WorldWideScience

Sample records for open space refuse

  1. Will this open space work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vischer, J

    1999-01-01

    Northern Oil is moving offices, and CEO Fritz Schumacher wants to make the most of the move in this fictional case study. He believes that adopting an open-plan work space will reinvent how the company works, not to mention cut costs. Facilities manager Sasha Pasternak also supports the open plan. Her job would be easier, and her budget would stretch further, if Northern had standardized workstations and used partitions, not walls. And she likes the way the new design flattens the organization: everyone has the same amount of space and the same ergonomically sound furniture. The new building would have more conference rooms and just-in-time work spaces for employees who worked mostly off-site. And although she knew that initial meetings between the architects and Northern employees hadn't yielded much support for open space--people were attached to their private offices--she expected that people would warm to the idea. But when the new design was unveiled, employees were less than enthusiastic. They hurled questions like, How will workers concentrate if they can't shut their office doors? How will people have confidential meetings with their boss? And why would people stay at Northern when the competition offers them private offices? There was even talk of circulating a petition refusing to move to the new space. A week later, the architect presented revised plans to the project group. The new options would add costs and reduce the amount of space savings, but offering a choice to employees might make them feel less threatened. What should the project team do? Five commentators offer advice.

  2. Public demand for preserving local open space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kline

    2006-01-01

    Increased development results in the loss of forest, farm, range, and other open space lands that contribute to the quality of life of U.S. residents. I describe an economic rationale for growing public support for preserving local open space, based the growing scarcity of open space lands. I test the rationale empirically by correlating the prevalence of open space...

  3. Spaces of Open-source Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Emil; Plesner, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    . Inspired by the literature on organizational space, the analysis explores how different organizational spaces configure the party’s process of policy development, thereby adding to our understanding of the relationship between organizational space and political organization. We analyze three different....... Curiously, it seems that physical spaces open up the political process, while digital spaces close it down by fixing meaning. Accordingly, we argue that open-source politics should not be equated with online politics but may be highly dependent on physical spaces. Furthermore, digital spaces may provide......The recent proliferation of Web 2.0 applications and their role in contemporary political life have inspired the coining of the term ‘open-source politics’. This article analyzes how open-source politics is organized in the case of a radical political party in Denmark called The Alternative...

  4. Transforming spaces into lively public open places

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cilliers, E.J.; Timmermans, W.

    2016-01-01

    Urban public open spaces are an important part of the urban environment, creating the framework for public life. The transformation of open space into successful public places is crucial in this regard. In the context of target-driven performance it is essential to identify the value of

  5. Refuse-derived fuel as a secondary energy in Taiwan - Using Hotelling space allocation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwodong Wey; Sheueching Hong

    2006-01-01

    Most Taiwanese farmers usually blend rice straws into the soil after harvest. However, rice straws possess great thermal energy, which can be used to produce refuse-derived fuel (RDF-5). As Taiwan faces energy shortage, the development benefits of the RDF-5 industry are tempting. This study employs the Hotelling model to design the locations and the optimal numbers of RDF-5 plants. From the technology and material supply point of view, turning waste rice straws into RDF-5 is feasible in Taiwan. Nevertheless, from the business operation perspective, even if the RDF-5 plant is willing to lower its profit rate, its selling price is still hard to compete with imported RDF-5. If the Taiwanese government decides to pursue RDF-5 as an alternative energy, they might need to take a step further to subsidize entrepreneurs or provide appropriate tax benefits. Otherwise, the RDF-5 industry is hard to survive in Taiwan. (Author)

  6. Universal design of public open spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Krajner

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban open spaces are public places that must assure access for all users. They should be designed for equal use despite disabilities and special recreational needs. Their design must be functional and must meet user’s special requirements, either everyday functional or special (recreational needs. It is not just about overcoming architectural obstacles by building ramps of suitable slope and size; it is about inclusive, universal landscape design of urban space made for all citizens. For this matter, different ways of public use for each group of users is defined, functional criteria are determined, and examples of good and bad design are assembled to present the differences between technically accomplished ramps, and slope paths that include quality landscape inclusive design. To prove the unsuitability of public open spaces in Ljubljana, various analyses were made, including the measurement of steepness, lengths and wideness of certain urban elements. As an application of results, the universal designing principles are summarized in new proposal for entrance into Tivoli Park.

  7. School Refusal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Mary

    2008-01-01

    School attendance is an ongoing concern for administrators, particularly in middle level and high school. Frequent absences affect student learning, test scores, and social development. Absenteeism is often the result of emotional disorders, such as anxiety or depression. Administrators who understand the causes of school refusal behavior and are…

  8. Open space preservation, property value, and optimal spatial configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong Jiang; Stephen K. Swallow

    2007-01-01

    The public has increasingly demonstrated a strong support for open space preservation. How to finance the socially efficient level of open space with the optimal spatial structure is of high policy relevance to local governments. In this study, we developed a spatially explicit open space model to help identify the socially optimal amount and optimal spatial...

  9. 78 FR 53496 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Open Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the... the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The meeting will take place on...

  10. 77 FR 52108 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Open Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the... the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The meeting will take place on...

  11. 78 FR 18416 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Open Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the... the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The meeting will take place on...

  12. Open superstring field theory on the restricted Hilbert space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopka, Sebastian; Sachs, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    It appears that the formulation of an action for the Ramond sector of open superstring field theory requires to either restrict the Hilbert space for the Ramond sector or to introduce auxiliary fields with picture −3/2. The purpose of this note is to clarify the relation of the restricted Hilbert space with other approaches and to formulate open superstring field theory entirely in the small Hilbert space.

  13. The Spaces of Open-Source Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Emil; Plesner, Ursula

    The recent proliferation of Web 2.0 technologies and their role in contemporary political life has inspired the coining of the term ‘open-source politics’. This article analyzes how open-source politics is organized in the case of a young radical political party called The Alternative. Inspired...... processes, but may provide both closure and disconnection between the party’s universal body and its particular body. In conclusion, we propose that such a disconnection might be a precondition for success when institutionalizing radical politics, as it allows parties like The Alternative to maintain...

  14. Open source IPSEC software in manned and unmanned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jacob

    Network security is a major topic of research because cyber attackers pose a threat to national security. Securing ground-space communications for NASA missions is important because attackers could endanger mission success and human lives. This thesis describes how an open source IPsec software package was used to create a secure and reliable channel for ground-space communications. A cost efficient, reproducible hardware testbed was also created to simulate ground-space communications. The testbed enables simulation of low-bandwidth and high latency communications links to experiment how the open source IPsec software reacts to these network constraints. Test cases were built that allowed for validation of the testbed and the open source IPsec software. The test cases also simulate using an IPsec connection from mission control ground routers to points of interest in outer space. Tested open source IPsec software did not meet all the requirements. Software changes were suggested to meet requirements.

  15. Measuring the quality of public open space using Google Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bronwen T; Fernando, Peter; Bauman, Adrian E; Williamson, Anna; Craig, Jonathan C; Redman, Sally

    2011-02-01

    Proximity to public open space, such as parks and other green spaces, has considerable health benefits, and people have been shown to be more likely to use such space for physical activity if it is of high quality. This paper describes a new remote-assessment approach that makes use of Google Earth Pro (the free version of this program is Google Earth) to provide rapid and inexpensive measurement of the quality of public open space. The aim of the study was to assess the correlation between assessments of the quality of public open space using (1) the remote method (making use of Google Earth Pro) and (2) direct observation with a well-established measure of quality, the Public Open Space Tool (POST). Fifty parks selected from the southwest part of Sydney, Australia, were assessed in 2009 with the remote method (using Google Earth Pro), and scores were compared with those obtained from direct observation of the same parks using POST. The time taken to conduct the assessments using each method was also recorded. Raters for each method were blind to scores obtained from using the other method. Analyses were conducted in 2009. The Spearman correlation coefficient between the quality scores obtained for the 50 parks using the remote method and direct observation was 0.9 (pspaces without the need for in-person visits, dramatically reducing the time required for environmental audits of public open space. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Landscape Management of Public Open Space in Bogor Heritage City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusparini, F. D.; Nurhayati; Arifin, H. S.

    2017-10-01

    Public open space landscape plays important role in Bogor Heritage City. Although these spaces can carry various kind of public activities and enhance environment quality, they are fragile to disturbance and changing due to city development. Therefore, as an effort to maintain public open space landscape in 8 zones within Heritage City of Bogor, management of public open space landscape is necessary. Syntesys of public open space landscape management had held by using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). The AHP result showed public open space landscape in Palace and Botanical Garden of Bogor zone (20%) is in high priority to be maintained. The other zone are Situ Gede (16,9%), Plan Karsten (12,3%), European Settlement (12%), Suryakencana (11,2%), Batu Tulis (10,2%), Empang (9.2%) and West Development (8,2%). Ecological function (34,8%) becomes the most important function to be maintained (34.8%) then social culture (31.2%), economic (17%), and aesthetics (17%).

  17. Public open space for disaster mitigation in Tangerang housing estates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winandari, M. I. R.

    2018-01-01

    Public open space in housing estates plays an important role particularly in disaster mitigation. In some housing, there are indications of shape and use of space changes post-handover to local government. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between public open space condition and management related to disaster mitigation in Tangerang housing estates. Multiple case study method is used to analyse of 2 housing cases. Aspects of access and boundaries were used to evaluate the cases. The results showed that gated community housing type should have more than 1 access to facilitate evacuation by considering the farthest unit to the housing gate. This is necessary to provide open spaces that are easily accessible from all units as the first evacuation site during and post disaster.

  18. Open problems in the geometry and analysis of Banach spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Guirao, Antonio J; Zizler, Václav

    2016-01-01

    This is a collection of some easily-formulated problems that remain open in the study of the geometry and analysis of Banach spaces. Assuming the reader has a working familiarity with the basic results of Banach space theory, the authors focus on concepts of basic linear geometry, convexity, approximation, optimization, differentiability, renormings, weak compact generating, Schauder bases and biorthogonal systems, fixed points, topology and nonlinear geometry. The main purpose of this work is to help convince young researchers in Functional Analysis that the theory of Banach spaces is a fertile field of research, full of interesting open problems. Inside the Banach space area, the text should help expose young researchers to the depth and breadth of the work that remains, and to provide the perspective necessary to choose a direction for further study. Some of the problems presented herein are longstanding open problems, some are recent, some are more important and some are only "local" problems. Some would ...

  19. Green Open Space: Awareness for Health or Sustainability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, O. C.; Chairunnisa, I.; Hidayat, T.; Anggraini, M.; Napitupulu, A.

    2018-03-01

    Universitas Indonesia in cooperation with American Red Cross and Indonesian Red Cross have been assisting green open space revitalisation program in 7 locations in Bogor Regency (2016-2017). The program was held under The Urban Disaster Risk Reduction Greater Jakarta Project; an initiative program from American Red Cross Indonesia. This project was not only improving the existing green open space quality, but also creating one adapted from public land. The revitalization project figures what happened on daily basis on the existing land, proposing new programming facilities, community-based construction, monitoring and handing over. This paper discovers the meaning of a green space for the community, whether the community aware of its benefit on human health or environmental sustainability. The research question is does the community aware of green open space benefit for human health or environmental sustainability? Or both? The original data from the community was gathered and grouped based on its relevance with environmental quality and public health.

  20. Courts and open spaces in the Late Helladic III Argolid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siennicka, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    While space remains a neglected subject in research on Mycenaean settlements, archaeological and ethnographical studies devoted to social meaning of places and areas used by the inhabitants of the prehistoric and other communities increase in number. This paper aims to review the use and signific......While space remains a neglected subject in research on Mycenaean settlements, archaeological and ethnographical studies devoted to social meaning of places and areas used by the inhabitants of the prehistoric and other communities increase in number. This paper aims to review the use...... and significance of courts and other open spaces in the Mycenaean settlements in the Argolid during the Palatial and Post-Palatial periods (c. 15th–11th centuries BC). Various categories of areas, like courts, open spaces and open-air areas are discussed, with an emphasis on their functions and status. Courts...

  1. 30 CFR 77.214 - Refuse piles; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; general. 77.214 Section 77.214... Installations § 77.214 Refuse piles; general. (a) Refuse piles constructed on or after July 1, 1971, shall be..., tipples, or other surface installations and such piles shall not be located over abandoned openings or...

  2. A Monstrous Alliance: Open Architecture and Common Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Kodalak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary built environment is absorbed by a dualist spatial organisation model divided between public and private space. Within this restrictive grammar, public space, despite its democratic promise, is heavily indoctrinated and anesthetised under the hegemony of regulatory apparatuses and control mechanisms, whereas private space has catalysed, if not directly engendered, prevalent spatial problems, such as ever-increasing slums, discriminatory gentrification and ecological catastrophes, despite its self-approving assurance. Underneath this dysfunctional couple lies common space, a third category that constitutes the shared spatial commonwealth of our entire natural and cultural milieu.The multitude, as an emerging body of self-organising political and spatial actors, has already started to unearth the potential of common space, actualising emergent and interactive spatial configurations all around the world. In this new, self-organisational model, architects do not become obsolete; rather, they leave behind their conventional roles as submissive experts and cosmetic speculators. By becoming anomalous architects, they affirm and augment the opening of spatial and architectural milieus to a myriad of new possibilities.This article theorises the possibility of a monstrous alliance between anomalous architects and the multitude, between open architectures and common space. Two specific case studies accompany these theoretical frameworks: the Gezi Event (Istanbul, 2013 demonstrates the actual emancipation of common space through the self-organising activity of the multitude, while Open-Cube (Antalya, 2013 attests to an early open architecture experiment based on the potentiating activity of the anomalous architect. 

  3. Soundscape of Urban Open Spaces in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui

    This study aims to investigate the soundscape of urban open spaces in Hong Kong. Open space in densely populated cities has been considered as an important asset for urban inhabitants in that they afford opportunities for leisure, recreation and an active involvement with nature. For quite a long time, visual aesthetic was the dominant consideration in open space design and other senses were given less concern. Continuous stream of attention-demanding sounds from the noisy environment may bombard these open spaces, rendering them no longer able to satisfy the eye alone. Sound and consequently the acoustic environment are receiving increasing attention. This study used noise mapping technique supplemented by GIS spatial analysis tools to delineate quiet open spaces with traffic noise exposure less than 60 dB (A) L10, 1h and conducted field observations to determine their usages. The identified quiet open spaces are either concentrated in hilly and remote areas with low accessibility, or sporadically scattered among tall buildings. Some large urban parks and small sitting-out areas are even located in the center of the city. Larger open spaces serve group visits, such as hiking and sightseeing, while smaller ones are easily accessible to local residents for social and recreational purposes. The acoustic environment III urban open spaces varies with space and time. To characterize the acoustic quality of soundscapes in the quiet open spaces, sound walk and field recording were undertaken place in 25 selected study sites. Despite the dominance of traffic noise, soundscapes in the urban open spaces are also shaped by natural sounds. Sounds from birds and water are common and prevalent particularly in gardens and playgrounds. Soundscape approach is a human-centered point of view. How the visitors perceive and evaluate sounds and the acoustic quality has great implication for soundscape design. On-site interview of 1,610 visitors unravels human preference of individual

  4. Open-Source RTOS Space Qualification: An RTEMS Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemerick, Scott

    2017-01-01

    NASA space-qualification of reusable off-the-shelf real-time operating systems (RTOSs) remains elusive due to several factors notably (1) The diverse nature of RTOSs utilized across NASA, (2) No single NASA space-qualification criteria, lack of verification and validation (V&V) analysis, or test beds, and (3) different RTOS heritages, specifically open-source RTOSs and closed vendor-provided RTOSs. As a leader in simulation test beds, the NASA IV&V Program is poised to help jump-start and lead the space-qualification effort of the open source Real-Time Executive for Multiprocessor Systems (RTEMS) RTOS. RTEMS, as a case-study, can be utilized as an example of how to qualify all RTOSs, particularly the reusable non-commercial (open-source) ones that are gaining usage and popularity across NASA. Qualification will improve the overall safety and mission assurance of RTOSs for NASA-agency wide usage. NASA's involvement in space-qualification of an open-source RTOS such as RTEMS will drive the RTOS industry toward a more qualified and mature open-source RTOS product.

  5. GREEN OPEN SPACE PERFORMANCE AS URBAN RECREASTION RESOURCES IN PEKANBARU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Hidayat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban green open space has significant benefits for the condition of urban living and its community. The availability of accessible and attractive green spaces for recreation activities is an integral part of urban quality of life. This research aims to assess the effectiveness of green open space provision as recreation resource for urban citizens in Pekanbaru, Indonesia. This study presents the assessment of two ele-ments which are equity and efficiency. These two elements are analyzed based on numerous independent variables such as number of the facil-ity, distance to house, accessibility and public transportation availability for equity assessment and frequency of usage, attractiveness of fa-cilities and safety level for efficiency assessment. The assessment of those variables is applied in three different subdistricts in Pekanbaru which are City Center, Sail and Tampan that represent different density categories. To achieve the objectives of this study, the method used to con-duct the study is field survey by questionnaire and interview. Stratified random sampling was the method used in data collection through the distribution of questionnaire, and the tool used to analyse data is through the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics to obtain frequency distributions, percentage and the level of equity and efficiency. Several types of test in SPSS data analysis are included to attain some significant information in the study such as Chi-Square test of independence and analysis of Correlation. The findings indicate that a majority of respondents were not satisfied with the distribution of green open space. This study also identified that the quality of green open space facilities was perceived by residents as at moderate level. This survey results indicate that there is significant relationship between subdistricts of respondents and the satisfaction level of green open space

  6. Transfer closed and transfer open multimaps in minimal spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimohammady, M.; Roohi, M.; Delavar, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is devoted to introduce the concepts of transfer closed and transfer open multimaps in minimal spaces. Also, some characterizations of them are considered. Further, the notion of minimal local intersection property will be introduced and characterized. Moreover, some maximal element theorems via minimal transfer closed multimaps and minimal local intersection property are given.

  7. On the Value of Foregone Open Space in Sprawling Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, W.; Rouwendal, J.

    2014-01-01

    Foregone benefits of the open space that is sacrificed through urban sprawl are hard to quantify. We obtain a simple benchmark measure by introducing a demand for trips beyond the urban boundary into the monocentric city model. The externality arises from the increase in travel costs that expansion

  8. Quality of Public Open Spaces and Recreational Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Gunn, Lucy D; Christian, Hayley; Francis, Jacinta; Foster, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Owen, Neville; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-12-01

    We examined associations between specific public open space (POS) attributes and recreational walking to local POS. Between October 2004 and December 2006, 1465 adults of the RESIDential Environments Project, conducted in Perth, Australia, reported whether they walk to a POS for recreation. For each participant, we identified all open spaces larger than 0.8 hectares within 1.6 kilometers from home. On the basis of field audit data, we created 3 scores (presence, count, size-weighted presence) for 19 specific open space attributes. With logistic regression analyses, we found that walking to a POS was associated with the presence of gardens, grassed areas, walking paths, water features, wildlife, amenities, dog-related facilities, and off-leash areas for dogs. It was also associated with the highest number of these attributes in a single open space, but not with the total number of attributes in all POSs within 1.6 kilometers of home. Building 1 high-quality local park may be more effective in promoting recreational walking than is providing many average-quality parks.

  9. Interactive human behavior analysis in open or public spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hung, H.; Odobez, J.-M.; Gavrila, D.; Keyson, D.V.; Maher, M.L.; Streitz, N.; Cheok, A.; Augusto, J.C.; Wichert, R.; Englebienne, G.; Aghajan, H.; Kröse, B.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    In the past years, efforts in surveillance and open space analysis have focused on traditional computer vision problems like scene modeling or object detection and tracking. Research on human behavior recognition have tended to work on predefined simple activities such as running, jumping or left

  10. An Open and Holistic Approach for Geo and Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschel, Bernd; Seelus, Christoph; Neher, Günther; Toshihiko, Iyemori; Yatagai, Akiyo; Koyama, Yukinobu; Murayama, Yasuhiro; King, Todd; Hughes, Steve; Fung, Shing; Galkin, Ivan; Hapgood, Mike; Belehaki, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Geo and space sciences thus far have been very successful, even often an open, cross-domain and holistic approach did not play an essential role. But this situation is changing rapidly. The research focus is shifting into more complex, non-linear and multi-domain specified phenomena, such as e.g. climate change or space environment. This kind of phenomena only can be understood step by step using the holistic idea. So, what is necessary for a successful cross-domain and holistic approach in geo and space sciences? Research and science in general become more and more dependent from a rich fundus of multi-domain data sources, related context information and the use of highly advanced technologies in data processing. Such buzzword phrases as Big Data and Deep Learning are reflecting this development. Big Data also addresses the real exponential growing of data and information produced by measurements or simulations. Deep Learning technology may help to detect new patterns and relationships in data describing high sophisticated natural phenomena. And further on, we should not forget science and humanities are only two sides of the same medal in the continuing human process of knowledge discovery. The concept of Open Data or in particular the open access to scientific data is addressing the free and open availability of -at least publicly founded and generated- data. The open availability of data covers the free use, reuse and redistribution of data which have been established with the formation of World Data Centers already more than 50 years ago. So, we should not forget, the foundation for open data is the responsibility of the individual scientist up until the big science institutions and organizations for a sustainable management of data. Other challenges are discovering and collecting the appropriate data, and preferably all of them or at least the majority of the right data. Therefore a network of individual or even better institutional catalog-based and at least

  11. Numerical Analysis of Thermal Comfort at Open Air Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, K.; Belias, C.; Pantos-Kikkos, S.; Assana, A.

    2008-09-01

    The present paper refers to the numerical simulation of air velocity at open air spaces and the conducting thermal comfort after the evaluation of the examined space using CFD methods, taking into account bioclimatic principles at the architectural design. More specially, the paper draws attention to the physical procedures governing air movement at an open environment area in Athens (urban park), named "Attiko Alsos," trying to form them in such way that will lead to the thermal comfort of the area's visitors. The study presents a mathematical model, implemented in a general computer code that can provide detailed information on velocity, prevailing in three-dimensional spaces of any geometrical complexity. Turbulent flow is simulated and buoyancy effects are taken into account. This modelling procedure is intended to contribute to the effort towards designing open areas, such as parks, squares or outdoor building environments, using thermal comfort criteria at the bioclimatic design. A computer model of this kind will provide the architects or the environmental engineers with powerful and economical means of evaluating alternative spaces' designs.

  12. Open Space Office and it's Influence on Satisfaction of Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Novotná, Marta

    2015-01-01

    This bachelor thesis focuses on open space office in relation to satisfaction with employment. It focuses on research of factors of this specific working environment and tries to check hypothesis talking about negative impact on overal satsfacton with job. Through the research conducted within one company this bachelor thesis present evaluation of factos of working environment and show overal impact of these factors on satisfaction with job. This bachelor thesis finds out that noise and disco...

  13. Open Education as a Way for Space Education in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshev, V. V.; Karp, K. A.

    2002-01-01

    low level of state financial support. As a result there is a decreasing education quality. Scientific research was always an integral part of education and an alternative way for education financial support. But today the level of such support is too low as well. High experience of Russian space education system is not useful completely. This paper shows, that at present an open education could be a new step of space education in Russia. discussed in the paper. of students per one professor and also the number of students, which pay for education. New technology based on Internet technology would provide high methodology and technical level of education. The open education guarantees training in different areas and specialties on international standard level. education process, new education technology, new equipment of education system, new ways of financial support, international cooperation in education process, new professors and staffs in education system, increasing the level of salary for staff and comfortable conditions for students are discussed at the first. free education period, both traditional and new education methods are very important on the other side. about 4-5 years. The necessity of international educational system integration has to be taken into account. The international standard request, educational courses in different languages and free market conditions have to be under consideration. The partially ready open space education is discussed also. That system can be started even today.

  14. Open string T-duality in double space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sazdovic, B. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Physics, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2017-09-15

    The role of double space is essential in the new interpretation of T-duality and consequently in an attempt to construct M-theory. The case of the open string is missing in such an approach because until now there has been no appropriate formulation of open string T-duality. In the previous paper (Sazdovic, From geometry to non-geometry via T-duality, arXiv:1606.01938, 2017), we showed how to introduce vector gauge fields A{sup N}{sub a} and A{sup D}{sub i} at the end-points of an open string in order to enable open string invariance under local gauge transformations of the Kalb-Ramond field and its T-dual ''restricted general coordinate transformations''. We demonstrated that gauge fields A{sup N}{sub a} and A{sup D}{sub i} are T-dual to each other. In the present article we prove that all above results can be interpreted as coordinate permutations in double space. (orig.)

  15. Open string T-duality in double space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazdovic, B.

    2017-01-01

    The role of double space is essential in the new interpretation of T-duality and consequently in an attempt to construct M-theory. The case of the open string is missing in such an approach because until now there has been no appropriate formulation of open string T-duality. In the previous paper (Sazdovic, From geometry to non-geometry via T-duality, arXiv:1606.01938, 2017), we showed how to introduce vector gauge fields A"N_a and A"D_i at the end-points of an open string in order to enable open string invariance under local gauge transformations of the Kalb-Ramond field and its T-dual ''restricted general coordinate transformations''. We demonstrated that gauge fields A"N_a and A"D_i are T-dual to each other. In the present article we prove that all above results can be interpreted as coordinate permutations in double space. (orig.)

  16. Older Adults in Public Open Spaces: Age and Gender Segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noon, Rinat Ben; Ayalon, Liat

    2018-01-18

    There is a substantial body of literature on the importance of the environment in the lives of older adults. Nonetheless, to date, there has been limited research on everyday activities of urban older adults in public open spaces. The present study examined the activities of older adults in public open spaces in Israel with a specific focus on age and gender as potential variables of relevance. Using still photography, we systematically photographed four sessions in two different public outdoor settings attended by older Israelis. Still photographs were converted to narrative descriptions, and then coded, quantified, and compared using descriptive statistics. The majority (311, 97%) of older adults arrived alone to the public setting. Of these, 44% formed a social group of two or more people, whereas the remaining older adults stayed alone. When social interactions occurred, they were primarily gender homogenous (69%); women were more likely to integrate in spontaneous social conversations and men were more likely to participate in common games. Our findings call attention to the important role played by the outdoor environment as a venue for social activities among older adults. The findings further stress the high levels of aloneness experienced by older adults, which do not seem to be alleviated by the mere attendance of public spaces. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. 14 CFR 121.586 - Authority to refuse transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority to refuse transportation. 121.586 Section 121.586 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... transportation. (a) No certificate holder may refuse transportation to a passenger on the basis that, because the...

  18. Generalizations of γ-open set in topological spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Baby, E-mail: babybhatt75@gmail.com; Paul, Arnab, E-mail: mrarnabpaul87@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, NIT Agartala, Jirania, Tripura (India)

    2016-06-21

    The main aim of this work is to study three generalized forms of γ-open set due to D. Andrijevic (D. Andrijevic, On the Topology Generated by pre-open sets, Presented at the Sixth Prague Topological Symposium, 39 (1987), 367-376)in a topological space. Out of which the dual appearance of one is the stronger form of b-locally closed set in the sense of Arafa A. Nasef (A. A Nasef,On b-locally closed sets and related topics, CHAOS SOLITONS & FRACTALS 12(2001) 1909-1915). Also, we introduce the concept of different types of continuity and study their basic properties by using these newly defined sets. Finally, we establish the interrelationships among themselves together with some already existing generalized forms of continuity.

  19. Economic analysis of open space box model utilization in spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Atif F.; Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    It is a known fact that the amount of data about space that is stored is getting larger on an everyday basis. However, the utilization of Big Data and related tools to perform ETL (Extract, Transform and Load) applications will soon be pervasive in the space sciences. We have entered in a crucial time where using Big Data can be the difference (for terrestrial applications) between organizations underperforming and outperforming their peers. The same is true for NASA and other space agencies, as well as for individual missions and the highly-competitive process of mission data analysis and publication. In most industries, conventional opponents and new candidates alike will influence data-driven approaches to revolutionize and capture the value of Big Data archives. The Open Space Box Model is poised to take the proverbial "giant leap", as it provides autonomic data processing and communications for spacecraft. We can find economic value generated from such use of data processing in our earthly organizations in every sector, such as healthcare, retail. We also can easily find retailers, performing research on Big Data, by utilizing sensors driven embedded data in products within their stores and warehouses to determine how these products are actually used in the real world.

  20. 77 FR 8801 - Request for Applications: The Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Request for Applications: The Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Request for applications. SUMMARY: The..., requests applications for the Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program (Community Forest...

  1. Public evaluation of open space in Illinois: citizen support for natural area acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backlund, Erik A; Stewart, William P; McDonald, Cary; Miller, Craig

    2004-11-01

    Numerous studies have indicated a broad-based support for open space preservation and protection. Research also has characterized the public values and rationale that underlie the widespread support for open space. In recognition of the widespread public support for open space, various levels of government have implemented programs to provide public access to open space. There are many different types of open space, ranging from golf courses, ball parks, wildlife areas, and prairies, to name a few. This paper addresses questions related to the types of open space that should be prioritized by planners and natural resource managers. The results of this study are based on a stratified random sample of 5000 households in Illinois that were sent a questionnaire related to their support for various types of open space. Through a comparatively simple action grid analysis, the open space types that should be prioritized for public access include forest areas, stream corridors, wildlife habitat, and lakes/ponds. These were the open space types rated of the highest importance, yet were also the open space types rated the lowest in respondent satisfaction. This kind of analysis does not require the technical expertise of other options for land-use prioritizations (e.g., conjoint analysis, contingent valuation), yet provides important policy directives for planners. Although open space funds often allow for purchase of developed sites such as golf courses, ball parks, and community parks, this study indicates that undeveloped (or nature-based) open space lands are most needed in Illinois.

  2. Personal Spaces in Public Repositories as a Facilitator for Open Educational Resource Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Anat; Reisman, Sorel; Sperling, Barbra Bied

    2015-01-01

    Learning object repositories are a shared, open and public space; however, the possibility and ability of personal expression in an open, global, public space is crucial. The aim of this study is to explore personal spaces in a big learning object repository as a facilitator for adoption of Open Educational Resources (OER) into teaching practices…

  3. 76 FR 17474 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Open Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the... the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The meeting will take place on...

  4. 77 FR 16891 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Open Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the... the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The meeting will take place on...

  5. 76 FR 51461 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee open meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the... the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The meeting will take place on...

  6. 78 FR 69742 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Open Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the... the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The meeting will take place on...

  7. 75 FR 54002 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Open Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the... the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The meeting will take place on...

  8. 75 FR 16901 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Open meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 10(a)(2) of the... of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The meetings will take place on...

  9. Coal refuse reclamation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.

    1979-04-06

    A 13.8 ha abandoned coal refuse site in southwestern Illinois was reclaimed by recontouring the refuse material and covering it with a minimum 30 cm of soil. The reclamation procedure included determination of the site's final land use, collection of preconstruction environmental data, and development and implementation of engineering plans. The project is demonstrating methods that can be used to reclaim abandoned coal refuse sites, and a multidisciplinary approach is being used to evaluate postconstruction environmental and economic effects of the reclamation effort. Surface water quality has shown significant improvement and plant cover is becoming established on the site. Soil microbial populations are developing and wildlife habitats are forming. The economic value of the site and adjacent properties has increased substantially and the area's aesthetic value has been enhanced. This project is providing valuable design data for future reclamation efforts of this type.

  10. Open problems in Banach spaces and measure theory | Rodríguez ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We collect several open questions in Banach spaces, mostly related to measure theoretic aspects of the theory. The problems are divided into five categories: miscellaneous problems in Banach spaces (non-separable Lp spaces, compactness in Banach spaces, w*-null sequences in dual spaces), measurability in Banach ...

  11. A strong open mapping theorem for surjections from cones onto Banach spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeu, de M.F.E.; Messerschmidt, H.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    We show that a continuous additive positively homogeneous map from a closed not necessarily proper cone in a Banach space onto a Banach space is an open map precisely when it is surjective. This generalization of the usual Open Mapping Theorem for Banach spaces is then combined with Michael's

  12. Multimegawatt space nuclear power open-cycle MHD-facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavshuk, V.A.; Panchenko, V.P.

    2008-01-01

    Paper presents the results of the efforts to calculate the characteristics, the layout and the engineering design of the open cycle space power propulsion on the basis of the high-temperature nuclear reactor for a nuclear rocket engine and the Faraday 20 MW capacity MHD-generator. The IVG-1 heterogeneous channel-vessel reactor ensuring in the course of the experiments hydrogen heating up to 3100 K, up to 5 MPa pressure at the reactor core outlet, up to 5 kg/s flowsheet, up to 220 MW thermal power served as a reactor is considered. One determined the MHD-generator basic parameters, namely: the portion of Cs dope was equal to 20%, the outlet stagnation pressure - 2 MPa, the electric conductivity - ≅30 S/m, the Mach number - ≅0.7, the magnetic field induction - 6 T, the capacity - 20 MW, the specific power removal - ∼4 MJ/kg. Paper describes the design of the MHD-facility with the working fluid momentless discharge and its basic characteristics [ru

  13. Navigation through unknown and dynamic open spaces using topological notions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Tomé, Sergio

    2018-04-01

    Until now, most algorithms used for navigation have had the purpose of directing system towards one point in space. However, humans communicate tasks by specifying spatial relations among elements or places. In addition, the environments in which humans develop their activities are extremely dynamic. The only option that allows for successful navigation in dynamic and unknown environments is making real-time decisions. Therefore, robots capable of collaborating closely with human beings must be able to make decisions based on the local information registered by the sensors and interpret and express spatial relations. Furthermore, when one person is asked to perform a task in an environment, this task is communicated given a category of goals so the person does not need to be supervised. Thus, two problems appear when one wants to create multifunctional robots: how to navigate in dynamic and unknown environments using spatial relations and how to accomplish this without supervision. In this article, a new architecture to address the two cited problems is presented, called the topological qualitative navigation architecture. In previous works, a qualitative heuristic called the heuristic of topological qualitative semantics (HTQS) has been developed to establish and identify spatial relations. However, that heuristic only allows for establishing one spatial relation with a specific object. In contrast, navigation requires a temporal sequence of goals with different objects. The new architecture attains continuous generation of goals and resolves them using HTQS. Thus, the new architecture achieves autonomous navigation in dynamic or unknown open environments.

  14. Open innovation in the European space sector : existing practices, constraints and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Burg, E.; Giannopapa, C.G.; Reymen, I.M.M.J.

    2017-01-01

    To enhance innovative output and societal spillover of the European space sector, the open innovation approach is becoming popular. Yet, open innovation, referring to innovation practices that cross borders of individual firms, faces constraints. To explore these constraints and identify

  15. Public open space as the only urban space for walking: Sumatera Utara experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, A. D.; Zahrah, W.; Ginting, Nurlisa

    2018-03-01

    One of successful public open space (POS) criteria is the proper pedestrian linkage. Furthermore, a good quality POS should pay attention to pedestrian activities. This will contribute to the physical and mental health of people and enhance their quality of life. The research means to investigate how POS accommodate the pedestrians. The study takes place in twenty small towns in Sumatra Utara province, Indonesia. The analysis is a descriptive, explorative study that collects data about physical elements of POS. The survey also uses a set of questionnaire to get information about the visitors walking tradition. The result of the study shows that most of the citizens approach and get to the POS by vehicle, both cars, and motorcycles. They use their private vehicles although the distance between their houses and the POS is less than one kilometer. There is no pedestrian linkage that connects the POS with the other part of urban space. However, the POS is active by various physical activities, such as walking, playing and exercising. These events occur both in pedestrian ways in the periphery, inside the POS, and in the other spots of the POS, such as grass field or multipurpose plaza. The visitors’ vehicle tradition relates to the whole urban space which is planned in a car-oriented way. Thus, the POS becomes the only space that people can walk and enjoy the environment.

  16. Evaluation of the effects of subgingival injection of Simvastatin on space re-opening after orthodontic space closure in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanbin, Arezoo; Abtahi, Mostafa; Namdar, Parastoo; Heravi, Farzin; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Arab, Hamidreza; Shafaee, Hooman

    2016-01-01

    Background. This clinical trial evaluated the effect of Simvastatin on space re-opening after orthodontic space closure and its effect on the gingival index (GI) and clinical attachment loss (CAL). Methods. 16 females, 25-40 years old, with spaces between anterior mandibular teeth due to chronic periodontitis were participated in this study. The patients were randomly divided into control and experimental groups. In the experimental group, 1.2% Simvastatin gel and in the control group, 0.9% sodium chloride as a placebo was injected into the pocket depth of the six anterior teeth. The amount of space reopening, GI and CAL were measured. Results. No serious complications were observed during interventions and follow-up periods. Space re-opening was significantly reduced in patients receiving Simvastatin (P space re-opening after orthodontic space closure in human anterior teeth.

  17. Factors related with public open space use among adolescents: a study using GPS and accelerometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Linde; Verhoeven, Hannah; Clarys, Peter; Van Dyck, Delfien; Van de Weghe, Nico; Baert, Tim; Deforche, Benedicte; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle

    2018-01-22

    Low physical activity levels and high levels of sedentary time among adolescents call for population wide interventions. Public open spaces can be important locations for adolescents' physical activity. This study aimed to describe the prevalence, frequency and context of public open space visitation and to gain insight into the individual, social and physical environmental factors associated with public open space use among 12- to 16-year-old Flemish (Belgian) adolescents. Global positioning system devices, accelerometers and one-on-one interviews were used to measure location-specific activity levels, time spent at, reasons for using and accompaniment at public open spaces among 173 adolescents. Multilevel hurdle and gamma models were used to estimate the associations between the independent variables (age, gender, ethnicity, education, sport club membership and accompaniment) and the amount of time, sedentary time, light-, moderate- to vigorous- and vigorous-intensity physical activity at public open spaces. Three out of four participants had visited a public open space (for recreational purposes) and participants were most often accompanied by friends/classmates. Mainly public transportation stops/stations were used, and subsequently the most reported reason for public open space use was "to wait for something or someone". Furthermore, boys, younger adolescents, non-western-European adolescents and lower educated adolescents were more likely to use public open spaces. Additionally, boys and younger adolescents were more likely to accumulate physical activity at public open spaces. The only social environmental variable associated with time spent at public open spaces was accompaniment by siblings: adolescents spent more time at public open spaces when accompanied by their siblings. Public open spaces may be effective areas to promote physical activity among groups at risk for physical inactivity (i.e. low educated and non-western-European adolescents

  18. Refusal to medical interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, G; Herreros, B; Pacho, E

    2014-10-01

    Refusal to medical interventions is the not acceptance, voluntary and free, of an indicated medical intervention. What the physician should do in case of refusal? It is understandable that the rejection of a validated medical intervention is difficult to accept by the responsible physician when raises the conflict protection of life versus freedom of choice. Therefore it is important to follow some steps to incorporate the most relevant aspects of the conflict. These steps include: 1) Give complete information to patients, informing on possible alternatives, 2) determine whether the patient can decide (age, competency and level of capacity), 3) to ascertain whether the decision is free, 4) analyze the decision with the patient, 5) to persuade, 6) if the patient kept in the rejection decision, consider conscientious objection, 7) take the decision based on the named criteria, 8) finally, if the rejection is accepted, offer available alternatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Children with pervasive refusal.

    OpenAIRE

    Lask, B; Britten, C; Kroll, L; Magagna, J; Tranter, M

    1991-01-01

    Four children are described with a potentially life threatening condition manifested by profound and pervasive refusal to eat, drink, walk, talk, or care for themselves in any way over a period of several months. The multiplicity and severity of the symptoms in these children do not fit comfortably into any existing diagnostic category. Long term and highly skilled nursing and psychiatric care is required to help these children to recover. The possible causes of this syndrome are discussed.

  20. Public open space, physical activity, urban design and public health: Concepts, methods and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Mavoa, Suzanne; Villanueva, Karen; Sugiyama, Takemi; Badland, Hannah; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Owen, Neville; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-05-01

    Public open spaces such as parks and green spaces are key built environment elements within neighbourhoods for encouraging a variety of physical activity behaviours. Over the past decade, there has been a burgeoning number of active living research studies examining the influence of public open space on physical activity. However, the evidence shows mixed associations between different aspects of public open space (e.g., proximity, size, quality) and physical activity. These inconsistencies hinder the development of specific evidence-based guidelines for urban designers and policy-makers for (re)designing public open space to encourage physical activity. This paper aims to move this research agenda forward, by identifying key conceptual and methodological issues that may contribute to inconsistencies in research examining relations between public open space and physical activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Open string fluctuations in AdS space with and without torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, A.L.; Lomholt, Michael Andersen

    2003-01-01

    The equations of motion and boundary conditions for the fluctuations around a classical open string, in a curved space-time with torsion, are considered in compact and world-sheet covariant form. The rigidly rotating open strings in anti-de Sitter space with and without torsion are investigated...

  2. A Comparison of Selective Auditory Attention Abilities in Open-Space Versus Closed Classroom Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinertsen, Gloria M.

    A study compared performances on a test of selective auditory attention between students educated in open-space versus closed classroom environments. An open-space classroom environment was defined as having no walls separating it from hallways or other classrooms. It was hypothesized that the incidence of auditory figure-ground (ability to focus…

  3. Next Generation Space Interconnect Standard (NGSIS): a modular open standards approach for high performance interconnects for space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Charles Patrick

    2017-04-01

    The Next Generation Space Interconnect Standard (NGSIS) effort is a Government-Industry collaboration effort to define a set of standards for interconnects between space system components with the goal of cost effectively removing bandwidth as a constraint for future space systems. The NGSIS team has selected the ANSI/VITA 65 OpenVPXTM standard family for the physical baseline. The RapidIO protocol has been selected as the basis for the digital data transport. The NGSIS standards are developed to provide sufficient flexibility to enable users to implement a variety of system configurations, while meeting goals for interoperability and robustness for space. The NGSIS approach and effort represents a radical departure from past approaches to achieve a Modular Open System Architecture (MOSA) for space systems and serves as an exemplar for the civil, commercial, and military Space communities as well as a broader high reliability terrestrial market.

  4. Physical Origins of Space Weather Impacts: Open Physics Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzerotti, L. J.

    2011-12-01

    Beginning with the era of development of electrical telegraph systems in the early 19th century, physical processes in the space environment on the Sun, in the interplanetary medium, and around Earth have influenced the design and operations of ever-increasing and sophisticated technical systems, both in space and on the ground. Understanding of Earth's space environment has increased enormously in the last century and one-half. Nevertheless, many of the physical processes that produced effects on early cable and wireless technologies continue to plague modern-day systems. And as new technologies are developed for improved communications, surveillance, navigation, and conditions for human space flight, the solar-terrestrial environment often offers surprises to their safe, secure and uninterrupted operations. This talk will address some of the challenges that I see to the successful operations of some modern-day technical systems that are posed by significant deficiencies of understanding of physical processes operating from the Sun to the Earth.

  5. Open Problem: Kernel methods on manifolds and metric spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aasa; Hauberg, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Radial kernels are well-suited for machine learning over general geodesic metric spaces, where pairwise distances are often the only computable quantity available. We have recently shown that geodesic exponential kernels are only positive definite for all bandwidths when the input space has strong...... linear properties. This negative result hints that radial kernel are perhaps not suitable over geodesic metric spaces after all. Here, however, we present evidence that large intervals of bandwidths exist where geodesic exponential kernels have high probability of being positive definite over finite...... datasets, while still having significant predictive power. From this we formulate conjectures on the probability of a positive definite kernel matrix for a finite random sample, depending on the geometry of the data space and the spread of the sample....

  6. Open Data and Open Science for better Research in the Geo and Space Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschel, B.; Seelus, C.; Neher, G.; Iyemori, T.; Koyama, Y.; Yatagai, A. I.; Murayama, Y.; King, T. A.; Hughes, S.; Fung, S. F.; Galkin, I. A.; Hapgood, M. A.; Belehaki, A.

    2015-12-01

    Main open data principles had been worked out in the run-up and finally adopted in the Open Data Charta at the G8 summit in Lough Erne, Northern Ireland in June 2013. Important principles are also valid for science data, such as Open Data by Default, Quality and Quantity, Useable by All, Releasing Data for Improved Governance, Releasing Data for Innovation. There is also an explicit relationship to such areas of high values as earth observation, education and geospatial data. The European union implementation plan of the Open Data Charta identifies among other things objectives such as making data available in an open format, enabling semantic interoperability, ensuring quality, documentation and where appropriate reconciliation across different data sources, implementing software solutionsallowing easy management, publication or visualization of datasets and simplifying clearance of intellectual property rights.Open Science is not just a list of already for a longer time known principles but stands for a lot of initiatives and projects around a better handling of scientific data and openly shared scientific knowledge. It is also about transparency in methodology and collection of data, availability and reuse of scientific data, public accessibility to scientific communication and using of social media to facility scientific collaboration. Some projects are concentrating on open sharing of free and open source software and even further hardware in kind of processing capabilities. In addition question about the mashup of data and publication and an open peer review process are addressed.Following the principles of open data and open science the newest results of the collaboration efforts in mashing up the data servers related to the Japanese IUGONET, the European Union ESPAS and the GFZ ISDC semantic Web projects will be presented here. The semantic Web based approach for the mashup is focusing on the design and implementation of a common but still distributed data

  7. Remaking Nigeria’s Urbanism: Assessing and Redressing the Dearth of Open Spaces in Benin City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndubisi Onwuanyi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Unplanned land use in most Nigerian cities has meant that all urban land needs are not adequately provided for within their landscapes. Open spaces are either conspicuously missing or inadequate. There is a tendency for existing open spaces to be lost to urban development pressure and a disregard for zoning. This paper identifies available and accessible open spaces in Benin City and assesses their adequacy using as a guide standards established in two selected international jurisdictions, discusses the potential benefits of open space to the city on the one hand and its residents on the other given the incipient impacts of global warming and climate change, and the prospects of mitigation by greening the city even in its already built-up state. Data is sourced from journals, reports, archival records and inspections of the urban environment. The findings confirm a great dearth of open spaces as well as deteriorating urban environmental conditions which have implications for health, well-being and urban sustainability. The recommendations are that future expansions of the city space incorporate adequate provisions for open spaces, whilst within the existing built-up city, solutions be sought in the creation of greenways, green paths, private green spaces, promoting street trees and the conversion of brownfield sites to green areas.

  8. Opening up the future in space with nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Man's extraterrestrial development is dependent on abundant power. For example, space-based manufacturing facilities are projected to have a power demand of 300 kWe by the end of this Century, and several megawatts in the early part of next millennium. The development of the lunar resource base will result in power needs ranging from an initial 100 kW(e) to many megawatts. Human visits to Mars could be achieved using a multimegawatt nuclear electric propulsion system or high thrust nuclear rockets. Detailed exploration of the solar system will also be greatly enhanced by the availability of large nuclear electric propulsion systems. All of these activities will require substantial increases in space power - hundreds of kilowatts to many megawatts. The challenge is clear: how to effectively use nuclear energy to support humanity's expansion into space

  9. Keeping Our Eyes Open: Conducting Aerial Reconnaissance Without Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    TIMOTHY M. CULLEN (Date) ___________________________________ JAMES M. TUCCI (Date) iii DISCLAIMER The...in 2014/15, and USAF School of Advanced Air and Space Studies in 2015/16. v ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank Colonel Timothy Cullen for...Admiral William Owens. In 1996 Owens described ISR as involving “sensor and reporting technologies associated with intelligence collection

  10. Homology of the open moduli space of curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ib Henning

    2012-01-01

    This is a survey on the proof of a generalized version of the Mumford conjecture obtained in joint work with M. Weiss stating that a certain map between some classifying spaces which a priori have different natures induces an isomorphism at the level of integral homology. We also discuss our proo...

  11. Distribution of green open space in Malang City based on multispectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasyim, A. W.; Hernawan, F. P.

    2017-06-01

    Green open space is one of the land that its existence is quite important in urban areas where the minimum area is set to reach 30% of the total area of the city. Malang which has an area of 110,6 square kilometers, is one of the major cities in East Java Province that is prone to over-land conversion due to development needs. In support of the green space program, calculation of green space is needed precisely so that remote sensing which has high accuracy is now used for measurement of green space. This study aims to analyze the area of green open space in Malang by using Landsat 8 image in 2015. The method used was the vegetation index that is Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). From the study obtained the calculation of green open space was better to use the vegetation index method to avoid the occurrence of misclassification of other types of land use. The results of the calculation of green open space using NDVI found that the area of green open space in Malang City in 2015 reached 39% of the total area.

  12. The Conservation of the Landscape in the Perspective of a Public Open Spaces System in Recife

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Ana Rita Sá; Duarte, Mirela; Marques, Eliábi A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the relationship between the study of public open spaces and the urban landscape in Recife, according a systemic vision. This relationship is defined with the historical analysis of the natural ecosystems in the site landscape such as rivers, coast vegetation and mangrove, and the atlantic forest, which was occupied by the time. This method was chosen to understand the morphology of open spaces, its typology and which is preserved as natural and cultural heritage. Nowadays...

