Cut Coal Mine%黑岱沟煤矿排土场土壤微生物分布特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常英; 包俊江

    2012-01-01

    By use of dilution plate counting method,a study has been made on the quantities, distribution patterns and compositions of soil microorganisms in different restored vegetation of refuse dumps on Heidaigou Open Cut Coal Mine. Results show that; (1) the total quantity of soil microorganisms in the resumed field is lower than that in the original undisturbed soil, and the maximum quantity reaches only 52.9% of that in the o-riginal soil; (2) within the depth of 0 ~30 cm,the total quantity of microorganisms in original soil decreases by order of 10 - 20 cm > 0 - 10 cm > 20 ~ 30 cm, while, with the increase of vertical depth of the resumed field, the total quantity decreases accordingly; (3) among different soil microorganism groups, the numbers of microorganisms all display the order that the number of bacteria > the number of actinomycetes > the number of fungi; (4) in resumed fields with different vegetation, the change pattern of the number of bacteria in the soil is generally similar to that of the total number of microorganisms, namely:that in original soil > in sea -buckthorn + armeniaca ansu + elaeagnus resumed field > in fruit tree resumed field > in torch tree resumed field > in sea - buckthorn resumed field, while the change pattern of the number of actinomycetes and fungi in different depth of different vegetation doesnt show the same trend; (5) the distribution of soil microorganism quantity in different vertical depth is associated with types of plant community.%利用稀释平板法对黑岱沟煤矿排土场不同恢复植被下的土壤微生物群落的数量、组成和分布进行了研究.结果表明:(Ⅰ)各恢复地土壤中微生物总数均低于未破坏土壤(原土),最高仅为原土的52.9%.(2)在0~30 cm范围内,原土微生物总数变化为:10~20 cm>0~10 cm >20 ~30cm,而各恢复地中微生物总数在0~30 cm范围内,随土壤垂直深度的加深而降低.(3)各样地土壤微生物数均

  14. Nearest level spacing statistics in open chaotic systems: generalization of the Wigner surmise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Charles; Luna-Acosta, Germán A; Stöckmann, Hans-Jürgen

    2012-04-27

    We investigate the nearest level spacing statistics of open chaotic wave systems. To this end we derive the spacing distributions for the three Wigner ensembles in the one-channel case. The theoretical results give a clear physical meaning of the modifications on the spacing distributions produced by the coupling to the environment. Based on the analytical expressions obtained, we then propose general expressions of the spacing distributions for any number of channels, valid from weak to strong coupling. The latter expressions contain one free parameter. The surmise is successfully compared with numerical simulations of non-Hermitian random matrices and with experimental data obtained with a lossy electromagnetic chaotic cavity.

  15. Space-Mass Relation And Gravity In A Geometrically Open Space Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Govindaraj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gravity is a property of space-time fabric and not a universal force of attraction between two objects with mass. Considering that energy is distributed in space-time while mass replaces space-time from its place producing a denser or warped space-time around the mass problems regarding the nature of gravity can be addressed. This paper talks about understanding the nature of gravity as a virtual force created by warped space time and also explains what gives a particle its mass. Irrespective of mass gravity can exist anywhere in the universe but can be experienced only by the presence of mass or by distributing of energy through it. Mass is a void in space-time but in real world matter exists in their smallest form as sub-atomic particles separated with a space-time. If a particle is said to have a greater energy then it has created a relatively bigger void in space-time.

  16. Investigating the Impact of Schools' Open Space on Learning and Educational Achievement of Elementary Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Gilavand

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background It is obvious that most of informal learnings of social skills and constructive plays occur in school yards and play-fields where children spend much of their non-official time of teaching. This study aimed to investigate the impact of schools' open space on learning and educational achievement of elementary students in Ahvaz, Southwest of Iran. Materials and Methods At a cross-sectional study, 210 students were selected randomly as sample of study. Data collection tools included Hermance’s achievement motivation questionnaire and researcher-constructed questionnaire (observation checklist to examine the physical parameters of learning schools' open space and interviews with students. Data of study were analyzed in SPSS- 21 software. Results Results of this study showed that schools' open space has a significant impact on learning and academic achievement of elementary school students in Ahvaz- Iran (P

  17. Open quantum system approach to the Gibbons-Hawking effect of de Sitter space-time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongwei

    2011-02-11

    We analyze, in the paradigm of open quantum systems, the reduced dynamics of a freely falling two-level detector in de Sitter space-time in weak interaction with a reservoir of fluctuating quantized conformal scalar fields in the de Sitter-invariant vacuum. We find that the detector is asymptotically driven to a thermal state at the Gibbons-Hawking temperature, regardless of its initial state. Our discussion, therefore, shows that the Gibbons-Hawking effect of de Sitter space-time can be understood as a manifestation of thermalization phenomena that involves decoherence and dissipation in open quantum systems.

  18. Recovery methods in municipal refuse management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affholder, M.; Gony, J.N.; Colardeau, J.

    1977-10-01

    Various refuse screening tecniques and methods for organizing selective collection of paper, cardboard, and glass are described. Recovery of incinerated refuse developed by USBM and the French Bureau of Geological and Mining Research is detailed. The economics of municipal refuse recovery methods are examined. The sale of recovered material is explored.

  19. Federated Space-Time Query for Earth Science Data Using OpenSearch Conventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, Chris; Beaumont, Bruce; Duerr, Ruth; Hua, Hook

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a Space-time query system that has been developed to assist the user in finding Earth science data that fulfills the researchers needs. It reviews the reasons why finding Earth science data can be so difficult, and explains the workings of the Space-Time Query with OpenSearch and how this system can assist researchers in finding the required data, It also reviews the developments with client server systems.

  20. Open-space preservation in the Netherlands: Planning, practice and prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koomen, E.; Dekkers, J.; Dijk, van T.

    2008-01-01

    Open-space preservation is a planner's issue that is constantly debated, in particular on the success of the implemented instruments. Assessments of policy effectiveness face many methodological problems that are briefly discussed here. We choose to analyse the contribution of Dutch policies to

  1. Open-space preservation in the Netherlands : Planning, practice and prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koomen, Eric; Dekkers, Jasper; van Dijk, Terry

    Open-space preservation is a planner's issue that is constantly debated, in particular on the success of the implemented instruments. Assessments of policy effectiveness face many methodological problems that are briefly discussed here. We choose to analyse the contribution of Dutch policies to

  2. Butterflies Diversity in Brawijaya University, Veteran, Jakarta and Velodrom Green Open Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Raisa Khairun Nisa'

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Butterflies have some roles in environmental as pollinator and bioindicator. Habitat is one of important factor to support butterflies growth. The aim of this research was to describe butterflies diversity in some green open spaces in Malang. Direct observations of butterflies diversity, vegetation structures and abiotic factors in Brawijaya University, Veteran, Jakarta and Velodrom Green Open Space were conducted on June 2012. Sampling was took place in each sites using cruising method in three times observation at 07.00, 11.00 a.m. and 3.30 p.m . Data were analyzed by statistical descriptive using Microsoft Excel 2007 and PAST. The result showed that butterflies composition in all sites dominated by Delias sp., Leptosia nina and Eurema venusta. The diversity index of all sites showed moderate rank that indicate communities equilibrium in environment was still good. In this case, Velodrom Green Open Space has the highest one of diversity index, it was about 2,199. Brawijaya University and Jakarta Green Open Space have a high similarity index based on Morisita Index. The highest abundance of butterflies was observed at 11.00-12.30 a.m. Delias sp. and Leptosia nina has temporal spread all day long, while Eurema venusta just in day light.

  3. Open space in human settlements: the lesson from the Islamic tradition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germeraad, P.W.

    1990-01-01

    The pressure on the development of adequate open space systems in the Arab-Muslim countries in the Middle East is growing due to: massive migration to the cities, changes in the patterns of life and social networks, and an increasing growth in population. This process results in the development of n

  4. COSMO: a decision-support system for the central open space, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harms, W.B.; Knaapen, J.P.; Roos-Klein-Lankhorst sic, J.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate scenarios for nature restoration, a landscape ecological decision-support system has been developed, a knowledge-based system integrated in a geographical information system. The grid-based application in the Central Open Space of the Netherlands (the COSMO model) is presented here. Four

  5. The role of open space in urban neighbourhoods for health-related lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestan, Katarina Ana; Eržen, Ivan; Golobič, Mojca

    2014-06-01

    The research reported in this paper addresses the relationship between quality of open space and health related lifestyle in urban residential areas. The research was performed in the residential developments in Ljubljana, Slovenia, dating from the time of political and economic changes in the early nineties. Compared to the older neighborhoods, these are typically single-use residential areas, with small open spaces and poor landscape design. The research is concerned with the quality of life in these areas, especially from the perspective of the vulnerable users, like the elderly and children. Both depend on easily accessible green areas in close proximity to their homes. The hypothesis is that the poor open space quality affects their health-related behavior and their perceived health status. The research has three methodological phases: (1) a comparison between urban residential areas by criteria describing their physical characteristics; (2) behavior observation and mapping and (3) a resident opinion survey. The results confirm differences between open spaces of the selected residential areas as well as their relation with outdoor activities: a lack of outdoor programs correlates with poor variety of outdoor activities, limited to transition type, less time spent outdoors and lower satisfaction with their home environment. The survey also disclosed a strong influence of a set of socio-economic variables such as education and economic status on physical activity and self-perceived health status of people. The results therefore confirm the hypothesis especially for less affluent and educated; i.e., vulnerable groups.

  6. COSMO: a decision-support system for the central open space, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harms, W.B.; Knaapen, J.P.; Roos-Klein-Lankhorst sic, J.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate scenarios for nature restoration, a landscape ecological decision-support system has been developed, a knowledge-based system integrated in a geographical information system. The grid-based application in the Central Open Space of the Netherlands (the COSMO model) is presented here. Four

  7. 77 FR 13261 - Request for Applications: The Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... Forest Service Request for Applications: The Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program AGENCY..., State and Private Forestry, Cooperative Forestry staff, published a document in the Federal Register of... Conservation Program (Community Forest Program or CFP). The document contained incorrect funding information...

  8. Best Management Practice, Fact Sheet 2. Sheet Flow to Open Space

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This publication explains what sheet flow to open space is, where and how it is used, their limitations, routine and nonroutine maintenance, expected costs, and a glossary of terms. This fact sheet is one of a 15-part series on urban stormwater management practices.

  9. The Role of Open Space in Urban Neighbourhoods for Health-Related Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Ana Lestan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The research reported in this paper addresses the relationship between quality of open space and health related lifestyle in urban residential areas. The research was performed in the residential developments in Ljubljana, Slovenia, dating from the time of political and economic changes in the early nineties. Compared to the older neighborhoods, these are typically single-use residential areas, with small open spaces and poor landscape design. The research is concerned with the quality of life in these areas, especially from the perspective of the vulnerable users, like the elderly and children. Both depend on easily accessible green areas in close proximity to their homes. The hypothesis is that the poor open space quality affects their health-related behavior and their perceived health status. The research has three methodological phases: (1 a comparison between urban residential areas by criteria describing their physical characteristics; (2 behavior observation and mapping and (3 a resident opinion survey. The results confirm differences between open spaces of the selected residential areas as well as their relation with outdoor activities: a lack of outdoor programs correlates with poor variety of outdoor activities, limited to transition type, less time spent outdoors and lower satisfaction with their home environment. The survey also disclosed a strong influence of a set of socio-economic variables such as education and economic status on physical activity and self-perceived health status of people. The results therefore confirm the hypothesis especially for less affluent and educated; i.e., vulnerable groups.

  10. Public opinion and interest group positions on open-space issues in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA: Implications for resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannery, Thomas Allan

    1987-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to elicit and compare the open-space preferences of citizens and openspace experts in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. A randomly selected sample of 492 citizens and 35 open-space experts participated in a telephone survey during May 5 18, 1986. The following hypothesis was tested and used as a guideline for the study: HO1: There is no significant difference between respondents' status and preference for open space in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The hypothesis was rejected. Findings confirmed respondents' status affected preference for open space. Of the eight issues on which the citizen and expert groups were compared, five recorded significant differences in response profiles. The open-space expert group was significantly more supportive of using open space to accommodate offroad vehicle facilities, wildlife preserves, a citywide recreational trail, and a trail system along the arroyos and city ditches. The citizen sample was significantly more supportive of using open space to accommodate overnight camping facilities. Both groups equally supported using open space to accommodate an outdoor amphitheater, outdoor education facilities, and rafting, kayaking, and canoeing facilities. The finding indicated that expert preferences did not represent an aggregate of citizen preferences for managing open-space resources. Understanding both expert and citizen positions will facilitate decision-making processes and help resolve environmental disputes.

  11. Perception of open urban space – Bevk square in Nova Gorica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Bratina

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In research on perception of open urban space, psychological and structural aspects are important, as well as social use. Social use however is most important, because open urban space and its green surfaces satisfies needs of an urban population. The psychological aspect applies to direct experiencing and perception of space, while the structural aspect proves that public urban places are an important category in the urban structure. On the example of Bevk square, Nova Gorica, three types of analyses were carried out. With the structural analysis and evaluation, development and structure of the place were shown, its problems and qualities. The survey on public opinion utilised the method of cognitive mapping, enabled definition of the image of the square, as perceived by everyday users. With the method of time samples events on the square were observed, in different time slots and days of the week.

  12. Forced acoustical response of an open cavity coupled with a semi-infinite space

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, Yuhui; Pan, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the forced acoustical response of an open cavity from the perspective of modal expansion. Based on the coupled mode theory, it is shown that the sound pressure distribution of an open cavity excited by a point source placed within the cavity can be expanded by a set of frequency-dependent eigenmodes, which are derived from the coupling between the cavity and a semi-infinite space. The calculation of the acoustical responses for baffled and unbaffled open cavities indicates that the proposed modal expansion converges with only a few frequency-dependent eigenmodes in the frequency range of interest. The results of this study eliminate the ambiguity involving the selection of appropriate basis functions, in modal expansion for the forced response problem in open cavities.

  13. Public open spaces of small centralised settlements: Researching the typology of public open spaces and their occurrence in the area of Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Crnič

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The area of Slovenia is rather widely intertwined with a network of centralised areas of various hierarchies. Several researchers (Drozg, Ravbar, Vrišer, Fister, and many others, who used a variety of input data and received adequate results, have been dealing with the topic of the influence of centres, their connections and characteristics. For a settlement to exist, it has to possess a program for the provision of its citizens. At the same time such a settlement has its own characteristics and ingredients at the level of the design of the settlement as well as construction. Fister (1993 dealt with the latter topic while Vrišer (1998 focused on the functionality of settlements and their influence on the catchment areas. In this context the question arises as to whether there is a connection between the categorisation of the Slovenian area in regards to the characteristics of construction by Fister and classification in regards to the program, its importance and the question whether classification criteria exists which could be connected into larger rounded off units with similar characteristics in regards to the building and similar program characteristics of public open spaces by Vrišer. The basis for researching the problem in question was the comparison of the model by Fister with the model by Vrišer. Acquired results formed the basis for further research of public open spaces connecting constructions in settlements with centres of second level by Vrišer.

  14. Scaffolding open inquiry: How a teacher provides students with structure and space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Bjønness

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present case study examines a teacher’s scaffolding strategies supporting his students during a twelve-week open inquiry project at an upper secondary school. We use interaction analysis to identify how he provides structure and space in the different phases of open inquiry as well as how it constitutes the students’ inquiry process. The study reveals that the teacher scaffolded this open inquiry in two opposing ways; he created space for the students to make their own experiences and ideas, which eventually set up the need for more directed scaffolding to discuss the challenges students experienced, and directing students’ ideas in certain directions in phases with structure. We suggest that the interplay between structure and space creates what can be seen as a driving force providing both exploration and direction for open inquiry. Moreover, we propose that the dual concept of ‘structure and space’ can work as a thinking tool to promote teachers’ competence on how to scaffold more authentic versions of scientific inquiry in schools.

  15. Federated Space-Time Query for Earth Science Data Using OpenSearch Conventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, C.; Beaumont, B.; Duerr, R. E.; Hua, H.

    2009-12-01

    The past decade has seen a burgeoning of remote sensing and Earth science data providers, as evidenced in the growth of the Earth Science Information Partner (ESIP) federation. At the same time, the need to combine diverse data sets to enable understanding of the Earth as a system has also grown. While the expansion of data providers is in general a boon to such studies, the diversity presents a challenge to finding useful data for a given study. Locating all the data files with aerosol information for a particular volcanic eruption, for example, may involve learning and using several different search tools to execute the requisite space-time queries. To address this issue, the ESIP federation is developing a federated space-time query framework, based on the OpenSearch convention (www.opensearch.org), with Geo and Time extensions. In this framework, data providers publish OpenSearch Description Documents that describe in a machine-readable form how to execute queries against the provider. The novelty of OpenSearch is that the space-time query interface becomes both machine callable and easy enough to integrate into the web browser's search box. This flexibility, together with a simple REST (HTTP-get) interface, should allow a variety of data providers to participate in the federated search framework, from large institutional data centers to individual scientists. The simple interface enables trivial querying of multiple data sources and participation in recursive-like federated searches--all using the same common OpenSearch interface. This simplicity also makes the construction of clients easy, as does existing OpenSearch client libraries in a variety of languages. Moreover, a number of clients and aggregation services already exist and OpenSearch is already supported by a number of web browsers such as Firefox and Internet Explorer.

  16. Global Positioning System-Based Stimulation for Robo-Pigeons in Open Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqing Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation method is described that will enable researchers to study fight control characteristics of robo-pigeons in fully open space. It is not limited by the experimental environment and overcomes environmental interference with flight control in small experimental spaces using a compact system. The system consists of two components: a global positioning system (GPS-based stimulator with dimensions of 38 mm × 26 mm × 8 mm and a weight of 18 g that can easily be carried by a pigeon as a backpack and a PC-based program developed in Virtual C++. The GPS-based stimulator generates variable stimulation and automatically records the GPS data and stimulus parameters. The PC-based program analyzes the recorded data and displays the flight trajectory of the tested robo-pigeon on a digital map. This method enables quick and clear evaluation of the flight control characteristics of a robo-pigeon in open space based on its visual trajectory, as well as further optimization of the microelectric stimulation parameters to improve the design of robo-pigeons. The functional effectiveness of the method was investigated and verified by performing flight control experiments using a robo-pigeon in open space.

  17. Planning open spaces for Biodiversity: Evaluating Urban Parks for Wildlife Habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Livingston

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural open spaces adjacent to developing cities are frequently affected by advancing urban sprawl. It requires a delicate balancing act to conserve habitats while developing new environments for city inhabitants. As landscape architects, planners, and managers of these areas, we continue to explore mitigation strategies for habitats affected by development. One strategy focuses on creating new spaces within development that can fulfil some of the functions previously provided by natural areas and serve as resource links among remaining peripheral natural areas (Forman and Godron, 1986. Previous research has shown that created open spaces, such as parks and golf courses may provide critical habitat functions associated with natural areas if planned appropriately (Mannan and Boal, 2000; Shaw et al, 1998. However, few studies have evaluated the specific characteristics associated with created open spaces for their wildlife habitat value. This research addresses the following question: What is the potential habitat value of current vegetation in urban parks in Tucson, Arizona? The goals of this study were to: 1 evaluate potential habitat value of urban parks using a wildlife habitat value index (Shaw et al, 1998, and 2 provide recommendations emphasising increased biodiversity through habitat development in these open spaces. Most vegetation in the surveyed parks was non-native and provided little escape cover for wildlife. Plant species richness and abundance were relatively low in most parks, but higher for sites where existing native vegetation was incorporated into the park. Recommendations emphasise: 1 appropriate arrangement and placement of species based on functions required by human and wildlife users; 2 increased horizontal and vertical vegetation layers; 3 design focus on regional plant communities; and 4 development of written specifications for parks that address design uses of native species and their maintenance.

  18. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by Open Discovery Space webinar in Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Open Discovery Space (ODS) is a socially-powered and multilingual open learning infrastructure to boost the adoption of eLearning resources. ODS brings millions of educational resources directly into school classrooms. A key part of planning engaging lessons is access to high-quality, trustworthy teaching content. The platform empowers teachers by helping them build their schools` digital libraries, join lively communities of peers to share best practices, and connect their schools virtually with the world`s best research centres, museums and libraries.

  19. Scientific competency questions as the basis for semantically enriched open pharmacological space development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzaoui, Kamal; Jacoby, Edgar; Senger, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    (IMI) Open PHACTS consortium for the design of an open pharmacological space (OPS) information system. The focus of this work is the integration of compound–target–pathway–disease/phenotype data for public and industrial drug discovery research. Typical scientific competency questions provided......Molecular information systems play an important part in modern data-driven drug discovery. They do not only support decision making but also enable new discoveries via association and inference. In this review, we outline the scientific requirements identified by the Innovative Medicines Initiative...

  20. Access to the parapharyngeal space: an anatomical study comparing the endoscopic and open approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rompaey, Jason; Suruliraj, Anand; Carrau, Ricardo; Panizza, Benedict; Solares, C Arturo

    2013-10-01

    A subtemporal preauricular approach to the infratemporal fossa and parapharyngeal space has been the traditional path to tumors of this region. The morbidity associated with this procedure has lead to the pursuit of less invasive techniques. Endoscopic access using a minimally invasive transmaxillary/transpterygoid approach potentially may obviate the drawbacks associated with open surgery. The anatomy of the parapharyngeal space is complex and critical; therefore, a comparison of the anatomy exposed by these different approaches could aid in the decision making toward a minimally invasive surgical corridor. Technical Note. The parapharyngeal space was accessed endonasally by removal of the medial and posterior walls of the maxillary sinus. To allow better visualization and increased triangulation of a bimanual dissection technique, a sublabial canine fossa antrostomy was created. The medial and lateral pterygoid plates were removed. Further lateral dissection exposed the relevant anatomy of the parapharyngeal space. A subtemporal preauricular infratemporal approach was also completed. The endoscopic approach provided sufficient access to the superior portion of the parapharyngeal space. The open approach also provided adequate access; however, it required a larger surgical window, causing greater injury. A significant advantage of the subtemporal approach is the improved access to the petrous portion of the internal carotid artery. Conversely, the endonasal approach provided improved access to the anterior and medial portions of the superior parapharyngeal space. Endoscopic endonasal access utilizing a transmaxillary/transpterygoid approach provides a sufficient surgical window for tumor extirpation. Utilization of this approach obviates some of the morbidity associated with an open procedure. 5. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Developing the urban blue: Comparative health responses to blue and green urban open spaces in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völker, Sebastian; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Recently, new perspectives upon healthy urban open spaces propose that open spaces can be regarded as urban green or blue spaces. However, there has so far been very little research into blue environments and their benefits for mental well-being. Our article focuses on the effects of water in cities, "urban blue" (as compared to "urban green"), on human health and well-being. To assess the mental well-being of visitors, we conducted qualitative semi-standardised interviews (n=113), asking which differences in well-being occur when visiting urban green and blue spaces in high-density areas of the inner city in Dusseldorf and Cologne, Germany. Although we found many similarities, some health-enhancing effects for users turned out to be prominent for urban blue in the four conceptual therapeutic landscape dimensions: experienced, symbolic, social and activity space. These effects include enhanced contemplation, emotional bonding, participation, and physical activity. The results suggest that urban blue as a health-promoting factor needs more detailed and accurate determination and examination of its general and local health-enhancing effects.

  2. B -> tau nu: Opening up the Charged Higgs Parameter Space with R-parity Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, Roshni

    2011-01-01

    The theoretically clean channel B+ -> tau+ nu shows a close to 3sigma discrepancy between the Standard Model prediction and the data. This in turn puts a strong constraint on the parameter space of a two-Higgs doublet model, including R-parity conserving supersymmetry. The constraint is so strong that it almost smells of fine-tuning. We show how the parameter space opens up with the introduction of suitable R-parity violating interactions, and release the tension between data and theory.

  3. GeneLab: NASA's Open Access, Collaborative Platform for Systems Biology and Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrios, Daniel C.; Thompson, Terri G.; Fogle, Homer W.; Rask, Jon C.; Coughlan, Joseph C.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is investing in GeneLab1 (http:genelab.nasa.gov), a multi-year effort to maximize utilization of the limited resources to conduct biological and medical research in space, principally aboard the International Space Station (ISS). High-throughput genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic or other omics analyses from experiments conducted on the ISS will be stored in the GeneLab Data Systems (GLDS), an open-science information system that will also include a biocomputation platform with collaborative science capabilities, to enable the discovery and validation of molecular networks.

  4. School Refusal: Clinical Features, Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayhan Bahali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Children regularly and voluntarily go to school in order to fulfill the expectations of society from them to continue their education or schooling. School continuation has been made compulsory by laws. Nonetheless, contrary to popular belief, for some children it is distressing to go to school. These children have difficulty continuing school and/or refuse to go to school. Today school refusal is defined as a child’s inability to continue school for reasons, such as anxiety and depression. The prevalence of school refusal has been reported to be approximately 1% in school-age children and 5% in child psychiatry samples. The prevalence of school refusal is similar among boys and girls. School refusal can occur at any time throughout the child’s academic life and at all socio-economic levels. School refusal is considered a symptom rather than a clinical diagnosis and can manifest itself as a sign of many psychiatric disorders, with anxiety disorders predominant. Separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, and adjustment disorder with anxiety symptoms are the most common disorders co-occurring with school refusal. While separation anxiety disorder is associated with school refusal in younger children, other anxiety disorders, especially phobias, are associated with school refusal in adolescents. Children who have parents with psychiatric disorders have a higher incidence of school refusal, and psychiatric disorders are more frequently seen in adult relatives of children with school refusal, which supports a significant role of genetic and environmental factors in th etiology of school refusal. School refusal is a emergency state for child mental health. As it leads to detrimental effects in the short term and the long term, it should be regarded as a serious problem. The long-lasting follow-up studies of school refusing children have revealed that these children have a higher incidence of

  5. A methodology for the evaluation of the human-bioclimatic performance of open spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampopoulos, Ioannis; Tsiros, Ioannis; Chronopoulou-Sereli, Aik.; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a simple methodology to improve the evaluation of the human-biometeorological benefits of open spaces. It is based on two groups of new indices using as basis the well-known PET index. This simple methodology along with the accompanying indices allows a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the climatic behavior of the selected sites. The proposed methodology was applied in a human-biometeorology research in the city of Athens, Greece. The results of this study are in line with the results of other related studies indicating the considerable influence of the sky view factor (SVF), the existence of the vegetation and the building material on human-biometeorological conditions. The proposed methodology may provide new insights in the decision-making process related to urban open spaces' best configuration.

  6. 100 Most Cited Articles in Urban Green and Open Spaces: A Bibliometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Rakhshandehroo; Mohd Johari Mohd Yusof; Nader Ale Ebrahim; Ali Sharghi; Roozbeh Arabi

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have contributed significantly to the development of the subject of urban green and open spaces (UGOS) in both practical and fundamental aspects. As the number of citations indicates a paper and author’s competency, the online web of science (ISI) was browsed to identify the 100 most cited papers in the field of UGOS from 1980 to 2013. Papers were analyzed for authorship, journal sources, publishers, institutions, countries, year of publication, categories, and author keywords. Th...

  7. Modular Open System Architecture for Reducing Contamination Risk in the Space and Missile Defense Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasly, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    To combat contamination of physical assets and provide reliable data to decision makers in the space and missile defense community, a modular open system architecture for creation of contamination models and standards is proposed. Predictive tools for quantifying the effects of contamination can be calibrated from NASA data of long-term orbiting assets. This data can then be extrapolated to missile defense predictive models. By utilizing a modular open system architecture, sensitive data can be de-coupled and protected while benefitting from open source data of calibrated models. This system architecture will include modules that will allow the designer to trade the effects of baseline performance against the lifecycle degradation due to contamination while modeling the lifecycle costs of alternative designs. In this way, each member of the supply chain becomes an informed and active participant in managing contamination risk early in the system lifecycle.

  8. [Refuse disposal at the hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, K H

    1990-02-01

    For the classification of hospital-wastes in the categories infectious-contaminate or special waste are only significant views of the prevention by nosocomial infection in the hospital. Solely infectious waste become removed hospital-intern and -extern on conditions of hygienic prevention, namely through secure packing during the transport, combustion or desinfection. Special wastes to be defeated by special-conditions. The hygienist of the hospital is only competent for the classification of the wastes in the hospital as well as for their refuse.

  9. Open space anxiety test in rodents: the elevated platform with steep slopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennaceur, Abdelkader

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a behavioral test protocol for assessing anxiety in mice and rats in single or multiple sessions. The test is based on exposure of animals to an open-space elevated platform with suspended steep slopes attached on two opposite sides. In this test, all animals cross frequently onto and spend more time in the areas adjacent to slopes than in the areas adjacent to a void space. Balb/c mice (albinos) were shown consistently to be more anxious than CD-1 mice (albinos), c57/Bl6J and c57/Bl6N (pigmented) mice; they do not cross onto the slopes. When Balb/c mice are treated with amphetamine or diazepam, the number of crossings on the platform is significantly increased but only diazepam-treated mice do cross onto the slopes. In the presence of a protected space on the platform, the behavior of c57/Bl6J compares to that of Balb/c mice; they stop crossings onto the slopes and demonstrate avoidance response. Unlike the current existing tests, the present open-space anxiety test demonstrates reliable and consistent results with strong construct and discriminant validity. It provides unequivocal measures of fear-induced anxiety, which are not confounded with measures of fear-induced escape/avoidance responses, hyperactivity or impulsive responses.

  10. A public hedonic analysis of environmental attributes in an open space preservation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordman, Erik E.

    The Town of Brookhaven, on Long Island, NY, has implemented an open space preservation program to protect natural areas, and the ecosystem services they provide, from suburban growth. I used a public hedonic model of Brookhaven's open space purchases to estimate implicit prices for various environmental attributes, locational variables and spatial metrics. I also measured the correlation between cost per acre and non-monetary environmental benefit scores and tested whether including cost data, as opposed to non-monetary environmental benefit score alone, would change the prioritization ranks of acquired properties. The mean acquisition cost per acre was 82,501. I identified the key on-site environmental and locational variables using stepwise regression for four functional forms. The log-log specification performed best ( R2adj= 0.727). I performed a second stepwise regression (log-log form) which included spatial metrics, calculated from a high-resolution land cover classification, in addition to the environmental and locational variables. This markedly improved the model's performance ( R2adj=0.866). Statistically significant variables included the property size, location in the Pine Barrens Compatible Growth Area, location in a FEMA flood zone, adjacency to public land, and several other environmental dummy variables. The single significant spatial metric, the fractal dimension of the tree cover class, had the largest elasticity of any variable. Of the dummy variables, location within the Compatible Growth Area had the largest implicit price (298,792 per acre). The priority rank for the two methods, non-monetary environmental benefit score alone and the ratio of non-monetary environmental benefit score to acquisition cost were significantly positively correlated. This suggests that, despite the lack of cost data in their ranking method, Brookhaven does not suffer from efficiency losses. The economics literature encourages using both environmental benefits and

  11. Transanal opening of intersphincteric space (TROPIS) - A new procedure to treat high complex anal fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Pankaj

    2017-04-01

    The sepsis in intersphincteric space has important role in pathogenesis of most complex fistula-in-ano. This sepsis is like a small abscess in a closed space. This closed space needs to be drained adequately and then kept open for the fistula-in-ano to heal properly. The aim was to lay open and drain the intersphincteric space through internal opening via transanal approach. This has been tried in submucosal and intersphincteric rectal abscesses but has never been tried in complex fistula-in-ano. All consecutive patients of complex high (involving >1/3 of sphincter complex) fistula-in-ano who were operated were included in the prospective cohort study. Preoperative MRI scan was done in all the patients. Transanal laying open of the intersphincteric space (TROPIS) was done through the internal opening. The external sphincter was not cut. The tracts in the ischiorectal fossa were curetted and cleaned. The incontinence scores were measured. 61 patients with high complex fistula-in-ano were included (follow-up:6-21 months). Male/Female:59/2, age-42.3 ± 9.5 years. 85.2% (52) were recurrent, 83.6% (51) had multiple tracts, 36.1% (22) had horseshoe tract, 34.4% (21) had supralevator extension and 26.2% (16) had associated abscess. 95.1% (58) were posterior fistula out of which 90.2% (55) were in posterior midline. Nine patients were excluded (due to tuberculosis, lost to follow-up). Fistula healed completely in 84.6% (44/52) and didn't heal in 15.4% (9/52). 4/9 of these were reoperated and fistula healed in three patients. Thus overall healing rate was 90.4% (47/52). There was no significant change in incontinence scores. TROPIS is a simple effective sphincter sparing procedure to treat high complex fistula-in-ano including supralevator and horseshoe fistula. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. IR image generation of space target based on OpenGL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tongsheng; Guo, Ming; Wang, Chenggang

    2007-11-01

    IR Scene simulation has been an important way to design and assess the IR sensor, and the key of simulation is the generation of IR scene image. Based on OpenGL, the method of IR image generation is proposed. The geometry model is constructed with professional CAD software, and the observer location is determined after scene transformation. The full infrared model of space target is built based on infrared physics and heat transfer, which includes the radiation, convection, conduction between different parts of the space target, and which also includes the radiation, convection of environment. Radiance of space target is converted to gray value, and properties of scene are defined according to the gray level. After a series of processing, dynamic IR images are generated with the technology of double buffering.

  13. Portable Low-Frequency Noise Reduction Device for Both Small Open and Closed Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise pollution has been given more attention due to its negative impacts on human health and disease. The portable low-frequency noise reduction device we developed in this research can provide an effective way for solving low-frequency noise pollution problem in the small space. This work describes the design principle and the prototype structures for two versions of V1.5 and V2.0 and builds the noise test systems for small spaces, respectively. These devices, installed on the outer surface of the small spaces, can automatically identify the noise spectrum and implement noise reduction by means of the active noise control (ANC technology. The testing results indicate that the noise can be reduced 12 dB in the range of 250 Hz~400 Hz for the small closed space while, for the small open space, the best effect of 5.88 dB occurs in the optimal frequency of 450 Hz. These effects will be weakened with the increasing distance away from the source and show the obvious axisymmetric distribution in the inverted cone space.

  14. Personal values and cancer treatment refusal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijer, Marli; Leeuwen, Evert van

    2000-01-01

    This pilot study explores the reasons patients have for refusing chemotherapy, and the ways oncologists respond to them. Our hypothesis, generated from interviews with patients and oncologists, is that an ethical approach that views a refusal as an autonomous choice, in which patients are informed a

  15. DAYLIGHTING PERFORMANCE OF HORIZONTAL LIGHT PIPE BRANCHING ON OPEN PLAN OFFICE SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feny ELSIANA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For daylighting purpose, office buildings should have a shallow plan and increase the ratio of surface to building’s volume. However, intensive use of air-conditioning drives office building’s plan to be deep with a minimum surface to volume ratio. This leads to the presence of areas that have insufficient daylight level at the work plane. Considering limitations of some daylighting methods in distributing daylight to these areas, Horizontal Light Pipe (HLP was selected. The aim of this research was to evaluate and explain the effect of HLP branching on daylight quantity and distribution inside open plan office space. Experimental with simulation as a tool was used as the research method. HLP branching’s uniformity ratio, illuminance and Daylight Factor were compared with unbranching HLP, simultaneously with daylighting standards. Results showed that office space with HLP-L branching had higher daylight level than HLP-T branching, 296 lux and 295 lux, HLP-L and HLP-T, respectively. However, HLP-T branching distributed daylight more evenly than HLP-L branching, with uniformity ratio as 1.49:1 and 1.50:1, HLP-T and HLP-L, respectively. Both of them met the illuminance target value and uniformity at work plane. Light’s deflection and improvement amount of opening distribution decreased average illuminance and Daylight Factor up to 3.59%. Those also decreased uniformity of daylight inside the space.

  16. Thermal Performance of Housing Open Spaces in the City of Mosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. TURKI HASAN ALI ALHADIDI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid urban growth has lead to an urgent need to increase residential buildings in such a way that requires quick execution of such buildings. The appearance of modern materials such as reinforced concrete has helped in getting fast-constructed houses of a westerly pattern such that excluding the inherited styles that are in harmony with severe environment like that of the Middle East. This has resulted in a modern pattern of buildings lacks the microclimate which was enjoyed by the traditional pattern and which have provided the inhabitant with a relative thermal comfort. ‎This research try to compare different microclimates due to the variation of open architectural spaces patterns in the residential units (traditional ones represented by (the courtyards and Iwan and the modem one represented by the space of (garages and terraces in Summer in Mosul city. ‎ ‎The results showed that the traditional open spaces are the nearest to the thermal comfort zone, although both of them don't represent the ideal state of human comfort in this ‎period of Summer.

  17. Clifford algebra-valued orthogonal polynomials in the open unit ball of Euclidean space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Brackx

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for constructing Clifford algebra-valued orthogonal polynomials in the open unit ball of Euclidean space is presented. In earlier research, we only dealt with scalar-valued weight functions. Now the class of weight functions involved is enlarged to encompass Clifford algebra-valued functions. The method consists in transforming the orthogonality relation on the open unit ball into an orthogonality relation on the real axis by means of the so-called Clifford-Heaviside functions. Consequently, appropriate orthogonal polynomials on the real axis give rise to Clifford algebra-valued orthogonal polynomials in the unit ball. Three specific examples of such orthogonal polynomials in the unit ball are discussed, namely, the generalized Clifford-Jacobi polynomials, the generalized Clifford-Gegenbauer polynomials, and the shifted Clifford-Jacobi polynomials.

  18. Grassland communities of urban open spaces in Bloemfontein, Free State, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamokete N.V. Dingaan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural vegetation in urban environments is greatly impacted by human activities and it is in constant threat of degradation and destruction as a result of urbanisation. This vegetation, although fragmented, serves an important ecological function and needs to be properly managed and conserved. Studies on urban vegetation are lacking in South Africa, with only a handful having been carried out since the end of the last century. This study was initiated to identify, classify and describe the grassland communities of the urban open spaces in Bloemfontein. Relevés were compiled in 61 sample plots, where species present and habitat information were recorded. Care was taken to restrict sample plots to vegetation in pristine condition, wherever possible, and severely degraded stands were avoided. A two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, revealed two distinct major communities, seven communities and four sub-communities. Both detrended and canonical correspondence analyses indicated the vegetation units to be associated with soil texture and pH, although biotic factors such as overgrazing, burning and mowing also influence the composition of the vegetation. The proper management and conservation of urban open spaces requires in-depth knowledge of the spatial distribution, floristic, structural and functional compositions within the major vegetation types in this environment. The present study further contributed towards formulating ways for the proper management, utilisation and functioning of the open spaces within the Bloemfontein area.Conservation implications: The Grassland Biome of South Africa is poorly conserved, mainly because of its status as an agricultural hub of the country. The preservation of natural and semi-natural forms of urban vegetation is important because such vegetation, although often disturbed and degraded, could form dispersal corridors between peri-urban and rural

  19. All conjugate-maximal-helicity-violating amplitudes from topological open string theory in twistor space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiban, Radu; Volovich, Anastasia

    2004-09-24

    It has recently been proposed that the D-instanton expansion of the open topological B model on P(3|4) is equivalent to the perturbative expansion of the maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions. In this letter we show how to construct the gauge theory results for all n-point conjugate-maximal-helicity-violating amplitudes by computing the integral over the moduli space of curves of degree n-3 in P(3|4), providing strong support to the string theory construction.

  20. Open Discussion Session: Challenges and Advancements in Coordinated Space Weather Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauristie, Kirsti

    2016-07-01

    Besides addressing the key questions in space weather research the Cospar/ILWS Roadmap presents also recommendations for teaming in the research environment and for collaboration between agencies and communities. Coordinated work of different research groups facilitate our efforts for a holistic view on the entire Sun-Earth system with its complicated feedback processes in different scale sizes. Seamless knowledge transfer from research to operational services is a crucial factor for the success of space weather research field. In this open discussion session we encourage the participants to share their views on most important challenges and advancements in our field, both in science and in collaboration. We also welcome comments on the roadmap recommendations and guidance for similar activities in the future.

  1. What Attracts People to Visit Community Open Spaces? A Case Study of the Overseas Chinese Town Community in Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyong Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A well-designed open space that encourages outdoor activity and social communication is a community asset that could potentially contribute to the health of local residents and social harmony of the community. Numerous factors may influence the use of each single space and may result in a variety of visitors. Compared with previous studies that focused on accessibility, this study highlights the relationship between the utilization and characteristics of community open spaces in China. The Overseas Chinese Town community in Shenzhen is regarded as an example. The association between the number of visitors and space characteristics is examined with multivariate regression models. Results show that large areas with accessible lawns, well-maintained footpaths, seats, commercial facilities, and water landscapes are important characteristics that could increase the use of community open spaces. However, adding green vegetation, sculptures, and landscape accessories in open spaces has limited effects on increasing the outdoor activities of residents. Thus, to increase the use of community open spaces, landscape designers should focus more on creating user-oriented spaces with facilities that encourage active use than on improving ornamental vegetation and accessories.

  2. The Space Apps Challenge: Using Open Innovation Competitions to Engage The Public in the Scientific Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S. S.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Space Apps Challenge encourages innovation, creativity and collaborative problem solving by gathering coders, builders, artists, designers, and storytellers in a 48-hour hackathon. Open Innovation competitions such as the Space Apps Challenge bring the scientific world to members of the public, regardless of age, experience, credentials, or expertise. In the past five years, this model of public engagement has been widely employed by government, nonprofit and academic institutions, allowing the building of partnerships between the scientific community and the individuals and communities they serve. Furthermore, advances in technology and challenge models have lowered the barriers and costs to scientific collaboration with and for the public. NASA's Space Apps Challenge, structured as a competition seeking solutions from the public to posed problems, brings together teams and forges collaborations between individuals and groups who would otherwise have never worked together for a short but high intensity problem solving session, Space Apps has has created a pathway to public engagement and innovation that is often faster, cheaper, and more impactful than traditional approaches.

  3. Opened athletic-educational space - the condition of professional development of future teacher of physical culture is needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragnev Y.V.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the opening of the sports and educational space is determined by the whole space, where the interaction of the activity of the pedagogical university with different educational institutions on the basis of integration, continuity of the educational process, aimed at physical education, the development of children and young people take place. It is revealed the importance of awareness of such concepts as the world educational space, the international educational space, the European higher education area, European space of higher education and educational space of the CIS countries.

  4. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals' conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment, and this requirement is found to create serious problems for those wishing to defend the idea under consideration. We conclude that the notion of a legal right to conscientious refusal for any profession is either fundamentally incompatible with elementary legal ethical requirements, or implausible because it undermines the functioning of a related professional sector (healthcare) or even of society as a whole.