  13. Evaluation of the effects of subgingival injection of Simvastatin on space re-opening after orthodontic space closure in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Jahanbin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. This clinical trial evaluated the effect of Simvastatin on space re-opening after orthodontic space closure and its effect on the gingival index (GI and clinical attachment loss (CAL. Methods. 16 females, 25‒40 years old, with spaces between anterior mandibular teeth due to chronic periodontitis were participated in this study. The patients were randomly divided into control and experimental groups. In the experimental group, 1.2% Simvastatin gel and in the control group, 0.9% sodium chloride as a placebo was injected into the pocket depth of the six anterior teeth. The amount of space reopening, GI and CAL were measured. Results. No serious complications were observed during interventions and follow-up periods. Space re-opening was significantly reduced in patients receiving Simvastatin (P < 0.001. Moreover, GI reduction was significantly greater in Sim-vastatin group compared to the control group (P < 0.001. However, CAL did not demonstrate a significant difference between the groups. Conclusion. Simvastatin may decrease space re-opening after orthodontic space closure in human anterior teeth.

  14. Exploring Open-Ended Design Space of Mechatronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun; Wang, J.; Goodman, E.

    2004-01-01

    To realize design automation of mechatronic systems, there are two major issues to be dealt with: open-topology generation of mechatronic systems and simulation or analysis of those models. For the first issue, we exploit the strong topology exploration capability of genetic programming to create...... and evolve structures representing mechatronic systems. With the help of ERCs (ephemeral random constants) in genetic programming, we can also evolve the sizing of mechatronic system components along with the structures. The second issue, simulation and analysis of those system models, is made more complex...... when they represent mixed-energy-domain systems. We take advantage of bond graphs as a tool for multi- or mixed-domain modeling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Because there are many considerations in mechatronic system design that are not completely captured by a bond graph, we would like...

  15. Alternative utilization of underground spaces with abandoned mine openings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, So Keul; Cho, Won Jai; Han, Kong Chang; Choi, Sung Oong [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Utilization of the openings of the abandoned mines could be planned by the principal parameters such as location and geotechnical impact. The local governments have not only to lead the each stage of the utilization project from the very beginning of conceptual design up to the construction stage, but also to promote the project for the development of public purpose. The possible tentative candidates for the utilization of the abandoned mine openings which are supported by the local governments could be summarized as follows. a. The Gahak mine of Kwangmyung, Kyunggi: The mine caverns which have been served as the storage of the pickled fishes, could be reexcavated by taking into consideration the geotechnical parameters for the public use such as: 1) Training center for the youth, 2) Fermentation and storehouse of marine products, 3) Sightseeing resort, 4) Sports and leisure complex, 5) Underground parking lot, 6) Underground shopping mall and chilled room storage, 7) Library, concert hall and museum. b. Hamtae mine of Taebaek, Kangwon: The Hambaek main haulage way and its shaft should be investigated in detail in order to find out a possible use as the underground challenging park of the coal mining operation. c. Mines of Boryung and Hongsung, Chungnam: Lots of mine caverns have been used as the storehouse for the pickled shrimp. However, they have to be promoted to a large scale industries. d. Imgok mine of Kwangju and Palbong mine of Jeongeup, Chunbuk: Mine caverns which have been used as the storehouse of pickles, need a detailed investigation for alternative promotion. e. Yongho mine of Pusan Dalsung mine of Taegu: Both of the mines are located near metropolitan communities. Reconstruction of the old mine caverns of the Yongho mine is highly recommended for a public use. The caverns of the Dalsung mine could be utilized as the storage facilities. Detailed geotechnical survey and sit investigation could be suggested to design the recommended facilities for both

  16. OpenSpace: From Data Visualization Research to Planetariums and Classrooms Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmart, C.; Ynnerman, A.; Bock, A.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Kinzler, R. J.; Trakinski, V.; Mac Low, M. M.; Ebel, D. S. S.

    2016-12-01

    "OpenSpace" is a new NASA supported open source software that brings the latest techniques from data visualization research to the planetarium community and general public. The American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), in collaboration with informal science institutions (ISI), academic partners, key vendors that support planetariums worldwide, and NASA mission teams and Subject Matter Experts (SME), is creating OpenSpace to enable STEM education and improve U.S. scientific literacy by engaging a broad spectrum of the American public and STEM learners in cutting-edge NASA science and engineering content. The project's primary focus is the interactive presentation of dynamic data from observations (image sequences), astrophysical simulation (volumetric rendering), and space missions (observation geometry visualization). Development of the software began several years ago in collaboration with NASA Goddard's space weather modeling center and in conjunction with academic support from Linköping University (LiU) in Sweden, and continued last year with visualizations of NASA's New Horizons mission and ESA's Rosetta mission. For the New Horizons Pluto encounter, a dozen sites around the world running OpenSpace networked simultaneously to view the close approach to Pluto as narrated in real time by mission control scientists at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Subsequent image data from the Long Range Reconnaissance Imaging (LORRI) camera was released by NASA as it downloaded from the spacecraft in the following months. These images, along with post encounter navigation reconstruction data (NASA SPICE) were then used to update the OpenSpace New Horizons visualization, and create a February 2016 public program in which Deputy Project Scientist, Cathy Olkin, demonstrated these results visualized in OpenSpace to a sold out crowd in the AMNH Hayden Planetarium. As demonstrated with the New Horizons visualization in OpenSpace, the goals of the project are to make visible

  17. Open Cultural Spaces in Search of New Frontiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Švob-Đokić

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Crossing cultural borders opens up a new creativity, new expectations and new emptiness that provoke fear and existential nausea. Are we lost forever, in a specific historical time, in a specific culture, or in a specific geographical location? Are we forgotten in transitions, translations and intercultural misunderstandings? Are we bound to remain foreigners forever? In order to provide some answers, we hurriedly establish new borders and define new relations between the recently-established entities, a new creativity or a new understanding and knowledge that can help us to survive the confrontation with a limitless nihility. In the age of globalisation, an increased effort to position cultural creativity and cultural identification within the local, now multicultural and largely redefined context, is strongly felt. How does this affect people and societies? What are the limits of transgressions between cultures and different cultural values? How can the new cultural identities be redefined? The answers to these questions can turn out to be very different, but they seem to be confined to at least two already discernible directions: cultural hybridisation (García Canclini and the emergence of virtual cultures that promote de-standardised identities.

  18. Optimizing Ocean Space: Co-siting Open Ocean Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, B. L.; Wickliffe, L. C.; Morris, J. A., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    In January of 2016, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service released the Gulf Aquaculture Plan (GAP) to manage the development of environmentally sound and economically sustainable open ocean finfish aquaculture in the Gulf of Mexico (inside the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ]). The GAP provides the first regulatory framework for aquaculture in federal waters with estimated production of 64 million pounds of finfish, and an estimated economic impact of $264 million annually. The Gulf of Mexico is one of the most industrialized ocean basins in the world, with many existing ocean uses including oil and natural gas production, shipping and commerce, commercial fishing operations, and many protected areas to ensure conservation of valuable ecosystem resources and services. NOAA utilized spatial planning procedures and tools identifying suitable sites for establishing aquaculture through exclusion analyses using authoritative federal and state data housed in a centralized geodatabase. Through a highly collaborative, multi-agency effort a mock permitting exercise was conducted to illustrate the regulatory decision-making process for the Gulf. Further decision-making occurred through exploring co-siting opportunities with oil and natural gas platforms. Logistical co-siting was conducted to reduce overall operational costs by looking at distance to major port and commodity tonnage at each port. Importantly, the process of co-siting allows aquaculture to be coupled with other benefits, including the availability of previously established infrastructure and the reduction of environmental impacts.

  19. Valuing urban open space using the travel-cost method and the implications of measurement error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanauer, Merlin M; Reid, John

    2017-08-01

    Urbanization has placed pressure on open space within and adjacent to cities. In recent decades, a greater awareness has developed to the fact that individuals derive multiple benefits from urban open space. Given the location, there is often a high opportunity cost to preserving urban open space, thus it is important for both public and private stakeholders to justify such investments. The goals of this study are twofold. First, we use detailed surveys and precise, accessible, mapping methods to demonstrate how travel-cost methods can be applied to the valuation of urban open space. Second, we assess the degree to which typical methods of estimating travel times, and thus travel costs, introduce bias to the estimates of welfare. The site we study is Taylor Mountain Regional Park, a 1100-acre space located immediately adjacent to Santa Rosa, California, which is the largest city (∼170,000 population) in Sonoma County and lies 50 miles north of San Francisco. We estimate that the average per trip access value (consumer surplus) is $13.70. We also demonstrate that typical methods of measuring travel costs significantly understate these welfare measures. Our study provides policy-relevant results and highlights the sensitivity of urban open space travel-cost studies to bias stemming from travel-cost measurement error. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Criteria for Public Open Space Enhancement to Achieve Social Interaction: a Review Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, S. A.; Ismail, S.

    2017-12-01

    A This paper presents a various literatures, studies, transcripts and papers aiming to provide an overview of some theories and existing research on the significance of natural environments and green open spaces to achieve social interaction and outdoor recreation. The main objective of the paper is to identify the factors that affecting social interaction in green open spaces, through proving that an appropriate open spaces is important to enhance social interaction and community. This study employs (qualitative) summarizing content analysis method which mainly focused on collect and summarizing of documentation such as transcripts, articles, papers, and books from more than 25 source, regarding the importance of public open spaces for the community. The summarizing content analysis of this paper is the fundament for a qualitative oriented procedure of text interpretation used to analyse the information gathered. Results of this study confirms that sound social interaction need an appropriate physical space including criteria of: design, activities, access and linkage, administration and maintenance, place attachment and users’ characteristics, also previous studies in this area have a health perspective with measures of physical activity of open spaces in general.

  1. The Impact of Green Open Space on Community Attachment—A Case Study of Three Communities in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuemei Zhu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With the development of urbanization in China, the quality of urban life and community attachment have attracted increasing attention of the governments and society. Existing research on community attachment has mainly examined how individual characteristics affect community attachment, such as their length of residence and socioeconomic status. However, some scholars have become interested in exploring the effects of green open space on community attachment. This research examined whether the distribution of green open space in communities had significant effects on community attachment, and both the impact and path were also investigated. Through a questionnaire survey, relevant data in three communities of Beijing were collected. The impact of green open space layout on community attachment was evaluated by using hierarchical regression, and the impact path was examined by using a structural equation model. The results showed that green open space in a community had significant effects on the community attachment, with centralized green open space layout having a greater effect than that of dispersed green open space. Moreover, the more complex the shape of green open space is, the greater the impact is. The degree of satisfaction with the green open space had direct effects on the community attachment. The accessibility and perceived area of green open space could indirectly have an impact on the community attachment by affecting the degree of satisfaction with the green open space. Nevertheless, residents’ perceived importance of green open space could affect the community attachment directly and indirectly, as it affects the degree of satisfaction.

  2. The urban microclimate in open space. Case studies in Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Tumini

    2014-04-01

    de proyecto, aplicados a tres casos de estudio situados en un barrio periurbano de la ciudad de Madrid. Para la determinación de los parámetros climáticos se han empleado valores obtenidos con un proceso de simulación computarizada, basados en los principios de fluidodinámica, termodinámica y del intercambio radioactivo en el espacio construido. A través de uso de programas de simulación podemos hacer una previsión de las condiciones microclimáticas de las situaciones actuales y de los efectos de la aplicación de medidas. La gran ventaja en el uso de sistemas de cálculo es que se pueden evaluar diferentes escenarios de proyecto y elegir entre ellos el que asegura mejores prestaciones ambientales. Los resultados obtenidos en los diferentes escenarios han sido comparados con los valores de confort del estado actual, utilizando como indicador de la sensación térmica el índice UTCI. El análisis comparativo ha permitido la realización de una tabla de resumen donde se muestra la evaluación de las diferentes soluciones de rehabilitación. Se ha podido así demostrar que no existe una solución constructiva eficaz para todas las aplicaciones, sino que cada situación debe ser estudiada individualmente, aplicando caso por caso las medidas más oportunas. Si bien los sistemas de simulación computarizada pueden suponer un importante apoyo para la fase de diseño, es responsabilidad del proyectista emplear las herramientas más adecuadas en cada fase y elegir las soluciones más oportunas para cumplir con los objetivos del proyecto. Abstract: The urban microclimate plays an important role on buildings energy consumption and comfort sensation in exterior spaces. Nowadays, cities need to increase energy efficiency, reduce the pollutants emissions and mitigate the evident lack of sustainability. In reason of this, attention has focused on the bioclimatic urbanism as a reference of change proposal of the way to design and live the city. Hitherto, the researches on

  3. Evaluation of comfort conditions in urban open spaces. Application in the island of Crete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitoura, Marianna; Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Daras, Tryfon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Outdoor spaces field surveys carried out in four different urban open spaces. • A strong connection between the microclimate and the use of open space. • Human physical and psychological factors can optimize the urban space design. - Abstract: The thermal environment in outdoor public spaces and their level of use are strongly connected. The design of outdoor spaces, especially in urban areas, is very critical in Southern Europe due to their extended use during summertime where the urban heat island phenomenon deteriorates the microclimatic conditions. In this paper the main outcomes of outdoor spaces field surveys are presented, which were carried out in four different urban open spaces in Crete. On site measurements were implemented and a questionnaire was used in order to estimate the thermal comfort of visitors. Thermal indices like Predicted Mean Vote, Physiologically Equivalent Temperature, Standard Effective Temperature, Wet Bulb Globe Temperature are used to evaluate the features of urban microclimate and then are being compared in order to find the most suitable for the Mediterranean microclimate. This suggests another way of approach to the researcher and provides essential tools to the designer

  4. Researching on Hawking Effect in a Kerr Space Time via Open Quantum System Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wen-Biao; Liu, Xian-Ming

    2014-01-01

    It has been proposed that Hawking radiation from a Schwarzschild or a de Sitter spacetime can be understood as the manifestation of thermalization phenomena in the framework of an open quantum system. Through examining the time evolution of a detector interacting with vacuum massless scalar fields, it is found that the detector would spontaneously excite with a probability the same as the thermal radiation at Hawking temperature. Following the proposals, the Hawking effect in a Kerr space time is investigated in the framework of an open quantum systems. It is shown that Hawking effect of the Kerr space time can also be understood as the the manifestation of thermalization phenomena via open quantum system approach. Furthermore, it is found that near horizon local conformal symmetry plays the key role in the quantum effect of the Kerr space time

  5. Investigating the Impact of Schools' Open Space on Learning and Educational Achievement of Elementary Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Gilavand

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background It is obvious that most of informal learnings of social skills and constructive plays occur in school yards and play-fields where children spend much of their non-official time of teaching. This study aimed to investigate the impact of schools' open space on learning and educational achievement of elementary students in Ahvaz, Southwest of Iran. Materials and Methods At a cross-sectional study, 210 students were selected randomly as sample of study. Data collection tools included Hermance’s achievement motivation questionnaire and researcher-constructed questionnaire (observation checklist to examine the physical parameters of learning schools' open space and interviews with students. Data of study were analyzed in SPSS- 21 software. Results Results of this study showed that schools' open space has a significant impact on learning and academic achievement of elementary school students in Ahvaz- Iran (P

  6. Move the Neighborhood: study design of a community-based participatory public open space intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Winge, Laura; Carroll, Sidse

    evaluation will be used to gain knowledge of the intervention processes. DISCUSSION: The study presents new methods and approaches in the field of public open space interventions through interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory co-design approach and combination of measurements. Using both effect......BACKGROUND: A limited amount of research has examined the effect of changing public open spaces on active living. This abstract presents the study protocol of an intervention study designed in an interdisciplinary collaboration built on principles of Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR...... and process evaluations the study will provide unique insights in the role and importance of the interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory processes, tailoring changes in public open space to local needs and wishes. These results can be used to guide urban renewal projects in deprived neighbourhoods...

  7. Sustainability: an Approach in Planning to Raise the Quality of Life Through Open Space Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Y. Khobragade

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A presentation of the notion of sustainable development through the eye of a town planner, by elucidating how open space development would change the character of the city and augment towards harmony in the socio-environmental chords of sustainable development. It is an attempt to put forward awareness about the sustainability and environmental risk to ultimately reconcile ecological, social and economic factors of society. It is an attempt to reflect on socio-environmental dimension of the open space planning by addressing urban metamorphosis.

  8. An Experimental Study on the Influence of Soundscapes on People's Behaviour in an Open Public Space

    OpenAIRE

    Aletta, F.; Lepore, F.; Kostara-Konstantinou, E.; Kang, J.; Astolfi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have investigated how environmental sounds and music can modulate people’s behaviours, particularly in marketing research. However, there are relatively few examples of research about such relationships with a focus on the management of urban public spaces. The current study investigated an open public space used mainly as a pedestrian crossing to analyse the relationship between the audio stimuli and peoples’ behaviours. An experiment relying on covert behavioural observation...

  9. Space closing versus space opening for bilateral missing upper laterals - aesthetic judgments of laypeople: a web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Salim; Parkin, Nicola A; Benson, Philip E

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the opinions of laypeople regarding the aesthetic outcome of treating patients with developmental absence of both maxillary lateral incisors using either orthodontic space closure (OSC) or space opening and prosthetic replacement (PR). Cross sectional, web-based survey. A panel of five orthodontists and five restorative dentists examined post-treatment intra-oral images of 21 patients with developmental absence of both upper lateral incisors. A consensus view was obtained about the 10 most attractive images (5 OSC; 5 PR). The 10 selected images were used in a web-based survey involving staff and students at the University of Sheffield. In the first section, the participants were asked to evaluate the attractiveness of the 10 randomly arranged single images using a 5-point Likert scale. In the second section, an image of OSC was paired with an image of PR according to their attractiveness ranking by the clinician panel, and the participants were asked to indicate which of the two images they preferred. The survey received 959 completed responses with 9590 judgements. The images of OSC were perceived to be more attractive (mean rating 3·34 out of 5; SD 0·56) compared with the images of PR (mean rating 3·14 out of 5; SD 0·58) (mean diff 0·21; P Space closing was perceived to be more attractive than space opening by lay people. The findings have implications for advising patients about the best aesthetic outcome when both maxillary lateral incisors are missing.

  10. COSMO: a decision-support system for the central open space, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harms, W.B.; Knaapen, J.P.; Roos-Klein-Lankhorst sic, J.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate scenarios for nature restoration, a landscape ecological decision-support system has been developed, a knowledge-based system integrated in a geographical information system. The grid-based application in the Central Open Space of the Netherlands (the COSMO model) is presented here. Four

  11. How to Cope with Working in an Open-space Lab?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pautasso, Marco; Werf, van der Wopke

    2017-01-01

    Open-space labs and research environments are increasingly common worldwide. They are supposed to facilitate interactions among researchers, but can be disruptive to those who need to be in a quiet environment in order to concentrate. This problem is increasingly felt across the natural, medical

  12. Tidal wetland vegetation and ecotone profiles: The Rush Ranch Open Space Preserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Rush Ranch Open Space Preserve (Rush Ranch) is a component site of the San Francisco Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (SF Bay NERR) that includes one of the largest undiked tidal wetlands in the San Francisco Estuary. The brackish tidal wetlands grade into transitional vegetation and unde...

  13. 77 FR 13261 - Request for Applications: The Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Request for Applications: The Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program AGENCY: Forest Service. ACTION: Notice; Correction. SUMMARY: The Department..., published a document in the Federal Register of February 15, 2011, concerning requests for applications for...

  14. Best Management Practice, Fact Sheet 2. Sheet Flow to Open Space

    OpenAIRE

    Sample, David; Doumar, Lia

    2013-01-01

    This publication explains what sheet flow to open space is, where and how it is used, their limitations, routine and nonroutine maintenance, expected costs, and a glossary of terms. This fact sheet is one of a 15-part series on urban stormwater management practices.

  15. The social aspects of landscape change: protecting open space under the pressure of development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster; Susan I. Stewart; David N. Bengston

    2004-01-01

    The extent of developed land in many parts of the world has increased rapidly in recent decades, posing significant challenges to the protection of forests, agricultural lands, and other natural and culturally modified green areas in urban and rural settings. Sustaining these open spaces has long been seen as a critical issue economically, and it is now increasingly...

  16. Butterflies Diversity in Brawijaya University, Veteran, Jakarta and Velodrom Green Open Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Raisa Khairun Nisa'

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Butterflies have some roles in environmental as pollinator and bioindicator. Habitat is one of important factor to support butterflies growth. The aim of this research was to describe butterflies diversity in some green open spaces in Malang. Direct observations of butterflies diversity, vegetation structures and abiotic factors in Brawijaya University, Veteran, Jakarta and Velodrom Green Open Space were conducted on June 2012. Sampling was took place in each sites using cruising method in three times observation at 07.00, 11.00 a.m. and 3.30 p.m . Data were analyzed by statistical descriptive using Microsoft Excel 2007 and PAST. The result showed that butterflies composition in all sites dominated by Delias sp., Leptosia nina and Eurema venusta. The diversity index of all sites showed moderate rank that indicate communities equilibrium in environment was still good. In this case, Velodrom Green Open Space has the highest one of diversity index, it was about 2,199. Brawijaya University and Jakarta Green Open Space have a high similarity index based on Morisita Index. The highest abundance of butterflies was observed at 11.00-12.30 a.m. Delias sp. and Leptosia nina has temporal spread all day long, while Eurema venusta just in day light.

  17. The Role of Open Space in Urban Neighbourhoods for Health-Related Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestan, Katarina Ana; Eržen, Ivan; Golobič, Mojca

    2014-01-01

    The research reported in this paper addresses the relationship between quality of open space and health related lifestyle in urban residential areas. The research was performed in the residential developments in Ljubljana, Slovenia, dating from the time of political and economic changes in the early nineties. Compared to the older neighborhoods, these are typically single-use residential areas, with small open spaces and poor landscape design. The research is concerned with the quality of life in these areas, especially from the perspective of the vulnerable users, like the elderly and children. Both depend on easily accessible green areas in close proximity to their homes. The hypothesis is that the poor open space quality affects their health-related behavior and their perceived health status. The research has three methodological phases: (1) a comparison between urban residential areas by criteria describing their physical characteristics; (2) behavior observation and mapping and (3) a resident opinion survey. The results confirm differences between open spaces of the selected residential areas as well as their relation with outdoor activities: a lack of outdoor programs correlates with poor variety of outdoor activities, limited to transition type, less time spent outdoors and lower satisfaction with their home environment. The survey also disclosed a strong influence of a set of socio-economic variables such as education and economic status on physical activity and self-perceived health status of people. The results therefore confirm the hypothesis especially for less affluent and educated; i.e., vulnerable groups. PMID:25003173

  18. The Role of Open Space in Urban Neighbourhoods for Health-Related Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Ana Lestan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The research reported in this paper addresses the relationship between quality of open space and health related lifestyle in urban residential areas. The research was performed in the residential developments in Ljubljana, Slovenia, dating from the time of political and economic changes in the early nineties. Compared to the older neighborhoods, these are typically single-use residential areas, with small open spaces and poor landscape design. The research is concerned with the quality of life in these areas, especially from the perspective of the vulnerable users, like the elderly and children. Both depend on easily accessible green areas in close proximity to their homes. The hypothesis is that the poor open space quality affects their health-related behavior and their perceived health status. The research has three methodological phases: (1 a comparison between urban residential areas by criteria describing their physical characteristics; (2 behavior observation and mapping and (3 a resident opinion survey. The results confirm differences between open spaces of the selected residential areas as well as their relation with outdoor activities: a lack of outdoor programs correlates with poor variety of outdoor activities, limited to transition type, less time spent outdoors and lower satisfaction with their home environment. The survey also disclosed a strong influence of a set of socio-economic variables such as education and economic status on physical activity and self-perceived health status of people. The results therefore confirm the hypothesis especially for less affluent and educated; i.e., vulnerable groups.

  19. Perception of open urban space – Bevk square in Nova Gorica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Bratina

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In research on perception of open urban space, psychological and structural aspects are important, as well as social use. Social use however is most important, because open urban space and its green surfaces satisfies needs of an urban population. The psychological aspect applies to direct experiencing and perception of space, while the structural aspect proves that public urban places are an important category in the urban structure. On the example of Bevk square, Nova Gorica, three types of analyses were carried out. With the structural analysis and evaluation, development and structure of the place were shown, its problems and qualities. The survey on public opinion utilised the method of cognitive mapping, enabled definition of the image of the square, as perceived by everyday users. With the method of time samples events on the square were observed, in different time slots and days of the week.

  20. Marketization of refuse collection in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Ole Gunni

    2006-01-01

      Danish municipalities' outsourcing and contracting of refuse collection are framed by a complex set of ideologies and objectives, besides regulation. Both at EU-level and at national level extreme demands for marketization of the public sector are counter-weighed by demands for social and envir......  Danish municipalities' outsourcing and contracting of refuse collection are framed by a complex set of ideologies and objectives, besides regulation. Both at EU-level and at national level extreme demands for marketization of the public sector are counter-weighed by demands for social...... and environmental considerations associated with the superior goal of sustainable development. In the EU regulative complex developments in normative and legal regulation of social and environmental requirements to member-states' performance have co-existed with tough requirements to ensure open competition...... in public authorities contracting. In the latest edition of the procurement directive it has been clarified that public authorities' commitment of private service-providers to social and environmental requirements by contracting is perfectly legitimate. At national level the municipalities when contracting...

  1. Identification and characteristics of vaccine refusers

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Feifei; Mullooly, John P; Goodman, Mike; McCarty, Maribet C; Hanson, Ann M; Crane, Bradley; Nordin, James D

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background This study evaluated the utility of immunization registries in identifying vaccine refusals among children. Among refusers, we studied their socioeconomic characteristics and health care utilization patterns. Methods Medical records were reviewed to validate refusal status in the immunization registries of two health plans. Racial, education, and income characteristics of children claiming refusal were collected based on the census tract of each child. Health care utilizat...

  2. Scientific competency questions as the basis for semantically enriched open pharmacological space development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzaoui, Kamal; Jacoby, Edgar; Senger, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Molecular information systems play an important part in modern data-driven drug discovery. They do not only support decision making but also enable new discoveries via association and inference. In this review, we outline the scientific requirements identified by the Innovative Medicines Initiative...... (IMI) Open PHACTS consortium for the design of an open pharmacological space (OPS) information system. The focus of this work is the integration of compound–target–pathway–disease/phenotype data for public and industrial drug discovery research. Typical scientific competency questions provided...

  3. 33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not equipped in accordance with §§ 401.5 to...

  4. B→τν: Opening up the charged Higgs parameter space with R-parity violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, Roshni; Kundu, Anirban

    2012-01-01

    The theoretically clean channel B + →τ + ν shows a close to 3σ discrepancy between the Standard Model prediction and the data. This in turn puts a strong constraint on the parameter space of a two-Higgs doublet model, including R-parity conserving supersymmetry. The constraint is so strong that it almost smells of fine-tuning. We show how the parameter space opens up with the introduction of suitable R-parity violating interactions, and release the tension between data and theory.

  5. GeneLab: NASA's Open Access, Collaborative Platform for Systems Biology and Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrios, Daniel C.; Thompson, Terri G.; Fogle, Homer W.; Rask, Jon C.; Coughlan, Joseph C.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is investing in GeneLab1 (http:genelab.nasa.gov), a multi-year effort to maximize utilization of the limited resources to conduct biological and medical research in space, principally aboard the International Space Station (ISS). High-throughput genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic or other omics analyses from experiments conducted on the ISS will be stored in the GeneLab Data Systems (GLDS), an open-science information system that will also include a biocomputation platform with collaborative science capabilities, to enable the discovery and validation of molecular networks.

  6. An open-source job management framework for parameter-space exploration: OACIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Y.; Uchitane, T.; Ito, N.

    2017-11-01

    We present an open-source software framework for parameter-space exporation, named OACIS, which is useful to manage vast amount of simulation jobs and results in a systematic way. Recent development of high-performance computers enabled us to explore parameter spaces comprehensively, however, in such cases, manual management of the workflow is practically impossible. OACIS is developed aiming at reducing the cost of these repetitive tasks when conducting simulations by automating job submissions and data management. In this article, an overview of OACIS as well as a getting started guide are presented.

  7. Suspicious Behavior Detection System for an Open Space Parking Based on Recognition of Human Elemental Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Teppei; Kimura, Kouji; Hagiwara, Masafumi

    Studies for video surveillance applications for preventing various crimes such as stealing and violence have become a hot topic. This paper proposes a new video surveillance system that can detect suspicious behaviors such as a car break-in and vandalization in an open space parking, and that is based on image processing. The proposed system has the following features: it 1)deals time series data flow, 2)recognizes “human elemental actions” using statistic features, and 3)detects suspicious behavior using Subspace method and AdaBoost. We conducted the experiments to test the performance of the proposed system using open space parking scenes. As a result, we obtained about 10.0% for false positive rate, and about 4.6% for false negative rate.

  8. Features of public open spaces and physical activity among children: findings from the CLAN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timperio, Anna; Giles-Corti, Billie; Crawford, David; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Ball, Kylie; Salmon, Jo; Hume, Clare

    2008-11-01

    To examine associations between features of public open spaces, and children's physical activity. 163 children aged 8-9 years and 334 adolescents aged 13-15 years from Melbourne, Australia participated in 2004. A Geographic Information System was used to identify all public open spaces (POS) within 800 m of participants' homes and their closest POS. The features of all POS identified were audited in 2004/5. Accelerometers measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) after school and on weekends. Linear regression analyses examined associations between features of the closest POS and participants' MVPA. Most participants had a POS within 800 m of their home. The presence of playgrounds was positively associated with younger boys' weekend MVPA (B=24.9 min/day; pPOS were associated with participants' MVPA, although mixed associations were evident. Further research is required to clarify these complex relationships.

  9. Community members’ initiatives in public open spaces: two case studies from Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Jelenc Krašovec

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with public spaces as open, everyday arenas where people share experiences beyond their immediate circle of friends, family and age group. Public space is understood as a forum for social and personal change (Harvey, 2011; Lefebvre, 2013; Arendt, 1996; Habermas, 1989; 2001. Questions are analysed from the point of view of community members, who are strongly attached to the space and who are interested in belonging and in proactive changes in their living environment (Iecovich, 2014; Kohn 2004; Mean and Tims, 2005. The paper is based on the presumptions that public space has an important role in generating ideas and activities of community members and that it is an important venue for community members’ informal learning. Ethnomethodological research in two public spaces (the Tabor community in Ljubljana and a small community in the coastal town of Izola show that there are differences between both public spaces regarding top-down initiatives and bottom-up, self-organized activities. However, although the activity initiators were in one case different associations rooted in the community, and in the other the local people themselves, most of the activities were conducted by people living in the selected communities/public spaces themselves as is typical of grassroots activities. It was confirmed that learning was not often mentioned by members of either community and was mostly a hidden activity, resulting in tacit knowledge.

  10. Audible vision for the blind and visually impaired in indoor open spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xunyi; Ganz, Aura

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we introduce Audible Vision, a system that can help blind and visually impaired users navigate in large indoor open spaces. The system uses computer vision to estimate the location and orientation of the user, and enables the user to perceive his/her relative position to a landmark through 3D audio. Testing shows that Audible Vision can work reliably in real-life ever-changing environment crowded with people.

  11. Mapping urban green open space in Bontang city using QGIS and cloud computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agus, F.; Ramadiani; Silalahi, W.; Armanda, A.; Kusnandar

    2018-04-01

    Digital mapping techniques are available freely and openly so that map-based application development is easier, faster and cheaper. A rapid development of Cloud Computing Geographic Information System makes this system can help the needs of the community for the provision of geospatial information online. The presence of urban Green Open Space (GOS) provide great benefits as an oxygen supplier, carbon-binding agent and can contribute to providing comfort and beauty of city life. This study aims to propose a platform application of GIS Cloud Computing (CC) of Bontang City GOS mapping. The GIS-CC platform uses the basic map available that’s free and open source. The research used survey method to collect GOS data obtained from Bontang City Government, while application developing works Quantum GIS-CC. The result section describes the existence of GOS Bontang City and the design of GOS mapping application.

  12. Modular Open System Architecture for Reducing Contamination Risk in the Space and Missile Defense Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasly, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    To combat contamination of physical assets and provide reliable data to decision makers in the space and missile defense community, a modular open system architecture for creation of contamination models and standards is proposed. Predictive tools for quantifying the effects of contamination can be calibrated from NASA data of long-term orbiting assets. This data can then be extrapolated to missile defense predictive models. By utilizing a modular open system architecture, sensitive data can be de-coupled and protected while benefitting from open source data of calibrated models. This system architecture will include modules that will allow the designer to trade the effects of baseline performance against the lifecycle degradation due to contamination while modeling the lifecycle costs of alternative designs. In this way, each member of the supply chain becomes an informed and active participant in managing contamination risk early in the system lifecycle.

  13. Using observational methods to evaluate public open spaces and physical activity in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino A A, F; Reis, Rodrigo S; Ribeiro, Isabela C; Parra, Diana C; Brownson, Ross C; Fermino, Rogerio C

    2010-07-01

    Open public spaces have been identified as important facilities to promote physical activity (PA) at the community level. The main goals of this study are to describe open public spaces user's characteristics and to explore to what extent these characteristics are associated with PA behavior. A system of direct observation was used to evaluate the PA levels on parks and squares (smaller parks) and users's characteristics (gender and age). The 4 parks and 4 squares observed were selected from neighborhoods with different socioeconomic status and environmental characteristics. The settings were observed 3 times a day, 6 days per week, during 2 weeks. More men than women were observed in parks (63.1%) and squares (70.0%) as well as more adults and adolescents than older adults and children. Users were more physically active in parks (men = 34.1%, women = 36.1%) than in squares (men = 25.5%, women 22.8%). The characteristics of public open spaces may affect PA in the observed places. Initiatives to improve PA levels in community settings should consider users' characteristics and preferences to be more effective and reach a larger number of people.

  14. Public Open Spaces and Leisure-Time Walking in Brazilian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florindo, Alex Antonio; Barrozo, Ligia Vizeu; Cabral-Miranda, William; Rodrigues, Eduardo Quieroti; Turrell, Gavin; Goldbaum, Moisés; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2017-05-23

    Access to public open space is important to increase leisure-time walking (LTW) in high-income countries, but there is little evidence in middle-income countries. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to examine the relationship between LTW and the presence of different public open spaces (parks, bike paths, and squares) and the mix of these recreational destinations near the homes of adults participating in the Sao Paulo Health Survey ( n = 3145). LTW was evaluated by a questionnaire. We delineated buffers (500, 1000, and 1500 m) from the geographic coordinates of the adults' residential addresses using a geographic information system. We used multilevel logistic regression taking account of clustering by census tracts and households, and with adjustment for social, demographics, and health characteristics. The main results showed that the presence of at least two recreational destinations within a 500-m buffer of participants' homes were associated with an increased odds of LTW compared with no destinations present (OR = 1.65; 95% CI 1.09-2.55). No associations were found for destinations further away. These results support actions outlined in the new urban plan for Sao Paulo city and could be used to highlight the importance access to a mix of public open spaces to promote physical activity in megacities of middle-income countries.

  15. Natural woodland vegetation and plant species richness of the urban open spaces in Gauteng, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H. Grobler

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that approximately 60 % of the world’s population will be living in urban areas by 2025. In Gauteng, the most densely populated province in South Africa, the natural open spaces are continually under threat from development. Vegetation is the most physical representation of the environment on which all animals are ultimately dependent. In order to evaluate an areas potential for development or conservation it is necessary to make a thorough inventory of the plant communities and their associated habitats. A survey of the natural woodlands was undertaken as part of a project describing the vegetation of the natural open spaces within the Gauteng region. Relevés were compiled in 73 stratified random sample plots in selected open spaces within the study area. A TWINSPAN classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, indicated six woodland communities that can be grouped into two major woodland communities. A classification and description of these communities as well as their species richness are presented. The results indicate that there are still patches of well-preserved natural vegetation within the study area and contribute to the limited knowledge that presently exists for the vegetation of the area.

  16. Public Open Spaces and Leisure-Time Walking in Brazilian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Antonio Florindo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Access to public open space is important to increase leisure-time walking (LTW in high-income countries, but there is little evidence in middle-income countries. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to examine the relationship between LTW and the presence of different public open spaces (parks, bike paths, and squares and the mix of these recreational destinations near the homes of adults participating in the Sao Paulo Health Survey (n = 3145. LTW was evaluated by a questionnaire. We delineated buffers (500, 1000, and 1500 m from the geographic coordinates of the adults’ residential addresses using a geographic information system. We used multilevel logistic regression taking account of clustering by census tracts and households, and with adjustment for social, demographics, and health characteristics. The main results showed that the presence of at least two recreational destinations within a 500-m buffer of participants’ homes were associated with an increased odds of LTW compared with no destinations present (OR = 1.65; 95% CI 1.09–2.55. No associations were found for destinations further away. These results support actions outlined in the new urban plan for Sao Paulo city and could be used to highlight the importance access to a mix of public open spaces to promote physical activity in megacities of middle-income countries.

  17. Open branes in space-time non-commutative little string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmark, T.

    2001-01-01

    We conjecture the existence of two new non-gravitational six-dimensional string theories, defined as the decoupling limit of NS5-branes in the background of near-critical electrical two- and three-form RR fields. These theories are space-time non-commutative Little String Theories with open branes. The theory with (2,0) supersymmetry has an open membrane in the spectrum and reduces to OM theory at low energies. The theory with (1,1) supersymmetry has an open string in the spectrum and reduces to (5+1)-dimensional NCOS theory for weak NCOS coupling and low energies. The theories are shown to be T-dual with the open membrane being T-dual to the open string. The theories therefore provide a connection between (5+1)-dimensional NCOS theory and OM theory. We study the supergravity duals of these theories and we consider a chain of dualities that shows how the T-duality between the two theories is connected with the S-duality between (4+1)-dimensional NCOS theory and OM theory

  18. Promoting Productive Urban Green Open Space Towards Food Security: Case Study Taman Sari, Bandung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridwan, M.; Sinatra, Fran; Natalivan, Petrus

    2017-10-01

    The common trend of urban population has been growing significantly in Indonesia for decades, are affected by urban green space conversion. Generally, this area is utilized for urban infrastructures and residences. Furthermore, urban area has grown uncontrollably that could enhance the phenomenon of urban sprawl. The conversion of green urban area and agricultural area will significantly decrease urban food security and quality of urban environment. This problem becomes a serious issue for urban sustainability. Bandung is a city with dense population where there are many poor inhabitants. Families living in poverty are subjected to food insecurity caused by the rise of food prices. Based on the urgency of urban food security and urban environment quality the local government has to achieve comprehensive solutions. This research aims to formulate the policy of productive green open space towards food security for poor people in Bandung. This research not only examines the role played by productive green open space to supply food for the urban poor but also how to govern urban areas sustainably and ensure food security. This research uses descriptive explanatory methodology that describes and explains how to generate policy and strategic planning for edible landscape to promote urban food security. Taman Sari is the location of this research, this area is a populous area that has amount of poor people and has a quite worse quality of urban environment. This study shows that urban green open space has the potential to be utilized as an urban farming land, which poor inhabitants could be main actors to manage urban agriculture to provide their food. Meanwhile, local government could contribute to subsidize the financial of urban farming activities.

  19. What happens after a request for euthanasia is refused? Qualitative interviews with patients, relatives and physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasman, H Roeline W; Willems, Dick L; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2013-09-01

    Obtaining in-depth information from both patient and physician perspectives about what happens after a request for euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide (EAS) is refused. In-depth interviews with nine patients whose EAS request was refused and seven physicians of these patients, and with three relatives of patients who had died after a request was refused and four physicians of these patients. Interviews were conducted at least 6 months after the refusal. A wish to die remained in all patients after refusal, although it sometimes diminished. In most cases patient and physician stopped discussing this wish, and none of the physicians had discussed plans for the future with the patient or evaluated the patient's situation after their refusal. Physicians were aware of patients' continued wish to die. Patients who are refused EAS may subsequently be silent about a wish to die without abandoning it. Open communication about wishes to die is important, even outside the context of EAS, because if people feel unable to talk about them, their quality of life may be further diminished. Follow up appointments after refusal could give patients the opportunity to discuss their feelings and physicians to support them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Managing for Multifunctionality in Urban Open Spaces: Approaches for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzheng Shi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Landscape management plays a key role in improving the quality of urban environments and enhancing the multifunctionality of green infrastructure. It works to guide the efficient and effective management of green spaces for sustainability and the well-being of users. However, while most researchers have emphasised spatial planning as a basis for developing green infrastructure to promote new strategic connections in urban green space, they have simultaneously ignored the impact of management. Against this background, this paper argues that if our towns and cities seek to maintain the well-being of citizens while also achieving sustainable environments, they must engage in effective landscape management to improve their green infrastructure. It is not enough to simply design or maintain parks and green spaces so as to keep up their physical condition; rather, green infrastructure work should be adapted to the understanding and implementation of managers, users and stakeholders in an integrated management process in order to provide more services for sustainable development. A selected study in Sheffield investigated the management planning required for sustainable development. It is beneficial to learn the experiences of management planning in Sheffield, a city which has rich management practices for green and open spaces. This study will analyse how management planning helps local authorities and managers to improve multifunctional green and open spaces in the context of sustainable development. As a result, the study also explores the framework of management planning with regard to the transferability of the existing practices in Sheffield. It also attempts to provide a primer for sustainability impact assessments in other cities with a considered knowledge exchange. KEYWORDS: Management planning, green infrastructure, multifunctionality, sustainability, knowledge exchange

  1. DAYLIGHTING PERFORMANCE OF HORIZONTAL LIGHT PIPE BRANCHING ON OPEN PLAN OFFICE SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feny ELSIANA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For daylighting purpose, office buildings should have a shallow plan and increase the ratio of surface to building’s volume. However, intensive use of air-conditioning drives office building’s plan to be deep with a minimum surface to volume ratio. This leads to the presence of areas that have insufficient daylight level at the work plane. Considering limitations of some daylighting methods in distributing daylight to these areas, Horizontal Light Pipe (HLP was selected. The aim of this research was to evaluate and explain the effect of HLP branching on daylight quantity and distribution inside open plan office space. Experimental with simulation as a tool was used as the research method. HLP branching’s uniformity ratio, illuminance and Daylight Factor were compared with unbranching HLP, simultaneously with daylighting standards. Results showed that office space with HLP-L branching had higher daylight level than HLP-T branching, 296 lux and 295 lux, HLP-L and HLP-T, respectively. However, HLP-T branching distributed daylight more evenly than HLP-L branching, with uniformity ratio as 1.49:1 and 1.50:1, HLP-T and HLP-L, respectively. Both of them met the illuminance target value and uniformity at work plane. Light’s deflection and improvement amount of opening distribution decreased average illuminance and Daylight Factor up to 3.59%. Those also decreased uniformity of daylight inside the space.

  2. Thermal Performance of Housing Open Spaces in the City of Mosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. TURKI HASAN ALI ALHADIDI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid urban growth has lead to an urgent need to increase residential buildings in such a way that requires quick execution of such buildings. The appearance of modern materials such as reinforced concrete has helped in getting fast-constructed houses of a westerly pattern such that excluding the inherited styles that are in harmony with severe environment like that of the Middle East. This has resulted in a modern pattern of buildings lacks the microclimate which was enjoyed by the traditional pattern and which have provided the inhabitant with a relative thermal comfort. ‎This research try to compare different microclimates due to the variation of open architectural spaces patterns in the residential units (traditional ones represented by (the courtyards and Iwan and the modem one represented by the space of (garages and terraces in Summer in Mosul city. ‎ ‎The results showed that the traditional open spaces are the nearest to the thermal comfort zone, although both of them don't represent the ideal state of human comfort in this ‎period of Summer.

  3. School Refusal: Clinical Features, Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayhan Bahali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Children regularly and voluntarily go to school in order to fulfill the expectations of society from them to continue their education or schooling. School continuation has been made compulsory by laws. Nonetheless, contrary to popular belief, for some children it is distressing to go to school. These children have difficulty continuing school and/or refuse to go to school. Today school refusal is defined as a child’s inability to continue school for reasons, such as anxiety and depression. The prevalence of school refusal has been reported to be approximately 1% in school-age children and 5% in child psychiatry samples. The prevalence of school refusal is similar among boys and girls. School refusal can occur at any time throughout the child’s academic life and at all socio-economic levels. School refusal is considered a symptom rather than a clinical diagnosis and can manifest itself as a sign of many psychiatric disorders, with anxiety disorders predominant. Separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, and adjustment disorder with anxiety symptoms are the most common disorders co-occurring with school refusal. While separation anxiety disorder is associated with school refusal in younger children, other anxiety disorders, especially phobias, are associated with school refusal in adolescents. Children who have parents with psychiatric disorders have a higher incidence of school refusal, and psychiatric disorders are more frequently seen in adult relatives of children with school refusal, which supports a significant role of genetic and environmental factors in th etiology of school refusal. School refusal is a emergency state for child mental health. As it leads to detrimental effects in the short term and the long term, it should be regarded as a serious problem. The long-lasting follow-up studies of school refusing children have revealed that these children have a higher incidence of

  4. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious...... refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural...... identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals’ conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment...

  5. Grassland communities of urban open spaces in Bloemfontein, Free State, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamokete N.V. Dingaan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural vegetation in urban environments is greatly impacted by human activities and it is in constant threat of degradation and destruction as a result of urbanisation. This vegetation, although fragmented, serves an important ecological function and needs to be properly managed and conserved. Studies on urban vegetation are lacking in South Africa, with only a handful having been carried out since the end of the last century. This study was initiated to identify, classify and describe the grassland communities of the urban open spaces in Bloemfontein. Relevés were compiled in 61 sample plots, where species present and habitat information were recorded. Care was taken to restrict sample plots to vegetation in pristine condition, wherever possible, and severely degraded stands were avoided. A two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, revealed two distinct major communities, seven communities and four sub-communities. Both detrended and canonical correspondence analyses indicated the vegetation units to be associated with soil texture and pH, although biotic factors such as overgrazing, burning and mowing also influence the composition of the vegetation. The proper management and conservation of urban open spaces requires in-depth knowledge of the spatial distribution, floristic, structural and functional compositions within the major vegetation types in this environment. The present study further contributed towards formulating ways for the proper management, utilisation and functioning of the open spaces within the Bloemfontein area.Conservation implications: The Grassland Biome of South Africa is poorly conserved, mainly because of its status as an agricultural hub of the country. The preservation of natural and semi-natural forms of urban vegetation is important because such vegetation, although often disturbed and degraded, could form dispersal corridors between peri-urban and rural

  6. Powerful and large regional authorities are needed to preserve green open space for urban agglomerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Aalbers

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Identification and assessment of strategies for the conservation and multifunctional development of green open space in the urban fringe of European urban regions is a challenge to both the academic and the real life world. Within the EU funded research project PLUREL – Peri-urban land use relationships – ‘Strategies and sustainability assessment tools for urban rural linkages’, we developed a methodology for international comparison of regional strategies that considers the policy context at supra-regional level. This methodology helped to explain the reported impacts of strategies. For this we further elaborated the theoretical concept of policy arrangements and policy dimensions by Van Tatenhove et al. (2000 and Arts et al. (2006. Strategies and policy contexts referred to are from Montpellier Agglomeration, a formal coalition of now 31 municipalities, Leipzig-Halle region, a functional urban region (FUR with governance coalitions around green open space preservation strategies, and Hangzhou in China, a very large city with hierarchical formal government. Results showed how the means of influence from different government levels can complement and reinforce each other and raise the effectiveness of the strategies. A combination of hierarchical government with a horizontal coalition between local authorities covering the full FUR can be very effective for managing the land use developments in the urban fringe, even when private business, CSOs or other NGOs are not included in the coalition. Supra-regional authorities do not have to possess the land resources, but setting the Rules of the Game is a powerful means of influence to coerce local municipalities to preserve green open space in the urban fringe.

  7. What Attracts People to Visit Community Open Spaces? A Case Study of the Overseas Chinese Town Community in Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyong Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A well-designed open space that encourages outdoor activity and social communication is a community asset that could potentially contribute to the health of local residents and social harmony of the community. Numerous factors may influence the use of each single space and may result in a variety of visitors. Compared with previous studies that focused on accessibility, this study highlights the relationship between the utilization and characteristics of community open spaces in China. The Overseas Chinese Town community in Shenzhen is regarded as an example. The association between the number of visitors and space characteristics is examined with multivariate regression models. Results show that large areas with accessible lawns, well-maintained footpaths, seats, commercial facilities, and water landscapes are important characteristics that could increase the use of community open spaces. However, adding green vegetation, sculptures, and landscape accessories in open spaces has limited effects on increasing the outdoor activities of residents. Thus, to increase the use of community open spaces, landscape designers should focus more on creating user-oriented spaces with facilities that encourage active use than on improving ornamental vegetation and accessories.

  8. What Attracts People to Visit Community Open Spaces? A Case Study of the Overseas Chinese Town Community in Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiyong; Liu, Tao; Xie, Xiaohuan; Marušić, Barbara Goličnik

    2016-01-01

    A well-designed open space that encourages outdoor activity and social communication is a community asset that could potentially contribute to the health of local residents and social harmony of the community. Numerous factors may influence the use of each single space and may result in a variety of visitors. Compared with previous studies that focused on accessibility, this study highlights the relationship between the utilization and characteristics of community open spaces in China. The Overseas Chinese Town community in Shenzhen is regarded as an example. The association between the number of visitors and space characteristics is examined with multivariate regression models. Results show that large areas with accessible lawns, well-maintained footpaths, seats, commercial facilities, and water landscapes are important characteristics that could increase the use of community open spaces. However, adding green vegetation, sculptures, and landscape accessories in open spaces has limited effects on increasing the outdoor activities of residents. Thus, to increase the use of community open spaces, landscape designers should focus more on creating user-oriented spaces with facilities that encourage active use than on improving ornamental vegetation and accessories. PMID:27367713

  9. Quantum mechanics on the moduli space from the quantum geometrodynamics of the open topological membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogan, I.I.

    1991-01-01

    The quantum geometrodynamics of the open topological membrane is described in terms of 2+1 topologically massive gravity (TMG) where the inverse graviton mass is proportional to the 2D central charge and thus is the measure of the off-criticality. The hamiltonian quantization of TMG on Riemann surfaces is considered and the moduli space appears as the subspace of the quantum-mechanical configuration space containing, besides the moduli, the first-order time derivatives of half of the moduli. The appearance of the first-order time derivatives as coordinates, not momenta, is due to the third-order derivative in the TMG lagrangian. The hamiltonian for the latter leads us to the discrete levels picture which looks like the topologically massive gauge theory (TMGT) case, where we also get the Landau levels picture and the lowest Landau level corresponds to the Hilbert space of the Chern-Simons theory (CST). The connection between the positivity of the energy and the complex structure on the moduli space is discussed. (orig.)

  10. Opened athletic-educational space - the condition of professional development of future teacher of physical culture is needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragnev Y.V.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the opening of the sports and educational space is determined by the whole space, where the interaction of the activity of the pedagogical university with different educational institutions on the basis of integration, continuity of the educational process, aimed at physical education, the development of children and young people take place. It is revealed the importance of awareness of such concepts as the world educational space, the international educational space, the European higher education area, European space of higher education and educational space of the CIS countries.

  11. Examining public open spaces by neighborhood-level walkability and deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badland, Hannah M; Keam, Rosanna; Witten, Karen; Kearns, Robin

    2010-11-01

    Public open spaces (POS) are recognized as important to promote physical activity engagement. However, it is unclear how POS attributes, such as activities available, environmental quality, amenities present, and safety, are associated with neighborhood-level walkability and deprivation. Twelve neighborhoods were selected within 1 constituent city of Auckland, New Zealand based on higher (n = 6) or lower (n = 6) walkability characteristics. Neighborhoods were dichotomized as more (n = 7) or less (n = 5) socioeconomically deprived. POS (n = 69) were identified within these neighborhoods and audited using the New Zealand-Public Open Space Tool. Unpaired 1-way analysis of variance tests were applied to compare differences in attributes and overall score of POS by neighborhood walkability and deprivation. POS located in more walkable neighborhoods have significantly higher overall scores when compared with less walkable neighborhoods. Deprivation comparisons identified POS located in less deprived communities have better quality environments, but fewer activities and safety features present when compared with more deprived neighborhoods. A positive relationship existed between presence of POS attributes and neighborhood walkability, but the relationship between POS and neighborhood-level deprivation was less clear. Variation in neighborhood POS quality alone is unlikely to explain poorer health outcomes for residents in more deprived areas.

  12. Evaluation of speech transmission in open public spaces affected by combined noises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pyoung Jik; Jeon, Jin Yong

    2011-07-01

    In the present study, the effects of interference from combined noises on speech transmission were investigated in a simulated open public space. Sound fields for dominant noises were predicted using a typical urban square model surrounded by buildings. Then road traffic noise and two types of construction noises, corresponding to stationary and impulsive noises, were selected as background noises. Listening tests were performed on a group of adults, and the quality of speech transmission was evaluated using listening difficulty as well as intelligibility scores. During the listening tests, two factors that affect speech transmission performance were considered: (1) temporal characteristics of construction noise (stationary or impulsive) and (2) the levels of the construction and road traffic noises. The results indicated that word intelligibility scores and listening difficulty ratings were affected by the temporal characteristics of construction noise due to fluctuations in the background noise level. It was also observed that listening difficulty is unable to describe the speech transmission in noisy open public spaces showing larger variation than did word intelligibility scores. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  13. Thermal Comfort Assessment in The Open Space in Bandung Case Study Dago Street and Riau Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugangga, M.; Janesonia, K. I.; Illiyin, D. F.; Donny Koerniawan, M.

    2018-05-01

    Bandung’s temperature has been higher since last years. This phenomenon affects the level of thermal comfort in open space. One indicator that determines the thermal comfort level is the type of activity performed by the open space user. Riau Street and Dago Street are corridors that are often used by the people for strolling, jogging, shopping. Dago Street has special event every Sunday namely car free day. Both corridors have different orientation; Dago Street is North to South corridor while Riau Street’s is West to East. The goal of the study is to compare people’s perception of thermal comfort in both corridors. This research uses two methods, namely qualitative method and quantitative method. Based on the results of qualitative analysis found that the thermal conditions in Dago Street more comfortable than the Riau Street. The result of quantitative analysis found that the average PET (thermal comfort indices) value of Dago Street was at 27.5 °C PET and Riau Street 28.6 °C PET. Dago Street is considered more convenient because it has a lower PET value than Riau Street. The people perception of thermal comfort is very important to start the steps for designing the orientation of street in urban design.

  14. ACCESS TO PUBLIC OPEN SPACE: IS DISTRIBUTION EQUITABLE ACROSS DIFFERENT SOCIO-ECONOMIC AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Koohsari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade, the role of the built environment on physical activity has been well investigated by public health, transportation and urban design scholars and it has been shown that different aspects of the built environment can influence physical activity Public open spaces (POS like parks have many health benefits and they can be important settings and destinations for having physical activity. Inequality in access to POS which may influence the amount of physical activity can be a reason for lower physical activity among deprived neighbourhoods. This paper aims to examine whether objective access to public open spaces (POS like parks is equally across the different socio-economic status (SES areas in the City of Melbourne. Objective access to POS was measured in network distance using geographic information systems (GIS and area SES was obtained using the SEIFA (Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas index. The results showed there was a significant difference in access to POS according to the SES areas. There was a significant negative correlation between the access to POS and the SES areas in which lower SES areas had poorer access to POS in comparison with the higher ones.

  15. Factors Influencing Visitors to Suburban Open Space Areas near a Northern Japanese City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Shoji

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Visitor information often serves as the basis for the management plan of parks. However, there exist few scientific and fundamental surveys for parks and open spaces in Japan. We analyzed the correlation between the number of visitors and the various factors in a suburban open space in a northern Japanese city, Takino Park. To explain the fluctuations in the number of visitors in Takino Park, multiple regression analyses with the stepwise method were conducted. The analyses employed social factors and meteorological factors, such as the day of the week, school vacations, temperature and the weather. The results show that the most influential factor is the day of the week, i.e., Sundays and holidays. The weather is also influential as the number of visitors decreases on rainy and snowy days. Comparing different seasons of the year, we found that influential factors varied from one season to the other. A key distinguishing finding of our results is that the weather conditions at the departure site and the weather forecast are also determining factors. These findings will help park managers understand the current situations and examine future management strategies to maintain and enhance visitor satisfaction, and improve information services.

  16. Opening new institutional spaces for grappling with uncertainty: A constructivist perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, Ronlyn

    2013-01-01

    In the context of an increasing reliance on predictive computer simulation models to calculate potential project impacts, it has become common practice in impact assessment (IA) to call on proponents to disclose uncertainties in assumptions and conclusions assembled in support of a development project. Understandably, it is assumed that such disclosures lead to greater scrutiny and better policy decisions. This paper questions this assumption. Drawing on constructivist theories of knowledge and an analysis of the role of narratives in managing uncertainty, I argue that the disclosure of uncertainty can obscure as much as it reveals about the impacts of a development project. It is proposed that the opening up of institutional spaces that can facilitate the negotiation and deliberation of foundational assumptions and parameters that feed into predictive models could engender greater legitimacy and credibility for IA outcomes. - Highlights: ► A reliance on supposedly objective disclosure is unreliable in the predictive model context in which IA is now embedded. ► A reliance on disclosure runs the risk of reductionism and leaves unexamined the social-interactive aspects of uncertainty. ► Opening new institutional spaces could facilitate deliberation on foundational predictive model assumptions.

  17. 30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 816.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 816.81, the... drainage may not be diverted over the outslope of the refuse piles. Runoff from the areas above the refuse...

  18. 30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 817.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 817.81, the... drainage may not be diverted over the outslope of the refuse pile. Runoff from areas above the refuse pile...

  19. 14 CFR 120.11 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated Under Parts 61, 63, and 65 § 120.11 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate holder. (a) This...

  20. 14 CFR 120.15 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated Under Parts 61, 63, and 65 § 120.15 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate holder. (a) This...

  1. 14 CFR 120.13 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated Under Parts 61, 63, and 65 § 120.13 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate holder. (a) This...

  2. Open Innovation Drug Discovery (OIDD): a potential path to novel therapeutic chemical space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvim-Gaston, Maria; Grese, Timothy; Mahoui, Abdelaziz; Palkowitz, Alan D; Pineiro-Nunez, Marta; Watson, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The continued development of computational and synthetic methods has enabled the enumeration or preparation of a nearly endless universe of chemical structures. Nevertheless, the ability of this chemical universe to deliver small molecules that can both modulate biological targets and have drug-like physicochemical properties continues to be a topic of interest to the pharmaceutical industry and academic researchers alike. The chemical space described by public, commercial, in-house and virtual compound collections has been interrogated by multiple approaches including biochemical, cellular and virtual screening, diversity analysis, and in-silico profiling. However, current drugs and known chemical probes derived from these efforts are contained within a remarkably small volume of the predicted chemical space. Access to more diverse classes of chemical scaffolds that maintain the properties relevant for drug discovery is certainly needed to meet the increasing demands for pharmaceutical innovation. The Lilly Open Innovation Drug Discovery platform (OIDD) was designed to tackle barriers to innovation through the identification of novel molecules active in relevant disease biology models. In this article we will discuss several computational approaches towards describing novel, biologically active, drug-like chemical space and illustrate how the OIDD program may facilitate access to previously untapped molecules that may aid in the search for innovative pharmaceuticals.

  3. Active living : the impact of renovating urban open spaces on increasing the level of physical activity among social groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiggers, Hiske; Shokoohi, Roya

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The provision of active parks/public open space is the key factor in promoting active living, because people and specially low-income and elderlies are being more interested in doing non-organized/informal, and no-cost sports/physical activities in outdoor spaces in recent decades

  4. Personal values and cancer treatment refusal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evert van Leeuwen; Marli Huijer

    2000-01-01

    This pilot study explores the reasons patients have for refusing chemotherapy, and the ways oncologists respond to them. Our hypothesis, generated from interviews with patients and oncologists, is that an ethical approach that views a refusal as an autonomous choice, in which patients are informed

  5. [Refusal of nursing care, the legal perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisman, Jérôme

    2016-10-01

    The refusal of nursing care forms part of the freedom offered to anyone wanting to refuse, consciously and knowingly, any form of nursing care such as washing, the taking of medication or hospitalisation. However, limits are fixed by law as well as by case law. Are we totally free in the expression of our will? Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Models of anxiety: responses of mice to novelty and open spaces in a 3D maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennaceur, A; Michalikova, S; van Rensburg, R; Chazot, P L

    2006-11-01

    The present report describes the emotional responses of different strains of mice to exposure to a novel open space model of anxiety using a 3D spatial navigation task. The 3D maze is modification of the radial maze with flexible arms that can be raised above or lowered below the horizontal level of a central platform. To access the arms animals need to cross a bridge linking the arms to the central platform. In this model, mice are exposed to novelty in an unfamiliar open space setting with no safe alternative. Fear from novelty is compounded with the need to explore. The drive to escape and the drive to approach are intermingled making this open space model radically different from the current models of anxiety which provide animals with the choice between safe and anxiogenic spaces. In a series of experiments, we examined the behaviour of different groups of mice from C57, C3H, CD1 and Balb/c strains. In the first experiment, different groups of C57 mice were tested in one of the three arms configurations. In the second experiment, C57 mice were compared to C3H mice. In the third experiment, C57 mice were compared to CD1 and Balb/c mice in the raised arm configuration over three successive sessions. In the fourth experiment, we examined the behaviour of C57 mice in the lowered arm configuration with an open and an enclosed central. In the final experiment, we examined the difference between C57 and C3H mice of both genders. Using several spatio-temporal parameters of the transition responses between central platform, bridges and arms, we have been able to show consistent results demonstrating significant differences between C57 and C3H mice, and between Balb/c and both C57 and CD1 mice. C3H appear more anxious than C57 mice, and Balb/c mice seem more anxious than C57 and CD1 mice. We also observed significant differences between sexes in C3H mice but not in C57 mice. C3H male mice appear more anxious than C3H female mice and than both C57 male and female mice

  7. Open field modifications needed to measure, in the mouse, exploration- driven ambulation and fear of open space.

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal Gómez, José

    2014-01-01

    The open field test is used to assess ambulation and anxiety; one way to assess anxiety is to compare ambulation in the center with ambulation in the periphery: the more anxious is the mouse, the less it moves in the center. The results of this report cast doubts on the generality of that rule, because they show that ambulation, both in the center and in the periphery, depends on the mouse strain and on the size of the open field; specifically, in a brightly lit open-field of moderate size (3...

  8. Caregivers who refuse preventive care for their children: the relationship between immunization and topical fluoride refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine caregivers' refusal of preventive medical and dental care for children. Prevalence rates of topical fluoride refusal based on dental records and caregiver self-reports were estimated for children treated in 3 dental clinics in Washington State. A 60-item survey was administered to 1024 caregivers to evaluate the association between immunization and topical fluoride refusal. Modified Poisson regression models were used to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRRs). The prevalence of topical fluoride refusal was 4.9% according to dental records and 12.7% according to caregiver self-reports. The rate of immunization refusal was 27.4%. In the regression models, immunization refusal was significantly associated with topical fluoride refusal (dental record PRR = 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32, 1.96; P refuse both immunizations and topical fluoride (P refusal of immunizations is associated with topical fluoride refusal. Future research should identify the behavioral and social factors related to caregiver refusal of preventive care with the goal of developing multidisciplinary strategies to help caregivers make optimal preventive care decisions for children.

  9. An open-loop system design for deep space signal processing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jifei; Xia, Lanhua; Mahapatra, Rabi

    2018-06-01

    A novel open-loop system design with high performance is proposed for space positioning and navigation signal processing. Divided by functions, the system has four modules, bandwidth selectable data recorder, narrowband signal analyzer, time-delay difference of arrival estimator and ANFIS supplement processor. A hardware-software co-design approach is made to accelerate computing capability and improve system efficiency. Embedded with the proposed signal processing algorithms, the designed system is capable of handling tasks with high accuracy over long period of continuous measurements. The experiment results show the Doppler frequency tracking root mean square error during 3 h observation is 0.0128 Hz, while the TDOA residue analysis in correlation power spectrum is 0.1166 rad.

  10. Environment-behaviour studies: A synergetic bridge between designers and users of open space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Goličnik

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically reflects on a kind and use of knowledge about the users of urban open public spaces in urban planning and design. It shows that designers’ perceptions about usage-spatial relationships are inadequate and many times very different form the actual situations. The findings are based on results from workshops with urban landscape designers and on the basis of observation and behavioural mapping in squares and parks of city centres of two European cities, Edinburgh and Ljubljana. As the behavioural maps graphically express structural relationships between physical qualities of places and their users, they represent a useful tool for improvement of designers’ knowledge and perception about potential and actual use of a place. In this respect they represent a basis for better cooperation and synergy between users and planners or designers, as the knowledge about any possible or expected behavioural patterns in places may lead into effective and responsive design.

  11. Urban open spaces: the relationship of uses within the neighborhood scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilza Gomes Reis Lopes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the urban habitacionais areas the population needs areas with which they can be identified, of free spaces that reflect the identity of its inhabitants. Thus, the square is had as public good of the cities, opened to all and endowed with functions, that supply the physical and mental necessities of its inhabitants. This work had as objective to present the diverse joined uses and the way as the users if they appropriate of the squares in the Mocambinho quarter located in the zone north of the city of Teresina, its Inter-relations in the context where they are inserted.

  12. Influence of Music on the Behaviors of Crowd in Urban Open Public Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qi; Zhao, Tingting; Kang, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Sound environment plays an important role in urban open spaces, yet studies on the effects of perception of the sound environment on crowd behaviors have been limited. The aim of this study, therefore, is to explore how music, which is considered an important soundscape element, affects crowd behaviors in urban open spaces. On-site observations were performed at a 100 m × 70 m urban leisure square in Harbin, China. Typical music was used to study the effects of perception of the sound environment on crowd behaviors; then, these behaviors were classified into movement (passing by and walking around) and non-movement behaviors (sitting). The results show that the path of passing by in an urban leisure square with music was more centralized than without music. Without music, 8.3% of people passing by walked near the edge of the square, whereas with music, this percentage was zero. In terms of the speed of passing by behavior, no significant difference was observed with the presence or absence of background music. Regarding the effect of music on walking around behavior in the square, the mean area and perimeter when background music was played were smaller than without background music. The mean speed of those exhibiting walking around behavior with background music in the square was 0.296 m/s slower than when no background music was played. For those exhibiting sitting behavior, when background music was not present, crowd density showed no variation based on the distance from the sound source. When music was present, it was observed that as the distance from the sound source increased, crowd density of those sitting behavior decreased accordingly.

  13. Do features of public open spaces vary according to neighbourhood socio-economic status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, David; Timperio, Anna; Giles-Corti, Billie; Ball, Kylie; Hume, Clare; Roberts, Rebecca; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Salmon, Jo

    2008-12-01

    This study examined the relations between neighbourhood socio-economic status and features of public open spaces (POS) hypothesised to influence children's physical activity. Data were from the first follow-up of the Children Living in Active Neighbourhoods (CLAN) Study, which involved 540 families of 5-6 and 10-12-year-old children in Melbourne, Australia. The Socio-Economic Index for Areas Index (SEIFA) of Relative Socio-economic Advantage/Disadvantage was used to assign a socioeconomic index score to each child's neighbourhood, based on postcode. Participant addresses were geocoded using a Geographic Information System. The Open Space 2002 spatial data set was used to identify all POS within an 800 m radius of each participant's home. The features of each of these POS (1497) were audited. Variability of POS features was examined across quintiles of neighbourhood SEIFA. Compared with POS in lower socioeconomic neighbourhoods, POS in the highest socioeconomic neighbourhoods had more amenities (e.g. picnic tables and drink fountains) and were more likely to have trees that provided shade, a water feature (e.g. pond, creek), walking and cycling paths, lighting, signage regarding dog access and signage restricting other activities. There were no differences across neighbourhoods in the number of playgrounds or the number of recreation facilities (e.g. number of sports catered for on courts and ovals, the presence of other facilities such as athletics tracks, skateboarding facility and swimming pool). This study suggests that POS in high socioeconomic neighbourhoods possess more features that are likely to promote physical activity amongst children.

  14. Investment in Open Innovation Service Providers: NASA's Innovative Strategy for Solving Space Exploration Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Jennifer A.; Rando, Cynthia; Baumann, David; Richard, Elizabeth; Davis, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to expand routes for open communication and create additional opportunities for public involvement with NASA, Open Innovation Service Provider (OISP) methodologies have been incorporated as a tool in NASA's problem solving strategy. NASA engaged the services of two OISP providers, InnoCentive and Yet2.com, to test this novel approach and its feasibility in solving NASA s space flight challenges. The OISPs were chosen based on multiple factors including: network size and knowledge area span, established process, methodology, experience base, and cost. InnoCentive and Yet2.com each met the desired criteria; however each company s approach to Open Innovation is distinctly different. InnoCentive focuses on posting individual challenges to an established web-based network of approximately 200,000 solvers; viable solutions are sought and granted a financial award if found. Based on a specific technological need, Yet2.com acts as a talent scout providing a broad external network of experts as potential collaborators to NASA. A relationship can be established with these contacts to develop technologies and/or maintained as an established network of future collaborators. The results from the first phase of the pilot study have shown great promise for long term efficacy of utilizing the OISP methodologies. Solution proposals have been received for the challenges posted on InnoCentive and are currently under review for final disposition. In addition, Yet2.com has identified new external partners for NASA and we are in the process of understanding and acting upon these new opportunities. Compared to NASA's traditional routes for external problem solving, the OISP methodologies offered NASA a substantial savings in terms of time and resources invested. In addition, these strategies will help NASA extend beyond its current borders to build an ever expanding network of experts and global solvers.

  15. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals' conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment, and this requirement is found to create serious problems for those wishing to defend the idea under consideration. We conclude that the notion of a legal right to conscientious refusal for any profession is either fundamentally incompatible with elementary legal ethical requirements, or implausible because it undermines the functioning of a related professional sector (healthcare) or even of society as a whole.

  16. Open Space between Residential Buildings as a Factor of Sustainable Development - Case Studies in Brno (Czech Republic) and Vienna (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilnarová, Pavla; Wittmann, Maxmilian

    2017-12-01

    The characteristics of open spaces between residential buildings have, as authors suppose, an impact on the sustainable development of urban areas. Spatial arrangement and accessibility of these spaces, the type and height of surrounding buildings, the quantity and character of greenery, and many more characteristics influence the quality of environment, and the quality of life of local residents. These and further characteristics of the open spaces between residential buildings influence the ecological stability of the area, its hygienic qualities, the intensity and way of using by various social groups, and also the prices of real estates. These qualities indicate the environmental, social and economic sustainability of the urban area. The proposed research methodology assessed specific indicators of sustainability within a range from 0 to 10 points. 5 points correspond to the general standard in the area, 0 points indicate degradation, and 10 points indicate the highest contribution to sustainable development. Observation methods, questionnaire survey, statistical analyses, and methods of measurement were used to determine the values of the given indicators. The paper analyses the impact of the open spaces between residential buildings on sustainability via the case studies performed in the Central European cities of Brno, Czech Republic and Vienna, Austria. Two forms of residential urban structures in the City of Brno in the Czech Republic were selected for the analysis: the closed courtyards in the urban block from the 19th century and the open spaces in the housing estates constructed under socialism in the 20th century. The question is, if the different forms of spaces between residential buildings influence the sustainability of urban area and satisfaction of inhabitants in different ways. A complementary case study in Vienna indicates that inhabitants of a housing estate in Vienna, as well as inhabitants of housing estates in Brno, highly appreciate the

  17. Legal briefing: conscience clauses and conscientious refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to conscience clauses and conscientious refusal. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it has also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions. Over the past several months, conscientious refusal disputes have had an unusually high profile not only in courthouses, but also in legislative and regulatory halls across the United States. Healthcare providers' own moral beliefs have been obstructing and are expected to increasingly obstruct patients' access to medical services. For example, some providers, on ethical or moral grounds, have denied: (1) sterilization procedures to pregnant patients, (2) pain medications in end-of-life situations, and (3) information about emergency contraception to rape victims. On the other hand, many healthcare providers have been forced to provide medical treatment that is inconsistent with their moral beliefs. There are two fundamental types of conscientious objection laws. First, there are laws that permit healthcare workers to refuse providing - on ethical, moral, or religious grounds healthcare services that they might otherwise have a legal or employer-mandated obligation to provide. Second, there are laws directed at forcing healthcare workers to provide services to which they might have ethical, moral, or religious objections. Both types of laws are rarely comprehensive, but instead target: (1) certain types of healthcare providers, (2) specific categories of healthcare services, (3) specific patient circumstances, and (4) certain conditions under which a right or obligation is triggered. For the sake of clarity, I have grouped recent legal developments concerning conscientious refusal into eight categories: 1. Abortion: right to refuse 2. Abortion: duty to provide 3. Contraception: right to refuse 4. Contraception: duty to provide 5. Sterilization: right to refuse 6. Fertility, HIV, vaccines

  18. Performing coolness: smoking refusal and adolescent identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumridge, E W; Fitzgerald, L J; Abel, G M

    2002-04-01

    The implications of smoking refusal for personal identity style were studied through conversations in six small focus groups or dyads of 13- and 14-year-old non-smokers from an urban New Zealand secondary school. The approach to analyzing their talk was informed by notions of 'performativity' and 'social space' to focus on the connections between identity and social relations. Smoking emerged as a key signifier of power and status. It was salient at both top and bottom ends of the social hierarchy depending upon the competence displayed in smoking as part of a larger ensemble of personal deportment and behavior. Being a non-smoker therefore inevitably carried connotations of being 'average' or 'in the middle', presenting non-smoking adolescents with the problem of accrediting themselves against superior 'smoker cool' groups. A discourse analytic approach was used to examine the resources and strategies participants brought to bear on this 'problem', which was then seen to be solved differently by boys and girls. Boys could establish alternatives to 'smoker cool' through physical activity, girls had little recourse but to accept their inferior status. The implications of this for health education and promotion are discussed.

  19. Implementation of the Forest Service Open Space Conservation Strategy in Washington State: Exploring the Role of the National Forest System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard J. Pringle; Lee K. Cerveny; Gordon A. Bradley

    2015-01-01

    The loss of open space was declared one of the “four threats to the health of our nation’s forests” by former USDA Forest Service Chief Dale Bosworth in 2004. Since then, the agencywide Open Space Conservation Strategy (OSCS) was released and the “four threats” were incorporated into the agency’s National Strategic Plan. These actions indicate that the OSCS is in the...

  20. Chemical reagent and process for refuse disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somerville, R.B.; Fan, L.T.

    1989-01-01

    A process for treating refuse by mixing them with a reactive chemical and a puzzolana-type material. Said chemical includes a retarding agent which modifies the viscosity and an accelerating agent. (author)

  1. Using a Nonaversive Procedure to Decrease Refusals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Fred; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A nonaversive technique was used to teach a severely handicapped woman to decrease her refusals. The technique employed precision teaching via precise daily measurement strategies, environmental analysis, and a focus on building appropriate behavior. (JDD)

  2. DETECTABILITY OF FREE FLOATING PLANETS IN OPEN CLUSTERS WITH THE JAMES WEBB SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacucci, Fabio; Ferrara, Andrea; D'Onghia, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations have shown the presence of extra-solar planets in Galactic open stellar clusters, such as in Praesepe (M44). These systems provide a favorable environment for planetary formation due to the high heavy-element content exhibited by the majority of their population. The large stellar density, and corresponding high close-encounter event rate, may induce strong perturbations of planetary orbits with large semimajor axes. Here we present a set of N-body simulations implementing a novel scheme to treat the tidal effects of external stellar perturbers on planetary orbit eccentricity and inclination. By simulating five nearby open clusters, we determine the rate of occurrence of bodies extracted from their parent stellar system by quasi-impulsive tidal interactions. We find that the specific free-floating planet production rate N-dot o (total number of free-floating planets per unit of time, normalized by the total number of stars), is proportional to the stellar density ρ * of the cluster: N-dot o =αρ ⋆ , with α = (23 ± 5) × 10 –6 pc 3 Myr –1 . For the Pleiades (M45), we predict that ∼26% of stars should have lost their planets. This raises the exciting possibility of directly observing these wandering planets with the James Webb Space Telescope in the near-infrared band. Assuming a surface temperature for the planet of ∼500 K, a free-floating planet of Jupiter size inside the Pleiades would have a specific flux of F ν (4.4 μm) ≈4 × 10 2  nJy, which would lead to a very clear detection (S/N ∼ 100) in only one hour of integration

  3. Detectability of Free Floating Planets in Open Clusters with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacucci, Fabio; Ferrara, Andrea; D'Onghia, Elena

    2013-12-01

    Recent observations have shown the presence of extra-solar planets in Galactic open stellar clusters, such as in Praesepe (M44). These systems provide a favorable environment for planetary formation due to the high heavy-element content exhibited by the majority of their population. The large stellar density, and corresponding high close-encounter event rate, may induce strong perturbations of planetary orbits with large semimajor axes. Here we present a set of N-body simulations implementing a novel scheme to treat the tidal effects of external stellar perturbers on planetary orbit eccentricity and inclination. By simulating five nearby open clusters, we determine the rate of occurrence of bodies extracted from their parent stellar system by quasi-impulsive tidal interactions. We find that the specific free-floating planet production rate \\dot{N}_o (total number of free-floating planets per unit of time, normalized by the total number of stars), is proportional to the stellar density ρsstarf of the cluster: \\dot{N}_o = \\alpha \\rho _\\star, with α = (23 ± 5) × 10-6 pc3 Myr-1. For the Pleiades (M45), we predict that ~26% of stars should have lost their planets. This raises the exciting possibility of directly observing these wandering planets with the James Webb Space Telescope in the near-infrared band. Assuming a surface temperature for the planet of ~500 K, a free-floating planet of Jupiter size inside the Pleiades would have a specific flux of F ν (4.4 μm) ≈4 × 102 nJy, which would lead to a very clear detection (S/N ~ 100) in only one hour of integration.

  4. DETECTABILITY OF FREE FLOATING PLANETS IN OPEN CLUSTERS WITH THE JAMES WEBB SPACE TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacucci, Fabio; Ferrara, Andrea [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); D' Onghia, Elena [University of Wisconsin, 475 Charter St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Recent observations have shown the presence of extra-solar planets in Galactic open stellar clusters, such as in Praesepe (M44). These systems provide a favorable environment for planetary formation due to the high heavy-element content exhibited by the majority of their population. The large stellar density, and corresponding high close-encounter event rate, may induce strong perturbations of planetary orbits with large semimajor axes. Here we present a set of N-body simulations implementing a novel scheme to treat the tidal effects of external stellar perturbers on planetary orbit eccentricity and inclination. By simulating five nearby open clusters, we determine the rate of occurrence of bodies extracted from their parent stellar system by quasi-impulsive tidal interactions. We find that the specific free-floating planet production rate N-dot {sub o} (total number of free-floating planets per unit of time, normalized by the total number of stars), is proportional to the stellar density ρ{sub *} of the cluster: N-dot {sub o}=αρ{sub ⋆}, with α = (23 ± 5) × 10{sup –6} pc{sup 3} Myr{sup –1}. For the Pleiades (M45), we predict that ∼26% of stars should have lost their planets. This raises the exciting possibility of directly observing these wandering planets with the James Webb Space Telescope in the near-infrared band. Assuming a surface temperature for the planet of ∼500 K, a free-floating planet of Jupiter size inside the Pleiades would have a specific flux of F {sub ν} (4.4 μm) ≈4 × 10{sup 2} nJy, which would lead to a very clear detection (S/N ∼ 100) in only one hour of integration.

  5. Evaluation of SPACE code for simulation of inadvertent opening of spray valve in Shin Kori unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seyun; Youn, Bumsoo

    2013-01-01

    SPACE code is expected to be applied to the safety analysis for LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) and Non-LOCA scenarios. SPACE code solves two-fluid, three-field governing equations and programmed with C++ computer language using object-oriented concepts. To evaluate the analysis capability for the transient phenomena in the actual nuclear power plant, an inadvertent opening of spray valve in startup test phase of Shin Kori unit 1 was simulated with SPACE code. To evaluate the analysis capability for the transient phenomena in the actual nuclear power plant, an inadvertent opening of spray valve in startup test phase of Shin Kori unit 1 was simulated with SPACE code

  6. When does food refusal require professional intervention?

    OpenAIRE

    Dovey, Terence M.; Farrow, Claire V.; Martin, Clarissa I.; Isherwood, Elaine; Halford, Jason C.G.

    2009-01-01

    Food refusal can have the potential to lead to nutritional deficiencies, which increases the risk of a variety of communicable and non-communicable diseases. Deciding when food refusal requires professional intervention is complicated by the fact that there is a natural and appropriate stage in a child's development that is characterised by increased levels of rejection of both previously accepted and novel food items. Therefore, choosing to intervene is difficult, which if handled badly can ...

  7. An Experimental Study on the Influence of Soundscapes on People’s Behaviour in an Open Public Space

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Aletta; Federica Lepore; Eirini Kostara-Konstantinou; Jian Kang; Arianna Astolfi

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have investigated how environmental sounds and music can modulate people’s behaviours, particularly in marketing research. However, there are relatively few examples of research about such relationships with a focus on the management of urban public spaces. The current study investigated an open public space used mainly as a pedestrian crossing to analyse the relationship between the audio stimuli and peoples’ behaviours. An experiment relying on covert behavioural observation...

  8. An Experimental Study on the Influence of Soundscapes on People’s Behaviour in an Open Public Space

    OpenAIRE

    Aletta, F.; Lepore, F.; Kostara-Konstantinou, E.; Kang, J.; Astolfi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have investigated how environmental sounds and music can modulate\\ud people’s behaviours, particularly in marketing research. However, there are relatively few examples\\ud of research about such relationships with a focus on the management of urban public spaces.\\ud The current study investigated an open public space used mainly as a pedestrian crossing to analyse\\ud the relationship between the audio stimuli and peoples’ behaviours. An experiment relying on\\ud covert behaviou...

  9. The Role of Stakeholders Related to the Management of Ecological Function of Urban Green Open Space. Case Study: City of Depok, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangopa Malik, Andy Anton

    2017-12-01

    Urban green open space is one of the assets that provide substantial benefits to the urban community. One important function of urban green open space is a function of ecology. This study will provide initial explanation on the various studies related to the ecological function of urban green open space. The study of urban space management approach related to ecological function will explain the extent of the role of stakeholders in the urban areas that will further strengthen the importance of the existence of green open space, especially in city of Depok. With so many problems related to the supply and use of green open space in the city of Depok. This approach was originally applied by the private sector and many applications made a great contribution, so it began to be used by the government in managing public assets there. This study will use descriptive method, at the beginning of the study will explain the existence of the reality of urban green open space as part of the urban space by viewing it from theoretical overview of space, function and role of the various problems that occur in it. The results of this study indicate there are six problems in the management of green open spaces in city of Depok. Using the stages in asset management will provide space for participation of existing stakeholders in the management of green open spaces in city of Depok.

  10. 30 CFR 77.215-4 - Refuse piles; abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; abandonment. 77.215-4 Section 77... MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-4 Refuse piles; abandonment. When a refuse pile is to be abandoned... refuse pile shall be abandoned in accordance with a plan submitted by the operator and approved by the...

  11. Planning of Agro-Tourism Development, Specific Location in Green Open Space Sarbagita Area, Bali Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanya, I.; Subadiyasa, N.; Sardiana, K.; Ratna Adi, G. P.

    2018-02-01

    Tourism development has a negative impact on agricultural land in Bali, resulted in the transfer of rice field of 800 ha/year. Subak rice field area as a world cultural heritage, requires conservation strategy, increasing economic and environmental value, through integrated agriculture development with tourism. Tourism destination planning in the form of tourist destination (TD) and tourism object (TO) by raising local genius, at specific location, is expected to preserve nature and culture, as well as the economic value of the region. Research Methods: (1) identification of agrarian cultures, (2) field survey, (3) mapping of site specific TD/TO plans, and (4) compile documents of agro-tourism road map based on local genius. Seven subak areas in the green open space area have the potential to develop new TD/TO, namely: (1) Gedon2Subak in Tanah Lot area, is developed for the preservation of agriculture, the implementation of the zoning plan of the sacred, madya and nista areas, (2) the Kerdung and Penatih Subak areas, developed for urban farming in Denpasar City, (3) Cangi south Subak area, built for agro-tourism plasmanutfah banana and Cemagi Let Subak area developed agro-tourism food crops and horticulture, (4) Erjeruk Subak area, developed tourism plasmanutfah coconut.

  12. Working with Open BIM Standards to Source Legal Spaces for a 3D Cadastre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Oldfield

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Much work has already been done on how a 3D Cadastre should best be developed. An inclusive information model, the Land Administration Model (LADM ISO 19152 has been developed to provide an international framework for how this can best be done. This conceptual model does not prescribe the technical data format. One existing source from which data could be obtained is 3D Building Information Models (BIMs, or, more specifically in this context, BIMs in the form of one of buildingSMART’s open standards: the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC. The research followed a standard BIM methodology of first defining the requirements through the use of the Information Delivery Manual (IDM ISO29481 and then translating the process described in the IDM into technical requirements using a Model View Definition (MVD, a practice to coordinate upfront the multidisciplinary stakeholders of a construction project. The proposed process model illustrated how the time it takes to register 3D spatial units in a Land Registry could substantially be reduced compared to the first 3D registration in the Netherlands. The modelling of an MVD or a subset of the IFC data model helped enable the creation and exchange of boundary representations of topological objects capable of being combined into a 3D legal space overview map.

  13. Exploring Psychological and Aesthetic Approaches of Bio-Retention Facilities in the Urban Open Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyeon Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, a number of bio-retention facilities have been installed in urban areas for flood control and green amenity purposes. As urban amenity facilities for citizens, bio-retentions have a lot potential; however, the literature on bio-retentions focused mostly on physiochemical aspects like water quality and runoffs. Hence, this paper aims to explore psychological aspects of bio-retentions such as perceptions and landscape aesthetic value for visitors. In order to achieve this purpose, the study employed on-site interviews and questionnaires in the chosen three case studies as research methodology. For the 3 different locations of bio-retention facilities, interviews and questionnaires were carried out. The surveys of 100 bio-retention users were conducted, investigating their general perceptions and landscape aesthetics of the bio-retention facilities. The paper found that only 34% of the interviewees recognised bio-detention facilities, illustrating that most visitors were not aware of such facilities and were unable to distinguish the differences between bio-retention and conventional gardens. On the other hand, the majority of interviewees strongly supported the concept and function of bio-retentions, especially those who recognised the differences in planting species with conventional urban open spaces. Such main findings also encourage further studies of seeking quantitative values by conducting a correlation analysis between the functions and aesthetics of bio-retention facilities.

  14. Public open spaces and walking for recreation: moderation by attributes of pedestrian environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Paquet, Catherine; Howard, Natasha J; Coffee, Neil T; Taylor, Anne W; Adams, Robert J; Daniel, Mark

    2014-05-01

    This study examined whether attributes of pedestrian environments moderate the relationships between access to public open spaces (POS) and adults' recreational walking. Data were collected from participants of the North West Adelaide Health Study in 2007. Recreational walking was determined using self-reported walking frequency. Measures of POS access (presence, count, and distance to the nearest POS) were assessed using a Geographic Information System. Pedestrian environmental attributes included aesthetics, walking infrastructure, barrier/traffic, crime concern, intersection density, and access to walking trails. Regression analyses examined whether associations between POS access and recreational walking were moderated by pedestrian environmental attributes. The sample included 1574 participants (45% men, mean age: 55). POS access measures were not associated with recreational walking. However, aesthetics, walking infrastructure, and access to walking trail were found to moderate the POS-walking relationships. The presence of POS was associated with walking among participants with aesthetically pleasing pedestrian environments. Counter-intuitively, better access to POS was associated with recreational walking for those with poorer walking infrastructure or no access to walking trails. Local pedestrian environments moderate the relationships between access to POS and recreational walking. Our findings suggest the presence of complex relationships between POS availability and pedestrian environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. SiGN-SSM: open source parallel software for estimating gene networks with state space models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamada, Yoshinori; Yamaguchi, Rui; Imoto, Seiya; Hirose, Osamu; Yoshida, Ryo; Nagasaki, Masao; Miyano, Satoru

    2011-04-15

    SiGN-SSM is an open-source gene network estimation software able to run in parallel on PCs and massively parallel supercomputers. The software estimates a state space model (SSM), that is a statistical dynamic model suitable for analyzing short time and/or replicated time series gene expression profiles. SiGN-SSM implements a novel parameter constraint effective to stabilize the estimated models. Also, by using a supercomputer, it is able to determine the gene network structure by a statistical permutation test in a practical time. SiGN-SSM is applicable not only to analyzing temporal regulatory dependencies between genes, but also to extracting the differentially regulated genes from time series expression profiles. SiGN-SSM is distributed under GNU Affero General Public Licence (GNU AGPL) version 3 and can be downloaded at http://sign.hgc.jp/signssm/. The pre-compiled binaries for some architectures are available in addition to the source code. The pre-installed binaries are also available on the Human Genome Center supercomputer system. The online manual and the supplementary information of SiGN-SSM is available on our web site. tamada@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp.

  16. The influence of personal belief, agency mission and city size on open space decision making processes in three southwestern cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megan Friggens; Carol Raish; Deborah Finch; Alice McSweeney

    2015-01-01

    The southwest has experienced dramatic population increases over the last 30 years, a trend that is expected to continue. Open space conservation is important both from the standpoint of preserving ecosystem services as well as maintaining quality of life for urban populations. Federal agencies manage a large proportion of the public land in the Southwestern U.S. We...

  17. Public policies for managing urban growth and protecting open space: policy instruments and lessons learned in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; Jennifer O. Fletcher

    2003-01-01

    The public sector in the United States has responded to growing concern about the social and environmental costs of sprawling development patterns by creating a wide range of policy instruments designed to manage urban growth and protect open space. These techniques have been implemented at the local, regional, state and, to a limited extent, national levels. This...

  18. A proof that Witten's open string theory gives a single cover of moduli space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwiebach, B.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge

    1991-01-01

    We show that Witten's open string diagrams are surfaces with metrics of minimal area under the condition that all nontrivial open Jordan curves be longer or equal to π. The minimal area property is used together with a mini-max problem to establish a new existence and uniqueness theorem for quadratic differentials in open Riemann surfaces with or without punctures on the boundaries. This theorem implies that the Feynman rules of open string theory give a single cover of the moduli of open Riemann surfaces. (orig.)

  19. Plutonium contamination in soils in open space and residential areas near Rocky Flats, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litaor, M.I.

    1999-01-01

    Spatial analysis of the 240 Pu: 239 Pu isotopic ratio of 42 soil samples collected around Rocky Flats Plant near Golden, Colorado, was conducted to assess the effect of Rocky Flats Plant activity on the soil environment. Two probability maps that quantified the uncertainty of the spatial distribution of plutonium isotopic ratios were constructed using the sequential Gaussian simulation technique (sGs). Assuming a plutonium isotopic ratio range of 0.152 ± 0.003 to 0.169 ± 0.009 is characteristic to global fallout in Colorado, and a mean value of 0.155 is representative for the Rocky Flats Plant area, the main findings of the current work were (1) the areas northwest and southwest of Rocky Flats Plant exhibited a plutonium ratio ≥0.155, this were minimally impacted by the plant activity; (2) he study area east of Rocky Flats Plant exhibited a plutonium isotopic ratio ≤0.155, which is a definitive indicator of Rocky Flats Plant-derived plutonium; and (3) inventory calculations across the study area exhibited large standard error of estimates. These errors were originated from the high variability in plutonium activity over a small sampling scale and the uncertainty in the global fallout isotopic ratio. Using the mean simulated estimates of plutonium isotopic ratio, coupled with plutonium activity measured at 11 soil pits and additional plutonium information published elsewhere, the plutonium loading on the open space and residential areas amounted to 111.2 GBq, with a standard error of estimate of 50.8 GBq

  20. Open Spaces and Urban Ecosystem Services. Cooling Effect towards Urban Planning in South American Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Inostroza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Open space (OS is a key element in the provision of ecosystem services (ES in urban environments. Under a land cover-land use perspective, cities are incorporating into the expansion process to different types of surfaces: sealed, paved surfaces and OS. The first corresponds to a land cover change while the second, which includes bare soil, grass, forest or any other type of non-sealed surface, corresponds to a land use change, without physical transformations. As a land use change OS is able to keep fundamental pre-existing ecological properties. However, besides specific ecological characteristics, the overall capacity to provide ES depends also on the size, number and spatial distribution of OSs within the urban fabric. Those aspects which can determine the very ecological performance of urban ecosystem services (UES are not yet included in the current urban planning in Latin America. OS is still understood mainly as green infrastructure and related mostly with aesthetic and cultural benefits. On the contrary, under an ecological point of view, OS is capable to provide fundamental UES, which can be spatially assessed and analyzed. In this paper the provision of cooling services (CS is assessed in 2 South American cities: Lima and Santiago de Chile. The provision of CS is measured by means of a Remote Sensing-GIS-based method. Two aspects of CS are explored: (1 the current amount of existing OS; and (2 the trend of increasing/reducing CS within the urban tissue, in a dynamic assessment of spatial distribution and rates of OS incorporation to the continuous urban tissue. The aim is to analyze the CS generated by OS in those two cities. The analysis discusses the role of OS in the provision of CS, considering the current urban development trends and planning practice in these specific Latin American cities, highlighting the need to keep unsealed surfaces and increase in trees coverage, to retain the CS provision in certain levels.

  1. Medication Refusal: Resident Rights, Administration Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Danielle R; Wick, Jeannette Y

    2017-12-01

    Occasionally, residents actively or passively refuse to take medications. Residents may refuse medication for a number of reasons, including religious beliefs, dietary restrictions, misunderstandings, cognitive impairment, desire to self-harm, or simple inconvenience. This action creates a unique situation for pharmacists and long-term facility staff, especially if patients have dementia. Residents have the legal right to refuse medications, and long-term care facilities need to employ a process to resolve disagreement between the health care team that recommends the medication and the resident who refuses it. In some cases, simple interventions like selecting a different medication or scheduling medications in a different time can address and resolve the resident's objection. If the medical team and the resident cannot resolve their disagreement, often an ethics consultation is helpful. Documenting the resident's refusal to take any or all medications, the health care team's actions and any other outcomes are important. Residents' beliefs may change over time, and the health care team needs to be prepared to revisit the issue as necessary.

  2. Cubicle Refusal in Norwegian Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myren HJ

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to survey the behaviour of choosing the alley area instead of a cubicle as a lying place (cubicle refusal, a questionnaire was sent to the 273 dairy farms in Norway known to keep cows in cubicle housing systems. Sixty-six percent of the farmers contacted were included in the study. The median herd size was 18 cows (range 7–118. More than 85% of the herds had sheds providing one or more cubicles per cow. The mean herd occurrence of cubicle refusal was 6%, but showed great variation (range 0–55%. Regression analysis showed a significant association between rearing heifers in slatted floor pens and an increased cubicle refusal occurrence (p = 0.02, R2 = 0.05, while herd size, use of litter, or cubicle-to-animal ratio were not found to be associated with cubicle refusal. The practice of rearing heifers in slatted floor pens accounted for about one half of the observed cubicle refusal (etiologic fraction = 0.51.

  3. Socializing in an open drug scene: the relationship between access to private space and drug-related street disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debeck, Kora; Wood, Evan; Qi, Jiezhi; Fu, Eric; McArthur, Doug; Montaner, Julio; Kerr, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Limited attention has been given to the potential role that the structure of housing available to people who are entrenched in street-based drug scenes may play in influencing the amount of time injection drug users (IDU) spend on public streets. We sought to examine the relationship between time spent socializing in Vancouver's drug scene and access to private space. Using multivariate logistic regression we evaluated factors associated with socializing (three+ hours each day) in Vancouver's open drug scene among a prospective cohort of IDU. We also assessed attitudes towards relocating socializing activities if greater access to private indoor space was provided. Among our sample of 1114 IDU, 43% fit our criteria for socializing in the open drug scene. In multivariate analysis, having limited access to private space was independently associated with socializing (adjusted odds ratio: 1.80, 95% confidence interval: 1.28-2.55). In further analysis, 65% of 'socializers' reported positive attitudes towards relocating socializing if they had greater access to private space. These findings suggest that providing IDU with greater access to private indoor space may reduce one component of drug-related street disorder. Low-threshold supportive housing based on the 'housing first' model that include safeguards to manage behaviors associated with illicit drug use appear to offer important opportunities to create the types of private spaces that could support a reduction in street disorder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Current status of research on school refusal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cándido J. Inglés

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available School refusal behavior refers to the avoidance of a child attending school and/or persistent difficulty staying in the classroom throughout the school day. Based on a review of the scientific literature, the aim of this study is to describe the current state of research on school refusal, differentiating between the findings and progress made in Spain from those achieved in the international field. For this purpose, the significance of this phenomenon, in addition to associated risk factors and variables, will be reviewed in the child and youth population. In turn, the commonly used assessment methods and most recommended treatment proposals, mainly based on cognitive behavioral therapy, are discussed. The results reveal several gaps and subjects for debate in some areas of knowledge about school refusal behavior, with differences being found between Spanish and international studies. In conclusion, future studies and challenges in this field are required.