  5. Factors Influencing Visitors to Suburban Open Space Areas near a Northern Japanese City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Shoji

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Visitor information often serves as the basis for the management plan of parks. However, there exist few scientific and fundamental surveys for parks and open spaces in Japan. We analyzed the correlation between the number of visitors and the various factors in a suburban open space in a northern Japanese city, Takino Park. To explain the fluctuations in the number of visitors in Takino Park, multiple regression analyses with the stepwise method were conducted. The analyses employed social factors and meteorological factors, such as the day of the week, school vacations, temperature and the weather. The results show that the most influential factor is the day of the week, i.e., Sundays and holidays. The weather is also influential as the number of visitors decreases on rainy and snowy days. Comparing different seasons of the year, we found that influential factors varied from one season to the other. A key distinguishing finding of our results is that the weather conditions at the departure site and the weather forecast are also determining factors. These findings will help park managers understand the current situations and examine future management strategies to maintain and enhance visitor satisfaction, and improve information services.

  6. Evaluation of speech transmission in open public spaces affected by combined noises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pyoung Jik; Jeon, Jin Yong

    2011-07-01

    In the present study, the effects of interference from combined noises on speech transmission were investigated in a simulated open public space. Sound fields for dominant noises were predicted using a typical urban square model surrounded by buildings. Then road traffic noise and two types of construction noises, corresponding to stationary and impulsive noises, were selected as background noises. Listening tests were performed on a group of adults, and the quality of speech transmission was evaluated using listening difficulty as well as intelligibility scores. During the listening tests, two factors that affect speech transmission performance were considered: (1) temporal characteristics of construction noise (stationary or impulsive) and (2) the levels of the construction and road traffic noises. The results indicated that word intelligibility scores and listening difficulty ratings were affected by the temporal characteristics of construction noise due to fluctuations in the background noise level. It was also observed that listening difficulty is unable to describe the speech transmission in noisy open public spaces showing larger variation than did word intelligibility scores. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  7. Examining public open spaces by neighborhood-level walkability and deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badland, Hannah M; Keam, Rosanna; Witten, Karen; Kearns, Robin

    2010-11-01

    Public open spaces (POS) are recognized as important to promote physical activity engagement. However, it is unclear how POS attributes, such as activities available, environmental quality, amenities present, and safety, are associated with neighborhood-level walkability and deprivation. Twelve neighborhoods were selected within 1 constituent city of Auckland, New Zealand based on higher (n = 6) or lower (n = 6) walkability characteristics. Neighborhoods were dichotomized as more (n = 7) or less (n = 5) socioeconomically deprived. POS (n = 69) were identified within these neighborhoods and audited using the New Zealand-Public Open Space Tool. Unpaired 1-way analysis of variance tests were applied to compare differences in attributes and overall score of POS by neighborhood walkability and deprivation. POS located in more walkable neighborhoods have significantly higher overall scores when compared with less walkable neighborhoods. Deprivation comparisons identified POS located in less deprived communities have better quality environments, but fewer activities and safety features present when compared with more deprived neighborhoods. A positive relationship existed between presence of POS attributes and neighborhood walkability, but the relationship between POS and neighborhood-level deprivation was less clear. Variation in neighborhood POS quality alone is unlikely to explain poorer health outcomes for residents in more deprived areas.

  8. Operation approaches on α-γ-I-open sets and α-γ-I-continuous functions in topological spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kalaivani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the notion of α-γ-I-open sets in a topological space together with its corresponding interior and closure operators are introduced. Further, the concept of α-γ-I-continuous functions and α-γ-I-open functions are introduced and some of their basic properties are studied.

  9. Legal briefing: conscience clauses and conscientious refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to conscience clauses and conscientious refusal. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it has also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions. Over the past several months, conscientious refusal disputes have had an unusually high profile not only in courthouses, but also in legislative and regulatory halls across the United States. Healthcare providers' own moral beliefs have been obstructing and are expected to increasingly obstruct patients' access to medical services. For example, some providers, on ethical or moral grounds, have denied: (1) sterilization procedures to pregnant patients, (2) pain medications in end-of-life situations, and (3) information about emergency contraception to rape victims. On the other hand, many healthcare providers have been forced to provide medical treatment that is inconsistent with their moral beliefs. There are two fundamental types of conscientious objection laws. First, there are laws that permit healthcare workers to refuse providing - on ethical, moral, or religious grounds healthcare services that they might otherwise have a legal or employer-mandated obligation to provide. Second, there are laws directed at forcing healthcare workers to provide services to which they might have ethical, moral, or religious objections. Both types of laws are rarely comprehensive, but instead target: (1) certain types of healthcare providers, (2) specific categories of healthcare services, (3) specific patient circumstances, and (4) certain conditions under which a right or obligation is triggered. For the sake of clarity, I have grouped recent legal developments concerning conscientious refusal into eight categories: 1. Abortion: right to refuse 2. Abortion: duty to provide 3. Contraception: right to refuse 4. Contraception: duty to provide 5. Sterilization: right to refuse 6. Fertility, HIV, vaccines

  10. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious...... identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals’ conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment...

  11. STRUCTURAL EVALUATION OF PSSDB WALL PANEL WITH SQUARE OPENING AND VARIED SCREW SPACING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SITI HAWA HAMZAH

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Profiled steel sheet dry boards or PSSDB system is an alternative composite construction system comprising of profiled steel sheet compositely connected to dry boards by self-tapping self-driving screws. PSSDB system was used widely as flooring system in the lightweight construction of buildings and office space in factories. Due to its superiority in the installation techniques, PSSDB system was expanded in the application as load bearing wall panel system in buildings. The PSSDB system is as an alternative construction technique on load bearing wall panel that offers cost savings synonymously with the rapid progress of science and technology which leads to the shift from traditional utilization of construction materials to newer construction techniques. A finite element analysis was carried out to determine the effect of screw spacing on the PSSDB wall panel. The spacing selected was between 100 mm to 500 mm, at an increment of 100 mm in each different model. The wall panel measured 3000 mm by 3000 mm with a 1200 mm square window opening, 78 mm thick and butt joints vertically positioned in the dry boards. This paper looks into the system as load bearing wall panels, analyzing it under axial compressive load using established Finite Element technique. The deformation profile of the PSSDB wall panel system showed a single curvature deformation profile, maximum lateral displacement at two-thirds wall panel height and critical sections at the upper corners of the square opening. The finite element analysis had provided good prediction of the structural behavior of the PSSDB wall panel system and it is concluded that the PW200 model possesses the optimum arrangement of the fixing screws used.

  12. Reclamation of acid coal refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, F.J.; Chong, S.K. (Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (USA))

    1991-07-01

    Slurry (coal refuse), which contains pyritic materials, produces sulfuric acid when wetted and oxidized. The acidity, together with droughtiness and high surface temperatures, create a complex problem for revegetation. Four grasses, orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), redtop (Agrostis alba L.), reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Shreb.), were planted on an acid slurry site at Captain Mine, Arch of Illinois Inc., Perry County, IL, USA, to evaluate the effects of soil amendments. Organic material from composted garbage (0, 112, 224 and 336 Mg/ha), limestone (0, 45, 90 and 135 Mg/ha) and a mixture of organic material and limestone (56/22.5, 112/45 and 168/67.5 Mg/ha) were incorporated into the slurry. All the grasses established succesfully and persisted best on treatments involving the addition of limestone. Tall fescue and reed canarygrass were the grasses best suited for the revegetation of the acid slurry impoundments. The grasses did not accumulate heavy metals to levels considered potentially toxic to livestock. The application of limestone with or without organic material appears to be a possible alternative method for revegetating acid slurry without the addition of a soil cover. 6 tabs., 12 refs.

  13. [Accumulation of respiratory diseases among employees at a recently established refuse sorting plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigsgaard, T I; Bach, B; Taudorf, E; Malmros, P; Gravesen, S

    1990-08-27

    An increasing number of plants for re-use of refuse have been constructed in Denmark in recent years. The Kaastrup Plant near Skive was opened in spring 1986. The plant accepts household rubbish and industrial refuse separately. The refuse is sorted by machine (industrial refuse is sorted partially manually) and in a large partially open machine plant, refuse is converted into fuel pellets. During a period of eight months, eight out of 15 employees developed respiratory symptoms. In seven, bronchial asthma was diagnosed and chronic bronchitis in one person. Four had initial symptoms of the organic dust toxic syndrome. After further six months, another case of occupationally-conditioned asthma occurred in the plant. Only two out of nine had previously had asthma or atopic disease. The investigation did not reveal any evidence of type-I allergy. Six out of nine had specific precipitating antibodies to refuse while all had negative RAST tests to this. In spring 1989, from six to eighteen months after the onset of the symptoms, six had still dyspnoea on exertion and three had positive histamine-provocation tests and seven out of nine had left the plant. Occupational medical measurements revealed dust concentrations of 8.1 mg/cubic millimeter in September 1986 and total germs of up to 3 x 10(9) cfu/cubic meter. Construction of the plant involved considerable contact with the refuse on account of the cleansing processes and open systems and it was reconstructed in the course of 1987/1988 so that the hygienic conditions are now acceptable.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Management of an Adult with Spaced Dentition, Class III Malocclusion and Open-bite Tendency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Demet; Taner, Tulin Ugur

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this case report was to present the orthodontic treatment of an adult with spaced dentition, Class III malocclusion, and open-bite tendency. A 28.4-year-old adult woman was concerned about the unesthetic appearance of her spaced dentition localized at both upper and lower arches while smiling. She had a mild tongue thrust, hypertropic upper frenum, and mild speech difficulty while pronouncing "s". Her profile was straight with prominent lips. Molar relationship was Class III on both sides. Anterior teeth were in an end-to-end relationship. Lower dental midline was deviated to the left side. Cephalometric analysis revealed a skeletal Class III relationship with hyperdivergent facial pattern. The treatment plan included myotherapeutic exercises for the tongue thrust habit and a diagnostic set-up for closure of diastemas. A strict retention protocol was followed combined with gingivoplasty, fiberotomy, and frenectomy procedures. All spaces were closed successfully, adequate overbite and overjet relationships were obtained, and tongue thrust habit and speech difficulty while pronouncing "s" were eliminated. Clinical and cephalometric results indicated the maintenance of the treatment outcome at 6-months post-retention period.

  15. Open Innovation Drug Discovery (OIDD): a potential path to novel therapeutic chemical space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvim-Gaston, Maria; Grese, Timothy; Mahoui, Abdelaziz; Palkowitz, Alan D; Pineiro-Nunez, Marta; Watson, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The continued development of computational and synthetic methods has enabled the enumeration or preparation of a nearly endless universe of chemical structures. Nevertheless, the ability of this chemical universe to deliver small molecules that can both modulate biological targets and have drug-like physicochemical properties continues to be a topic of interest to the pharmaceutical industry and academic researchers alike. The chemical space described by public, commercial, in-house and virtual compound collections has been interrogated by multiple approaches including biochemical, cellular and virtual screening, diversity analysis, and in-silico profiling. However, current drugs and known chemical probes derived from these efforts are contained within a remarkably small volume of the predicted chemical space. Access to more diverse classes of chemical scaffolds that maintain the properties relevant for drug discovery is certainly needed to meet the increasing demands for pharmaceutical innovation. The Lilly Open Innovation Drug Discovery platform (OIDD) was designed to tackle barriers to innovation through the identification of novel molecules active in relevant disease biology models. In this article we will discuss several computational approaches towards describing novel, biologically active, drug-like chemical space and illustrate how the OIDD program may facilitate access to previously untapped molecules that may aid in the search for innovative pharmaceuticals.

  16. Refusal as a democratic catalyst for mathematics education development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalene Swanson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Discussions about the connections between mathematics and democracy amongst the general populace have not been explicitly well rehearsed. A critical relationship with democracy for mathematics education may involve directing and redirecting its purposes. But, we ask, what if the ‘choice’ to not participate in experiences of mathematics education, or in its (redirection, were itself also a critical relationship with mathematics education? What if this refusal and disobedience to the evocative power of mathematics were a democratic action? We argue that consideration of mathematics education for democracy and development must take seriously specific acts of refusal that directly confront the construction of inequality common in most development contexts. Globalisation and development discourses, via citizenship and nationalism, construct relationships with learners and mathematics education in very specific ways that delimit possibilities for egalitarianism and democratic action. But, might such action not be recognised, not as refusal to participate per se, but as a refusal to participate in mathematics education’s colonising and/or globalising neo-liberal gaze? In arguing for the opening of a position of radical equality, we introduce Jacques Rancière to mathematics education theory, noting that for Rancière emancipation is the intentional disregard for ideological narratives such as the ones produced by mathematics education discourses. Thus, we provoke serious reconsideration of the assumptions behind most school improvement and professional development projects, as well as mathematics education policies and practices framed by globalising development discourses, and in the process we challenge our colleagues to consider ‘refusal’ not as deficit or failure, but as a critical position of radical equality in relation to mathematics education.

  17. Ethical considerations of refusing nutrition after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Lars; Agren Bolmsjö, Ingrid; Westergren, Albert

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse and discuss the ethically problematic conflict raised by patients with stroke who refuse nutritional treatment. In analysing this conflict, the focus is on four different aspects: (1) Is nutritional treatment biologically necessary? (2) If necessary, is the reason for refusal a functional disability, lack of appetite or motivation, misunderstanding of the situation or a genuine conflict of values? (3) If the latter, what values are involved in the conflict? (4) How should we deal with the different kinds of refusal of nutritional treatment? We argue that patients' autonomy should be respected as far as possible, while also considering that those who have suffered a stroke might re-evaluate their life as a result of a beneficial prognosis. However, if patients persist with their refusal, health care professionals should force nutritional treatment only when it is clear that the patients will re-evaluate their future life.

  18. Acceleration of a Particle-in-Cell Code for Space Plasma Simulations with OpenACC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ivy Bo; Markidis, Stefano; Vaivads, Andris; Vencels, Juris; Deca, Jan; Lapenta, Giovanni; Hart, Alistair; Laure, Erwin

    2015-04-01

    We simulate space plasmas with the Particle-in-cell (PIC) method that uses computational particles to mimic electrons and protons in solar wind and in Earth magnetosphere. The magnetic and electric fields are computed by solving the Maxwell's equations on a computational grid. In each PIC simulation step, there are four major phases: interpolation of fields to particles, updating the location and velocity of each particle, interpolation of particles to grids and solving the Maxwell's equations on the grid. We use the iPIC3D code, which was implemented in C++, using both MPI and OpenMP, for our case study. By November 2014, heterogeneous systems using hardware accelerators such as Graphics Processing Unit (GPUs) and the Many Integrated Core (MIC) coprocessors for high performance computing continue growth in the top 500 most powerful supercomputers world wide. Scientific applications for numerical simulations need to adapt to using accelerators to achieve portability and scalability in the coming exascale systems. In our work, we conduct a case study of using OpenACC to offload the computation intensive parts: particle mover and interpolation of particles to grids, in a massively parallel Particle-in-Cell simulation code, iPIC3D, to multi-GPU systems. We use MPI for inter-node communication for halo exchange and communicating particles. We identify the most promising parts suitable for GPUs accelerator by profiling using CrayPAT. We implemented manual deep copy to address the challenges of porting C++ classes to GPU. We document the necessary changes in the exiting algorithms to adapt for GPU computation. We present the challenges and findings as well as our methodology for porting a Particle-in-Cell code to multi-GPU systems using OpenACC. In this work, we will present the challenges, findings and our methodology of porting a Particle-in-Cell code for space applications as follows: We profile the iPIC3D code by Cray Performance Analysis Tool (CrayPAT) and identify

  19. 30 CFR 77.215-4 - Refuse piles; abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; abandonment. 77.215-4 Section 77... MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-4 Refuse piles; abandonment. When a refuse pile is to be abandoned... refuse pile shall be abandoned in accordance with a plan submitted by the operator and approved by...

  20. Degradation of Refuse in Hybrid Bioreactor Landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN LONG; Yu-YANG LONG; HAI-CHUN LIU; DONG-SHENG SHEN

    2009-01-01

    Objectivess To explore the process of refuse decomposition in hybrid bioreactor landfill. Methods The bioreactor landfill was operated in sequencing of facultative-anaerobic and aerobic conditions with leachate recireulation, pH, COD, and ammonia in the leachate and pH, biodegradable organic matter (BDM), and cation exchange capacity (CEC) in refuse were detected. Results CEC increased gradually with the degradation of refuse, which was negatively correlad, With BDM. COD and ammonia in the leachate was declined to 399.2 mg L-1 and 20.6 mg N L-1, respectively, during the 357-day operation. The respective concentrations of ammonia and COD were below the second and the third levels of current discharge standards in China. Conclusion The refuse is relatively stable at the end of hybrid bioreactor landfill operation. Most of the readily biodegradable organic matter is mineralized in the initial phase of refuse degradation, whereas the hard-biodegradable organic matter is mainly humidified in the maturity phase of refuse degradation.

  1. Sustainable Sites Initiative: US updated rating criteria for open spaces design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Valente

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the U.S. Sustainable Sites Initiative, by illustrating and commenting the recent updates of the rating criteria in addition to a number of certified projects, including some sites visited by the author in California. The system is compared with existing tools, as LEED 2009 for Neighborhood Development Rating System, albeit some differences also in scale of interventions. In the work, scientific literature and personal considerations are given about those aspects still not evaluated by the system and its potential wider applicability with regard to directions of research on the topic. The theme fits well in the mainstream of studies dedicated to the design of resilient open spaces, contributing to adaptation and mitigation of climate change.

  2. Investment in Open Innovation Service Providers: NASA's Innovative Strategy for Solving Space Exploration Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Jennifer A.; Rando, Cynthia; Baumann, David; Richard, Elizabeth; Davis, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to expand routes for open communication and create additional opportunities for public involvement with NASA, Open Innovation Service Provider (OISP) methodologies have been incorporated as a tool in NASA's problem solving strategy. NASA engaged the services of two OISP providers, InnoCentive and Yet2.com, to test this novel approach and its feasibility in solving NASA s space flight challenges. The OISPs were chosen based on multiple factors including: network size and knowledge area span, established process, methodology, experience base, and cost. InnoCentive and Yet2.com each met the desired criteria; however each company s approach to Open Innovation is distinctly different. InnoCentive focuses on posting individual challenges to an established web-based network of approximately 200,000 solvers; viable solutions are sought and granted a financial award if found. Based on a specific technological need, Yet2.com acts as a talent scout providing a broad external network of experts as potential collaborators to NASA. A relationship can be established with these contacts to develop technologies and/or maintained as an established network of future collaborators. The results from the first phase of the pilot study have shown great promise for long term efficacy of utilizing the OISP methodologies. Solution proposals have been received for the challenges posted on InnoCentive and are currently under review for final disposition. In addition, Yet2.com has identified new external partners for NASA and we are in the process of understanding and acting upon these new opportunities. Compared to NASA's traditional routes for external problem solving, the OISP methodologies offered NASA a substantial savings in terms of time and resources invested. In addition, these strategies will help NASA extend beyond its current borders to build an ever expanding network of experts and global solvers.

  3. Investment in Open Innovation Service Providers: NASA's Innovative Strategy for Solving Space Exploration Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Jennifer A.; Rando, Cynthia; Baumann, David; Richard, Elizabeth; Davis, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to expand routes for open communication and create additional opportunities for public involvement with NASA, Open Innovation Service Provider (OISP) methodologies have been incorporated as a tool in NASA's problem solving strategy. NASA engaged the services of two OISP providers, InnoCentive and Yet2.com, to test this novel approach and its feasibility in solving NASA s space flight challenges. The OISPs were chosen based on multiple factors including: network size and knowledge area span, established process, methodology, experience base, and cost. InnoCentive and Yet2.com each met the desired criteria; however each company s approach to Open Innovation is distinctly different. InnoCentive focuses on posting individual challenges to an established web-based network of approximately 200,000 solvers; viable solutions are sought and granted a financial award if found. Based on a specific technological need, Yet2.com acts as a talent scout providing a broad external network of experts as potential collaborators to NASA. A relationship can be established with these contacts to develop technologies and/or maintained as an established network of future collaborators. The results from the first phase of the pilot study have shown great promise for long term efficacy of utilizing the OISP methodologies. Solution proposals have been received for the challenges posted on InnoCentive and are currently under review for final disposition. In addition, Yet2.com has identified new external partners for NASA and we are in the process of understanding and acting upon these new opportunities. Compared to NASA's traditional routes for external problem solving, the OISP methodologies offered NASA a substantial savings in terms of time and resources invested. In addition, these strategies will help NASA extend beyond its current borders to build an ever expanding network of experts and global solvers.

  4. Sensitivity study on critical flow models of SPACE for inadvertent opening of containment spray valve in Shin Kori unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seyun; Kim, Minhee [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    SPACE (Safety and Performance Analysis Code for Nuclear Power Plants) has been developed by KHNP with the cooperation with KEPCO E and C and KAERI. SPACE code is expected to be applied to the safety analysis for LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) and Non-LOCA scenarios. SPACE code solves two-fluid, three-field governing equations and programmed with C++ computer language using object-oriented concepts. To evaluate the analysis capability for the transient phenomena in the actual nuclear power plant, an inadvertent opening of spray valve in startup test phase of Shin Kori unit 1 was simulated with SPACE. To assess the critical flow models of SPACE, the calculation with several critical flow models were carried out. The simulations of an inadvertent opening of spray valve of Shin Kori unit 1 with several critical flow models were carried out. The calculated transient behaviors of major reactor parameters with four critical flow models generally show good agreement with the measured.

  5. The Relationship of Children Connectivity and Physical Activities with Satisfaction of Open Spaces in High Rise Apartments in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sharghi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Increase of urbanization has pressure on the urban children's lives and physical activities. While in designing of residential apartments’ open spaces, there is little attention to the children. The children, who live in the high-rise apartments found to have less physical activities. However, supposedly, children need to engage in the physical activity in the outdoor areas as WHO recommend that children take part in at least one hour of moderate physical activity in every day. This paper firstly, reviews different researches in this area. Then, it attempts to find children’s satisfaction regarding connectivity to open spaces as a dependent variable and their preferred activities, perceived safety, and familiarity about connectivity to open spaces as independent variables. The method of study is a semi-interview survey with 80 children between 6 and 12 years old (primary school ages in two cases in Tehran. The result of this research shows that children satisfaction from open space has an effect on their outdoor activities. Therefore, the designers should be considering children physical activities needs in open spaces.

  6. Adaptive Correlation Space Adjusted Open-Loop Tracking Approach for Vehicle Positioning with Global Navigation Satellite System in Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Hang; Li, Jian; Zhang, Lei; Long, Teng

    2015-08-28

    For vehicle positioning with Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) in urban areas, open-loop tracking shows better performance because of its high sensitivity and superior robustness against multipath. However, no previous study has focused on the effects of the code search grid size on the code phase measurement accuracy of open-loop tracking. Traditional open-loop tracking methods are performed by the batch correlators with fixed correlation space. The code search grid size, which is the correlation space, is a constant empirical value and the code phase measuring accuracy will be largely degraded due to the improper grid size, especially when the signal carrier-to-noise density ratio (C/N₀) varies. In this study, the Adaptive Correlation Space Adjusted Open-Loop Tracking Approach (ACSA-OLTA) is proposed to improve the code phase measurement dependent pseudo range accuracy. In ACSA-OLTA, the correlation space is adjusted according to the signal C/N₀. The novel Equivalent Weighted Pseudo Range Error (EWPRE) is raised to obtain the optimal code search grid sizes for different C/N₀. The code phase measuring errors of different measurement calculation methods are analyzed for the first time. The measurement calculation strategy of ACSA-OLTA is derived from the analysis to further improve the accuracy but reduce the correlator consumption. Performance simulation and real tests confirm that the pseudo range and positioning accuracy of ASCA-OLTA are better than the traditional open-loop tracking methods in the usual scenarios of urban area.

  7. Cubicle Refusal in Norwegian Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myren HJ

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to survey the behaviour of choosing the alley area instead of a cubicle as a lying place (cubicle refusal, a questionnaire was sent to the 273 dairy farms in Norway known to keep cows in cubicle housing systems. Sixty-six percent of the farmers contacted were included in the study. The median herd size was 18 cows (range 7–118. More than 85% of the herds had sheds providing one or more cubicles per cow. The mean herd occurrence of cubicle refusal was 6%, but showed great variation (range 0–55%. Regression analysis showed a significant association between rearing heifers in slatted floor pens and an increased cubicle refusal occurrence (p = 0.02, R2 = 0.05, while herd size, use of litter, or cubicle-to-animal ratio were not found to be associated with cubicle refusal. The practice of rearing heifers in slatted floor pens accounted for about one half of the observed cubicle refusal (etiologic fraction = 0.51.

  8. Refusal Strategies Among Omani EFL Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahma Al-Mahrooqi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate the refusal speech act among Omani EFL college students. It examined how they refused in various situations and whether their responses were appropriate in terms of culture and accurate in terms of language. Forty-one English as foreign language (EFL learners completed a Discourse Completion Test (DCT consisting of 12 scenarios by supplying written refusals to three requests, three suggestions, three invitations, and three offers. Students’ responses were rated by two professors: one a native English speaker and the other not. A convenient sampling procedure was employed. The findings indicated that students’ responses were largely inappropriate and inaccurate. Further examination showed that they were heavily influenced by the students’ culture, many being mere translations of refusal responses in Omani Arabic. Others were inappropriate because they were too direct, due to students’ lack of knowledge of the role of social status when issuing refusals to a person of high status. Language mistakes were mainly in the sentence structure, which affected the meaning clarity. Findings suggest that, to help students become better communicators in English, it is important to teach them directly the most common speech acts, especially those they might frequently use in their everyday conversations with professors and classmates.

  9. Causes of family refusal for organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, F; Khoddami-Vishteh, H R; Ghobadi, O; Shafaghi, S; Louyeh, A Rostami; Najafizadeh, K

    2011-03-01

    Family refusal represents a barrier for organ donation together with other cultural and religious factors possible ignorance and clinical obstacles. We performed this retrospective study by phone employing our organ procurement unit database, using a list of families of potential organ donors who had refused organ donation. In 2009, 146 potential organ donor families refused donation. We contacted 81 families. The main reason expressed by there families to justify the refusal to donate the deceased's organs was denial and rejection of brain-death criteria (44.4%). Other causes were believing in a miracle (13.6%); fear about organ trade and unknown organ destination (9.9%); religious beliefs (8.6%); insecutrity about the brain-death diagnosis (6.2%); unstable family mood (6.2%); unknown donor wishes about donation (4.9%); belief in body integrity after death (3.7%); and fear of objection by other family members (2.5%). Our findings showed several reasons for family refusal for organ donation; among the main cause is poor acceptance of brain death. It seems that increasing the knowledge of people about brain death and organizing strategies to confirm brain death for families are necessary to meet the organ shortage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Implementation of the Forest Service Open Space Conservation Strategy in Washington State: Exploring the Role of the National Forest System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard J. Pringle; Lee K. Cerveny; Gordon A. Bradley

    2015-01-01

    The loss of open space was declared one of the “four threats to the health of our nation’s forests” by former USDA Forest Service Chief Dale Bosworth in 2004. Since then, the agencywide Open Space Conservation Strategy (OSCS) was released and the “four threats” were incorporated into the agency’s National Strategic Plan. These actions indicate that the OSCS is in the...

  11. A digital open-loop Doppler processing prototype for deep-space navigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A prototype based on digital radio technology with associated open-loop Doppler signal processing techniques has been developed to measure a spacecraft’s line-of-sight velocity. The prototype was tested in China’s Chang’E-1 lunar mission relying on S-band telemetry signals transmitted by the sat-ellite,with results showing that the residuals had a RMS value of ~3 mm/s (1σ ) using 1-sec integration,which is consistent with the Chinese conventional USB (Unified S-Band) tracking system. Such preci-sion is mainly limited by the short-term stability of the atomic (e.g. rubidium) clock at the uplink ground station. It can also be improved with proper calibration to remove some effects of the transmission media (such as solar plasma,troposphere and ionosphere),and a longer integration time (e.g. down to 0.56 mm/s at 34 seconds) allowed by the spacecraft dynamics. The tracking accuracy can also be in-creased with differential methods that may effectively remove most of the long-term drifts and some of the short-term uncertainties of the uplink atomic clock,thereby further reducing the residuals to the 1 mm/s level. Our experimental tracking data have been used in orbit determination for Chang’E-1,while other applications (such as the upcoming YH-1 Mars orbiter) based on open-loop Doppler tracking will be initiated in the future. Successful application of the prototype to the Chang’E-1 mission in 2008 is believed to have great significance for China’s future deep space exploration.

  12. DETECTABILITY OF FREE FLOATING PLANETS IN OPEN CLUSTERS WITH THE JAMES WEBB SPACE TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacucci, Fabio; Ferrara, Andrea [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); D' Onghia, Elena [University of Wisconsin, 475 Charter St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Recent observations have shown the presence of extra-solar planets in Galactic open stellar clusters, such as in Praesepe (M44). These systems provide a favorable environment for planetary formation due to the high heavy-element content exhibited by the majority of their population. The large stellar density, and corresponding high close-encounter event rate, may induce strong perturbations of planetary orbits with large semimajor axes. Here we present a set of N-body simulations implementing a novel scheme to treat the tidal effects of external stellar perturbers on planetary orbit eccentricity and inclination. By simulating five nearby open clusters, we determine the rate of occurrence of bodies extracted from their parent stellar system by quasi-impulsive tidal interactions. We find that the specific free-floating planet production rate N-dot {sub o} (total number of free-floating planets per unit of time, normalized by the total number of stars), is proportional to the stellar density ρ{sub *} of the cluster: N-dot {sub o}=αρ{sub ⋆}, with α = (23 ± 5) × 10{sup –6} pc{sup 3} Myr{sup –1}. For the Pleiades (M45), we predict that ∼26% of stars should have lost their planets. This raises the exciting possibility of directly observing these wandering planets with the James Webb Space Telescope in the near-infrared band. Assuming a surface temperature for the planet of ∼500 K, a free-floating planet of Jupiter size inside the Pleiades would have a specific flux of F {sub ν} (4.4 μm) ≈4 × 10{sup 2} nJy, which would lead to a very clear detection (S/N ∼ 100) in only one hour of integration.

  13. A digital open-loop Doppler processing prototype for deep-space navigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN NianChuan; QIU Shi; FUNG Lai-Wo; ZHANG Hua; WANG Zhen; GOU Wei; SHANG Kun; ZHANG SuJun; WANG MingYuan; SHI Xian; PING JingSong; YAN JianGuo; TANG GeShi; LIU JunZe

    2009-01-01

    A prototype based on digital radio technology with associated open-loop Doppler signal processing techniques has been developed to measure a spacecraft's line-of-sight velocity. The prototype was tested in China's Chang'E-1 lunar mission relying on S-band telemetry signals transmitted by the satellite, with results showing that the residuals had a RMS value of ~3 mm/s (1 σ ) using 1-sec integration, which is consistent with the Chinese conventional USB (Unified S-Band) tracking system. Such precision is mainly limited by the short-term stability of the atomic (e.g. Rubidium) clock at the uplink ground station. It can also be improved with proper calibration to remove some effects of the transmission media (such as solar plasma, troposphere and ionosphere), and a longer integration time (e.g. Down to 0.56 mm/s at 34 seconds) allowed by the spacecraft dynamics. The tracking accuracy can also be increased with differential methods that may effectively remove most of the long-term drifts and some of the short-term uncertainties of the uplink atomic clock, thereby further reducing the residuals to the 1 mm/s level. Our experimental tracking data have been used in orbit determination for Chang'E-1, while other applications (such as the upcoming YH-1 Mars orbiter) based on open-loop Doppler tracking will be initiated in the future. Successful application of the prototype to the Chang'E-1 mission in 2008 is believed to have great significance for China's future deep space exploration.

  14. Evaluation of SPACE code for simulation of inadvertent opening of spray valve in Shin Kori unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seyun; Youn, Bumsoo [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    SPACE code is expected to be applied to the safety analysis for LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) and Non-LOCA scenarios. SPACE code solves two-fluid, three-field governing equations and programmed with C++ computer language using object-oriented concepts. To evaluate the analysis capability for the transient phenomena in the actual nuclear power plant, an inadvertent opening of spray valve in startup test phase of Shin Kori unit 1 was simulated with SPACE code. To evaluate the analysis capability for the transient phenomena in the actual nuclear power plant, an inadvertent opening of spray valve in startup test phase of Shin Kori unit 1 was simulated with SPACE code.

  15. Generalized Ψ;ρ-closed sets and generalized &Psiρ-open sets in double fuzzy topological spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Fatimah. M.; Noorani, M. S. M.; Ghareeb, A.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to use the notion of Ψ-operations in double fuzzy topological spaces to study the concept of (r,s)-fuzzy generalized Ψρ-closed sets and (r,s)-fuzzy generalized Ψρ-open sets, some characterizations and properties of these concepts are given. Moreover, we discussed the relationship between these sets in double fuzzy topological spaces.

  16. Personal values and cancer treatment refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijer, M; van Leeuwen, E

    2000-10-01

    This pilot study explores the reasons patients have for refusing chemotherapy, and the ways oncologists respond to them. Our hypothesis, generated from interviews with patients and oncologists, is that an ethical approach that views a refusal as an autonomous choice, in which patients are informed about the pros and cons of treatment and have to decide by weighing them, is not sufficient. A different ethical approach is needed to deal with the various evaluations that play a role in treatment refusal. If patients forgo further treatment, while curative or palliative methods are available, there is no perspective from which to integrate the weighing of pros and cons of treatment and the preferences and values of individual cancer patients. A discrepancy thus results as regards what "good reasons" are, evoking misunderstandings or even breaking off communication. Suggestions are given for follow up research.

  17. Conscientious refusal to assist with abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, D

    1994-09-10

    Abortion is a moral issue affecting the identity and integrity of physicians and nurses. Ethical reasoning helps reasonable and sincere people who do not agree on abortion to understand the sources of disagreement and to explore shared principles in the differences. Discussions of abortion cannot be limited to the conflict between the rights of a woman to control her reproduction and the rights of a fetus to live. Religious, cultural, feminist, and political beliefs must also be considered. This complexity must be considered when examining whether physicians and nurses have rights to refuse to assist in abortion on conscientious grounds. People with fundamentally different moral outlooks already determine what is morally right or wrong, good or evil. Health professionals who refuse to assist in abortion base their decision on beliefs about moral duties, injunctions of natural law, and the essentially nonnegotiable rights of people to be protected from intentional harm. They know and regret the adverse effects for pregnant women but there is no compelling motivation to change their opposition to abortion. There is no morally neutral position from which to judge conscientious refusals in abortion. Society should develop a position that respects autonomy of belief and grants the right to physicians and nurses to conscientiously refuse to assist in abortions. In those countries where the abortion law grants physicians the right to refuse but not nurses, society needs to reflect on why nurses have been accorded second class professional and moral status. In those countries which have not yet formulated an abortion law, the government should consider how it can find enough health workers who will in good conscience assist in abortions. Governments must first seriously consider a presumptive right to conscientious refusal in abortion before health systems can redistribute sectors of responsibility among health workers and implement changes in recruitment policies for

  18. Real Space Multigrid (RMG) Open Source Software Suite for Multi-Petaflops Electronic Structure Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Emil; Hodak, Miroslav; Lu, Wenchang; Bernholc, Jerry; Li, Yan

    RMG is a cross platform open source package for ab initio electronic structure calculations that uses real-space grids, multigrid pre-conditioning, and subspace diagonalization to solve the Kohn-Sham equations. The code has been successfully used for a wide range of problems ranging from complex bulk materials to multifunctional electronic devices and biological systems. RMG makes efficient use of GPU accelerators, if present, but does not require them. Recent work has extended GPU support to systems with multiple GPU's per computational node, as well as optimized both CPU and GPU memory usage to enable large problem sizes, which are no longer limited by the memory of the GPU board. Additional enhancements include increased portability, scalability and performance. New versions of the code are regularly released at sourceforge.net/projects/rmgdft/. The releases include binaries for Linux, Windows and MacIntosh systems, automated builds for clusters using cmake, as well as versions adapted to the major supercomputing installations and platforms.

  19. SiGN-SSM: open source parallel software for estimating gene networks with state space models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamada, Yoshinori; Yamaguchi, Rui; Imoto, Seiya; Hirose, Osamu; Yoshida, Ryo; Nagasaki, Masao; Miyano, Satoru

    2011-04-15

    SiGN-SSM is an open-source gene network estimation software able to run in parallel on PCs and massively parallel supercomputers. The software estimates a state space model (SSM), that is a statistical dynamic model suitable for analyzing short time and/or replicated time series gene expression profiles. SiGN-SSM implements a novel parameter constraint effective to stabilize the estimated models. Also, by using a supercomputer, it is able to determine the gene network structure by a statistical permutation test in a practical time. SiGN-SSM is applicable not only to analyzing temporal regulatory dependencies between genes, but also to extracting the differentially regulated genes from time series expression profiles. SiGN-SSM is distributed under GNU Affero General Public Licence (GNU AGPL) version 3 and can be downloaded at http://sign.hgc.jp/signssm/. The pre-compiled binaries for some architectures are available in addition to the source code. The pre-installed binaries are also available on the Human Genome Center supercomputer system. The online manual and the supplementary information of SiGN-SSM is available on our web site. tamada@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp.

  20. Abundance of diurnal raptors on open space grasslands in an urbanized landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, M.E.; Bock, C.E.; Haire, S.L.

    1998-01-01

    We conducted point counts of diurnal raptors on Boulder, Colorado, grasslands for three winters and summers, and compared results to landscape features of the count areas. Four wintering species were scarce on plots that included significant amounts of urban habitat, with a critical landscape threshold at about 5-7% urbanization: Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Rough-legged Hawk (B. lagopus), and Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus). Counts of the first three species also were positively correlated with proximity of the count plots to the nearest colony of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Two breeding species, the Red-tailed Hawk (B. jamaicensis) and Swainson's Hawk (B. swainsoni), were more abundant on plots dominated by lowland hayfields and tallgrass prairies, as opposed to upland mixed and shortgrass prairies. They, along with the ubiquitous American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), were not sensitive to the amounts of urbanization (up to 30%) that occurred in the landscapes sampled. Results of this study suggest that urban open space grasslands can support sizable populations of most diurnal raptors, as long as prey populations persist, but that some species are highly sensitive to landscape urbanization.

  1. Plutonium contamination in soils in open space and residential areas near Rocky Flats, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litaor, M I

    1999-02-01

    Spatial analysis of the 240Pu:239Pu isotopic ratio of 42 soil samples collected around Rocky Flats Plant near Golden, Colorado, was conducted to assess the effect of Rocky Flats Plant activity on the soil environment. Two probability maps that quantified the uncertainty of the spatial distribution of plutonium isotopic ratios were constructed using the sequential Gaussian simulation technique (sGs). Assuming a plutonium isotopic ratio range of 0.152+/-0.003 to 0.169+/-0.009 is characteristic to global fallout in Colorado, and a mean value of 0.155 is representative for the Rocky Flats Plant area, the main findings of the current work were (1) the areas northwest and southwest of Rocky Flats Plant exhibited a plutonium ratio > or = 0.155, thus were minimally impacted by the plant activity; (2) the study area east of Rocky Flats Plant (approximately 120 km2) exhibited a plutonium isotopic ratio open space and residential areas amounted to 111.2 GBq, with a standard error of estimate of 50.8 GBq.

  2. Marketization of refuse collection in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Ole Gunni

    2006-01-01

      Danish municipalities' outsourcing and contracting of refuse collection are framed by a complex set of ideologies and objectives, besides regulation. Both at EU-level and at national level extreme demands for marketization of the public sector are counter-weighed by demands for social and envir......  Danish municipalities' outsourcing and contracting of refuse collection are framed by a complex set of ideologies and objectives, besides regulation. Both at EU-level and at national level extreme demands for marketization of the public sector are counter-weighed by demands for social...

  3. The influence of personal belief, agency mission and city size on open space decision making processes in three southwestern cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megan Friggens; Carol Raish; Deborah Finch; Alice McSweeney

    2015-01-01

    The southwest has experienced dramatic population increases over the last 30 years, a trend that is expected to continue. Open space conservation is important both from the standpoint of preserving ecosystem services as well as maintaining quality of life for urban populations. Federal agencies manage a large proportion of the public land in the Southwestern U.S. We...

  4. The impacts of open-mouth breathing on upper airway space in obstructive sleep apnea: 3-D MDCT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Joong; Choi, Ji Ho; Kim, Kang Woo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Sang Hag; Lee, Heung Man; Shin, Chol; Lee, Ki Yeol; Lee, Seung Hoon

    2011-04-01

    Open-mouth breathing during sleep is a risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and is associated with increased disease severity and upper airway collapsibility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of open-mouth breathing on the upper airway space in patients with OSA using three-dimensional multi-detector computed tomography (3-D MDCT). The study design included a case-control study with planned data collection. The study was performed at a tertiary medical center. 3-D MDCT analysis was conducted on 52 patients with OSA under two experimental conditions: mouth closed and mouth open. Under these conditions, we measured the minimal cross-sectional area of the retropalatal and retroglossal regions (mXSA-RP, mXSA-RG), as well as the upper airway length (UAL), defined as the vertical dimension from hard palate to hyoid. We also computed the volume of the upper airway space by 3-D reconstruction of both conditions. When the mouth was open, mXSA-RP and mXSA-RG significantly decreased and the UAL significantly increased, irrespective of the severity of OSA. However, between the closed- and open-mouth states, there was no significant change in upper airway volume at any severity of OSA. Results suggest that the more elongated and narrow upper airway during open-mouth breathing may aggravate the collapsibility of the upper airway and, thus, negatively affect OSA severity.

  5. "Festival of Flight Special": Opening Space for Next Generation Explorers. NASA CONNECT[TM]. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch Initiative (SLI) Program will ultimately move from the explorations of the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle missions to a new period of pioneering in which people and businesses are more routinely traveling, working, and living in space. (Author/NB)

  6. Effect of Health Education on Refuse Disposal Practices of Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Health Education on Refuse Disposal Practices of Women in Jos, Plateau State. ... and practices of proper domestic refuse handling and factors affecting same ... Conclusion: Health education intervention was found to be effective in ...

  7. Open Spaces and Urban Ecosystem Services. Cooling Effect towards Urban Planning in South American Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Inostroza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Open space (OS is a key element in the provision of ecosystem services (ES in urban environments. Under a land cover-land use perspective, cities are incorporating into the expansion process to different types of surfaces: sealed, paved surfaces and OS. The first corresponds to a land cover change while the second, which includes bare soil, grass, forest or any other type of non-sealed surface, corresponds to a land use change, without physical transformations. As a land use change OS is able to keep fundamental pre-existing ecological properties. However, besides specific ecological characteristics, the overall capacity to provide ES depends also on the size, number and spatial distribution of OSs within the urban fabric. Those aspects which can determine the very ecological performance of urban ecosystem services (UES are not yet included in the current urban planning in Latin America. OS is still understood mainly as green infrastructure and related mostly with aesthetic and cultural benefits. On the contrary, under an ecological point of view, OS is capable to provide fundamental UES, which can be spatially assessed and analyzed. In this paper the provision of cooling services (CS is assessed in 2 South American cities: Lima and Santiago de Chile. The provision of CS is measured by means of a Remote Sensing-GIS-based method. Two aspects of CS are explored: (1 the current amount of existing OS; and (2 the trend of increasing/reducing CS within the urban tissue, in a dynamic assessment of spatial distribution and rates of OS incorporation to the continuous urban tissue. The aim is to analyze the CS generated by OS in those two cities. The analysis discusses the role of OS in the provision of CS, considering the current urban development trends and planning practice in these specific Latin American cities, highlighting the need to keep unsealed surfaces and increase in trees coverage, to retain the CS provision in certain levels.