  5. Refusing The Choice: Balancing Life and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Choice The intellect of man is forced to choose perfection of the life, or of the work, And if it take the second must refuse A heavenly mansion, raging in the dark. When all that story's finished, what's the news? In luck or out the toil has left its mark: That old perplexity an empty purse, Or the day's vanity, the night's remorse. William Butler Yeats William Yeats put forward The Choice that I feel too many scientists feel they must make. Too often, many choose to leave science. How do we refuse this choice and find balance between life and our careers? While I don't know the answer, I will share choices that have lead to not perfection but satisfaction in science careers and lives. The role of mentors, supportive spouses, the luck of the job, and flexibility in research directions have all contributed to being able to refuse to choose.

  6. Moving targets: Promoting physical activity in public spaces via open streets in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, J Aaron; Bird, Alyssa; van Bakergem, Margaret; Yarnall, Elizabeth

    2017-10-01

    Popularity of Open Streets, temporarily opening streets to communities and closing streets to vehicles, in the US has recently surged. As of January 2016, 122 cities have hosted an Open Streets program. Even with this great expansion, the sustainability of Open Streets remains a challenge in many cities and overall Open Streets in the US differ from their successful counterparts in Central and South America. Between summer 2015 and winter 2016, we reviewed the websites and social media of the 122 identified programs and interviewed 32 unique Open Streets programs. Websites and social media were reviewed for program initiation, number of Open Streets days, length of routes, duration of program, and reported participation. Interview questions focused on barriers and facilitators of expanding Open Streets and specific questioning regarding local evaluation activities. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed with constant comparative methodology. Over three-quarters of US Open Streets programs have been initiated since 2010, with median frequency of one time per year, 4h per date, and 5000-9999 participants. Seventy-seven percent of program routes are under 5km in length. Success of programs was measured by enthusiasm, attendance, social media, survey metrics, and sustainability. Thirteen of 32 program organizers expressed interest in expanding their programs to 12 dates per year, but noted consistent barriers to expansion including funding, permitting, and branding. Though many cities now host Open Streets programs, their ability to effect public health remains limited with few program dates per year. Coordinated efforts, especially around funding, permitting, and branding may assist in expanding program dates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Expose-R experiment on effects of open space condition on survivorship in dormant stages of aquatic invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, Victor; Novikova, Nataliya; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Yusoff, Fatimah; Azuraidi, Osman

    2012-07-01

    Dormancy protects animals and plants in harsh environmental conditions from months up to hundred years. This phenomenon is perspective for space researches especially for interplanetary missions. Direct experiments in open space BYORYSK supported in principle the fact of survivorship of bacteria, fungi spores, seed of plants and crustacean dormant cysts. Even though the rate of survivorship in long-term treatments was low but good enough to conclude that biological invasion even to Mars is a real danger. As soon as the BYORYSK lunch was made of metal the possibility for resting stages to survive under UV treatment in vacuum without some protection was not clear. To test it an ESA and RSA equipment titled EXPOSE-R was applied. The EXPOSE-R facility was an external facility attached to the outside of the Zvezda Service Module in ISS in the end of November 2008. It had glace windows transparent for UV-radiation and possibility to measure temperature, space- and UV-radiation. Among a number of experiments requiring exposure to the open space environment it had a biological launch containing resting stages of terrestrial and aquatic organisms. These stages included dried ephippia of cladoceran Daphnia magna differentiated on size, dormant eggs of ostracode Eucypris ornate, cysts of fair-shrimp Streptocephalus torvicornis ( all from hemi desert Caspian area) and Artemis salina from salt lake Crimean populations. All dormant stages were kept in transparent to UV plastic bags placed in three layers. After about two years of exposing in open space dormant stages of 3 species A. salina, D. magna, S. torvicornis successfully survived at different scales but in second and third layers only . The highest level of survivorship was found in A. salina cysts. In preliminary land experiments that imitated land EXPOSE imitation of outside space station UV and vacuum conditions survivorship in resting eggs of D .magna, S. torvicornis and E. ornate was tested also. The total UV dose of

  8. Expert Opinion versus Transaction Evidence: Using the Reilly Index to Measure Open Space premiums in the Urban-Rural Fringe

    OpenAIRE

    Geerte Cotteleer; Tracy Stobbe; G. Cornelis van Kooten

    2008-01-01

    Due to economic and population growth farmland and to a lesser extend other undeveloped areas are under pressure in the urban-rural fringe in British Columbia, Canada. The objectives of this paper are to determine if residential property values near Victoria, BC include open-space premiums for farmland, parks or golf courses, and to determine if using assessed values instead of market prices of the property result in the same findings. We estimate a Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) model ...

  9. Comment on 'Relation between space charge limited current and power loss in open drift tubes' [Phys. Plasmas 13, 073101 (2006)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanekamp, S. B.; Schumer, J. W.

    2007-01-01

    In Phys Plasmas 13, 073101 (2006), the drop in the space-charge-limited (SCL) current for a beam injected into a space with an open boundary is analyzed with an electromagnetic particle-in-cell code. The authors explained the power loss observed at the open boundary as the loss of electromagnetic radiation created from the deceleration of electrons in the gap, and they developed an effective voltage theory to predict the drop in the SCL current observed in the simulations. In this Comment, we show that, provided the current remains below the SCL value, the electric and magnetic fields are constant in time so that power loss from the open boundary is a dc phenomenon with no rf power leaving through the boundary. We show that the electric and magnetic fields are static in time and static fields DO NOT RADIATE. Instead, the electron beam charges the collector plate, which causes a real electrostatic electric field to develop. The electron energy loss is not due to radiation but rather to the work done by this electrostatic field on the electrons as they move across the gap. This is precisely the energy dissipated in the matched resistance across the open boundary, which is a consequence of the boundary condition. Furthermore, since a real electrostatic potential develops, the voltage drop is real and there is no need to call the voltage drop an effective voltage

  10. 8. European sewage and refuse symposium. Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The subject of the 8. European Sewage and Refuse Symposium is covered under the following headings: collection and control in sewers, industrial waste water management, pretreatment, combined treatment, special cases, industrial waste water sludges disposal and the European waste business. (orig./BBR)

  11. [Professionals' training and refusal of nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Corinne

    2016-10-01

    A patient's refusal of nursing care concerns the caregivers. Future professionals must be prepared for it and student nurses are trained to deal with such situations. It is also important to empower patients and support them in their choice. This article presents the example of the Haute École Robert Schuman in Libramont, Belgium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of fouling in refuse waste incinerators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van M.C.; Rindt, C.C.M.; Wijers, J.G.; Steenhoven, van A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Gas-side fouling of waste-heat-recovery boilers, caused mainly by the deposition of particulate matter, reduces the heat transfer in the boiler. The fouling as observed on the tube bundles in the boiler of a Dutch refuse waste incinerator varied from thin and powdery for the economizer to thick and

  13. Learning Competences in Open Mobile Environments: A Comparative Analysis Between Formal and Non-Formal Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dominguez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the increasing use of mobile devices in education, new approaches to define the learning competences in the field of digitally mediated learning have emerged. This paper examines these approaches, using data obtained from empirical research with a group of Spanish university students. The analysis is focused on the experiences of students in the use of mobile devices in both formal and open-informal educational contexts. The theoretical framework of the study is based on the ecological focus applied to explanatory models of digital literacy. As a result of the data it is possible to study this framework in depth, taking into account the theories defending an open view of digital literacy. The study may be of interest to instructional designers and researchers in the fields of open educational resources and technologies applied to education in open contexts.

  14. A Mandatory, High-Stakes National Teacher Evaluation System: Perceptions and Attributions of Teachers Who Actively Refuse to Participate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornero, Bernardita; Taut, Sandy

    2010-01-01

    This study examines why some public elementary school teachers openly refuse participation in a mandatory national, standards-based teacher evaluation program. We describe the perceptions these "rebel" teachers have of the evaluation system, studying their open resistance based on the meanings they construct, and elaborated an…

  15. Level of Abstraction and Feelings of Presence in Virtual Space: Business English Negotiation in Open Wonderland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Judy F.; Warden, Clyde A.; Tai, David Wen-Shung; Chen, Farn-Shing; Chao, Chich-Yang

    2011-01-01

    Virtual spaces allow abstract representations of reality that not only encourage student self-directed learning but also reinforce core content of the learning objective through visual metaphors not reproducible in the physical world. One of the advantages of such a space is the ability to escape the restrictions of the physical classroom, yet…

  16. OpenAnalogInput(): Hybrid Spaces, Self-Making and Power in the Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Fernanda da Costa Portugal

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation investigates how the emergence of the Internet of Things and the embeddedness of sensors and networked connectivity onto things, physical spaces and biological bodies rearticulates embodied spaces, devises practices of self-making and forms of power in the governance of the self and society. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).…

  17. The opening up of hospitality spaces to difference : exploring the nature of home exchange experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grit, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    It can be argued that many potentialities within society are left unused by organising hospitality venues based on modern planning practices. These planning practises regard the setting as a rational space which is predictable and manageable. By applying modern management principles to spaces of

  18. The return of "Gasoline station-park" status into green-open space in DKI Jakarta Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautsar, L. H. R.; Waryono, T.; Sobirin

    2017-07-01

    The development of gasoline stations in 1970 increased drastically due to the Government support through DKT Jaya Official Note (DKT Jakarta), resulting in a great number of the parks (green open space or RTH - Ruang Terbuka Hijau) converted into a gasoline station. Currently, to meet the RTH target (13.94 % RTH based RTRW [(Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah) DKT Jakarta 2010], the policy was changed by Decree No.728 year 2009 and Governor Tnstruction No.75 year 2009. Land function of 27 gasoline stations unit must be returned. This study is to determine the appropriateness of gasoline Station-Park conversion into RTH based site and situation approach. The scope of this study was limited only to gasoline stations not converted into RTH. The methodology was the combination of AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) and ranking method. Site variables were meant for prone to flooding, the width of land for gasoline station, land status. Situation variables were meant for other public space, availability of other gasoline stations, gasoline stations service, road segments, and the proportions of built space. Analysis study used quantitative descriptive analysis. The results were three of the five gasoline stations were congruence to be converted into a green open space (RTH).

  19. Process for producing a fuel suitable for degassing from refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulzberger, J

    1975-11-20

    Utilization of the heat energy of refuse in waste incineration plants is time-consuming and expensive due to high investment and operation costs. The inventor recommends to process the refuse to a sterile, handy and storable fuel. For this propose the refuse should be crushed, kneaded and pressed. The briquettes produced in this way should be dried.

  20. 30 CFR 77.215-3 - Refuse piles: certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles: certification. 77.215-3 Section... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-3 Refuse piles: certification. (a) Within 180 days following written notification by the District Manager that a refuse pile can present a hazard, the person owning...

  1. 30 CFR 77.215-1 - Refuse piles; identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; identification. 77.215-1 Section... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-1 Refuse piles; identification. A permanent identification marker, at least six feet high and showing the refuse pile identification number as assigned by the...

  2. 30 CFR 77.215-2 - Refuse piles; reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; reporting requirements. 77.215-2... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-2 Refuse piles; reporting requirements. (a) The proposed location of a new refuse pile shall be reported to and acknowledged in writing by the District Manager...

  3. 30 CFR 77.215 - Refuse piles; construction requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; construction requirements. 77.215... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215 Refuse piles; construction requirements. (a) Refuse deposited on a pile shall be spread in layers and compacted in such a manner so as to minimize the flow of air...

  4. 25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.6 Section 135.6 Indians... INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to the United States to refuse the delivery of water to each of the said...

  5. Refusal Skill Ability: An Examination of Adolescent Perceptions of Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Tracy R.; Birnel, Sara; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2010-01-01

    This pilot study examined whether refusal assertion as defined by a proven drug prevention program was associated with adolescent perceptions of effectiveness by comparing two sets of coded responses to adolescent videotaped refusal role-plays (N = 63). The original set of codes was defined by programmatic standards of refusal assertion and the…

  6. Persian Speakers' Use of Refusal Strategies across Politeness Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmani Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the preferred refusal strategies in Persian. 3047 refusals collected by 108 field workers as well as 376 refusals collected through face to face interviews were analyzed and classified according to the descriptions proposed by Liao (1994) and Liao and Bresnahan (1996). The frequencies of the resulting direct and…

  7. Primary care pediatricians' perceptions of vaccine refusal in europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Zachi; van Esso, Diego; Del Torso, Stefano; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Drabik, Anna; Gerber, Andreas; Miron, Dan

    2011-03-01

    An electronic survey assessing primary care pediatricians' estimations and practices regarding parents' vaccination refusal was sent to 395 members of the European Academy of Pediatrics Research in Ambulatory Setting network, with a response rate of 87%. Of respondents who vaccinate in the clinic, 93% estimated the total vaccine refusal rate as refusing parents.

  8. 21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sewage and refuse. 211.50 Section 211.50 Food and... CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50 Sewage and refuse. Sewage, trash, and other refuse in and from the building and immediate premises shall be...

  9. 25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.23 Section 135.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW... District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to refuse the delivery of water to any...

  10. 19 CFR 12.114 - Release or refusal of delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Release or refusal of delivery. 12.114 Section 12... delivery. If the completed Notice of Arrival directs the port director to release the shipment of... directs the port director to refuse delivery of the shipment, the shipment shall be refused delivery and...

  11. Residence space/graphic space: engravings in the open air in the municipality of La Hinojosa (Cuenca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bueno Ramírez, Primitiva

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The work that now we present is based on the analysis of graphic designs, their location and their relationship to the environment, in the municipality of La Hinojosa Cuenca, a place where we have well documented occupations of the Copper and Bronze Ages. Our aim is to understand these engravings as part of the expressions of peninsular Schematic Art, in this case associated with an occupational context, and to provide elements for the comprehension of its message in a broader context that includes occupational contexts for other open aire engravings in the Iberian Peninsula.

    El trabajo que ahora presentamos se basa en el análisis de las grafías, su ubicación en el soporte y su relación con el entorno, en una zona concreta, el término de La Hinojosa, en Cuenca, lugar en el que tenemos bien documentadas ocupaciones calcolíticas y de la Edad del Bronce. Nuestra propuesta es la de comprender dichos grabados como una parte de las expresiones del Arte Esquemático peninsular, en este caso asociadas a un contexto habitacional y, a partir de ahí, aportar elementos para la comprensión de su "mensaje" desde una perspectiva más amplia que incluye otros contextos habitacionales para conjuntos de grabados al aire libre en la Península Ibérica.

  12. The Effect of Operating Temperature on Open, Multimegawatt Space Power Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edenburn, Michael

    1988-01-01

    .... Both systems will provide power to space-based antiballistic missile weapons that require hydrogen for cooling, and both use this hydrogen coolant as a working fluid or as a fuel for power generation...

  13. Constructive and Destructive Aspects of Refusal from Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna A. Gulyaeva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the phenomenon of refusal from communication in terms of its positive and negative impact, both on the communicative process, and interpersonal relationships in general. It has been analyzed several aspects of the failure to communicate with positive communication position. The identification of constructive or destructive potential was carried out on the basis of three parameters such as productivity/ unproductive conflict resolution with the help of avoiding communication, the choice of an optimum way of non-communication and its role in the communication process on the basis of the functions performed by them. Failure to communicate is often perceived negatively and is considered an inefficient form of communication, so it does not allow to solve interpersonal conflicts. This article discusses the circumstances where refusal from communication advocates an effective way to avoid conflict. In situations where the termination of communication is inevitable, a fundamental factor for the positive, harmonious form of communication acts interrupting the communication process. Functioning in the communicative space, failure to communicate can either destroy an interaction and relationship between the partners, and regulate the communication process by guiding in the right direction, coordinating the behavior of communication.

  14. The Chrysalis Opens? Photometry from the η Carinae Hubble Space Telescope Treasury Project, 2002-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. C.; Davidson, Kris; Koppelman, M. D.

    2006-12-01

    During the past decade η Car has brightened markedly, possibly indicating a change of state. Here we summarize photometry gathered by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) as part of the HST Treasury Project on this object. Our data include Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) CCD acquisition images, Advanced Camera for Surveys HRC images in four filters, and synthetic photometry in flux-calibrated STIS spectra. The HST's spatial resolution allows us to examine the central star separate from the bright circumstellar ejecta. Its apparent brightness continued to increase briskly during 2002-2006, especially after the mid-2003 spectroscopic event. If this trend continues, the central star will soon become brighter than its ejecta, quite different from the state that existed only a few years ago. One precedent may be the rapid change observed in 1938-1953. We conjecture that the star's mass-loss rate has been decreasing throughout the past century. This research was conducted as part of the η Car Hubble Space Telescope Treasury project via grant GO-9973 from the Space Telescope Science Institute. HST is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Some of the data presented in this paper were obtained from the Multimission Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute (MAST). STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Support for MAST for non-HST data is provided by the NASA Office of Space Science via grant NAG5-7584 and by other grants and contracts.

  15. Use for refuse of shale carbonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1917-09-25

    A process is disclosed for using the refuse from the carbonization of bituminous shales in the preparation of light building material, characterized in that the pulverized material is mixed wet with a light filler, formed in a mold, and burned with or without the addition of clay or with the addition of binding and preserving material, preparing the mold from the pulverized material in the cold.

  16. Assessment of musculoskeletal load in refuse collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew W. Jóźwiak

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this work was to assess the load on the musculoskeletal system and its effects in the collectors of solid refuse. The rationale behind this study was to formulate proposals how to reduce excessive musculoskeletal load in this group of workers. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 15 refuse collectors aged 25 to 50 years. Data about the workplace characteristics and subjective complaints of workers were collected by the free interview and questionnaire. During the survey the photorecording of the workpostures, the distance and velocity by GPS recorders, measurements of forces necessary to move containers, energy expenditure (lung ventilation method, workload estimation using the Firstbeat system and REBA method and stadiometry were done. Results: The distance walked daily by the collectors operating in terms of 2 to 3 in urban areas was about 15 km, and in rural areas about 18 km. The most frequent musculoskeletal complaints concerned the feet (60% subjects, knees, wrists and shoulders (over 40% subjects. After work-shift all examined workers had vertebral column shorter by 10 to 14 mm (11.4 mm mean. Conclusions: The results of our study show that the refuse collectors are subjected to a very high physical load because of the work organization and the way it is performed. To avoid adverse health effects and overload it is necessary to undertake ergonomic interventions, involving training of workers to improve the way of their job performance, active and passive leisure, technical control of the equipment and refuse containers, as well as the renegotiation of contracts with clients, especially those concerning non-standard containers. Med Pr 2013;64(4:507–519

  17. Importance of open (green) spaces in the polluted Ruhr and the resultant consequences for land use planning in the Ruhr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froriep, S

    1972-01-01

    The Siedlungsverband Ruhrkohlenbezirk (SVR) is a regional association formed in 1920, which covers the fourth largest conurbation in the world. At the present time, over 5 1/2 million people live in it, on an area of nearly 4600 sq km, i.e. almost 10% of the population of the Federal Republic on 2% of its area (225 inhabitants per sq km). Apart from its legal obligations in the field of land use planning, it also undertakes other important tasks in the field of landscape care and conservation. The conservation and care of the landscape inside a conurbation is an extremely important social and political problem. Here the open space policy is of special importance. Open (green) spaces help to improve the climate in the development area, to reduce temperature extremes, to restore the air, and to provide scope for recreation outside the residential areas. It is obvious that the open spaces in a conurbation, with a rising population and associated extension of civic and industrial development, are exposed to the danger of being alienated. This applies especially to forest areas. Even so, despite the considerable building activity in the last 50 years, the forest has been maintained so that only about 10,000 ha. (out of 82,000 ha. in 1920) have been lost. The forest forms 15.5% of the total surface area of the SVR region. Every effort should be made not merely to maintain but to increase this percentage. This can be done by afforestation of marginal land, waste land, tips and spoil mounds, and other unused areas. However, a further reduction of the pollution which adversely affects the vegetation is a prerequisite for the conservation of the natural basis of life for man. Environmental hygiene must therefore be included in environmental planning.

  18. Impact of Location of the Central Activities on Development of Open Public Space in the City Centers of Small Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volgemut, Mateja

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas of the central activities with mixed land use are crucial for the development of city center, even in small cities. In the last decades or two the attention is drawn on the retail and service activities that are usually located outside of cities near main roads. Municipalities had already detected this problem, but they are not implementing any of the measures (Rebernik, 2010. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the central activities in small cities in Slovenia are located in freestanding buildings, which is most appropriate in terms of forming the open public space in the city center. In this research we compared ten central activities (Vrišer, 1988, 1990, Kokole, 1971 in 34 small cities. We selected only those small cities (Prosen et al, 2008 which have among other activities a county court. The results showed the differences and commonalities of the central activities in selected small cities according to the indicators. Litija, Domžale and Sevnica are small cities, where activities that could articulate open public space are located in the larger building complexes. The phenomenon is similar to a modern machine, where action in it and indirectly the insight into the functioning of the society is invisible to the observer (Kos, 2008. We found out that in these tree cities the central activities are not forming the open public spaces in front of the public buildings (Vertelj Nared, 2014. The result is problematic image of the city and changed forces of the city life.

  19. Microbial ecology of coal mine refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R. E.; Miller, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    Baseline microbial and ecological studies of samples obtained from two abandoned coal mine refuse sites in the State of Illinois indicate that the unfavorable nature of refuse materials can be a very limiting factor for survival and growth of organisms. Despite the ''foothold'' obtained by some microorganisms, especially acidophilic fungi and some acidotolerant algae, the refuse materials should be amended or ameliorated to raise the pH, provide needed nutrients, especially nitrogen, and provide biodegradable organic matter, both for physical and biological purposes. Finally, the role of microbial populations, responses, and interactions in acid mine wastes must be put into larger perspective. Acid mine drainage amounts to over 4 million tons per year of acidity from active and abandoned mines. Microorganisms appear to be significantly responsible for this problem, but they also can play a beneficial and significant role in the amelioration or alleviation of this detrimental effect as abandoned mines are reclaimed and returned to useful productivity.

  20. Geomorphic reclmation of a coal refuse pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, L. C.; Quaranta, J.

    2017-12-01

    Geomorphic reclamation is a technique that may offer opportunities to improve mine reclamation in Central Appalachia. The design approach is based on constructing a steady-state, mature landform condition and takes into account the long-term climatic conditions, soil types, terrain grade, and vegetation. Geomorphic reclamation has been applied successfully in semi-arid regions but has not yet been applied in Central Appalachia. This work describes a demonstration study where geomorphic landforming techniques are being applied to a coarse coal refuse pile in southern West Virginia, USA. The reclamation design includes four geomorphic watersheds that radially drain runoff from the pile. Each watershed has one central draining channel and incorporates compound slope profiles similarly to naturally eroded slopes. Planar slopes were also included to maintain the impacted area. The intent is to alter the hydrology to decrease water quality treatment costs. The excavation cut and fill volumes are comparable to those of more conventional refuse pile reclamation designs. If proven successful then this technique can be part of a cost-effective solution to improve water quality at active and future refuse facilities, abandoned mine lands, bond forfeiture sites, landfills, and major earthmoving activities within the region.

  1. A new open-source Python-based Space Weather data access, visualization, and analysis toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Larquier, S.; Ribeiro, A.; Frissell, N. A.; Spaleta, J.; Kunduri, B.; Thomas, E. G.; Ruohoniemi, J.; Baker, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    Space weather research relies heavily on combining and comparing data from multiple observational platforms. Current frameworks exist to aggregate some of the data sources, most based on file downloads via web or ftp interfaces. Empirical models are mostly fortran based and lack interfaces with more useful scripting languages. In an effort to improve data and model access, the SuperDARN community has been developing a Python-based Space Science Data Visualization Toolkit (DaViTpy). At the center of this development was a redesign of how our data (from 30 years of SuperDARN radars) was made available. Several access solutions are now wrapped into one convenient Python interface which probes local directories, a new remote NoSQL database, and an FTP server to retrieve the requested data based on availability. Motivated by the efficiency of this interface and the inherent need for data from multiple instruments, we implemented similar modules for other space science datasets (POES, OMNI, Kp, AE...), and also included fundamental empirical models with Python interfaces to enhance data analysis (IRI, HWM, MSIS...). All these modules and more are gathered in a single convenient toolkit, which is collaboratively developed and distributed using Github and continues to grow. While still in its early stages, we expect this toolkit will facilitate multi-instrument space weather research and improve scientific productivity.

  2. Cultural Artifacts: Using "Sylvia and Aki" for Opening up Authoring Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Minda Morren; Ynostroza, Adeli; Fránquiz, María E.; Curiel, Lucía Cárdenas

    2015-01-01

    Classrooms of teachers who participated in Proyecto Bilingüe, a cohort-based master's degree program, used the historical novel, "Sylvia and Aki". The research question was: What spaces for authoring were created when using "Sylvia and Aki" in the figured worlds of bilingual elementary classrooms? The first theme in relation to…

  3. Future Market Share of Space Solar Electric Power Under Open Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. J.; Mahasenan, N.; Clarke, J. F.; Edmonds, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper assesses the value of Space Solar Power deployed under market competition with a full suite of alternative energy technologies over the 21st century. Our approach is to analyze the future energy system under a number of different scenarios that span a wide range of possible future demographic, socio-economic, and technological developments. Scenarios both with, and without, carbon dioxide concentration stabilization policies are considered. We use the comprehensive set of scenarios created for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (Nakicenovic and Swart 2000). The focus of our analysis will be the cost of electric generation. Cost is particularly important when considering electric generation since the type of generation is, from a practical point of view, largely irrelevant to the end-user. This means that different electricity generation technologies must compete on the basis of price. It is important to note, however, that even a technology that is more expensive than average can contribute to the overall generation mix due to geographical and economic heterogeneity (Clarke and Edmonds 1993). This type of competition is a central assumption of the modeling approach used here. Our analysis suggests that, under conditions of full competition of all available technologies, Space Solar Power at 7 cents per kW-hr could comprise 5-10% of global electric generation by the end of the century, with a global total generation of 10,000 TW-hr. The generation share of Space Solar Power is limited due to competition with lower-cost nuclear, biomass, and terrestrial solar PV and wind. The imposition of a carbon constraint does not significantly increase the total amount of power generated by Space Solar Power in cases where a full range of advanced electric generation technologies are also available. Potential constraints on the availability of these other electric generation options can increase the amount of

  4. Public open space characteristics influencing adolescents' use and physical activity: A systematic literature review of qualitative and quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Linde; Ghekiere, Ariane; Veitch, Jenny; Van Dyck, Delfien; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Clarys, Peter; Deforche, Benedicte

    2018-04-06

    The objective of this systematic review was to provide insight into the specific characteristics of public open spaces (POS) associated with adolescents' POS visitation and physical activity (PA). Qualitative research suggests many characteristics to be associated with POS visitation and PA. Quantitative evidence confirmed a positive association between presence of trails, playgrounds and specific types of sports fields (e.g. basketball) with POS visitation and PA, whereas safety and aesthetics seemed subordinate. Suggestions for future research, as well as some methodological recommendations are provided. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cell Culture in Microgravity: Opening the Door to Space Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellis, Neal R.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Adaptational response of human cell populations to microgravity is investigated using simulation, short-term Shuttle experiments, and long-term microgravity. Simulation consists of a clinostatically-rotated cell culture system. The system is a horizontally-rotated cylinder completely filled with culture medium. Low speed rotation results in continuous-fall of the cells through the fluid medium. In this setting, cells: 1) aggregate, 2) propagate in three dimensions, 3) synthesize matrix, 4) differentiate, and 5) form sinusoids that facilitate mass transfer. Space cell culture is conducted in flight bioreactors and in static incubators. Cells grown in microgravity are: bovine cartilage, promyelocytic leukemia, kidney proximal tubule cells, adrenal medulla, breast and colon cancer, and endothelium. Cells were cultured in space to test specific hypotheses. Cartilage cells were used to determine structural differences in cartilage grown in space compared to ground-based bioreactors. Results from a 130-day experiment on Mir revealed that cartilage grown in space was substantially more compressible due to insufficient glycosaminoglycan in the matrix. Interestingly, earth-grown cartilage conformed better to the dimensions of the scaffolding material, while the Mir specimens were spherical. The other cell populations are currently being analyzed for cell surface properties, gene expression, and differentiation. Results suggest that some cells spontaneously differentiate in microgravity. Additionally, vast changes in gene expression may occur in response to microgravity. In conclusion, the transition to microgravity may constitute a physical perturbation in cells resulting in unique gene expressions, the consequences of which may be useful in tissue engineering, disease modeling, and space cell biology.

  6. Vegetation succession and soil infiltration characteristics under different aged refuse dumps at the Heidaigou opencast coal mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Lei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation succession and soil infiltration characteristics under five different restoration models of refuse dumps including different-aged revegetated sites (1995, 1998, 2003 and 2005 in the northern, eastern and western open-pit coal mine dump and a reference site with native vegetation, which had never been damaged by coal mining activities on the Heidaigou Open Cut Coal Mine were studied. Changes in the plant species, soil properties and infiltration rates were evaluated at the different refuse dumps. The results indicated that the number of herbaceous species, plant cover, biomass, fine particles, and total N, P and SOM increased significantly with increasing site age. However, the number of shrub species decreased since revegetation, its cover increased from 17% to 41% initially and subsequently decreased to the present level of 4%. The natural vegetation community and the northern refuse dump had the highest cumulative infiltration rates of 3.96 and 2.89 cm s−1 in contrast to the eastern and western refuse dumps and the abandoned land, where the highest cumulative infiltration rates were 1.26, 1.04 and 0.88 cm s−1, respectively. A multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the infiltration rate was primarily determined by the silt percentage, SOM, plant coverage and the variation in soil bulk density. Our results provide new ideas regarding future soil erosion controls and sustainable development at open-pit coal mine refuse dumps.

  7. ÁREAS VERDES URBANAS, ESPAÇOS LIVRES PARA O LAZER / Urban green areas, open spaces for leisure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia MAZZEI Mazzei

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The creation and the management of Conservation Units in urban areas, as in the category ofintegral protection as of sustainable use, aims to improve the quality of life of the urban citizenat the same time that it promotes an improvement in the urban environment quality, endowingthe urban space with vegetal covering and fundamental green areas to the reproduction of thenatural cycle and maintenance of the dynamic balance. In the urban environment, the differentcategories of open spaces and the indexes of green area per inhabitant intend to offer optionsto the leisure and recreation activities, besides of characterizing as strategic instruments forthe municipal planning, integrating the characteristics and the limits of the environment to theurban expansion.

  8. Transfusion Refusal and the Shifting Limits of Multicultural Accommodation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMichelis, Carey

    2017-12-01

    The refusal of blood products by Jehovah's Witness patients has provoked court proceedings, social science research, and contemporary fiction, all of which emphasize a seemingly intractable conflict between religious and secular ways of being. This article takes a different approach, focusing instead on the space that Witness patients have carved out for their accommodation in a major pediatric research hospital. Using discourse analysis and interview data, I map the way moralizing discourses surrounding Witness families have shifted over the past 70 years alongside advancements in bloodless medicine. I argue that Witnesses have helped to enable their present accommodation and recognition by marshaling particular forms of economic, human, and social capital, and consider whether their success might be attainable by other treatment-resisting patient groups. Thus, this article explores the shifting limits of multicultural accommodation and the conditions that make understanding, collaboration, and compromise possible.

  9. Pylogeny: an open-source Python framework for phylogenetic tree reconstruction and search space heuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Safatli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Pylogeny is a cross-platform library for the Python programming language that provides an object-oriented application programming interface for phylogenetic heuristic searches. Its primary function is to permit both heuristic search and analysis of the phylogenetic tree search space, as well as to enable the design of novel algorithms to search this space. To this end, the framework supports the structural manipulation of phylogenetic trees, in particular using rearrangement operators such as NNI, SPR, and TBR, the scoring of trees using parsimony and likelihood methods, the construction of a tree search space graph, and the programmatic execution of a few existing heuristic programs. The library supports a range of common phylogenetic file formats and can be used for both nucleotide and protein data. Furthermore, it is also capable of supporting GPU likelihood calculation on nucleotide character data through the BEAGLE library.Availability. Existing development and source code is available for contribution and for download by the public from GitHub (http://github.com/AlexSafatli/Pylogeny. A stable release of this framework is available for download through PyPi (Python Package Index at http://pypi.python.org/pypi/pylogeny.

  10. Space charge calibration of the ALICE TPC operated with an open gating grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellbaer, Ernst [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany); Ivanov, Marian [GSI (Germany); Wiechula, Jens [Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main particle identification detector of the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC. High interaction rates of 50 kHz in Pb-Pb during the Run 3 period after 2020 require a major upgrade of the TPC readout. The currently used Multiwire Proportional Chambers (MWPCs) will be replaced by readout chambers (ROCs) based on Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology which will be operated in a continuous mode. While the gating grid of the MWPCs prevents the positive ions of the amplification region from entering the drift volume, the GEM-based ROCs will introduce an ion backflow (IBF) of about 1%. In combination with the high-luminosity environment, this amount of back-drifting ions results in a considerable space charge density which distorts the drift path of the primary ionisation electrons significantly. In order to still provide a high tracking efficiency and cluster-to-track association, an efficient calibration scheme will be implemented. As a test ground for the new calibration scheme, pp collision data was taken during Run 1 with the gating grid operated in a transparent mode allowing the ions to enter the drift volume. The measured space point distortions due to the space charge are presented together with the corrected data and compared to simulations for Run 3.

  11. The Effectiveness of Building Permit Regulation for Green Open Space at Housing Estates: Case Study of Kendal Regency, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianti, Wiwik; Hadi, Sudharto P.

    2018-02-01

    Increasing demand for settlements steamed by population growth declines the quality of the environment specifically at urban area. The existing spatial planning could not able to prevent the change of land use for settlement and other infrastructures. The Act no. 26 of 2007 on spatial planning stipulates that green open space must reach 30% of the total area, consisting of 20% public open space and 10% private open space. The existing condition of urban area at Kendal Regency reach 245,6 million m2 with 88.145,5 m2 green open space or 0,036% out of total area. An effort to increase green open space in urban areas taken by the Government of Kendal Regency is by promulgating a local regulation stipulating that each housing developer request a building permit is obliged to provide a green open space at least 10 percent of the total housing area. This paper reviews the effectiveness of building permit regulation, the problems encountered and the concept proposed to make the local regulation work. The area of sample taken is three urban districts out of five urban districts, the resource persons chosen are those from relevant offices (Dinas) involved at the implementation of the local regulation. The data collection techniques employed are the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), Geographic Information System (GIS) technology, social observation and informal interview. The data gathered will be analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively.

  12. The Effectiveness of Building Permit Regulation for Green Open Space at Housing Estates: Case Study of Kendal Regency, Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulianti Wiwik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing demand for settlements steamed by population growth declines the quality of the environment specifically at urban area. The existing spatial planning could not able to prevent the change of land use for settlement and other infrastructures. The Act no. 26 of 2007 on spatial planning stipulates that green open space must reach 30% of the total area, consisting of 20% public open space and 10% private open space. The existing condition of urban area at Kendal Regency reach 245,6 million m2 with 88.145,5 m2 green open space or 0,036% out of total area. An effort to increase green open space in urban areas taken by the Government of Kendal Regency is by promulgating a local regulation stipulating that each housing developer request a building permit is obliged to provide a green open space at least 10 percent of the total housing area. This paper reviews the effectiveness of building permit regulation, the problems encountered and the concept proposed to make the local regulation work. The area of sample taken is three urban districts out of five urban districts, the resource persons chosen are those from relevant offices (Dinas involved at the implementation of the local regulation. The data collection techniques employed are the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP, Geographic Information System (GIS technology, social observation and informal interview. The data gathered will be analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively.

  13. Critical Spaces for Critical Times: Global Conversations in Literacy Research as an Open Professional Development and Practices Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Albers

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects an OER (Open Educational Resources critical literacy project, Global Conversations in Literacy Research (GCLR, (www.globalconversationsinliteracy.wordpress.com, now in its fourth year. GCLR annually hosts seven web seminars presented by internationally recognized literacy and education scholars. We outline key dimensions of GCLR not only as an OER but as an open educational practice (OEP (Andrade et al., 2011 that through its design, not only provides open access to scholarship, but also understands the critical nexus among resources, practices and theory. Informed by data from a longitudinal study, this paper situates these dimensions within professional development literature, and outlines GCLR as a critical space designed for critical times, and the importance of intentionality when accessing OER. Like scholars before us, we argue that that availability is not the only consideration when using OER (Andrade et al., 2011; OER must be considered in relation to pedagogical considerations and how OER are used as a critical component to online professional development.

  14. VICTORIA PARK: A DEMOCTRATIC PUBLIC OPEN SPACE FOR INDONESIA DOMESTIC HELPERS (TKW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmonangan Manurung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Victoria Park is the largest city park in Hong Kong. This city park is not only known in Hong Kong, but also very well known in Indonesia as a gathering place for Indonesia domestic helpers (TKW in Hong Kong. This research tried to find out some determinant factors that have been affected the public open spac of Victoria Park to be a gathering place for thousands of TKW in Sunday and holidays as their day off. In order to get the results of research, some methodological research had been conducted such as: observation (survey, mapping, interviews and literature studies. The results showed that Victoria Park has a number of factors capable of meeting the needs of domestic help-ers in Hong Kong, these factors consist of internal factors and external factors. Internally, the character and functions held Victoria Park became a very influential factor, while externally, the accessibility and support functions around Victoria Park also has a considerable influence.

  15. Genelab: Scientific Partnerships and an Open-Access Database to Maximize Usage of Omics Data from Space Biology Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinsch, S. S.; Galazka, J..; Berrios, D. C; Chakravarty, K.; Fogle, H.; Lai, S.; Bokyo, V.; Timucin, L. R.; Tran, P.; Skidmore, M.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's mission includes expanding our understanding of biological systems to improve life on Earth and to enable long-duration human exploration of space. The GeneLab Data System (GLDS) is NASA's premier open-access omics data platform for biological experiments. GLDS houses standards-compliant, high-throughput sequencing and other omics data from spaceflight-relevant experiments. The GeneLab project at NASA-Ames Research Center is developing the database, and also partnering with spaceflight projects through sharing or augmentation of experiment samples to expand omics analyses on precious spaceflight samples. The partnerships ensure that the maximum amount of data is garnered from spaceflight experiments and made publically available as rapidly as possible via the GLDS. GLDS Version 1.0, went online in April 2015. Software updates and new data releases occur at least quarterly. As of October 2016, the GLDS contains 80 datasets and has search and download capabilities. Version 2.0 is slated for release in September of 2017 and will have expanded, integrated search capabilities leveraging other public omics databases (NCBI GEO, PRIDE, MG-RAST). Future versions in this multi-phase project will provide a collaborative platform for omics data analysis. Data from experiments that explore the biological effects of the spaceflight environment on a wide variety of model organisms are housed in the GLDS including data from rodents, invertebrates, plants and microbes. Human datasets are currently limited to those with anonymized data (e.g., from cultured cell lines). GeneLab ensures prompt release and open access to high-throughput genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics data from spaceflight and ground-based simulations of microgravity, radiation or other space environment factors. The data are meticulously curated to assure that accurate experimental and sample processing metadata are included with each data set. GLDS download volumes indicate strong

  16. Vaccine refusal - what we need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succi, Regina Célia de Menezes

    2018-04-12

    Opposition to vaccines is not a new event, and appeared soon after the introduction of the smallpox vaccine in the late 18th century. The purpose of this review is to educate healthcare professionals about vaccine hesitancy and refusal, its causes and consequences, and make suggestions to address this challenge. A comprehensive and non-systematic search was carried out in the PubMed, LILACS, and ScieLo databases from 1980 to the present day, using the terms "vaccine refusal," "vaccine hesitancy," and "vaccine confidence." The publications considered as the most relevant by the author were critically selected. The beliefs and arguments of the anti-vaccine movements have remained unchanged in the past two centuries, but new social media has facilitated the dissemination of information against vaccines. Studies on the subject have intensified after 2010, but the author did not retrieve any published studies to quantify this behavior in Brazil. The nomenclature on the subject (vaccine hesitancy) was standardized by the World Health Organization in 2012. Discussions have been carried out on the possible causes of vaccine hesitancy and refusal, as well as on the behavior of families and health professionals. Proposals for interventions to decrease public doubts, clarify myths, and improve confidence in vaccines have been made. Guides for the health care professional to face the problem are emerging. The healthcare professional is a key element to transmit information, resolve doubts and increase confidence in vaccines. They must be prepared to face this new challenge. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. An Experimental Study on the Influence of Soundscapes on People’s Behaviour in an Open Public Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Aletta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated how environmental sounds and music can modulate people’s behaviours, particularly in marketing research. However, there are relatively few examples of research about such relationships with a focus on the management of urban public spaces. The current study investigated an open public space used mainly as a pedestrian crossing to analyse the relationship between the audio stimuli and peoples’ behaviours. An experiment relying on covert behavioural observation was performed. During the experiment, three different music stimuli and a control condition (i.e., no music were reproduced in order to find out firstly whether music compared to no music could elicit an increase in the number of people stopping in the investigated area, and secondly whether music is associated with a longer duration of stay for those who stop. Results showed that the presence of music had no effect on the number of people stopping in the area, but it had a statistically significant effect on the duration of stay for those who stopped. The above findings support the idea that people felt more invited to stay in the area with music rather than with no music, and suggest that the acoustical manipulation of the existing sound environment could provide soundscape strategies capable of promoting social cohesion in public spaces.

  18. Implementation of an Open-Scenario, Long-Term Space Debris Simulation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Bron; Yang Yang, Fan; Carlino, Roberto; Dono Perez, Andres; Faber, Nicolas; Henze, Chris; Karacalioglu, Arif Goktug; O'Toole, Conor; Swenson, Jason; Stupl, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a status update on the implementation of a flexible, long-term space debris simulation approach. The motivation is to build a tool that can assess the long-term impact of various options for debris-remediation, including the LightForce space debris collision avoidance concept that diverts objects using photon pressure [9]. State-of-the-art simulation approaches that assess the long-term development of the debris environment use either completely statistical approaches, or they rely on large time steps on the order of several days if they simulate the positions of single objects over time. They cannot be easily adapted to investigate the impact of specific collision avoidance schemes or de-orbit schemes, because the efficiency of a collision avoidance maneuver can depend on various input parameters, including ground station positions and orbital and physical parameters of the objects involved in close encounters (conjunctions). Furthermore, maneuvers take place on timescales much smaller than days. For example, LightForce only changes the orbit of a certain object (aiming to reduce the probability of collision), but it does not remove entire objects or groups of objects. In the same sense, it is also not straightforward to compare specific de-orbit methods in regard to potential collision risks during a de-orbit maneuver. To gain flexibility in assessing interactions with objects, we implement a simulation that includes every tracked space object in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and propagates all objects with high precision and variable time-steps as small as one second. It allows the assessment of the (potential) impact of physical or orbital changes to any object. The final goal is to employ a Monte Carlo approach to assess the debris evolution during the simulation time-frame of 100 years and to compare a baseline scenario to debris remediation scenarios or other scenarios of interest. To populate the initial simulation, we use the entire space

  19. Tripartite nonlocality for an open Dirac system in the background of Schwarzschild space-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhi-Yong; Shi, Jia-Dong; Wu, Tao; He, Juan

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the behavior of the tripartite nonlocality for a Dirac system in the background of Schwarzschild space-time is studied. It is shown that the nonlocality of the ultimate physical accessible state always decreases as the Hawking effect increases monotonically, which is independent of the number of particles located near the event horizon. Besides, the more particles there are located near the event horizon, the more difficult the violation of the Svetlichny inequality becomes. Furthermore, we investigate the property of these particles suffering from a non-Markovian environment, and derive that the nonlocality decreases quickly with the increasing decoherence time accompanied by damping revivals. To preserve tripartite nonlocality in the non-Markovian environment, we propose a scheme by means of prior weak measurement and post measurement reversal. It is worth noticing that the effect is better for larger measurement strengths, while it induces smaller success probability.

  20. Conscientious refusals and reason-giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jason

    2014-07-01

    Some philosophers have argued for what I call the reason-giving requirement for conscientious refusal in reproductive healthcare. According to this requirement, healthcare practitioners who conscientiously object to administering standard forms of treatment must have arguments to back up their conscience, arguments that are purely public in character. I argue that such a requirement, though attractive in some ways, faces an overlooked epistemic problem: it is either too easy or too difficult to satisfy in standard cases. I close by briefly considering whether a version of the reason-giving requirement can be salvaged despite this important difficulty. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Utilization of washery dirt and mine refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leininger, D; Schieder, T

    1975-10-02

    Washery dirt and mine refuse may be used without processing as road ballast, embankments and dykes, and for filling gravel pits and subsidence areas. The properties required in road ballast are outlined. For the top portions of embankments and for frost protection layers, washery dirt must be processed to remove particles of the wrong size. Methods of heat treatment are listed, and the chemical composition of the dirt is discussed. Because of its different chemical composition, large particles are preferable to fine dirt for some applications, even if they have to be crushed. Tree planting experiments on spoilbanks are described.

  2. Measuring Completeness of Building Footprints in OpenStreetMap over Space and Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola Kunze

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to financial or administrative constraints, access to official spatial base data is currently limited to a small subset of all potential users in the field of spatial planning and research. This increases the usefulness of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI, in particular OpenStreetMap (OSM, as supplementary datasets or, in some cases, alternative sources of primary data. In contrast to the OSM street network, which has already been thoroughly investigated and found to be practically complete in many areas, the degree of completeness of OSM data on buildings is still unclear. In this paper we describe methods to analyze building completeness and apply these to various test areas in Germany. Official data from national mapping and cadastral agencies is used as a basis for comparison. The results show that unit-based completeness measurements (e.g., total number or area of buildings are highly sensitive to disparities in modeling between official data and VGI. Therefore, we recommend object-based methods to study the completeness of OSM building footprint data. An analysis from November 2011 in Germany indicated a completeness of 25% in the federal states of North Rhine-Westphalia and 15% in Saxony. Although further analyses from 2012 confirm that data completeness in Saxony has risen to 23%, the rate of new data input was slowing in the year 2012.

  3. The Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscope with open sample space observes dynamic phenomena in liquid or gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Mitsuo; Nishiyama, Hidetoshi; Konyuba, Yuji; Iwamatsu, Shinnosuke; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Yoshiura, Chie; Ueda, Takumi; Sato, Chikara

    2011-12-01

    Although conventional electron microscopy (EM) requires samples to be in vacuum, most chemical and physical reactions occur in liquid or gas. The Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscope (ASEM) can observe dynamic phenomena in liquid or gas under atmospheric pressure in real time. An electron-permeable window made of pressure-resistant 100 nm-thick silicon nitride (SiN) film, set into the bottom of the open ASEM sample dish, allows an electron beam to be projected from underneath the sample. A detector positioned below captures backscattered electrons. Using the ASEM, we observed the radiation-induced self-organization process of particles, as well as phenomena accompanying volume change, including evaporation-induced crystallization. Using the electrochemical ASEM dish, we observed tree-like electrochemical depositions on the cathode. In silver nitrate solution, we observed silver depositions near the cathode forming incidental internal voids. The heated ASEM dish allowed observation of patterns of contrast in melting and solidifying solder. Finally, to demonstrate its applicability for monitoring and control of industrial processes, silver paste and solder paste were examined at high throughput. High resolution, imaging speed, flexibility, adaptability, and ease of use facilitate the observation of previously difficult-to-image phenomena, and make the ASEM applicable to various fields. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Effect of axial stress stimulation on tibial and fibular open fractures healing after Taylor space stent fixation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Qihang; Wan, Chunyou; Liu, Yabei; Ji, Xu; Ma, Jihai; Cao, Haikun; Yong, Wei; Liu, Zhao; Zhang, Ningning

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the effect of axial stress stimulation on tibial and fibular open fractures healing after Taylor space stent fixation. The data of 45 cases with tibial and fibular open fractures treated by Taylor space stent fixation who meet the selection criteria between January 2015 and June 2016 were retrospectively analysed. The patients were divided into trial group (23 cases) and control group (22 cases) according to whether the axial stress stimulation was performed after operation. There was no significant difference in gender, age, affected side, cause of injury, type of fracture, and interval time from injury to operation between 2 groups ( P >0.05). The axial stress stimulation was performed in trial group after operation. The axial load sharing ratio was tested, and when the value was less than 10%, the external fixator was removed. The fracture healing time, full weight-bearing time, and external fixator removal time were recorded and compared. After 6 months of external fixator removal, the function of the limb was assessed by Johner-Wruhs criteria for evaluation of final effectiveness of treatment of tibial shaft fractures. There were 2 and 3 cases of needle foreign body reaction in trial group and control group, respectively, and healed after symptomatic anti allergic treatment. All the patients were followed up 8-12 months with an average of 10 months. All the fractures reached clinical healing, no complication such as delayed union, nonunion, or osteomyelitis occurred. The fracture healing time, full weight-bearing time, and external fixator removal time in trial group were significantly shorter than those in control group ( P good in 6 cases, fair in 3 cases, and poor in 1 case in trial group, with an excellent and good rate of 82.6%; and was excellent in 5 cases, good in 10 cases, fair in 4 cases, and poor in 3 cases in control group, with an excellent and good rate of 68.2%, showing significant difference between 2 groups ( Z =-2.146, P =0

  5. Differences between "refusers" and "non-refusers" in a psychological study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstraten, J.; Vorst, H.C.M.