  8. Adaptive Correlation Space Adjusted Open-Loop Tracking Approach for Vehicle Positioning with Global Navigation Satellite System in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Ruan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available For vehicle positioning with Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS in urban areas, open-loop tracking shows better performance because of its high sensitivity and superior robustness against multipath. However, no previous study has focused on the effects of the code search grid size on the code phase measurement accuracy of open-loop tracking. Traditional open-loop tracking methods are performed by the batch correlators with fixed correlation space. The code search grid size, which is the correlation space, is a constant empirical value and the code phase measuring accuracy will be largely degraded due to the improper grid size, especially when the signal carrier-to-noise density ratio (C/N0 varies. In this study, the Adaptive Correlation Space Adjusted Open-Loop Tracking Approach (ACSA-OLTA is proposed to improve the code phase measurement dependent pseudo range accuracy. In ACSA-OLTA, the correlation space is adjusted according to the signal C/N0. The novel Equivalent Weighted Pseudo Range Error (EWPRE is raised to obtain the optimal code search grid sizes for different C/N0. The code phase measuring errors of different measurement calculation methods are analyzed for the first time. The measurement calculation strategy of ACSA-OLTA is derived from the analysis to further improve the accuracy but reduce the correlator consumption. Performance simulation and real tests confirm that the pseudo range and positioning accuracy of ASCA-OLTA are better than the traditional open-loop tracking methods in the usual scenarios of urban area.

  9. 30 CFR 77.215-3 - Refuse piles: certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles: certification. 77.215-3 Section... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-3 Refuse piles: certification. (a) Within 180 days following written notification by the District Manager that a refuse pile can present a hazard, the person...

  10. 30 CFR 77.215-1 - Refuse piles; identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; identification. 77.215-1 Section... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-1 Refuse piles; identification. A permanent identification marker, at least six feet high and showing the refuse pile identification number as assigned by...

  11. 30 CFR 77.215-2 - Refuse piles; reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; reporting requirements. 77.215-2... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-2 Refuse piles; reporting requirements. (a) The proposed location of a new refuse pile shall be reported to and acknowledged in writing by the District...

  12. 30 CFR 77.215 - Refuse piles; construction requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; construction requirements. 77.215... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215 Refuse piles; construction requirements. (a) Refuse deposited on a pile shall be spread in layers and compacted in such a manner so as to minimize the flow of...

  13. 20 CFR 229.81 - Refusal to accept vocational rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal to accept vocational rehabilitation... Refusal to accept vocational rehabilitation. The DIB O/M is not payable for any month in which the disabled employee refuses, without good reason, to accept vocational rehabilitation services...

  14. 48 CFR 807.304-77 - Right of first refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Right of first refusal... Right of first refusal. (a) In addition to the Right of First Refusal of Employment clause specified in... workers who are adversely affected by the contract award and who are qualified for the jobs the...

  15. Sustaining Composition: Studying Content-Based, Ecological, and Economical Sustainability of Open-Source Textbooks through "Writing Spaces: Readings on Writing"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Writing programs in institutions of higher education work to prepare students for real-world writing within any field of study. The composition of "Writing Spaces: Readings on Writing" offers an open-source text for students, teachers, and policy-makers at all levels. Exposure to an open space for learning encourages access to information,…

  16. Moving targets: Promoting physical activity in public spaces via open streets in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, J Aaron; Bird, Alyssa; van Bakergem, Margaret; Yarnall, Elizabeth

    2016-10-20

    Popularity of Open Streets, temporarily opening streets to communities and closing streets to vehicles, in the US has recently surged. As of January 2016, 122 cities have hosted an Open Streets program. Even with this great expansion, the sustainability of Open Streets remains a challenge in many cities and overall Open Streets in the US differ from their successful counterparts in Central and South America. Between summer 2015 and winter 2016, we reviewed the websites and social media of the 122 identified programs and interviewed 32 unique Open Streets programs. Websites and social media were reviewed for program initiation, number of Open Streets days, length of routes, duration of program, and reported participation. Interview questions focused on barriers and facilitators of expanding Open Streets and specific questioning regarding local evaluation activities. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed with constant comparative methodology. Over three-quarters of US Open Streets programs have been initiated since 2010, with median frequency of one time per year, 4h per date, and 5000-9999 participants. Seventy-seven percent of program routes are under 5km in length. Success of programs was measured by enthusiasm, attendance, social media, survey metrics, and sustainability. Thirteen of 32 program organizers expressed interest in expanding their programs to 12 dates per year, but noted consistent barriers to expansion including funding, permitting, and branding. Though many cities now host Open Streets programs, their ability to effect public health remains limited with few program dates per year. Coordinated efforts, especially around funding, permitting, and branding may assist in expanding program dates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Expose-R experiment on effects of open space condition on survivorship in dormant stages of aquatic invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, Victor; Novikova, Nataliya; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Yusoff, Fatimah; Azuraidi, Osman

    2012-07-01

    Dormancy protects animals and plants in harsh environmental conditions from months up to hundred years. This phenomenon is perspective for space researches especially for interplanetary missions. Direct experiments in open space BYORYSK supported in principle the fact of survivorship of bacteria, fungi spores, seed of plants and crustacean dormant cysts. Even though the rate of survivorship in long-term treatments was low but good enough to conclude that biological invasion even to Mars is a real danger. As soon as the BYORYSK lunch was made of metal the possibility for resting stages to survive under UV treatment in vacuum without some protection was not clear. To test it an ESA and RSA equipment titled EXPOSE-R was applied. The EXPOSE-R facility was an external facility attached to the outside of the Zvezda Service Module in ISS in the end of November 2008. It had glace windows transparent for UV-radiation and possibility to measure temperature, space- and UV-radiation. Among a number of experiments requiring exposure to the open space environment it had a biological launch containing resting stages of terrestrial and aquatic organisms. These stages included dried ephippia of cladoceran Daphnia magna differentiated on size, dormant eggs of ostracode Eucypris ornate, cysts of fair-shrimp Streptocephalus torvicornis ( all from hemi desert Caspian area) and Artemis salina from salt lake Crimean populations. All dormant stages were kept in transparent to UV plastic bags placed in three layers. After about two years of exposing in open space dormant stages of 3 species A. salina, D. magna, S. torvicornis successfully survived at different scales but in second and third layers only . The highest level of survivorship was found in A. salina cysts. In preliminary land experiments that imitated land EXPOSE imitation of outside space station UV and vacuum conditions survivorship in resting eggs of D .magna, S. torvicornis and E. ornate was tested also. The total UV dose of

  18. Children of divorce: the differential diagnosis of contact refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Bradley W

    2011-07-01

    Contact refusal is a common phenomenon that can occur during the course of, or after, divorce, which affects the relationship between a child and the parent. This article defines the concept of contact refusal and discusses the importance of its recognition. The concept is further narrowed to focus on the child as the one refusing contact, not the parent, which can happen as well. Various types of contact refusals are illustrated in the article through clinical vignettes, and an approach to categorizing the various types of contact refusal is presented.

  19. Impact of demographic trends on future development patterns and the loss of open space in the California Mojave Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomben, Peter; Lilieholm, Robert; Gonzalez-Guillen, Manuel

    2012-02-01

    During the post-World War II era, the Mojave Desert Region of San Bernardino County, California, has experienced rapid levels of population growth. Over the past several decades, growth has accelerated, accompanied by significant shifts in ethnic composition, most notably from predominantly White non-Hispanic to Hispanic. This study explores the impacts of changing ethnicity on future development and the loss of open space by modeling ethnic propensities regarding family size and settlement preferences reflected by U.S. Census Bureau data. Demographic trends and land conversion data were obtained for seven Mojave Desert communities for the period between 1990 and 2001. Using a spatially explicit, logistic regression-based urban growth model, these data and trends were used to project community-specific future growth patterns from 2000 to 2020 under three future settlement scenarios: (1) an "historic" scenario reported in earlier research that uses a Mojave-wide average settlement density of 3.76 persons/ha; (2) an "existing" scenario based on community-specific settlement densities as of 2001; and (3) a "demographic futures" scenario based on community-specific settlement densities that explicitly model the Region's changing ethnicity. Results found that under the demographic futures scenario, by 2020 roughly 53% of within-community open space would remain, under the existing scenario only 40% would remain, and under the historic scenario model the communities would have what amounts to a deficit of open space. Differences in the loss of open space across the scenarios demonstrate the importance of considering demographic trends that are reflective of the residential needs and preferences of projected future populations.

  20. Assessment of musculoskeletal load in refuse collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew W. Jóźwiak

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this work was to assess the load on the musculoskeletal system and its effects in the collectors of solid refuse. The rationale behind this study was to formulate proposals how to reduce excessive musculoskeletal load in this group of workers. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 15 refuse collectors aged 25 to 50 years. Data about the workplace characteristics and subjective complaints of workers were collected by the free interview and questionnaire. During the survey the photorecording of the workpostures, the distance and velocity by GPS recorders, measurements of forces necessary to move containers, energy expenditure (lung ventilation method, workload estimation using the Firstbeat system and REBA method and stadiometry were done. Results: The distance walked daily by the collectors operating in terms of 2 to 3 in urban areas was about 15 km, and in rural areas about 18 km. The most frequent musculoskeletal complaints concerned the feet (60% subjects, knees, wrists and shoulders (over 40% subjects. After work-shift all examined workers had vertebral column shorter by 10 to 14 mm (11.4 mm mean. Conclusions: The results of our study show that the refuse collectors are subjected to a very high physical load because of the work organization and the way it is performed. To avoid adverse health effects and overload it is necessary to undertake ergonomic interventions, involving training of workers to improve the way of their job performance, active and passive leisure, technical control of the equipment and refuse containers, as well as the renegotiation of contracts with clients, especially those concerning non-standard containers. Med Pr 2013;64(4:507–519

  1. Learning Competences in Open Mobile Environments: A Comparative Analysis Between Formal and Non-Formal Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dominguez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the increasing use of mobile devices in education, new approaches to define the learning competences in the field of digitally mediated learning have emerged. This paper examines these approaches, using data obtained from empirical research with a group of Spanish university students. The analysis is focused on the experiences of students in the use of mobile devices in both formal and open-informal educational contexts. The theoretical framework of the study is based on the ecological focus applied to explanatory models of digital literacy. As a result of the data it is possible to study this framework in depth, taking into account the theories defending an open view of digital literacy. The study may be of interest to instructional designers and researchers in the fields of open educational resources and technologies applied to education in open contexts.

  2. Microbial ecology of coal mine refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R. E.; Miller, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    Baseline microbial and ecological studies of samples obtained from two abandoned coal mine refuse sites in the State of Illinois indicate that the unfavorable nature of refuse materials can be a very limiting factor for survival and growth of organisms. Despite the ''foothold'' obtained by some microorganisms, especially acidophilic fungi and some acidotolerant algae, the refuse materials should be amended or ameliorated to raise the pH, provide needed nutrients, especially nitrogen, and provide biodegradable organic matter, both for physical and biological purposes. Finally, the role of microbial populations, responses, and interactions in acid mine wastes must be put into larger perspective. Acid mine drainage amounts to over 4 million tons per year of acidity from active and abandoned mines. Microorganisms appear to be significantly responsible for this problem, but they also can play a beneficial and significant role in the amelioration or alleviation of this detrimental effect as abandoned mines are reclaimed and returned to useful productivity.

  3. Conscientious refusal in healthcare: the Swedish solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthe, Christian

    2017-04-01

    The Swedish solution to the legal handling of professional conscientious refusal in healthcare is described. No legal right to conscientious refusal for any profession or class of professional tasks exists in Sweden, regardless of the religious or moral background of the objection. The background of this can be found in strong convictions about the importance of public service provision and related civic duties, and ideals about rule of law, equality and non-discrimination. Employee's requests to change work tasks are handled on a case-by-case basis within the frames of labour law, ensuring full voluntariness, and also employer's privilege regarding the organisation and direction of work, and duties of public institutions to provide services. Two complicating aspects of this solution related to the inclusion of 'alternative medical' service providers in a national health service, and professional insistence on conscientious refusal rights to accept legalised assisted dying are discussed. The latter is found to undermine the pragmatic reasons behind recent attempts by prolife groups to challenge the Swedish solution related to legal abortion in courts.

  4. Advanced reclamation of coal refuse ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R.Q.; Chugh, Y.P.; Patwardhan, A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining and Mineral Resources Engineering

    1998-12-31

    A vast number of coal refuse ponds represent a significant economical resource base that may also be considered to be environmentally harmful. The fine coal fraction in a preparation plant consists of the purest particles in the entire preparation plant and, thus, if recovered, could enhance the quality of the plant product. However, until recently, the ability to effectively recover fine coal has been limited due to the lack of efficient fine particle separation technologies. As a result, a large portion of the fine coal produced in the US during this century has been disposed into refuse pond along with the acid producing components of the associated gangue material. Research conducted by Southern Illinois University scientists has found that advanced fine coal cleaning technologies can be used to recover high quality coal from refuse ponds while also utilizing a novel technique for neutralizing the acid generation potential of the pyrite-rich reject stream. Various circuitry arrangements will be discussed and metallurgical results presented in this publication.

  5. Level of Abstraction and Feelings of Presence in Virtual Space: Business English Negotiation in Open Wonderland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Judy F.; Warden, Clyde A.; Tai, David Wen-Shung; Chen, Farn-Shing; Chao, Chich-Yang

    2011-01-01

    Virtual spaces allow abstract representations of reality that not only encourage student self-directed learning but also reinforce core content of the learning objective through visual metaphors not reproducible in the physical world. One of the advantages of such a space is the ability to escape the restrictions of the physical classroom, yet…

  6. An Assessment of Educational Benefits from the OpenOrbiter Space Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Whalen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the educational impact of the OpenOrbiter Small Spacecraft Development Initiative, a CubeSat development program underway at the University of North Dakota. OpenOrbiter includes traditional STEM activities (e.g., spacecraft engineering, software development; it also incorporates students from non-STEM disciplines not generally involved in aerospace engineering projects such as management, entrepreneurship, education and fine arts. The value of the program to participants is analyzed quantitatively, in terms of improvement related to five key learning objectives.

  7. Residence space/graphic space: engravings in the open air in the municipality of La Hinojosa (Cuenca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bueno Ramírez, Primitiva

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The work that now we present is based on the analysis of graphic designs, their location and their relationship to the environment, in the municipality of La Hinojosa Cuenca, a place where we have well documented occupations of the Copper and Bronze Ages. Our aim is to understand these engravings as part of the expressions of peninsular Schematic Art, in this case associated with an occupational context, and to provide elements for the comprehension of its message in a broader context that includes occupational contexts for other open aire engravings in the Iberian Peninsula.

    El trabajo que ahora presentamos se basa en el análisis de las grafías, su ubicación en el soporte y su relación con el entorno, en una zona concreta, el término de La Hinojosa, en Cuenca, lugar en el que tenemos bien documentadas ocupaciones calcolíticas y de la Edad del Bronce. Nuestra propuesta es la de comprender dichos grabados como una parte de las expresiones del Arte Esquemático peninsular, en este caso asociadas a un contexto habitacional y, a partir de ahí, aportar elementos para la comprensión de su "mensaje" desde una perspectiva más amplia que incluye otros contextos habitacionales para conjuntos de grabados al aire libre en la Península Ibérica.

  8. Pylogeny: an open-source Python framework for phylogenetic tree reconstruction and search space heuristics

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Safatli; Christian Blouin

    2015-01-01

    Summary. Pylogeny is a cross-platform library for the Python programming language that provides an object-oriented application programming interface for phylogenetic heuristic searches. Its primary function is to permit both heuristic search and analysis of the phylogenetic tree search space, as well as to enable the design of novel algorithms to search this space. To this end, the framework supports the structural manipulation of phylogenetic trees, in particular using rearrangement operator...

  9. Corrosion of boiler tube alloys in refuse firing: Shredded vs bulk refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, H.H. (Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)); Daniel, P.L.; Blue, J.D. (Babcock Wilcox, Barberton, OH (United States))

    1994-08-01

    Results of corrosion probe exposures at two mass burning incinerators were compared with those conducted in a unit burning refuse-derived fuel. Tests were conducted with carbon steel, low-alloy steels, stainless steels, and high nickel-chromium alloys. Corrosion rates at similar metal and gas temperatures were essentially the same for both types of fuel. Boiler tube performance in the waterwalls of other incinerators confirmed these results. Boiler design and operating conditions appear to be more important factors in tube wastage than the extent of refuse processing.

  10. Niches in the urban forest: Organizations and their role in acquiring metropolitan open space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane A. Ruliffson; Paul H. Gobster; Robert G. Haight; Francis R. Homans

    2002-01-01

    As a response strategy to minimize the impacts of urban sprawl, public and private organizations are striving to acquire open lands that will contribute to a resilient and multifunctional urban forest. In the Chicago metropolitan region, we interviewed representatives of 15 organizations to understand the land acquisition process--the structures and functions of...

  11. Conscientious refusals and reason-giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jason

    2014-07-01

    Some philosophers have argued for what I call the reason-giving requirement for conscientious refusal in reproductive healthcare. According to this requirement, healthcare practitioners who conscientiously object to administering standard forms of treatment must have arguments to back up their conscience, arguments that are purely public in character. I argue that such a requirement, though attractive in some ways, faces an overlooked epistemic problem: it is either too easy or too difficult to satisfy in standard cases. I close by briefly considering whether a version of the reason-giving requirement can be salvaged despite this important difficulty.

  12. Open DeveloperSpace: An Enabling Infrastructure for Stakeholders to Generate New Access Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderheiden, Gregg; Riedel, Till; Peissner, Matthias; Clark, Colin; Peinado, Ignacio; Atkins, Tony; Tsakou, Gianna; Basman, Antranig; Bates, Simon; Gill, Avtar

    2017-01-01

    The DeveloperSpace, one of the core components of GPII, is a self-sustainable infrastructure and collaborative environment, where developers, implementers, consumers, prosumers and other directly and indirectly involved actors (e.g. teachers, caregivers, clinicians) may interact with and play a role in its viability and the development of new access solutions.

  13. A new open-source Python-based Space Weather data access, visualization, and analysis toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Larquier, S.; Ribeiro, A.; Frissell, N. A.; Spaleta, J.; Kunduri, B.; Thomas, E. G.; Ruohoniemi, J.; Baker, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    Space weather research relies heavily on combining and comparing data from multiple observational platforms. Current frameworks exist to aggregate some of the data sources, most based on file downloads via web or ftp interfaces. Empirical models are mostly fortran based and lack interfaces with more useful scripting languages. In an effort to improve data and model access, the SuperDARN community has been developing a Python-based Space Science Data Visualization Toolkit (DaViTpy). At the center of this development was a redesign of how our data (from 30 years of SuperDARN radars) was made available. Several access solutions are now wrapped into one convenient Python interface which probes local directories, a new remote NoSQL database, and an FTP server to retrieve the requested data based on availability. Motivated by the efficiency of this interface and the inherent need for data from multiple instruments, we implemented similar modules for other space science datasets (POES, OMNI, Kp, AE...), and also included fundamental empirical models with Python interfaces to enhance data analysis (IRI, HWM, MSIS...). All these modules and more are gathered in a single convenient toolkit, which is collaboratively developed and distributed using Github and continues to grow. While still in its early stages, we expect this toolkit will facilitate multi-instrument space weather research and improve scientific productivity.

  14. ÁREAS VERDES URBANAS, ESPAÇOS LIVRES PARA O LAZER / Urban green areas, open spaces for leisure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia MAZZEI Mazzei

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The creation and the management of Conservation Units in urban areas, as in the category ofintegral protection as of sustainable use, aims to improve the quality of life of the urban citizenat the same time that it promotes an improvement in the urban environment quality, endowingthe urban space with vegetal covering and fundamental green areas to the reproduction of thenatural cycle and maintenance of the dynamic balance. In the urban environment, the differentcategories of open spaces and the indexes of green area per inhabitant intend to offer optionsto the leisure and recreation activities, besides of characterizing as strategic instruments forthe municipal planning, integrating the characteristics and the limits of the environment to theurban expansion.

  15. Combustion characteristics of coal and refuse from passenger trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu-min, Ren; Feng, Yue; Ming, Gao; Min, Yu

    2010-07-01

    Refuse from passenger trains is becoming a significant issue with the development of the Chinese railway. Co-firing is regarded as a promising thermal technology, both environmentally and economically, in reducing the quantity of refuse. The co-firing property of passenger train refuse with coal, however, may differ due to the differences in the composition of the refuse. In the present study, combustion properties of refuse from passenger train samples and the mixture of refuse with coal were studied in a tube furnace. Thermo analysis methods, such as thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) analyses were employed to evaluate combustion performance. We found that the mixture of passenger train refuse and coal at a ratio of 1:1 has a lower ignition and burnout temperature than the coal-only sample. Moreover, refuse from railway passenger trains has more reactive combustion properties than the coal-only sample, and the addition of railway passenger train refuse to coal can promote the reactivity of coal.

  16. Physicians' evaluations of patients' decisions to refuse oncological treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleffens, T; van Leeuwen, E

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To gain insight into the standards of rationality that physicians use when evaluating patients' treatment refusals. Design of the study: Qualitative design with indepth interviews. Participants: The study sample included 30 patients with cancer and 16 physicians (oncologists and general practitioners). All patients had refused a recommended oncological treatment. Results: Patients base their treatment refusals mainly on personal values and/or experience. Physicians mainly emphasise the medical perspective when evaluating patients' treatment refusals. From a medical perspective, a patient's treatment refusal based on personal values and experience is generally evaluated as irrational and difficult to accept, especially when it concerns a curative treatment. Physicians have a different attitude towards non-curative treatments and have less difficulty accepting a patient's refusal of these treatments. Thus, an important factor in the physician's evaluation of a treatment refusal is whether the treatment refused is curative or non-curative. Conclusion: Physicians mainly use goal oriented and patients mainly value oriented rationality, but in the case of non-curative treatment refusal, physicians give more emphasis to value oriented rationality. A consensus between the value oriented approaches of patient and physician may then emerge, leading to the patient's decision being understood and accepted by the physician. The physician's acceptance is crucial to his or her attitude towards the patient. It contributes to the patient's feeling free to decide, and being understood and respected, and thus to a better physician–patient relationship. PMID:15738431

  17. Cell Culture in Microgravity: Opening the Door to Space Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellis, Neal R.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Adaptational response of human cell populations to microgravity is investigated using simulation, short-term Shuttle experiments, and long-term microgravity. Simulation consists of a clinostatically-rotated cell culture system. The system is a horizontally-rotated cylinder completely filled with culture medium. Low speed rotation results in continuous-fall of the cells through the fluid medium. In this setting, cells: 1) aggregate, 2) propagate in three dimensions, 3) synthesize matrix, 4) differentiate, and 5) form sinusoids that facilitate mass transfer. Space cell culture is conducted in flight bioreactors and in static incubators. Cells grown in microgravity are: bovine cartilage, promyelocytic leukemia, kidney proximal tubule cells, adrenal medulla, breast and colon cancer, and endothelium. Cells were cultured in space to test specific hypotheses. Cartilage cells were used to determine structural differences in cartilage grown in space compared to ground-based bioreactors. Results from a 130-day experiment on Mir revealed that cartilage grown in space was substantially more compressible due to insufficient glycosaminoglycan in the matrix. Interestingly, earth-grown cartilage conformed better to the dimensions of the scaffolding material, while the Mir specimens were spherical. The other cell populations are currently being analyzed for cell surface properties, gene expression, and differentiation. Results suggest that some cells spontaneously differentiate in microgravity. Additionally, vast changes in gene expression may occur in response to microgravity. In conclusion, the transition to microgravity may constitute a physical perturbation in cells resulting in unique gene expressions, the consequences of which may be useful in tissue engineering, disease modeling, and space cell biology.

  18. Cell Culture in Microgravity: Opening the Door to Space Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellis, Neal R.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Adaptational response of human cell populations to microgravity is investigated using simulation, short-term Shuttle experiments, and long-term microgravity. Simulation consists of a clinostatically-rotated cell culture system. The system is a horizontally-rotated cylinder completely filled with culture medium. Low speed rotation results in continuous-fall of the cells through the fluid medium. In this setting, cells: 1) aggregate, 2) propagate in three dimensions, 3) synthesize matrix, 4) differentiate, and 5) form sinusoids that facilitate mass transfer. Space cell culture is conducted in flight bioreactors and in static incubators. Cells grown in microgravity are: bovine cartilage, promyelocytic leukemia, kidney proximal tubule cells, adrenal medulla, breast and colon cancer, and endothelium. Cells were cultured in space to test specific hypotheses. Cartilage cells were used to determine structural differences in cartilage grown in space compared to ground-based bioreactors. Results from a 130-day experiment on Mir revealed that cartilage grown in space was substantially more compressible due to insufficient glycosaminoglycan in the matrix. Interestingly, earth-grown cartilage conformed better to the dimensions of the scaffolding material, while the Mir specimens were spherical. The other cell populations are currently being analyzed for cell surface properties, gene expression, and differentiation. Results suggest that some cells spontaneously differentiate in microgravity. Additionally, vast changes in gene expression may occur in response to microgravity. In conclusion, the transition to microgravity may constitute a physical perturbation in cells resulting in unique gene expressions, the consequences of which may be useful in tissue engineering, disease modeling, and space cell biology.

  19. Open Architecture Standard for NASA's Software-Defined Space Telecommunications Radio Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Johnson, Sandra K.; Kacpura, Thomas J.; Hall, Charles S.; Smith, Carl R.; Liebetreu, John

    2008-01-01

    NASA is developing an architecture standard for software-defined radios used in space- and ground-based platforms to enable commonality among radio developments to enhance capability and services while reducing mission and programmatic risk. Transceivers (or transponders) with functionality primarily defined in software (e.g., firmware) have the ability to change their functional behavior through software alone. This radio architecture standard offers value by employing common waveform software interfaces, method of instantiation, operation, and testing among different compliant hardware and software products. These common interfaces within the architecture abstract application software from the underlying hardware to enable technology insertion independently at either the software or hardware layer. This paper presents the initial Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture for NASA missions to provide the desired software abstraction and flexibility while minimizing the resources necessary to support the architecture.

  20. Opening My Voice, Claiming My Space: Theorizing the Possibilities of Postcolonial Approaches to Autoethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana A. Pathak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the ways in which postcoloniality and autoethnography can be integrated to create a space of scholarly inquiry that disrupts the colonialist enterprise prevalent in the academy. By utilizing González's four ethics of postcolonial ethnography, this essay presents an ethics for postcolonial autoethnography as a mode to build a body of scholarly research that disrupts scientific imperialism.

  1. Pylogeny: an open-source Python framework for phylogenetic tree reconstruction and search space heuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Safatli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Pylogeny is a cross-platform library for the Python programming language that provides an object-oriented application programming interface for phylogenetic heuristic searches. Its primary function is to permit both heuristic search and analysis of the phylogenetic tree search space, as well as to enable the design of novel algorithms to search this space. To this end, the framework supports the structural manipulation of phylogenetic trees, in particular using rearrangement operators such as NNI, SPR, and TBR, the scoring of trees using parsimony and likelihood methods, the construction of a tree search space graph, and the programmatic execution of a few existing heuristic programs. The library supports a range of common phylogenetic file formats and can be used for both nucleotide and protein data. Furthermore, it is also capable of supporting GPU likelihood calculation on nucleotide character data through the BEAGLE library.Availability. Existing development and source code is available for contribution and for download by the public from GitHub (http://github.com/AlexSafatli/Pylogeny. A stable release of this framework is available for download through PyPi (Python Package Index at http://pypi.python.org/pypi/pylogeny.

  2. a Spatial Analysis on Gis-Hedonic Pricing Model on the Influence of Public Open Space and House Price in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainora, A. M.; Norzailawati, M. N.; Tuminah, P.

    2016-06-01

    Presently, it is noticeable that there is a significant influence of public open space about house price, especially in many developed nations. Literature suggests the relationship between the two aspects give impact on the housing market, however not many studies undertaken in Malaysia. Thus, this research was initiated to analyse the relationship of open space and house price via the techniques of GIS-Hedonic Pricing Model. In this regards, the GIS tool indicates the pattern of the relationship between open space and house price spatially. Meanwhile, Hedonic Pricing Model demonstrates the index of the selected criteria in determining the housing price. This research is a perceptual study of 200 respondents who were the house owners of double-storey terrace houses in four townships, namely Bandar Baru Bangi, Taman Melawati, Subang Jaya and Shah Alam, in Klang Valley. The key research question is whether the relationship between open space and house price exists and the nature of its pattern and intensity. The findings indicate that there is a positive correlation between open space and house price. Correlation analysis reveals that a weak relationship (rs research has achieved its research aims and thus, offers the value added in applying the GIS-Hedonic pricing model in analysing the influence of open space to the house price in the form of spatially and textually.

  3. Critical Spaces for Critical Times: Global Conversations in Literacy Research as an Open Professional Development and Practices Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Albers

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects an OER (Open Educational Resources critical literacy project, Global Conversations in Literacy Research (GCLR, (www.globalconversationsinliteracy.wordpress.com, now in its fourth year. GCLR annually hosts seven web seminars presented by internationally recognized literacy and education scholars. We outline key dimensions of GCLR not only as an OER but as an open educational practice (OEP (Andrade et al., 2011 that through its design, not only provides open access to scholarship, but also understands the critical nexus among resources, practices and theory. Informed by data from a longitudinal study, this paper situates these dimensions within professional development literature, and outlines GCLR as a critical space designed for critical times, and the importance of intentionality when accessing OER. Like scholars before us, we argue that that availability is not the only consideration when using OER (Andrade et al., 2011; OER must be considered in relation to pedagogical considerations and how OER are used as a critical component to online professional development.

  4. Opening Up a ‘Third Space’ To Innovate Curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannelize Jacobs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Against the background of innovating learner experiences in South African schools and higher learning institutions in the 21st century, it is crucial to determine, in the analogy to the words, ‘what holds a place together’. It is necessary to know how to create that sense of belonging, what the vision and mission are, what is valued and expected, what one can identify with and what will make educators move collectively towards taking united ownership of the future and create the next best learning and teaching practice. Approach: Appreciate inquiry, as research method for this study, searches for the identification and enhancement of the life-giving forces as it explores what should be present or need to be present in a uniquely constructed third space. Appreciative inquiry is crafted in a post-positivist tradition grounded in affirmation and appreciation. True to the vision of the creators of this method who regard it as an inquiry to uncover profound knowledge entities of human systems in order to co-construct the best and highest future of that system, this investigation focuses on uncovering past, present and future learning and teaching practices to innovate the next curricula. Conclusion/Recommendations: In this study we argue that when innovating curricula, South African educators have to elicit local pre-knowledge and experiences to shape them into a leveled playing field before they can add on global international knowledge. South African educators have to construct the next practice in learning and teaching by integrating local and global knowledge in a unique space (what Bhabha refers to as a ‘third’ space.

  5. Statistics of scattered photons from a driven three-level emitter in 1D open space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Dibyendu [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Div. and Center for Nonlinear Studies; Bondyopadhaya, Nilanjan [Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan (India). Integrated Science Education and Research Centre

    2014-01-07

    We derive the statistics of scattered photons from a Λ- or ladder-type three-level emitter (3LE) embedded in a 1D open waveguide. The weak probe photons in the waveguide are coupled to one of the two allowed transitions of the 3LE, and the other transition is driven by a control beam. This system shows electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) which is accompanied with the Autler-Townes splitting (ATS) at a strong driving by the control beam, and some of these effects have been observed recently. We show that the nature of second-order coherence of the transmitted probe photons near two-photon resonance changes from bunching to antibunching to constant as strength of the control beam is ramped up from zero to a higher value where the ATS appears.

  6. Open questions in the present heliospheric research and challenges for upcoming space mission like IMAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahr, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    Since the appearance of the first IBEX ENA fullsky maps in 2009 up to the present time it remained an open question what ENA sources are reponsible for the famous "IBEX-ribbon" feature. Both innerheliospheric and outerheliospheric ENA sources still today compete as reponsible candidates for that feature. Whether the ribbon-producing ENA`s are due to charge exchange processes inside or outside the heliopause is an outstanding question up to the present days. The answer, as I will show, will surely come with an extended energy range of the ENA detector and with a better time resolution in ENA maps, helping to control the reflection of temporal variations of solar wind flux patterns in ENA features as it all will be realized with IMAP.A second open question concerns the compressibility of the heliosheath plasma. Incompressibility prevails under very low Mach number flows or very high effective sound speeds, as could be realized by hot PUI`s or hot electrons downstream of the termination shock. Hot suprathermal electrons have been predicted, but not yet confirmed by VOYAGER measurements. At the low energy side of the spectrum this is explained by the negative charge-up of the spacecraft, at the medium energy range (0.5-1.0 MeV) shock-processed suprathermal electrons are likely to in fact explain the observations.Furthermore these electrons would directly influence the electrostatic wave characteristics in the heliosheath leading to unexpected propagation properties of such waves. To clarify on some of these points IMAP should have a sensitive electron detector which could monitor solar wind electron properties at passages of travelling shocks and thus prove the efficiency of shock processing.If in fact hot electrons have to be expected in the heliosheath, then electron impact ionization processes have to be studied in new details, and the question may arise whether also LISM helium under these new auspices becomes partially ionized when crossing the heliosheath.

  7. 50 CFR 14.53 - Detention and refusal of clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Detention and refusal of clearance. 14.53... PLANTS IMPORTATION, EXPORTATION, AND TRANSPORTATION OF WILDLIFE Inspection and Clearance of Wildlife § 14.53 Detention and refusal of clearance. (a) Detention. Any Service officer, or Customs officer...

  8. The Functional Profiles of School Refusal Behavior: Diagnostic Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Christopher A.; Albano, Anne Marie

    2004-01-01

    School refusal behavior is a common problem seen by mental health professionals and by educators but little consensus is available as to its classification, assessment, and treatment. This study assessed 143 youth with primary school refusal behavior and their parents to examine diagnoses that are most commonly associated with proposed functions…

  9. 24 CFR 906.13 - Right of first refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right of first refusal. 906.13... DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING HOMEOWNERSHIP PROGRAMS Purchaser Requirements § 906.13 Right of first refusal. (a... housing unit, to offer the unit for sale first to the current resident of the unit....

  10. 25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.6 Section 135.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of water...

  11. 49 CFR 105.55 - Refusal to obey a subpoena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refusal to obey a subpoena. 105.55 Section 105.55 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PROGRAM DEFINITIONS AND GENERAL PROCEDURES General Procedures Subpoenas § 105.55 Refusal to obey a...

  12. 47 CFR 73.4005 - Advertising-refusal to sell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising-refusal to sell. 73.4005 Section 73.4005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4005 Advertising—refusal to sell. See...

  13. 36 CFR 1002.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 1002.14 Section 1002.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing...

  14. 36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14 Section 2.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following...

  15. Empirical Examination of a Multicomponent Treatment for Pediatric Food Refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Theodore A.; Babbitt, Roberta L.; Farrar-Schneider, Debra; Berkowitz, Merrill J.; Owens, J. Carl; Knight, Terry L.; Snyder, Angela M.; Rizol, Laura M.; Wise, David T.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports on assessment and treatment of food refusal for four inpatient boys (ages 2,3,3, and 9) receiving tube feedings. It used a contingency contacting procedure extended by a component analysis. Data suggest that food refusal appeared to be maintained primarily by negative reinforcement contingencies. Caregiver responses indicated a…

  16. Genelab: Scientific Partnerships and an Open-Access Database to Maximize Usage of Omics Data from Space Biology Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinsch, S. S.; Galazka, J..; Berrios, D. C; Chakravarty, K.; Fogle, H.; Lai, S.; Bokyo, V.; Timucin, L. R.; Tran, P.; Skidmore, M.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's mission includes expanding our understanding of biological systems to improve life on Earth and to enable long-duration human exploration of space. The GeneLab Data System (GLDS) is NASA's premier open-access omics data platform for biological experiments. GLDS houses standards-compliant, high-throughput sequencing and other omics data from spaceflight-relevant experiments. The GeneLab project at NASA-Ames Research Center is developing the database, and also partnering with spaceflight projects through sharing or augmentation of experiment samples to expand omics analyses on precious spaceflight samples. The partnerships ensure that the maximum amount of data is garnered from spaceflight experiments and made publically available as rapidly as possible via the GLDS. GLDS Version 1.0, went online in April 2015. Software updates and new data releases occur at least quarterly. As of October 2016, the GLDS contains 80 datasets and has search and download capabilities. Version 2.0 is slated for release in September of 2017 and will have expanded, integrated search capabilities leveraging other public omics databases (NCBI GEO, PRIDE, MG-RAST). Future versions in this multi-phase project will provide a collaborative platform for omics data analysis. Data from experiments that explore the biological effects of the spaceflight environment on a wide variety of model organisms are housed in the GLDS including data from rodents, invertebrates, plants and microbes. Human datasets are currently limited to those with anonymized data (e.g., from cultured cell lines). GeneLab ensures prompt release and open access to high-throughput genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics data from spaceflight and ground-based simulations of microgravity, radiation or other space environment factors. The data are meticulously curated to assure that accurate experimental and sample processing metadata are included with each data set. GLDS download volumes indicate strong

  17. An Experimental Study on the Influence of Soundscapes on People’s Behaviour in an Open Public Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Aletta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated how environmental sounds and music can modulate people’s behaviours, particularly in marketing research. However, there are relatively few examples of research about such relationships with a focus on the management of urban public spaces. The current study investigated an open public space used mainly as a pedestrian crossing to analyse the relationship between the audio stimuli and peoples’ behaviours. An experiment relying on covert behavioural observation was performed. During the experiment, three different music stimuli and a control condition (i.e., no music were reproduced in order to find out firstly whether music compared to no music could elicit an increase in the number of people stopping in the investigated area, and secondly whether music is associated with a longer duration of stay for those who stop. Results showed that the presence of music had no effect on the number of people stopping in the area, but it had a statistically significant effect on the duration of stay for those who stopped. The above findings support the idea that people felt more invited to stay in the area with music rather than with no music, and suggest that the acoustical manipulation of the existing sound environment could provide soundscape strategies capable of promoting social cohesion in public spaces.

  18. Resíduos hospitalares Hospital refuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Xavier Ribeiro da Luz

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram relatadas informações diversas sobre resíduos sólidos hospitalares: volumes produzidos, formas de acondicionamento no local de produção, de transporte interno, de armazenamento para a coleta, de remoção e de destinação final usuais em estabelecimentos especialmente norte-americanos. Soluções foram analisadas e apresentadas sugestões para as condições brasileiras.Information on solid waste handling specially in American hospitals: volumes and kinds of refuse, conditioning forms, internal transportation, is reported. Comments are presented on them and suggestions are made having in mind Brasilian conditions.

  19. Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavorsky, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

  20. A SPATIAL ANALYSIS ON GIS-HEDONIC PRICING MODEL ON THE INFLUENCE OF PUBLIC OPEN SPACE AND HOUSE PRICE IN KLANG VALLEY, MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Zainora

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Presently, it is noticeable that there is a significant influence of public open space about house price, especially in many developed nations. Literature suggests the relationship between the two aspects give impact on the housing market, however not many studies undertaken in Malaysia. Thus, this research was initiated to analyse the relationship of open space and house price via the techniques of GIS-Hedonic Pricing Model. In this regards, the GIS tool indicates the pattern of the relationship between open space and house price spatially. Meanwhile, Hedonic Pricing Model demonstrates the index of the selected criteria in determining the housing price. This research is a perceptual study of 200 respondents who were the house owners of double-storey terrace houses in four townships, namely Bandar Baru Bangi, Taman Melawati, Subang Jaya and Shah Alam, in Klang Valley. The key research question is whether the relationship between open space and house price exists and the nature of its pattern and intensity. The findings indicate that there is a positive correlation between open space and house price. Correlation analysis reveals that a weak relationship (rs < 0.1 established between the variable of open space and house price (rs = 0.91, N = 200, p = 0.2. Consequently, the rate of house price change is rather small. In overall, this research has achieved its research aims and thus, offers the value added in applying the GIS-Hedonic pricing model in analysing the influence of open space to the house price in the form of spatially and textually.

  1. A Bullet Entered through the Open Mouth and Ended Up in the Parapharyngeal Space and Skull Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saileswar Goswami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shot from a revolver from a close range, a bullet pierced the chest of a policeman and entered through the open mouth of a young male person standing behind. The entry wound was found in the cheek mucosa adjacent to the left lower third molar. After hitting and fracturing the body and the ramus of the mandible, the bullet was deflected and was finally lodged in the parapharyngeal space and skull base, anterolateral to the transverse process of the atlas. The great vessels of the neck were not injured. The patient’s condition was very critical but his life could be saved. The bullet was approached through a modified Blair’s incision and was found to be lying over the carotid sheath. It was removed safely and the patient recovered completely.

  2. Ground and excited states of doubly open-shell nuclei from ab initio valence-space Hamiltonians

    CERN Document Server

    Stroberg, S R; Holt, J D; Bogner, S K; Schwenk, A

    2015-01-01

    We present ab initio predictions for ground and excited states of doubly open-shell fluorine and neon isotopes based on chiral two- and three-nucleon interactions. We use the in-medium similarity renormalization group, in both flow-equation and Magnus formulations, to derive mass-dependent sd valence-space Hamiltonians. The experimental ground-state energies are reproduced through neutron number N=14, beyond which a new targeted normal-ordering procedure improves agreement with data and large-scale multi-reference calculations. For spectroscopy, we focus on neutron-rich 23-26F and 24-26Ne isotopes near N=14,16 magic numbers. In all cases we find an agreement with experiment competitive with established phenomenology. Moreover, yrast states are well described in 20Ne and 24Mg, providing an ab initio description of deformation in the medium-mass region.

  3. Open public spaces and street furniture: the potential for increased use of photovoltaics in the built environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbate-Gardner, C. [Officine di Architettura, Rome (Italy)

    1996-07-01

    The trend toward industrializing architectural components, the increasing complexity and multifunctional purpose of buildings and the concern for the CO{sub 2} emissions common to our cities is pushing design research to experiment with new environmentally friendly construction technology. Current experiments in integrating photovoltaic (PV) systems in buildings and the built environment have already been proven to offer numerous advantages. This article focuses on the notable flexibility and adaptability of PV integration in urban structures due to the features of its industrial components. To illustrate this point, I should like to offer a brief overview of some selected examples of the use of PV in public open spaces to demonstrate that it is possible to achieve a positive integration with its environmental context, while enhancing the architectural quality of the PV material and respecting its technological efficiency. (author)

  4. Opening up a philosophical space in early literacy with Little Beauty by Anthony Browne and the movie King Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Murris

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with setting the South African educational context for a postgraduate early literacy research project in the foundation phase (ages 4–9. The research examines how philosophy with children (P4C might be part of a solution to current problems in reading comprehension. The second author reports on her P4C action research with her own children as well as her observations of a Grade 2 classroom in a school near Johannesburg. The research shows how the picturebook Little Beauty by Anthony Browne opens up a philosophical space within which children are allowed to draw on their own life experiences and prior knowledge. The project reveals the depth of their thinking when making intra-textual connections between Little Beauty and the movie King Kong. The facilitated philosophical space also makes it possible for the children to make complex philosophical links between the emotion anger, destructive behaviour and the ethico-political dimensions of punishment. Central to this article are the second author’s critical reflections on how her literacy practices as a mother and foundation phase teacher have fundamentally changed as a result of this project. The article concludes with some implications for the teaching of early literacy in South Africa.

  5. 城市开放空间中的高层建筑%On high-rise buildings in urban open space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉倩

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the relationship between the urban high-rise buildings and the urban open space,the paper illustrates the understanding of the urban open space and the urban high-rise buildings,and points out the urban open space and the urban high-rise buildings are inseparable integrity and the cities can be more attractive and harmonious with their mutual coordination.%为了解决好城市高层建筑与城市开放空间之间的关系,阐述了对城市开放空间及城市高层建筑的理解,指出城市开放空间与城市高层建筑是不可分割的整体,两者只有相互协调才能使城市更加美丽、和谐。

  6. Gasification of Refuse-Derived Fuel (RDF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydary Juma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the gasification of a fraction of municipal solid waste, MSW, generally separated from inorganic materials and biodegradable components, the so-called refuse-derived fuel (RDF, was studied using material characterisation methods, and the modelling of an industrial scale process was presented. The composition of RDF was determined by the separation of a representative sample into its basic components (paper, foils, hard plastics, textiles. All RDF components as well as a representative mixed sample of the RDF were studied using a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, elemental analysis and bomb calorimetry to determine their proximate and elemental compositions, and a higher heating value. An industrial scale gasification process was studied by mathematical modelling and computer simulations. All techniques, gasification with air, gasification with oxygen, and gasification with both oxygen and steam were investigated under different conditions. The RDF conversion of 100 % was achieved by the gasification with air at the air to RDF mass ratio of 3.2. The gas heating value was 4.4 MJ/Nm3. The gasification of RDF using oxygen enables the production of gas with the heating value of around 10 MJ/Nm3 at the oxygen to RDF mass ratio of 0.65. By increasing the steam to the RDF mass ratio, the contents of H2 and CO2 increased, while the content of CO, reactor temperature and the gas heating value decreased.

  7. Problems and prospects of refuse disposal in nigerian urban centres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Refuse disposal is one of the major environmental problems that developing countries are faced with. Health hazard, traffic ... The problem of waste management has two parts, that of collection and that of disposal. Communal collection, block ...

  8. Combining stimulus fading, reinforcement, and extinction to treat food refusal.

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, K A; Piazza, C C

    1998-01-01

    The food refusal of a 6-year-old girl with destructive behavior was treated using stimulus fading, reinforcement, and escape extinction. Intake increased and compliance with prompting procedures remained relatively stable despite the increased consumption requirement.

  9. Leaching refuse after sphalerite mineral for extraction zinc and cobalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Brožová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a possibility of zinc and cobalt extraction from refuse after sphalerite mineral leaching. It contains theoretic analysis of hydrometallurgical processes. Practical part describes samples and their leaching in 10 % and 20 % sulphuric acid. In the end of the paper it is evaluated under which conditions the highest yield of zinc and cobalt from refuse after sulphide ore leaching is reached.

  10. Refusal of emergency caesarean section in Ireland: a relational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the issue of emergency caesarean section refusal. This raises complex legal and ethical issues surrounding autonomy, capacity, and the right to refuse treatment. In Ireland, the situation is complicated further by the constitutional right to life of the unborn. While cases involving caesarean section refusal have occurred in other jurisdictions, a case of this nature has yet to be reported in Ireland. This article examines possible ways in which the interaction of a woman's right to refuse treatment and the right to life of the unborn could be approached in Ireland in the context of caesarean section refusal. The central argument of the article is that the liberal individualistic approach to autonomy evident in the caesarean section cases in England and Wales is difficult to apply in the Irish context, due to the conflicting constitutional rights of the woman and foetus. Thus, alternative visions of autonomy which take the interests and rights of others into account in medical decision-making are examined. In particular, this article focuses on the concept of relational consent, as developed by Alasdair Maclean and examines how such an approach could be applied in the context of caesarean section refusal in Ireland. The article explains why this approach is particularly appropriate and identifies mechanisms through which such a theory of consent could be applied. It is argued that this approach enhances a woman's right to autonomy, while at the same time allows the right to life of the unborn to be defended.

  11. Aspects of Cultural Landscape Application on Classical Stage Art. Ballet Performance in the Open Space as a Significant Element of the Cultural Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Lebedeva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the applications aspects of cultural landscape for the preparation of the classical performing arts staging. Research findings highlighted that the cultural landscape (parks, estates, castles, bastions, etc. objects occupies an increasingly important role in public recreation and classical art development programs. At the same time it is noted that event’s aesthetic and emotional quality suffers due to the fact that no specific attention was given for the preparation of the event space. More methodological materials are necessary for preparation of this type of design spaces. In Lithuania classical performing arts events in cultural landscape open spaces are based on XVI–XVII century tradition and has good prospects for modern development. A review of some of the classical art events installations, based on the importance of quality of open spaces influence on the emotional impact, that should be an integral part of the cultural event. The author summarizes his experience of ballet events in open spaces in the cultural landscape – Klaipėda, Trakai. Presented is Tchaikovsky's ballet “Swan Lake” construction in Klaipėda John Hill project that includes infrastructure and environmental design concept: audience space, stage design, stage design performance solutions. Analogous key decisions are later adapted to the ballet performance in the natural environment of the lake Trakai. Experience of this project dictated the necessity of deeper understanding and methodological basis for the classical performing arts analysis and design.

  12. Arsenic burden survey among refuse incinerator workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chung-Liang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incinerator workers are not considered to have arsenic overexposure although they have the risk of overexposure to other heavy metals. Aim: To examine the relationship between arsenic burden and risk of occupational exposure in employees working at a municipal refuse incinerator by determining the concentrations of arsenic in the blood and urine. Settings and Design: The workers were divided into three groups based on their probability of contact with combustion-generated residues, namely Group 1: indirect contact, Group 2: direct contact and Group 3: no contact. Healthy age- and sex-matched residents living in the vicinity were enrolled as the control group. Materials and Methods: Heavy metal concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Downstream rivers and drinking water of the residents were examined for environmental arsenic pollution. A questionnaire survey concerning the contact history of arsenic was simultaneously conducted. Statistical analysis: Non-parametric tests, cross-tabulation and multinomial logistic regression. Results: This study recruited 122 incinerator workers. The urine and blood arsenic concentrations as well as incidences of overexposure were significantly higher in the workers than in control subjects. The workers who had indirect or no contact with combustion-generated residues had significantly higher blood arsenic level. Arsenic contact history could not explain the difference. Airborne and waterborne arsenic pollution were not detected. Conclusion: Incinerator workers run the risk of being exposed to arsenic pollution, especially those who have incomplete protection in the workplace even though they only have indirect or no contact with combustion-generated pollutants.

  13. Landscape scale vegetation-type conversion and fire hazard in the San Francisco bay area open spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, W.H.; McBride, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Successional pressures resulting from fire suppression and reduced grazing have resulted in vegetation-type conversion in the open spaces surrounding the urbanized areas of the San Francisco bay area. Coverage of various vegetation types were sampled on seven sites using a chronosequence of remote images in order to measure change over time. Results suggest a significant conversion of grassland to shrubland dominated by Baccharis pilularison five of the seven sites sampled. An increase in Pseudotsuga menziesii coverage was also measured on the sites where it was present. Increases fuel and fire hazard were determined through field sampling and use of the FARSITE fire area simulator. A significant increase in biomass resulting from succession of grass-dominated to shrub-dominated communities was evident. In addition, results from the FARSITE simulations indicated significantly higher fire-line intensity, and flame length associated with shrublands over all other vegetation types sampled. These results indicate that the replacement of grass dominated with shrub-dominated landscapes has increased the probability of high intensity fires. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Political Economy of "Open Regionalism" and Education in Small (and Micro) States: The Construction of the Caribbean Educational Policy Space in CARICOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Tavis D.

    2014-01-01

    In this era of amplified regionalisation, the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean's (ECLAC) conceptualisation of 'open regionalism' is pertinent to examine the role of regional governance mechanisms in constructing what I call the "Caribbean Educational Policy Space." With the aid of a latent content…

  15. The Political Economy of "Open Regionalism" and Education in Small (and Micro) States: The Construction of the Caribbean Educational Policy Space in CARICOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Tavis D.

    2014-01-01

    In this era of amplified regionalisation, the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean's (ECLAC) conceptualisation of 'open regionalism' is pertinent to examine the role of regional governance mechanisms in constructing what I call the "Caribbean Educational Policy Space." With the aid of a latent content analysis of…

  16. A microporous Cu-MOF with optimized open metal sites and pore spaces for high gas storage and active chemical fixation of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chao-Ying; Tian, Hong-Rui; Ai, Jing; Li, Lei-Jiao; Dang, Song; Lan, Ya-Qian; Sun, Zhong-Ming

    2016-09-25

    A microporous Cu-MOF with optimized open metal sites and pore space was constructed based on a designed bent ligand; it exhibits high-capacity multiple gas storage under atmospheric pressure and efficient catalytic activity for chemical fixation of CO2 under mild conditions.

  17. Quality or quantity? Exploring the relationship between Public Open Space attributes and mental health in Perth, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Jacinta; Wood, Lisa J; Knuiman, Matthew; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2012-05-01

    Mental health is a public health priority globally. Public Open Space (POS) may enhance mental health by facilitating contact with nature and the development of supportive relationships. Despite growing interest in the influence of the built environment on mental health, associations between POS attributes and mental health remain relatively unexplored. In particular, few studies have examined the relative effects of the quantity and quality of POS within a neighbourhood on mental health. Guided by a social-ecological framework, this study investigated the relationship between POS attributes (i.e., quantity and quality) and better mental health (i.e., low risk of psychological distress) in residents of new housing developments in the Perth metropolitan area, Western Australia. The extent to which relationships between POS attributes and mental health were confounded by psychosocial factors (e.g., social support, sense of community) and frequent use of POS was also explored. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey (n = 911), a POS audit, and Geographical Information Systems, and was analysed using logistic regression. Approximately 80% of survey participants were at low risk of psychological distress. Residents of neighbourhoods with high quality POS had higher odds of low psychosocial distress than residents of neighbourhoods with low quality POS. This appeared to be irrespective of whether or not they used POS. However, the quantity of neighbourhood POS was not associated with low psychological distress. From a mental health perspective, POS quality within a neighbourhood appears to be more important than POS quantity. This finding has policy implications and warrants further investigation.

  18. Regional assessment of urban impacts on landcover and open space finds a smart urban growth policy performs little better than business as usual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, James H; Santos, Maria J; Bjorkman, Jacquelyn H

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of landscape change is critical for attainment of regional sustainability goals. Urban growth assessments are needed because over half the global population now lives in cities, which impact biodiversity, ecosystem structure and ecological processes. Open space protection is needed to preserve these attributes, and provide the resources humans need. The San Francisco Bay Area, California, is challenged to accommodate a population increase of 3.07 million while maintaining the region's ecosystems and biodiversity. Our analysis of 9275 km² in the Bay Area links historic trends for three measures: urban growth, protected open space, and landcover types over the last 70 years to future 2050 projections of urban growth and open space. Protected open space totaled 348 km² (3.7% of the area) in 1940, and expanded to 2221 km² (20.2%) currently. An additional 1038 km² of protected open space is targeted (35.1%). Urban area historically increased from 396.5 km² to 2239 km² (24.1% of the area). Urban growth during this time mostly occurred at the expense of agricultural landscapes (62.9%) rather than natural vegetation. Smart Growth development has been advanced as a preferred alternative in many planning circles, but we found that it conserved only marginally more open space than Business-as-usual when using an urban growth model to portray policies for future urban growth. Scenarios to 2050 suggest urban development on non-urban lands of 1091, 956, or 179 km², under Business-as-usual, Smart Growth and Infill policy growth scenarios, respectively. The Smart Growth policy converts 88% of natural lands and agriculture used by Business-as-usual, while Infill used only 40% of those lands. Given the historic rate of urban growth, 0.25%/year, and limited space available, the Infill scenario is recommended. While the data may differ, the use of an historic and future framework to track these three variables can be easily applied to other metropolitan areas.

  19. Regional assessment of urban impacts on landcover and open space finds a smart urban growth policy performs little better than business as usual.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H Thorne

    Full Text Available Assessment of landscape change is critical for attainment of regional sustainability goals. Urban growth assessments are needed because over half the global population now lives in cities, which impact biodiversity, ecosystem structure and ecological processes. Open space protection is needed to preserve these attributes, and provide the resources humans need. The San Francisco Bay Area, California, is challenged to accommodate a population increase of 3.07 million while maintaining the region's ecosystems and biodiversity. Our analysis of 9275 km² in the Bay Area links historic trends for three measures: urban growth, protected open space, and landcover types over the last 70 years to future 2050 projections of urban growth and open space. Protected open space totaled 348 km² (3.7% of the area in 1940, and expanded to 2221 km² (20.2% currently. An additional 1038 km² of protected open space is targeted (35.1%. Urban area historically increased from 396.5 km² to 2239 km² (24.1% of the area. Urban growth during this time mostly occurred at the expense of agricultural landscapes (62.9% rather than natural vegetation. Smart Growth development has been advanced as a preferred alternative in many planning circles, but we found that it conserved only marginally more open space than Business-as-usual when using an urban growth model to portray policies for future urban growth. Scenarios to 2050 suggest urban development on non-urban lands of 1091, 956, or 179 km², under Business-as-usual, Smart Growth and Infill policy growth scenarios, respectively. The Smart Growth policy converts 88% of natural lands and agriculture used by Business-as-usual, while Infill used only 40% of those lands. Given the historic rate of urban growth, 0.25%/year, and limited space available, the Infill scenario is recommended. While the data may differ, the use of an historic and future framework to track these three variables can be easily applied to other

  20. Production of premium fuels from coal refuse pond material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R.Q.; Patil, D.P.; Sirkeci, A.; Patwardhan, A. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2001-11-01

    Because of increasing production of fine coal during mining over the past century and because of inefficient fine-coal recovery technologies, a vast reserve of high-quality coal now exists in refuse ponds. A novel fine-coal circuit, consisting of a hindered-bed classifier, an enhanced gravity concentrator and a flotation column, was evaluated for the recovery of fine coal from refuse ponds. The treatment of a pond derived from Pittsburgh No. 8 seam coal resulted in the production of a premium fuel containing less than 5 % ash and a calorific value of about 30,170 kJ/kg with 60% mass yield. Results from the treatment of two refuse pond materials are presented.

  1. Knowledge-based fault diagnosis system for refuse collection vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, CheeFai; Juffrizal, K.; Khalil, S. N.; Nidzamuddin, M. Y.

    2015-05-01

    The refuse collection vehicle is manufactured by local vehicle body manufacturer. Currently; the company supplied six model of the waste compactor truck to the local authority as well as waste management company. The company is facing difficulty to acquire the knowledge from the expert when the expert is absence. To solve the problem, the knowledge from the expert can be stored in the expert system. The expert system is able to provide necessary support to the company when the expert is not available. The implementation of the process and tool is able to be standardize and more accurate. The knowledge that input to the expert system is based on design guidelines and experience from the expert. This project highlighted another application on knowledge-based system (KBS) approached in trouble shooting of the refuse collection vehicle production process. The main aim of the research is to develop a novel expert fault diagnosis system framework for the refuse collection vehicle.

  2. Energy and pollution characteristics of refuse-derived fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.I.; Choo, J.; Yu, J. [Korea Inst. of Construction Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    This abstract presented energy, heat value, and pollution concentration characteristics for waste- and refuse-derived fuel. Studies have shown that while recycling and waste-to-energy projects are economically feasible, the impacts of solid waste pre-sorting on the cost of waste-to-energy facilities is uncertain due to the inherent complexity of solid waste composition. Combustible waste is sorted from municipal waste, construction waste, and industrial waste, and used as a raw material for refuse-derived fuel. A heat value evaluation was conducted for products generated at a typical refuse-derived fuel plant. The results of the study will be used to co-ordinate waste-to-energy facilities.

  3. Knowledge-based fault diagnosis system for refuse collection vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, CheeFai; Juffrizal, K.; Khalil, S. N.; Nidzamuddin, M. Y. [Centre of Advanced Research on Energy, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    The refuse collection vehicle is manufactured by local vehicle body manufacturer. Currently; the company supplied six model of the waste compactor truck to the local authority as well as waste management company. The company is facing difficulty to acquire the knowledge from the expert when the expert is absence. To solve the problem, the knowledge from the expert can be stored in the expert system. The expert system is able to provide necessary support to the company when the expert is not available. The implementation of the process and tool is able to be standardize and more accurate. The knowledge that input to the expert system is based on design guidelines and experience from the expert. This project highlighted another application on knowledge-based system (KBS) approached in trouble shooting of the refuse collection vehicle production process. The main aim of the research is to develop a novel expert fault diagnosis system framework for the refuse collection vehicle.

  4. [Increasing immunization coverage by intervening on determinants of refusal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, M; Valsecchi, M; Speri, L; Simeoni, L; Campara, P; Porchia, S; Bolzonello, E; Russo, F; Bonavina, M G; Bovo, C

    2012-01-01

    With the regional decree 3664/2008, the Veneto Region adopted measures for improvements in the immunization program, among which the "Investigation into determinants for vaccine refusal in the Veneto Region", entrusted by the Department of Prevention Local Health Unit 20 (Ulss 20) of Verona. The objective of the study was to understand which type of parent that accessed immunization services (total adherent, partial adherent or complete refusals) and what factors lead to their choice regarding immmunizations in order to better plan strategies to maintain vaccination coverage.

  5. Low cost monitoring from space using Landsat TM time series and open source technologies: the case study of Iguazu park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nole, Gabriele; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    Up to nowadays, satellite data have become increasingly available, thus offering a low cost or even free of charge unique tool, with a great potential for operational monitoring of vegetation cover, quantitative assessment of urban expansion and urban sprawl, as well as for monitoring of land use changes and soil consumption. This growing observational capacity has also highlighted the need for research efforts aimed at exploring the potential offered by data processing methods and algorithms, in order to exploit as much as possible this invaluable space-based data source. The work herein presented concerns an application study on the monitoring of vegetation cover and urban sprawl conducted with the use of satellite Landsat TM data. The selected test site is the Iguazu park highly significant, being it one of the most threatened global conservation priorities (http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/303/). In order to produce synthetic maps of the investigated areas to monitor the status of vegetation and ongoing subtle changes, satellite Landsat TM data images were classified using two automatic classifiers, Maximum Likelihood (MLC) and Support Vector Machines (SVMs) applied by changing setting parameters, with the aim to compare their respective performances in terms of robustness, speed and accuracy. All process steps have been developed integrating Geographical Information System and Remote Sensing, and adopting free and open source software. Results pointed out that the SVM classifier with RBF kernel was generally the best choice (with accuracy higher than 90%) among all the configurations compared, and the use of multiple bands globally improves classification. One of the critical elements found in the case of monitoring of urban area expansion is given by the presence of urban garden mixed with urban fabric. The use of different configurations for the SVMs, i.e. different kernels and values of the setting parameters, allowed us to calibrate the classifier also to

  6. The policy implications of urban open space commercial vegetable farmers' willingness and ability to pay for reclaimed water for irrigation in Kumasi, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amponsah, Owusu; Vigre, Håkan; Braimah, Imoro

    2016-01-01

    The acute waste management problems, coupled with the proliferation of small scale industries in many developing countries, make low quality water treatment before use inevitable in the long run. These industries have the potential to discharge effluent containing chemicals and heavy metals...... appears to be a promising strategy to finance and maintain the wastewater treatment infrastructure. In this study therefore, the willingness and ability of urban open space commercial vegetable farmers to pay for reclaimed water for irrigation purposes has been assessed. One hundred open space commercial...... vegetable farmers and four vegetable farmers' associations were selected and interviewed in Kumasi in Ghana using semi-structured interview schedules and interview guides respectively. The results of the study show that approximately three out of every five vegetable farmers were willing to pay...

  7. Formation and Development of Open Space System in Philadelphia%费城开放空间系统的形成与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晋石

    2014-01-01

    By introducing the formation and development of Philadelphia's urban open space systems, this article describes the long-term development process of the Philadelphia open space system starts from the initial ideal "Greene Country Towne", to meet the challenges of the plight of the industrial era - the construction of Benjamin Franklin Parkway and Fairmount Park system, and to the improvement and optimization of multi-dimensional, multi-functional open space system in the de-industrialization process. This article proposes that the Philadelphia open space system has a character of historic dimension and multi-value, and reflects its diversity and continuity.%通过介绍美国费城的城市开放空间系统的形成及发展过程,概述了费城开放空间系统从最初的“绿色乡村城镇”理想,到应对工业化时期困境的挑战--富兰克林林荫大道和费尔芒特公园系统建设,再到去工业化时期多维度、多功能开放空间系统完善与优化的这一长期发展历程,最后总结出费城开放空间系统具有历史维度和多元价值、体现多样性和连续性的特征。

  8. Conditions for the use of infrared camera diagnostics in energy auditing of the objects exposed to open air space at isothermal sky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruczek Tadeusz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Convective and radiation heat transfer take place between various objects placed in open air space and their surroundings. These phenomena bring about heat losses from pipelines, building walls, roofs and other objects. One of the main tasks in energy auditing is the reduction of excessive heat losses. In the case of a low sky temperature, the radiation heat exchange is very intensive and the temperature of the top part of the horizontal pipelines or walls is lower than the temperature of their bottom parts. Quite often this temperature is also lower than the temperature of the surrounding atmospheric air. In the case of overhead heat pipelines placed in open air space, it is the ground and sky that constitute the surroundings. The aforementioned elements of surroundings usually have different values of temperature. Thus, these circumstances bring about difficulties during infrared inspections because only one ambient temperature which represents radiation of all surrounding elements must be known during the thermovision measurements. This work is aimed at the development of a method for determination of an equivalent ambient temperature representing the thermal radiation of the surrounding elements of the object under consideration placed in open air space, which could be applied at a fairly uniform temperature of the sky during the thermovision measurements as well as for the calculation of radiative heat losses.

  9. Tin cans and refuse incineration: upgrading the scrap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dapper, G.; Dijkstra, S.J.; Loon, van A.P.M.

    1978-01-01

    In the series of investigations whether and how it is possible to reclaim the iron and tin constituents after incineration, several experiments were performed with the refuse incinerator of Amsterdam. The operating conditions were varied and the influence on the behaviour of the tin cans were determ

  10. [Anorexia and refusal to eat in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazif-Thomas, Cyril; Thomas, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The question of the links between anorexia and the refusal to eat in the elderly is often the cause of major difficulties with regard to therapeutic strategies within caregiving teams. Likewise, few studies have been carried out into the diachronic links between teenage anorexia and that of the elderly. The role of the multi-disciplinary team is essential.

  11. 19 CFR 12.114 - Release or refusal of delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Release or refusal of delivery. 12.114 Section 12.114 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... delivery. If the completed Notice of Arrival directs the port director to release the shipment...

  12. 30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Critical construction periods shall include at a minimum: (i) Foundation preparation including the removal... revegetated upon completion of construction. (c) Placement. (1) All vegetative and organic materials shall be... professional engineer, shall inspect the refuse pile during construction. The professional engineer...

  13. 30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Critical construction periods shall include at a minimum: (i) Foundation preparation including the removal... revegetated upon completion of construction. (c) Placement. (1) All vegetative and organic materials shall be... professional engineer, shall inspect the refuse pile during construction. The professional engineer...

  14. Can a physician refuse to help a patient? American perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Virginia L

    2008-06-01

    Refusal to help means for most people declining to accept the duty to treat. The reasons for refusing to help and how we think about these reasons from an ethical and professional viewpoint are outlined by considering ethical principles, an historical perspective, the law, societal contracts, medicine as a moral enterprise, professional codes, a physician's personal beliefs, reasons for refusing to help and physician discretion. Refusing to help a patient is not consistent with the ethical principle of beneficence, the concept of the primacy of patient welfare or the obligation of the profession to care for the sick. However duty to treat should not be exploited by institutions or place physicians in circumstances that they consider morally, psychologically or physically unacceptable. Following the principle of distributive justice, physicians are obligated to participate in the public debate to ensure that all patients have their needs met by developing or improving health care systems and addressing the new ethical questions that are likely to be generated.

  15. 25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.23 Section 135.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Non-Indian Lands Not Included in an Irrigation...

  16. Understanding Excessive School Absenteeism as School Refusal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Shanta R.; Orpinas, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Understanding excessive absenteeism is important to ameliorating the negative outcomes associated with the behavior. The present study examined behavioral reinforcement profiles of school refusal behavior: negative reinforcement (avoidance) and positive reinforcement (gaining parental attention or receiving tangible benefits from not attending…

  17. Domestic Refuse Handling Practices Among Adult Females in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was an interventional/community-based study involving a total of 436 adult ... Health education was given on domestic refuse handling and reinforcement by ... to the various challenges faced by them particularly the absence of community sanitation members. ... Key words: Solid waste, practices, female adults, obstacles.

  18. Improvement of refuse collection in Kitwe: A participatory approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Kazimbaya-Senkwe (Barbara); K.M. Sankwe; J. Frijns (Jos)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThis project set out to define the refuse collection problem in Kitwe and to propose ways of improving the same. Through a household survey, interviews with relevant institutions and a physical survey of the town, it was established that the Kitwe City Council is not able to provide an a

  19. Magnetometric Studies of Catalyst Refuses in Nanocarbon Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eklund Peter

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIt is shown that magnetometry can be employed as an effective tool to control the content of a ferromagnetic constituent in nanocarbon materials. We propose a thermochemical treatment protocol to achieve extensive cleaning of the source nanocarbon materials from ferromagnetic refuses.

  20. 9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION...

  1. Causes of organ donation refusal in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, S M; Gholami, S; Bahador, A; Nikeghbalian, S; Eshraghian, A; Salahi, H; Kazemi, K; Shamsaei, A; Malek-Hosseini, S A

    2011-03-01

    Family refusal is an important factor that limits the number of organ donations. Some studies from different centers have reported various reasons for family decisions of organ donation refusal. This study evaluated the reasons for organ donation refusal by family members covered in our organ procurement organization. This cross-sectional study was performed among families of potential organ donors who satisfied brain death criteria as identified between March 2009 and March 2010. Among 125 potential donors 73 (58.4%) families refused donation. Their main reasons were as follows: lack of acceptance of brain death n=26 (35.6%), belief in miracle and patient recovery (n=22; 30.1), fear of gossip regarding sale rather than autonomous organ donation (n=11; 15.1%), and fear about deformation of the donor's body (n=9; 12.3%). Family members play an important role in the final decision for organ donation. The general public should be encouraged to register their donation preferences in the case of brain death. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 7 CFR 322.19 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection; refusal of entry. 322.19 Section 322.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation...

  3. 7 CFR 322.10 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection; refusal of entry. 322.10 Section 322.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation...

  4. 7 CFR 322.34 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection; refusal of entry. 322.34 Section 322.34 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation...

  5. A Genre-based Analysis of English Refusal Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费伟

    2014-01-01

    The present study analyzes ten English refusal letters of two subcategories based on Swales ’genre analysis model and finds that difference exists in the generic features of the two subcategorized types. Teachers should reveal the underlying rationale behind linguistic features of a specific genre so that students can not only identify genre but also apply it appropriately.

  6. insect vectors of pathogens in selected undisposed refuse dumps in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2012-06-23

    Jun 23, 2012 ... insects and their role in disease transmission are highlighted. Proper disposal of ... Keywords: Insects, refuse dumps, diseases, Kaduna, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION ..... further noted that at present, only individual solutions are used at the household .... to endemic cholera in Douala, Cameroon. PubMed. gov ( ...

  7. Invitation Refusals in Cameroon French and Hexagonal French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenkia, Bernard Mulo

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of regional pragmatic variation in French are lacking to date the focus has been on a limited range of speech acts, including apologies, requests, compliments and responses to compliments. The present paper, a systematic analysis of invitation refusals across regional varieties of French, is designed to add to the research on…

  8. Effects of Methimepip and JNJ-5207852 in Wistar rats exposed to an open-field with and without object and in Balb/c mice exposed to an open-space spatial maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel eEnnaceur

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of the histamine H3 receptor in anxiety is controversial, due to limitations in drug selectivity and limited validity of behavioral tests in previous studies. When exposed to an empty open field, Wistar rats spent more time in the outer area and made very low number of brief crossings in the central area. However, when an object occupied the central area, rats crossed frequently into and spent a long time in the central area. Administration of a range of different doses of methimepip (H3 receptor agonist reduced the entries into the central area with a novel object, indicating enhanced avoidance response. When balb/c mice were exposed to an open space 3D maze, neither methimepip nor JNJ-5207852 (H3 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist induced entry into the arms of the apparatus, indicative of lack of anxiolytic effects.

  9. Belém’s built form and its developments to the formation of a system of open spaces accessible to population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Duarte Cardoso

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a characterization of the built space of Belém highlighting, its estuarine condition, physical geography and its economic, social and spacial development. It is based on Quapá-SEL Workshop conclusions held in Belém, in May 2015, in which teachers and students from São Paulo and Pará Federal Universities assessed the conditions of urban open spaces of the city. The results highlight a disarticulation between real estate agents strategies and of urban management towards structuring an Open Spaces System (SEL in Portuguese, as well as its limited appropriation by the population. There is a remarkable differentiation between the landscapes of central area in opposition / contraposition to that at the city’s expansion area. This debate showed how much permanent preservation areas on the banks of inland rivers and islands (the main green spaces of the city and main linkage with the Amazonian biome, with its landscape potentials, have been unevenly appropriated in the city, through gentrification.

  10. [Interest of propranolol in the treatment of school refusal anxiety: about three clinical observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourneret, P; Desombre, H; de Villard, R; Revol, O

    2001-01-01

    School refusal anxiety is a pathopsychological disorder which touches the young child, between 8 and 13 years. Even if the school refusal is studied for a long time, there is not still consensus as for the specific definition of this disorder or on the best way of treating it. Nevertheless, accountable of long-lasting difficulties in school integration, its short and medium term consequences are serious and well known: school desertion, mood disorder and behavioral problems. Speed and quality of the medico-psychological and educational interventions represent a important factor for evolution and prognosis. Although, psychological interventions remain essential, sometimes the interest of an associated psychotropic medication should be discussed. This one can indeed either improve their results or supporting their installations. Despite more than twenty controlled trials in the pediatric population, no definitive psychopharmacological treatment data exist for anxiety disorder in childhood and especially for school refusal disorder. The majority of the studies stress as well the interest of benzodiazepines as tricyclic antidepressants but without being able to specify the possible superiority of a chemical on the other. On the other hand, the side effects of each one are well-documented, in particular for the benzodiazepines (potential abuse, sedation, potential desinhibition, mnemonic disorder), limiting thus their uses in child. In this work, we would like to emphasize the interest of propranolol in the treatment of somatic symptoms usually met in school refusal anxiety. Although beta-blockers have been used in the treatment of neurovegetative symptoms associated with situational anxiety disorders, there is no controlled data and only some open data to guide pediatric use for anxiety disorders in children. Nevertheless, prescribed with low posology and in substitution of benzodiazepine, this medication enabled us in three severe clinical cases to shorter notably the

  11. 37 CFR 1.295 - Review of decision finally refusing to publish a statutory invention registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... refusing to publish a statutory invention registration. 1.295 Section 1.295 Patents, Trademarks, and... decision finally refusing to publish a statutory invention registration. (a) Any requester who is dissatisfied with the final refusal to publish a statutory invention registration for reasons other than...

  12. 48 CFR 52.207-3 - Right of First Refusal of Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Right of First Refusal of....207-3 Right of First Refusal of Employment. As prescribed in 7.305(c), insert the following clause: Right of First Refusal of Employment (MAY 2006) (a) The Contractor shall give Government personnel...

  13. 78 FR 38340 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Right of First Refusal of Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Right of First Refusal of Employment AGENCY: Department of Defense...: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0114, Right of First Refusal of Employment, by... corresponds with ``Information Collection 9000-0114, Right of First Refusal of Employment''. Follow...

  14. 78 FR 17670 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Right of First Refusal of Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Right of First Refusal of Employment AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD... comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0114, Right of First Refusal of Employment, by any of... corresponds with ``Information Collection 9000-0114, Right of First Refusal of Employment''. Follow...

  15. 75 FR 4565 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Right of First Refusal of Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Right of First Refusal of Employment AGENCIES: Department of Defense....sakalos@gsa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Purpose Right of First Refusal of Employment is a..., DC 20405, telephone (202) 501-4755. Please cite OMB Control No. 9000-0114, Right of First Refusal...

  16. Absorption of phosphorus from wastewater by aged refuse excavated from municipal solid waste landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO You-cai; SHAO Fang

    2005-01-01

    Municipal solid waste(refuse) landfill stabilizes as the refuse degrades. After years of biodegradation, the refuse in the landfill becomes stabilized and aged, which may vary with the local climate, humidity, and composition of refuse placed. In this work, it is found that the refuse with an age of over 8 years at Shanghai Refuse Landfill has been significantly stabilized and sufficiently aged and is thus suitable for excavation. The 8-year old aged refuse is mechanically screened, and the fine fractions of refuse(aged refuse) with a diameter less than 2 cm are then used as a biological absorbent for removal of both inorganic and organic phosphorus in livestock wastewater and prepared aqueous solution. It is proved that the aged refuse is very effective for the quantitative removal of both types of phosphorus. The absorption mechanism is proposed. It is considered that phosphorus is firstly absorbed onto the surface of the aged refuse and then used as a substrate for the growth of microorganisms which ultimately leave the aged refuse as sludge.

  17. Open space morphology and research framework with multi-perspectives%多维视角下城市开放空间研究框架的建构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩凌云; 徐振; 王良桂

    2014-01-01

    Research on different aspects of urban open spaces is a point to understand their transformations. The author reviewed the literatures on urban morphology, landscape ecology, policy evaluation, perception and aesthetics, history and sociology to equate theories and methodologies related to open space. Combining with mapping physical form and ty-pological changes, investigation of the factors influencing morphology, deduction of what these morphological changes bring, these five sub-topics would construct a multi-dimension framework for open space study. With historical-GIS as database platform and analysis tools, this framework was adopt by the authors to study open space in Nanjing, which showed the potential of supporting interdisciplinary research and public participation as a open platform.%理解城市化进程中开放空间的演变需要多元化的研究视角,对我国城市开放空间形态研究需要在整合多维视角的框架下进行历史空间信息的再现和分析。笔者梳理了城市形态学、景观生态学、政策绩效评价、感知与美学、历史人文等领域与开放空间有关的理论、方法,将这5个维度与形态学研究中的追溯形态变化、分析变化动因以及演绎变化结果3个层面结合形成立体的研究框架。在此框架下,以历史地理信息系统为平台对南京开放空间演变进行了多角度形态分析,展示了这种研究框架可以为多学科融入规划实践、公众参与提供全面的知识图景和开放的信息平台。

  18. Parental Refusal of Vitamin K and Neonatal Preventive Services: A Need for Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcewicz, Lauren H; Clayton, Joshua; Maenner, Matthew; Odom, Erika; Okoroh, Ekwutosi; Christensen, Deborah; Goodman, Alyson; Warren, Michael D; Traylor, Julie; Miller, Angela; Jones, Timothy; Dunn, John; Schaffner, William; Grant, Althea

    2017-05-01

    Objectives Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) in infants is a coagulopathy preventable with a single dose of injectable vitamin K at birth. The Tennessee Department of Health (TDH) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) investigated vitamin K refusal among parents in 2013 after learning of four cases of VKDB associated with prophylaxis refusal. Methods Chart reviews were conducted at Nashville-area hospitals for 2011-2013 and Tennessee birthing centers for 2013 to identify parents who had refused injectable vitamin K for their infants. Contact information was obtained for parents, and they were surveyed regarding their reasons for refusing. Results At hospitals, 3.0% of infants did not receive injectable vitamin K due to parental refusal in 2013, a frequency higher than in 2011 and 2012. This percentage was much higher at birthing centers, where 31% of infants did not receive injectable vitamin K. The most common responses for refusal were a belief that the injection was unnecessary (53%) and a desire for a natural birthing process (36%). Refusal of other preventive services was common, with 66% of families refusing vitamin K, newborn eye care with erythromycin, and the neonatal dose of hepatitis B vaccine. Conclusions for Practice Refusal of injectable vitamin K was more common among families choosing to give birth at birthing centers than at hospitals, and was related to refusal of other preventive services in our study. Surveillance of vitamin K refusal rates could assist in further understanding this occurrence and tailoring effective strategies for mitigation.

  19. Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is evaluating the in-service performance of 10 next-generation hydraulic hybrid refuse vehicles (HHVs), 8 previous-generation HHVs, and 8 comparable conventional diesel vehicles operated by Miami-Dade County's Public Works and Waste Management Department in southern Florida. The HHVs under study - Autocar E3 refuse trucks equipped with Parker Hannifin's RunWise Advanced Series Hybrid Drive systems - can recover as much as 70 percent of the energy typically lost during braking and reuse it to power the vehicle. NREL's evaluation will assess the performance of this technology in commercial operation and help Miami-Dade County determine the ideal routes for maximizing the fuel-saving potential of its HHVs.

  20. HYDRO-GEOTECHNIC L SSESSMENT OF N OPEN W STE DISPOS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2014-11-28

    Nov 28, 2014 ... Key Words: Hydro-Geotechnical, Assessment, Waste, Ilorin. Introduction. Suitable land ... composting, open burning and river dump of refuse. These attempts ..... paper submitted in fulfillment of house resolution 715. State of ...

  1. Move the Neighbourhood: Study design of a community-based participatory public open space intervention in a Danish deprived neighbourhood to promote active living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Winge, Laura; Carroll, Sidse; Schmidt, Tanja; Wagner, Anne Margrethe; Nørtoft, Kamilla Pernille Johansen; Lamm, Bettina; Kural, René; Schipperijn, Jasper; Troelsen, Jens

    2017-05-19

    A limited amount of research has examined the effect of changing public open spaces on active living. This paper will present the study protocol of a community-based intervention study co-designed in an interdisciplinary collaboration with community members to develop urban installations highly tailored to promote active living among children (10-13-years-old) and seniors (>60-years-old) in a deprived neighbourhood in Copenhagen. The study builds on a quasi-experimental study design with two sub-studies: 1) a children study and 2) a senior study. The interventions will be developed, designed and implemented in collaboration with local children and seniors, respectively, using different co-design tools and methods. We will evaluate the effect of the interventions on children's and senior's use of the new-built urban installations using accelerometers in combination with GPS as well as systematic observation using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC). A process evaluation with focus groups consisting of the various stakeholders in the two sub-studies will be used to gain knowledge of the intervention processes. The paper presents new approaches in the field of public open space interventions through interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory co-design approach and combination of measurements. Using both effect and process evaluations the study will provide unique insights in the role and importance of the interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory processes, and tailoring changes in public open space to local needs and wishes. These results can be used to guide urban renewal projects in deprived neighbourhoods in the future. Retrospectively registered with study ID ISRCTN50036837 . Date of registration: 16 December 2016.

  2. Occupancy-based lighting control in open-plan office spaces : A state-of-the-art review

    OpenAIRE

    de Bakker, C Christel; Aries, MBC Myriam; Kort, HSM Helianthe; Rosemann, ALP Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Lighting accounts for a significant amount of electrical energy consumption in office buildings, up to 45% of the total consumed. This energy consumption can be reduced by as much as 60% through an occupant-dependent lighting control strategy. With particular focus on open-plan offices, where the application of this strategy is more challenging to apply due to differences in individual occupancy patterns, this paper covers (1) to which extent individual occupancy-based lighting control has be...

  3. Space-based passive microwave soil moisture retrievals and the correction for a dynamic open water fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Gouweleeuw

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The large observation footprint of low-frequency satellite microwave emissions complicates the interpretation of near-surface soil moisture retrievals. While the effect of sub-footprint lateral heterogeneity is relatively limited under unsaturated conditions, open water bodies (if not accounted for cause a strong positive bias in the satellite-derived soil moisture retrieval. This bias is generally assumed static and associated with large, continental lakes and coastal areas. Temporal changes in the extent of smaller water bodies as small as a few percent of the sensor footprint size, however, can cause significant and dynamic biases. We analysed the influence of such small open water bodies on near-surface soil moisture products derived from actual (non-synthetic data from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E for three areas in Oklahoma, USA. Differences between on-ground observations, model estimates and AMSR-E retrievals were related to dynamic estimates of open water fraction, one retrieved from a global daily record based on higher frequency AMSR-E data, a second derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and a third through inversion of the radiative transfer model, used to retrieve soil moisture. The comparison demonstrates the presence of relatively small areas (<0.05 of open water in or near the sensor footprint, possibly in combination with increased, below-critical vegetation density conditions (optical density <0.8, which contribute to seasonally varying biases in excess of 0.2 (m3 m−3 soil water content. These errors need to be addressed, either through elimination or accurate characterisation, if the soil moisture retrievals are to be used effectively in a data assimilation scheme.

  4. Heuristic methods for a refuse collection vehicle routing problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourao, M.C.; Almeida, M.T.

    1994-12-31

    The problem of generating the set of routes that minimizes the total time required to collect the household refuse in a particular quarter of Lisbon can be formulated as a Capacitated Arc Routing Problem with some side constraints. Our aim is to obtain approximate solutions, as the problem is known to be NP-hard. We present heuristic methods to generate feasible solutions and report their performance over a set of test problems.

  5. Short term outcome in babies refused perinatal intensive care.

    OpenAIRE

    Sidhu, H.; Heasley, R. N.; Patterson, C C; Halliday, H L; Thompson, W.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the mortality in babies refused admission to a regional perinatal centre with that in babies accepted for intensive care in the centre. DESIGN--Retrospective study with group comparison. SETTING--Based at the Royal Maternity Hospital, Belfast, with follow up of patients in all obstetric units in Northern Ireland. PATIENTS--Requests for transfer of 675 babies to the regional perinatal centre (prenatally and postnatally) were made from hospitals in Northern Ireland between...