    1972-01-01

    Administered the ABV (Amsterdam Biographical Questionnaire) and the LOS (Leadership Concept Scale) to 98 students. The directions indicated that the Ss need not comply with the requirement to complete the LOS. 21 Ss failed to avail themselves of this permission and were labeled "refusers" (A). Their

  6. Autonomy, religious values, and refusal of lifesaving medical treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Wreen, M J

    1991-01-01

    The principal question of this paper is: Why are religious values special in refusal of lifesaving medical treatment? This question is approached through a critical examination of a common kind of refusal of treatment case, one involving a rational adult. The central value cited in defence of honouring such a patient's refusal is autonomy. Once autonomy is isolated from other justificatory factors, however, possible cases can be imagined which cast doubt on the great valuational weight assign...

  7. Present condition and theme of the planning standards of parks and open space planning. Koen ryokuchi keikaku gijutsu hyojun no genjo to kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takanashi, M. (Kanagawa Prefectural Government, Kanagawa (Japan))

    1992-08-06

    With the dramatic progress of urbanization, the rapid decrease of the green area and the open space, which is basis for ensuring the safety and the comfort of city life and formation of a good city environment, lead to the worsen of city environment. For the basic purpose of achieving the harmony between development and environment by considering the preservation of the green area and the open space, the green master plan is a representative example, and was made as the constitution of from a ground plan to the various plans such as region, city and nation based on the space unit of developing the human action. One of the important planning approach for the green area plan from conception to implementation is the planning standards of park and open space planning. This paper introduced the change of the system about the planning standards of park and open space planning, and explained necessarily the present state of greens master plan about preservation of the national environment and adjustment the park and open space. 1tab.

  8. Do features of public open spaces vary between urban and rural areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, Jenny; Salmon, Jo; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; Timperio, Anna

    2013-02-01

    Parks are an important setting for physical activity and specific park features have been shown to be associated with park visitation and physical activity. Most park-based research has been conducted in urban settings with few studies examining rural parks. This study examined differences in features of parks in urban compared with rural areas. In 2009/10 a tool was developed to audit 433 urban and 195 rural parks located in disadvantaged areas of Victoria, Australia. Features assessed included: access; lighting/safety; aesthetics; amenities; paths; outdoor courts/ovals; informal play spaces; and playgrounds (number, diversity, age appropriateness and safety of play equipment). Rural parks scored higher for aesthetics compared with urban parks (5.08 vs 4.44). Urban parks scored higher for access (4.64 vs 3.89), lighting/safety (2.01 vs 1.76), and diversity of play equipment (7.37 vs 6.24), and were more likely to have paths suitable for walking/cycling (58.8% vs 40.9%) and play equipment for older children (68.2% vs 17.1%). Although the findings cannot be generalized to all urban and rural parks, the results may be used to inform advocacy for park development in rural areas to create parks that are more supportive of physical activity for children and adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Electric equipment for Koto Refuse Incineration Plant; Tokyoto Koto seiso kojo muke denki setsubi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-10

    Meidensha Corporation, intending to enter into refuse disposal business, delivered electric equipment to a Koto Refuse Incineration Plant, Koto Ward, Tokyo, and the facilities came into operation in October, 1998. The plant is the largest in Japan in terms of refuse processing capacity (1800t/day), and efforts are exerted to harmonize the plant with the surroundings, which involve pollution measures and a building that images a cruising yacht. The power receiving facility consists of a 66kV nominal two-circuit gas insulated switch and gas insulated transformer arranged in a space saving design. Heat from refuse incineration is fed to a steam turbine generator (yielding 50MW, the largest in Japan, with the surplus offered for sale after 15MW fed to loads in the site) and to neighboring facilities. For the suppression of fluctuations in voltage at the power receiving point, reactive power is subjected to control which is done by controlling the generator magnetic field system. An 11kV distribution system is provided to match the steam turbine generator voltage, and the voltage is stepped down to 6.6kV with the intermediary of a 23MVA gas insulated transformer. The power is fed to high voltage motors such as the one used for the induced draft fan, electric equipment in the buildings, power facilities in the plant, etc. A power monitoring board is provided in the central control room for general supervision over the power related facilities. (NEDO)

  10. Refusal to pay electricity bill is illegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, H.P.

    1979-01-01

    Pursuant to a judgement passed by the Lower Court of Hamburg, the author discusses probable legal arguments justifying the refusal to pay one's electricity bill, the so-called electricity bill boycott. Following an analysis of the power supply contract and of the content and the limits of the fundamental right of freedom of conscience, as well as of the concept of free enterprise and of the legal effect of licenses under the nuclear law, his point of view stated in the article is to agree with the decision of the court saying that the operation of a nuclear power plant licensed under the nuclear law does not mean an infringement of the right of freedom of conscience. It can further not be accepted to let people refuse to pay their electricity bill by referring to the right of freedom of speech, by alleging conduct against public policy on the part of the public utilities, or by referring to the right of opposition. (HSCH) [de

  11. A Bullet Entered through the Open Mouth and Ended Up in the Parapharyngeal Space and Skull Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saileswar Goswami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shot from a revolver from a close range, a bullet pierced the chest of a policeman and entered through the open mouth of a young male person standing behind. The entry wound was found in the cheek mucosa adjacent to the left lower third molar. After hitting and fracturing the body and the ramus of the mandible, the bullet was deflected and was finally lodged in the parapharyngeal space and skull base, anterolateral to the transverse process of the atlas. The great vessels of the neck were not injured. The patient’s condition was very critical but his life could be saved. The bullet was approached through a modified Blair’s incision and was found to be lying over the carotid sheath. It was removed safely and the patient recovered completely.

  12. Highly porous open cell Ti-foam using NaCl as temporary space holder through powder metallurgy route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Nidhi; Mondal, D.P.; Dutta Majumdar, J.; Badkul, Anshul; Jha, A.K.; Khare, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► NaCl crystals has been used as space holder. ► Variation of NaCl:Ti ratio varies porosity (65–80%). ► NaCl is cubic but the cells are spherical. ► Two types of pores: micro and macro pores are obtained. ► Foams are suitable for bones scaffolds and engineering applications. - Abstract: Open cell Titanium-foam (Ti-foam) with varying porosities (65–80%) was prepared using sodium chloride (NaCl) particles as space holder through powder metallurgy route. In order to ensure sufficient handling strength in cold compacted pallets, 2 wt.% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solutions (5 wt.% PVA in water) was mixed with the mixture of Ti and NaCl powders prior to cold compaction. After sintering, NaCl salt was removed by dissolving it in hot water. Detailed Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and X-ray diffraction studies of the prepared Ti-foams were conducted to examine any physical and chemical changes in the phase constituents. The micro-architectural characteristics, density vis-a-vis porosity, and compressive deformation behavior of the synthesized foams were evaluated to examine their suitability as biomaterial and engineering applications

  13. Hospital wastes management containing in radioactive refusals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campi, F.

    1999-01-01

    In large hospitals, featuring a nuclear medicine department, diagnostic examinations and metabolic therapies are performed using an amount of radio drugs per day averaging around some hundreds mCi. Part of these drugs are disposed in the conventional patient related waste and collected within the hospital itself. Before directing the wastes to the disposal, it is necessary verify that they do not contain radioactive materials. This article refers a study on the possibility to perform this verification by means of an automatic radio-metric system, in order to improve the efficiency, the speed and the safety of the control. Measures devoted to determined the minimum detectable activities for the main radionuclides used in the hospitals have been executed, and it has been designed a comprehensive device able to operate automatically, and unattended by any operator, the selection of radioactive refusals [it

  14. School Refusal: Assessment and Intervention within School Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Mary B.

    Anxiety-based school refusal occurs in 2% of school-age children. The reasons why they refuse to go school range from mental illness and learning problems to general defiance and a desire for attention. Early identification and multi-faceted assessment and interventions are critical to addressing the problem. This book offers concise, practical…

  15. 36 CFR 1002.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 1002.14 Section 1002.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing of...

  16. 36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14 Section 2.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are...

  17. 47 CFR 73.4005 - Advertising-refusal to sell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising-refusal to sell. 73.4005 Section 73.4005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4005 Advertising—refusal to sell. See 412...

  18. 20 CFR 401.70 - Appeals of refusals to correct records or refusals to allow access to records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appeals of refusals to correct records or refusals to allow access to records. 401.70 Section 401.70 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... also inform you that you have a right to file a statement of disagreement with the decision. Your...

  19. Understanding Outdoor Gyms in Public Open Spaces: A Systematic Review and Integrative Synthesis of Qualitative and Quantitative Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Janet Lok Chun; Lo, Temmy Lee Ting; Ho, Rainbow Tin Hung

    2018-03-25

    (1) Background: An outdoor gym (OG) is environmental infrastructure built in a public open space to promote structured physical activity. The provision of OGs is increasingly seen as an important strategy to realize public health agendas promoting habitual physical activity. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize characteristics of OG and OG users' experiences and perceptions in different cultural contexts; (2) Methods: Online searches of multidisciplinary databases were conducted in health, sport and recreation, and urban planning disciplines. Characteristics of OGs were synthesized by integrating evidence from quantitative, qualitative, and mix-methods studies. The experiences and perceptions of OG users from both qualitative data and survey responses were synthesized through framework analysis; (3) Results: Nine studies met the inclusion criteria (three quantitative studies, four mixed-methods studies, and two pure qualitative studies). None were excluded on the basis of quality. OGs mainly serve adult and older adult population groups. Their size, design, and instructional support vary across studies. The inclusion of functional types of equipment did not have a unified standard. Regarding experiences and perceptions of OGs, five major themes emerged: "health", "social connectedness", "affordable", "support", and "design and promotion"; (4) Conclusions: The OG characteristics synthesis guides the direction in further studies regarding exploration of design parameters. The qualitative and quantitative synthesis revealed that health was a central theme of users' experiences. OGs are also spaces where community-dwellers can find social connectedness while participating in structured physical activity at no cost. Findings from this review create knowledge support for OG as environmental infrastructure for further research and facilitate the understanding of users' experiences and perceptions of OGs in different cultural contexts.

  20. Understanding Outdoor Gyms in Public Open Spaces: A Systematic Review and Integrative Synthesis of Qualitative and Quantitative Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Janet Lok Chun; Lo, Temmy Lee Ting

    2018-01-01

    (1) Background: An outdoor gym (OG) is environmental infrastructure built in a public open space to promote structured physical activity. The provision of OGs is increasingly seen as an important strategy to realize public health agendas promoting habitual physical activity. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize characteristics of OG and OG users’ experiences and perceptions in different cultural contexts; (2) Methods: Online searches of multidisciplinary databases were conducted in health, sport and recreation, and urban planning disciplines. Characteristics of OGs were synthesized by integrating evidence from quantitative, qualitative, and mix-methods studies. The experiences and perceptions of OG users from both qualitative data and survey responses were synthesized through framework analysis; (3) Results: Nine studies met the inclusion criteria (three quantitative studies, four mixed-methods studies, and two pure qualitative studies). None were excluded on the basis of quality. OGs mainly serve adult and older adult population groups. Their size, design, and instructional support vary across studies. The inclusion of functional types of equipment did not have a unified standard. Regarding experiences and perceptions of OGs, five major themes emerged: “health”, “social connectedness”, “affordable”, “support”, and “design and promotion”; (4) Conclusions: The OG characteristics synthesis guides the direction in further studies regarding exploration of design parameters. The qualitative and quantitative synthesis revealed that health was a central theme of users’ experiences. OGs are also spaces where community-dwellers can find social connectedness while participating in structured physical activity at no cost. Findings from this review create knowledge support for OG as environmental infrastructure for further research and facilitate the understanding of users’ experiences and perceptions of OGs in different cultural contexts

  1. Aspects of Cultural Landscape Application on Classical Stage Art. Ballet Performance in the Open Space as a Significant Element of the Cultural Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Lebedeva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the applications aspects of cultural landscape for the preparation of the classical performing arts staging. Research findings highlighted that the cultural landscape (parks, estates, castles, bastions, etc. objects occupies an increasingly important role in public recreation and classical art development programs. At the same time it is noted that event’s aesthetic and emotional quality suffers due to the fact that no specific attention was given for the preparation of the event space. More methodological materials are necessary for preparation of this type of design spaces. In Lithuania classical performing arts events in cultural landscape open spaces are based on XVI–XVII century tradition and has good prospects for modern development. A review of some of the classical art events installations, based on the importance of quality of open spaces influence on the emotional impact, that should be an integral part of the cultural event. The author summarizes his experience of ballet events in open spaces in the cultural landscape – Klaipėda, Trakai. Presented is Tchaikovsky's ballet “Swan Lake” construction in Klaipėda John Hill project that includes infrastructure and environmental design concept: audience space, stage design, stage design performance solutions. Analogous key decisions are later adapted to the ballet performance in the natural environment of the lake Trakai. Experience of this project dictated the necessity of deeper understanding and methodological basis for the classical performing arts analysis and design.

  2. Land surface temperature distribution and development for green open space in Medan city using imagery-based satellite Landsat 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistiyono, N.; Basyuni, M.; Slamet, B.

    2018-03-01

    Green open space (GOS) is one of the requirements where a city is comfortable to stay. GOS might reduce land surface temperature (LST) and air pollution. Medan is one of the biggest towns in Indonesia that experienced rapid development. However, the early development tends to neglect the GOS existence for the city. The objective of the study is to determine the distribution of land surface temperature and the relationship between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the priority of GOS development in Medan City using imagery-based satellite Landsat 8. The method approached to correlate the distribution of land surface temperature derived from the value of digital number band 10 with the NDVI which was from the ratio of groups five and four on satellite images of Landsat 8. The results showed that the distribution of land surface temperature in the Medan City in 2016 ranged 20.57 - 33.83 °C. The relationship between the distribution of LST distribution with NDVI was reversed with a negative correlation of -0.543 (sig 0,000). The direction of GOS in Medan City is therefore developed on the allocation of LST and divided into three priority classes namely first priority class had 5,119.71 ha, the second priority consisted of 16,935.76 ha, and third priority of 6,118.50 ha.

  3. The Open Space Sculptures Used in the Gençlik Park towards Visual Perception of Park Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Polat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban parks are the most important areas that allow recreational activities in our towns. Increasing the visual quality of urban parks provides positive impacts on urban quality. Besides the artistic and technical features of open space sculptures which are used for urban park designs are the visual perceptions and preferences of park users are also important. In the context of this study, six sculptures in Gençlik Park which is in the boundaries Ankara have been considered. The aim of the study, to measure the visual quality of the sculptures in the urban parks through park users and to reveal the relationship between visual landscape indicators (of being interesting, coherence, complexity, meaningfulness, and mystery and the visual quality. For this purpose, the six pieces in Ankara Youth Park of sculpture were evaluated the scope of research. According to the results of the study; it was realized that park users like sculptures visually. A statistically significant relationship was found between the visual quality of the sculptures and some landscape indicators (to be interesting, mystery and harmony. In addition to these, some suggestions were made regarding the use of sculptures in urban parks.

  4. Characteristics and Outcomes of Elderly Patients Refused to ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Consuelo Pintado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are few data regarding the process of deciding which elderly patients are refused to ICU admission, their characteristics, and outcome. Methods. Prospective longitudinal observational cohort study. We included all consecutive patients older than 75 years, who were evaluated for admission to but were refused to treatment in ICU, during 18 months, with 12-month followup. We collected demographic data, ICU admission/refusal reasons, previous functional and cognitive status, comorbidity, severity of illness, and hospital and 12-month mortality. Results. 338 elderly patients were evaluated for ICU admission and 88 were refused to ICU (26%. Patients refused because they were “too ill to benefit” had more comorbidity and worse functional and mental situation than those admitted to ICU; there were no differences in illness severity. Hospital mortality rate of the whole study cohort was 36.3%, higher in patients “too ill to benefit” (55.6% versus 35.8%, P<0.01, which also have higher 1-year mortality (73.7% versus 42.5%, P<0.01. High comorbidity, low functional status, unavailable ICU beds, and age were associated with refusal decision on multivariate analysis. Conclusions. Prior functional status and comorbidity, not only the age or severity of illness, can help us more to make the right decision of admitting or refusing to ICU patients older than 75 years.

  5. The Political Economy of "Open Regionalism" and Education in Small (and Micro) States: The Construction of the Caribbean Educational Policy Space in CARICOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Tavis D.

    2014-01-01

    In this era of amplified regionalisation, the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean's (ECLAC) conceptualisation of 'open regionalism' is pertinent to examine the role of regional governance mechanisms in constructing what I call the "Caribbean Educational Policy Space." With the aid of a latent content analysis of…

  6. Junior Primary Greek School Pupils' Perceptions of the City's Public Open Spaces and Especially of the Urban Square: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Nikoletta; Galani, Apostolia; Mavrikaki, Evangelia

    2016-01-01

    This work--part of a wider project aimed at engaging first year primary school pupils in public open-space design--explores the perceptions of junior primary school children as to the urban square. Data collection tools comprised semi-structured interviews, sketches and storytelling via puppet-animation. Our findings have shown that--according to…

  7. Using OpenTarget to Generate Potential Countermeasures for Long-Term Space Exposure from Data Available on GeneLab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Afshin

    2018-01-01

    GeneLab as a general tool for the scientific community; Utilizing GeneLab datasets to generate hypothesis and determining potential biological targets against health risks due to long-term space missions; How can OpenTarget be used to discover novel drugs to test as countermeasures that can be utilized by astronauts.

  8. Refusal of Emergency Medical Treatment: Case Studies and Ethical Foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Catherine A; Brenner, Jay M; Kraus, Chadd K; McGrath, Norine A; Derse, Arthur R

    2017-11-01

    Informed consent is an important component of emergency medical treatment. Most emergency department patients can provide informed consent for treatment upon arrival. Informed consent should also be obtained for emergency medical interventions that may entail significant risk. A related concept to informed consent is informed refusal of treatment. Patients may refuse emergency medical treatment during their evaluation and treatment. This article addresses important considerations for patients who refuse treatment, including case studies and discussion of definitions, epidemiology, assessment of decisional capacity, information delivery, medicolegal considerations, and alternative care plans. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Refuse derived fuel potential in DKI Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyatmoko, H.

    2018-01-01

    Combustible waste fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW) which can not be easily separated or sorted, reused or recycled, may have a high calorifiv value (CV) that can be used in a fuel for energy recovery. The objective of this study was to explore the Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) potential of municipal solid waste from DKI Jakarta to produce electricity and to promote it to be socially and politically acceptable. For this purpose, 24 sampels of RDF were taken from Bantargebang, cabonized, molded and pressed to be briquette. All samples were analized for moisture, ash, and calorific value in the physical and chemistry Laboratory of ITB Bandung. The analysis of calorific value (CV) shows the CV difference of 1815.8 cal/g between the briquettes (8051.25 cal/g) and the RDF (9867.12 cal/g. The total waste DKI which can be used as briquettes 5253 ton / day or equivalent with 49154115 kWh / day. If the efficiency of electricity production from RDF was 25%, then Jakarta is able to generate electricity from RDF of 12288529 kWh / day or as much as energy needed by 573,480 middle-class households with energy needs of 642.84 kWh/month.

  10. Quality or quantity? Exploring the relationship between Public Open Space attributes and mental health in Perth, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Jacinta; Wood, Lisa J; Knuiman, Matthew; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2012-05-01

    Mental health is a public health priority globally. Public Open Space (POS) may enhance mental health by facilitating contact with nature and the development of supportive relationships. Despite growing interest in the influence of the built environment on mental health, associations between POS attributes and mental health remain relatively unexplored. In particular, few studies have examined the relative effects of the quantity and quality of POS within a neighbourhood on mental health. Guided by a social-ecological framework, this study investigated the relationship between POS attributes (i.e., quantity and quality) and better mental health (i.e., low risk of psychological distress) in residents of new housing developments in the Perth metropolitan area, Western Australia. The extent to which relationships between POS attributes and mental health were confounded by psychosocial factors (e.g., social support, sense of community) and frequent use of POS was also explored. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey (n = 911), a POS audit, and Geographical Information Systems, and was analysed using logistic regression. Approximately 80% of survey participants were at low risk of psychological distress. Residents of neighbourhoods with high quality POS had higher odds of low psychosocial distress than residents of neighbourhoods with low quality POS. This appeared to be irrespective of whether or not they used POS. However, the quantity of neighbourhood POS was not associated with low psychological distress. From a mental health perspective, POS quality within a neighbourhood appears to be more important than POS quantity. This finding has policy implications and warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 49 CFR 219.213 - Unlawful refusals; consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... inconsistent with the employee's health, whether such refusal was made in good faith and based on medical..., as appropriate, also consider the following: (1) Whether the railroad made a good faith determination...

  12. Elemental composition of suspended particles released in refuse incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamuro, Tetsuo; Mizohata, Akira

    1979-01-01

    Suspended particles released in refuse incineration were subjected to multielement analysis by means of instrumental neutron activation method and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The analytical results were compared with the elemental concentrations observed in the urban atmosphere, and the contribution of the refuse incineration to the urban atmosphere was roughly estimated. Greenberg et al. pointed out on the basis of their analyses that the refuse incineration can account for major portions of the Zn, Cd and Sb observed on urban aerosols. According to our results, the contribution of the refuse incineration for Zn, Cd and Sb is not negligible, but not so serious as in U.S.A. big cities. In Japan big cities there must be other more important sources of these elements. (author)

  13. Weak openness and almost openness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Rose

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Weak openness and almost openness for arbitrary functions between topological spaces are defined as duals to the weak continuity of Levine and the almost continuity of Husain respectively. Independence of these two openness conditions is noted and comparison is made between these and the almost openness of Singal and Singal. Some results dual to those known for weak continuity and almost continuity are obtained. Nearly almost openness is defined and used to obtain an improved link from weak continuity to almost continuity.

  14. Regional assessment of urban impacts on landcover and open space finds a smart urban growth policy performs little better than business as usual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, James H; Santos, Maria J; Bjorkman, Jacquelyn H

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of landscape change is critical for attainment of regional sustainability goals. Urban growth assessments are needed because over half the global population now lives in cities, which impact biodiversity, ecosystem structure and ecological processes. Open space protection is needed to preserve these attributes, and provide the resources humans need. The San Francisco Bay Area, California, is challenged to accommodate a population increase of 3.07 million while maintaining the region's ecosystems and biodiversity. Our analysis of 9275 km² in the Bay Area links historic trends for three measures: urban growth, protected open space, and landcover types over the last 70 years to future 2050 projections of urban growth and open space. Protected open space totaled 348 km² (3.7% of the area) in 1940, and expanded to 2221 km² (20.2%) currently. An additional 1038 km² of protected open space is targeted (35.1%). Urban area historically increased from 396.5 km² to 2239 km² (24.1% of the area). Urban growth during this time mostly occurred at the expense of agricultural landscapes (62.9%) rather than natural vegetation. Smart Growth development has been advanced as a preferred alternative in many planning circles, but we found that it conserved only marginally more open space than Business-as-usual when using an urban growth model to portray policies for future urban growth. Scenarios to 2050 suggest urban development on non-urban lands of 1091, 956, or 179 km², under Business-as-usual, Smart Growth and Infill policy growth scenarios, respectively. The Smart Growth policy converts 88% of natural lands and agriculture used by Business-as-usual, while Infill used only 40% of those lands. Given the historic rate of urban growth, 0.25%/year, and limited space available, the Infill scenario is recommended. While the data may differ, the use of an historic and future framework to track these three variables can be easily applied to other metropolitan areas.

  15. Clean Cities Niche Market Overview: Refuse Haulers (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shea, S.

    2011-09-01

    Refuse haulers are ideal for the adoption of alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. By using fuels like natural gas, propane, or biodiesel, and technologies like hybrid electric and hydraulic hybrid systems, the refuse-hauling sector could substantially decrease its petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions. Fleet managers should explore the benefits of the fuels and technologies available, as well as the individual fleet needs, before adoption.

  16. Jehovah's Witnesses and autonomy: honouring the refusal of blood transfusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Gregory L

    2012-11-01

    This paper explores the scriptural and theological reasons given by Jehovah's Witnesses (JWs) to refuse blood transfusions. Julian Savulescu and Richard W Momeyer argue that informed consent should be based on rational beliefs and that the refusal of blood transfusions by JWs is irrational, but after examining the reasons given by JWs, I challenge the claim that JW beliefs are irrational. I also question whether we should give up the traditional notion of informed consent.

  17. [The refusal of nursing care by the families].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curchod, Claude; Fisher, Marion

    2016-10-01

    Caregiving is complex. While it is not easy to admit that the process can be refused by the patient, it is no easier when it is refused by the patient's family. Accepting this fact is however an essential stage in the relational and care processes. The family must therefore be supported by professionals in order to be able to make an enlightened choice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. [Refusal of treatments by an adult cancer patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauchy, Sarah; Faivre, Jean-Christophe; Block, Véronique; Metzger, Maude; Salleron, Julia; Charles, Cécile; Adam, Virginie

    2018-03-01

    Refusal of treatment questions the treatment's adequacy as well as the quality of the care relationship. A rigorous analysis of these situations is necessary in order to respect the patient's fundamental right to decide for him/herself while preventing a potential loss of chance. This paper proposes practical guidelines for assessment and management of the refusal of treatment by adult cancer patients. The French Association for Supportive Care in Cancer and the French Society for Psycho-Oncology formed a task force that applied a consensus methodology to draft guidelines. We propose five guidelines: (1) be informed of the conditions most often associated with refusal of treatment so as to reinforce adequate support measures; (2) understand the complexity of the process of refusal and accurately identify what is precisely refused; (3) apply an approach of systematic analysis to refusal, to try and increase the possibilities of finding an agreement while reinforcing the respect of the patient's position; (4) establish a legal procedure to address refusal of treatment that safeguards the stakeholders when no accord can be found; and (5) know the indications for ethical collective decision-making. A systematic assessment procedure of treatment refusal is necessary in order to ensure that all the physical, psychological and contextual aspects of it are taken into account, and to provide patients with the best treatment possible. The setting of good care relationship, the improvement of communication skills training and of comprehensive multidisciplinary care are all crucial elements in the prevention of these situations. Copyright © 2018 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Arsenic burden survey among refuse incinerator workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chung-Liang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incinerator workers are not considered to have arsenic overexposure although they have the risk of overexposure to other heavy metals. Aim: To examine the relationship between arsenic burden and risk of occupational exposure in employees working at a municipal refuse incinerator by determining the concentrations of arsenic in the blood and urine. Settings and Design: The workers were divided into three groups based on their probability of contact with combustion-generated residues, namely Group 1: indirect contact, Group 2: direct contact and Group 3: no contact. Healthy age- and sex-matched residents living in the vicinity were enrolled as the control group. Materials and Methods: Heavy metal concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Downstream rivers and drinking water of the residents were examined for environmental arsenic pollution. A questionnaire survey concerning the contact history of arsenic was simultaneously conducted. Statistical analysis: Non-parametric tests, cross-tabulation and multinomial logistic regression. Results: This study recruited 122 incinerator workers. The urine and blood arsenic concentrations as well as incidences of overexposure were significantly higher in the workers than in control subjects. The workers who had indirect or no contact with combustion-generated residues had significantly higher blood arsenic level. Arsenic contact history could not explain the difference. Airborne and waterborne arsenic pollution were not detected. Conclusion: Incinerator workers run the risk of being exposed to arsenic pollution, especially those who have incomplete protection in the workplace even though they only have indirect or no contact with combustion-generated pollutants.

  20. Power generation from refuse derived fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surroop, Dinesh; Mohee, Romeela

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The beginning of the third millennium has been characterized by a progressive increase in the demand for fossil fuels, which has caused a steep rise in oil price. At the same time, several environmental disasters have increased the sensitivity of world-wide public opinion towards the effect that environmental pollution has on human health and climate change. These conditions have fostered a renewed interest in renewable energy like solar energy, wind energy, biomass and solid wastes. In addition, the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become a critical and costly problem. The traditional landfill method requires large amounts of land and contaminates air, water and soil. The increase in socio-economic condition during the past ten years has also significantly increased the amount of solid waste generated. There are around 1200 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated daily, of which the combustibles namely plastics, paper and textile waste represent 28%, and with the present generation rate, the landfill will be filled by 2012. The study was, therefore, initiated to assess the potential of power generation from refused derived fuels (RDF) from municipal solid waste (MSW) in order to reduce the dependency on fossil fuels. There are 336 tons which is equivalent to 12 tons/ h of RDF that can be generated daily from the MSW and this would generate 19.2 MW power. There will be 312 kg/ h of ash that would be generated and the NO x and SO 2 concentration were found to be 395.5 and 43.3 mg/ Nm 3 respectively. It was also found that the amount of non-biogenic CO 2 produced was 471 g/ kWhe. (author)

  1. Factors related to treatment refusal in Taiwanese cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Ting-Yu; Wang, Chao-Hui; Lin, Yu-Fen; Chou, Shu-Lan; Wang, Ching-Ting; Juang, Hsiao-Ting; Lin, Yung-Chang; Lin, Mei-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    Incidence and mortality rates for cancer have increased dramatically in the recent 30 years in Taiwan. However, not all patients receive treatment. Treatment refusal might impair patient survival and life quality. In order to improve this situation, we proposed this study to evaluate factors that are related to refusal of treatment in cancer patients via a cancer case manager system. This study analysed data from a case management system during the period from 2010 to 2012 at a medical center in Northern Taiwan. We enrolled a total of 14,974 patients who were diagnosed with cancer. Using the PRECEDE Model as a framework, we conducted logistic regression analysis to identify independent variables that are significantly associated with refusal of therapy in cancer patients. A multivariate logistic regression model was also applied to estimate adjusted the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). A total of 253 patients (1.69%) refused treatment. The multivariate logistic regression result showed that the high risk factors for refusal of treatment in cancer patient included: concerns about adverse effects (prefuse treatment have poor survival. The present study provides evidence of factors that are related to refusal of therapy and might be helpful for further application and improvement of cancer care.

  2. Pervasive refusal syndrome. Three German cases provide further illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Thomas; Ball, Juliane; Preiss, Maike; Haberhausen, Michael; Warnke, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J

    2011-09-01

    Pervasive refusal syndrome (PRS) has been proposed as a new diagnostic entity among child and adolescent psychiatric disorders. It is characterized by a cluster of life-threatening symptoms including refusal of hood intake, decreased or complete lack of mobilization, and lack of communication as well as retreat from normal life activities. Active refusal to accept help as well as neglect of personal care have been core features of PRS in the limited number of cases reported in the last decade. There have, however; been cases with predominantly passive resistance, indicating the possibility that there may be a continuum from active refusal to passive resistance within PRS. Postulating this continuum allows for the integration of "depressive devitalization" -- a refusal syndrome mainly characterized by passive resistance -- into the concept of PRS. Here, three case vignettes of adolescent patients with PRS are presented. The patients' symptomatology can be allocated on this continuum of PRS. PRS and dissociative disorders are compared in greater detail and contrasted within this discussion of differential diagnoses at the poles of such a continuum. PRS is a useful diagnosis for cases involving symptoms of predominating refusal and retreat which cannot satisfactorily be classified by existing diagnostic categories, and which can mostly clearly be separated from dissociative disorder.

  3. Refusal of emergency caesarean section in Ireland: a relational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the issue of emergency caesarean section refusal. This raises complex legal and ethical issues surrounding autonomy, capacity, and the right to refuse treatment. In Ireland, the situation is complicated further by the constitutional right to life of the unborn. While cases involving caesarean section refusal have occurred in other jurisdictions, a case of this nature has yet to be reported in Ireland. This article examines possible ways in which the interaction of a woman's right to refuse treatment and the right to life of the unborn could be approached in Ireland in the context of caesarean section refusal. The central argument of the article is that the liberal individualistic approach to autonomy evident in the caesarean section cases in England and Wales is difficult to apply in the Irish context, due to the conflicting constitutional rights of the woman and foetus. Thus, alternative visions of autonomy which take the interests and rights of others into account in medical decision-making are examined. In particular, this article focuses on the concept of relational consent, as developed by Alasdair Maclean and examines how such an approach could be applied in the context of caesarean section refusal in Ireland. The article explains why this approach is particularly appropriate and identifies mechanisms through which such a theory of consent could be applied. It is argued that this approach enhances a woman's right to autonomy, while at the same time allows the right to life of the unborn to be defended.

  4. The impact of urban open space and 'lift-up' building design on building intake fraction and daily pollutant exposure in idealized urban models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Chenyuan; Wang, Xuemei; Lin, Yuanyuan; Fan, Yifan; Chen, Xi; Hang, Jian

    2018-08-15

    Sustainable urban design is an effective way to improve urban ventilation and reduce vehicular pollutant exposure to urban residents. This paper investigated the impacts of urban open space and 'lift-up' building design on vehicular CO (carbon monoxide) exposure in typical three-dimensional (3D) urban canopy layer (UCL) models under neutral atmospheric conditions. The building intake fraction (IF) represents the fraction of total vehicular pollutant emissions inhaled by residents when they stay at home. The building daily CO exposure (E t ) means the extent of human beings' contact with CO within one day indoor at home. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations integrating with these two concepts were performed to solve turbulent flow and assess vehicular CO exposure to urban residents. CFD technique with the standard k-ε model was successfully validated by wind tunnel data. The initial numerical UCL model consists of 5-row and 5-column (5×5) cubic buildings (building height H=street width W=30m) with four approaching wind directions (θ=0°, 15°, 30°, 45°). In Group I, one of the 25 building models is removed to attain urban open space settings. In Group II, the first floor (Lift-up1), or second floor (Lift-up2), or third floor (Lift-up3) of all buildings is elevated respectively to create wind pathways through buildings. Compared to the initial case, urban open space can slightly or significantly reduce pollutant exposure for urban residents. As θ=30° and 45°, open space settings are more effective to reduce pollutant exposure than θ=0° and 15°.The pollutant dilution near or surrounding open space and in its adjacent downstream regions is usually enhanced. Lift-up1 and Lift-up2 experience much greater pollutant exposure reduction in all wind directions than Lift-up3 and open space. Although further investigations are still required to provide practical guidelines, this study is one of the first attempts for reducing urban pollutant exposure by

  5. Ignition processes in the refuse bed of a refuse incineration plant. Gomi shokyakuro ni okeru gomi sonai no chakka katei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goromaru, T; Onishi, K; Iwakawa, N; Yoshikuni, N [Fukuoka Univ., Fukuoka, (Japan)

    1990-03-01

    The ignition process was studied in this paper, which was particularly connected with the drying process of refuse in the statical characteristics of refuse incinerators. Because of variety in refuse forms to be supplied to the incinerators, a physical model was composed, assuming that refuse was the layers of piled up refuse elements with uniform forms, and the ignition curves of the layers were drawn on the basis of the above model after a mathematical model was formed. The upper part of the curves was altered so that it suits to actual endothermic and heat velocity distribution on the assumption of temperature distribution in the incinerators at their inlet side. No particular alteration was made in their middle part, then the ignition curves were changed to almost straight lines inclined downward. Unburnt and refuse under firing were wrapped by ash and uncombustibles, so the lower part of the curves was only studied as a imaginary solid model by the two methods of finite element method and simple analytical one, and conversion was made into equivalent reduction in combustion temperature. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. A Template for Open Inquiry: Using Questions to Encourage and Support Inquiry in Earth and Space Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Ronald S.; Miranda, Rommel J.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an instructional approach to helping students generate open-inquiry research questions, which the authors call the "open-inquiry question template." This template was created based on their experience teaching high school science and preservice university methods courses. To help teachers implement this template, they…

  7. Low cost monitoring from space using Landsat TM time series and open source technologies: the case study of Iguazu park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nole, Gabriele; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    Up to nowadays, satellite data have become increasingly available, thus offering a low cost or even free of charge unique tool, with a great potential for operational monitoring of vegetation cover, quantitative assessment of urban expansion and urban sprawl, as well as for monitoring of land use changes and soil consumption. This growing observational capacity has also highlighted the need for research efforts aimed at exploring the potential offered by data processing methods and algorithms, in order to exploit as much as possible this invaluable space-based data source. The work herein presented concerns an application study on the monitoring of vegetation cover and urban sprawl conducted with the use of satellite Landsat TM data. The selected test site is the Iguazu park highly significant, being it one of the most threatened global conservation priorities (http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/303/). In order to produce synthetic maps of the investigated areas to monitor the status of vegetation and ongoing subtle changes, satellite Landsat TM data images were classified using two automatic classifiers, Maximum Likelihood (MLC) and Support Vector Machines (SVMs) applied by changing setting parameters, with the aim to compare their respective performances in terms of robustness, speed and accuracy. All process steps have been developed integrating Geographical Information System and Remote Sensing, and adopting free and open source software. Results pointed out that the SVM classifier with RBF kernel was generally the best choice (with accuracy higher than 90%) among all the configurations compared, and the use of multiple bands globally improves classification. One of the critical elements found in the case of monitoring of urban area expansion is given by the presence of urban garden mixed with urban fabric. The use of different configurations for the SVMs, i.e. different kernels and values of the setting parameters, allowed us to calibrate the classifier also to

  8. Situation testing: the case of health care refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Després, C; Couralet, P-E

    2011-04-01

    Situation testing to assess physicians' refusal to provide healthcare is increasingly used in research studies. This paper aims to explain the relevance and limits of this method. Conducted in 2008-2009, this study was designed to assess the rate of healthcare refusal among several categories of private practitioners toward patients covered by the French public means-tested complementary health insurance (CMUc) when they requested a first appointment by phone. The other objectives were to study the determinants of healthcare refusal and assess the method. The study was conducted on a representative sample of Paris-based dentists and physicians in five categories: general practitioners, medical gynecologists, ophthalmologists, radiologists, and dentists. The method was based on two protocols. In the first scenario, an actor pretended to be a CMUc beneficiary and, in the second one, he did not give information about his health coverage but hinted at a low socioeconomic status. The two protocols were compared and procedures checking the relation between refusal and CMUc coverage were implemented in each of them. In the scenario in which the patient declared being a CMUc beneficiary, the results showed different refusal rates depending on the type of practitioner, physician, or dentist, their specialty, and whether or not, they charge more than the standard set fee. In the second scenario, refusal rates were much lower. The comparison of the two protocols seems to confirm the existence of discrimination based on CMUc affiliation rather than patients' socioeconomic status. The discussion presents the limits of situation testing, which remains an experimental instrument because it does not observe reality but reveals behaviors in situation. The findings cannot be extrapolated and are limited in time. The statistical analysis is only valid if the procedure followed is precise and applied consistently using a preset scenario. In addition, the discriminatory nature of the

  9. Bringing 3D Memory Cubes to Space: a "Rad-Hard by Design Study" with an Open Architecture, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The computing capabilities of onboard spacecraft are a major limiting factor for accomplishing many classes of future missions. Although technology development...

  10. Bringing 3D Memory Cubes to Space: a "Rad-Hard by Design Study" with an Open Architecture, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The computing capabilities of onboard spacecraft are a major limiting factor for accomplishing many classes of future missions. Although technology development...

  11. Risk factors associated with treatment refusal in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Won Na; Kong, Kyoung Ae; Han, Yeji; Kim, Soo Jung; Lee, Su Hwan; Ryu, Yon Ju; Lee, Jin Hwa; Shim, Sung Shine; Kim, Yookyung; Chang, Jung Hyun

    2017-09-01

    The incidence of lung cancer is increasing with longer life expectancy. Refusal of active treatment for cancer is prone to cause patients to experience more severe symptoms and shorten survival. The purpose of this study was to define the factors related to refusal or abandonment of active therapy in lung cancer. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 617 patients from medical records from 2010 to 2014. Two groups were formed: 149 patients who refused anti-cancer treatment and allowed only palliative care were classified into the non-treatment group, while the remaining 468 who received anti-cancer treatment were classified into the treatment group. The groups differed significantly in age, employment, relationship status, number of offspring, educational status, body mass index, presence of chest and systemic symptoms, Charlson Comorbidity Index, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score, and tumor node metastasis stage ( P refusal of cancer treatment. Individual factors, such as old age, low educational status, low weight, and poor performance status can influence refusal of cancer treatment in patients with lung cancer, and should be considered prior to consultation with patients. © 2017 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Belém’s built form and its developments to the formation of a system of open spaces accessible to population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Duarte Cardoso

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a characterization of the built space of Belém highlighting, its estuarine condition, physical geography and its economic, social and spacial development. It is based on Quapá-SEL Workshop conclusions held in Belém, in May 2015, in which teachers and students from São Paulo and Pará Federal Universities assessed the conditions of urban open spaces of the city. The results highlight a disarticulation between real estate agents strategies and of urban management towards structuring an Open Spaces System (SEL in Portuguese, as well as its limited appropriation by the population. There is a remarkable differentiation between the landscapes of central area in opposition / contraposition to that at the city’s expansion area. This debate showed how much permanent preservation areas on the banks of inland rivers and islands (the main green spaces of the city and main linkage with the Amazonian biome, with its landscape potentials, have been unevenly appropriated in the city, through gentrification.

  13. Knowledge-based fault diagnosis system for refuse collection vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, CheeFai; Juffrizal, K.; Khalil, S. N.; Nidzamuddin, M. Y.

    2015-01-01

    The refuse collection vehicle is manufactured by local vehicle body manufacturer. Currently; the company supplied six model of the waste compactor truck to the local authority as well as waste management company. The company is facing difficulty to acquire the knowledge from the expert when the expert is absence. To solve the problem, the knowledge from the expert can be stored in the expert system. The expert system is able to provide necessary support to the company when the expert is not available. The implementation of the process and tool is able to be standardize and more accurate. The knowledge that input to the expert system is based on design guidelines and experience from the expert. This project highlighted another application on knowledge-based system (KBS) approached in trouble shooting of the refuse collection vehicle production process. The main aim of the research is to develop a novel expert fault diagnosis system framework for the refuse collection vehicle

  14. Knowledge-based fault diagnosis system for refuse collection vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, CheeFai; Juffrizal, K.; Khalil, S. N.; Nidzamuddin, M. Y. [Centre of Advanced Research on Energy, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    The refuse collection vehicle is manufactured by local vehicle body manufacturer. Currently; the company supplied six model of the waste compactor truck to the local authority as well as waste management company. The company is facing difficulty to acquire the knowledge from the expert when the expert is absence. To solve the problem, the knowledge from the expert can be stored in the expert system. The expert system is able to provide necessary support to the company when the expert is not available. The implementation of the process and tool is able to be standardize and more accurate. The knowledge that input to the expert system is based on design guidelines and experience from the expert. This project highlighted another application on knowledge-based system (KBS) approached in trouble shooting of the refuse collection vehicle production process. The main aim of the research is to develop a novel expert fault diagnosis system framework for the refuse collection vehicle.

  15. Responding to the refusal of care in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jennifer; Venkat, Arvind; Davenport, Moira

    2014-01-01

    The emergency department (ED) serves as the primary gateway for acute care and the source of health care of last resort. Emergency physicians are commonly expected to rapidly assess and treat patients with a variety of life-threatening conditions. However, patients do refuse recommended therapy, even when the consequences are significant morbidity and even mortality. This raises the ethical dilemma of how emergency physicians and ED staff can rapidly determine whether patient refusal of treatment recommendations is based on intact decision-making capacity and how to respond in an appropriate manner when the declining of necessary care by the patient is lacking a basis in informed judgment. This article presents a case that illustrates the ethical tensions raised by the refusal of life-sustaining care in the ED and how such situations can be approached in an ethically appropriate manner.

  16. Sodium bicarbonate effects on the anaerobic digestion of refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasali, G.B.; Senior, E.; Watson-Craik, I.A. (Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow (UK). Dept. of Applied Physics)

    1989-01-01

    Laboratory column and bottle cultures were used to examine the efficacy of NaHCO{sub 3}additions (1%, 2.5% and 5% w/v) to promote the solid-state refuse fermentation. Buffering capacity increase, by addition of 2.5% NaHCO{sub 3}, equivalent to 84 mg NaHCO{sub 3} g dry weight refuse{sup -1}, promoted both acidogenesis and methanogenesis, with the latter accelerating by a factor of six, compared with glass-distilled water controls. Increased addition, with 5% NaHCO{sub 3}, however, mediated partial suppression of methanogenesis and acidogenesis with cation toxicity the most likely cause. Promotion of the refuse fermentation by NaHCO{sub 3} addition, therefore, necessitates careful control of the concentration applied. (author).

  17. [Maternal refusal to consent to a cesarean delivery, stillbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defline, A; Obadia, M; El Djerbi, A; Plevy, P; Lepercq, J

    2014-01-01

    The doctor-lawyer perspective that we discuss is a maternal refusal to consent to a cesarean delivery for a fetal indication in June 2011. Despite repeated information of the risks during a three-week hospitalization for pre-eclampsia, after being assured of the proper understanding of the seriousness of the situation by the patient and spouse, and after consideration to transfer to another hospital, the reiterated refusal led to a late fetal extraction resulting in term stillbirth. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  18. Critical Spaces for Critical Times: Global Conversations in Literacy Research as an Open Professional Development and Practices Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Peggy; Cho, A. Ram; Shin, Ji Hye; Pang, Myoung Eun; Angay-Crowder, Tuba; Jung, Jin Kyeong; Pace, Christi L.; Sena, Mandi; Turnbull, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects an OER (Open Educational Resources) critical literacy project, Global Conversations in Literacy Research (GCLR), (www.globalconversationsinliteracy.wordpress.com), now in its fourth year. GCLR annually hosts seven web seminars presented by internationally recognized literacy and education scholars. We outline key dimensions of…

  19. Women's, midwives' and obstetricians' experiences of a structured process to document refusal of recommended maternity care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkinson, Bec; Kruske, Sue; Stapleton, Helen; Beckmann, Michael; Reynolds, Maree; Kildea, Sue

    2016-12-01

    Ethical and professional guidance for midwives and obstetricians emphasises informed consent and respect for patient autonomy; the right to refuse care is well established. However, the existing literature is largely silent on the appropriate clinical responses when pregnant women refuse recommended care, and accounts of disrespectful interactions and conflict are numerous. Policies and processes to support women and maternity care providers are rare and unstudied. To document the perspectives of women, midwives and obstetricians following the introduction of a structured process (Maternity Care Plan; MCP) to document refusal of recommended maternity care in a large tertiary maternity unit. A qualitative, interpretive study involved thematic analysis of in-depth semi-structured interviews with women (n=9), midwives (n=12) and obstetricians (n=9). Four major themes were identified including: 'Reassuring and supporting clinicians'; 'Keeping the door open'; 'Varied awareness, criteria and use of the MCP process' and 'No guarantees'. Clinicians felt protected and reassured by the structured documentation and communication process and valued keeping women engaged in hospital care. This, in turn, protected women's access to maternity care. However, the process could not guarantee favourable responses from other clinicians subsequently involved in the woman's care. Ongoing discussions of risk, perceived by women and some midwives to be pressure to consent to recommended care, were still evident. These limitations may have been attributable to the absence of agreed criteria for initiating the MCP process and fragmented care. Varying awareness and use of the process also diminished women's access to it. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 7 CFR 319.8-26 - Material refused entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Plant Protection Act (7 U.S.C. 7714 and 7731). Neither the Department of Agriculture nor the inspector... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Material refused entry. 319.8-26 Section 319.8-26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  1. 9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF...

  2. Magnetometric Studies of Catalyst Refuses in Nanocarbon Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eklund Peter

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIt is shown that magnetometry can be employed as an effective tool to control the content of a ferromagnetic constituent in nanocarbon materials. We propose a thermochemical treatment protocol to achieve extensive cleaning of the source nanocarbon materials from ferromagnetic refuses.

  3. [Refusal of personal hygiene care and nursing responsibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyé, Anne

    2013-03-01

    Situations of patients refusing personal hygiene care are frequent. Sources of difficulties and questioning for caregivers, they can lead to maltreatment. In order to avoid this pitfall, it is essential to support the teams in their approach around representations of caregiving and nursing responsibility.

  4. the development of new generation of solid waste refuse incinerators

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apart from town refuse, there are wastes from agriculturally based industries especially ... depends on careful control of the 3T's (time, temperature and turbulence). ... These activities cause serious public health risks ... The modifications to the old bottle incinerators were developed by carefully assessing the failure modes.