  6. Beyond a Logic of Quality: Opening Space for Material-Discursive Practices of "Readiness" in Early Years Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    This article is an exploration of the possibilities encountered through shifting from a "logic of quality" to a "space of meaning-making" within early years education. Focusing on ideas of "readiness", this discussion aims to challenge normative understandings that relate this concept to the predictable achievement of…

  7. Energetic utilisation of refuse derived fuels from landfill mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheut, Martin; Quicker, Peter

    2017-02-19

    The residence of municipal solid waste within a landfill body results in a significant change of material properties. Experiences with the energetic utilisation of the burnable fractions from formerly landfilled waste are hardly documented, the influence of refuse derived fuels (RDF) from such materials on the performance of modern waste-to-energy plants is not sufficiently described in scientific literature. Therefore this study focuses on the energetic utilisation of refuse derived fuel from landfilled waste, processed in a mechanical waste treatment facility, and the impact of the material on the operation of the incineration plant. Additionally, the possibility of direct combustion of non-pre-treated excavated landfill material has been evaluated in the same facility. First, sampling and analysis of the fuel has been carried out. Based on this, a large-scale combustion experiment was planned and conducted in an industrial waste-to-energy plant. Steam mass flow rate, concentration of harmful substances in the raw gas, as well as total emissions of the facility have been monitored in detail. Furthermore, the influence of the landfilled material on the additive consumption has been determined. The combustion residues (bottom ash) were also sampled and analysed. Based on the evaluation of operating data and analysis of both fuel and residue, suitable thermal treatment approaches for the refuse-derived fuel and the non-pre-treated excavated material have been assessed.

  8. Ambiguities and Asymmetries in Consent and Refusal: Reply to Manson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Rob

    2016-06-01

    John Harris claims that is it 'palpable nonsense' to suggest that 'a child (or anyone) might competently consent to a treatment but not be competent to refuse it.' In 'Transitional Paternalism: How Shared Normative Powers Give Rise to the Asymmetry of Adolescent Consent and Refusal' Neil Manson aims to explain away the apparent oddness of this asymmetry of consent and refusal, by appealing to the idea of shared normative powers, presenting joint bank accounts as an example. In this article, I will argue that Manson's account fails to explain away the oddness. Rather, I will argue that there are ambiguities to which Manson has not paid sufficient attention. In fact, as odd as it may sound, I argue that Manson actually agrees with Harris (at least in relation to the asymmetry of competence). He fails to recognize that he agrees with Harris because he is not careful enough to distinguish between different asymmetries, which I have labelled the asymmetries of choice, permissibility and competence.

  9. Trinko and Re-Grounding the Refusal to Deal Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Candeub

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Verizon Communications Inc. v. Law Offices of Curtis V. Trinko, LLP (“Trinko”, the most important Supreme Court antitrust review of the refusal to deal antitrust doctrine in twenty years, pitted a local incumbent monopolist telephone company (“ILEC”, Verizon, against a class of competitive local exchange companies (“CLECs”, the new entrants to local telephone service spawned by the 1996 Telecommunications Act (“1996 Act” or “Telecom Act”, and their customers. The Supreme Court rejected the CLECs’ claim that Verizon violated the antitrust laws by failing to provide interconnection services as the Act required. The CLECs based their claim upon two antitrust doctrines: “refusal to deal” and “essential facilities,” both of which require monopolists to provide vital vertical inputs to their downstream competitors. Here, the input was interconnection or “access” on a wholesale level to Verizon’s telephone network that its competitors needed in order to provide retail phone service. The Court ruled that if a legal mechanism exists, as with the 1996 Act, to compel access to the putative monopolist’s resource, the refusal to deal doctrine has nothing to remedy and, therefore, plaintiffs did not state an antitrust claim.

  10. Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziar Nekovee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio is being intensively researched as the enabling technology for license-exempt access to the so-called TV White Spaces (TVWS, large portions of spectrum in the UHF/VHF bands which become available on a geographical basis after digital switchover. Both in the US, and more recently, in the UK the regulators have given conditional endorsement to this new mode of access. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in technology, regulation, and standardisation of cognitive access to TVWS. It examines the spectrum opportunity and commercial use cases associated with this form of secondary access.

  11. Open architecture robot control based on Matlab/Simulink and a dSPACE real time system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Kerstin; Pokar, Gero; Hesselbach, Juergen

    2004-03-01

    The elements of an open architecture robot control system developed using Matlab/Simulink and a real time system are described. It offers the opportunity to control almost every robotic system (serial or parallel) with up to six axes while commercial robot controls are often designed for serial kinematic systems and can hardly be adapted to control robots with parallel structures. The described open architecture robot control programmed in Matlab/Simulink and ANSI-C is a modular system. To adapt the control to a new robotic structure it is necessary to add the transformation algorithms, position control algorithms, inputs and outputs and machine specific error states to the pre-programmed modules of the system. These modules are programmed by using Simulink elements extended by special functions of the real time system and so called S-Functions that are programmed in C-Code. In the control new functionalities can be implemented easily by adding new modules and connecting them with the present system. A pre-designed graphical user interface provides most of the input buttons and display information needed for a robot control. Graphical buttons or displays can be added and connected with the required signal from Matlab/Simulink by drag and drop. An application example of a parallel robot shows the functionalities of the control.

  12. Past and predicted future effects of housing growth on open space conservation opportunity areas and habitat connectivity around National Wildlife Refuges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Christopher M.; Baumann, Matthias; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Helmers, David P.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Radeloff, Volker C.

    2016-01-01

    ContextHousing growth can alter suitability of matrix habitats around protected areas, strongly affecting movements of organisms and, consequently, threatening connectivity of protected area networks.ObjectivesOur goal was to quantify distribution and growth of housing around the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wildlife Refuge System. This is important information for conservation planning, particularly given promotion of habitat connectivity as a climate change adaptation measure.MethodsWe quantified housing growth from 1940 to 2000 and projected future growth to 2030 within three distances from refuges, identifying very low housing density open space, “opportunity areas” (contiguous areas with habitat corridors within these opportunity areas in 2000.ResultsOur results indicated that the number and area of open space opportunity areas generally decreased with increasing distance from refuges and with the passage of time. Furthermore, total area in habitat corridors was much lower than in opportunity areas. In addition, the number of corridors sometimes exceeded number of opportunity areas as a result of habitat fragmentation, indicating corridors are likely vulnerable to land use change. Finally, regional differences were strong and indicated some refuges may have experienced so much housing growth already that they are effectively too isolated to adapt to climate change, while others may require extensive habitat restoration work.ConclusionsWildlife refuges are increasingly isolated by residential housing development, potentially constraining the movement of wildlife and, therefore, their ability to adapt to a changing climate.

  13. A Fast 3D Poisson Solver with Longitudinal Periodic and Transverse Open Boundary Conditions for Space-Charge Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Qiang, Ji

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) Poisson solver with longitudinal periodic and transverse open boundary conditions can have important applications in beam physics of particle accelerators. In this paper, we present a fast efficient method to solve the Poisson equation using a spectral finite-difference method. This method uses a computational domain that contains the charged particle beam only and has a computational complexity of $O(N_u(logN_{mode}))$, where $N_u$ is the total number of unknowns and $N_{mode}$ is the maximum number of longitudinal or azimuthal modes. This saves both the computational time and the memory usage by using an artificial boundary condition in a large extended computational domain.

  14. Time and space in the middle paleolithic: Spatial structure and occupation dynamics of seven open-air sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Amy E

    2016-05-06

    The spatial structure of archeological sites can help reconstruct the settlement dynamics of hunter-gatherers by providing information on the number and length of occupations. This study seeks to access this information through a comparison of seven sites. These sites are open-air and were all excavated over large spatial areas, up to 2,000 m(2) , and are therefore ideal for spatial analysis, which was done using two complementary methods, lithic refitting and density zones. Both methods were assessed statistically using confidence intervals. The statistically significant results from each site were then compiled to evaluate trends that occur across the seven sites. These results were used to assess the "spatial consistency" of each assemblage and, through that, the number and duration of occupations. This study demonstrates that spatial analysis can be a powerful tool in research on occupation dynamics and can help disentangle the many occupations that often make up an archeological assemblage.

  15. 城市开放空间中宠物犬活动场地规划设计探讨%On Designing Dog Park in Open Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜朝玲; 周建华

    2016-01-01

    According to the spatial relationship and development status quo between dogs and people,be-tween dogs and urban space,it presents a common phenomenon that people are not easy to find a space to walk their dogs in urban area.Hence,this study points out the significance of setting a specific area for walking the dog in open space.By doing field researches and surveys,I generalized dog's activity routines and the needs of dogs and its'owner.In addition,the types and reasonable disposition of pet playground , which is proper to applied in our country,have been discussed and explored.%从宠物犬与人、宠物犬与城市空间的关系及发展现状出发,阐述城市中“遛狗难”的现象,引出在城市开放空间中设置宠物犬活动场地的重要意义。通过实地调研和问卷调查,总结宠物犬和主人的活动规律和需求,探讨适应于我国实际情况的宠物犬活动场地类型与合理布局。

  16. 基于 OpenGL 的空间目标监视雷达三维显示系统%3D Display System for Space Target Surveillance Radar Based on OpenGL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈静波; 刘扬

    2015-01-01

    Due to large detection range of space target surveillance radar and great height of target,a 3D display system is needed to reflect the target’s real spatial position.A framework of radar 3D display system based on OpenGL is proposed,and its modules are divided.For the demands of assistant display for space target,a design for radar beam and search sectors display is put forward to reflect the real-time beam schedu-ling of radar.An earth texture management based on quadtree dynamic fractal is proposed for high resolution display of the surface.A rotation method of 3D earth based on virtual trace ball is proposed to adjust the user’s angle of view agilely.The system is implemented in a space target surveillance radar successfully, achieving smooth display and fluent image.%空间目标监视雷达探测范围较远,目标高度较高,所以需要三维显示软件来反映目标实际的空间位置信息。基于 OpenGL 提出了一种雷达三维显示系统的设计框架和模块划分。针对空间目标的辅助显示需求,提出了雷达波束和搜索屏的显示设计,可以实时反映雷达的波束调度情况;提出了一种基于四叉树动态分形的地球纹理管理方法,用于实现高精度的地表纹理显示;提出了一种基于虚拟轨迹球的三维地球旋转设计,实现了灵活的用户视角调整。该系统已在某型空间目标监视雷达上成功应用,画面显示平滑流畅。

  17. Energy Recycling in Municipal Refuse and Its Pollution Control in Combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴发勇; 段丽平; 陈红; 谢茂清

    2004-01-01

    Recycling the energy in municipal refuse and controlling the secondary pollution are common concerns.After analyzing the status and disposal of the municipal refuse in China, this paper proposes a technique of refuse incineration, using a fluid-bed incinerator, which converts refuse into energy.The technique of controlling secondary pollution in combustion is also discussed.In this paper, the technique of incineration using a fluid-bed incinerator is introduced.During the combustion process, the refuse is mixed with coal and remover and a noxious gas removal system is installed, which helps to decrease the generation and emission of noxious material, such as dioxins.The result shows that the secondary pollution in refuse incineration is efficiently controlled.

  18. Vaccination refusal: ethics, individual rights, and the common good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jason L; Caplan, Arthur L

    2011-12-01

    Among the obstacles to the success of vaccination programs is the apparent recent increase in hesitancy and outright resistance to the recommended vaccination schedule by some parents and patients. This article reviews the spectrum of patient or parental attitudes that may be described as vaccine refusal, explores related ethical considerations in the context of the doctor-patient relationship and public health, and evaluates the possible responses of physicians when encountering resistance to vaccination recommendations. Health care providers should view individuals hesitant about or opposed to vaccines not as frustrations or threats to public health, but as opportunities to educate and inform.

  19. Refuse-derived Fuel Energy Recovery by Plasma Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián LÁZÁR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports the results of experiments focused upon high temperature gasification of waste with a significant proportion of combustibles. This is refuse-derived fuel (RDF obtained by sorting the combustible components of communal waste. During the gasification of this waste in a plasma reactor (with a waste humidity of circa 24.9 %, when calculated per 1 kg of waste, syngas was obtained in an amount of 1.35 to 1.84 m3∙kg-1. Apart from gas, the gasification process also creates slag of a glassy structure suitable for further use.

  20. The Open

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saitya Brata Das

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Open darkness and light, remembrance and oblivion, coming into existence and disappearing in death play their originary co-belonging, or co-figuration. Existence belongs to this opening and is exposed to its coming to presence: it is on the basis of this originary opening, this originary historical which is revealed to this mortal being called ‘man,’ on the basis of this revelation, man founds something like politics and history. There thus comes into existence out of this freedom, out of this “play space”2, this field called ‘polis’3 where there takes place war and festival, where historical revolutions tear apart history, brings ruptures and discontinuities in the very mode of his existence, where man seeks the foundation of his own foundation (which is his metaphysical task , where occurs the dialectics of negativity between man and man, where man puts at stake his own death, his own dissolution, and by the power of his own dissolution stands in relation to the total world that he seeks to dominate. This means that man’s attempts to metaphysically found his own political and historical existence must presuppose a far more originary non-foundation, the differentiating revealing of the open, the ungrounded spacing play, or playing space of natality and mortality.

  1. The multiconfigurational time-dependent Hartree for fermions: Implementation, exactness and application to few-fermion tunneling to open space

    CERN Document Server

    Fasshauer, Elke

    2015-01-01

    We report on an implementation of the multiconfigurational time-dependent Hartree method (MCTDH) for spin-polarized fermions (MCTDHF). Our approach is based on a mapping for opera- tors in Fock space that allows a compact and efficient application of the Hamiltonian and solution of the MCTDHF equations of motion. Our implementation extends, builds on and exploits the recursive implementation of MCTDH for bosons (R-MCTDHB) package. Together with R-MCTDHB, the present implementation of MCTDHF forms the MCTDH-X package. We benchmark the accuracy of the algorithm with the harmonic interaction model and a time-dependent generalization thereof. These models consider parabolically trapped particles that interact through a harmonic interaction potential. We demonstrate, that MCTDHF is capable of solving the time-dependent many-fermion Schr\\"odinger equation to an in principle arbitrary degree of precision and can hence yield numerically exact results even in the case of Hamiltonians with time-dependent one-body and t...

  2. Rat sightings in New York City are associated with neighborhood sociodemographics, housing characteristics, and proximity to open public space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    Rats are ubiquitous in urban environments and, as established reservoirs for infectious pathogens, present a control priority for public health agencies. New York City (NYC) harbors one of the largest rat populations in the United States, but surprising little study has been undertaken to define rat ecology across varied features of this urban landscape. More importantly, factors that may contribute to increased encounters between rats and humans have rarely been explored. Using city-wide records of rat sightings reported to the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, this investigation sought to identify sociodemographic, housing, and physical landscape characteristics that are associated with increased rat sightings across NYC census tracts. A hierarchical Bayesian conditional autoregressive Poisson model was used to assess these associations while accounting for spatial heterogeneity in the variance. Closer proximity to both subway lines and recreational public spaces was associated with a higher concentration of rat sightings, as was a greater presence of older housing, vacant housing units, and low education among the population. Moreover, these aspects of the physical and social landscape accurately predicted rat sightings across the city. These findings have identified specific features of the NYC urban environment that may help to provide direct control targets for reducing human-rat encounters.

  3. Rat sightings in New York City are associated with neighborhood sociodemographics, housing characteristics, and proximity to open public space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Walsh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rats are ubiquitous in urban environments and, as established reservoirs for infectious pathogens, present a control priority for public health agencies. New York City (NYC harbors one of the largest rat populations in the United States, but surprising little study has been undertaken to define rat ecology across varied features of this urban landscape. More importantly, factors that may contribute to increased encounters between rats and humans have rarely been explored. Using city-wide records of rat sightings reported to the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, this investigation sought to identify sociodemographic, housing, and physical landscape characteristics that are associated with increased rat sightings across NYC census tracts. A hierarchical Bayesian conditional autoregressive Poisson model was used to assess these associations while accounting for spatial heterogeneity in the variance. Closer proximity to both subway lines and recreational public spaces was associated with a higher concentration of rat sightings, as was a greater presence of older housing, vacant housing units, and low education among the population. Moreover, these aspects of the physical and social landscape accurately predicted rat sightings across the city. These findings have identified specific features of the NYC urban environment that may help to provide direct control targets for reducing human–rat encounters.

  4. Social and Physical Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents' Physical Activity in Urban Public Open Spaces: A Qualitative Study Using Walk-Along Interviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linde Van Hecke

    Full Text Available Most previous studies examining physical activity in Public Open Spaces (POS focused solely on the physical environment. However, according to socio-ecological models the social environment is important as well. The aim of this study was to determine which social and physical environmental factors affect adolescents' visitation and physical activity in POS in low-income neighbourhoods. Since current knowledge on this topic is limited, especially in Europe, qualitative walk-along interviews were used to obtain detailed and context-specific information. Participants (n = 30, aged 12-16 years, 64% boys were recruited in POS in low-income neighbourhoods in Brussels, Ghent and Antwerp (Belgium. Participants were interviewed while walking in the POS with the interviewer. Using this method, the interviewer could observe and ask questions while the participant was actually experiencing the environment. All audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using Nvivo 10 software and thematic analysis was used to derive categories and subcategories using a grounded theory approach. The most important subcategories that were supportive of visiting POS and performing physical activity in POS were; accessibility by foot/bicycle/public transport, located close to home/school, presence of (active friends and family, cleanliness of the POS and features, availability of sport and play facilities, large open spaces and beautiful sceneries. The most important subcategories that were unsupportive of visiting POS and physical activity in POS were; presence of undesirable users (drug users, gangs and homeless people, the behaviour of other users and the cleanliness of the POS and features. Social factors appeared often more influential than physical factors, however, it was the combination of social and physical factors that affected adolescents' behaviour in POS. Easily accessible POS with high quality features in the proximity of adolescents' home or school

  5. The policy implications of urban open space commercial vegetable farmers’ willingness and ability to pay for reclaimed water for irrigation in Kumasi, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owusu Amponsah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The acute waste management problems, coupled with the proliferation of small scale industries in many developing countries, make low quality water treatment before use inevitable in the long run. These industries have the potential to discharge effluent containing chemicals and heavy metals into the environment. The indiscriminative use of pharmaceutical products by households in many of these countries is another source of health concern. Low quality water treatment in these countries has however been hampered by the high cost of infrastructure provision and maintenance. Cost-sharing among stakeholders appears to be a promising strategy to finance and maintain the wastewater treatment infrastructure. In this study therefore, the willingness and ability of urban open space commercial vegetable farmers to pay for reclaimed water for irrigation purposes has been assessed. One hundred open space commercial vegetable farmers and four vegetable farmers’ associations were selected and interviewed in Kumasi in Ghana using semi-structured interview schedules and interview guides respectively. The results of the study show that approximately three out of every five vegetable farmers were willing to pay for reclaimed water for irrigation. The results further show that the probability of being willing to pay by farmers who agreed that the current water they used for irrigation was harmful is approximately 5.3 times greater than that of those who did not. The analysis of the farmers’ ability to pay revealed that all the farmers would be capable of paying for reclaimed water at a price of US$0.11/m3. This has implications for land tenure security and vegetable consumers' willingness to pay higher prices for the produce.

  6. The policy implications of urban open space commercial vegetable farmers' willingness and ability to pay for reclaimed water for irrigation in Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amponsah, Owusu; Vigre, Håkan; Braimah, Imoro; Schou, Torben Wilde; Abaidoo, Robert Clement

    2016-03-01

    The acute waste management problems, coupled with the proliferation of small scale industries in many developing countries, make low quality water treatment before use inevitable in the long run. These industries have the potential to discharge effluent containing chemicals and heavy metals into the environment. The indiscriminative use of pharmaceutical products by households in many of these countries is another source of health concern. Low quality water treatment in these countries has however been hampered by the high cost of infrastructure provision and maintenance. Cost-sharing among stakeholders appears to be a promising strategy to finance and maintain the wastewater treatment infrastructure. In this study therefore, the willingness and ability of urban open space commercial vegetable farmers to pay for reclaimed water for irrigation purposes has been assessed. One hundred open space commercial vegetable farmers and four vegetable farmers' associations were selected and interviewed in Kumasi in Ghana using semi-structured interview schedules and interview guides respectively. The results of the study show that approximately three out of every five vegetable farmers were willing to pay for reclaimed water for irrigation. The results further show that the probability of being willing to pay by farmers who agreed that the current water they used for irrigation was harmful is approximately 5.3 times greater than that of those who did not. The analysis of the farmers' ability to pay revealed that all the farmers would be capable of paying for reclaimed water at a price of US$0.11/m(3). This has implications for land tenure security and vegetable consumers' willingness to pay higher prices for the produce.

  7. Social and Physical Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents’ Physical Activity in Urban Public Open Spaces: A Qualitative Study Using Walk-Along Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Linde; Deforche, Benedicte; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Veitch, Jenny; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Most previous studies examining physical activity in Public Open Spaces (POS) focused solely on the physical environment. However, according to socio-ecological models the social environment is important as well. The aim of this study was to determine which social and physical environmental factors affect adolescents’ visitation and physical activity in POS in low-income neighbourhoods. Since current knowledge on this topic is limited, especially in Europe, qualitative walk-along interviews were used to obtain detailed and context-specific information. Participants (n = 30, aged 12–16 years, 64% boys) were recruited in POS in low-income neighbourhoods in Brussels, Ghent and Antwerp (Belgium). Participants were interviewed while walking in the POS with the interviewer. Using this method, the interviewer could observe and ask questions while the participant was actually experiencing the environment. All audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using Nvivo 10 software and thematic analysis was used to derive categories and subcategories using a grounded theory approach. The most important subcategories that were supportive of visiting POS and performing physical activity in POS were; accessibility by foot/bicycle/public transport, located close to home/school, presence of (active) friends and family, cleanliness of the POS and features, availability of sport and play facilities, large open spaces and beautiful sceneries. The most important subcategories that were unsupportive of visiting POS and physical activity in POS were; presence of undesirable users (drug users, gangs and homeless people), the behaviour of other users and the cleanliness of the POS and features. Social factors appeared often more influential than physical factors, however, it was the combination of social and physical factors that affected adolescents’ behaviour in POS. Easily accessible POS with high quality features in the proximity of adolescents’ home or school may

  8. Combustion products of plastics as indicators for refuse burning in the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneit, Bernd R T; Medeiros, Patricia M; Didyk, Borys M

    2005-09-15

    Despite all of the economic problems and environmental discussions on the dangers and hazards of plastic materials, plastic production worldwide is growing at a rate of about 5% per year. Increasing techniques for recycling polymeric materials have been developed during the last few years; however, a large fraction of plastics are still being discarded in landfills or subjected to intentional or incidental open-fire burning. To identify specific tracer compounds generated during such open-fire combustion, both smoke particles from burning and plastic materials from shopping bags, roadside trash, and landfill garbage were extracted for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Samples were collected in Concón, Chile, an area frequently affected by wildfire incidents and garbage burning, and the United States for comparison. Atmospheric samples from various aerosol sampling programs are also presented as supportive data. The major components of plastic extracts were even-carbon-chain n-alkanes (C16-C40), the plasticizer di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, and the antioxidants and lubricants/antiadhesives Irganox 1076, Irgafos 168, and its oxidation product tris(2,4-di-tertbutylphenyl) phosphate. Major compounds in smoke from burning plastics include the non-source-specific n-alkanes (mainly even predominance), terephthalic acid, phthalates, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, with minor amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (including triphenylbenzenes) and tris(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl)phosphate. 1,3,5-Triphenylbenzene and tris(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl)- phosphate were found in detectable amounts in atmospheric samples where plastics and refuse were burned in open fires, and thus we propose these two compounds as specific tracers for the open-burning of plastics.

  9. Public Open Space Development for Elderly People by Using the DANP-V Model to Establish Continuous Improvement Strategies towards a Sustainable and Healthy Aging Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Wei Zhu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With the global trend of population aging, how to integrate the health needs of elderly people into public open space (POS development while taking into account public interest is a major challenge in the 21st century. Although the issues of elderly people’s health and their POS needs are receiving increasing attention, research on continuous improvement strategies for POS for healthy aging societies is still limited. Hence, this study explored continuous improvement strategies thoroughly and systematically by using the DANP-V model. The findings revealed cognitive differences between expert and elderly groups. Moreover, water features, waste management, and co-maintenance spaces were the three criteria with the largest gap value. POS improvement has previously been implemented based on a priority order ranked from the criterion with largest gap value to the criterion with the smallest one. However, an alternative approach based on the cause–effect relationship is proposed in this paper. The study findings have both theoretical and practical implications for POS planners and designers.

  10. Comparison of Metal-Backed Free-Space and Open-Ended Coaxial Probe Techniques for the Dielectric Characterization of Aeronautical Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rodríguez, Patricia; Escot-Bocanegra, David; Poyatos-Martínez, David; Weinmann, Frank

    2016-06-24

    The trend in the last few decades is that current unmanned aerial vehicles are completely made of composite materials rather than metallic, such as carbon-fiber or fiberglass composites. From the electromagnetic point of view, this fact forces engineers and scientists to assess how these materials may affect their radar response or their electronics in terms of electromagnetic compatibility. In order to evaluate this, electromagnetic characterization of different composite materials has become a need. Several techniques exist to perform this characterization, all of them based on the utilization of different sensors for measuring different parameters. In this paper, an implementation of the metal-backed free-space technique, based on the employment of antenna probes, is utilized for the characterization of composite materials that belong to an actual drone. Their extracted properties are compared with those given by a commercial solution, an open-ended coaxial probe (OECP). The discrepancies found between both techniques along with a further evaluation of the methodologies, including measurements with a split-cavity resonator, conclude that the implemented free-space technique provides more reliable results for this kind of composites than the OECP technique.

  11. Comparison of Metal-Backed Free-Space and Open-Ended Coaxial Probe Techniques for the Dielectric Characterization of Aeronautical Composites †

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rodríguez, Patricia; Escot-Bocanegra, David; Poyatos-Martínez, David; Weinmann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The trend in the last few decades is that current unmanned aerial vehicles are completely made of composite materials rather than metallic, such as carbon-fiber or fiberglass composites. From the electromagnetic point of view, this fact forces engineers and scientists to assess how these materials may affect their radar response or their electronics in terms of electromagnetic compatibility. In order to evaluate this, electromagnetic characterization of different composite materials has become a need. Several techniques exist to perform this characterization, all of them based on the utilization of different sensors for measuring different parameters. In this paper, an implementation of the metal-backed free-space technique, based on the employment of antenna probes, is utilized for the characterization of composite materials that belong to an actual drone. Their extracted properties are compared with those given by a commercial solution, an open-ended coaxial probe (OECP). The discrepancies found between both techniques along with a further evaluation of the methodologies, including measurements with a split-cavity resonator, conclude that the implemented free-space technique provides more reliable results for this kind of composites than the OECP technique. PMID:27347966

  12. Comparison of Metal-Backed Free-Space and Open-Ended Coaxial Probe Techniques for the Dielectric Characterization of Aeronautical Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia López-Rodríguez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The trend in the last few decades is that current unmanned aerial vehicles are completely made of composite materials rather than metallic, such as carbon-fiber or fiberglass composites. From the electromagnetic point of view, this fact forces engineers and scientists to assess how these materials may affect their radar response or their electronics in terms of electromagnetic compatibility. In order to evaluate this, electromagnetic characterization of different composite materials has become a need. Several techniques exist to perform this characterization, all of them based on the utilization of different sensors for measuring different parameters. In this paper, an implementation of the metal-backed free-space technique, based on the employment of antenna probes, is utilized for the characterization of composite materials that belong to an actual drone. Their extracted properties are compared with those given by a commercial solution, an open-ended coaxial probe (OECP. The discrepancies found between both techniques along with a further evaluation of the methodologies, including measurements with a split-cavity resonator, conclude that the implemented free-space technique provides more reliable results for this kind of composites than the OECP technique.

  13. [Open space of Non-Profit Organization La Casona de los Barriletes. Support program for youth in the process of being discharged from shelter facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Juan José; Mattarucco, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    On this paper we outline a work program called Outpatient Therapeutic Family Space (Open Space) of the Non-Profit Organization La Casona de los Barriletes, whose goals consist of supporting youth going through discharge processes from shelter facilities in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires (CABA) where they were admitted or residing, and contributing with the consolidation of social inclusion processes. After a brief inspection of the history of the institution from where this program is developed, we explain a group of conceptual themes that help us focus on the problems, and we develop notions such as vulnerability, mental condition/disorder/disease, and health/illness/care process. Based on these definitions, we describe areas for the development of multidimensional interventions from an interdisciplinary team, aiming at developing cross-institution and cross-sector coordination allowing for the construction of community reference networks for youth accompanied by their families or affective referents. Later on we analyze certain factors that operate as stimuli and obstacles in this task. Lastly, we present several considerations based on the revision of the work carried out.

  14. Effect of leachate recycle and inoculation on microbial characteristics of municipal refuse in landfill bioreactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Population development of key groups of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria involved in municipal refuse decomposition under laboratory landfill bioreactors with and without leachate recycle adinoculation was measured since modeling municipal refuse was landfilled in bioreactors for about 210 days. Hydrolytic fermentative bacteria (HFB), hydrogen-producing acetogenic bacteria (HPAB), methane-producing bacteria (MPB), sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), anaerobic and aerobic cellulolytic bacteria and denitrabacteria were enumerated by the most probable number technique. The results showed that the dominant microorganismgroups were the methanogenic bacteria including hydrolytic fermentative, hydrogen-producing acetogenic and methane-producing bacteria. They were present in fresh refuse but at low values and positively affected by leachate recycle and refuse inoculation. The amounts of HFB or HPAB in digesters D4 and D5 operated with noculation and leachate recycle reached their maximum values of1010-1012 cells/g dry refuse for HFB or 105-106 cells/g dry refuse for HPAB on day 60, in digester D3 operated with leachate recycle on day 120 for HFB (109 cells/g dry refuse) or on day 90 for HPAB (105 cells/g dry refuse), and in digesters D1 and D2 on day 210 for HFB (109 cells/g dry refuse) or on day 90 for HPAB (104-106 cells/g dry refuse). The population of methane-producing bacteria in digesters D4 and D5 sharply increased on days 60 and 90 respectively, however in igesters D1, D2 and D3 on day 120. Leachate recycle and inoculation changed the cellulolytic microorganisms composition of refuse ecosystem, the higher amounts of anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria were measured in digesters D4 and D5 (107 cells/g dry refuse), followed by digesters D3 (106 cells/g dry refuse), D2 or D1(104 cells/g dry refuse). However, the amounts of aerobic cellulolytic bacteria were much lower than that of anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria. And it was higher in digester D3 than those in digesters D1, D2

  15. 公共建筑城市空间的场所开放性研究%Research of Opening City Space for Public Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳

    2015-01-01

    It is an important part in the city for the outer space of public buildings, the texture is the first interface to rec-ognize the city and buildings for the people, and it is visual, reachable and being perceived. The success or failure of the de-sign for it impacts directly of the quality of life and cultural taste for the people living in the city. In modern cities, when the out-er space of the public buildings show itself to the people with a public attitude and inclusive condition, it can makes the public buildings reflecting a bigger value in the city, and the opening space will bring more vitality to the city.%公共建筑的外部空间是城市空间的重要组成部分, 其组成肌理是人们认识城市与建筑的第一界面, 是可视的、 可达的和可被感知的. 它的设计成败直接影响了生活在城市中的人们的生活质量及文化品位. 在当代城市中, 当公共建筑的外部空间以一种公共性的姿态、 包容性的状态呈现在人们面前时, 它会使公共建筑在城市中体现出更大的价值, 它的场所开放性会为城市带来更大的活力.

  16. 美国城市开放空间中公共参与方式的实现%The Realization of Public Participation Mode in USA City Open Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄赛; 戴胤

    2014-01-01

    This paper completed the reading of City Parks and Open Space Planning and Design, extracts characteristics of t-he public participation mode of USA city open space planning and design, and researches its inspiration to city open space pl-anning in our country.%本文完成对《城市公园与开放空间规划设计》的阅读,提取美国城市开放空间规划设计中公众参与方式的特点,研究借鉴其对我国城市开放空间规划的启发。

  17. 49 CFR 199.103 - Use of persons who fail or refuse a drug test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.103 Use of persons who fail or refuse a drug test. (a) An operator may not knowingly use as an employee any person who— (1) Fails a drug test required by... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of persons who fail or refuse a drug test. 199...

  18. Dispreferred Responses in Interlanguage Pragmatics Refusal Sequences in Learner-NS Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix-Brasdefer, J. Cesar

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the pragmatic strategies that learners utilize to negotiate a resolution when refusing a native speaker of higher status in three asymmetric situations (+Power, +Distance). Following Pomerantz's (1984) analysis of dispreferred responses, this study focuses on refusals to an invitation, a request, and a suggestion. Refusal…

  19. Refusing artificial nutrition and hydration: does statutory law send the wrong message?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieger, Carol E; Arnold, Jason F; Ahronheim, Judith C

    2002-03-01

    Ethical consensus and appellate court decisions view artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) as medical treatment that can be refused like other treatments. However, advance directive statutes may produce obstacles for refusal of ANH, as distinct from other life-sustaining treatments, in patients who lack capacity. This paper reviews state statutes and appellate case law regarding medical decision making for patients who lack decisional capacity. Twenty states (39%) have one or more explicit statutory provisions delineating a separate and more stringent standard for ANH refusal. These standards include higher evidentiary standard; requirement for specific preauthorization, qualifying medical conditions, second medical opinion, or judicial review; refusal not permitted; refusal not permitted if death would result from "starvation" or "dehydration"; and previous law with higher standard applies to old documents. In 11 of these states and in eight others, statutory law contains language that could be misinterpreted, implying, but not rising to, an explicitly higher standard. Four appellate decisions departed from the judicial consensus that ANH can be refused like other treatments, but subsequent court decisions or legislative enactments reduced or eliminated their impact. Legislators and the courts should ask whether higher standards for ANH refusal are appropriate in light of case law authority that ANH should not be treated differently and in light of statutory language that preserves those common law rights. These higher standards may make it more difficult in certain states to refuse ANH for patients who lack capacity or place a burden on good practice by making providers fearful of the law.

  20. 20 CFR 410.666 - Effect of Appeals Council's decision or refusal to review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of Appeals Council's decision or refusal to review. 410.666 Section 410.666 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL....666 Effect of Appeals Council's decision or refusal to review. The Appeals Council may deny a...

  1. Acquisition of cup drinking using previously refused foods as positive and negative reinforcement.

    OpenAIRE

    Kelley, Michael E; Piazza, Cathleen C; Fisher, Wayne W; Oberdorff, Amanda J

    2003-01-01

    We used previously refused foods as positive and negative reinforcement in the acquisition of cup drinking. Cup drinking increased with positive and negative reinforcement, both alone and in combination (without escape extinction), indicating that treatment of food refusal can establish some foods as appetitive stimuli whereas others remain aversive.

  2. 29 CFR 102.88 - Refusal to conduct referendum; appeal to Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refusal to conduct referendum; appeal to Board. 102.88..., SERIES 8 Procedure for Referendum Under Section 9(e) of the Act § 102.88 Refusal to conduct referendum... appear to the regional director that no referendum should be conducted, he shall dismiss the petition by...

  3. Strategie di rifuto in Italiano: uno studio etnografico (Refusal Strategies in Italian: An Ethnographic Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frescura, Marina

    1997-01-01

    After reviewing previous research on speech acts, this article describes a study that analyzed the behavior of speakers of standard Italian in refusing an offer of food. The importance of "face" is explained, and the refusal strategies are classified into four categories: explicit, tactical, decisive, and conclusive. (CFM)

  4. Family Influences on Treatment Refusal in School-Linked Mental Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Mary L.; Wiens, Brenda A.

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzed family influences on treatment refusal in school-linked mental health services (SLMHS). Specifically, it assessed whether levels of family cohesion, conflict, and organization were related to whether a family refused to initiate recommended treatment. Children (N = 133) referred for emotional and behavioral problems and their…

  5. Realization of Speech Acts of Refusals and Pragmatic Competence by Turkish EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Turgay; Burgucu-Tazegül, Assiye

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine a) how lower-intermediate and upper-intermediate level Turkish learners of English-as-a-foreign language (EFL) realize refusals in English, b) the differences between native and non-native speakers of English in the use of refusals, and c) if L2 proficiency affects possible pragmatic transfer or not.…

  6. 21 CFR 314.127 - Refusal to approve an abbreviated new drug application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal to approve an abbreviated new drug... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.127 Refusal to approve an abbreviated new...

  7. Refusing HIV testing in an urgent care setting: results from the "Think HIV" program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Rebecca V; Losina, Elena; Kang, Minhee; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Walensky, Rochelle P

    2006-02-01

    Efforts to increase HIV case identification through routine, voluntary HIV testing are hindered by high refusal rates. Our objective was to identify patients most likely to refuse routine HIV testing. We developed a new HIV testing program at four Massachusetts urgent care centers. Patients were asked if they were interested in routine HIV testing. We performed analyses to assess differences in characteristics between those who refused testing and those who accepted it. Data were available for 9129/10,354 (88%) patients offered routine HIV testing from January to December 2002. Of these 9129 patients, 67% refused testing. In the crude analysis, HIV test refusal was associated with female gender, white race, older age, and higher educational level. In multivariate analysis, non-English-speaking patients who were Hispanic, Haitian, and other race were more likely to refuse testing than their English-speaking counterparts. Among all patients, "not at risk" and "already tested" were the most common reasons for test refusal. Two thirds of patients refused routine HIV testing when it was offered in a statewide urgent care-based program. If routine HIV testing programs are to be successful, strategies must be developed to increase HIV test acceptance among patients most likely to refrain from testing.

  8. Learned Helplessness and Learning Goals: Role played in School Refusal. A Study on Italian Students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Sorrenti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Literature on school refusal has shown a link between school refusal and poor school performance. However, there has been little investigation into the individual underlying factors, and specifically factors directly related to the learning process, such as the learning goals of students and their expectations of success and/or failure. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the influence of Learned Helplessness (LH and learning goals on school refusal. We hypothesized that LH and learning goals exert a unique role in predicting school refusal above and beyond the roles of academic achievement, age, and gender. The sample consisted of 201 Italian students with an average age of 11.93, with both low (57.2 % of students and high (42.8 % academic achievement. School refusal, LH, and learning goals were measured by means of questionnaires. The results confirm the hypothesis of this study; in fact, we found that learning goals and, above all, LH play a more predictive role of school refusal than academic achievement. These results extend previous studies on school refusal and, for the first time, they provide additional knowledge about this problem, analyzing the relationship between school refusal, learning goals, and LH, still neglected in the literature. Implications on the psychological well-being of students are discussed.

  9. Prostate Cancer Patients’ Refusal of Cancer-Directed Surgery: A Statewide Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Islam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in USA. The surgical outcomes of prostate cancer remain inconsistent. Barriers such as socioeconomic factors may play a role in patients’ decision of refusing recommended cancer-directed surgery. Methods. The Nebraska Cancer Registry data was used to calculate the proportion of prostate cancer patients recommended the cancer-directed surgery and the surgery refusal rate. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to analyze the socioeconomic indicators that were related to the refusal of surgery. Results. From 1995 to 2012, 14,876 prostate cancer patients were recommended to undergo the cancer-directed surgery in Nebraska, and 576 of them refused the surgery. The overall refusal rate of surgery was 3.9% over the 18 years. Patients with early-stage prostate cancer were more likely to refuse the surgery. Patients who were Black, single, or covered by Medicaid/Medicare had increased odds of refusing the surgery. Conclusion. Socioeconomic factors were related to the refusal of recommended surgical treatment for prostate cancer. Such barriers should be addressed to improve the utilization of surgical treatment and patients’ well-being.

  10. Strategie di rifuto in Italiano: uno studio etnografico (Refusal Strategies in Italian: An Ethnographic Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frescura, Marina

    1997-01-01

    After reviewing previous research on speech acts, this article describes a study that analyzed the behavior of speakers of standard Italian in refusing an offer of food. The importance of "face" is explained, and the refusal strategies are classified into four categories: explicit, tactical, decisive, and conclusive. (CFM)

  11. Thinking through Moments of Sexual Refusal in "Looking for Alibrandi" and "The Rage in Placid Lake"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Kyra

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores two scenarios in which young women refuse the sexual advances of young men in the films "Looking for Alibrandi" and "The Rage in Placid Lake." The paper highlights the heteronormative nature of education around refusing sex, which reinstates gendered stereotypes of masculine as active and feminine as…

  12. Predictors of refusal to participate: a longitudinal health survey of the elderly in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Helen

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The loss of participants in longitudinal studies due to non-contact, refusal or death can introduce bias into the results of such studies. The study described here examines reasons for refusal over three waves of a survey of persons aged ≥ 70 years. Methods In a longitudinal study involving three waves, participants were compared to those who refused to participate but allowed an informant to be interviewed and to those who refused any participation. Results At Wave 1 both groups of Wave 2 non-participants had reported lower occupational status and fewer years of education, had achieved lower verbal IQ scores and cognitive performance scores and experienced some distress from the interview. Those with an informant interview only were in poorer physical health than those who participated and those who refused. Depression and anxiety symptoms were not associated with non-participation. Multivariate analyses found that verbal IQ and cognitive impairment predicted refusal. Results were very similar for refusers at both Waves 2 and 3. Conclusions Longitudinal studies of the elderly may over estimate cognitive performance because of the greater refusal rate of those with poorer performance. However, there is no evidence of bias with respect to anxiety or depression.

  13. 37 CFR 1.47 - Filing when an inventor refuses to sign or cannot be reached.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filing when an inventor... Processing Provisions Who May Apply for A Patent § 1.47 Filing when an inventor refuses to sign or cannot be reached. (a) If a joint inventor refuses to join in an application for patent or cannot be found...

  14. 21 CFR 515.21 - Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative Actions on Licenses § 515.21 Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application. (a)...

  15. Thinking through Moments of Sexual Refusal in "Looking for Alibrandi" and "The Rage in Placid Lake"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Kyra

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores two scenarios in which young women refuse the sexual advances of young men in the films "Looking for Alibrandi" and "The Rage in Placid Lake." The paper highlights the heteronormative nature of education around refusing sex, which reinstates gendered stereotypes of masculine as active and feminine as…

  16. Utilisation of Coloured Paper Refuse in Eco-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAKÁTS, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of our research we have found a solution for recycling coloured advertisingpaper in a cellulose fibre based composite. This paper quality is produced in huge quantities and canbe recycled with difficulties even in paper industry. Our aim was to produce a kind of organiccomposite that does not contain any adhesives fixing the matrix part of the composite. An eco-productgenerated this way has similar physical and mechanical attributes to medium density fibreboard(MDF. Fibre made of coloured newspaper can easily be adapted to board production while, at thesame time, this supports also the development of an environment oriented product policy. Boardbasedcomposites produced by utilizing recycled refuse paper can be used for designing and creatingenvironmentally friendly products following the eco-design trend.