  5. Ways to Say No: Refusal Skill Strategies among Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Tracy R.; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To examine associations among adolescents' generated verbal strategies (ie, Simple No, Declarative Statements, Excuse, Alternatives) and underlying nonverbal assertiveness in 2 refusal situations: smoking and shoplifting. Methods: Sixth-grade urban minority students (N = 454) participated in videotaped role-play assessments of peer…

  6. Autonomy, religious values, and refusal of lifesaving medical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wreen, M J

    1991-09-01

    The principal question of this paper is: Why are religious values special in refusal of lifesaving medical treatment? This question is approached through a critical examination of a common kind of refusal of treatment case, one involving a rational adult. The central value cited in defence of honouring such a patient's refusal is autonomy. Once autonomy is isolated from other justificatory factors, however, possible cases can be imagined which cast doubt on the great valuational weight assigned it by strong anti-paternalists. This weight is sufficient, in their estimation, to justify honouring the patient's refusal. There is thus a tension between the strong anti-paternalist's commitment to the sufficiency of autonomy and our intuitions respecting such cases. Attempts can be made to relieve this tension, such as arguing that patients aren't really rational in the circumstances envisaged, or that other values, such as privacy or bodily integrity, if added to autonomy, are sufficient to justify an anti-paternalistic stance. All such attempts fail, however. But what does not fail is the addition of religious freedom, freedom respecting a patient's religious beliefs and values. Why religious freedom reduces the tension is then explained, and the specialness of religious beliefs and values examined.

  7. Problems and prospects of refuse disposal in nigerian urban centres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Refuse disposal is one of the major environmental problems that developing ... The problem of waste management has two parts, that of collection and that of disposal. ... Disposal methods such as dumping sites, incineration, recycling, shipping ... citizenry has roles to play in adopting more suitable solutions to this problem.

  8. [Refusal of care in the intensive care: how makes decision?].

    OpenAIRE

    Borel , Marie; Veber , Benoit; Villette-Baron , Karen; Hariri , S.; Dureuil , Bertrand; Hervé , Christian

    2009-01-01

    International audience; It is not a question of going towards a systematic admission in intensive care of any patient proposed, but to make sure that so if there is a refusal, it is carried out according to a step ethically acceptable.

  9. [Refusal of care and respect of the body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Marie-Fleur

    Patients receive numerous care procedures which they may refuse for physical and/or psychological reasons, even if, sometimes, the consequences for them can be dramatic. Faced with this situation, caregivers are helpless. Only ethical reflection centred on their responsibility and their humanity can guide them towards the suitable attitude to adopt. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Invitation Refusals in Cameroon French and Hexagonal French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenkia, Bernard Mulo

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of regional pragmatic variation in French are lacking to date the focus has been on a limited range of speech acts, including apologies, requests, compliments and responses to compliments. The present paper, a systematic analysis of invitation refusals across regional varieties of French, is designed to add to the research on…

  11. Refuse Dumps And The Environment: A Case Study Of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Refuse Dumps And The Environment: A Case Study Of Some Selected Cities In Nigeria. ... International Journal of Emotional Psychology and Sport Ethics ... This study assessed the level of environmental pollution in the nation by focusing on the degree of accumulation of house – hold wastes, industrial scraps or wastes, ...

  12. Refuse derived fuel incineration: Fuel gas monitoring and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranaldi, E.; Coronidi, M.; De Stefanis, P.; Di Palo, C.; Zagaroli, M.

    1993-11-01

    Experience and results on refuse derived fuel (selected from municipal solid wastes) incineration are reported. The study involved the investigation of inorganic compounds (heavy metals, acids and toxic gases) emissions, and included feeding materials and incineration residues characterization and mass balance

  13. Bioethics and religious bodies: refusal of blood transfusions in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajtar, Małgorzata

    2013-12-01

    The refusal of medical treatment is a recurrent topic in bioethical debates and Jehovah's Witnesses often constitute an exemplary case in this regard. The refusal of a potentially life-saving blood transfusion is a controversial choice that challenges the basic medical principle of acting in patients' best interests and often leads physicians to adopt paternalistic attitudes toward patients who refuse transfusion. However, neither existing bioethical nor historical and social sciences scholarship sufficiently addresses experiences of rank-and-file Witnesses in their dealings with the health care system. This article draws on results of a nine-month (2010, 2011-2012) ethnographic research on the relationship between religious, legal, ethical, and emotional issues emerging from the refusal of blood transfusions by Jehovah's Witnesses in Germany (mainly in Berlin). It shows how bioethical challenges are solved in practice by some German physicians and what they perceive to be the main goal of biomedicine: promoting the health or broadly understood well-being of patients. I argue that two different understandings of the concept of autonomy are at work here: autonomy based on reason and autonomy based on choice. The first is privileged by German physicians in line with a Kantian philosophical tradition and constitutional law; the second, paradoxically, is utilized by Jehovah's Witnesses in their version of the Anglo-Saxon Millian approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Understanding Excessive School Absenteeism as School Refusal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Shanta R.; Orpinas, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Understanding excessive absenteeism is important to ameliorating the negative outcomes associated with the behavior. The present study examined behavioral reinforcement profiles of school refusal behavior: negative reinforcement (avoidance) and positive reinforcement (gaining parental attention or receiving tangible benefits from not attending…

  15. Othermotherwork: "Testimonio" and the Refusal of Historical Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Christine

    2018-01-01

    This paper is an "ofrenda" (offering), a "testimonio" (testimony) of the healing power of reconstituting severed relationships and reconstructing agentic creation stories in the pathology of soul-wounds where pictures and "cuentos" serve to mend genealogical traumas. This paper is a refusal of neglecting traumas, it…

  16. School Refusal Behavior: Classification, Assessment, and Treatment Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Marcella I.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses diagnostic and functional classification, assessment, and treatment approaches for school refusal behavior. Diagnostic classification focuses on separation anxiety disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, depression, and truancy. Functional classification focuses on the maintaining consequences of the behavior, such as avoidance of…

  17. Space-based passive microwave soil moisture retrievals and the correction for a dynamic open water fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Gouweleeuw

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The large observation footprint of low-frequency satellite microwave emissions complicates the interpretation of near-surface soil moisture retrievals. While the effect of sub-footprint lateral heterogeneity is relatively limited under unsaturated conditions, open water bodies (if not accounted for cause a strong positive bias in the satellite-derived soil moisture retrieval. This bias is generally assumed static and associated with large, continental lakes and coastal areas. Temporal changes in the extent of smaller water bodies as small as a few percent of the sensor footprint size, however, can cause significant and dynamic biases. We analysed the influence of such small open water bodies on near-surface soil moisture products derived from actual (non-synthetic data from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E for three areas in Oklahoma, USA. Differences between on-ground observations, model estimates and AMSR-E retrievals were related to dynamic estimates of open water fraction, one retrieved from a global daily record based on higher frequency AMSR-E data, a second derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and a third through inversion of the radiative transfer model, used to retrieve soil moisture. The comparison demonstrates the presence of relatively small areas (<0.05 of open water in or near the sensor footprint, possibly in combination with increased, below-critical vegetation density conditions (optical density <0.8, which contribute to seasonally varying biases in excess of 0.2 (m3 m−3 soil water content. These errors need to be addressed, either through elimination or accurate characterisation, if the soil moisture retrievals are to be used effectively in a data assimilation scheme.

  18. Move the Neighbourhood: Study design of a community-based participatory public open space intervention in a Danish deprived neighbourhood to promote active living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Skau Pawlowski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A limited amount of research has examined the effect of changing public open spaces on active living. This paper will present the study protocol of a community-based intervention study co-designed in an interdisciplinary collaboration with community members to develop urban installations highly tailored to promote active living among children (10–13-years-old and seniors (>60-years-old in a deprived neighbourhood in Copenhagen. Methods The study builds on a quasi-experimental study design with two sub-studies: 1 a children study and 2 a senior study. The interventions will be developed, designed and implemented in collaboration with local children and seniors, respectively, using different co-design tools and methods. We will evaluate the effect of the interventions on children’s and senior’s use of the new-built urban installations using accelerometers in combination with GPS as well as systematic observation using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC. A process evaluation with focus groups consisting of the various stakeholders in the two sub-studies will be used to gain knowledge of the intervention processes. Discussion The paper presents new approaches in the field of public open space interventions through interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory co-design approach and combination of measurements. Using both effect and process evaluations the study will provide unique insights in the role and importance of the interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory processes, and tailoring changes in public open space to local needs and wishes. These results can be used to guide urban renewal projects in deprived neighbourhoods in the future. Trial registration Retrospectively registered with study ID ISRCTN50036837 . Date of registration: 16 December 2016.

  19. Move the Neighbourhood: Study design of a community-based participatory public open space intervention in a Danish deprived neighbourhood to promote active living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Winge, Laura; Carroll, Sidse; Schmidt, Tanja; Wagner, Anne Margrethe; Nørtoft, Kamilla Pernille Johansen; Lamm, Bettina; Kural, René; Schipperijn, Jasper; Troelsen, Jens

    2017-05-19

    A limited amount of research has examined the effect of changing public open spaces on active living. This paper will present the study protocol of a community-based intervention study co-designed in an interdisciplinary collaboration with community members to develop urban installations highly tailored to promote active living among children (10-13-years-old) and seniors (>60-years-old) in a deprived neighbourhood in Copenhagen. The study builds on a quasi-experimental study design with two sub-studies: 1) a children study and 2) a senior study. The interventions will be developed, designed and implemented in collaboration with local children and seniors, respectively, using different co-design tools and methods. We will evaluate the effect of the interventions on children's and senior's use of the new-built urban installations using accelerometers in combination with GPS as well as systematic observation using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC). A process evaluation with focus groups consisting of the various stakeholders in the two sub-studies will be used to gain knowledge of the intervention processes. The paper presents new approaches in the field of public open space interventions through interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory co-design approach and combination of measurements. Using both effect and process evaluations the study will provide unique insights in the role and importance of the interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory processes, and tailoring changes in public open space to local needs and wishes. These results can be used to guide urban renewal projects in deprived neighbourhoods in the future. Retrospectively registered with study ID ISRCTN50036837 . Date of registration: 16 December 2016.

  20. Beyond a Logic of Quality: Opening Space for Material-Discursive Practices of "Readiness" in Early Years Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    This article is an exploration of the possibilities encountered through shifting from a "logic of quality" to a "space of meaning-making" within early years education. Focusing on ideas of "readiness", this discussion aims to challenge normative understandings that relate this concept to the predictable achievement of…

  1. Rehabilitating a landfill site of lowland tropical landscape into an urban green space: A case study from the Open University of Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    B.D. Madurapperuma; K.A.J.M. Kuruppuarachchi

    2016-01-01

    This study examines vegetation, carbon sequestration, and spatial and temporal changes of green space at the premises of the Open University of Sri Lanka (OUSL). The primary objective of this study is to examine floral diversity of the OUSL premises that was rehabilitated from a landfill site and to determine suitable trees for landfill sites based on growth performance and biomass carbon stocks. The girth and height of plants ⩾5 cm dbh were measured to estimate biomass carbon stocks of each ...

  2. Impact of interventions for patients refusing emergency medical services transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicandro, J; Hollander, J E; Henry, M C; Sciammarella, J; Stapleton, E; Gentile, D

    1995-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of a documentation checklist and on-line medical control contact on ambulance transport of out-of-hospital patients refusing medical assistance. Consecutive patients served by four suburban ambulance services who initially refused emergency medical services (EMS) transport to the hospital were prospectively enrolled. In phase 1 (control phase), all patients who initially refused medical attention or transport had an identifying data card completed. In phase 2 (documentation phase), out-of-hospital providers completed a similar data card that contained a checklist of high-risk criteria for a poor outcome if not transported. In phase 3 (intervention phase), a data card similar to that used in phase 2 was completed, and on-line medical control was contacted for all patients with high-risk criteria who refused transport. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients transported to the hospital. A total of 361 patients were enrolled. Transport rate varied by phase: control, 17 of 144 (12%); documentation, 11 of 150 (7%); and intervention, 12 of 67 (18%) (chi-square, p = 0.023). Transport of high-risk patients improved with each intervention: control, two of 60 (3%); documentation, seven of 70 (10%); and intervention, 12 of 34 (35%) (chi-square, p = 0.00003). Transport of patients without high-risk criteria decreased with each intervention: control, 15 of 84 (18%); documentation, four of 80 (5%); and intervention, 0 of 33 (0%) (p = 0.0025). Of the 28 patients for whom medical control was contacted, 12 (43%) were transported to the hospital, and only three of these 12 patients (25%) were released from the ED. Contact with on-line medical control increased the likelihood of transport of high-risk patients who initially refused medical assistance. The appropriateness of the decreased transport rate of patients not meeting high-risk criteria needs further evaluation.

  3. Refusal of dialysis amongst patients of chronic kidney disease (CKD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anees, M.; Khan, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the refusal of dialysis amongst patients of chronic kidney disease presenting for the first time for dialysis in uremic condition. Study Design: Cross sectional Study. Place and Duration of the Study: Outpatient department of Nephrology, Mayo Hospital, Lahore from 1 st Jan 2012 to 31 st December 2012. Patients and Methods: Patients of CKD due to any cause presenting with uremia for the first time for dialysis were included in the study. History and physical examination was done and demographic data was collected in pre designed form. Patients were offered for dialysis while explaining to them the advantages of getting and disadvantages of not getting dialysis. Patient's response on the offer was recorded and the reason for the refusal were noted. Results: According to the criteria 150 patients were included in the study. Most of the patients were male 92 (61.3%) and illiterate 78 (52.0%). Major cause of CKD was diabetes mellitus 58 (38.7%) followed by hypertension 38 (25.3%). Mean age of the patients was 42.59 ± 13.72 year and income of themost of the patients 126 (84%) was less than US$100/-month. Most of the patients 126 (77.0%) were asked about the need of dialysis in less than three months, 61 (41.3%) offered for the first time and amongst them 85 (54.0%) were offered dialysis already. Majority of the patients 101 (67.3%) refused dialysis when it was offered to them for the first time. Major reason of the refusal was fear of dialysis procedure in 76 (76%) patients followed by treatment by spiritual 14 (14%) and alternative ways and others 11 (11 %). Middle age persons refused dialysis significantly. (author)

  4. Prevalence of Toxocara cati and other parasites in cats' faeces collected from the open spaces of public institutions: Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfelt, I E; Cardillo, N; López, C; Ribicich, M; Gallo, C; Franco, A

    2006-09-10

    Toxocarosis is a worldwide parasitic infection that affects both cats and dogs. Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1788) syn. Toxocara mystax (Zeder, 1800) prevalence was studied in faeces from stray cats collected from the open spaces of public institutions of Buenos Aires city, both building and surrounding open spaces are fenced off. Of the 465 samples obtained from March to June of 2005, 58.3% were found to have parasite eggs. The following parasites were identified from the 271 positive samples: T. cati (61.2%), Cystoisospora spp. (20.3%), Trichuris spp. (17.0%), Toxascaris leonina (15.1%), Ancylostoma spp. (14%) and Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (2.6%). T. cati prevalence was 35.7% (95% confidence interval: 31.2-40.1), with a 42.2% single isolations. The most frequent combination was T. cati and Cystoisospora spp. (9%). More than half the areas studied showed over 40% prevalence. Seventy-one percent of the collected samples were fresh with a variable moist consistency and 29% were older with a dry consistency. A statistically significant association was found between sample consistency and presence of parasites (chi2 = 10.81; p = 0.001) as also between sample consistency and presence of T. cati (chi2 = 11.27; p = 0.0007). Moist consistencies were significantly different from the rest: consistency (wet or dry) versus parasites (z = 1.95; p = 0.02) (95% confidence interval: 0.004-0.203); consistency (wet or dry) versus T. cati (z = 3.25; p = 0.0006) (95% confidence interval: 0.075-0.254). The cat population that inhabits these public green spaces contaminates the environment, thus transforming them into dangerous spaces with a variable rate for the human population that spends time in these places.

  5. 76 FR 29796 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Refuse...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Refuse Piles and Impounding Structures, Recordkeeping and Reporting... Administration (MSHA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Refuse Piles and Impounding... to submit annual reports and certification on refuse piles and impoundments to the agency and to keep...

  6. Social Skills, Competence, and Drug Refusal Efficacy as Predictors of Adolescent Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheier, Lawrence M.; Botvin, Gilbert J.; Diaz, Tracy; Griffin, Kenneth W.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the extent to which assertiveness and related social skills, personal competence, and refusal efficacy predict alcohol involvement in adolescents. Males were at higher risk for poor refusal skills and reported higher alcohol involvement. Youth characterized by poor social skill development reported lower refusal efficacy, lower grades,…

  7. A plea for uniform European definitions for organ donor potential and family refusal rates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, N.E.; Haase-Kromwijk, B.J.; Leiden, H.A. van; Weimar, W.; Hoitsma, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Conversion of potential organ donors to actual donors is negatively influenced by family refusals. Refusal rates differ strongly among countries. Is it possible to compare refusal rates in order to be able to learn from countries with the best practices? We searched in the literature for reviews of

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucks Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse Trucks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse Trucks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse Trucks on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  9. 37 CFR 1.295 - Review of decision finally refusing to publish a statutory invention registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dissatisfied with the final refusal to publish a statutory invention registration for reasons other than... refunded if the final refusal to publish a statutory invention registration for reasons other than... refusing to publish a statutory invention registration. 1.295 Section 1.295 Patents, Trademarks, and...

  10. Academic Self-Attributions for Success and Failure in Mathematics and School Refusal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzálvez, Carolina; Sanmartín, Ricardo; Vicent, María; Inglés, Cándido J.; Aparicio-Flores, M. Pilar; García-Fernández, José M.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is twofold: to analyze the mean differences scores in mathematic self-attributions based on school refusal and to verify its predictive capability on high scores in school refusal. The Sydney Attribution Scale and the School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised were administered to 1078 Spanish students (50.8% boys) aged…

  11. Distribution and demography of San Francisco gartersnakes (Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia) at Mindego Ranch, Russian Ridge Open Space Preserve, San Mateo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Richard; Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2018-04-26

    San Francisco gartersnakes (Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia) are a subspecies of common gartersnakes endemic to the San Francisco Peninsula of northern California. Because of habitat loss and collection for the pet trade, San Francisco gartersnakes were listed as endangered under the precursor to the Federal Endangered Species Act. A population of San Francisco gartersnakes resides at Mindego Ranch, San Mateo County, which is part of the Russian Ridge Open Space Preserve owned and managed by the Midpeninsula Regional Open Space District (MROSD). Because the site contained non-native fishes and American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus), MROSD implemented management to eliminate or reduce the abundance of these non-native species in 2014. We monitored the population using capture-mark-recapture techniques to document changes in the population during and following management actions. Although drought confounded some aspects of inference about the effects of management, prey and San Francisco gartersnake populations generally increased following draining of Aquatic Feature 3. Continued management of the site to keep invasive aquatic predators from recolonizing or increasing in abundance, as well as vegetation management that promotes heterogeneous grassland/shrubland near wetlands, likely would benefit this population of San Francisco gartersnakes.

  12. Past and predicted future effects of housing growth on open space conservation opportunity areas and habitat connectivity around National Wildlife Refuges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Christopher M.; Baumann, Matthias; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Helmers, David P.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Radeloff, Volker C.

    2016-01-01

    ContextHousing growth can alter suitability of matrix habitats around protected areas, strongly affecting movements of organisms and, consequently, threatening connectivity of protected area networks.ObjectivesOur goal was to quantify distribution and growth of housing around the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wildlife Refuge System. This is important information for conservation planning, particularly given promotion of habitat connectivity as a climate change adaptation measure.MethodsWe quantified housing growth from 1940 to 2000 and projected future growth to 2030 within three distances from refuges, identifying very low housing density open space, “opportunity areas” (contiguous areas with habitat corridors within these opportunity areas in 2000.ResultsOur results indicated that the number and area of open space opportunity areas generally decreased with increasing distance from refuges and with the passage of time. Furthermore, total area in habitat corridors was much lower than in opportunity areas. In addition, the number of corridors sometimes exceeded number of opportunity areas as a result of habitat fragmentation, indicating corridors are likely vulnerable to land use change. Finally, regional differences were strong and indicated some refuges may have experienced so much housing growth already that they are effectively too isolated to adapt to climate change, while others may require extensive habitat restoration work.ConclusionsWildlife refuges are increasingly isolated by residential housing development, potentially constraining the movement of wildlife and, therefore, their ability to adapt to a changing climate.

  13. IMF dependence of the open-closed field line boundary in Saturn's ionosphere, and its relation to the UV auroral oval observed by the Hubble Space Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Belenkaya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the dependence of Saturn's magnetospheric magnetic field structure on the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF, together with the corresponding variations of the open-closed field line boundary in the ionosphere. Specifically we investigate the interval from 8 to 30 January 2004, when UV images of Saturn's southern aurora were obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST, and simultaneous interplanetary measurements were provided by the Cassini spacecraft located near the ecliptic ~0.2 AU upstream of Saturn and ~0.5 AU off the planet-Sun line towards dawn. Using the paraboloid model of Saturn's magnetosphere, we calculate the magnetospheric magnetic field structure for several values of the IMF vector representative of interplanetary compression regions. Variations in the magnetic structure lead to different shapes and areas of the open field line region in the ionosphere. Comparison with the HST auroral images shows that the area of the computed open flux region is generally comparable to that enclosed by the auroral oval, and sometimes agrees in detail with its poleward boundary, though more typically being displaced by a few degrees in the tailward direction.

  14. Emissions from co-combustion of wood and household refuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.J.; Peterson, F.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation was carried out on the emissions produced in a 20 kW experimental boiler burning a combination of wood and household refuse. The wood content ranged form 10 to 50%. Direct sampling with Tenax adsorbent was used to cover a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The measurements also included unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen and flue gas temperature. Combustion and emission parameters were recorded continuously with a multi-point data logger. VOCs were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The main emphasis was placed on the effect of wood on VOC emissions. The results showed that as the wood content increased from 10 to 50%, there was a roughly linear increase in emissions of total VOCs. Carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions also increased. These results suggest that household refuse is a good substitute for wood as a boiler fuel, as it has a similar calorific value but fewer emissions. (Author)

  15. Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is evaluating the in-service performance of 10 next-generation hydraulic hybrid refuse vehicles (HHVs), 8 previous-generation HHVs, and 8 comparable conventional diesel vehicles operated by Miami-Dade County's Public Works and Waste Management Department in southern Florida. The HHVs under study - Autocar E3 refuse trucks equipped with Parker Hannifin's RunWise Advanced Series Hybrid Drive systems - can recover as much as 70 percent of the energy typically lost during braking and reuse it to power the vehicle. NREL's evaluation will assess the performance of this technology in commercial operation and help Miami-Dade County determine the ideal routes for maximizing the fuel-saving potential of its HHVs.

  16. [Anorexia and refusal to eat in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazif-Thomas, Cyril; Thomas, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The question of the links between anorexia and the refusal to eat in the elderly is often the cause of major difficulties with regard to therapeutic strategies within caregiving teams. Likewise, few studies have been carried out into the diachronic links between teenage anorexia and that of the elderly. The role of the multi-disciplinary team is essential. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Lime helps establish crownvetch on coal-breaker refuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroslaw M. Czapowskyj; Edward A. Sowa

    1976-01-01

    A study was begun in 1965 to determine the effect of lime fertilizer, and mulch on the establishment and growth of crownvetch crowns planted on anthracite coal-breaker refuse. After 7 years the lime application had by far the strongest effect. Both 2.5 and 5.0 tons per acre increased survival and ground cover manyfold, and both treatments were equally beneficial from...

  18. [Refusal of care in the intensive care: how makes decision?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, M; Veber, B; Villette-Baron, K; Hariri, S; Dureuil, B; Hervé, C

    2009-11-01

    Decision-making bringing to an admission or not in intensive care is complex. The aim of this study is to analyze with an ethical point of view the making decision process leading to the refusal and its consequences. It is proposed a setting in prospect through the principles of beneficence, non-maleficience, respect for autonomy, justice, and the Leonetti law. Prospective study in surgical reanimation at the University Hospital of Rouen over 9 months (November 2007-September 2008). Systematic collection for each non-admitted patient of the general characters, the methods of decision making, immediate becoming and within 48 h Constitution of two groups: patients for whom an admission in intensive care could be an unreasonable situation of obstinacy, and patients for whom an admission in reanimation would not be about unreasonable if it occurred. One hundred and fifty situations were analyzed. The potentially unreasonable character of an admission does not involve necessarily a refusal of care in intensive care. The question of the lack of place and equity in the access to the care is real but relative according to the typology of the patients. The research of the respect of the autonomy of the patient is difficult but could be facilitated. The Leonetti law does not appear to be able to be a framework with the situation of refusal of care in intensive care. It is not a question of going towards a systematic admission in intensive care of any patient proposed, but to make sure that so if there is a refusal, it is carried out according to a step ethically acceptable.

  19. A narrative review of studies of refusal of psychotropic medication in acute inpatient psychiatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owiti, J A; Bowers, L

    2011-09-01

    This paper offers a narrative review of the 22 studies of medication refusal in acute psychiatry. Because of varied definitions of medication refusal, diverse methodologies and few rigorous studies, it has not been possible to draw firm conclusions on the average rate of refusal of psychotropic medications in acute psychiatry. However, it is clear that medication refusal is common and leads to poor outcomes characterized by higher rates of seclusion, restraint, threats of, and actual, assaults and longer hospitalizations. There are no statistically significant differences between refusers and acceptors in gender, marital status and preadmission living arrangements. Although no firm conclusions on the influence of ethnicity, status at admission and diagnosis on refusal, the refusers are more likely to have higher number of previous hospitalizations and history of prior refusal. The review indicates that staff factors such as the use of temporary staff, lack of confidence in ward staff and ineffective ward structure are associated with higher rates of medication refusal. Comprehensive knowledge of why, and how, patients refuse medication is lacking. Research on medication refusal is still fragmented, of variable methodological quality and lacks an integrating model. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  20. Mental health consequences of abortion and refused abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watter, W W

    1980-02-01

    There is no scientific evidence to support the hypothesis put forth by Dr. Philip Ney in a recent article published in the Canadian Journal of Psychiatry that induced abortion is associated with an increase in child abuse. There are, however, numerous studies which support the contention that mandatory motherhood adversely affects the mental health of both the mother and the offspring. Studies conducted in Sweden, Scotland, and Czechoslovakia revealed that women who were refused abortions frequently experienced serious psychosocial difficulties for long periods of time following abortion refusal. Case controlled follow-up studies, conducted in Sweden and Czechoslovakia, of offspring born to women who were refused abortions demonstrated that a higher proportion of the unwanted children required psychiatric services, engaged in criminal behavior, and did less well in school than the controlled children. These studies have implications for the current Canadian law which permits a woman to obtain an abortion if pregnancy continuation will endanger her health. In view of the above statistical evidence, and the fact that mortality and morbidity are known to be lower for abortion than for childbirth, any person who denies a woman the right to have an abortion is increasing the risk that the health of the woman will be endangered. By law, therefore, all abortion requests should be honored.

  1. Consent and assessment of capacity to decide or refuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Owena

    Consent protects the right of patients to decide what happens to them. Before any medical intervention, adults must give valid consent, which must be voluntary, informed and given free of undue influence. When consent is being obtained, patients must be informed about the intervention, why it is being done and its risks; information they are given must be recorded. Every effort should be made to explain the issues in terms that the patient can understand and by providing support and aids to communicate. Consent can be expressed, where patients say they consent or put it in writing, or implied, where a healthcare professional infers from their behaviour that they consent. While different types of consent are valid, some are evidence of stronger proof in court that valid consent has been given. Competent adults have the right to refuse treatment, regardless of the reasons they give for refusal and even if the refusal will result in death; clinicians must respect their decision. In some circumstances-such as when an unconscious person is admitted as an emergency-healthcare professionals can make decisions on behalf of patients, and must do so in patients' best interests.

  2. Delay and refusal of human papillomavirus vaccine for girls, national immunization survey-teen, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorell, Christina; Yankey, David; Jeyarajah, Jenny; Stokley, Shannon; Fisher, Allison; Markowitz, Lauri; Smith, Philip J

    2014-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage among girls is low. We used data reported by parents of 4103 girls, 13 to 17 years old, to assess associations with, and reasons for, delaying or refusing HPV vaccination. Sixty-nine percent of parents neither delayed nor refused vaccination, 11% delayed only, 17% refused only, and 3% both delayed and refused. Eighty-three percent of girls who delayed only, 19% who refused only, and 46% who both delayed and refused went on to initiate the vaccine series or intended to initiate it within the next 12 months. A significantly higher proportion of parents of girls who were non-Hispanic white, lived in households with higher incomes, and had mothers with higher education levels, delayed and/or refused vaccination. The most common reasons for nonvaccination were concerns about lasting health problems from the vaccine, wondering about the vaccine's effectiveness, and believing the vaccine is not needed.

  3. Rat sightings in New York City are associated with neighborhood sociodemographics, housing characteristics, and proximity to open public space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Walsh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rats are ubiquitous in urban environments and, as established reservoirs for infectious pathogens, present a control priority for public health agencies. New York City (NYC harbors one of the largest rat populations in the United States, but surprising little study has been undertaken to define rat ecology across varied features of this urban landscape. More importantly, factors that may contribute to increased encounters between rats and humans have rarely been explored. Using city-wide records of rat sightings reported to the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, this investigation sought to identify sociodemographic, housing, and physical landscape characteristics that are associated with increased rat sightings across NYC census tracts. A hierarchical Bayesian conditional autoregressive Poisson model was used to assess these associations while accounting for spatial heterogeneity in the variance. Closer proximity to both subway lines and recreational public spaces was associated with a higher concentration of rat sightings, as was a greater presence of older housing, vacant housing units, and low education among the population. Moreover, these aspects of the physical and social landscape accurately predicted rat sightings across the city. These findings have identified specific features of the NYC urban environment that may help to provide direct control targets for reducing human–rat encounters.

  4. Rat sightings in New York City are associated with neighborhood sociodemographics, housing characteristics, and proximity to open public space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    Rats are ubiquitous in urban environments and, as established reservoirs for infectious pathogens, present a control priority for public health agencies. New York City (NYC) harbors one of the largest rat populations in the United States, but surprising little study has been undertaken to define rat ecology across varied features of this urban landscape. More importantly, factors that may contribute to increased encounters between rats and humans have rarely been explored. Using city-wide records of rat sightings reported to the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, this investigation sought to identify sociodemographic, housing, and physical landscape characteristics that are associated with increased rat sightings across NYC census tracts. A hierarchical Bayesian conditional autoregressive Poisson model was used to assess these associations while accounting for spatial heterogeneity in the variance. Closer proximity to both subway lines and recreational public spaces was associated with a higher concentration of rat sightings, as was a greater presence of older housing, vacant housing units, and low education among the population. Moreover, these aspects of the physical and social landscape accurately predicted rat sightings across the city. These findings have identified specific features of the NYC urban environment that may help to provide direct control targets for reducing human-rat encounters.

  5. Move the Neighbourhood: a novel study design of a participatory public open space intervention in a Danish deprived neighbourhood to promote active living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Winge, Laura; Carroll, Sidse

    BACKGROUND: A limited amount of research has examined the effect of changing public open spaces on active living. This abstract presents the study protocol of an intervention study designed in an interdisciplinary collaboration built on principles of Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR......) to develop urban installations highly tailored to promote active living among children (10-13-years-old) and seniors (>60-years-old) in a deprived neighbourhood in Copenhagen. METHODS: The study builds on a quasi-experimental study design including two sub-studies: 1) a children study and 2) a senior study....... During spring 2017 the interventions will be developed, designed and implemented in collaboration with local children and seniors, respectively, using different co-design tools and methods. We will evaluate the effect of the interventions on children’s and senior’s use of the new-built urban...

  6. Hygrothermal conditions in cold, north facing attic spaces under the eaves with vapour-open roofing underlay in a cool, temperate climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarløv, Søren Peter; Johnston, C.J.; Hansen, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    compliance with the current Danish Building Regulations (BR10) for airtightness (moisture levels in attics with vapour-open roofing underlays. North facing cold attic spaces under the eaves constitute a worst case scenario. Following best...... to allow an influx of 3.3 l/s of conditioned indoor air 20 °C and 60% RH at a pressure difference of 50 Pa) and ventilation (singled-sided, passive ventilation) contained more moisture and had significantly higher levels of mould growth than the non-ventilated attics. Under the same physical conditions...... the ‘pressure equalized’ attic rooms were found to have moisture levels in between those observed in the ventilated and non-ventilated attic rooms. Likewise, the observed levels of mould growth were in between those observed in the cases of the ventilated and non-ventilated attic rooms. Attics with reduced...

  7. Food environment, walkability, and public open spaces are associated with incident development of cardio-metabolic risk factors in a biomedical cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, Catherine; Coffee, Neil T; Haren, Matthew T; Howard, Natasha J; Adams, Robert J; Taylor, Anne W; Daniel, Mark

    2014-07-01

    We investigated whether residential environment characteristics related to food (unhealthful/healthful food sources ratio), walkability and public open spaces (POS; number, median size, greenness and type) were associated with incidence of four cardio-metabolic risk factors (pre-diabetes/diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, abdominal obesity) in a biomedical cohort (n=3205). Results revealed that the risk of developing pre-diabetes/diabetes was lower for participants in areas with larger POS and greater walkability. Incident abdominal obesity was positively associated with the unhealthful food environment index. No associations were found with hypertension or dyslipidaemia. Results provide new evidence for specific, prospective associations between the built environment and cardio-metabolic risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mitigating Undesignated Trail Use: The Efficacy of Messaging and Direct Site Management Actions in an Urban-Proximate Open Space Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, F; Taff, B D; Lawhon, B; VanderWoude, D

    2018-05-08

    The use and creation of undesignated recreational trails can lead to erosion, vegetation damage, unsafe trail conditions, and impacts to local wildlife. The mitigation of undesignated trail use is typically addressed indirectly through minimum-impact visitor education programs such as Leave No Trace, or directly through closures or sanctions. In this study, researchers collaborated with City of Boulder, Colorado Open Space and Mountain Parks (OSMP) staff to develop a quasi-experimental field study that examined the effectiveness of indirect (messaging) and direct (barriers) management approaches to mitigating undesignated trail use. The study applied a Theory of Planned Behavior framework, utilized Leave No Trace messaging, and employed a method to pair survey and direct observation data. A total of 2232 visitor parties were observed, and 147 surveys were collected. The combined direct (barrier) and indirect (messaging) intervention was the most effective at mitigating undesignated trail use. Implications for management and future research are discussed.

  9. Social and Physical Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents’ Physical Activity in Urban Public Open Spaces: A Qualitative Study Using Walk-Along Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Linde; Deforche, Benedicte; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Veitch, Jenny; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Most previous studies examining physical activity in Public Open Spaces (POS) focused solely on the physical environment. However, according to socio-ecological models the social environment is important as well. The aim of this study was to determine which social and physical environmental factors affect adolescents’ visitation and physical activity in POS in low-income neighbourhoods. Since current knowledge on this topic is limited, especially in Europe, qualitative walk-along interviews were used to obtain detailed and context-specific information. Participants (n = 30, aged 12–16 years, 64% boys) were recruited in POS in low-income neighbourhoods in Brussels, Ghent and Antwerp (Belgium). Participants were interviewed while walking in the POS with the interviewer. Using this method, the interviewer could observe and ask questions while the participant was actually experiencing the environment. All audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using Nvivo 10 software and thematic analysis was used to derive categories and subcategories using a grounded theory approach. The most important subcategories that were supportive of visiting POS and performing physical activity in POS were; accessibility by foot/bicycle/public transport, located close to home/school, presence of (active) friends and family, cleanliness of the POS and features, availability of sport and play facilities, large open spaces and beautiful sceneries. The most important subcategories that were unsupportive of visiting POS and physical activity in POS were; presence of undesirable users (drug users, gangs and homeless people), the behaviour of other users and the cleanliness of the POS and features. Social factors appeared often more influential than physical factors, however, it was the combination of social and physical factors that affected adolescents’ behaviour in POS. Easily accessible POS with high quality features in the proximity of adolescents’ home or school may

  10. Social and Physical Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents' Physical Activity in Urban Public Open Spaces: A Qualitative Study Using Walk-Along Interviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linde Van Hecke

    Full Text Available Most previous studies examining physical activity in Public Open Spaces (POS focused solely on the physical environment. However, according to socio-ecological models the social environment is important as well. The aim of this study was to determine which social and physical environmental factors affect adolescents' visitation and physical activity in POS in low-income neighbourhoods. Since current knowledge on this topic is limited, especially in Europe, qualitative walk-along interviews were used to obtain detailed and context-specific information. Participants (n = 30, aged 12-16 years, 64% boys were recruited in POS in low-income neighbourhoods in Brussels, Ghent and Antwerp (Belgium. Participants were interviewed while walking in the POS with the interviewer. Using this method, the interviewer could observe and ask questions while the participant was actually experiencing the environment. All audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using Nvivo 10 software and thematic analysis was used to derive categories and subcategories using a grounded theory approach. The most important subcategories that were supportive of visiting POS and performing physical activity in POS were; accessibility by foot/bicycle/public transport, located close to home/school, presence of (active friends and family, cleanliness of the POS and features, availability of sport and play facilities, large open spaces and beautiful sceneries. The most important subcategories that were unsupportive of visiting POS and physical activity in POS were; presence of undesirable users (drug users, gangs and homeless people, the behaviour of other users and the cleanliness of the POS and features. Social factors appeared often more influential than physical factors, however, it was the combination of social and physical factors that affected adolescents' behaviour in POS. Easily accessible POS with high quality features in the proximity of adolescents' home or school

  11. The policy implications of urban open space commercial vegetable farmers' willingness and ability to pay for reclaimed water for irrigation in Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amponsah, Owusu; Vigre, Håkan; Braimah, Imoro; Schou, Torben Wilde; Abaidoo, Robert Clement

    2016-03-01

    The acute waste management problems, coupled with the proliferation of small scale industries in many developing countries, make low quality water treatment before use inevitable in the long run. These industries have the potential to discharge effluent containing chemicals and heavy metals into the environment. The indiscriminative use of pharmaceutical products by households in many of these countries is another source of health concern. Low quality water treatment in these countries has however been hampered by the high cost of infrastructure provision and maintenance. Cost-sharing among stakeholders appears to be a promising strategy to finance and maintain the wastewater treatment infrastructure. In this study therefore, the willingness and ability of urban open space commercial vegetable farmers to pay for reclaimed water for irrigation purposes has been assessed. One hundred open space commercial vegetable farmers and four vegetable farmers' associations were selected and interviewed in Kumasi in Ghana using semi-structured interview schedules and interview guides respectively. The results of the study show that approximately three out of every five vegetable farmers were willing to pay for reclaimed water for irrigation. The results further show that the probability of being willing to pay by farmers who agreed that the current water they used for irrigation was harmful is approximately 5.3 times greater than that of those who did not. The analysis of the farmers' ability to pay revealed that all the farmers would be capable of paying for reclaimed water at a price of US$0.11/m(3). This has implications for land tenure security and vegetable consumers' willingness to pay higher prices for the produce.

  12. Social and Physical Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents' Physical Activity in Urban Public Open Spaces: A Qualitative Study Using Walk-Along Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Linde; Deforche, Benedicte; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Veitch, Jenny; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Most previous studies examining physical activity in Public Open Spaces (POS) focused solely on the physical environment. However, according to socio-ecological models the social environment is important as well. The aim of this study was to determine which social and physical environmental factors affect adolescents' visitation and physical activity in POS in low-income neighbourhoods. Since current knowledge on this topic is limited, especially in Europe, qualitative walk-along interviews were used to obtain detailed and context-specific information. Participants (n = 30, aged 12-16 years, 64% boys) were recruited in POS in low-income neighbourhoods in Brussels, Ghent and Antwerp (Belgium). Participants were interviewed while walking in the POS with the interviewer. Using this method, the interviewer could observe and ask questions while the participant was actually experiencing the environment. All audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using Nvivo 10 software and thematic analysis was used to derive categories and subcategories using a grounded theory approach. The most important subcategories that were supportive of visiting POS and performing physical activity in POS were; accessibility by foot/bicycle/public transport, located close to home/school, presence of (active) friends and family, cleanliness of the POS and features, availability of sport and play facilities, large open spaces and beautiful sceneries. The most important subcategories that were unsupportive of visiting POS and physical activity in POS were; presence of undesirable users (drug users, gangs and homeless people), the behaviour of other users and the cleanliness of the POS and features. Social factors appeared often more influential than physical factors, however, it was the combination of social and physical factors that affected adolescents' behaviour in POS. Easily accessible POS with high quality features in the proximity of adolescents' home or school may stimulate

  13. Behavioral consequences of radiation exposure to simulated space radiation in the C57BL/6 mouse: open field, rotorod, and acoustic startle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecaut, Michael J.; Haerich, Paul; Zuccarelli, Cara N.; Smith, Anna L.; Zendejas, Eric D.; Nelson, Gregory A.

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to investigate the consequences of exposure to proton radiation, such as might occur for astronauts during space flight. C57BL/6 mice were exposed, either with or without 15-g/cm2 aluminum shielding, to 0-, 3-, or 4-Gy proton irradiation mimicking features of a solar particle event. Irradiation produced transient direct deficits in open-field exploratory behavior and acoustic startle habituation. Rotorod performance at 18 rpm was impaired by exposure to proton radiation and was impaired at 26 rpm, but only for mice irradiated with shielding and at the 4-Gy dose. Long-term (>2 weeks) indirect deficits in open-field activity appeared as a result of impaired experiential encoding immediately following exposure. A 2-week recovery prior to testing decreased most of the direct effects of exposure, with only rotorod performance at 26 rpm being impaired. These results suggest that the performance deficits may have been mediated by radiation damage to hippocampal, cerebellar, and possibly, forebrain dopaminergic function.

  14. The Open

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saitya Brata Das

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Open darkness and light, remembrance and oblivion, coming into existence and disappearing in death play their originary co-belonging, or co-figuration. Existence belongs to this opening and is exposed to its coming to presence: it is on the basis of this originary opening, this originary historical which is revealed to this mortal being called ‘man,’ on the basis of this revelation, man founds something like politics and history. There thus comes into existence out of this freedom, out of this “play space”2, this field called ‘polis’3 where there takes place war and festival, where historical revolutions tear apart history, brings ruptures and discontinuities in the very mode of his existence, where man seeks the foundation of his own foundation (which is his metaphysical task , where occurs the dialectics of negativity between man and man, where man puts at stake his own death, his own dissolution, and by the power of his own dissolution stands in relation to the total world that he seeks to dominate. This means that man’s attempts to metaphysically found his own political and historical existence must presuppose a far more originary non-foundation, the differentiating revealing of the open, the ungrounded spacing play, or playing space of natality and mortality.

  15. Refusal of medical treatment in the pediatric emergency service: analysis of reasons and aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Ramiz Coşkun; Halil, Halit; Gürsoy, Cüneyt; Çifci, Atilla; Özgün, Seher; Kodaman, Tuğba; Sönmez, Mehtap

    2014-01-01

    Refusal of treatment for acutely ill children is still an important problem in the emergency service. When families refuse medical treatment for their acutely ill children, healthcare professionals may attempt to provide information and negotiate with the family concerning treatment refusal and its possible adverse outcomes, and request consent for refusal of medical treatment. There is insufficient data about refusal of treatment in our country. The purpose of this study was to analyze the causes of treatment refusal in the pediatric emergency service. We collected data recorded on informed consent forms. During a 2-year-study period, 215 patients refused treatment recommended by acute health care professionals. The majorty of patients were in the 0-2 year age group. Hospitalization was the type of treatment most commonly refused; restrictions regarding family members staying with their children during hospitalization and admission to another hospital were the major reasons for refusal of treatment. Clarifying the reasons for treatment refusal may help us to overcome deficiencies, improve conditions, resolve problems and build confidence between healthcare providers and service users, increasing users' satisfaction in the future.

  16. NREL Evaluates Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    This highlight describes NREL's evaluation of the in-service performance of 10 next-generation hydraulic hybrid refuse vehicles (HHVs), 8 previous-generation (model year 2013) HHVs, and 8 comparable conventional diesel vehicles operated by Miami-Dade County's Public Works and Waste Management Department in southern Florida. Launched in March 2015, the on-road portion of this 12-month evaluation focuses on collecting and analyzing vehicle performance data - fuel economy, maintenance costs, and drive cycles - from the HHVs and the conventional diesel vehicles. The fuel economy of heavy-duty vehicles, such as refuse trucks, is largely dependent on the load carried and the drive cycles on which they operate. In the right applications, HHVs offer a potential fuel-cost advantage over their conventional counterparts. This advantage is contingent, however, on driving behavior and drive cycles with high kinetic intensity that take advantage of regenerative braking. NREL's evaluation will assess the performance of this technology in commercial operation and help Miami-Dade County determine the ideal routes for maximizing the fuel-saving potential of its HHVs. Based on the field data, NREL will develop a validated vehicle model using the Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator, also known as FASTSim, to study the impacts of route selection and other vehicle parameters. NREL is also analyzing fueling and maintenance data to support total-cost-of-ownership estimations and forecasts. The study aims to improve understanding of the overall usage and effectiveness of HHVs in refuse operation compared to similar conventional vehicles and to provide unbiased technical information to interested stakeholders.

  17. Stop on construction of fast breeder at Kalkar refused

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The application of a plaintiff was refused by the verdict of the High Court for North Rhine-Westphalia of 16.6.1978, which would have restored the delaying effect of his application against the defendant Minister of the Land (his opponent) on the first part licence of the Kalkar nuclear power station. The plaintiff had to bear the costs of the proceedings, including extra legal costs of the co-defendant nuclear power company. The value of the object of the case was set at DM 10,000. This means that construction can continue. The most important reasons for turning down the application are given. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Vaccination refusal: ethics, individual rights, and the common good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jason L; Caplan, Arthur L

    2011-12-01

    Among the obstacles to the success of vaccination programs is the apparent recent increase in hesitancy and outright resistance to the recommended vaccination schedule by some parents and patients. This article reviews the spectrum of patient or parental attitudes that may be described as vaccine refusal, explores related ethical considerations in the context of the doctor-patient relationship and public health, and evaluates the possible responses of physicians when encountering resistance to vaccination recommendations. Health care providers should view individuals hesitant about or opposed to vaccines not as frustrations or threats to public health, but as opportunities to educate and inform. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Psychotropic Medication Refusal: Reasons and Patients′ Perception at a Secure Forensic Psychiatric Treatment Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olajide O Adelugba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor adherence to prescribed medication regimens can undermine the effectiveness of medications. This study was conducted to determine the demographic profile of forensic psychiatric inpatients refusing medications and to identify the reasons for refusal. Data were collected through interviews using a questionnaire including Drug Attitude Inventory-10. Medication refusal was more common among Aboriginals (68%, n = 34 than Caucasians (32%, n = 16 and was highest among the patients 21-30 years of age (44%, n = 22. Antisocial personality disorder and substance use disorder featured prominently among patients refusing medications. The main reasons for medication refusal were inconvenience (34%, n = 17 followed by side effects (22%, n = 11, ineffective medication (20%, n = 10, illness-related (16%, n = 8, and no reasons (8%, n = 6. Antipsychotic medications topped the list of the major classes of medications refused followed by Antidepressants and Mood Stabilizers.

  20. Refusal of Curative Radiation Therapy and Surgery Among Patients With Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizer, Ayal A., E-mail: aaaizer@partners.org [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Chen, Ming-Hui [Department of Statistics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut (United States); Parekh, Arti [Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Choueiri, Toni K. [Lank Center for Genitourinary Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hoffman, Karen E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kim, Simon P. [Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Martin, Neil E. [Lank Center for Genitourinary Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hu, Jim C. [Department of Urology, University of California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Trinh, Quoc-Dien [Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Nguyen, Paul L. [Lank Center for Genitourinary Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Surgery and radiation therapy represent the only curative options for many patients with solid malignancies. However, despite the recommendations of their physicians, some patients refuse these therapies. This study characterized factors associated with refusal of surgical or radiation therapy as well as the impact of refusal of recommended therapy on patients with localized malignancies. Methods and Materials: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program to identify a population-based sample of 925,127 patients who had diagnoses of 1 of 8 common malignancies for which surgery and/or radiation are believed to confer a survival benefit between 1995 and 2008. Refusal of oncologic therapy, as documented in the SEER database, was the primary outcome measure. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with refusal. The impact of refusal of therapy on cancer-specific mortality was assessed with Fine and Gray's competing risks regression. Results: In total, 2441 of 692,938 patients (0.4%) refused surgery, and 2113 of 232,189 patients (0.9%) refused radiation, despite the recommendations of their physicians. On multivariable analysis, advancing age, decreasing annual income, nonwhite race, and unmarried status were associated with refusal of surgery, whereas advancing age, decreasing annual income, Asian American race, and unmarried status were associated with refusal of radiation (P<.001 in all cases). Refusal of surgery and radiation were associated with increased estimates of cancer-specific mortality for all malignancies evaluated (hazard ratio [HR], 2.80, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.59-3.03; P<.001 and HR 1.97 [95% CI, 1.78-2.18]; P<.001, respectively). Conclusions: Nonwhite, less affluent, and unmarried patients are more likely to refuse curative surgical and/or radiation-based oncologic therapy, raising concern that socioeconomic factors may drive some patients to forego potentially life

  1. Refusal of Curative Radiation Therapy and Surgery Among Patients With Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizer, Ayal A.; Chen, Ming-Hui; Parekh, Arti; Choueiri, Toni K.; Hoffman, Karen E.; Kim, Simon P.; Martin, Neil E.; Hu, Jim C.; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Nguyen, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Surgery and radiation therapy represent the only curative options for many patients with solid malignancies. However, despite the recommendations of their physicians, some patients refuse these therapies. This study characterized factors associated with refusal of surgical or radiation therapy as well as the impact of refusal of recommended therapy on patients with localized malignancies. Methods and Materials: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program to identify a population-based sample of 925,127 patients who had diagnoses of 1 of 8 common malignancies for which surgery and/or radiation are believed to confer a survival benefit between 1995 and 2008. Refusal of oncologic therapy, as documented in the SEER database, was the primary outcome measure. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with refusal. The impact of refusal of therapy on cancer-specific mortality was assessed with Fine and Gray's competing risks regression. Results: In total, 2441 of 692,938 patients (0.4%) refused surgery, and 2113 of 232,189 patients (0.9%) refused radiation, despite the recommendations of their physicians. On multivariable analysis, advancing age, decreasing annual income, nonwhite race, and unmarried status were associated with refusal of surgery, whereas advancing age, decreasing annual income, Asian American race, and unmarried status were associated with refusal of radiation (P<.001 in all cases). Refusal of surgery and radiation were associated with increased estimates of cancer-specific mortality for all malignancies evaluated (hazard ratio [HR], 2.80, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.59-3.03; P<.001 and HR 1.97 [95% CI, 1.78-2.18]; P<.001, respectively). Conclusions: Nonwhite, less affluent, and unmarried patients are more likely to refuse curative surgical and/or radiation-based oncologic therapy, raising concern that socioeconomic factors may drive some patients to forego potentially life

  2. Predictors of intensive care unit refusal in French intensive care units: a multiple-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrouste-Orgeas, Maité; Montuclard, Luc; Timsit, Jean-François; Reignier, Jean; Desmettre, Thibault; Karoubi, Philippe; Moreau, Delphine; Montesino, Laurent; Duguet, Alexandre; Boussat, Sandrine; Ede, Christophe; Monseau, Yannick; Paule, Thierry; Misset, Benoit; Carlet, Jean

    2005-04-01

    To identify factors associated with granting or refusing intensive care unit (ICU) admission, to analyze ICU characteristics and triage decisions, and to describe mortality in admitted and refused patients. Observational, prospective, multiple-center study. Four university hospitals and seven primary-care hospitals in France. None. Age, underlying diseases (McCabe score and Knaus class), dependency, hospital mortality, and ICU characteristics were recorded. The crude ICU refusal rate was 23.8% (137/574), with variations from 7.1% to 63.1%. The reasons for refusal were too well to benefit (76/137, 55.4%), too sick to benefit (51/137, 37.2%), unit too busy (9/137, 6.5%), and refusal by the family (1/137). In logistic regression analyses, two patient-related factors were associated with ICU refusal: dependency (odds ratio [OR], 14.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.27-38.25; p refused patients, and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.28-1.75) for later-admitted patients. ICU refusal rates varied greatly across ICUs and were dependent on both patient and organizational factors. Efforts to define ethically optimal ICU admission policies might lead to greater homogeneity in refusal rates, although case-mix variations would be expected to leave an irreducible amount of variation across ICUs.

  3. Toilet refusal syndrome in preschool children: do different subtypes exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemczyk, Justine; Equit, Monika; El Khatib, Diana; von Gontard, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Toilet refusal syndrome (TRS) is a common, benign disorder in toddlers defined by the use of diapers and refusal of toilet for defaecation, but has not been described systematically in preschool children yet. The aim of the study was to analyse and identify possible subgroups of TRS. Retrospective analysis of all of the consecutive children with TRS presented as outpatients in a clinic for elimination disorders. Patients had received a detailed paediatric and child psychiatric assessment, including the Child Behavior Checklist questionnaire. Three typical case vignettes are presented of TRS with constipation, oppositional defiant disorder, and sibling rivalry. Twenty-five children (10 boys) with a mean age of 5.2 (3.4-7.3) years were included-representing 2.5% of all of the children (n = 1001) presented. They had high rates of constipation (60%) and elimination disorders (24%-44%). Child psychiatric International Classification of Diseases-10th Edition disorders were common (40%) and heterogeneous, with significantly more boys affected, but no differences between children with and without constipation. This study shows that TRS occurs also in older preschool (and even school) children. At this later age, it is associated with constipation and behavioural disorders. The case vignettes show differences in therapy and may represent different subgroups of TRS. TRS is associated with constipation, elimination disorders, and psychiatric disorders. Owing to this variety of comorbid disorders, different therapeutic approaches are needed. A general screening for behavioural symptoms is recommended.

  4. Energy from refuse by bioconversion, fermentation and residue disposal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeffer, J T; Liebman, J C

    1976-01-01

    Bioconversion of organic refuse to CH/sub 4/ by anaerobic fermentation is 1 mechanism by which the energy in urban waste can be reclaimed. Laboratory studies were made to determine the rate and amount of gas production at various operating temperatures. The dewatering characteristics of the spent fermentation slurry were evaluated. The spent solids can be dewatered to a sufficiently low moisture content such that incineration is self-sustaining. The incineration system was evaluated to determine the possible energy recovery from the spent cake. A process for treating the liquid blowdown from the system was developed. A mathematical simulation of the total system was constructed to evaluate performance under various operating conditions. A plant processing 908 tons of refuse/day will produce 3905 m/sup 3/ CH/sub 4//hr. Recovery of just CH/sub 4/ provides a 32.6% efficiency of energy recovery. This efficiency can be increased to 63.4% if steam from the incinerator can be sold.

  5. Abandoned coal mine refuse areas: their reclamation and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S. D.; Carter, R. P.

    1977-01-01

    There are over 4,000 abandoned deep coal mine refuse areas in Illinois ranging in size from a few acres to as large as 160 acres. These sites produce quantities of pollutants which affect the environment, have no real land value, and are a scar on the landscape. The Staunton 1 Site Reclamation Demonstration Project addressess these problems. It also is developing and evaluating new cost-effective methods for reclaiming refuse areas of this type. The program involved determining the final land use for the site, development of detailed engineering plans and specifications for the reclamation effort, a prereclamation environmental inventory, and implementation. Post-construction evaluation is now in process to determine the effectiveness of the reclamation effort. Detailed investigations are being conducted to determine surface water quality improvement, the amount of suitable surface cover and amendments required for revegetation, and field evaluation of candidate vegetation species for revegetation. Other research is examining soil microbial populations, soil fauna reactions, and changes in surface material characteristics at the reclamation site. Surveys are being conducted on groundwater quality, effects on the aquatic ecosystem, and wildlife use of the area. An economic evaluation is underway to determine the cost effectiveness of the total effort and of individual reclamation procedures. Preliminary results from the first year's environmental evaluation of various method tested will be described in detail. An economic assessment, including cost effectiveness, of the first year's work is given.

  6. Refusal of implant supported mandibular overdentures by elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Janice S; Levine, Alissa; Bedos, Christophe; Mojon, Phillippe; Rosberger, Zeer; Feine, Jocelyne; Thomason, J Mark

    2011-03-01

      The aim of this study was to gain greater in-depth understanding of why elderly patients who are currently dissatisfied with conventional dentures decline implant treatment.   There is strong evidence from high-quality randomised controlled trials to support the use of implant-supported overdentures for the restoration of the edentulous mandible. However, whilst recruiting for randomised clinical trials, researchers have found that a high proportion of potential subjects decline participation, despite the removal of financial constraints.   The study adopted a qualitative approach to provide a rich and deep understanding of people's reasons for refusal. Data were collected through focus group interviews in a two-centre study based in Montreal, Canada and Newcastle, UK. A semi-structured interview schedule was used and iteratively developed as analysis identified themes from previous focus groups. Transcripts of focus groups were coded and emergent themes determined.   Two main themes emerged; patients' fear and anxiety (relating to the pain of surgery, complications of the procedure and immediate post-surgical denture use), and the appropriateness of the procedure in an elderly person.   Fears of pain, complications and social embarrassment, exacerbated by age, are important factors that help explain refusal of implants by elderly patients. © 2010 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Rationality, religion and refusal of treatment in an ambulance revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon-Parkes, Kate

    2013-09-01

    In their recent article, Erbay et al considered whether a seriously injured patient should be able to refuse treatment if the refusal was based on a (mis)interpretation of religious doctrine. They argued that in such a case 'what is important…is whether the teaching or philosophy used as a reference point has been in fact correctly perceived' (p 653). If it has not been, they asserted that this eroded the patient's capacity to make an autonomous decision and that therefore, in such cases, it is the role of the healthcare professional (HCP) to 'assist patients to think more clearly and rationally' (p 653). There are, however, a number of problems with the reasons why Erbay et al suggest we should help patients to rationalise their decisions and how HCPs should go about this. In this article, the author explores some of their main arguments regarding consent and rationality (particularly in relation to religious beliefs), as well as Erbay et al's normative claim that HCPs have an obligation to promote autonomy by helping patients to come to a 'rational' decision. Ultimately, the author agrees that the (temporary) solution to the dilemma presented in this scenario (which was to insert an intravenous cannula into the patient in order to allow an infusion of fluids in the event that he changed his mind) seemed both pragmatic and ethically permissible. However, it is suggested that the arguments which underpin this conclusion in Erbay et al's article are largely unsound.

  8. Combustion products of plastics as indicators for refuse burning in the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneit, Bernd R T; Medeiros, Patricia M; Didyk, Borys M

    2005-09-15

    Despite all of the economic problems and environmental discussions on the dangers and hazards of plastic materials, plastic production worldwide is growing at a rate of about 5% per year. Increasing techniques for recycling polymeric materials have been developed during the last few years; however, a large fraction of plastics are still being discarded in landfills or subjected to intentional or incidental open-fire burning. To identify specific tracer compounds generated during such open-fire combustion, both smoke particles from burning and plastic materials from shopping bags, roadside trash, and landfill garbage were extracted for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Samples were collected in Concón, Chile, an area frequently affected by wildfire incidents and garbage burning, and the United States for comparison. Atmospheric samples from various aerosol sampling programs are also presented as supportive data. The major components of plastic extracts were even-carbon-chain n-alkanes (C16-C40), the plasticizer di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, and the antioxidants and lubricants/antiadhesives Irganox 1076, Irgafos 168, and its oxidation product tris(2,4-di-tertbutylphenyl) phosphate. Major compounds in smoke from burning plastics include the non-source-specific n-alkanes (mainly even predominance), terephthalic acid, phthalates, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, with minor amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (including triphenylbenzenes) and tris(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl)phosphate. 1,3,5-Triphenylbenzene and tris(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl)- phosphate were found in detectable amounts in atmospheric samples where plastics and refuse were burned in open fires, and thus we propose these two compounds as specific tracers for the open-burning of plastics.

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF OPEN SPACE UTILIZATION ON RESIDENTS’ ATTACHMENT WITH COMMUNITY: A CASE STUDY OF RURAL MARKET SQUARE IN SOUTH-WEST NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agboola Oluwagbemiga Paul

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Open space such as market square is a communal ground where people carry out their various functional activities. This research work is undertaken in order to fill the knowledge gap in areas of people and place relationship, where improvements are needed to overcome challenges in the provision of facilities, design, and planning. In view of its significance, it becomes imperative to explore the relationship between the utilization of market square and residents’ attachment to the community. Therefore, 382 respondents’ views on market dependence, identity, activities preferences, and attachment to the community were collected through self-administered questionnaires. The findings from Structural Equation Modelling (SEM using AMOS tool version 22 for the tested hypothesized model reveal that residents’ dependence and identity with market square had positive significant impacts on residents’ attachment to the community with standardised path coefficient values of 0.32 and 0.48 respectively. It is therefore suggested that appropriate machinery should be put in place towards improving the quality of the market square to further enhance users’ interaction cum the sustainability of the community in Nigeria.

  10. Hydraulic Properties of Closely Spaced Dipping Open Fractures Intersecting a Fluid-Filled Borehole Derived From Tube Wave Generation and Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minato, Shohei; Ghose, Ranajit; Tsuji, Takeshi; Ikeda, Michiharu; Onishi, Kozo

    2017-10-01

    Fluid-filled fractures and fissures often determine the pathways and volume of fluid movement. They are critically important in crustal seismology and in the exploration of geothermal and hydrocarbon reservoirs. We introduce a model for tube wave scattering and generation at dipping, parallel-wall fractures intersecting a fluid-filled borehole. A new equation reveals the interaction of tube wavefield with multiple, closely spaced fractures, showing that the fracture dip significantly affects the tube waves. Numerical modeling demonstrates the possibility of imaging these fractures using a focusing analysis. The focused traces correspond well with the known fracture density, aperture, and dip angles. Testing the method on a VSP data set obtained at a fault-damaged zone in the Median Tectonic Line, Japan, presents evidences of tube waves being generated and scattered at open fractures and thin cataclasite layers. This finding leads to a new possibility for imaging, characterizing, and monitoring in situ hydraulic properties of dipping fractures using the tube wavefield.

  11. Opening the Semantic Space in the Service of Collective Intelligence - DOI: 10.3395/reciis.v1i1.43en

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Lévy

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available As the human recorded memory is progressively digitized and posted on line, the need for a common semantic coordinate system independant from natural languages and ontologies is growing. A future universal semantic addressing system, able to index all digital documents, should meet three basic requirements. First, each distinct concept should have a unique address. Second, the semantic coordinate system should be open to any concept and relations between concepts (ontologies, whatever the cultural environments where these concepts are created and transformed, without neither privileges nor exclusions. Third, it should support a group of mathematically defined (automatable operations on semantic addresses, namely : rotations, symmetries and translations in the « semantic space » ; semantic compression and decompression ; set-theory operations like union, intersection and symmetric differences ; ranking on semantic criteria ; semantic pattern recognition ; semantic distances measurement ; logical inferences, etc. Developped by an international research network led by the Canada Research Chair in Collective Intelligence at the University of Ottawa, the Information Economy MetaLanguage (IEML, allows the construction of a semantic coordinate system meeting these three constraints. Website, including the IEML dictionary, since may 2006 : www.ieml.org. In Brasil, BIREME (www.bireme.br is member of the IEML initiative.

  12. Central Nervous System Disease, Education, and Race Impact Radiation Refusal in Pediatric Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chirayu G; Stavas, Mark; Perkins, Stephanie; Shinohara, Eric T

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the determinants of radiation therapy refusal in pediatric cancer, we used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry to identify 24,421 patients who met the eligibility criteria, diagnosed between 1974 and 2012. Patients had any stage of cancer, were aged 0 to 19, and received radiation therapy or refused radiation therapy when it was recommended. One hundred twenty-eight patients (0.52%) refused radiation therapy when it was recommended. Thirty-two percent of patients who refused radiation therapy ultimately died from their cancer, at a median of 7 months after diagnosis (95% confidence interval, 3-11 mo), as compared with 29.0% of patients who did not refuse radiation therapy died from their cancer, at a median of 17 months after diagnosis (95% confidence interval, 17-18 mo). On multivariable analysis, central nervous system (CNS) site, education, and race were associated with radiation refusal. The odds ratio for radiation refusal for patients with CNS disease was 1.62 (P=0.009) as compared with patients without CNS disease. For patients living in a county with ≥10% residents having less than ninth grade education, the odds ratio for radiation refusal was 1.71 (P=0.008) as compared with patients living in a county with education. Asian, Pacific Islander, Alaska Native, and American Indian races had an odds ratio of 2.12 (P=0.002) for radiation refusal as compared with black or white race. Although the radiation refusal rate in the pediatric cancer population is low, we show that CNS site, education level, and race are associated with a significant difference in radiation refusal.

  13. Perceived Quality of Informed Refusal Process: A Cross-Sectional Study from Iranian Patients' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzandipour, Mehrdad; Sheikhtaheri, Abbas; Sadeqi Jabali, Monireh

    2015-12-01

    Patients have the right to refuse their treatment; however, this refusal should be informed. We evaluated the quality of the informed refusal process in Iranian hospitals from patients' viewpoints. To this end, we developed a questionnaire that covered four key aspects of the informed refusal process including; information disclosure, voluntariness, comprehension, and provider-patient relationship. A total of 284 patients who refused their treatment from 12 teaching hospitals in the Isfahan Province, Iran, were recruited and surveyed to produce a convenience sample. Patients' perceptions about the informed refusal process were scored and the mean scores of the four components were calculated. The findings showed that the practice of information disclosure (9.6 ± 6.4 out of 22 points) was perceived to be moderate, however, comprehension (2.3 ± 1.4 out of 4 points), voluntariness (8.7 ± 1.5 out of 12 points) and provider-patient relationship (10.2 ± 5.2 out of 16 points) were perceived to be relatively good. We found that patients, who refused their care before any treatment had commenced, reported a lower quality of information disclosure and voluntariness. Patients informed by nurses and those who had not had a previous related admission, reported lower scores for comprehension and relationship. In conclusion, the process of obtaining informed refusal was relatively satisfactory except for levels of information disclosure. To improve current practices, Iranian patients need to be better informed about; different treatment options, consequences of treatment refusal, costs of not continuing treatment and follow-ups after refusal. Developing more informative refusal forms is needed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Audiovisual heritage preservation in Earth and Space Science Informatics: Videos from Free and Open Source Software for Geospatial (FOSS4G) conferences in the TIB|AV-Portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Peter; Marín Arraiza, Paloma; Plank, Margret

    2016-04-01

    The influence of Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) projects on Earth and Space Science Informatics (ESSI) continues to grow, particularly in the emerging context of Data Science or Open Science. The scientific significance and heritage of FOSS projects is only to a limited amount covered by traditional scientific journal articles: Audiovisual conference recordings contain significant information for analysis, reference and citation. In the context of data driven research, this audiovisual content needs to be accessible by effective search capabilities, enabling the content to be searched in depth and retrieved. Thereby, it is ensured that the content producers receive credit for their efforts within the respective communities. For Geoinformatics and ESSI, one distinguished driver is the OSGeo Foundation (OSGeo), founded in 2006 to support and promote the interdisciplinary collaborative development of open geospatial technologies and data. The organisational structure is based on software projects that have successfully passed the OSGeo incubation process, proving their compliance with FOSS licence models. This quality assurance is crucial for the transparent and unhindered application in (Open) Science. The main communication channels within and between the OSGeo-hosted community projects for face to face meetings are conferences on national, regional and global scale. Video recordings have been complementing the scientific proceedings since 2006. During the last decade, the growing body of OSGeo videos has been negatively affected by content loss, obsolescence of video technology and dependence on commercial video portals. Even worse, the distributed storage and lack of metadata do not guarantee concise and efficient access of the content. This limits the retrospective analysis of video content from past conferences. But, it also indicates a need for reliable, standardized, comparable audiovisual repositories for the future, as the number of OSGeo projects

  15. Adsorption of phenolic compound by aged-refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai Xiaoli [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Enviromental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Siping Road 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China)]. E-mail: xlchai@mail.tongji.edu.cn; Zhao Youcai [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Enviromental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Siping Road 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2006-09-01

    The adsorption of phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol by aged-refuse has been studied. Adsorption isotherms have been determined for phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol and the data fits well to the Freundlich equation. The chlorinated phenols are absorbed more strongly than the phenol and the adsorption capacity has an oblivious relationship with the numbers and the position of chlorine subsistent. The experiment data suggests that both the partition function and the chemical adsorption involve in the adsorption process. Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model were applied to investigate the kinetics of the adsorption and the results show that it fit the pseudo-second-order model. More than one step involves in the adsorption process and the overall rate of the adsorption process appears to be controlled by the chemical reaction. The thermodynamic analysis indicates that the adsorption is spontaneous and endothermic.

  16. A case of pervasive refusal syndrome: a diagnostic conundrum.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNicholas, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    A case is presented of an 11-year-old girl with pervasive refusal syndrome (PRS) who ultimately recovered acutely and completely after an 18-month paediatric hospitalisation. There was an apparent absence of previously proposed important aetiological factors in PRS, such as family pathology and markedly traumatic or abusive experiences, and her recovery was sudden and complete. The authors consider the differential diagnoses of PRS paying particular attention to the possibility of a conversion disorder or catatonia, given the absence of PRS in the North American literature. Consideration of catatonia is important as it has a diagnostic test and responds rapidly to appropriate treatment, in contrast to conventional treatment for PRS and conversion disorder.

  17. Renouncement of renal replacement therapy: withdrawal and refusal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Andrade Moura Neto

    Full Text Available Abstract Renouncement of renal replacement therapy (RRT is a medical dilemma. This review covers the concept, the magnitude, the prognosis, and discusses strategies and management approaches about this subject in patients with CKD and AKI. Evidence suggests that refusal is more frequent and carries a more guarded prognosis than withdrawal of RRT. When RRT is not expected to be beneficial in terms of survival or quality of life, conservative treatment and palliative care are alternatives. We review the historical evolution of guidelines about renouncement of RRT and palliative care, and highlight the absence of specific recommendations in Brazil. However renouncement of RRT may be ethically and legally accepted in Brazil, as the right to a dignified death. Longer life expectancy, economic pressures, and greater awareness will require a more detailed discussion about indications and sustainable use of RRT, and possibly the elaboration of national guidelines.

  18. System for manufacturing ash products and energy from refuse waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutin, G.L.; Mahoney, P.F.

    1996-01-04

    The present invention provides a system of manufacturing energy and ash products from solid waste. The system includes apparatus for receiving solid waste for processing, apparatus for shredding the received solid waste, apparatus for removing ferrous material from the shredded solid waste to create processed refuse fuel (PRF) and apparatus for efficiently combusting the PRF. A conveyor transfers the PRF to the combusting apparatus such that the density of the PRF is always controlled for continuous non-problematic flow. Apparatus for recovering residual combustion particulate from the combustion residual gases and for recovering solid ash residue provides the system with the ability to generate steam and electrical energy, and to recover for reuse and recycling valuable materials from the solid ash residue. (author) figs.

  19. Social and legal dimensions discussion of conscientious refusal in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeniz ANBARLI BOZATAY

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Even though the discussion of conscientious objection, the refusal of military service due to individual’s moral values or religious beliefs, is new in Turkey, the subject has become the focus of intense interest. The discussion of conscientious objection in Turkey has come the to the fore with the heated debates between the glorification of the dynamics of Turkish social structure towards military service and the critique of militarism and conscientious objection’s legal dimensions, as well. Since the reduction of discussions in this context in Turkey to the legal dimension is the ignorance of social reality constituting basis to the legal dimension, the subject is examined with reference to the social and historical outlook on this issue and the study is built on dimensions.

  20. Treatment guidelines for primary nonretentive encopresis and stool toileting refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, B R; Marcus, B A; Pitner, S L

    1999-04-15

    Nonretentive encopresis refers to inappropriate soiling without evidence of fecal constipation and retention. This form of encopresis accounts for up to 20 percent of all cases. Characteristics include soiling accompanied by daily bowel movements that are normal in size and consistency. An organic cause for nonretentive encopresis is rarely identified. The medical assessment is usually normal, and signs of constipation are noticeably absent. A full developmental and behavioral assessment should be made to establish that the child is ready for intervention to correct encopresis and to identify any barriers to success, particularly disruptive behavior problems. Successful interventions depend on the presence of soft, comfortable bowel movements and addressing toilet refusal behavior. Daily scheduled positive toilet sits are recommended. Incentives may be used to reinforce successful defecation during these sits. A plan for management of stool withholding should be agreed on by the parents/caretakers and the family physician before intervention.

  1. Adsorption of phenolic compound by aged-refuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Xiaoli; Zhao Youcai

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption of phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol by aged-refuse has been studied. Adsorption isotherms have been determined for phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol and the data fits well to the Freundlich equation. The chlorinated phenols are absorbed more strongly than the phenol and the adsorption capacity has an oblivious relationship with the numbers and the position of chlorine subsistent. The experiment data suggests that both the partition function and the chemical adsorption involve in the adsorption process. Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model were applied to investigate the kinetics of the adsorption and the results show that it fit the pseudo-second-order model. More than one step involves in the adsorption process and the overall rate of the adsorption process appears to be controlled by the chemical reaction. The thermodynamic analysis indicates that the adsorption is spontaneous and endothermic

  2. Rotary furnace for pyrolysis of refuse. Rotationstrommelofen zur Pyrolyse von Muell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siepmann, H A

    1983-11-17

    The invention concerns a rotary furnace for the pyrolysis of refuse, in which the material to be treated passes through a rotating drum heated from outside. The drum rotating around a vertical axis, cone-shaped downwards, is situated at right angles to a combustion chamber surrounding the drum, through the upper and lower walls of which it passes, where the sealing at these walls is done by labyrinth seals carrying a liquid concentric to the axis of rotation. Inside the rotating drum a helical insert matched to the conical shape of the drum is situated spaced from its wall, which narrows in the upper section and to the hollow space of which pieces of pipe provided with slots are connected at the top and bottom, by which the insert is held inside the drum. A cylindrical degasification shaft may be connected to the upper end of the rotating drum which is connected to the degasification chamber and is also sealed by a labyrinth seal carrying a liquid, which a lower furnace chamber is connected to the lower end of the drum, in which a transport device for drawing off the material leaving the rotating drum is situated.

  3. Treatment for School Refusal among Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Heyne, David; Brendel, Kristen Esposito; Bulanda, Jeffery J.; Thompson, Aaron M.; Pigott, Terri D.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: School refusal is a psychosocial problem associated with adverse short- and long-term consequences for children and adolescents. The authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effects of psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents with school refusal. Method: A comprehensive search process was used…

  4. 49 CFR 655.49 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. 655... TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.49 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. (a) Each...

  5. 24 CFR 3282.354 - Submittal of false information or refusal to submit information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Submittal of false information or... ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Primary Inspection Agencies § 3282.354 Submittal of false information or refusal to submit information. The submittal of false information or the refusal to submit information required...

  6. Making Sense of Iconic Symbols: A Study of Preschool Children Conducting a Refuse-Sorting Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljung-Djärf, Agneta; Åberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth; Ottosson, Torgny; Beach, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    This article is part of a larger project focusing upon explanatory illustrations that children encounter in pre- and primary school education. The research questions concerned (a) how preschool children make sense of iconic symbols when placing items of refuse on illustrations of refuse bins in a sorting task and (b) what stumbling blocks they…

  7. Bacteria and Acidic Drainage from Coal Refuse: Inhibition by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Sodium Benzoate

    OpenAIRE

    Dugan, Patrick R.; Apel, William A.

    1983-01-01

    The application of an aqueous solution of sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium benzoate to the surface of high-sulfur coal refuse resulted in the inhibition of iron-and sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophic bacteria and in the decrease of acidic drainage from the refuse, suggesting that acid drainage can be abated in the field by inhibiting iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.

  8. Thinking through Moments of Sexual Refusal in "Looking for Alibrandi" and "The Rage in Placid Lake"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Kyra

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores two scenarios in which young women refuse the sexual advances of young men in the films "Looking for Alibrandi" and "The Rage in Placid Lake." The paper highlights the heteronormative nature of education around refusing sex, which reinstates gendered stereotypes of masculine as active and feminine as…

  9. Learned Helplessness and Learning Goals: Role played in School Refusal. A Study on Italian Students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Sorrenti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Literature on school refusal has shown a link between school refusal and poor school performance. However, there has been little investigation into the individual underlying factors, and specifically factors directly related to the learning process, such as the learning goals of students and their expectations of success and/or failure. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the influence of Learned Helplessness (LH and learning goals on school refusal. We hypothesized that LH and learning goals exert a unique role in predicting school refusal above and beyond the roles of academic achievement, age, and gender. The sample consisted of 201 Italian students with an average age of 11.93, with both low (57.2 % of students and high (42.8 % academic achievement. School refusal, LH, and learning goals were measured by means of questionnaires. The results confirm the hypothesis of this study; in fact, we found that learning goals and, above all, LH play a more predictive role of school refusal than academic achievement. These results extend previous studies on school refusal and, for the first time, they provide additional knowledge about this problem, analyzing the relationship between school refusal, learning goals, and LH, still neglected in the literature. Implications on the psychological well-being of students are discussed.

  10. The Impact of Refuse Dump sites on the Physico-chemical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Impact of Refuse Dump sites on the Physico-chemical and Microbial Properties of ground Water in some selected areas. ... Journal of Agricultural Research and Development. Journal Home ... The pollution effect of refuse dumps on the quality of wells at Ojota, Lagos, Apete, Ibadan and Odopetu, Akure were studied.

  11. Can children aged 12 years or more refuse life-saving treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The best interests of the child are paramount, and should the child unreasonably refuse to consent to life-saving treatment, the Minister of Social Development may give consent for such treatment in terms of the Children's Act. Otherwise, should a parent, guardian, caregiver or healthcare provider believe that such a refusal ...

  12. Behavioural treatment of severe food refusal in five toddlers with developmental disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, J.M.H. de; Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Young children with developmental disabilities are at risk of food refusal. In case of severe food refusal, children are being fed by nasal or gastrostomy tube. Behavioural treatment may be effective in establishing oral food intake. METHODS: A behavioural treatment package was

  13. Behavioral treatment of severe food refusal in five toddlers with developmental disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, J.M.H. de; Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background Young children with developmental disabilities are at risk of food refusal. In case of severe food refusal, children are being fed by nasal or gastrostomy tube. Behavioural treatment may be effective in establishing oral food intake. Methods A behavioural treatment package was

  14. Behavioural treatment of severe food refusal in five toddlers with developmental disabilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, J.M.H. de; Didden, R.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Young children with developmental disabilities are at risk of food refusal. In case of severe food refusal, children are being fed by nasal or gastrostomy tube. Behavioural treatment may be effective in establishing oral food intake. METHODS: A behavioural treatment package was

  15. What happens after a request for euthanasia is refused? Qualitative interviews with patients, relatives and physicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, H.R.W.; Willems, D.L.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Obtaining in-depth information from both patient and physician perspectives about what happens after a request for euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide (EAS) is refused. Methods: In-depth interviews with nine patients whose EAS request was refused and seven physicians of these

  16. Comparing the quality of life in insulin recipient and refusal patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Khalili

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Results showed that insulin refusal patients had a better QOL. It seems that QOL is associated with the acceptance or refusal of insulin therapy. Therefore, enhancement of QOL could be related to all aspects of the disease, especially its treatment method and solving the therapeutic problems.

  17. Using Descriptive Assessment in the Treatment of Bite Acceptance and Food Refusal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Sean D.; Perrin, Christopher J.; Lesser, Aaron D.; Perrin, Stefanie H.; Casey, Cheryl L.; Reed, Gregory K.

    2009-01-01

    The feeding behaviors of two children who maintained failure to thrive diagnoses and displayed food refusal are assessed in their homes. Descriptive assessments are used to identify schedules of consequence provided by each child's care providers for bite acceptance and food refusal behaviors. Assessments reveal rich schedules of praise and access…

  18. A plea for uniform European definitions for organ donor potential and family refusal rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Nichon E; Haase-Kromwijk, Bernadette J J M; van Leiden, Hendrik A; Weimar, Willem; Hoitsma, Andries J

    2009-11-01

    Conversion of potential organ donors to actual donors is negatively influenced by family refusals. Refusal rates differ strongly among countries. Is it possible to compare refusal rates in order to be able to learn from countries with the best practices? We searched in the literature for reviews of donor potential and refusal rates for organ donation in intensive care units. We found 14 articles pertinent to this study. There is an enormous diversity among the performed studies. The definitions of potential organ donors and family refusal differed substantially. We tried to re-calculate the refusal rates. This method failed because of the influence caused by the registered will on donation in the Donor Register. We therefore calculated the total refusal rate. This strategy was also less satisfactory considering possible influence of the legal consent system on the approach of family. Because of lack of uniform definitions, we can conclude that the refusal rates for organ donation can not be used for a sound comparison among countries. To be able to learn from well-performing countries, it is necessary to establish uniform definitions regarding organ donation and registration of all intensive care deaths.

  19. Obstetric Patients Who Select and Those Who Refuse Medical Students' Participation in Their Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrane, Diane; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A survey of 222 obstetrics patients assisted by medical clerkship students from the University of Vermont and 78 who refused student participation found privacy the primary motivation for refusal and a desire to contribute to students' education a primary reason for accepting student participation. Patients frequently erroneously anticipated the…

  20. 21 CFR 515.21 - Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative Actions on Licenses § 515.21 Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application. (a) The...

  1. Strategie di rifuto in Italiano: uno studio etnografico (Refusal Strategies in Italian: An Ethnographic Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frescura, Marina

    1997-01-01

    After reviewing previous research on speech acts, this article describes a study that analyzed the behavior of speakers of standard Italian in refusing an offer of food. The importance of "face" is explained, and the refusal strategies are classified into four categories: explicit, tactical, decisive, and conclusive. (CFM)

  2. 13 CFR 115.18 - Refusal to issue further guarantees; suspension and termination of PSB status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal to issue further guarantees; suspension and termination of PSB status. 115.18 Section 115.18 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SURETY BOND GUARANTEE Provisions for All Surety Bond Guarantees § 115.18 Refusal to issue further guarantees; suspension...

  3. 75 FR 4565 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Right of First Refusal of Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    .... Please cite OMB Control No. 9000-0114, Right of First Refusal of Employment, in all correspondence. Dated... ADMINISTRATION [OMB Control No. 9000-0114] Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Right of... previously approved information collection requirement concerning right of first refusal of employment. A...

  4. 29 CFR 1977.22 - Employee refusal to comply with safety rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Some Specific Subjects § 1977.22 Employee refusal to comply with safety rules. Employees who refuse to comply with occupational safety and health... Section 1977.22 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  5. 30 CFR 253.50 - How can MMS refuse or invalidate my OSFR evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How can MMS refuse or invalidate my OSFR... can MMS refuse or invalidate my OSFR evidence? (a) If MMS determines that any OSFR evidence you submit... acceptable evidence without being subject to civil penalty under § 253.51. (b) MMS may immediately and...

  6. Denitrification capacity of bioreactors filled with refuse at different landfill ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yingxu; Wu Songwei; Wu Weixiang; Sun Hua; Ding Ying

    2009-01-01

    The denitrification capacity of refuse at different landfill ages in bioreactor landfill system was studied. Three reactors filled with 1-year-old refuse (R1), 6-year-old refuse (R6) and 11-year-old refuse (R11), respectively, were operated in the experiment. Nitrate solution (1000 mg NO 3 - -N L -1 ) was added into each reactor. The results showed that the reactors were all able to consume nitrate. However, 1-year-old refuse in R1 had both a higher nitrate reduction rate and concentration of N 2 . In addition, vertical differences in nitrate removal along the depth of R1 were observed. The bottom-layer refuse and the middle-layer refuse both showed higher efficiency in nitrate depletion than the top layer. Furthermore, N 2 O accumulation was found in R11 with the concentration up to 19.3% of the released gas. These results suggested that 1-year-old refuse, which was partly degraded, was more suitable to use as denitrification medium.

  7. Patient Experience Of Provider Refusal Of Medicaid Coverage And Its Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Neeraj; Shi, Yunfeng; Jung, Kyoungrae

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies show that many physicians do not accept new patients with Medicaid coverage, but no study has examined Medicaid enrollees' actual experience of provider refusal of their coverage and its implications. Using the 2012 National Health Interview Survey, we estimate provider refusal of health insurance coverage reported by 23,992 adults with continuous coverage for the past 12 months. We find that among Medicaid enrollees, 6.73% reported their coverage being refused by a provider in 2012, a rate higher than that in Medicare and private insurance by 4.07 (p<.01) and 3.68 (p<.001) percentage points, respectively. Refusal of Medicaid coverage is associated with delaying needed care, using emergency room (ER) as a usual source of care, and perceiving current coverage as worse than last year. In view of the Affordable Care Act's (ACA) Medicaid expansion, future studies should continue monitoring enrollees' experience of coverage refusal.

  8. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  9. Refusal of curative radiation therapy and surgery among patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizer, Ayal A; Chen, Ming-Hui; Parekh, Arti; Choueiri, Toni K; Hoffman, Karen E; Kim, Simon P; Martin, Neil E; Hu, Jim C; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Nguyen, Paul L

    2014-07-15

    Surgery and radiation therapy represent the only curative options for many patients with solid malignancies. However, despite the recommendations of their physicians, some patients refuse these therapies. This study characterized factors associated with refusal of surgical or radiation therapy as well as the impact of refusal of recommended therapy on patients with localized malignancies. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program to identify a population-based sample of 925,127 patients who had diagnoses of 1 of 8 common malignancies for which surgery and/or radiation are believed to confer a survival benefit between 1995 and 2008. Refusal of oncologic therapy, as documented in the SEER database, was the primary outcome measure. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with refusal. The impact of refusal of therapy on cancer-specific mortality was assessed with Fine and Gray's competing risks regression. In total, 2441 of 692,938 patients (0.4%) refused surgery, and 2113 of 232,189 patients (0.9%) refused radiation, despite the recommendations of their physicians. On multivariable analysis, advancing age, decreasing annual income, nonwhite race, and unmarried status were associated with refusal of surgery, whereas advancing age, decreasing annual income, Asian American race, and unmarried status were associated with refusal of radiation (PRefusal of surgery and radiation were associated with increased estimates of cancer-specific mortality for all malignancies evaluated (hazard ratio [HR], 2.80, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.59-3.03; Prefuse curative surgical and/or radiation-based oncologic therapy, raising concern that socioeconomic factors may drive some patients to forego potentially life-saving care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Building an Open Data Portal for the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative based on an Iterative Development Methodology and Linked Data Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, P.; Bennett, V. L.; Stephens, A.; Wilson, A.; Waterfall, A. M.; Petrie, R.; Iwi, A.; Donegan, S.; Juckes, M. N.; Parton, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Climate Change Initiative (CCI) programme was initiated by the European Space Agency (ESA) in 2009 to address the GCOS Essential Climate Variable (ECV) requirements to provide stable, long-term, satellite-based data products to characterise the climate system and its changes. CEDA, working as part of a project consortium, were awarded the contract to build the Open Data Portal, consisting collectively of a central archive and single point of access for dissemination of the data to the international user community. Reflecting climate and earth observation community requirements, the system needed to support a range of access services in use by this domain and specifically, to integrate into existing infrastructure in the form of the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF). This range of requirements together with the heterogeneity of the ECV datasets presented significant challenges. However, the use of Linked Data technologies and an iterative approach to data model development and data publishing have been instrumental in meeting the objectives and building a cohesive system. The portal supports data discovery based on the OGC CSW specification and on ESGF's powerful faceted search. These services provide complementary content at different levels of granularity and it therefore became clear that a common data model was needed. Key terms are defined in vocabularies serialised in SKOS and OWL and are accessible from a central vocabulary server to provide a single authoritative source for applications consuming metadata content. Exploiting the vocabulary service therefore, it has been possible to develop an innovative solution tagging ISO 19115 records for the CSW with the equivalent vocabulary terms used for the ESGF faceted search system. In this way it has been possible to create a rich user interface for the portal combining search results from both search services and the ability to dynamically populate facet selection and context-based help information from the

  11. OpenSubspace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Günnemann, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Subspace clustering and projected clustering are recent research areas for clustering in high dimensional spaces. As the field is rather young, there is a lack of comparative studies on the advantages and disadvantages of the different algorithms. Part of the underlying problem is the lack...... of available open source implementations that could be used by researchers to understand, compare, and extend subspace and projected clustering algorithms. In this paper, we discuss the requirements for open source evaluation software. We propose OpenSubspace, an open source framework that meets...... these requirements. OpenSubspace integrates state-of-the-art performance measures and visualization techniques to foster research in subspace and projected clustering....

  12. The Refusal of Palliative Radiation in Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Its Prognostic Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavas, Mark J; Arneson, Kyle O; Ning, Matthew S; Attia, Albert A; Phillips, Sharon E; Perkins, Stephanie M; Shinohara, Eric T

    2015-06-01

    Patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have limited survival. Population studies have evaluated the impact of radiation refusal in the curative setting; however, no data exist concerning the prognostic impact of radiation refusal in the palliative care setting. To investigate the patterns of radiation refusal in newly diagnosed patients with metastatic NSCLC. Patients with Stage IV NSCLC diagnosed between 1988 and 2010 were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify predictors for refusal of radiation and the impact of radiation and refusal on survival in the palliative setting. A total of 285,641 patients were initially included in the analysis. Palliative radiation was recommended in 42% and refused by 3.1% of patients. Refusal rates remained consistent across included years of study. On multivariate analysis, older, nonblack/nonwhite, unmarried females were more likely to refuse radiation (P refusing radiation was three months vs. five months for those receiving radiation and two months for those whom radiation was not recommended. Patients with metastatic NSCLC who refuse recommended palliative radiation have a poor survival. Radiation refusal or the recommendation against treatment can serve as a trigger for integrating palliative care services sooner and contributes greatly to prognostic awareness. Further investigation into this survival difference and the factors behind refusal are warranted. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA... AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.420 Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? No. Sewage, trash, or other refuse are considered...

  14. Heroin refusal self-efficacy and preference for medication-assisted treatment after inpatient detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Shannon R; Bailey, Genie L; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2017-10-01

    An individual's self-efficacy to refuse using heroin in high-risk situations is believed to minimize the likelihood for relapse. However, among individuals completing inpatient heroin detoxification, perceived refusal self-efficacy may also reduce one's perceived need for medication-assisted treatment (MAT), an effective and recommended treatment for opioid use disorder. In the current study, we examined the relationship between heroin refusal self-efficacy and preference for MAT following inpatient detoxification. Participants (N=397) were interviewed at the start of brief inpatient opioid detoxification. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted association of background characteristics, depressed mood, and perceived heroin refusal self-efficacy with preference for MAT. Controlling for other covariates, depressed mood and lower perceived refusal self-efficacy were associated with a significantly greater likelihood of expressing preference for MAT (versus no MAT). Perceived ability to refuse heroin after leaving detox is inversely associated with a heroin user's desire for MAT. An effective continuum of care model may benefit from greater attention to patient's perceived refusal self-efficacy during detoxification which may impact preference for MAT and long-term recovery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. The Experience of Psychiatric Care of Adolescents with Anxiety-based School Refusal and of their Parents: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibeoni, Jordan; Orri, Massimiliano; Podlipski, Marc-Antoine; Labey, Mathilde; Campredon, Sophie; Gerardin, Priscille; Revah-Levy, Anne

    2018-01-01

    Anxiety-based school refusal in adolescence is a complex, sometimes difficult to treat disorder that can have serious academic and psychiatric consequences. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore how teens with this problem and their parents experience the psychiatric care received. This qualitative multicenter study took place in France, where we conducted semi-structured interviews with adolescents receiving psychiatric care for anxiety-based school refusal and with their parents. Data collection by purposive sampling continued until we reached theoretical sufficiency. Data analysis was thematic. This study included 20 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years and 21 parents. Two themes emerged from the analysis: (1) the goals of psychiatric care with two sub-themes, " self-transformation " and problem solving ; and, (2) the therapeutic levers identified as effective with two sub-themes: time and space and relationships . Our results show a divergence between parents and teens in their representations of care and especially of its goals. Therapeutic and research implications about the terms of return to school within psychiatric care and also the temporality of care are discussed.

  16. The right to physical integrity and informed refusal: Just how far does a patient’s right to refuse medical treatment go?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelize Nienaber

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a legal analysis of the right to physical integrity as guaranteed by the South African Constitution, 1996, and the subsequent right of a competent adult person to refuse medical treatment under South African law. We consider whether the right to refuse treatment is an absolute right and very briefly reflect on the application of the constitutional limitations clause to this right. Instances in which patients’ right to physical integrity is limited by factors, which detract from (patient autonomy, are considered: these represent a limitation of their right to refuse medical treatment. We conclude that forced medical interventions, for the most part, are not desirable but, indeed, necessary in some narrowly defined circumstances. When a person makes a decision to refuse a medical intervention, which may seem unusual or may be perceived as irrational, it does not mean that person does not warrant the protection of the constitution and the courts. Provided that the patient makes an informed refusal while of sound mind, generally there is no reason to discredit his/her decision, difficult as it may be for others to accept. At all times the right to bodily integrity is pivotal in any health-related context and should not be lightly disregarded.

  17. Microbial ecology studies at two coal mine refuse sites in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R. M.; Cameron, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation was made of the microflora associated with coal refuse at two abandoned mines in the midwestern United States. Information was gathered for both the edaphic and the biotic composition of the refuse material. Emphasis was placed on heterotrophic and autotrophic components as to numbers, kinds, and physiological groups. The presence of chemolithotrophs was also investigated. The relationship between abiotic and biotic components in regard to distribution of bacteria, fungi, and algae is discussed. Information presented in this report will be utilized in assessing trends and changes in microbial numbers and composition related to manipulations of the edaphic and biotic ecosystem components associated with reclamation of the refuse piles.

  18. [Refusal of care by a HIV-positive adolescent: role of the cross-cultural approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Nora; Titia Rizzi, Alice

    The refusal of treatment is frequent in human immunodeficiency virus-positive adolescents. The clinical history of a teenage girl presenting severe immunodepression secondary to the virus, a depressive disorder and a refusal of treatment, illustrates the benefit of combined paediatric, child psychiatric and cross-cultural care as proposed by the Cochin-Paris Adolescent Centre. Working on the meaning of the refusal was a prerequisite for the construction of a care project forming part of a life project, as the psychopathological work could only begin once somatic care ensuring the patient's protection was in place. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Openly Published Environmental Sensing (OPEnS) | Advancing Open-Source Research, Instrumentation, and Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udell, C.; Selker, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    The increasing availability and functionality of Open-Source software and hardware along with 3D printing, low-cost electronics, and proliferation of open-access resources for learning rapid prototyping are contributing to fundamental transformations and new technologies in environmental sensing. These tools invite reevaluation of time-tested methodologies and devices toward more efficient, reusable, and inexpensive alternatives. Building upon Open-Source design facilitates community engagement and invites a Do-It-Together (DIT) collaborative framework for research where solutions to complex problems may be crowd-sourced. However, barriers persist that prevent researchers from taking advantage of the capabilities afforded by open-source software, hardware, and rapid prototyping. Some of these include: requisite technical skillsets, knowledge of equipment capabilities, identifying inexpensive sources for materials, money, space, and time. A university MAKER space staffed by engineering students to assist researchers is one proposed solution to overcome many of these obstacles. This presentation investigates the unique capabilities the USDA-funded Openly Published Environmental Sensing (OPEnS) Lab affords researchers, within Oregon State and internationally, and the unique functions these types of initiatives support at the intersection of MAKER spaces, Open-Source academic research, and open-access dissemination.

  20. Turning refuse plastic into multi-walled carbon nanotube forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Eugene; Lee, Jaegeun; Jung, Seung-Ho; Cho, Seungho; Kim, Hye-Jin; Lee, Sung-Hyun; Lee, Kun-Hong; Song, Kyong-Hwa; Choi, Chi-Hoon; Han, Do Suck

    2012-01-01

    A novel and effective method was devised for synthesizing a vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) forest on a substrate using waste plastic obtained from commercially available water bottles. The advantages of the proposed method are the speed of processing and the use of waste as a raw material. A mechanism for the CNT growth was also proposed. The growth rate of the CNT forest was ∼2.5 μm min−1. Transmission electron microscopy images indicated that the outer diameters of the CNTs were 20–30 nm on average. The intensity ratio of the G and D Raman bands was 1.27 for the vertically aligned CNT forest. The Raman spectrum showed that the wall graphitization of the CNTs, synthesized via the proposed method was slightly higher than that of commercially available multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). We expect that the proposed method can be easily adapted to the disposal of other refuse materials and applied to MWCNT production industries. PMID:27877482

  1. Hygiene tests in the anaerobic digestion of household refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, H.; Philipp, W.; Wekerle, J.; Strauch, D.