  17. A case of pervasive refusal syndrome: a diagnostic conundrum.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNicholas, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    A case is presented of an 11-year-old girl with pervasive refusal syndrome (PRS) who ultimately recovered acutely and completely after an 18-month paediatric hospitalisation. There was an apparent absence of previously proposed important aetiological factors in PRS, such as family pathology and markedly traumatic or abusive experiences, and her recovery was sudden and complete. The authors consider the differential diagnoses of PRS paying particular attention to the possibility of a conversion disorder or catatonia, given the absence of PRS in the North American literature. Consideration of catatonia is important as it has a diagnostic test and responds rapidly to appropriate treatment, in contrast to conventional treatment for PRS and conversion disorder.

  18. Assessment of latest technology in coal refuse fire extinguishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maneval, D.R.

    1976-05-01

    It is easier, cheaper, and less hazardous to prevent fires in coal refuse banks than to extinguish them. This can be done by compacting in thin layers (to reduce air and air flow), sealing edges with various materials (crushed linestone is good, it gives off CO/sub 2/ when heated), etc. In particular the tippler form of pile construction should be avoided. Once these piles do ignite (by spontaneous combustion or other means), it is often difficult and hazardous (gases, explosions, unsafe regions, etc) to work at extinguishing them. Various methods are given. Once the fire is put out, the pile should be reworked, compacting and sealing it, so the process does not start again. (LTN)

  19. Low Temperature Dechlorination of Densified Refuse Derived Fuel in Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; XIE Qiang

    2005-01-01

    Study on behavior of chlorine contained in oval-shaped densified refuse derived fuel (d-RDF) prepared from unicipal solid waste in pyrolysis was carried out by means of temperature-programmed electrical furnace, and the gasevolving from pyrolysis was investigated by FTIR. De-HCl rate was calculated by determining the emission fraction of HCl in the flue gas and the fraction of Cl left in the pyrolysis residue. The results show that Cl in the d-RDF releases primarily in the form of HCl during the pyrolysis, and the initial releasing temperature of HCl enhances with the increase of heating rate. Meanwhile, the higher the end temperature of pyrolysis, the more the Cl released. De-HCl rate is about 70% when the end temperature of pyrolysis is around 600℃. Besides, mechanism of Cl release is discussed.

  20. Adsorption of phenolic compound by aged-refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai Xiaoli [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Enviromental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Siping Road 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China)]. E-mail: xlchai@mail.tongji.edu.cn; Zhao Youcai [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Enviromental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Siping Road 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2006-09-01

    The adsorption of phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol by aged-refuse has been studied. Adsorption isotherms have been determined for phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol and the data fits well to the Freundlich equation. The chlorinated phenols are absorbed more strongly than the phenol and the adsorption capacity has an oblivious relationship with the numbers and the position of chlorine subsistent. The experiment data suggests that both the partition function and the chemical adsorption involve in the adsorption process. Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model were applied to investigate the kinetics of the adsorption and the results show that it fit the pseudo-second-order model. More than one step involves in the adsorption process and the overall rate of the adsorption process appears to be controlled by the chemical reaction. The thermodynamic analysis indicates that the adsorption is spontaneous and endothermic.

  1. Wrongness, Responsibility, and Conscientious Refusals in Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Alida

    2017-09-01

    In this article, I address what kinds of claims are of the right kind to ground conscientious refusals. Specifically, I investigate what conceptions of moral responsibility and moral wrongness can be permissibly presumed by conscientious objectors. I argue that we must permit HCPs to come to their own subjective conclusions about what they take to be morally wrong and what they take themselves to be morally responsible for. However, these subjective assessments of wrongness and responsibility must be constrained in several important ways: they cannot involve empirical falsehoods, objectionably discriminatory attitudes, or unreasonable normative beliefs. I argue that the sources of these constraints are the basic epistemic, relational, and normative competencies needed to function as a minimally decent health-care professional. Finally, I consider practical implications for my framework, and argue that it shows us that the objection raised by the plaintiffs in Zubik v. Burwell is of the wrong sort. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. 开放空间复杂地形人员疏散模拟研究%Simulation Study on Pedestrian Evacuation in Open Space under Complicated Topographic Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽; 刘茂; 孟博; 王炜

    2012-01-01

    为研究开放空间复杂地形条件下人员疏散,开发出能够模拟行人疏散的三维可视化软件系统.将复杂多变的地形分解为一系列连续变化的坡面,分析斜坡上行人受力,考虑重力影响,在经典社会力模型的基础上,提出一个改进模型.选择某气井周边居民疏散案例,运用VC++和OpenGL图形库技术初步完成整合数字高程模型(DEM)、道路网络和行人特征的三维社会力人员疏散模拟程序.最后通过实例模拟,可以明显地观察到人群的动态疏散过程以及在灾难中的拥堵行为、转向躲避行为和超越行为.应用该模型,能够实现复杂地形人员疏散三维动态模拟,并快速预测疏散时间.%In order to study the pedestrian evacuation in open space under complicated topographic condition, this paper develops a three-dimensional dynamic simulation program for pedestrian evacuation. At first, this paper proposes an improved social force model. In this model, the complex topography is decomposed into a series of continuous varying slopes. Through analysis of forces acting on pedestrian on a slope, the component of gravity is added to the classical social force model to formulate the differential equation of pedestrian movement. Then, considering the residents evacuation around a gas well as a case, the DEM (Digital Elevation Model) , road net and physical characteristics are integrated by applying the platform of the Visual C + +6. 0 and the OpenGL 3D graphics library and a simulation program are developed for pedestrian evacuation based on the 3D social force model. At last, the 3D dynamic visualization of pedestrian evacuation in complex terrain is realized and behaviors of pedestrians ( congestion, turning, collision avoiding and passing by) can be demonstrated vividly. The approach provided in this paper can also predict process and time for the evacuation in complex terrain.

  3. Rehabilitating a landfill site of lowland tropical landscape into an urban green space: A case study from the Open University of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.D. Madurapperuma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines vegetation, carbon sequestration, and spatial and temporal changes of green space at the premises of the Open University of Sri Lanka (OUSL. The primary objective of this study is to examine floral diversity of the OUSL premises that was rehabilitated from a landfill site and to determine suitable trees for landfill sites based on growth performance and biomass carbon stocks. The girth and height of plants ⩾5 cm dbh were measured to estimate biomass carbon stocks of each individual tree. GPS coordinates of each individual tree were taken for spatial mapping. Urban green spaces were extracted from Satellite view of Google Earth for a decade using screen digitizing techniques. A total of 722 individuals, comprising 95 plant species belonging to 75 genera and 33 families, were recorded. Of the total species 45% were native species. The above-ground and below-ground biomass were estimated to be 50 (t C/ha and 10 (t C/ha respectively. These results are comparable with above-ground biomass and below-ground biomass in the dry zone forest (60 and 17 (t C/ha respectively. The study recognized that Terminalia catappa, Filicium decipiens, Mangifera indica, Cassia bacillaris and Tabebuia rosea species grow well in such landfill with effective carbon accumulation, and the species list presented in this paper will provide useful information that will help city planners to maximize biomass carbon sequestration by choosing optimal plants for landscaping in landfill sites.

  4. 48 CFR 252.222-7001 - Right of first refusal of employment-Closure of military installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Right of first refusal of... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7001 Right of first refusal...: Right of First Refusal of Employment—Closure of Military Installations (APR 1992) (a) The...

  5. The Open Service Signal in Space Navigation Data Comparison of the Global Positioning System and the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shau-Shiun Jan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available More and more Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs have been developed and are in operation. Before integrating information on various GNSSs, the differences between the various systems must be studied first. This research focuses on analyzing the navigation data differences between the Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS and the United States’ Global Positioning System (GPS. In addition to explaining the impact caused by these two different coordinate and time systems, this research uses an actual open service signal in space (SIS for both GPS and BDS to analyze their current system performance. Five data quality analysis (DQA mechanisms are proposed in this research to validate both systems’ SIS navigation data. These five DQAs evaluate the differences in ephemeris and almanac messages from both systems for stability and accuracy. After all of the DQAs, the different issues related to GPS and BDS satellite information are presented. Finally, based on these DQA results, this research provides suggested resolutions for the combined use of GPS and BDS for navigation and guidance.

  6. The open service signal in space navigation data comparison of the Global Positioning System and the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Tao, An-Lin

    2014-08-19

    More and more Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs) have been developed and are in operation. Before integrating information on various GNSSs, the differences between the various systems must be studied first. This research focuses on analyzing the navigation data differences between the Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) and the United States' Global Positioning System (GPS). In addition to explaining the impact caused by these two different coordinate and time systems, this research uses an actual open service signal in space (SIS) for both GPS and BDS to analyze their current system performance. Five data quality analysis (DQA) mechanisms are proposed in this research to validate both systems' SIS navigation data. These five DQAs evaluate the differences in ephemeris and almanac messages from both systems for stability and accuracy. After all of the DQAs, the different issues related to GPS and BDS satellite information are presented. Finally, based on these DQA results, this research provides suggested resolutions for the combined use of GPS and BDS for navigation and guidance.

  7. U.S. Supreme Court refuses to review decision invalidating provisions in Louisiana parental consent law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-31

    On October 20, 1997, the US Supreme Court refused to review an April decision of the US Court of Appeals finding that parental consent provisions in Louisiana's abortion law posed an unconstitutional "undue burden" on minors seeking abortions. Louisiana has required consent of one parent with a court bypass procedure since the early 1980s, but the legislature amended this legislation in 1995 to give judges wide latitude to deny young women abortions, breach their confidentiality, and permit unspecified time parameters in making a decision. A District Court found the amendments in conflict with established federal court precedent, and the Appeals Courts agreed and also found that the lack of guarantee for a specified time for resolution of a petition was inconsistent with court rulings against such open-ended bypass procedures. The Court also rejected a provision that gave a judge authority to order a young woman to attend evaluation and counseling sessions (again with no time limit) before authorization for abortion would be granted. The panel also struck down a provision that permitted a court to contact the parents of a minor if the court determined that the minor was not mature and that such notification would be in her best interests. It was found that this mandate would unacceptably compromise a petitioner's anonymity.

  8. Characteristics and prognosis of patients with early-stage endometrial cancer who refuse adjuvant radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskas, Martin; Huchon, Cyrille; Amant, Frederic

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the risk factors for refusing adjuvant radiotherapy in patients who have undergone surgery for early-stage endometrial cancer, and to compare their survival rates with patients who have undergone adjuvant radiotherapy. Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database for patients operated on for histologically-proven early-stage endometrioid endometrial cancer, between 1988 and 2012, were screened. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses tested the associations between refusal of adjuvant radiotherapy and demographic, tumoral, and management characteristics. Overall and cancer-related survival rates were compared between 376 patients who refused adjuvant radiotherapy and 752 patients who received adjuvant radiotherapy, matched for demographics (age, race, year of diagnosis, marital status, region), tumoral (grade, FIGO stage, size), and management (lymphadenectomy performed) criteria. 434 of the 16,014 patients (2.7%) who were proposed adjuvant radiotherapy refused this treatment. Older, widowed, divorced, or separated patients, who were recently diagnosed and managed in the Northern plains or Pacific coast (USA), with limited tumoral extension, were more likely to refuse adjuvant radiotherapy. Five-year cancer-related survival was significantly lower in patients who refused adjuvant radiotherapy (88.9% vs. 95.7%, pradiotherapy. Refusing adjuvant radiotherapy increased cancer-related death but probably does not reduce overall survival. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Audiovisual heritage preservation in Earth and Space Science Informatics: Videos from Free and Open Source Software for Geospatial (FOSS4G) conferences in the TIB|AV-Portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Peter; Marín Arraiza, Paloma; Plank, Margret

    2016-04-01

    The influence of Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) projects on Earth and Space Science Informatics (ESSI) continues to grow, particularly in the emerging context of Data Science or Open Science. The scientific significance and heritage of FOSS projects is only to a limited amount covered by traditional scientific journal articles: Audiovisual conference recordings contain significant information for analysis, reference and citation. In the context of data driven research, this audiovisual content needs to be accessible by effective search capabilities, enabling the content to be searched in depth and retrieved. Thereby, it is ensured that the content producers receive credit for their efforts within the respective communities. For Geoinformatics and ESSI, one distinguished driver is the OSGeo Foundation (OSGeo), founded in 2006 to support and promote the interdisciplinary collaborative development of open geospatial technologies and data. The organisational structure is based on software projects that have successfully passed the OSGeo incubation process, proving their compliance with FOSS licence models. This quality assurance is crucial for the transparent and unhindered application in (Open) Science. The main communication channels within and between the OSGeo-hosted community projects for face to face meetings are conferences on national, regional and global scale. Video recordings have been complementing the scientific proceedings since 2006. During the last decade, the growing body of OSGeo videos has been negatively affected by content loss, obsolescence of video technology and dependence on commercial video portals. Even worse, the distributed storage and lack of metadata do not guarantee concise and efficient access of the content. This limits the retrospective analysis of video content from past conferences. But, it also indicates a need for reliable, standardized, comparable audiovisual repositories for the future, as the number of OSGeo projects

  10. Parents who refuse or delay HPV vaccine: Differences in vaccination behavior, beliefs, and clinical communication preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkey, Melissa B; Calo, William A; Marciniak, Macary W; Brewer, Noel T

    2017-03-04

    We sought to estimate the national prevalence of HPV vaccine refusal and delay in a nationally-representative sample of parents of adolescents. We also compared parents who refused versus delayed HPV vaccine in terms of their vaccination beliefs and clinical communication preferences. In 2014 to 2015, we conducted an online survey of 1,484 US parents who reported on an 11- to 17-year-old child in their household. We used weighted multinomial logistic regression to assess correlates of HPV vaccine refusal and delay. Overall, 28% of parents reported that they had ever "refused or decided not to get" HPV vaccine for their child, and an additional 8% of parents reported that they had "delayed or put off getting" HPV vaccine. Compared to no refusal/delay, refusal was associated with lower confidence in adolescent vaccination (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48-0.91), lower perceived HPV vaccine effectiveness (RRR = 0.68, 95% CI, 0.50-0.91), and higher perceived harms (RRR = 3.49, 95% CI, 2.65-4.60). In contrast, delay was associated with needing more information (RRR = 1.76, 95% CI, 1.08-2.85). Most parents rated physicians and information sheets as helpful for making decisions about HPV vaccination, although parents who reported refusal endorsed these resources less often. Our findings suggest that HPV vaccine refusal is common among parents of adolescents and may have increased relative to previous estimates. Because the vaccination beliefs and communication preferences of parents who refuse appear to differ from those who delay, targeted communication strategies may be needed to effectively address HPV vaccine hesitancy.

  11. Microbial ecology studies at two coal mine refuse sites in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R. M.; Cameron, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation was made of the microflora associated with coal refuse at two abandoned mines in the midwestern United States. Information was gathered for both the edaphic and the biotic composition of the refuse material. Emphasis was placed on heterotrophic and autotrophic components as to numbers, kinds, and physiological groups. The presence of chemolithotrophs was also investigated. The relationship between abiotic and biotic components in regard to distribution of bacteria, fungi, and algae is discussed. Information presented in this report will be utilized in assessing trends and changes in microbial numbers and composition related to manipulations of the edaphic and biotic ecosystem components associated with reclamation of the refuse piles.

  12. OpenSubspace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Günnemann, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Subspace clustering and projected clustering are recent research areas for clustering in high dimensional spaces. As the field is rather young, there is a lack of comparative studies on the advantages and disadvantages of the different algorithms. Part of the underlying problem is the lack...... of available open source implementations that could be used by researchers to understand, compare, and extend subspace and projected clustering algorithms. In this paper, we discuss the requirements for open source evaluation software. We propose OpenSubspace, an open source framework that meets...... these requirements. OpenSubspace integrates state-of-the-art performance measures and visualization techniques to foster research in subspace and projected clustering....

  13. Turning refuse plastic into multi-walled carbon nanotube forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Oh, Jaegeun Lee, Seung-Ho Jung, Seungho Cho, Hye-Jin Kim, Sung-Hyun Lee, Kun-Hong Lee, Kyong-Hwa Song, Chi-Hoon Choi and Do Suck Han

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel and effective method was devised for synthesizing a vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT forest on a substrate using waste plastic obtained from commercially available water bottles. The advantages of the proposed method are the speed of processing and the use of waste as a raw material. A mechanism for the CNT growth was also proposed. The growth rate of the CNT forest was ~2.5 μm min−1. Transmission electron microscopy images indicated that the outer diameters of the CNTs were 20–30 nm on average. The intensity ratio of the G and D Raman bands was 1.27 for the vertically aligned CNT forest. The Raman spectrum showed that the wall graphitization of the CNTs, synthesized via the proposed method was slightly higher than that of commercially available multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs. We expect that the proposed method can be easily adapted to the disposal of other refuse materials and applied to MWCNT production industries.

  14. Gasification process of refuse derived fuel in circulating fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, S.; Kinoshita, Y.; Lee, C.W.; Itaya, Y.; Mori, S. [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents a fuel gas production system involving gasification of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB). Although RDF is considered to be a viable source of energy, combustion of RDF has not spread widely because of a lack of conventional incinerators, erosion due to hydrogen chloride, and emissions of dioxin. This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the pyrolysis behaviour of 3 kinds of RDF and the particle motion in a cold model CFB. The objective was to clarify operating parameters for optimum control. It was shown that an increase in combustion temperature improves the yield of the combustible gas components and the energy recycling efficiency from the RDF. The highest heating value of pyrolysis gas was obtained at 873 to 973 degrees K. The gas flow rate in the pneumatic valve of the CFB was an important control factor for the circulation flux and solids holdup in the riser. High holdups were observed when minute silica sand particles were used in the CFB. 15 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  15. Hygiene tests in the anaerobic digestion of household refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, H.; Philipp, W.; Wekerle, J.; Strauch, D.

    In a pilot plant the disinfecting effect of composting the effluent of an anaerobic mesophilic digestion process of the organic fraction of household refuse was investigated. The dewatered effluent was mixed with straw as bulking material, put in not aerated windrows and aerobically composted. It was further investigated whether the influent of the digester could be disinfected with lime milk prior to the anaerobic mesophilic digestion process. For the evaluation of the disinfection salmonellas, enterococci, klebsiellas, parvo-, polio- and rotavirus were used as test agents. Temperature, total aerobic germ count, enterobacteriaceae and coliforms were also considered. The effect of lime milk in the influent on the digestion process, survival of the test bacteria and gas production was also studied. Both treatments can result in a hygienically safe product. But composting under the conditions given should not be operated during the winter period. Lime treatment of the influent results in a disinfection of the effluent which immediately can be utilized as liquid sludge in agriculture. (orig.)

  16. Production, quality and quality assurance of Refuse Derived Fuels (RDFs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarc, R; Lorber, K E

    2013-09-01

    This contribution describes characterization, classification, production, application and quality assurance of Refuse Derived Fuels (RDFs) that are increasingly used in a wide range of co-incineration plants. It is shown in this paper, that the fuel-parameter, i.e. net calorific value [MJ/kg(OS)], particle size d(90) or d(95) [mm], impurities [w%], chlorine content [w%], sulfur content [w%], fluorine content [w%], ash content [w%], moisture [w%] and heavy metals content [mg/kg(DM)], can be preferentially used for the classification of different types of RDF applied for co-incineration and substitution of fossil-fuel in different industial sectors. Describing the external production of RDF by processing and confectioning of wastes as well as internal processing of waste at the incineration plant, a case study is reported on the application of RDF made out of different household waste fractions in a 120,000t/yr Waste to Energy (WtE) circulating fluidized bed (CFB) incinerator. For that purpose, delivered wastes, as well as incinerator feedstock material (i.e. after internal waste processing) are extensively investigated. Starting with elaboration of sampling plan in accordance with the relevant guidelines and standards, waste from different suppliers was sampled. Moreover, manual sorting analyses and chemical analyses were carried out. Finally, results of investigations are presented and discussed in the paper.

  17. Building an Open Data Portal for the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative based on an Iterative Development Methodology and Linked Data Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, P.; Bennett, V. L.; Stephens, A.; Wilson, A.; Waterfall, A. M.; Petrie, R.; Iwi, A.; Donegan, S.; Juckes, M. N.; Parton, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Climate Change Initiative (CCI) programme was initiated by the European Space Agency (ESA) in 2009 to address the GCOS Essential Climate Variable (ECV) requirements to provide stable, long-term, satellite-based data products to characterise the climate system and its changes. CEDA, working as part of a project consortium, were awarded the contract to build the Open Data Portal, consisting collectively of a central archive and single point of access for dissemination of the data to the international user community. Reflecting climate and earth observation community requirements, the system needed to support a range of access services in use by this domain and specifically, to integrate into existing infrastructure in the form of the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF). This range of requirements together with the heterogeneity of the ECV datasets presented significant challenges. However, the use of Linked Data technologies and an iterative approach to data model development and data publishing have been instrumental in meeting the objectives and building a cohesive system. The portal supports data discovery based on the OGC CSW specification and on ESGF's powerful faceted search. These services provide complementary content at different levels of granularity and it therefore became clear that a common data model was needed. Key terms are defined in vocabularies serialised in SKOS and OWL and are accessible from a central vocabulary server to provide a single authoritative source for applications consuming metadata content. Exploiting the vocabulary service therefore, it has been possible to develop an innovative solution tagging ISO 19115 records for the CSW with the equivalent vocabulary terms used for the ESGF faceted search system. In this way it has been possible to create a rich user interface for the portal combining search results from both search services and the ability to dynamically populate facet selection and context-based help information from the

  18. 29 CFR 102.19 - Appeal to the general counsel from refusal to issue or reissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Unfair Labor Practices 1 Complaint § 102.19 Appeal to the general counsel from refusal to issue or.... Consideration of an appeal untimely filed is within the discretion of the General Counsel upon good cause...

  19. Effects from different types of construction refuse in the soil on electrodialytic remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Eriksson, Thomas; Hansen, Henrik K.

    2002-01-01

    of different sorts of construction refuse on electrodialytic soil remediation was investigated in laboratory cells. An insulator, a stone, resulted in an uneven Cu removal in the close vicinity of the stone itself. An electric conductive screw disturbed the Cu removal due to the redox reactions occurring...... at the surface of the screw causing pH changes in the soil. Two types of refuse with ionic conducting properties were placed within the test cell, a piece of brick and concrete. The brick did not influence the Cu removal from the soil to a high extent, but it was seen that during the remediation the Cu...... poor. It is very important to be aware of the presence of construction refuse at such sites when planning an electrochemical remediation action. All the refuse types investigated here influenced the Cu removal negatively compared to the reference experiment. $CPY 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights...

  20. Development of new high-rate composting process of municipal refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajimoto, H.; Tamura, T.; Kumagaya, T.; Shimada, T.; Yoneda, M.; Hamamoto, I.

    1979-01-01

    In Japan, the composting technique is being re-evaluated as one of the alternative techniques for solid waste disposal. A review is made of the municipal refuse high-rate composting technique from the viewpoints of the changed properties of munficipal refuses and environmental protection. As the result of an operation of a pilot plant having a composting capacity of one ton of refuse per day, a new process suited to the properties of today's municipal refuses in Japan was developed. The feature of the new process is to control the moisture content of fresh compost (obtained from the primary digester) by a mechanical press and produce fully ripened compost without non-compostable materials such as plastics and glass.

  1. Open G(2) strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; de Medeiros, P.; El-Showk, S.; Sinkovics, A.

    2008-01-01

    We consider an open string version of the topological twist previously proposed for sigma-models with G(2) target spaces. We determine the cohomology of open strings states and relate these to geometric deformations of calibrated submanifolds and to flat or anti-self-dual connections on such submani

  2. Process Effects of Refusal on Psychological Stress Response for Elementary School Students

    OpenAIRE

    井邑, 智哉

    2012-01-01

    The process in which refusal affects psychological stress response was examined. A total of 300 participants (157 men, 143 women) completed the questionnaire survey. A model was constructed based on the assumption that the seven types of refusal facilitate the attainment of social support from friends. Thus, we proposed social support affects psychological stress response. A covariance structural analysis was conducted, indicating that modesty decreased depression-anxiety and displeasure-ange...

  3. Parental refusal of vaccination and transplantation listing decisions: a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Jennifer M; Karkazis, Katrina; Magnus, David

    2013-05-01

    Many professional societies and research studies recommend complete vaccination before pediatric solid organ transplantation. Nevertheless, incompletely vaccinated children often receive transplants. As the number of parents refusing to vaccinate children for nonmedical reasons increases, pediatric transplantation programs face difficult listing decisions. Given the importance of psychosocial criteria in listing decisions, this study explores how parental refusal of vaccination affects those listing decisions. Surveys were emailed to individuals at 195 pediatric solid organ transplantation programs in the United States, with a 71% response rate. Forty-four respondents (39%) reported that their programs have had cases involving parental refusal of vaccination. In response to hypothetical scenarios, 93 respondents (82%) would list a child not vaccinated for medical reasons, whereas only 54 respondents (47%) would list a child whose parents refused vaccination. Only five respondents (4%) reported that their programs had written policies regarding parental refusal of vaccination. These data reveal inconsistencies across pediatric transplantation programs regarding how parental refusal of vaccination affects listing decisions and raise the issue of whether and how the reason for incomplete vaccination should be factored into listing decisions. We recommend further discussion and the development of written guidelines to unify programs' assessments of incompletely vaccinated pediatric transplantation candidates.

  4. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  5. Aged refuse enhances anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianwei; Gui, Lin; Wang, Qilin; Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Dongbo; Ni, Bing-Jie; Li, Xiaoming; Xu, Rui; Zeng, Guangming; Yang, Qi

    2017-10-15

    In this work, a low-cost alternative approach (i.e., adding aged refuse (AR) into waste activated sludge) to significantly enhance anaerobic digestion of sludge was reported. Experimental results showed that with the addition dosage of AR increasing from 0 to 400 mg/g dry sludge soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) increased from 1150 to 5240 mg/L at the digestion time of 5 d, while the maximal production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) increased from 82.6 to 183.9 mg COD/g volatile suspended solids. Although further increase of AR addition decreased the concentrations of both soluble COD and VFA, their contents in these systems with AR addition at any concentration investigated were still higher than those in the blank, which resulted in higher methane yields in these systems. Mechanism studies revealed that pertinent addition of AR promoted solubilization, hydrolysis, and acidogenesis processes and did not affect methanogenesis significantly. It was found that varieties of enzymes and anaerobes in AR were primary reason for the enhancement of anaerobic digestion. Humic substances in AR benefited hydrolysis and acidogenesis but inhibited methanogenesis. The effect of heavy metals in AR on sludge anaerobic digestion was dosage dependent. Sludge anaerobic digestion was enhanced by appropriate amounts of heavy metals but inhibited by excessive amounts of heavy metals. The relative abundances of microorganisms responsible for sludge hydrolysis and acidogenesis were also observed to be improved in the system with AR addition, which was consistent with the performance of anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of an open source LIDAR modeling framework for space or airborne multi-wavelength LIDAR in support of the ASCENDS mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliutau, D.; Prasad, N. S.

    2011-12-01

    The NRC Decadal Survey has identified the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) as an important atmospheric science mission. An accuracy of 0.5 percent or better is required for the CO2 mixing ratio retrievals. NASA LaRC, working with its partners, is developing lidar technology in the 1.57 μm CO2 and 1.26-1.27 μm O2 bands for ASCENDS measurements. Simultaneous measurement of CO2 and O2 will be used to obtain CO2 column mixing ratios (XCO2). A generalized open-source LIDAR modeling framework is being developed to quantify errors and evaluate the performance of space and airborne lidar in the 1.57-μm and 1.26-1.27-μm bands of CO2 and O2. The general character of the simulation will also allow calculations for alternative 2.05 μm band of CO2 and the A-band of oxygen being investigated by other ASCENDS groups. Such cross-comparison is useful for validation purposes. Lidar simulation package components planned are presented in Table 1 (Ref. 1, 2, 3, 4) describing the main module and auxiliary programs. Our ongoing efforts include implementation of alternative lineshapes for 1.57μm CO2 and 1.26-1.27 μm O2 bands including the effects of speed dependence and line mixing. The accuracy of alternative lineshape models will be validated through comparison of airborne simulations with test-flights data. Figure 2 presents an overview of the lidar simulation framework where geographical location, date/time input are used to derive parameters for subsequent transmission and lidar calculations. The framework will rely upon the use of several databases and satellite datasets such as CALIPSO, MODIS, Google Earth, and GEOS-5 with an option to use radiosonde data. Our lidar framework is anticipated to also become useful for analysis of other missions based on active sensing for a variety of gasses and spectral ranges. (The authors acknowledge the support from ESTO and NPP). 1) L. S. Rothman et al., JQSRT, 110, 533-572, (2009) 2) Clough S. A

  7. Dialysis patients refusing kidney transplantation: data from the Slovenian Renal Replacement Therapy Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buturović-Ponikvar, Jadranka; Gubenšek, Jakob; Arnol, Miha; Bren, Andrej; Kandus, Aljoša; Ponikvar, Rafael

    2011-06-01

    Kidney transplantation is considered the best renal replacement therapy (RRT) for patients with end-stage renal disease; nevertheless, some dialysis patients refuse to be transplanted. The aim of our registry-based, cross-sectional study was to compare kidney transplant candidates to dialysis patients refusing transplantation. Data were collected from the Slovenian Renal Replacement Therapy Registry database, as of 31 December 2008. Demographic and some RRT data were compared between the groups. There were 1448 dialysis patients, of whom 1343 were treated by hemodialysis and 105 by peritoneal dialysis (PD); 132 (9%) were on the waiting list for transplantation, 208 (14%) were preparing for enrollment (altogether 340 [23%] dialysis patients were kidney transplant candidates); 200 (13.7%) patients were reported to refuse transplantation, all ≤ 65 years of age; 345 (24%) were not enrolled due to medical contraindications, 482 (33%) due to age, and 82 (6%) due to other or unknown reasons. No significant difference was found in age, gender, or presence of diabetes between kidney transplant candidates vs. patients refusing transplantation (mean age 50.5 ± 13.9 vs. 51.3 ± 9.6 years, males 61% vs. 63%, diabetics 18% vs. 17%). The proportion of patients ≤ 65 years old who were refusing transplantation was 28% (187/661) for hemodialysis and 17% (13/79) for PD patients (P = 0.03). There is a considerable group of dialysis patients in Slovenia refusing kidney transplantation. Compared to the kidney transplant candidates, they are similar in age, gender and prevalence of diabetes. Patients treated by peritoneal dialysis refuse kidney transplantation less often than hemodialysis patients.

  8. An audit of consent refusals in clinical research at a tertiary care center in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S J Thaker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Rationale: Ensuring research participants′ autonomy is one of the core ethical obligations of researchers. This fundamental principle confers on every participant the right to refuse to take part in clinical research, and the measure of the number of consent refusals could be an important metric to evaluate the quality of the informed consent process. This audit examined consent refusals among Indian participants in clinical studies done at our center. Materials and Methods: The number of consent refusals and their reasons in 10 studies done at our center over a 5-year period were assessed. The studies were classified by the authors according to the type of participant (healthy vs patients, type of sponsor (investigator-initiated vs pharmaceutical industry, type of study (observational vs interventional, level of risk [based on the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR "Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research on Human Participants"], available knowledge of the intervention being studied, and each patient′s disease condition. Results: The overall consent refusal rate was 21%. This rate was higher among patient participants [23.8% vs. healthy people (14.9%; P = 0.002], in interventional studies [33.6% vs observational studies (7.5%; P < 0.0001], in pharmaceutical industry-sponsored studies [34.7% vs investigator-initiated studies (7.2%; P < 0.0001], and in studies with greater risk (P < 0.0001. The most common reasons for consent refusals were multiple blood collections (28%, inability to comply with the study protocol (20%, and the risks involved (20%. Conclusion: Our audit suggests the adequacy and reasonable quality of the informed consent process using consent refusals as a metric.

  9. Effect of leachate recycling and inoculation on the biochemical characteristics of municipal refuse in landfill bioreactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Activity development of key groups of enzymes involved in municipal refuse decomposition was measured in laboratory landfill hioreactors with and without leachate recycling and inoculation for about 210 days.The results showed that the enzymes (amylase,protease,cellulase,lipase and pectinase ) were present in fresh refuse but at low values and positively affected hy leachate recycling and refuse inoculation.The total average of cellulase activity in digesters D3 operated with leachate recycling but no inoculation,D4 and D5 operated with leachate recycling and inoculation was much higher than that in digesters D1 and D2 without leachate recycling and inoculation by 88%-127%,117%-162% and 64%-98%.The total average of protease activity was higher in digester D4 than that in digesters D1,D2,D3and D5 by 63%,39%,24% and 24%,respectively,and the positive effect of leachate recycli.ng and inoculation on protease activity of landfilled refuse mainly was at the first two months.The total average of amylase activity was higher in digesters D3,D4 and D5 than that in digesters D1 and D2 by 83%-132%,96%-148% and 81%-129%.During the early phase of incubation,the stimulatory effect of inoculation on lipase activity was measured,but refuse moisture was the main factor affecting lipase activity of landfilled refuse.The inoculation,initial and continuous inoculation of microorganisms existing in leachate,was the mainly stimulatory factor affecting pectinase activity of landfilled refuse.

  10. Investigating cross-linguistic differences in refusal speech act among native Persian and English speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazanfari, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the speech act of refusal performed by native Persian and English speakers with respect to linguistic devices. The study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, refusal utterances were analyzed with respect to semantic formulas - that is words, phrases, or sentences meeting a particular semantic criterion to perform an act of eliciting. In the second phase, gender differences were examined, as well. One hundred movies (50 in Persian, 50 in English were used as instruments for gathering the data. The movies were watched closely, and the utterances native speakers employed in their refusals were transcribed and analyzed. Persian speakers used excuse more than English speakers; however, they applied strategies such as regret, non-performative statements, and lack of enthusiasm less frequently than English speakers. The Chi-square (χ² formula was then conducted to find out whether there were any significant differences in performing refusal speech act among the speakers of the two languages. The results showed that there were some differences between the two languages with regard to refusal utterances and gender. Finally, pedagogical implications of study for language learning and teaching have been enumerated.

  11. Are they really refusing to travel? A qualitative study of prehospital records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Sarah

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Refusal by the patient to travel after calling an emergency ambulance may lead to a preventable waste of scarce resources if it can be shown that an alternative more appropriate response could be employed. A greater understanding is required of the reasons behind 'refusal to travel' (RTT in order to find appropriate solutions to address this issue. We sought to investigate the reasons why patients refuse to travel following emergency call-out in a rural county. Methods Written records made by ambulance crews for patients (n = 397 who were not transported to hospital following an emergency call-out during October 2004 were retrospectively analysed. Results Twelve main themes emerged for RTT which included non injury or minor injury, falls and recovery after treatment on scene; other themes included alternative supervision, follow-up and treatment arrangements or patients arranging their own transport. Importantly, only 8% of the sample was recorded by ambulance crews as truly refusing to travel against advice. Conclusion A system that facilitates standardised recording of RTT information including social reasons for non-transportation needs to be designed. 'Refused to travel' disclaimers need to reflect instances when crew and patient are satisfied that not going to hospital is the right outcome. These recommendations should be considered within the context of the plans for widening the role of ambulance services.

  12. An Opened-Intelligent Parking Lot and Design of Parking Space Control System%一种开放式智能停车场及其停车位控制系统设计①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古辉; 李侠君

    2013-01-01

    提出了一种基于磁阻感应技术与无线传感网络技术相结合的开放式智能停车场的控制与管理技术方案。开放式智能停车场的基本单元是停车位的控制部件设计,方案中应用磁阻感应技术设计了地磁传感器,自动检测和确定车位中有无车辆以及停泊车辆的离开意图,通过构建无线传感网络,实现整个开放式智能停车场系统的管理。%We present a kind of intelligent parking lot which is open style in this paper. We called it Opened-Intelligent Parking. It is a technological solution of management which is based on the combining of the geomagnetic sensor and Wireless Sensor Network technology. The Opened-Intelligent Parking lot's basic unit is the designing of the parking space's control unit. It can detect cars automatically as well as the purpose of leaving with the geomagnetic sensor. The Opened-Intelligent Parking uses Wireless Sensor Network technology to sending messages to manage the system of the whole Opened-Intelligent Parking.

  13. 山地城市附属绿地开放适宜性评价研究%Research on the Openness Suitability Evaluation of Attached Green Space in the Mountain City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李方正; 李雄; 钱云; 张云路

    2016-01-01

    The research puts forward the method of opening the attached green to improve the imbalance between the amount and demand of lfat open public green spaces in the mountain city. In order to provide a scientiifc evaluation method of the openness of attached green space in mountain city, an evaluation index system is established with 3 control layers and 14 indexes, which are characterized by the functions of green space, the demand of green space and the boundary characteristics of green space. The weights of the indexes are determined by AHP analytic hierarchy process and entropy weight method. This study takes four afifliated green spaces of Chengde Yingshouyingzi area as examples, and picks the cultural facilities, education area, the scientiifc research and administrative offices as the object. The result shows that Youth Palace and Sanhe construction company attached green space are the most suitable to be open; Xiangtai community and the left bank of the Orchid Pavilion Garden is ifne to be open; Yingzi archives and district government afifliated green space is not suitable to be open.%研究提出通过附属绿地开放来提升山地城市平坦开放性公共绿地数量与需求不均衡的困境。为提供一个科学的山地城市附属绿地开放适宜性评价方法,建立了由景观功能性、开放需求性和边界特性3个控制层及14个指标共同组成的评价指标体系,并采用AHP层次分析法和熵权法确定指标的权重。以承德市鹰手营子矿区中心城区居住用地、文化设施用地、教育科研用地和行政办公用地4类附属绿地作为研究对象,对其进行综合评价,根据分值计算发现,青少年宫、三合建筑公司等附属绿地为适宜开放的附属绿地,祥泰小区、左岸兰阁花园等附属绿地为较适宜开放的附属绿地,档案馆和区政府等附属绿地为不适宜开放的附属绿地。

  14. Interlanguage Pragmatics: A Study of the Refusal Strategies of Indonesian Speakers Speaking English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novy Amarien

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This is a pilot study investigating the interlanguage pragmatics of the refusal strategies (RSs of Indonesian Speakers Speaking English (ISSE. The aims of the study are to investigate strategies ISSE use in their refusals of, specifically, offering and requesting initiation acts (IAs. Data were taken from 30 Discourse Completion Tasks undertaken by five males and females in the following groups: Indonesian speakers Speaking Indonesian (ISSI, ISSE and Australian Speakers Speaking English (ASSE. The study revealed that ISSE strategies in refusing offers were `intercultural', that is apparently uninfluenced by L1 patterns and yet not characteristic of L2 patterns. Pragmatic transfer was not in evidence. The data in this study could be the basis for further research in Indonesian interlanguage pragmatics.

  15. [Are we legally allowed to administer blood for lifesaving to a patient who refuses it?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimasaki, H; Yamamoto, H; Magaribuchi, T; Urabe, N; Shimasaki, A

    1997-04-01

    We surveyed the literatures and discussed the legal issues whether we should administer blood for lifesaving to a patient who refuses it. The valid refusal of the transfusion requires the distinct intention of a competent patient. Minors below fifteen years of age are incompetent and their parents make a substituted judgement. Anyone must not give priority to the parents' belief and blood ought to be transfused if necessary for the children's benefits. We could evade liability for withholding blood only when we manage an operation arranged to succeed without blood transfusion, undergoing the sufficient treatments to avoid the risks, as well as on the basis of the valid refusal of a patient. The release deed and the intervention of hospital directors, ethics committees and courts are invalid for the immunity from liability. Anesthesiologists have to take the responsibility on themselves of administering blood or not. A statute law should be established to define what is a patient's valid intention and who is responsible.

  16. The issue of refuse derived fuel - quantities, characterisation and use; Das Ersatzbrennstoffproblem - Aufkommen, Charakterisierung und Einsatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, M. [Bauhaus-Univ. Weimar (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verfahren und Umwelt; Thome-Kozmiensky, K.J. [Thome-Kozmiensky Ingenieure, Nietwerder (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Due to the many mechanical-biological waste treatment plants in operation and under construction as well as the ongoing implementation of the Household Waste Technical Code the use of refuse derived fuels in processes of the primary, cement, steel, power and other industries is becoming increasingly important. Ultimately all the detail questions being raised boil down to the one question of whether the mechanical-biological treatment of household waste and industrial waste similar to household waste offers economic or ecological advantages over thermal waste treatment, which in the meantime is acknowledged as environmentally benign and technically reliable. The present paper gives a classification of solid refuse derived fuels. It then goes on to explain the various types of mechanical-biological waste treatment plants and depict the quantities of refuse derived fuel required and residue fractions produced by each.

  17. For largest space flexibility and largest energy efficiency. Modern room automation enables an open-space solution in the arched structures of the central railway station; Fuer groesste Raumflexibilitaet und hoechste Energieeffizienz. Moderne Raumautomation ermoeglicht Open-Space Loesung in den Buegelbauten des Berliner Hauptbahnhofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottilinger, Werner [Sauter Deutschland, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    A feature of the central railway station in Berlin are the 46 meters high arched structures that span the railway station and accommodate more than 1,500 employees of the Deutsche Bahn AG (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany). A total of 42,000 square meters of office space and a large business and conference center spread on twelve floors. Within the commissioning of this central railway station, this vast area should be designed technically variable in order to hold the time and cost as low as possible for the reconstruction or change of tenants.

  18. The Impact of Age and Sex on the Refusal Strategies Used by Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Shahpouri Arani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One major problem for non-native speakers is using refusals and because of this, second language teachers and others who communicate in that language should have the cultural differences in mind. When the interlocutors say “no” to a request or invitation, either directly or indirectly, they use speech act of refusalRefusal is considered a face threatening act, as there exists a kind of contradiction in it and is always realized indirectly. Thus, a high level of pragmatic competence is needed to realize it. The aim of this study is to find out whether the age and sex of Iranian learners have any effect on their used refusal strategies and if the existence of such an effect was demonstrated which group is more native like in terms of content and form of used strategies. To achieve this end, graduated students (male/female of different age, sex and different fields of study were selected. Three groups of participants participated in this study. The first group includes 30 American English Speakers (A.E.S. The second group consists of participants whose ages were between 22-29 and the third group was a group of 30 participants of both sexes who speak English as a second language (sex is the only variable under study in this group. Using a Discourse Completion Test (DCT, a number of refusal situations were collected, responded by participants and analyzed. The results revealed that the age and sex of EFL learners does not have any significant effect on using refusal strategies.

  19. A novel silica alumina-based backfill material composed of coal refuse and fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Sun, Henghu

    2012-04-30

    In this paper, a systematic study was conducted to investigate a novel silica alumina-based backfill material composed of coal refuse and fly ash. The coal refuse and fly ash had different properties under various thermal activation temperatures (20 °C, 150 °C, 350 °C, 550 °C, 750 °C and 950 °C). It is known that a thermal activation temperature ranging from 20 °C to 950 °C significantly increases the flowability and pozzolanic properties of the coal refuse; however, the flowability of fly ash decreases when the activation temperature is higher than 550 °C because of a severe agglomeration phenomenon on its surface. An optimal design for this backfill material was determined to include an activated portion composed of 5% coal refuse at 750 °C and 15% fly ash at 20 °C. This combination yields the best performance with excellent flowability, a high compressive strength and a low bleeding rate. The microanalysis results corresponded well with the performance tests at different activation conditions. In the coal refuse, kaolinite peaks began to decrease because of their transformation into metakaolin at 550 °C. Chlorite peaks disappeared at 750 °C. Muscovite peaks decreased at 750 °C and disappeared at 950 °C. During this process, muscovite 2M(1) gradually dehydroxylated to muscovite HT. Furthermore, this paper examined the environmental acceptance and economic feasibility of this technology and found that this silica alumina-based backfill material composed of coal refuse and fly ash not only meets EPA requirements but also has several advantages in industry feasibility when compared with hydraulic backfill, rock backfill and paste backfill.

  20. A comparison of food refusal related to characteristics of food in children with autism spectrum disorder and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Kristie L; Anderson, Sarah E; Curtin, Carol; Must, Aviva; Bandini, Linda G

    2014-12-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently report child food refusal based on characteristics of food. Our study sought to determine whether parent report of food refusal based on the characteristics of food was greater in children with ASD than in typically developing children, associated with a greater percentage of foods refused of those offered, and associated with fruit and vegetable intake. A modified food frequency questionnaire was used to determine overall food refusal as well as fruit and vegetable intake. Parent-reported food refusal related to characteristics of food (eg, texture/consistency, temperature, brand, color, shape, taste/smell, foods mixed together, or foods touching other foods) was compared between 53 children with ASD and 58 typically developing children aged 3 to 11 years in the Children's Activity and Meal Patterns Study (2007-2008). Children with ASD were significantly more likely to refuse foods based on texture/consistency (77.4% vs 36.2%), taste/smell (49.1% vs 5.2%), mixtures (45.3% vs 25.9%), brand (15.1% vs 1.7%), and shape (11.3% vs 1.7%). No differences between groups were found for food refusal based on temperature, foods touching other foods, or color. Irrespective of ASD status, the percentage of foods refused of those offered was associated with parent reports of food refusal based on all characteristics examined, except temperature. Food refusal based on color was inversely associated with vegetable consumption in both groups. Routine screening for food refusal among children with ASD is warranted to prevent dietary inadequacies that may be associated with selective eating habits. Future research is needed to develop effective and practical feeding approaches for children with ASD.

  1. Methodology for regional economic analysis of urban refuse as an energy source for the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, P.M.; Le, T.

    1979-01-01

    The potential contribution of municipal refuse as an energy source depends on the spatial distribution and characteristics of population and the cost of alternative fuels. A methodology for regional economic analysis of urban refuse as an energy source requires a methodology that integrates population, interregional fuel price variations, and other engineering variables into a single model that can be subjected to sensitivity analysis helpful to the policy maker. Such a framework in the context of the Northeast States is developed. The area includes New England, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, and the District of Columbia.

  2. Opening Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovini, L.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen To quote Mr Jean Terrien: "Physics must be one step ahead of metrology". A long-serving Director of the BIPM, he said these words when visiting the IMGC in 1970 as a member of the scientific board of our Institute. At that time it was still an open question whether the IMGC should start research work on the absolute measurement of silicon lattice spacing. Mr Terrien underlined the revolutionary character of x-ray interferometry and, eventually, he caused the balance needle to lean towards the ... right direction. Mr Terrien correctly foresaw that, like Michelson's interferometer of 1880, x-ray interferometry could have a prominent place in today's science and technology. And while, in the first case, after more than a century we can see instruments based on electromagnetic wave interaction within every one's reach in laboratories and, sometimes, in workshops, in the second case, twenty-five years since the first development of an x-ray interferometer we can witness its role in nanometrology. Today and tomorrow we meet to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal place in the value of the Avogadro constant. We are aware that the quest for this achievement requires the cooperation of scientists with complementary capabilities. I am sure that the present workshop is a very good opportunity to present and discuss results and to improve and extend existing cooperation. The new adjustment of fundamental constants envisaged by the CODATA Task Group is redoubling scientists' efforts to produce competitive values of NA. The results of the measurements of the silicon lattice spacing in terms of an optical wavelength, which were available for the 1986 adjustment, combined with the determination of silicon molar volume, demonstrate how such an NA determination produces a consistent set of other constants and opens the way to a possible redefinition of the kilogram. We shall see in these two days how far we have progressed along this road. For us at the

  3. Arab Researchers Promotions of Open Archives and Free

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Al-Majid Salih Bu Azza

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A study aiming at measuring the promotion of Arab researches for Open Archives and Free Electronic Journal, contained 60 researches in Sultan Qabus university in Oman, and discovered their opinion about open access resources. It found that 78.8 % of researchers did not publish articles in Free Electronic Journals, and 77.8 % do not aware about the international imitative of Open Access. Also discovered that researchers refuse publishing their articles in e-journals because of electronic articles are not considered in their universities.

  4. Specifications for refuse-derived fuels utilisation in industrial power plants; Bedingungen fuer die Ersatzbrennstoffverwertung in Industriekraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, U.; Hoelter, G. [Fichtner GmbH und Co. KG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Concepts and definitions in the refuse-derived fuels sector are presented, as well as forecasts of the volumes to be expected. Utilisation options are presented, and specifications for a refuse-derived fuel are laid down. The necessary treatment stages are described, and the cost of the various processes is compared. (orig.)

  5. Open access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Open access week Van 19 tot en met 25 oktober 2015 vond wereldwijd de Open Access Week plaats. Tijdens deze week werden er over de hele wereld evenementen georganiseerd waar open access een rol speelt. Ook in Nederland zijn er diverse symposia, workshops en debatten georganiseerd zoals het debat in

  6. Mapping refuse profile in Singapore old dumping ground through electrical resistivity, S-wave velocity and geotechnical monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ke; Tong, Huan Huan; Noh, Omar; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Giannis, Apostolos

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to track the refuse profile in Lorong Halus Dumping Ground, the largest landfill in Singapore, by electrical resistivity and surface wave velocity after 25 years of closure. Data were analyzed using an orthogonal set of plots by spreading 24 lines in two perpendicular geophone-orientation directions. Both geophysical techniques determined that refuse boundary depth was 13 ± 2 m. The refuse boundary revealed a certain degree of variance, mainly ascribed to the different principle of measurements, as well as the high heterogeneity of the subsurface. Discrepancy was higher in spots with greater heterogeneity. 3D analysis was further conducted detecting refuse pockets, leachate mounding and gas channels. Geotechnical monitoring (borehole) confirmed geophysical outcomes tracing different layers such as soil capping, decomposed refuse materials and inorganic wastes. Combining the geophysical methods with borehole monitoring, a comprehensive layout of the dumping site was presented showing the hot spots of interests.

  7. Deciphering open space in urban contexts: Geophysical survey, soil multi-element chemical analysis, and artifact distributions at the 15th–16th-century AD Swahili settlement of Songo Mnara

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleisher, Jeffrey; Sulas, Federica

    2015-01-01

    to map artifact and geochemical distributions across these areas. These data provided a means to distinguish a ‘public space’ at the site: correlations were found between anomalies, daub, certain chemical elements (Fe, P, K, Mn) while areas without anomalies—the ‘public space’—correlated with more...... fragmented ceramics and other chemical elements (Ca, Na, Mg, Sr). The integrated methodological framework developed at Songo Mnara offers a new way to define areas that may have functioned as ‘public spaces’ as well as possible activities that were carried out in them. The results suggest that open spaces...

  8. Hygrothermal conditions in cold, north facing attic spaces under the eaves with vapour-open roofing underlay in a cool, temperate climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarløv, Søren Peter; Johnston, C.J.; Hansen, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of relative humidity and temperature in eight cold attic spaces under the eaves with varying infiltration and passive ventilation strategies were carried out in a full-scale experimental setup in Denmark. The research project tests whether best practice recommendations given to ensur...

  9. Can children aged 12 years or more refuse life-saving treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    arises whether a child may refuse to consent to life-saving medical treatment ... things, that the following be taken into account: (i) the child's age, maturity and stage ... other relevant characteristics; (ii) the child's physical and emotional security ...

  10. Behavioural treatment of a food refusal conversion disorder in a mentally retarded adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinman, B; Haydon, S; Sapan, J

    1990-12-01

    A 31-year-old woman with mental retardation who demonstrated total food refusal as the symptom of a conversion disorder was successfully treated with behavioural management techniques. The treatment utilized a shaping paradigm combined with relaxation procedures. The results supported the hypothesis that conversion disorder symptoms are maintained through their consequences, and the efficacy of behavioural treatments for those disorders.

  11. 45 CFR 5b.8 - Appeals of refusals to correct or amend records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Services Administration; Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration; Center for Disease Control... circumstances of the delay. The subject individual's request to amend or correct the record, the responsible... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appeals of refusals to correct or amend...

  12. 76 FR 46820 - Proposal To Refuse To Approve a Supplemental New Drug Application for Bromday (Bromfenac...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Proposal To Refuse To Approve a Supplemental New Drug Application for Bromday (Bromfenac Ophthalmic Solution), 0.09%; Opportunity for a Hearing AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the...

  13. 30 CFR 780.25 - Reclamation plan: Siltation structures, impoundments, and refuse piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for each proposed siltation structure, impoundment, and refuse pile within the proposed permit area....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may review and download the incorporated document from the Natural... copy of this document at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information...

  14. Influence of Refuse Sites on the Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella Serovars in Seagulls▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Raül; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Ramírez, Francisco; Jover, Lluís; Ruiz, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Wild animals are well-known reservoirs of Campylobacter and Salmonella. We investigated the influence of insalubrious diets on the prevalence of both enterobacteria in seagulls. Campylobacter occurrence in gull chicks sampled along the northeastern Iberian coast was directly related to the degree of refuse consumption. High Salmonella values from the sampling sites did not reflect any dietary relationship.

  15. High-context and Low-context communication:A Case Study of A Chinese Refusal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建晓; 钱敏

    2013-01-01

    Edward Hall offers us an effective means of examining cultural similarities and differences, that is the classification of high-context and low-context culture. The paper attempts to analyze a case of a Chinese refusal from the perspective of high-context and low-context communication and explores the differences between the two types of communication.

  16. Interim storage of wastes and refuse derived fuels; Zwischenlagerung von Abfaellen und Ersatzbrennstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thome-Kozmiensky, K.J.; Versteyl, A.; Beckmann, M. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    Authors comment on interim storage of municipal wastes and refuse derived fuels. Topics of the 16 contributions are: Logistics and engineering, planning, estimation of storage time, cost and commitment, amend ment of the regulations, penal risks of interim storage, material flow management at waste incinerators, fire prevention, environmental risk, insurances. (uke)

  17. Determinants for refusal of HIV testing among women attending for antenatal care in Gambella Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanta Wondimagegn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Gambella region, inhabitants owe socio-cultural factors that might favor refusal for HIV testing service utilization among Antenatal Care attendees. Objective To assess determinants for refusal of HIV testing service utilization among ANC attendees in Gambella Region. Methods A comparative cross sectional study was conducted among ANC attendees from March 2008 to May 2008 in four selected health facilities of Gambella region. Sample size of 332 participants (83 who refused HIV testing and 249 who accepted HIV testing were taken for the study. The study was supplemented with four focus group discussions. Multivariate binary logistic regression was employed to control for confounding factors. Results When adjusted with other factors pregnant women with 2–3 live births in the past; who claimed divorce as a perceived response of their husband following HIV positive test result; who had not sought agreement from their husband for testing; disclosure of test for husband and being from certain ethnic group (E.g. Mejenger were independent predictors for refusal of HIV testing among ANC attendees. Conclusion and recommendation Based on the findings, the following recommendations were forwarded: Provision of innovative information and education on the pre-test session for those pregnant women having two or more children; community involvement to tackle stigma; women empowerment; designing couple friendly counseling service; and fighting harmful traditional practices related with decision of HIV testing.

  18. Additive, Multi-Component Treatment of Emerging Refusal Topographies in a Pediatric Feeding Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, William G.; Jaquess, David L.; Bogard, Jennifer D.; Morton, Jane F.

    2010-01-01

    This case study describes inter-disciplinary treatment of chronic food refusal and tube dependency in a 2-year-old female with a pediatric feeding disorder. Evidence-based behavioral components--including escape extinction (EE), differential reinforcement of alterative mealtime behavior (DRA), and stimulus fading--were introduced sequentially as…

  19. Behavioral Assessment and Treatment of Chronic Food Refusal in Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Mary M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Chronic food refusal of four handicapped children (one-three years old) was modified by a procedure involving the delivery of reinforcement (social praise, access to preferred foods, brief toy play periods) contingent upon consumption of a targeted food item. (CL)

  20. Resisting Colonial Education: Zitkala-Sa and Native Feminist Archival Refusal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrance, Laura L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines resistance through a Native Feminist lens, employing the boarding school memoirs of Zitkala-Sa. Within a "story" of appropriation in methodology, it considers protest and parody, and presents archival refusal as modes of resistance to colonial education. (Contains 1 figure.)

  1. [Tuberculosis and refusal of treatment: resorting to legislation on serious health threats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, R; Le Gueut, M

    2013-06-01

    Clinicians are regularly confronted with the question of refusal of treatment from patients with tuberculosis. For several years, the French public health authorities have been studying the possibility of compelling treatment or isolation, but no plan has been implemented even though European and American experiences have shown the effectiveness of restrictive measures. Neither the statutory exceptions to the principle of consent to medical treatment nor the conditions of implementation of "required care" allow legally binding measures against patients refusing care or isolation. The legislation on serious health threats has recently been applied to the situation of a refusal of treatment in the context of tuberculosis. It allowed the patient to be ordered to observe prescribed care and the possibility of forced isolation in the event of breach of this order. The legislation on serious health threats is a response to the question of refusal of treatment from patients with tuberculosis. However the opinion of the legal authority as to its necessity and proportionality to the risk remains unknown. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhancing tomato plant growth and productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sortino, Orazio [Dipartimento di Scienze Agronomiche Agrochimiche e delle Produzioni Animali, Universita degli Studi di Catania, Via Valdisavoia 5, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipasquale, Mauro [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Montoneri, Enzo, E-mail: enzo.montoneri@unito.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Tomasso, Lorenzo; Perrone, Daniele G. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Vindrola, Daniela; Negre, Michele; Piccone, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Valorizzazione e Protezione delle Risorse Agroforestali, Universita di Torino, Via L. da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Municipal bio-wastes are a sustainable source of bio-based products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics promote chlorophyll synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhance plant growth and fruit ripening rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustainable chemistry exploiting urban refuse allows sustainable development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemistry, agriculture and the environment benefit from biowaste technology. - Abstract: Municipal bio-refuse (CVD), containing kitchen wastes, home gardening residues and public park trimmings, was treated with alkali to yield a soluble bio-organic fraction (SBO) and an insoluble residue. These materials were characterized using elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and then applied as organic fertilizers to soil for tomato greenhouse cultivation. Their performance was compared with a commercial product obtained from animal residues. Plant growth, fruit yield and quality, and soil and leaf chemical composition were the selected performance indicators. The SBO exhibited the best performance by enhancing leaf chlorophyll content, improving plant growth and fruit ripening rate and yield. No product performance-chemical composition relationship could be assessed. Solubility could be one reason for the superior performance of SBO as a tomato growth promoter. The enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content is discussed to identify a possible link with the SBO photosensitizing properties that have been demonstrated in other work, and thus with photosynthetic performance.

  3. An Alternating Treatments Comparison of Two Intensive Interventions for Food Refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, William H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The effects of two methods of negative reinforcement on three young children (ages two and three) with developmental delays and chronic food refusal were examined. Physically guiding the child to accept food contingent on noncompliance and nonremoval of the spoon until the child ate were tested. Both treatments were effective; however, parents…

  4. Missed opportunities: refusal to confirm reactive rapid HIV tests in the emergency department.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishani Ganguli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV infection remains a major US public health concern. While HIV-infected individuals now benefit from earlier diagnosis and improved treatment options, progress is tempered by large numbers of newly diagnosed patients who are lost to follow-up prior to disease confirmation and linkage to care. METHODOLOGY: In the randomized, controlled USHER trial, we offered rapid HIV tests to patients presenting to a Boston, MA emergency department. Separate written informed consent was required for confirmatory testing. In a secondary analysis, we compared participants with reactive results who did and did not complete confirmatory testing to identify factors associated with refusal to complete the confirmation protocol. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirteen of 62 (21.0%, 95% CI (11.7%, 33.2% participants with reactive rapid HIV tests refused confirmation; women, younger participants, African Americans, and those with fewer HIV risks, with lower income, and without primary care doctors were more likely to refuse. We projected that up to four true HIV cases were lost at the confirmation stage. CONCLUSIONS: These findings underscore the need to better understand the factors associated with refusal to confirm reactive HIV testing and to identify interventions that will facilitate confirmatory testing and linkage to care among these populations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00502944; NCT01258582.

  5. Choosing none of the above: Persistence of negativity after group discussion and group decision refusal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijstad, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Within psychology and other disciplines, group decision making is a much-studied topic. However, the conditions in which groups do not decide but rather refuse to choose among available options have not been studied systematically. This research begins to fill this void, studying the effects of the

  6. Choosing none of the above : Persistence of negativity after group discussion and group decision refusal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijstad, Bernard A.

    2008-01-01

    Within psychology and other disciplines, group decision making is a much-studied topic. However, the conditions in which groups do not decide but rather refuse to choose among available options have not been studied systematically. This research begins to fill this void, studying the effects of the

  7. Psychological Factors behind Truancy, School Phobia, and School Refusal: A Literature Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, Hans; Eriksson, Rikard

    2013-01-01

    Truancy is a problem that normally leads to treatment interventions within different organizations. Within these organizations different perspectives on the causes and consequences of the above problem can be found. The purpose of this literature study is to map out and describe the current state of research within the fields of school refusal,…

  8. High quality coal extraction and environmental remediation of fine coal refuse ponds using advanced cleaning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R.Q.; Mohanty, M.K.; Patwardhan, A. [Department of Mining Engineering, Southern Illinois University-Carbondale, Carbondale, Illinois (United States)

    1998-07-01

    A vast number of coal refuse ponds represent a significant economical resource base that are also considered to be environmentally harmful. Significant amounts of cleanable fine coal generally exist in the refuse ponds due to the inability of conventional technologies to effectively separate the fine coal from the associated gangue particles. In addition, acid generation, generally a result of pyrite oxidation, has potential to adversely affect the surrounding environment. An integrated processing strategy of simultaneously recovering high quality coal and pyrite-rich products from the treatment of a coal refuse pond slurry has been successfully evaluated using an advanced physical cleaning circuit. A clean coal product having ash and pyritic sulfur contents of 10.1% and 0.41% was recovered with a mass yield of nearly 49%. In addition, a pyrite-rich product containing nearly 83% of the coal pyrite particles present in the refuse pond material was generated for neutralization purposes for the environmental remediation of the slurry pond. 4 refs.

  9. A Study on the Perception of Jordanian EFL Learners’ Pragmatic Transfer of Refusals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Fathi Huwari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the perception of Jordanian EFL learners’ (JEFL pragmatic transfer of refusal strategies in terms of contextual and cultural factors. Data were collected using a discourse completion test (DCT and a scaled-response questionnaire (SRQ to elicit perception data from the participants. Data from the SRQ were analyzed based on the speaker’s right to refuse the initiating act. Findings revealed that the right the speaker has to refuse the initiating act was assigned high ratings by the three groups (i.e., M > 3.00 in all social categories. Individually, however, the groups displayed the rating value differently where the AEL1 group’s perception of the speaker’s right was relatively higher than that of the JEFL and JAL1 groups in all the social categories. The JEFL participants’ negative pragmatic transfer criteria were met in the first and third social categories. The study concludes with a discussion of important directions for future research. Keywords: Perception, Refusal, Pragmatic transfer, Pragmalinguistic transfer, Sociopragmatic transfer

  10. War Memories and the Refusal of Male Dominance in Shakir's "Oh, Lebanon"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Momani, Hassan Ali Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the role of the war memories in the construction of the female gender identity in Evelyin Shakir's "Oh, Lebanon," in which the female protagonist refuses to belong to her Arab identity when she lives in the United States because of the brutal war memories she witnesses in Lebanon. Such memories make the…

  11. Using Food Redistribution to Reduce Packing in Children with Severe Food Refusal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulotta, Charles S.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Patel, Meeta R.; Layer, Stacy A.

    2005-01-01

    Positive- and negative-reinforcement-based procedures typically have targeted acceptance for children with severe food refusal; however, these procedures do not always result in successful swallowing. Once acceptance is achieved, some children expel the food repeatedly or pack (hold or pocket) it in their mouths for extended periods of time. This…

  12. An Alternating Treatments Comparison of Two Intensive Interventions for Food Refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, William H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The effects of two methods of negative reinforcement on three young children (ages two and three) with developmental delays and chronic food refusal were examined. Physically guiding the child to accept food contingent on noncompliance and nonremoval of the spoon until the child ate were tested. Both treatments were effective; however, parents…

  13. Insulin refusal in Iranian patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadiri-Anari, Akram; Fazaelipoor, Zahra; Mohammadi, Seyed Mohammad

    2013-09-09

    To achieve tight glycemic control in diabetic patients, it may be necessary to introduce insulin therapy much earlier in the disease course. Poor glycemic control is a risk factor for the development of diabetic complications. Many patients require insulin therapy after several years of disease in order to maintain good glycemic control and prevent complications. But many patients do not receive insulin therapy in a timely manner because of a negative appraisal of this treatment. Understanding the cause of this negative attitudes is necessary for better evaluation to overcome for this problem. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reasons for insulin refusal among patients with type 2 diabetes. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study from Yazd Diabetes Research Center. 400 patients with type 2 diabetes who had an HbA1c ≥8.0% despite optimal oral therapy were identified that participated in this study. Data were obtained by patient interview using validated questionnaires. This study showed that Insulin refusal was common. 77% of participant reported being unwilling to take insulin if prescribed. Fear of injection is an important cause for insulin refusal among patients. Insulin refusal is an important problem among our patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Findings of this study suggest that interventions aimed at increasing insulin use should focus on injection-related concerns, education and correction of misconceptions.

  14. Insulin refusal in Iranian patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Ghadiri-Anari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To achieve tight glycemic control in diabetic patients, it may be necessary to introduce insulin therapy much earlier in the disease course. Poor glycemic control is a risk factor for the development of diabetic complications. Many patients require insulin therapy after several years of disease in order to maintain good glycemic control and prevent complications. But many patients do not receive insulin therapy in a timely manner because of a negative appraisal of this treatment. Understanding the cause of this negative attitudes is necessary for better evaluation to overcome for this problem. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reasons for insulin refusal among patients with type 2 diabetes. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study from Yazd Diabetes Research Center. 400 patients with type 2 diabetes who had an HbA1c ≥8.0% despite optimal oral therapy were identified that participated in this study. Data were obtained by patient interview using validated questionnaires. This study showed that Insulin refusal was common. 77% of participant reported being unwilling to take insulin if prescribed. Fear of injection is an important cause for insulin refusal among patients. Insulin refusal is an important problem among our patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Findings of this study suggest that interventions aimed at increasing insulin use should focus on injection-related concerns, education and correction of misconceptions.

  15. [A patient who refused treatment after self-poisoning with paracetamol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramers, C.; Jansman, F.G.A.; Droogleever Fortuyn, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Two patients, a 20-year-old man and a 33-year-old woman, were admitted with paracetamol poisoning. Both patients refused treatment initially but eventually complied. The man had a paracetamol concentration of 47.5 mg/l 2.5-5.0 h after ingestion, so antidote treatment was not considered necessary. Th

  16. Modern on-line control system for refuse-fueled power plants. Moderne Leittechnik fuer Muellverbrennungsanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasmueck, L. (Asea Brown Boveri AG, Mannheim (Germany, F.R.)); Klitzke, H.J. (Goepfert und Reimer und Partner, Beratende Ingenieure, Hamburg (Germany, F.R.)); Schumacher, E. (Technische Werke Ludwigshafen am Rhein AG (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-10-01

    30 years after commissioning a refuse-fueled power plant in Ludwigshafen was retrofitted and extended. A process control system provides an optimal waste combustion and flue gas cleanup. An on-line central strategy, special requirements on waste combustion and solutions are presented in this report. (orig.).

  17. 21 CFR 516.131 - Refuse to file a request for determination of eligibility for indexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... eligibility for indexing. 516.131 Section 516.131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 516.131 Refuse to file a request for determination of eligibility for indexing. (a) If a request for determination of eligibility for indexing contains all of the information required by § 516.129, FDA shall...

  18. Reasons Given by High School Students for Refusing Sexually Transmitted Disease Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Ladatra S.; Nsuami, Malanda; Cropley, Lorelei D.; Taylor, Stephanie N.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine reasons given by high school students for refusing to participate in a school-based noninvasive chlamydia and gonorrhea screening that was offered at no cost to students, using the health belief model as theoretical framework. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Public high schools in a southern urban United States…

  19. Correlates of Inconsistent Refusal of Unprotected Sex among Armenian Female Sex Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Markosyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence and correlates of inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex among female sex workers (FSWs in Armenia. One hundred and eighteen street-based FSWs between the ages of 20 and 52 completed a questionnaire assessing FSWs’ demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics. A total of 52.5% (n=62 of FSWs reported inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex with clients in the past 3 months. Logistic regression analysis controlling for participants’ age and education revealed that perceiving more barriers toward condom use (AOR = 1.1; P<0.01, reporting more types of abuse (AOR = 2.1; P<0.01, and setting lower fees for service (AOR = 0.9; P=0.02 significantly predicted inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex. HIV-risk-reduction behavioral interventions tailored to FSWs working in Yerevan Armenia should address the factors identified in this study toward the goal of enhancing refusal of unprotected sex and ultimately preventing acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs including HIV.

  20. The Right of Psychiatric Patients to Refuse Medication: Where Should Social Workers Stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Kia J.

    1993-01-01

    Addresses differences among competence, commitment, and mental illness; the right to privacy; and the prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment. Reviews professional motivations in relation to both sides of controversy over rights of psychiatric patients to refuse medication. Presents position for social work profession that stands for…

  1. School Factors Associated with School Refusal- and Truancy-Related Reasons for School Non-Attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havik, Trude; Bru, Edvin; Ertesvåg, Sigrun K.

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate how students' perceptions of relationships with peers at school and teachers' classroom management are associated with school refusal-related reasons and truancy-related reasons for school non-attendance. The study included controls for emotional stability and relevant parental variables. A student…

  2. Characteristics of H2S emission from aged refuse after excavation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dong-Sheng; Du, Yao; Fang, Yuan; Hu, Li-Fang; Fang, Cheng-Ran; Long, Yu-Yang

    2015-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S(g)) emission from landfills is a widespread problem, especially when aged refuse is excavated. H2S(g) emission from aged refuse exposed to air was investigated and the results showed that large amounts of H2S(g) can be released, especially in the first few hours after excavation, when H2S(g) concentrations in air near refuse could reach 2.00 mg m(-3). Initial exposure to air did not inhibit the emission of H2S(g), as is generally assumed, but actually promoted it. The amounts of H2S(g) emitted in the first 2 d after excavation can be very dangerous, and the risks associated with the emission of H2S(g) could decrease significantly with time. Unlike a large number of sulfide existed under anaerobic conditions, the sulfide in aged municipal solid waste can be oxidized chemically to elemental sulfur (but not sulfate) under aerobic conditions, and its conversion rate was higher than 80%. Only microorganisms can oxidize the reduced sulfur species to sulfate, and the conversion rate could reach about 50%. Using appropriate techniques to enhance these chemical and biological transformations could allow the potential health risks caused by H2S(g) after refuse excavation to be largely avoided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 洛阳市区绿色开放空间系统的动态演变与功能优化%Dynamic evolution and optimization of green open space in Luoyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王发曾; 王胜男; 李猛

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of green open space plays a significant role in achieving sustainable development of ecological cities. Green open space system in Luoyang consists of 6 categories. product green area, farmland and forest, riparian area, garden, road landscape area and auxiliary green area. By using landscape pattern analysis, Structure Evenness Radio Index, Ecological Intensity Index, and Huff model, the paper examines the dynamic changes in area, shape and distribution of the green open space from 1988 to 200S. It evaluates service capacity of the green open space system before spatial distribution and demand-supply condition is optimized. Results are shown as follows. 1) For the 20 years there is an increase in riparian areas, gardens, road landscape areas and auxiliary green areas, while a decrease in product green area, farmland and forest. Green space is abundant in Quadrants 2-5 and Rings 4-8, and less in Quadrants 7 and 8 and Rings 1,2, and 10. 2) There are significant differences in Evenness Radio of all quadrants and rings. However', Quadrant 6 and Ring 5 show stable Evenness Radio, indicating gradual improvement of green space distribution in riparian areas, gardens, road landscape areas and auxiliary green areas. 3) There is a notable increase in density of green patches, with areas along the Luohe River and west fringe of the city having the highest value. Many green patches have low Shape Index, though some regions see an increase. The patches generally display regular geometry shapes, which are obvious products of urban planning. 4) Ecological SeIving Intensity Index of 2008 is 0. 288, and falls into Class III, being an ordinary level. Time costs for local residents visiting green open space are high. Demand and supply of green space service are out of balance for both the northern and southern parts of the city. 5) The frame of overall design for green open space system optimization is "1 center with 3 rings, 4 belts with 3 axes, and 3

  4. Predictors of condom use and refusal among the population of Free State province in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandran Thoovakkunon

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the extent and predictors of condom use and condom refusal in the Free State province in South Africa. Methods Through a household survey conducted in the Free Sate province of South Africa, 5,837 adults were interviewed. Univariate and multivariate survey logistic regressions and classification trees (CT were used for analysing two response variables ‘ever used condom’ and ‘ever refused condom’. Results Eighty-three per cent of the respondents had ever used condoms, of which 38% always used them; 61% used them during the last sexual intercourse and 9% had ever refused to use them. The univariate logistic regression models and CT analysis indicated that a strong predictor of condom use was its perceived need. In the CT analysis, this variable was followed in importance by ‘knowledge of correct use of condom’, condom availability, young age, being single and higher education. ‘Perceived need’ for condoms did not remain significant in the multivariate analysis after controlling for other variables. The strongest predictor of condom refusal, as shown by the CT, was shame associated with condoms followed by the presence of sexual risk behaviour, knowing one’s HIV status, older age and lacking knowledge of condoms (i.e., ability to prevent sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy, availability, correct and consistent use and existence of female condoms. In the multivariate logistic regression, age was not significant for condom refusal while affordability and perceived need were additional significant variables. Conclusions The use of complementary modelling techniques such as CT in addition to logistic regressions adds to a better understanding of condom use and refusal. Further improvement in correct and consistent use of condoms will require targeted interventions. In addition to existing social marketing campaigns, tailored approaches should focus on establishing the perceived need

  5. Feasibility of landfill gas as a liquefied natural gas fuel source for refuse trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietsman, Josias; Bari, Muhammad Ehsanul; Rand, Aaron J; Gokhale, Bhushan; Lord, Dominique; Kumar, Sunil

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology to evaluate the feasibility of using landfill gas (LFG) as a liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuel source for heavy-duty refuse trucks operating on landfills. Using LFG as a vehicle fuel can make the landfills more self-sustaining, reduce their dependence on fossil fuels, and reduce emissions and greenhouse gases. Acrion Technologies Inc. in association with Mack Trucks Inc. developed a technology to generate LNG from LFG using the CO2 WASH process. A successful application of this process was performed at the Eco Complex in Burlington County, PA. During this application two LNG refuse trucks were operated for 600 hr each using LNG produced from gases from the landfill. The methodology developed in this paper can evaluate the feasibility of three LFG options: doing nothing, electricity generation, and producing LNG to fuel refuse trucks. The methodology involved the modeling of several components: LFG generation, energy recovery processes, fleet operations, economic feasibility, and decision-making. The economic feasibility considers factors such as capital, maintenance, operational, and fuel costs, emissions and tax benefits, and the sale of products such as surplus LNG and food-grade carbon dioxide (CO2). Texas was used as a case study. The 96 landfills in Texas were prioritized and 17 landfills were identified that showed potential for converting LFG to LNG for use as a refuse truck fuel. The methodology was applied to a pilot landfill in El Paso, TX. The analysis showed that converting LFG to LNG to fuel refuse trucks proved to be the most feasible option and that the methodology can be applied for any landfill that considers this option.

  6. Open space or natural place? : The politics, perceptions and practices of place-making inthe co-management of an urban nature reserve, Macassar Dunes, Cape Town.

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Marnie

    2010-01-01

    This study uses sense of place and adaptive co-management theories to present acomparative analysis of co-management arrangements at Macassar Dunes Nature Reserve, CapeTown, and to broadly investigate the role of ‘place’ in ‘co-management’. Methods involved in-depthinterviews with members of the main co-management body, the Macassar Dunes Co-managementAuthority, to determine their perceptions of ‘bridges’ and ‘barriers’ to co-management, and ‘placemeanings’. Open-coding of these perceptions w...

  7. IMF dependence of the open-closed field line boundary in Saturn's ionosphere, and its relation to the UV auroral oval observed by the Hubble Space Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Belenkaya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the dependence of Saturn's magnetospheric magnetic field structure on the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF, together with the corresponding variations of the open-closed field line boundary in the ionosphere. Specifically we investigate the interval from 8 to 30 January 2004, when UV images of Saturn's southern aurora were obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST, and simultaneous interplanetary measurements were provided by the Cassini spacecraft located near the ecliptic ~0.2 AU upstream of Saturn and ~0.5 AU off the planet-Sun line towards dawn. Using the paraboloid model of Saturn's magnetosphere, we calculate the magnetospheric magnetic field structure for several values of the IMF vector representative of interplanetary compression regions. Variations in the magnetic structure lead to different shapes and areas of the open field line region in the ionosphere. Comparison with the HST auroral images shows that the area of the computed open flux region is generally comparable to that enclosed by the auroral oval, and sometimes agrees in detail with its poleward boundary, though more typically being displaced by a few degrees in the tailward direction.

  8. Management of small digital collections with Omeka: the MoRE experience (A Museum of REfused and unrealised art projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Salarelli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the main features of Omeka, a free and open source CMS (Content Management System for online digital collections developed by the Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media at George Mason University. Omeka presents very interesting features: first, a remarkable ease of use that, however, does not affect its multiple functions; secondly, it provides tools to create, in an innovative way, virtual exhibitions for archives, libraries and museums in order to promote their collections on the web; thirdly, its extreme adaptability to collection size: in fact Omeka is used by large and celebrated institutions such as the New York Public Library and Europeana, but also by many small initiatives including MoRE (A Museum of REfused and unrealized art projects. Specifically, the second part of the article describes, in brief, the objectives and characteristics of this virtual museum dedicated to contemporary unrealized artworks; it is an experimental project, still under development, devised by a working group of the University of Parma (Italy, who found in Omeka the most suitable IT solution to collect and expose these unique museum materials.

  9. R3D-B2 - Measurement of ionizing and solar radiation in open space in the BIOPAN 5 facility outside the FOTON M2 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häder, D.-P.; Richter, P.; Schuster, M.; Dachev, Ts.; Tomov, B.; Georgiev, Pl.; Matviichuk, Yu.

    2009-04-01

    Solar and space radiation have been monitored using the R3D-B2 radiation risks radiometer-dosimeter on board a recent space flight on the Russian satellite Foton M2 within the ESA Biopan 5 facility mounted on the outside of the satellite exposed to space conditions. The solar radiation has been assayed in four wavelength bands (UV-C, 170-280 nm, UV-B, 280-315 nm), UV-A (315-400 nm) and PAR (photosynthetic active radiation, 400-700 nm). The data show an increasing tumbling rotation of the satellite during the mission. The photodiodes do not show a cosine response to the incident light which has been corrected. After calibration of the signals using the extraterrestrial spectrum, doses have been calculated for each orbit, for each day and for the total mission as basic data for the biological material which has been exposed in parallel in the Biopan facility. Cosmic ionizing radiation has been monitored and separated in 256 deposited energy spectra, which were further used for determination of the absorbed dose rate and flux. Basic data tables were prepared to be used by other Biopan 5 experiments. The paper summarizes the results for the Earth radiation environment at the altitude (262-304 km) of the Foton M2 spacecraft. Comparisons with the predictions of NASA Earth radiation environment experimental models AE-8 and AP-8, and the PSB97 model are also presented, which calculate the fluxes of ionizing radiation from a simulation. AP-8 is a model for trapped radiation.

  10. Surgical decompression for space-occupying cerebral infarction (the Hemicraniectomy After Middle Cerebral Artery infarction with Life-threatening Edema Trial [HAMLET]): a multicentre, open, randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeijer, Jeannette; Kappelle, L Jaap; Algra, Ale; Amelink, G Johan; van Gijn, Jan; van der Worp, H Bart

    2009-04-01

    Patients with space-occupying hemispheric infarctions have a poor prognosis, with case fatality rates of up to 80%. In a pooled analysis of randomised trials, surgical decompression within 48 h of stroke onset reduced case fatality and improved functional outcome; however, the effect of surgery after longer intervals is unknown. The aim of HAMLET was to assess the effect of decompressive surgery within 4 days of the onset of symptoms in patients with space-occupying hemispheric infarction. Patients with space-occupying hemispheric infarction were randomly assigned within 4 days of stroke onset to surgical decompression or best medical treatment. The primary outcome measure was the modified Rankin scale (mRS) score at 1 year, which was dichotomised between good (0-3) and poor (4-6) outcome. Other outcome measures were the dichotomy of mRS score between 4 and 5, case fatality, quality of life, and symptoms of depression. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered, ISRCTN94237756. Between November, 2002, and October, 2007, 64 patients were included; 32 were randomly assigned to surgical decompression and 32 to best medical treatment. Surgical decompression had no effect on the primary outcome measure (absolute risk reduction [ARR] 0%, 95% CI -21 to 21) but did reduce case fatality (ARR 38%, 15 to 60). In a meta-analysis of patients in DECIMAL (DEcompressive Craniectomy In MALignant middle cerebral artery infarction), DESTINY (DEcompressive Surgery for the Treatment of malignant INfarction of the middle cerebral arterY), and HAMLET who were randomised within 48 h of stroke onset, surgical decompression reduced poor outcome (ARR 16%, -0.1 to 33) and case fatality (ARR 50%, 34 to 66). Surgical decompression reduces case fatality and poor outcome in patients with space-occupying infarctions who are treated within 48 h of stroke onset. There is no evidence that this operation improves functional outcome when it is delayed for up to 96 h after stroke onset

  11. Refuse-derived fuels and fuel preparation plants of proven quality from REMONDIS; Guetegesicherte Sekundaerbrennstoffe und Brennstoffanlagen von REMONDIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendel, A. [Remondis AG und Co. KG, Luenen (Germany); Glorius, T. [Remondis Trade and Sales, Essen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Efforts to conserve resources have been reinvigorated by a number of factors, including the interest of various waste-producing industries in reutilisation and, initially on the part of the cement and lime industry but later also power plant operators, the search for a quantitatively and qualitatively reliable source of less expensive refuse-derived fuels of the greatest possible homogeneity. Other factors that have stimulated the demand for partially biogenic refuse-derived fuels have been the requirements imposed for the purpose of reducing climatically harmful emissions in accordance with the Kyoto Treaty and the now established market for CO{sub 2} emission trading. Rising primary energy prices are a powerful incentive for operators of power plants and industrial firing installations to lower their energy costs through the use of refuse-derived fuels. The refuse-derived fuel must be brought to a quality level where it can substitute fossil fuels without operational or technical constraints. This applies in particular to power plants and cement and lime works, since these depend on cocombustion. Refuse-derived fuels are therefore subject to very stringent quality requirements. In the ideal case this will result in a refuse-derived fuel whose properties come very close to those of the fuel being substituted. Novel preparation technologies have facilitated the breakthrough of two new generations of refuse-derived fuels, namely BPG registered and SBS registered. The quality requirements agreed upon with the purchasers of these fuels necessitate very extensive and involved preparation processes.

  12. Understanding the reasons for the refusal of cholecystectomy in patients with cholelithiasis: how to help them in their decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peron, Adilson; Schliemann, Ana Laura; Almeida, Fernando Antonio de

    2014-01-01

    Cholelithiasis is prevalent surgical disease, with approximately 60,000 admissions per year in the Unified Health System in Brazil. Is often asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic and major complications arise from the migration of calculi to low biliary tract. Despite these complications are severe and life threatening, some patients refuse surgical treatment. To understand why individuals with cholelithiasis refuse cholecystectomy before complications inherent to the presence of gallstones in the bile duct and pancreatitis occur. To investigate the universe of the justifications for refusing to submit to surgery it was performed individual interviews according to a predetermined script. In these interviews, was evaluate the knowledge of individuals about cholelithiasis and its complications and the reasons for the refusal of surgical treatment. Were interviewed 20 individuals with cholelithiasis who refused or postponed surgical treatment without a plausible reason. To these interviews, was applied the technique of thematic analysis (Minayo, 2006). The majority of respondents had good knowledge of their disease and its possible complications, were well oriented and had surgical indications by their physicians. The refusal for surgery was justified primarily on negative experiences of themselves or family members with surgery, including anesthesia; fear of pain or losing their autonomy during surgery and postoperative period, preferring to take the risk and wait for complications to then solve them compulsorily. The reasons for the refusal to surgical resolution of cholelithiasis were diverse, but closely related to personal (or related persons) negative surgical experiences or complex psychological problems that must be adequately addressed by the surgeon and other qualified professionals.

  13. The potential value of employing a RLV-based {open_quotes}pop-up{close_quotes} trajectory approach for space access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, E.; OLeary, R. [W. J. Schafer Associates 2000 Randolph Rd, SE, Ste. 205 Albuquerque, New Mexico87106 (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the potential benefits of employing useful upper stages with planned reusable launch vehicle systems to increase payload performance to various earth orbits. It highlights these benefits through performance analysis on a generic vehicle/upper-stage combination (basing all estimates on realistic technology availability). A nominal 34,019 kg [75,000 lbm] dry mass RLV capable of orbiting 454 kg into a polar orbit by itself (SSTO) would be capable of orbiting 9500{endash}10,000 kg into a polar orbit using a nominal upper stage released from a suborbital trajectory. The paper also emphasizes the technical and operational issues associated with actually executing a {open_quotes}pop-up{close_quotes} trajectory launch and deployment. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Open hardware for open science

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by the open source software movement, the Open Hardware Repository was created to enable hardware developers to share the results of their R&D activities. The recently published CERN Open Hardware Licence offers the legal framework to support this knowledge and technology exchange.   Two years ago, a group of electronics designers led by Javier Serrano, a CERN engineer, working in experimental physics laboratories created the Open Hardware Repository (OHR). This project was initiated in order to facilitate the exchange of hardware designs across the community in line with the ideals of “open science”. The main objectives include avoiding duplication of effort by sharing results across different teams that might be working on the same need. “For hardware developers, the advantages of open hardware are numerous. For example, it is a great learning tool for technologies some developers would not otherwise master, and it avoids unnecessary work if someone ha...

  15. Open Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  16. Open Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  17. The politics of space - Who owns what? Earth law for space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1983-01-01

    Topics of concern in developing space law, i.e., international disagreements, the present status of space law, and requirements for future space activities, are discussed. Factors inhibiting agreements include governments that wish to control specific regions of GEO, the refusal of several countries to permit international DBS television broadcasts over their boundaries, the possibility that weapons may be placed in space, and the lack of international laws governing humans and industries in space. It is noted that any state entering an international agreement has relinquished some of its sovereignty. The Outer Space Treaty has removed celestial bodies from claims of national appropriation. States retain sovereignty over their citizens who travel in space, a problematical concept once internationally-manned settlements in space or on the moon are established. It is recommended that space law develop mainly in reaction to the implementation of new space capabilities in order to avoid hindering space activities.

  18. ţ*-Generalized Compact Spaces and ţ*-Generalized Connected Spaces in Topological Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.ESWARAN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce new topological spaces called *-generalized compact spaces and *-generalized connected spaces using *-generalized open sets and study some of their properties. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 54A05.

  19. The SATRAM Timepix spacecraft payload in open space on board the Proba-V satellite for wide range radiation monitoring in LEO orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja, Carlos; Polansky, Stepan; Vykydal, Zdenek; Pospisil, Stanislav; Owens, Alan; Kozacek, Zdenek; Mellab, Karim; Simcak, Marek

    2016-06-01

    The Space Application of Timepix based Radiation Monitor (SATRAM) is a spacecraft platform radiation monitor on board the Proba-V satellite launched in an 820 km altitude low Earth orbit in 2013. The is a technology demonstration payload is based on the Timepix chip equipped with a 300 μm silicon sensor with signal threshold of 8 keV/pixel to low-energy X-rays and all charged particles including minimum ionizing particles. For X-rays the energy working range is 10-30 keV. Event count rates can be up to 106 cnt/(cm2 s) for detailed event-by-event analysis or over 1011 cnt/(cm2 s) for particle-counting only measurements. The single quantum sensitivity (zero-dark current noise level) combined with per-pixel spectrometry and micro-scale pattern recognition analysis of single particle tracks enables the composition (particle type) and spectral characterization (energy loss) of mixed radiation fields to be determined. Timepix's pixel granularity and particle tracking capability also provides directional sensitivity for energetic charged particles. The payload detector response operates in wide dynamic range in terms of absorbed dose starting from single particle doses in the pGy level, particle count rate up to 106-10 /cm2/s and particle energy loss (threshold at 150 eV/μm). The flight model in orbit was successfully commissioned in 2013 and has been sampling the space radiation field in the satellite environment along its orbit at a rate of several frames per minute of varying exposure time. This article describes the design and operation of SATRAM together with an overview of the response and resolving power to the mixed radiation field including summary of the principal data products (dose rate, equivalent dose rate, particle-type count rate). The preliminary evaluation of response of the embedded Timepix detector to space radiation in the satellite environment is presented together with first results in the form of a detailed visualization of the mixed radiation

  20. Next Stop: OpenSim!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolov, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Unhappy with conditions in Second Life, educators are migrating to a developing virtual world that offers them greater autonomy and a safer platform for their students at far less a cost. OpenSimulator is an open source virtual world platform that schools can run for free on their own servers or can get cheaply and quickly--the space can be up and…

  1. El espacio abierto: una tecnica didactica facilitadora del desarrollo de competencias generales en la formacion profesional superior The open space: a facilitating didactic technique in the development of genereral competences in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Villalobos Claveria

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available El propósito principal del presente artículo es demostrar que el Espacio Abierto (Open Space como técnica investigativa puede ser un adecuado procedimiento didáctico para el desarrollo de competencias genéricas (transversales en la formación profesional superior. Para alcanzar dicho propósito, en primer lugar, se describe el Espacio Abierto como la técnica investigativa y la información requerida para su aplicación. En segundo lugar, se presenta una propuesta de aplicación ya validada con un conjunto de académicos de dos universidades regionales, para su eventual utilización en las aulas universitarias. El presente trabajo se centra en los resultados preliminares del proyecto Fondecyt Nº 1070466: "La construcción del sujeto docente universitario en universidades regionales: Factores claves en su desempeño académico y profesional", financiado por el gobierno de Chile, en la línea Conicyt/Fondecyt. Estudio que pretende caracterizar factores claves que definen la profesión docente universitaria en instituciones de enseñanza superior regionales para el diseño de una propuesta de perfeccionamiento de académicos e investigadores en docencia superior.The main goal of this article is to demonstrate that the Open Space as a research technique can be a suitable didactic procedure for the development of general competences (cross-sectional in higher education. In order to reach this goal, we begin by describing the Open Space as a research technique as well as the information required for its application. Secondly, an application proposal is presented, which has been previously validated by a group of professors from two regional universities. This proposal is intended to be used in university classrooms when possible. This study focuses on the preliminary results of Fondecyt Project Nº 1070466: "The education of the university professor in regional universities: Key factors in their academic and professional performance", financed

  2. Open Source and Open Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Publication reference: Koper, R. (2008). Open Source and Open Standards. In J. M. Spector, M. Merrill, J. van Merriënboer & M. P. Driscol (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology (3rd ed., pp. 355-368). New York: Routledge.

  3. Trans*+ing Classrooms: The Pedagogy of Refusal as Mediator for Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sj Miller

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender and sexuality norms, conscribed under cis/heteropatriarchy, have established violent and unstable social and educational climates for the millennial generation of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, agender/asexual, gender creative, and questioning youth. While strides have been made to make schools more supportive and queer inclusive, schools still struggle to include lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender*+, intersex, agender/asexual, gender creative, queer and questioning (LGBT*+IAGCQQ-positive curricula. While extensive studies must be done on behalf of all queer youth, this work specifically focuses on how to support classroom teachers to uptake and apply a pedagogy of refusal that attends to the most vulnerabilized population of queer youth to date, those that are trans*+. A pedagogy of refusal will be explored through an evolving theory of trans*+ness, then demonstrated through a framework for classroom application, followed by recommendations for change.

  4. Caesarean Section Refusal in the Irish Courts: Health Service Executive v B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Katherine

    2017-08-01

    In the Irish High Court case of Health Service Executive v B, it was held that a competent woman could not be forced to have a caesarean section against her will notwithstanding the fact that her refusal increased the risk of injury and death to both her and her unborn child.1 This case is of particular interest since it is the first reported case on caesarean section refusal in Ireland. This commentary provides a critical analysis of the judgment, focusing on aspects of the law on informed consent and the way in which the judge reached the conclusion that an order for an enforced caesarean section should not be made. It is argued that, while the outcome can be justified, the reasoning appears at times to be unpersuasive. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Alcohol expectancy and drinking refusal self-efficacy: a test of specificity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, T P; Burrow, T

    2000-01-01

    Although alcohol expectancy (expectations about the effects of drinking alcohol on one's behavior and mood) and drinking refusal self-efficacy (one's perceived ability to resist drinking in high-risk situations) have consistently been demonstrated to be useful to our understanding of alcohol use and abuse, the specificity of these constructs to alcohol consumption has not been previously demonstrated. Using 161 first-year psychology students and multiple regression analyses this study indicated that alcohol expectancies and drinking refusal self-efficacy were specifically related to quantity of alcohol consumption, but not to caffeine or nicotine intake. These results provide empirical evidence to confirm the theoretical and practical utility of these two cognitive constructs to alcohol research and serve to strengthen the theoretical foundations of alcohol expectancy theory.

  6. CO-COMBUSTION OF REFUSE DERIVED FUEL WITH COAL IN A FLUIDISED BED COMBUSTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. WAN AB KARIM GHANI

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Power generation from biomass is an attractive technology which utilizes municipal solid waste-based refused derived fuel. In order to explain the behavior of biomass-fired fluidized bed incinerator, biomass sources from refuse derived fuel was co-fired with coal in a 0.15 m diameter and 2.3 m high fluidized bed combustor. The combustion efficiency and carbon monoxide emissions were studied and compared with those from pure coal combustion. This study proved that the blending effect had increased the carbon combustion efficiency up to 12% as compared to single MSW-based RDF. Carbon monoxide levels fluctuated between 200-1600 ppm were observed when coal is added. It is evident from this research that efficient co-firing of biomass with coal can be achieved with minimum modification of existing coal-fired boilers.

  7. Depressive Symptoms and Gambling Behavior: Mediating Role of Coping Motivation and Gambling Refusal Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Stephanie K; Martens, Matthew P; Arterberry, Brooke J

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the variables that contribute to the comorbidity of depression and gambling behaviors is important in developing effective intervention strategies for those who experience gambling-related problems. The purpose of this study was to implement core concepts from Jacob's general theory of addiction and the social cognitive theory in a multiple mediation model. Specifically, we tested two models to examine whether coping motivation and refusal self-efficacy mediated the relationship between depressive symptoms, gambling related problems, and days gambled. Data was collected from 333 undergraduate students at a large public Midwest university, participating in a larger clinical trial. Analyses indicated a direct effect between depressive symptoms and gambling related problems. Depressive symptoms were found to have a significant indirect effect through coping motivation and gambling refusal self-efficacy on gambling related problems and days gambled. These results provide further support regarding the mechanisms through which depressive symptoms may increase risk for problematic gambling behavior.

  8. Performance characteristics of turbo blower in a refuse collecting system according to operation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, C. M.; Kim, D. W. [Korea Institute of Construction Technology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S. Y. [ANST, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    A simulator for a refuse collecting system is designed to investigate the performance characteristics of a turbo blower operating at different rotational frequencies. The simulator consists of an air intake, a waste chute, circular duct, waste collector and turbo blower. Experimental measurements and numerical simulation with three-dimensional Navier- Stokes equations have been performed to analyze the performance of the turbo blower. Throughout numerical simulation of the simulator, it is found that the input energy of the blower can be reduced by controlling the rotational frequency of impeller while the efficiency of the blower keeps constant. The required outlet pressure and flow rate of the blower can be also adjusted along the system resistance of the refuse collecting system. Detailed flow characteristics inside the blower are analyzed for different rotational frequencies

  9. Altered steroid metabolism in several teleost species exposed to endocrine disrupting substances in refuse dump leachate

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Endocrine disruption associated with reproductive failure has been reported previously in female perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) from Lake Molnbyggen in Sweden and in female brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) from Vadbäcken, a stream emptying into Molnbyggen. Both Molnbyggen and Vadbäcken have been contaminated by toxic leachate from a municipal refuse dump. In this study, female perch were caught in Molnbyggen and the reference lake, Lake Djursjön, to further investiga...

  10. Vaccination Confidence and Parental Refusal/Delay of Early Childhood Vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa B Gilkey

    Full Text Available To support efforts to address parental hesitancy towards early childhood vaccination, we sought to validate the Vaccination Confidence Scale using data from a large, population-based sample of U.S. parents.We used weighted data from 9,354 parents who completed the 2011 National Immunization Survey. Parents reported on the immunization history of a 19- to 35-month-old child in their households. Healthcare providers then verified children's vaccination status for vaccines including measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR, varicella, and seasonal flu. We used separate multivariable logistic regression models to assess associations between parents' mean scores on the 8-item Vaccination Confidence Scale and vaccine refusal, vaccine delay, and vaccination status.A substantial minority of parents reported a history of vaccine refusal (15% or delay (27%. Vaccination confidence was negatively associated with refusal of any vaccine (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-0.63 as well as refusal of MMR, varicella, and flu vaccines specifically. Negative associations between vaccination confidence and measures of vaccine delay were more moderate, including delay of any vaccine (OR = 0.81, 95% CI, 0.76-0.86. Vaccination confidence was positively associated with having received vaccines, including MMR (OR = 1.53, 95% CI, 1.40-1.68, varicella (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.42-1.66, and flu vaccines (OR = 1.32, 95% CI, 1.23-1.42.Vaccination confidence was consistently associated with early childhood vaccination behavior across multiple vaccine types. Our findings support expanding the application of the Vaccination Confidence Scale to measure vaccination beliefs among parents of young children.

  11. On the relative contributions of positive reinforcement and escape extinction in the treatment of food refusal.

    OpenAIRE

    Piazza, Cathleen C; Patel, Meeta R; Gulotta, Charles S; Sevin, Bari M; Layer, Stacy A

    2003-01-01

    We compared the effects of positive reinforcement alone, escape extinction alone, and positive reinforcement with escape extinction in the treatment of the food and fluid refusal of 4 children who had been diagnosed with a pediatric feeding disorder. Consumption did not increase when positive reinforcement was implemented alone. By contrast, consumption increased for all participants when escape extinction was implemented, independent of the presence or absence of positive reinforcement. Howe...

  12. Understanding patient acceptance and refusal of HIV testing in the emergency department

    OpenAIRE

    Christopoulos Katerina A; Weiser Sheri D; Koester Kimberly A; Myers Janet J; White Douglas AE; Kaplan Beth; Morin Stephen F

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Despite high rates of patient satisfaction with emergency department (ED) HIV testing, acceptance varies widely. It is thought that patients who decline may be at higher risk for HIV infection, thus we sought to better understand patient acceptance and refusal of ED HIV testing. Methods In-depth interviews with fifty ED patients (28 accepters and 22 decliners of HIV testing) in three ED HIV testing programs that serve vulnerable urban populations in northern California. Re...

  13. Real-world activity, fuel use, and emissions of diesel side-loader refuse trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Gurdas S.; Frey, H. Christopher; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Jones, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Diesel refuse trucks have the worst fuel economy of onroad highway vehicles. The real-world effectiveness of recently introduced emission controls during low speed and low engine load driving has not been verified for these vehicles. A portable emission measurement system (PEMS) was used to measure rates of fuel use and emissions on six side-loader refuse trucks. The objectives were to: (1) characterize activity, fuel use, and emissions; (2) evaluate variability between cycles and trucks; and (3) compare results with the MOVES emission factor model. Quality assured data cover 210,000 s and 550 miles of operation during which the trucks collected 4200 cans and 50 tons of waste material. The average fuel economy was 2.6 mpg. Trash collection contributed 70%-80% of total fuel use and emissions. The daily activity Operating Mode (OpMode) distribution and cycle average fuel use and emissions is different from previously used cycles such as Central Business District (CBD), New York Garbage Truck (NYGT), and William H. Martin (WHM). NOx emission rates for trucks with selective catalytic reduction were over 90% lower than those for trucks without. Similarly, trucks with diesel particulate filters had over 90% lower particulate matter (PM) emissions than trucks without. Compared to unloaded trucks, loaded truck averaged 18% lower fuel economy while NOx and PM emissions were higher by 65% and 16%, respectively. MOVES predicted values are highly correlated to empirical data; however, MOVES estimates are 37% lower for NOx and 300% higher for PM emission rates. The data presented here can be used to develop more representative cycles and improve emission factors for side-loader refuse trucks, which in turn can improve the accuracy of refuse truck emission inventories.

  14. Power and politics in research design and practice: Opening up space for social equity in interdisciplinary, multi-jurisdictional and community-based research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valoree Gagnon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Working collaboratively with communities is commonly considered a cornerstone of good practice in research involving social-ecological concerns. Increasingly, funding agencies also recognise that such collaborations are most productive when community partners have some influence on the design and implementation of the projects that benefit from their participation. However, researchers engaged with this work often struggle to actively engage community members in this way and, in particular, Indigenous peoples. In this article, we argue that useful strategies for facilitating such engagement are to leave space in the research plan for questions of interest to community partners and to encourage equitable interactions between all participants through the use of forums in which power dynamics are intentionally flattened. We demonstrate the use of this technique in an interdisciplinary, multi-jurisdictional research study involving the fate and transport of toxic compounds that lead to fish consumption advisories throughout the world. In this project, the use of participatory forums resulted in community partners in Michigan’s Keweenaw Bay area of Lake Superior shaping a key aspect of the research by raising the simple but significant question: ‘When can we eat the fish?’. Their interest in this question also helped to ensure that they would remain meaningful partners throughout the duration of the project. The conclusion emphasises that further integration of Indigenous and community-based research methods has the potential to significantly enhance the process and value of university-community research engagement in the future.

  15. Effect of Inoculation with Effective Microorganisms and Leachate Recycle on Degradation of Municipal Refuse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈东升; 何若; 朱荫湄

    2004-01-01

    Biodegradation of waste in landfill is a slow process requiring decades for completion. Accelerated degradation of municipal refuse in modulated landfill environments may alleviate or eliminate pollution to the land, water and air. In this work, nineteen effective microorganisms (EMs) were isolated from old landfill refuse by enrichment culturing techniques and used for the inoculum of municipal refuse. The preliminary experiments demonstrate that a combination of EMs inoculation in landfill with leachate recycle resulted in increased rates of decomposition and faster process stability. The concentrations of COD, VFA and SO42- in digester with EMs inoculation and leachate recycle decreased more rapidly than others. Gas production from digester with EMs inoculation and leachate recycle commenced around 32 days, which is a week shorter than with leachate recycle only. And peak cumulative gas production was obtained much earlier in digester with EMs inoculation and leachate recycle (150 days) compared to 180 days with leachate recycle only. Moreover, in the first two months, the rate of settlement in digester with EMs inoculation and leachate recycle was more rapid than others.

  16. Nitrogen removal through different pathways in an aged refuse bioreactor treating mature landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bing; Lv, Zhuo; Hu, Chong; Yang, Xuezhi; Li, Xiangzhen

    2013-10-01

    In this study, an aged refuse bioreactor was constructed to remove nitrogen in a mature landfill leachate. The nitrogen removal efficiency and the microbial community composition in the bioreactor were investigated. The results showed that the aged refuse bioreactor removed more than 90 % of total nitrogen in the leachate under the nitrogen loading rate (NLR) of 0.74 g/kg (vs) day, and the total nitrogen removal rate decreased to 62.2 % when NLR increased up to 2.03 g/kg (vs) day. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction results showed that the average cell number of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the bioreactor was 1.58 × 10(8) cells/g, which accounted for 0.41 % of total bacteria. The number of anammox bacteria in the reactor was 1.09 × 10(8) cells/g, which accounted for 0.27 % of total bacteria. Isotopic (15)N tracing experiments showed that nearly 10 % of nitrogen was removed by anammox. High-throughout 454 pyrosequencing revealed that the predominant bacteria in the bioreactor were Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Gemmatimonadetes, including various nitrifiers and denitrifiers with diverse heterotrophic and autotrophic metabolic pathways, supporting that nitrogen was removed through different pathways in this aged refuse bioreactor.

  17. Parental authority, patient's best interest and refusal of resuscitation at borderline gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, M R

    2006-08-01

    Potential conflict exists when parents refuse a medical intervention for their child that the physician feels obligated to provide. For the anticipated delivery of a preterm newborn, this conflict might exist if the parents refuse resuscitation. At borderline viability, most neonatologists are likely to respect the parents' wishes. However, there will be some gestational age threshold above which the physician will feel compelled to resuscitate despite parental refusal, and will be ethically justified in doing so. The location of that threshold should be determined by the application of sound ethical reasoning, rather than relying on habit or arbitrary standards. That reasoning should include an honest assessment of the benefits and burdens to the child, short-term and long-term, of attempted resuscitation, made in light of relevant mortality and morbidity data. However, a rational analysis will also require consideration of whether the patient's best interest standard should be strictly applied, or whether the interests of others, such as family members, should also be taken into account.

  18. Heavy Metal Contamination of Foods by Refuse Dump Sites in Awka, Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. C. Nduka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of heavy metals from refuse dumps on soil, food, and water qualities in Awka, Nigeria was studied. Soil samples (top and 1.35 m deep were collected from five refuse dumps digested with conc. HNO3 and HClO4. The heavy metals (lead, manganese, arsenic, chromium, cadmium, and nickel in vegetables (spinach, fluted pumpkin, root crop (cocoyam, and surface and ground water were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS. Chemical properties of the soil and bacteria were determined. Heavy metals were found to be more concentrated at a depth of 1.35 m. Manganese was high in shallow wells and borehole water samples with the highest levels as 0.538 and 0.325 mg/l, respectively. Nickel levels in the borehole sample ranged from 0.001 to 0.227 mg/l, whereas the highest level of lead was 0.01 mg/l. The Obibia stream had the highest levels of manganese and lead. Linear regression analyses showed that the relationship between soil heavy metals and farm produce heavy metals was strong. Taken together, we may conclude that the consumption of leafy vegetables and crops produced on contaminated soils may pose a health risk to those that reside around the refuse dumps.

  19. Three-stage aged refuse biofilter for the treatment of landfill leachate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hongjiang; ZHAO Youcai; SHI Lei; GU Yingying

    2009-01-01

    A field-scale aged refuse (AR) biofilter constructed in Shanghai Refuse Landfill, containing about 7 000 m3 aged refuse inside, was evaluated for its performance in the treatment of landfill leachate. This AR biofilter can be divided into three stages and can manage 50 m3 landfill leachate per day. The physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of AR were analyzed for evaluating the AR biofilter as leachate treatment host. The results revealed that over 87.8%--96.2% of COD and 96.9%--99.4% of ammonia nitrogen were removed by the three-stage AR biofilter when the influent leachate COD and ammonia nitrogen were 5 478-10 842 mg/L and 811-1 582 mg/L, respectively. The final effluent was inodorous and pale yellow with COD and ammonia nitrogen below 267--1,020 mg/L and 6--45 mg/L, respectively. The three-stage AR biofilter had efficient nitrification but relative poor denitrification capacity with a total nitrogen (TN) removal of 58%--73%. The external temperature of AR biofilter did not influence the total ammonia nitrogen removal significantly. It was concluded that the scale-up AR biofilter can work very well and can be a promising technology for the treatment of landfill leachate.

  20. Feasibility study of utilization of coal mine refuse, Estill County, Kentucky. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    Reported is a feasibility study of commercial utilization for Eastern KY coal mine refuse at the South-East Coal Co. Cleaning plant in Estill County, KY. Included are descriptions of the physical facilities, sampling and testing methodology, geotechnical properties analyses, typical coal analyses, mineralogical characterizations, slow and quick firing test results, general marketing review of products, and environmental aspects. A good potential for economic development in Estill County exists with the anticipated uses of coal mine refuse as a raw material for the production of construction materials, particularly sintered lightweight aggregate. The refuse responded to the sintering process and a high quality, lightweight product was produced. The aggregate performed well in structural concrete and bituminous surfacing mixes. Other potential uses would be for lightweight concrete masonry blocks and soilless growing media. Inherent characteristics of the sintered material would provide for highly skid-resistant road surfacing aggregate and highly insulative structural building products. Market research results point to definitely feasible markets in East and East-Central KY and to the need for extensive, intensive marketing programs for commercial success of the proposed products. (Portions of this document are not fully legible)

  1. Three-stage aged refuse biofilter for the treatment of landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongjiang; Zhao, Youcai; Shi, Lei; Gu, Yingying

    2009-01-01

    A field-scale aged refuse (AR) biofilter constructed in Shanghai Refuse Landfill, containing about 7000 m3 aged refuse inside, was evaluated for its performance in the treatment of landfill leachate. This AR biofilter can be divided into three stages and can manage 50 m3 landfill leachate per day. The physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of AR were analyzed for evaluating the AR biofilter as leachate treatment host. The results revealed that over 87.8%-96.2% of COD and 96.9%-99.4% of ammonia nitrogen were removed by the three-stage AR biofilter when the influent leachate COD and ammonia nitrogen concentration were in the range 5478-10842 mg/L and 811-1582 mg/L, respectively. The final effluent was inodorous and pale yellow with COD and ammonia nitrogen below 267-1020 mg/L and 6-45 mg/L, respectively. The three-stage AR biofilter had efficient nitrification but relative poor denitrification capacity with a total nitrogen (TN) removal of 58%-73%. The external temperature of AR biofilter did not influence the total ammonia nitrogen removal significantly. It was concluded that the scale-up AR biofilter can work very well and can be a promising technology for the treatment of landfill leachate.

  2. Production of fuel briquettes from olive refuse and paper mill waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaman, S.; Sahan, M.; Haykiri-acma, H.; Sesen, K.; Kuecuekbayrak, S. [Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Istanbul Technical University 80626, Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2000-10-01

    Some processes have been widely applied to biomass in order to take advantage of its energy potential. In particular, these processes are based on pyrolysis or gasification. In this study, briquetting was applied to olive refuse and paper mill waste to form fuel briquettes. For this purpose, the particle sizes of both biomass samples were decreased to -250 {mu}m and then they were briquetted in a steel die under pressure between 150 and 250 MPa at ambient temperature. Effects of the moisture content of the biomass samples and briquetting pressure on the shatter index, compressive strength, and water resistance of the briquettes obtained were investigated. This study showed that the mechanical strength of the briquettes produced only from the olive refuse was not high enough. On the other hand, strong briquettes were produced using paper mill waste. When olive refuse was blended with fibrous paper mill waste, briquettes with sufficiently high mechanical strength could be produced. Burning profiles of the samples were derived applying derivative thermogravimetry technique under dynamic dry air atmosphere up to 1273 K with a heating rate of 40 K{center_dot}min{sup -1} and then combustion characteristics of the briquettes were compared.

  3. An investigation on the fuel savings potential of hybrid hydraulic refuse collection vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Frank A; Bosse, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver

    2014-09-01

    Refuse trucks play an important role in the waste collection process. Due to their typical driving cycle, these vehicles are characterized by large fuel consumption, which strongly affects the overall waste disposal costs. Hybrid hydraulic refuse vehicles offer an interesting alternative to conventional diesel trucks, because they are able to recuperate, store and reuse braking energy. However, the expected fuel savings can vary strongly depending on the driving cycle and the operational mode. Therefore, in order to assess the possible fuel savings, a typical driving cycle was measured in a conventional vehicle run by the waste authority of the City of Stuttgart, and a dynamical model of the considered vehicle was built up. Based on the measured driving cycle and the vehicle model including the hybrid powertrain components, simulations for both the conventional and the hybrid vehicle were performed. Fuel consumption results that indicate savings of about 20% are presented and analyzed in order to evaluate the benefit of hybrid hydraulic vehicles used for refuse collection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Constitutive Content of the Crime of Refusal or Evasion from Collecting Biological Samples in the Romanian Criminal Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Minodora-Ioana BĂLAN-RUSU

    2015-01-01

    In the paper we have examined the constitutive content of the offense of refusal or evasion from collecting biological samples, with elements of similarity and differences between the current and the old law...

  5. Open IS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Germonprez, Matt; Crowston, Kevin; Avital, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The collective intelligence and collective action of “open” communities have produced a variety of complex knowledge goods and radical social change. The Information Systems (IS) community has invested significant effort into researching open communities and the ecosystems in which they operate...... therefore seeks to stimulate a thoughtful and dynamic discussion around the proposition that becoming a more open community will enhance the IS discipline’s scholarly inquiry and global impact....

  6. Open IS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Germonprez, Matt; Crowston, Kevin; Avital, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The collective intelligence and collective action of “open” communities have produced a variety of complex knowledge goods and radical social change. The Information Systems (IS) community has invested significant effort into researching open communities and the ecosystems in which they operate...... therefore seeks to stimulate a thoughtful and dynamic discussion around the proposition that becoming a more open community will enhance the IS discipline’s scholarly inquiry and global impact....

  7. Combustion of Refuse Derived Fuels; Foerbraenning av utsorterade avfallsfraktioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Magnus; Wikman, Karin [AaF-Energi och Miljoe, Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Christer; Myringer, Aase; Helgesson, Anna [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden); Eskilsson, David; Ekvall, Annika [SP Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Oehman, Marcus; Geyter, Sigrid de [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this project was to increase the understanding of opportunities and problems connected with combustion of sorted waste fractions containing paper, wood and plastics (PWP-fuel) in fluidized bed boilers. An evaluation of the effect of sulphur containing additives in a PWP-fuel fired boiler was also performed within the project since this is not previously reported in open literature. The experience from two boilers at different plants, Johannes (BFB) and Hoegdalen P6 (CFB) during the firing season 2003/2004 was documented. In the Johannes boiler the main fuel is bark while Hoegdalen P6 combusts 100 % PWP-fuel. Analysis of the fuels shows that there are large differences between the two boilers. At Johannes the PWP-fuel contained low amounts of elements (chlorine, alkali and other metals) that are expected to result in increased operational problems or emissions. A large proportion of these unwanted elements came from the wood and paper fractions. The plastic fraction in Johannes had very low levels of unwanted elements. The fuel at Hoegdalen contained large amounts of elements such as chlorine, alkali and other metals that can cause operational problems. First of all the plastic fraction contained large amounts of chlorine, most likely from PVC, which results in a more corrosive atmosphere in the boiler. The fraction of fines in the Hoegdalen fuel contained larger concentrations of potassium and sodium compared with the other fuel fractions, substances that also are related to the formation of deposits. The fraction of fines in the fuel probably also results in combustion taking place high up in the boiler and to some extent continuing in the cyclones. The characterisation of the combustion behaviour performed in Johannes identified a maldistribution in O{sub 2}, CO and gas temperature over a cross-section of the furnace. This was not depending on the fuel mixture but is more likely depending on uneven fuel feeding or air distribution. A comparison between

  8. Combustion of Refuse Derived Fuels; Foerbraenning av utsorterade avfallsfraktioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Magnus; Wikman, Karin [AaF-Energi och Miljoe, Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Christer; Myringer, Aase; Helgesson, Anna [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden); Eskilsson, David; Ekvall, Annika [SP Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Oehman, Marcus; Geyter, Sigrid de [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this project was to increase the understanding of opportunities and problems connected with combustion of sorted waste fractions containing paper, wood and plastics (PWP-fuel) in fluidized bed boilers. An evaluation of the effect of sulphur containing additives in a PWP-fuel fired boiler was also performed within the project since this is not previously reported in open literature. The experience from two boilers at different plants, Johannes (BFB) and Hoegdalen P6 (CFB) during the firing season 2003/2004 was documented. In the Johannes boiler the main fuel is bark while Hoegdalen P6 combusts 100 % PWP-fuel. Analysis of the fuels shows that there are large differences between the two boilers. At Johannes the PWP-fuel contained low amounts of elements (chlorine, alkali and other metals) that are expected to result in increased operational problems or emissions. A large proportion of these unwanted elements came from the wood and paper fractions. The plastic fraction in Johannes had very low levels of unwanted elements. The fuel at Hoegdalen contained large amounts of elements such as chlorine, alkali and other metals that can cause operational problems. First of all the plastic fraction contained large amounts of chlorine, most likely from PVC, which results in a more corrosive atmosphere in the boiler. The fraction of fines in the Hoegdalen fuel contained larger concentrations of potassium and sodium compared with the other fuel fractions, substances that also are related to the formation of deposits. The fraction of fines in the fuel probably also results in combustion taking place high up in the boiler and to some extent continuing in the cyclones. The characterisation of the combustion behaviour performed in Johannes identified a maldistribution in O{sub 2}, CO and gas temperature over a cross-section of the furnace. This was not depending on the fuel mixture but is more likely depending on uneven fuel feeding or air distribution. A comparison between

  9. Design and Development of a New Electrically Small 3D UHF Spherical Antenna with 360° of Opening Angle in the Whole Space for RFID, WSN, and RSN Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhamid Bou-El-Harmel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several antenna designs have been made in order to obtain a novel electrically small 3D UHF spherical antenna (ka = 0.1916, which has a resonance frequency close to 915 MHz, produces a quasi-isotropic radiation with an opening angle equal to 360° in the whole space, and is used for RFID, WSN, and RSN applications. These antennas are based on different shapes and are wrapped on the Styrofoam sphere surface of dielectric constant close to air (ɛr=1.06. A T-match configuration is used to adapt the input impedance of antennas to a value of 50 Ω. The antennas form allows for placing the sensor electronics in its interior, to reconfigure it for numerous values of impedances and to operate it in other ISM bands by adjusting their geometric parameters.

  10. Comparing acceptance and refusal rates of virtual reality exposure vs. in vivo exposure by patients with specific phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Palacios, A; Botella, C; Hoffman, H; Fabregat, S

    2007-10-01

    The present survey explored the acceptability of virtual reality (VR) exposure and in vivo exposure in 150 participants suffering from specific phobias. Seventy-six percent chose VR over in vivo exposure, and the refusal rate for in vivo exposure (27%) was higher than the refusal rate for VR exposure (3%). Results suggest that VR exposure could help increase the number of people who seek exposure therapy for phobias.

  11. Characterisation of refuse-derived fuels on the basis of their combustion characteristics; Charakterisierung von Ersatzbrennstoffen hinsichtlich brennstofftechnischer Eigenschaften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, M.; Ncube, S. [Bauhaus Univ. Weimer (Germany). Lehrstuhl Verfahren und Umwelt

    2007-07-01

    Refuse-derived fuels and biomass-derived fuels are used in power stations and industrial production processes, either in monocombustion plants or in cocombustion plants. Their energy content, ignition and combustion characteristics, slag formation and corrosion potential make them difficult fuels. The contribution starts by reviewing the combustion characteristics of refuse-derived and biomass-derived fuels and analyzing their influence on the combustion characteristics. Various methods of defining the combustion characteristics of these fuels are explained. (orig.)

  12. Effects of nitrogen conversion and environmental factors on landfill CH4 oxidation and N2O emissions in aged refuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Houhu; Zhao, Keqiang; Yan, Xiaofei; Sun, Qinfang; Li, Yi; Zhang, Yi; Zun, Zhao; Ke, Fan

    2013-09-15

    We determined the effects of nitrification capacity and environmental factors on landfill methane oxidation potential (MOP) using an aged refuse in laboratory batch assays and compared it with two different types of soils. The nitrogen conversion in the three experimental materials after 120 h incubation yielded first-order reaction kinetics at an initial concentration of 200 mg kg(-1) NH4(+)-N. The net nitrification rate for the aged refuse was 1.50 (p bacteria during CH4 co-oxidation, the average value of the MOP in the aged refuse at a temperature range of 4-45 °C was 2.34 (p landfill can be neglected after applying an aged refuse bio-cover because of the much higher MOP in the aged refuse. The calculated maximum MOP value in the aged refuse was 12.45 μmol g(-1) d.w. h(-1), which was much higher than the documented data.

  13. Prediction of nursery school-aged children who refuse fluoride varnish administration in a community setting: a Childsmile investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphris, Gerry M; Zhou, Yuefang

    2014-07-01

    Young children of pre-school age may find a minimal intervention (fluoride varnish application) difficult to tolerate. To determine the significant predictors for refusing a fluoride varnish application from child, parental and nurse behaviour factors. Data included videos from 238 children (52% female, aged 3-5 years) receiving a fluoride varnish application in a Scottish nursery school setting. The St Andrews Behavioural Interaction Scheme (SABICS) was used for video coding and retrieved child refusal status, initial anxious behaviour, and nurse behaviour. A parental survey collected parent's dental anxiety [Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS)] and the child's home behaviour [Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)]. Child demographics, dental status, and previous varnish application experience were recorded. Multivariate binary logistic regression was applied to predict child refusal of the varnish application. The response rate was 79%. Twelve children refused. The significant predictors of varnish refusal included initial anxious child behaviour (β = 5.14, P = 0.001), no previous varnish application (β = -3.89, P = 0.04), and no nurse praise (β = -1.06, P = 0.02). Information giving (P = 0.06) and reassurance (P = 0.08) were borderline significant. Initial anxiety behaviour, previous varnish experience, and not using praise by the nursing staff predicted fluoride varnish application refusal. © 2013 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Open access

    CERN Document Server

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder consent, and many authors, musicians, filmmakers, and other creators who depend on royalties are understandably unwilling to give their consent. But for 350 years, scholars have written peer-reviewed journal articles for impact, not for money, and are free to consent to open access without losing revenue. In this concise introduction, Peter Suber tells us what open access is and isn't, how it benefits authors and readers of research, how we pay for it, how it avoids copyright problems, how it has moved from the periphery to the mainstream, and what its future may hold. Distilling a decade of Suber's influential writing and thinking about open access, this is the indispe...

  15. Research on the Open English Space Teaching Model under New Media Environment%新媒体环境下开放英语空间教学模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小华

    2015-01-01

    The new media has been developing rapidly with the irresistible trend.It has not only broadened the space and ap-plication of English learning,but also broadened the way of English learning,and it has also put forward new requirements to the traditional English teaching,which requests teachers to carry out open English teaching under the new era with the innova-tive mode of thinking and teaching strategy.Under the new media environment,demonstration of open English teaching space, situation and flipped classroom achieve the combination of information technology and English practice,giving full play to the students'subjective initiative and speeding up the students'English learning ability to perceive.Finally,it can exploit the students'potentialities to the maximum and improve the effect of open English teaching.%新媒体以不可阻挡的趋势迅猛发展,拓宽了英语学习的时空和应用,也拓宽了英语学习的途径,同时给传统英语教学提出新的要求,要求教师以创新的思维方式及教学策略开展新形势下的开放英语教学。新媒体环境下的开放英语空间教学演示、情境以及翻转课堂模式将信息技术与英语具体实践活动相互结合,充分发挥学生的主体能动性,加快学生的英语学习感知能力,最大限度挖掘学生学习英语的潜力,提高开放英语教学的效果。

  16. Open loop control of an induction motor's velocity using PWM with space vectors; Control en lazo abierto de la velocidad de un motor de induccion utilizando PWM con vectores espaciales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Lopez, Manuel

    2001-10-15

    This work describes the design and implementation of an open loop speed controller for an induction motor. This controller is based on a DSP TMS320F240 chip from Texas Instruments. Speed control is achieved by maintaining the magnetic flux constant through the regularization of stator voltage/frequency relationship. Voltage and frequency variation are achieved using the strategy of pulse width modulation with space vectors. Hardware design is presented (current source and the printed circuit for the intelligent power module) and the software (control algorithms and the modulation strategy using space vectors). The algorithms given were implement using the TMS320F240 language. [Spanish] Este trabajo describe el diseno y la implementacion de un control de la velocidad en lazo abierto de un motor de induccion, basado en el DSP TMS320F240 de Texas Instruments. El control de la velocidad se logra manteniendo el flujo en el entre hierro constante, lo cual es realizado al regular el valor de la relacion voltaje/frecuencia en el estator. La variacion del voltaje y la frecuencia se realiza utilizando la estrategia de modulacion del ancho de los pulsos con vectores espaciales. Se presenta el diseno de los circuitos (fuente de corriente continua y circuito impreso para el modulo inteligente de potencia) y de los programas (algoritmos de control y de la estrategia de modulacion con vectores espaciales) necesarios que se utilizaron durante la implementacion del accionamiento del motor. Los algoritmos dados fueron implementados en el lenguaje ensamblador del TMS320F240.

  17. Open SHMEM Reference Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-05-12

    OpenSHMEM is an effort to create a specification for a standardized API for parallel programming in the Partitioned Global Address Space. Along with the specification the project is also creating a reference implementation of the API. This implementation attempts to be portable, to allow it to be deployed in multiple environments, and to be a starting point for implementations targeted to particular hardware platforms. It will also serve as a springboard for future development of the API.

  18. Open Brief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Leach

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To commence the thirtieth annual conference of the Society of Architectural Historians, Australia and New Zealand (SAHANZ, held on Australia’s Gold Coast in July 2013, ten delegates were invited with very little warning to take five minutes and one image to offer a provocation on the open matters of architectural history in the present moment. The term “open” was taken as the conference theme—a device used by SAHANZ meetings not so much to define the scope of papers presented as to declare the conference flavour year by year. It was not, therefore, an open conference (anything goes so much as a conference on open issues (where, indeed, to go.  The ten interlocutors were invited after the conference to document their interventions and they are presented here as a record of the preoccupations of a specific moment and institutional geography with all the idiosyncrasies and commonalities it might reveal to a broader audience.

  19. Metal mining stage to open up the chute wear pulse spacing and mining area layout optimization%金属矿山阶段开拓穿脉间距及采区溜井布置优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建珍

    2013-01-01

    地下开采阶段开拓设计在矿山生产中占有非常重要的地位,尤其是阶段开拓中穿脉间距与采区溜井的布置,对矿山企业的工程投资和运营成本影响很大.本文根据采场穿脉运输工程、采区溜井工程投资与采场运矿成本之和最小的原理和采场运输功最小的原理,分别建立了阶段开拓运输穿脉间距、采场溜井间距数学模型,并应用于杏山铁矿-330m阶段开拓设计中,计算出穿脉间距100m,溜井间距67.5m,为今后类似矿山合理确定穿脉、溜井间距参数提供参考.%Underground mining phase pioneering design in mine production occupies a very important position,especially the layout of the stage to open up to wear pulse spacing and mining areas in the chute,a great influence on project investment and operating costs of mining enterprises. In this paper, according to stope wearing veins transport engineering, mining district the minimum chute engineering investment and mining field DSO cost of and the minimum principle and mining field transport function principle the establishment of a stage to develop transport wear pulse spacing, stope slipped well spacing mathematical model the Xingshan iron ore-330m stage pioneering design and used to calculate the wear pulse spacing 100m,chute pitch 67. 5m wear veins,chute spacing parameters to provide a reference for future similar mines reasonably determine.

  20. 广州西关旧城社区开放空间活力度因素模型%Study on Factor Model of Environmental Vitality of Open Space in Guangzhou's Old City Residential Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱小雷

    2016-01-01

    Environmental vitality of open space is an elementary object of old city renewal. Based on the viewpoint that social vitality is more importance than economic vitality and culture vitality for residential community in old city area,the activities and behavior patterns,cognitive factor and environmental characteristics of residential communi-ty open space are taken as the three basic dimensions for judging environmental vitality. After establishing factor model of degree of environmental vitality (DEV),a quantitative research by questionnaire survey was conducted, and data collected at twice interval of a year. Through multivariate regression analysis,it is shown that there are four variables which can predict DEV;they are facilities for sitting,desire to activities,quantity of open space, and intensity of physical training behavior. Factor analyses show that the four mutual independence dimensionalities included in factor model of DEV are environmental status,environmental cognition,behavioral characteristic,and crowding degree of space. This model is a key clue for the renewal of Xiguan's old city.%开放空间的环境活力是旧城更新的基本目标之一。基于旧城居住社区的社会活力比经济活力及文化活力更为重要的理念,利用空间使用方式、认知要素和环境特征三个基本维度建立广州西关传统居住社区公共开放空间环境活力度的要素模型,以时隔一年的两次问卷调查的量化方法检验广州西关旧城居住社区的环境活力。多元回归分析发现,“可坐性”“活动愿望”“公共空间的数量”和“锻炼行为强度”是4个基本的环境活力度预测变量;因子分析表明,开放空间环境活力的关联因素模型包含“空间环境现状”“环境认知”“行为特性”“空间拥挤度”等四个相互独立的维度,该模型是广州西关旧城社区开放空间更新的重要线索。