    In a pilot plant the disinfecting effect of composting the effluent of an anaerobic mesophilic digestion process of the organic fraction of household refuse was investigated. The dewatered effluent was mixed with straw as bulking material, put in not aerated windrows and aerobically composted. It was further investigated whether the influent of the digester could be disinfected with lime milk prior to the anaerobic mesophilic digestion process. For the evaluation of the disinfection salmonellas, enterococci, klebsiellas, parvo-, polio- and rotavirus were used as test agents. Temperature, total aerobic germ count, enterobacteriaceae and coliforms were also considered. The effect of lime milk in the influent on the digestion process, survival of the test bacteria and gas production was also studied. Both treatments can result in a hygienically safe product. But composting under the conditions given should not be operated during the winter period. Lime treatment of the influent results in a disinfection of the effluent which immediately can be utilized as liquid sludge in agriculture. (orig.)

  2. Turning refuse plastic into multi-walled carbon nanotube forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Oh, Jaegeun Lee, Seung-Ho Jung, Seungho Cho, Hye-Jin Kim, Sung-Hyun Lee, Kun-Hong Lee, Kyong-Hwa Song, Chi-Hoon Choi and Do Suck Han

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel and effective method was devised for synthesizing a vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT forest on a substrate using waste plastic obtained from commercially available water bottles. The advantages of the proposed method are the speed of processing and the use of waste as a raw material. A mechanism for the CNT growth was also proposed. The growth rate of the CNT forest was ~2.5 μm min−1. Transmission electron microscopy images indicated that the outer diameters of the CNTs were 20–30 nm on average. The intensity ratio of the G and D Raman bands was 1.27 for the vertically aligned CNT forest. The Raman spectrum showed that the wall graphitization of the CNTs, synthesized via the proposed method was slightly higher than that of commercially available multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs. We expect that the proposed method can be easily adapted to the disposal of other refuse materials and applied to MWCNT production industries.

  3. Negotiating refusal in primary care consultations: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Alex; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Harrison, Stephen

    2012-08-01

    How GPs negotiate patient requests is vital to their gatekeeper role but also a source of potential conflict, practitioner stress and patient dissatisfaction. Difficulties may arise when demands of shared decision-making conflict with resource allocation, which may be exacerbated by new commissioning arrangements, with GPs responsible for available services. To explore GPs' accounts of negotiating refusal of patient requests and their negotiation strategies. A qualitative design was employed with two focus groups of GPs and GP registrars followed by 20 semi-structured interviews. Participants were sampled by gender, experience, training/non-training, principal versus salaried or locum. Thematic content analysis proceeded in parallel with interviews and further sampling. The setting was GP practices within an English urban primary care trust. Sickness certification, antibiotics and benzodiazepines were cited most frequently as problematic patient requests. GP trainees reported more conflict within interactions than experienced GPs. Negotiation strategies, such as blaming distant third parties such as the primary care organization, were designed to prevent conflict and preserve the doctor-patient relationship. GPs reported patients' expectations being strongly influenced by previous encounters with other health care professionals. The findings reiterate the prominence of the doctor-patient relationship in GPs' accounts. GPs' relationships with colleagues and the wider National Health Service (NHS) are particular of relevance in light of provisions in the Health and Social Care Bill for clinical commissioning consortia. The ability of GPs to offset blame for rationing decisions to third parties will be undermined if the same GPs commission services.

  4. Production, quality and quality assurance of Refuse Derived Fuels (RDFs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarc, R; Lorber, K E

    2013-09-01

    This contribution describes characterization, classification, production, application and quality assurance of Refuse Derived Fuels (RDFs) that are increasingly used in a wide range of co-incineration plants. It is shown in this paper, that the fuel-parameter, i.e. net calorific value [MJ/kg(OS)], particle size d(90) or d(95) [mm], impurities [w%], chlorine content [w%], sulfur content [w%], fluorine content [w%], ash content [w%], moisture [w%] and heavy metals content [mg/kg(DM)], can be preferentially used for the classification of different types of RDF applied for co-incineration and substitution of fossil-fuel in different industial sectors. Describing the external production of RDF by processing and confectioning of wastes as well as internal processing of waste at the incineration plant, a case study is reported on the application of RDF made out of different household waste fractions in a 120,000t/yr Waste to Energy (WtE) circulating fluidized bed (CFB) incinerator. For that purpose, delivered wastes, as well as incinerator feedstock material (i.e. after internal waste processing) are extensively investigated. Starting with elaboration of sampling plan in accordance with the relevant guidelines and standards, waste from different suppliers was sampled. Moreover, manual sorting analyses and chemical analyses were carried out. Finally, results of investigations are presented and discussed in the paper. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Open-bite treatment utilizing clear removable appliances with intermaxillary and intramaxillary elastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyun; Kim, Tae Weon

    2009-01-01

    Clear removable appliances with elastics can be effective and efficient in extruding maxillary teeth during aligner treatment or following a relapse of an open bite. Some patients with open bites refuse to wear conventional fixed appliances. In these individuals, clear aligners with elastics could be a valuable alternative. © 2009 Quintessence Publishing Co, Inc. All Rights Reserved

  6. How to justify enforcing a Ulysses contract when Ulysses is competent to refuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, John K

    2008-03-01

    Sometimes the mentally ill have sufficient mental capacity to refuse treatment competently, and others have a moral duty to respect their refusal. However, those with episodic mental disorders may wish to precommit themselves to treatment, using Ulysses contracts known as "mental health advance directives." How can health care providers justify enforcing such contracts over an agent's current, competent refusal? I argue that providers respect an agent's autonomy not retrospectively--by reference to his or her past wishes-and not merely synchronically--so that the agent gets what he or she wants right now-but diachronically and prospectively, acting so that the agent can shape his or her circumstances as the agent wishes over time, for the agent will experience the consequences of providers' actions over time. Mental health directives accomplish this, so they are a way of respecting the agent's autonomy even when providers override the agent's current competent refusal.

  7. Biometric identification with high frequency electrocardiogram: Unregistered user refusal method and performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoso, Masaki

    2015-08-01

    As a new modality for biometric identification, electrocardiogram-based identification technique has been developed. We proposed a technique with high frequency component of electrocardiogram (HFECG) in QRS segment. In this report, an unregistered user refusal algorithm was combined with the artificial neural network based waveform classifier. The refusal function was realized by simple thresholding technique. HFECGs from twenty collaborators were used for supervised learning. Twenty HFECGs from the same collaborators were tested and false acceptance rate (FAR) and false rejection rate (FRR) were evaluated. Ten HFECGs from other collaborators were also tested to find unregistered user refusal performance. The results show that FAR and FRR in the registrants can be kept within 1%, however, unregistered user refusal performance was not acceptable under the same condition.

  8. PATIENT’S CONSCIOUS REFUSAL OF TREATMENT AND REQUEST FOR ACTIVETREATMENT WHEN RECOVERY IS NOT POSSIBLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Černoga

    2008-01-01

    General practitioner and a specialist doctor are faced with difficult dilemma when there isa case of a competent but unwilling to consent patient refusing the timely treatment inspite of the predicted fatal consequences

  9. The right to physical integrity and informed refusal: Just how far does ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Provided that the patient makes an informed refusal while of sound mind, generally ... At all times the right to bodily integrity is pivotal in any health-related context and should ... choices regarding the body in an autonomous and independent.

  10. Right of a patient to refuse medical treatment: justification for judicial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence ... This paper discusses the right of a patient to refuse medical treatment and juxtaposes ... This is achieved by an expository review of relevant case law and scholarly ...

  11. Bacteria and Acidic Drainage from Coal Refuse: Inhibition by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Sodium Benzoate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Patrick R.; Apel, William A.

    1983-01-01

    The application of an aqueous solution of sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium benzoate to the surface of high-sulfur coal refuse resulted in the inhibition of iron-and sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophic bacteria and in the decrease of acidic drainage from the refuse, suggesting that acid drainage can be abated in the field by inhibiting iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:16346347

  12. School refusal associated with separation anxiety disorder; an adolescent case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yasin Irmak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In literature, there are lots of studies about separation anxiety disorder (SAD and school refusal. Of the patients in these studies, it is generally known to child age group. In this paper, we aimed to draw attention to an adolescent patient with SAD who admitted to our clinic with complaint of school refusal and there is SAD under his unwillingness to go to school. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(4.000: 357-360

  13. [Nursing ethics in the face of the refusal of nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauchy, Sarah; Charles, Cécile; Vérotte, Nelly; Block, Véronique; Adam, Virginie

    2016-10-01

    Caregivers can find themselves faced with a refusal of nursing care. A number of questions are then raised. While it is firstly important to understand the reasons for this refusal and what is at stake for the patient, there are a number of nursing strategies in place, not least of all dialogue and analysis. The role of the multi-disciplinary team is essential in such situations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Insulin therapy refusal among type II diabetes mellitus patients in Kubang Pasu district, Kedah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wei Leong; Asahar, Siti Fairus; Harun, Noor Liani

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Diabetes mellitus is a rising non-communicable disease in Malaysia. Insulin therapy refusal is a challenge for healthcare providers, as it results in delayed insulin initiation. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of insulin therapy refusal and its associated factors. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted at seven public health clinics in Kubang Pasu district of Kedah, Malaysia, from March to October 2012. A newly developed and validated questionnaire was used and participants were selected via systematic random sampling. Only patients diagnosed with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and under the public health clinic care in Kubang Pasu were included in the study. Multiple logistic regression was used to study the association between insulin therapy refusal and its associated factors. RESULTS There were 461 respondents and the response rate was 100%. Among these 461 patients with T2DM, 74.2% refused insulin therapy. The most common reason given for refusal was a lack of confidence in insulin injection (85.4%). Multiple logistic regression revealed that respondents who had secondary education were 55.0% less likely to refuse insulin therapy than those who had primary education or no formal education (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.25–0.82, p = 0.009). There was also a significant inverse association between glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level and insulin therapy refusal (adjusted OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76–1.00, p = 0.047). CONCLUSION Insulin therapy refusal is common in Kubang Pasu. Educational status and HbA1c level should be taken into consideration when counselling patients on insulin therapy initiation. PMID:25532511

  15. Open string model building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Nobuyuki; Onogi, Tetsuya

    1989-01-01

    Consistency conditions of open string theories, which can be a powerful tool in open string model building, are proposed. By making use of these conditions and assuming a simple prescription for the Chan-Paton factors, open string theories in several backgrounds are studied. We show that 1. there exist a large number of consistent bosonic open string theories on Z 2 orbifolds, 2. SO(32) type I superstring is the unique consistent model among fermionic string theories on the ten-dimensional flat Minkowski space, and 3. with our prescription for the Chan-Paton factors, there exist no consistent open superstring theories on (six-dimensional Minkowski space-time) x (Z 2 orbifold). (orig.)

  16. Aged refuse enhances anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianwei; Gui, Lin; Wang, Qilin; Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Dongbo; Ni, Bing-Jie; Li, Xiaoming; Xu, Rui; Zeng, Guangming; Yang, Qi

    2017-10-15

    In this work, a low-cost alternative approach (i.e., adding aged refuse (AR) into waste activated sludge) to significantly enhance anaerobic digestion of sludge was reported. Experimental results showed that with the addition dosage of AR increasing from 0 to 400 mg/g dry sludge soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) increased from 1150 to 5240 mg/L at the digestion time of 5 d, while the maximal production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) increased from 82.6 to 183.9 mg COD/g volatile suspended solids. Although further increase of AR addition decreased the concentrations of both soluble COD and VFA, their contents in these systems with AR addition at any concentration investigated were still higher than those in the blank, which resulted in higher methane yields in these systems. Mechanism studies revealed that pertinent addition of AR promoted solubilization, hydrolysis, and acidogenesis processes and did not affect methanogenesis significantly. It was found that varieties of enzymes and anaerobes in AR were primary reason for the enhancement of anaerobic digestion. Humic substances in AR benefited hydrolysis and acidogenesis but inhibited methanogenesis. The effect of heavy metals in AR on sludge anaerobic digestion was dosage dependent. Sludge anaerobic digestion was enhanced by appropriate amounts of heavy metals but inhibited by excessive amounts of heavy metals. The relative abundances of microorganisms responsible for sludge hydrolysis and acidogenesis were also observed to be improved in the system with AR addition, which was consistent with the performance of anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Informed consent for the administration of an intravenous contrast agent: importance and determinants of patient refusal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martel, J.; Garcia-Diaz, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    We proposed to determine the proportion of patients who refuse to undergo intravenous contrast administration and the factors that influence their refusal. Our series consisted of 442 patients who were supposed to undergo imaging studies involving the intravenous injection of an iodine contrast. In a personal interview, the patients were issued a questionnaire specifically designed for this study. The following parameters were recorded: sex, age, inpatient or outpatient status, medical history available, person who informed them about the procedure, person signing the informed consent (patient or other) , highest academic degree, attitude toward receiving the information and degree of concern after reading and signing the consent form. In our series 8.6% of the patients (95% confidence interval: 6-11.2) refused to sign the informed consent form. In addition, there were a number of patients who delayed the procedure or hindered the daily work schedule by some other means. When the relationship between each of the variables studied and refusal to sign the consent form was assessed, significant associations were observed between the latter and the academic level of the patient, his or her degree of concern and having received the information from a trained person. There was also a nearly significant trend toward the association between refusal and the patient's background. Relatively few patients refuse to sign the informed consent to receive intravenous contrast administration but this negative decision interferes with the health care practice. It is possible to identify certain correctable factors that influence the patient in this respect. (Author) 13 refs

  18. Comparing the quality of life in insulin recipient and refusal patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Mitra; Sabouhi, Fakhri; Abazari, Parvaneh; Aminorroaya, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Better control of blood sugar and reduction of diabetes complications through insulin therapy could convince people to choose this method. However, patients might refuse insulin therapy due to its painful injection, limitations in daily activities, and hypoglycemia. Thus, insulin therapy could have both positive and negative effects on patients' quality of life (QOL). Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the QOL of insulin recipient and insulin refusal patients with type 2 diabetes. This study was a descriptive and comparative research conducted on 126 patients; 63 were insulin recipients and 63 had refused insulin therapy. Participants were under the care of the Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center of Isfahan, Iran. Data were gathered using the Diabetes Quality of Life (DQOL) questionnaire. In this tool, higher scores indicated lower QOL in patients. Data were analyzed using independent t-test, analysis of covariance, Mann-Whitney, Chi-square, and Pearson and Spearman's correlation. There was a significant difference (P refusal patients (mean = 1.74, SD = 0.41) in terms of mean QOL score. In addition, men and participants with higher educational levels reported a better QOL (P refusal patients had a better QOL. It seems that QOL is associated with the acceptance or refusal of insulin therapy. Therefore, enhancement of QOL could be related to all aspects of the disease, especially its treatment method and solving the therapeutic problems.

  19. Legislation and refusal of blood transfusion by a minor Jehovah-Witness in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneyer, M; Matthys, D; Ramet, J; Michel, L; Holsters, D; Vandenplas, Y

    2011-01-01

    The refusal of blood transfusion by Jehovah's Witnesses in critical situations constitutes an ethical and juridical dilemma. The refusal to receive blood products by Jehovah's Witnesses is based on biblical verses. Recurring arguments to sustain this refusal regard the right to self-determination and the right to freedom of faith. If minors are involved, the problem is rendered even more difficult as the parental authority over young children needs to be taken into account. When adolescents are concerned, the situation if even more ambiguous since adolescents might be considered as mature enough to provide autonomous consent. On the basis of three cases, the most frequent bottlenecks that can come up in paediatric emergency services are highlighted: (1) the refusal of a blood transfusion by the parents of a young child; (2) the refusal by an adolescent and (3) prior refusal based on a "No Blood"-document. Regarding minors, the law on patients' rights in Belgium contains safety mechanisms concerning the preservation of physical integrity. Therefore, a key responsibility has been assigned to the physician. A step-by-step plan and a synoptic diagram are presented.

  20. For largest space flexibility and largest energy efficiency. Modern room automation enables an open-space solution in the arched structures of the central railway station; Fuer groesste Raumflexibilitaet und hoechste Energieeffizienz. Moderne Raumautomation ermoeglicht Open-Space Loesung in den Buegelbauten des Berliner Hauptbahnhofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottilinger, Werner [Sauter Deutschland, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    A feature of the central railway station in Berlin are the 46 meters high arched structures that span the railway station and accommodate more than 1,500 employees of the Deutsche Bahn AG (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany). A total of 42,000 square meters of office space and a large business and conference center spread on twelve floors. Within the commissioning of this central railway station, this vast area should be designed technically variable in order to hold the time and cost as low as possible for the reconstruction or change of tenants.

  1. Effect of bio-column composed of aged refuse on methane abatement--a novel configuration of biological oxidation in refuse landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dan; Zhao, Youcai; Xue, Binjie; Chai, Xiaoli

    2010-01-01

    An experimental bio-column composed of aged refuse was installed around the exhaust pipe as a new way to mitigate methane in refuse landfill. One of the objectives of this work was to assess the effect of aged refuse thickness in bio-column on reducing CH4 emissions. Over the study period, methane oxidation was observed at various thicknesses, 5 cm (small size), 10 cm (middle size) and 15 cm (large size), representing one to three times of pipeline diameters. The middle and large size both showed over 90% methane conversion, and the highest methane conversion rate of above 95% occurred in the middle-size column cell. Michaelis-Menten equation addressed the methanotrophs diffusion in different layers of the bio-columns. Maximum methanotrophic activity (Vmax) measured at the three thicknesses ranged from 6.4 x 10(-3) to 15.6 x 10(-3) units, and the half-saturation value (K(M)) ranged from 0.85% to 1.67%. Both the highest Vmax and K(M) were observed at the middle-size of the bio-column, as well as the largest methanotrophs population, suggesting a significant efficiency of methane mitigation happened in the optimum zone with greatest affinity and methanotrophic bacteria activities. Therefore, bio-column is a potential style for methane abatement in landfill, and the aged refuse both naturally formed and artificially placed in the column plays a critical role in CH4 emission.

  2. Predictors of condom use and refusal among the population of Free State province in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Thoovakkunon Moorkoth; Berkvens, Dirk; Chikobvu, Perpetual; Nöstlinger, Christiana; Colebunders, Robert; Williams, Brian Gerard; Speybroeck, Niko

    2012-05-28

    This study investigated the extent and predictors of condom use and condom refusal in the Free State province in South Africa. Through a household survey conducted in the Free Sate province of South Africa, 5,837 adults were interviewed. Univariate and multivariate survey logistic regressions and classification trees (CT) were used for analysing two response variables 'ever used condom' and 'ever refused condom'. Eighty-three per cent of the respondents had ever used condoms, of which 38% always used them; 61% used them during the last sexual intercourse and 9% had ever refused to use them. The univariate logistic regression models and CT analysis indicated that a strong predictor of condom use was its perceived need. In the CT analysis, this variable was followed in importance by 'knowledge of correct use of condom', condom availability, young age, being single and higher education. 'Perceived need' for condoms did not remain significant in the multivariate analysis after controlling for other variables. The strongest predictor of condom refusal, as shown by the CT, was shame associated with condoms followed by the presence of sexual risk behaviour, knowing one's HIV status, older age and lacking knowledge of condoms (i.e., ability to prevent sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy, availability, correct and consistent use and existence of female condoms). In the multivariate logistic regression, age was not significant for condom refusal while affordability and perceived need were additional significant variables. The use of complementary modelling techniques such as CT in addition to logistic regressions adds to a better understanding of condom use and refusal. Further improvement in correct and consistent use of condoms will require targeted interventions. In addition to existing social marketing campaigns, tailored approaches should focus on establishing the perceived need for condom-use and improving skills for correct use. They should also incorporate

  3. An audit of consent refusals in clinical research at a tertiary care center in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S J Thaker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Rationale: Ensuring research participants′ autonomy is one of the core ethical obligations of researchers. This fundamental principle confers on every participant the right to refuse to take part in clinical research, and the measure of the number of consent refusals could be an important metric to evaluate the quality of the informed consent process. This audit examined consent refusals among Indian participants in clinical studies done at our center. Materials and Methods: The number of consent refusals and their reasons in 10 studies done at our center over a 5-year period were assessed. The studies were classified by the authors according to the type of participant (healthy vs patients, type of sponsor (investigator-initiated vs pharmaceutical industry, type of study (observational vs interventional, level of risk [based on the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR "Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research on Human Participants"], available knowledge of the intervention being studied, and each patient′s disease condition. Results: The overall consent refusal rate was 21%. This rate was higher among patient participants [23.8% vs. healthy people (14.9%; P = 0.002], in interventional studies [33.6% vs observational studies (7.5%; P < 0.0001], in pharmaceutical industry-sponsored studies [34.7% vs investigator-initiated studies (7.2%; P < 0.0001], and in studies with greater risk (P < 0.0001. The most common reasons for consent refusals were multiple blood collections (28%, inability to comply with the study protocol (20%, and the risks involved (20%. Conclusion: Our audit suggests the adequacy and reasonable quality of the informed consent process using consent refusals as a metric.

  4. Refusal of hemodialysis by hospitalized chronic kidney disease patients in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Salman Tahir; Saleem, Mohammad; Anjum, Roshina; Abdullah, Wajid; Shafi, Tahir

    2018-01-01

    In Pakistan, patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are commonly diagnosed at a late stage. There is little information about the refusal of hemodialysis by hospitalized CKD patients who need hemodialysis (HD) and reasons for acceptance and refusal among these patients. All patients with Stage V CKD who had medical indications to undergo HD and were hospitalized at a tertiary care facility over a six-month period were invited to participate in this study. Patients were surveyed regarding acceptance or refusing of HD and reasons for their decisions. Demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical characteristics of patients were compared between patients who accepted or refused HD. A total of 125 patients were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 47.9 ±12.1 years. The mean duration of diagnosis of CKD was 2.5 ± 0.6 months. Of all patients, 72 (57.6%) agreed to do HD and 53 (42.4%) refused HD. Patients with arteriovenous fistula in place (27.1 vs. 9.1%, P 0.02) and those in the middle- or higher-income group (64.4% vs. 38.6%, p = 0.03) were more willing to undergo HD. Trust in doctor's advice (86.1%) was the most common reason for acceptance of HD. Frequency of HD per week (52.8%), lifelong and permanent nature of HD (50.9%), advice by family members or friends (37.7%), perception of poor quality of life on HD (35.8%), and fear of HD needles and complications during HD (33.9%) were the most common reasons for refusal. Refusal of HD is common among hospitalized CKD patients with medical indications to undergo HD, especially in lower income group.

  5. The use of refused tea as litter material for broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atapattu, N S B M; Wickramasinghe, K P

    2007-05-01

    A completely randomized design experiment was conducted to determine the suitability of refused tea (RT) as a litter material for broiler chickens. Physiochemical properties of RT were compared with paddy husk (PH). Subsequently, broilers were raised on RT- or PH-based litter to compare the performances and litter qualities. Twenty-day-old broiler chicks (n = 150) were randomly allocated into 6 deep litter pens so that each treatment had 3 replicates. Chicks received 0.8 ft(2) of floor spacing until d 28 and 1.3 ft(2) thereafter. Each cage had a feeder and a drinker. Litter materials and litter samples taken on 28, 35, and 39 d were analyzed for bulk density, moisture, ash, and N. Chick mortality was low (1.3%) and similar on 2 types of litters. Live weights on d 28, 35, 39, and weight gains, feed intakes, dressing percentages, and feed conversion ratios were not affected by the type of litter material. The bulk density, moisture level, and pH of the RT were comparable with PH. Even though the water-holding capacity of PH (213%) was significantly higher (P litter had around 10% units higher moisture level than PH litter. By d 39, the moisture content of the RT litter was (48%) significantly higher (P = 0.05) than PH litter (37%). The N contents of RT litter were higher (P litter material for broilers. A higher N content in RT-based spent broiler litter would make it be a better organic fertilizer and ruminant feed compared with PH-based litter.

  6. Heavy Metals in Soils of auto- mechanic shops and refuse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open Access · Journal Quality.

  7. On RC-spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Bielas, Wojciech; Plewik, Szymon

    2018-01-01

    Following Frink's characterization of completely regular spaces, we say that a regular T_1-space is an RC-space whenever the family of all regular open sets constitutes a regular normal base. Normal spaces are RC-spaces and there exist completely regular spaces which are not RC-spaces. So the question arises, which of the known examples of completely regular and not normal spaces are RC-spaces. We show that the Niemytzki plane and the Sorgenfrey plane are RC-spaces.

  8. Use of wet FGD material for revegetation of an abandoned acidic coal refuse pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mafi, S.; Stehouwer, R.C.

    1996-01-01

    Wet FGD material has a neutralizing potential of 15% CaCO 3 . These properties may make it a beneficial amendment for revegetation of hyper-acidic coal refuse. In greenhouse and field experiments, coal refuse (pH = 2.5) was amended with wet FGD (300, 500, and 700 tons/acre). Amendment with FGD was as effective as agricultural lime (AL) in increasing refuse pH and decreasing soluble Al and Fe. Addition of compost to the FGD further increased pH and decreased soluble Al and Fe. Downward transport of Ca was greater with FGD than AL, but FGD did not increase leachate concentrations of S. Amendment with FGD increased refuse, leachate and plant tissue concentrations of B. Other trace elements were not increased by FGD. In the greenhouse, plant growth was similar with AL and FGD except during the first three months when AL produced more growth than FGD. The initial growth suppression by FGD was likely due to high soluble salts, and possibly by high B concentrations. During the first year of the field experiment plant growth was greater with FGD than with AL. In both the field and greenhouse experiments compost increased plant growth when combined with FGD. These experiments show revegetation of toxic coal refuse and improvement in drainage water quality is possible by amendment with FGD. Revegetation success will be improved by combined amendment with FGD and compost

  9. Parental psychological symptoms and familial risk factors of children and adolescents who exhibit school refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahali, K; Tahiroglu, A Y; Avci, A; Seydaoglu, G

    2011-12-01

    To assess the levels of psychological symptoms in the parents of children with school refusal and determine the familial risk factors in its development. This study was performed on 55 pairs of parents who had children exhibiting school refusal and were compared with a control group. A socio-demographic data form, the Beck Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Symptom Checklist-90 revised were applied to these parents. Parents of the school refusal group had higher anxiety and depression scores than the controls. Among the risk factors for school refusal, physical punishment by the parents, a history of organic disease in the parents or children, and a history of psychiatric disorders in the parents or other relatives were found to be significant. Depending on genetic and environmental factors, parents with psychiatric disorders appeared to be associated with development of psychiatric disorders in their children. Moreover, psychiatric disorders in parents negatively affected the treatment of their children and adolescents who exhibited school refusal. It is therefore vital to treat psychiatric disorders of parents with the children having psychiatric disorders, and thus increase parent participation in their children's therapeutic process.

  10. Childhood vaccine refusal and hesitancy intentions in Croatia: insights from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repalust, Anja; Šević, Sandra; Rihtar, Stanko; Štulhofer, Aleksandar

    2017-10-01

    Considering that programmatic data suggest a recent rise in vaccine refusal in Croatia, this study, first of its kind in Southeast Europe, aimed to estimate the prevalence, and sociodemographic, and sociocultural determinants of childhood vaccine refusal and hesitancy (CVRH) intentions among Croatian adults. Multi-stage stratified population-based survey included 1000 individuals aged 18-88 years (M age  = 47.7, SD = 17.8), of whom 51.7% were women. The outcome, a categorical indicator, distinguished among individuals who would approve vaccinating their children (vaccine accepting), those who would approve some but not all vaccines (vaccine hesitant), and those who would refuse vaccination (vaccine refusing). A sizeable minority of participants was characterized by childhood vaccine refusal (10.6%) and hesitancy intentions (19.5%). In a multivariate assessment controlling for parenthood, the odds of vaccine hesitancy were significantly increased by a younger age (AOR = 1.96-3.03, p Croatia. Following the social contagion model, future research should move beyond individual-level approach and take into account social interaction and social network effects.

  11. Transitional paternalism: how shared normative powers give rise to the asymmetry of adolescent consent and refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Neil C

    2015-02-01

    In many jurisdictions, adolescents acquire the right to consent to treatment; but in some cases their refusals - e.g. of life-saving treatment - may not be respected. This asymmetry of adolescent consent and refusal seems puzzling, even incoherent. The aim here is to offer an original explanation, and a justification, of this asymmetry. Rather than trying to explain the asymmetry in terms of a variable standard of competence - where the adolescent is competent to consent to, but not refuse, certain interventions - the account offered here focuses more closely on the normative power to render actions permissible. Where normative powers are shared they can readily give rise to an asymmetry between consent and refusal. We then turn to why it is justifiable that normative powers be shared in adolescence. Transitional paternalism holds that the acquisition of normative powers by competent adolescents should not be an instant one, achieved in a single step, but that there should be a transitional period where paternalistic protection is rolled back, but not entirely withdrawn until a later date. Transitional paternalism could be implemented without generating the asymmetry between consent and refusal but, it is argued, the asymmetric version of transitional paternalism is to be preferred insofar as it offers a greater respect for the adolescent's decisions than the symmetrical alternative. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Are they really refusing to travel? A qualitative study of prehospital records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Sarah

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Refusal by the patient to travel after calling an emergency ambulance may lead to a preventable waste of scarce resources if it can be shown that an alternative more appropriate response could be employed. A greater understanding is required of the reasons behind 'refusal to travel' (RTT in order to find appropriate solutions to address this issue. We sought to investigate the reasons why patients refuse to travel following emergency call-out in a rural county. Methods Written records made by ambulance crews for patients (n = 397 who were not transported to hospital following an emergency call-out during October 2004 were retrospectively analysed. Results Twelve main themes emerged for RTT which included non injury or minor injury, falls and recovery after treatment on scene; other themes included alternative supervision, follow-up and treatment arrangements or patients arranging their own transport. Importantly, only 8% of the sample was recorded by ambulance crews as truly refusing to travel against advice. Conclusion A system that facilitates standardised recording of RTT information including social reasons for non-transportation needs to be designed. 'Refused to travel' disclaimers need to reflect instances when crew and patient are satisfied that not going to hospital is the right outcome. These recommendations should be considered within the context of the plans for widening the role of ambulance services.

  13. [Refusal of care faced by case manager from elderly persons in complex situation: cross perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvol, A; Balard, F; Moutel, G; Somme, D

    2014-01-01

    Case management is a new professional field in France. It is addressed to elderly persons living in community whose situation is regarded as particularly complex. Case managers have to assess needs and coordinate necessary services. One common criteria of complexity is refusal of care. The objective of this study is to compare the words of users with those of case managers about refusal of care, in order to understand its meaning, professionals' attitudes and ethical challenges. Two researchers have cooperated on this qualitative research: the first one, anthropologist, interviewed 19 individuals, and 11 of their caregivers. The second one, geriatrician and researcher in medical ethics, lead four focus groups gathering a total of 18 case managers. Refusal of care often is the result of the will of preserving one's identity, compromised by illness. Individuals seek control on their life. Facing this behaviour, case managers try to secure the individual, by establishing a personal relationship that respects their choices, even if care has to be delayed. Refusal of care may sometimes disclose a desire to vanish, in front of which professionals meet their own limits. To recognise an elderly person that refuses care as a unique individual who can make choices secure his identity, and allow him to change. Copyright © 2013 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. The project of documentary space 'ExploRe' Opened pluri-disciplinary exploration of reversibility: multiple-point of view access to exploratory works of Andra on reversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahier, Jean-Pierre; Desfriches, Orelie; Zacklad, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    The authors present a digital space (a web site - 'ExploRe') which would allows a community to share a set of pluri-disciplinary information items concerning reversibility, and in which the community members describe the items by using attributes and themes belonging to different points of view

  15. Surgical decompression for space-occupying cerebral infarction (the Hemicraniectomy After Middle Cerebral Artery infarction with Life-threatening Edema Trial [HAMLET]): a multicentre, open, randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeijer, Jeannette; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Algra, Ale; Amelink, G. Johan; van Gijn, Jan; van der Worp, H. Bart; Algra, A.; Amelink, G. J.; van Gijn, J.; Hofmeijer, J.; Kappelle, L. J.; Macleod, M. R.; van der Worp, H. B.; de Bruijn, S. F. T. M.; Luijckx, G. J.; van Oostenbrugge, R.; Stam, J.; Boiten, J.; van der Graaf, Y.; Koudstaal, P. J.; Maas, A. I. R.; van Dijk, G. W.; Hacke, W.; Kalkman, C. J.; Tulleken, C. A. F.; Wijman, C. A. C.; van Buuren, M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with space-occupying hemispheric infarctions have a poor prognosis, with case fatality rates of up to 80%. In a pooled analysis of randomised trials, surgical decompression within 48 h of stroke onset reduced case fatality and improved functional outcome; however, the effect of

  16. Opening Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovini, L.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen To quote Mr Jean Terrien: "Physics must be one step ahead of metrology". A long-serving Director of the BIPM, he said these words when visiting the IMGC in 1970 as a member of the scientific board of our Institute. At that time it was still an open question whether the IMGC should start research work on the absolute measurement of silicon lattice spacing. Mr Terrien underlined the revolutionary character of x-ray interferometry and, eventually, he caused the balance needle to lean towards the ... right direction. Mr Terrien correctly foresaw that, like Michelson's interferometer of 1880, x-ray interferometry could have a prominent place in today's science and technology. And while, in the first case, after more than a century we can see instruments based on electromagnetic wave interaction within every one's reach in laboratories and, sometimes, in workshops, in the second case, twenty-five years since the first development of an x-ray interferometer we can witness its role in nanometrology. Today and tomorrow we meet to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal place in the value of the Avogadro constant. We are aware that the quest for this achievement requires the cooperation of scientists with complementary capabilities. I am sure that the present workshop is a very good opportunity to present and discuss results and to improve and extend existing cooperation. The new adjustment of fundamental constants envisaged by the CODATA Task Group is redoubling scientists' efforts to produce competitive values of NA. The results of the measurements of the silicon lattice spacing in terms of an optical wavelength, which were available for the 1986 adjustment, combined with the determination of silicon molar volume, demonstrate how such an NA determination produces a consistent set of other constants and opens the way to a possible redefinition of the kilogram. We shall see in these two days how far we have progressed along this road. For us at the

  17. Outcomes of nighttime refusal of admission to the intensive care unit: The role of the intensivist in triage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Nicholas; Borah, Amit; Yoo, Erika J

    2017-06-01

    To compare outcomes of patients refused medical intensive care unit (MICU) admission overnight to those refused during the day and to examine the impact of the intensivist in triage. Retrospective, observational study of patients refused MICU admission at an urban university hospital. Of 294 patients, 186 (63.3%) were refused admission overnight compared to 108 (36.7%) refused during the day. Severity-of-illness by the Mortality Probability Model was similar between the two groups (P=.20). Daytime triage refusals were more likely to be staffed by an intensivist (P=.01). After risk-adjustment, daytime refusals had a lower odds of subsequent ICU admission (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.22-0.95, P=.04) than patients triaged at night. There was no evidence for interaction between time of triage and intensivist staffing of the patient (P=.99). Patients refused MICU admission overnight are more likely to be later admitted to an ICU than patients refused during the day. However, the mechanism for this observation does not appear to depend on the intensivist's direct evaluation of the patient. Further investigation into the clinician-specific effects of ICU triage and identification of potentially modifiable hospital triage practices will help to improve both ICU utilization and patient safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Open coil traction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibhute, Pavankumar Janardan

    2012-01-01

    Sliding mechanics have become a popular method for space closure, with the development of preadjusted edgewise appliances. Furthermore, various space closing auxiliaries have been developed and extensively evaluated for their clinical efficiency. Their effectiveness is enhanced with optimum force magnitude and low load deflection rate/force decay. With the advent of nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) springs in orthodontics, load deflection rates have been markedly reduced. To use Ni-Ti springs, clinicians have to depend upon prefabricated closed coil springs. The open coil traction system, or open coil retraction spring, is developed utilizing Ni-Ti open coil springs for orthodontic space closure. This article describes the fabrication and clinical application of the open coil traction system, which has a number of advantages. It sustains a low load deflection rate with optimum force magnitude, and its design is adjustable for a desired length and force level. It is fail-safe for both activation and deactivation (ie, it cannot be overactivated, and the decompression limit of the open coil is controlled by the operator). The open coil traction system can be offset from the mucosa to help reduce soft tissue impingement.

  19. The Second Space Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawkes, S.

    This paper compares and contrasts the characteristics of the first space race, which ran from the late 1950s to the late 1990s, and the second space race that began with the successful space flight of SpaceShipOne in 2004. The first space race was between superpowers seeking to establish geo-political dominance in the Cold War. The second space race will be between competing companies seeking to establish low cost access to space for ordinary people. The first space race achieved its geo- political objectives but did not open up low cost access to space but rather restricted access to a select few, highly trained astronauts and cosmonauts. The second space race, driven by the size and growth of the travel and tourism industry, promises to open up access to space to millions of space tourists.

  20. Esophagectomy - open

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lewis esophagectomy, Blunt esophagectomy; Esophageal cancer - esophagectomy - open; Cancer of the esophagus - esophagectomy - open ... lining of the esophagus that can lead to cancer ( Barrett esophagus ) Severe trauma Destroyed esophagus Severely damaged stomach

  1. Open access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Open access week Van 19 tot en met 25 oktober 2015 vond wereldwijd de Open Access Week plaats. Tijdens deze week werden er over de hele wereld evenementen georganiseerd waar open access een rol speelt. Ook in Nederland zijn er diverse symposia, workshops en debatten georganiseerd zoals het debat in

  2. Confusing criminal and civil law: when may a hospital refuse to release a dead body?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Steven B

    2014-12-01

    A United Kingdom bereavement advice group has expressed concern that hospitals in Britain may be acting "illegally" in refusing to release dead bodies to relatives unless they provide evidence that funeral arrangements have been made. In some cases, hospitals may have refused to release a body to anyone other than an undertaker. The charity argues that this behaviour constitutes the common law offence of preventing the lawful burial of a body. This article considers the confusion that may occur between this offence and interference with the right to possession of a body for lawful burial. The conclusion is that it is extremely unlikely a hospital or its employees would fall foul of the criminal law in refusing to release a dead body and may be liable in the civil courts if they release a body to someone who does not have the duty and consequent right to possession of the body for lawful burial.

  3. Review of the potential for utilizing washery refuse in N. S. W. and Queensland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, K M

    1977-06-01

    The growing importance attached to the environment, coupled with the increasing quantities of coal refuse resulting from expanded coal production has highlighted the problem of coal refuse disposal and provided the necessary impetus to find uses for the by-product, which will eventually be regarded as a fuel and engineering material rather than a waste. Potential areas of use will be as a fuel; as a potential fuel replacement and raw material additive for brick manufacture; as a raw material for lightweight aggregate manufacture; as a construction material; for agricultural purposes, or a number of other areas of special use. The successful marketing of coal refuse will depend on an in-depth technical market analysis being carried out, followed by practical research and a comprehensive product examination and identification program being undertaken.

  4. Fundamental aspects of municipal refuse generated in Beirut and Tripoli: field studies 1994-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoub, G.M.; Acra, A.; Abdallah, R.; Merhebi, F.

    1996-01-01

    This study presents socio-economic survey on collection and analysis of data pertaining to the municipal refuse generated in Beirut and Tripoli, Two big cities of Lebanon.Although the collection process applied in Beirut has progressed immensely in the past two years, the unsatisfactory methods of disposal that have been employed until now has an impact on the environment:marine environment as well as the air pollution becoming problems in the city of Beirut. In this respect, solid wastes characterization and generation rates in both cities of Beirut and Tripoli are presented. Mapping of refuse collection and disposal services in the two cities is described. Sources of refuse like hospitals, industries, household,...are enumerated. Recycling potentials of plastics, paper and cardboard, glass wastes, metallic wastes, textile wastes are described

  5. The impacts of coal refuse/fly ash bulk bends on water quality and plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewar, B.R.; Daniels, W.L. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    There is considerable interest in the beneficial reuse of coal fly ash as a soil amendment on coal refuse piles. One method of application would be to blend the coal refuse and the fly ash before deposition in a refuse pile. A field experiment was initiated to measure the effects of bulk blending fly ash with coal refuse on water quality and plant growth parameters. Fly ash (class F) from three sources were used in the experiment. Two of the fly ashes were acidic and the third was alkaline. Trenches were excavated in a coal refuse pile to a depth of 2 m and the refuse was blended with fly ash and then returned to the trench. In other plots the ash was applied as a surface amendment. A treatment of a bulk blend of 5% (w/w) rock phosphate was also included in the experiment. Large volume lysimeters were installed in some trenches to collect the leachates. The fly ash treatments appear to improve the quality of the leachates when compared to the leachates from the untreated plots. The fly ash amended treatments have lower leachate concentrations of Fe and Al. Initially the fly ash treatments showed high levels of leachate B, however those levels have decreased with time. Millet (Setaria italica) yields from the first year of the experiment were highest n the alkaline fly ash and rock phosphate blended plots. In the second growing season, the two bulk blends with alkaline fly ash had the highest yields. In the third growing season all treatments had higher yield levels than the untreated control plots. The positive effects of the fly ash on leachate quality were attributed to the alkalinity of the ash, and the increase in yield was attributed to the increases in water holding capacity due to fly ash treatments.

  6. The Impact of Age and Sex on the Refusal Strategies Used by Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Shahpouri Arani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One major problem for non-native speakers is using refusals and because of this, second language teachers and others who communicate in that language should have the cultural differences in mind. When the interlocutors say “no” to a request or invitation, either directly or indirectly, they use speech act of refusalRefusal is considered a face threatening act, as there exists a kind of contradiction in it and is always realized indirectly. Thus, a high level of pragmatic competence is needed to realize it. The aim of this study is to find out whether the age and sex of Iranian learners have any effect on their used refusal strategies and if the existence of such an effect was demonstrated which group is more native like in terms of content and form of used strategies. To achieve this end, graduated students (male/female of different age, sex and different fields of study were selected. Three groups of participants participated in this study. The first group includes 30 American English Speakers (A.E.S. The second group consists of participants whose ages were between 22-29 and the third group was a group of 30 participants of both sexes who speak English as a second language (sex is the only variable under study in this group. Using a Discourse Completion Test (DCT, a number of refusal situations were collected, responded by participants and analyzed. The results revealed that the age and sex of EFL learners does not have any significant effect on using refusal strategies.

  7. Why do some women refuse to allow male residents to perform pelvic exams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkin, Julie I; Shapiro, Howard; Regensteiner, Judith G; Stotler, Jeanne K; Schmidt, Betty

    2002-10-01

    Many women who receive medical care in residency training clinics refuse to allow male residents to perform their pelvic exams. This study was conducted to identify which women were most likely to refuse and to learn their reasons for refusing. From January to March 1997, a questionnaire was given to all women entering a Tri-County Health office and a Planned Parenthood clinic, both in the Denver, Colorado, metropolitan area, who consented to participate in the study. Data from the questionnaire were analyzed using a statistical software package. A total of 1,437 women entered the clinics during the study period. Of these patients, 1,078 consented to complete the questionnaire. Seven of these 1,078 women did not complete the questionnaire. Women who did not know the training level of the resident performing the pelvic exam were more likely to refuse than were women who knew the training level of the resident (p =.001), but many women preferred a female physician regardless of the physician's training level. Fifty-eight percent said they would allow a male resident to observe a female attending physician perform the exam, compared with 36% who said they would allow a male resident to observe if the attending physician was a man. Common statements from those who would refuse were: "I am just more comfortable with a female," "Women do not want men to examine their private body parts," and "Women explain things better." A woman's knowledge of the resident's training level correlates with her willingness to have a pelvic exam performed by a male resident. Women who said they would refuse a pelvic exam performed by a male resident gave specific reasons for their decision.

  8. Pediatric Depression: When Does Parental Refusal for Treatment Constitute Medical Neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Michael

    2018-06-01

    Depression is a common disorder in youth, and 10% to 15% of individuals have a lifetime prevalence by 18 years of age. Youth who receive treatment typically have a positive outcome, but many remain undiagnosed and untreated. 1 There is a dearth of literature on parental refusal to consent to treatment for pediatric depression and the circumstances under which such refusal could be considered medical neglect. In general, it appears that mental health diagnoses are rarely reported in cases of medical neglect. 2 . Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Remaining a caregiver in the face of a refusal of nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Karine; Ménard, Rachel; Corvol, Aline

    2016-10-01

    Caregivers working with elderly people often find themselves in a difficult position when faced with the refusal of nursing care, whether or not the patient presents cognitive disorders. The nurses from the mobile geriatrics team of Rennes university hospital are regularly asked to help the caregiving teams in such situations. Refusals may concern washing, medication, eating, moving to an armchair, the organisation of physical aids or human assistance after discharge or transfer to a nursing home. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Arab Researchers Promotions of Open Archives and Free

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Al-Majid Salih Bu Azza

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A study aiming at measuring the promotion of Arab researches for Open Archives and Free Electronic Journal, contained 60 researches in Sultan Qabus university in Oman, and discovered their opinion about open access resources. It found that 78.8 % of researchers did not publish articles in Free Electronic Journals, and 77.8 % do not aware about the international imitative of Open Access. Also discovered that researchers refuse publishing their articles in e-journals because of electronic articles are not considered in their universities.

  11. Editorial - Open Access and accessing openness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yngve Nordkvelle

    2008-12-01

    electronic archive in their home institution. This means they should avoid publishing in articles that refuse parallel publishing. This is one of many encouraging events that might pave the way for more Open Access journals. In this issue of Seminar.net, we present four articles and a book review.

  12. Open Content in Open Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansa, Sarah Whitcher; Kansa, Eric C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the challenges and rewards of sharing research content through a discussion of Open Context, a new open access data publication system for field sciences and museum collections. Open Context is the first data repository of its kind, allowing self-publication of research data, community commentary through tagging, and clear…

  13. IMF dependence of the open-closed field line boundary in Saturn's ionosphere, and its relation to the UV auroral oval observed by the Hubble Space Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Belenkaya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the dependence of Saturn's magnetospheric magnetic field structure on the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF, together with the corresponding variations of the open-closed field line boundary in the ionosphere. Specifically we investigate the interval from 8 to 30 January 2004, when UV images of Saturn's southern aurora were obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST, and simultaneous interplanetary measurements were provided by the Cassini spacecraft located near the ecliptic ~0.2 AU upstream of Saturn and ~0.5 AU off the planet-Sun line towards dawn. Using the paraboloid model of Saturn's magnetosphere, we calculate the magnetospheric magnetic field structure for several values of the IMF vector representative of interplanetary compression regions. Variations in the magnetic structure lead to different shapes and areas of the open field line region in the ionosphere. Comparison with the HST auroral images shows that the area of the computed open flux region is generally comparable to that enclosed by the auroral oval, and sometimes agrees in detail with its poleward boundary, though more typically being displaced by a few degrees in the tailward direction.

  14. Surgical decompression for space-occupying cerebral infarction (the Hemicraniectomy After Middle Cerebral Artery infarction with Life-threatening Edema Trial [HAMLET]): a multicentre, open, randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeijer, Jeannette; Kappelle, L Jaap; Algra, Ale; Amelink, G Johan; van Gijn, Jan; van der Worp, H Bart

    2009-04-01

    Patients with space-occupying hemispheric infarctions have a poor prognosis, with case fatality rates of up to 80%. In a pooled analysis of randomised trials, surgical decompression within 48 h of stroke onset reduced case fatality and improved functional outcome; however, the effect of surgery after longer intervals is unknown. The aim of HAMLET was to assess the effect of decompressive surgery within 4 days of the onset of symptoms in patients with space-occupying hemispheric infarction. Patients with space-occupying hemispheric infarction were randomly assigned within 4 days of stroke onset to surgical decompression or best medical treatment. The primary outcome measure was the modified Rankin scale (mRS) score at 1 year, which was dichotomised between good (0-3) and poor (4-6) outcome. Other outcome measures were the dichotomy of mRS score between 4 and 5, case fatality, quality of life, and symptoms of depression. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered, ISRCTN94237756. Between November, 2002, and October, 2007, 64 patients were included; 32 were randomly assigned to surgical decompression and 32 to best medical treatment. Surgical decompression had no effect on the primary outcome measure (absolute risk reduction [ARR] 0%, 95% CI -21 to 21) but did reduce case fatality (ARR 38%, 15 to 60). In a meta-analysis of patients in DECIMAL (DEcompressive Craniectomy In MALignant middle cerebral artery infarction), DESTINY (DEcompressive Surgery for the Treatment of malignant INfarction of the middle cerebral arterY), and HAMLET who were randomised within 48 h of stroke onset, surgical decompression reduced poor outcome (ARR 16%, -0.1 to 33) and case fatality (ARR 50%, 34 to 66). Surgical decompression reduces case fatality and poor outcome in patients with space-occupying infarctions who are treated within 48 h of stroke onset. There is no evidence that this operation improves functional outcome when it is delayed for up to 96 h after stroke onset

  15. States consider suit if DOE refuses spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeyher, A.

    1994-01-01

    Michigan, Florida, and Minnesota were joined by Wisconsin on April 21 in the Nuclear Waste Strategy Coalition (NWSC), a group of utilities, state regulators, and state attorneys general that have banded together to decide what to do about the Department of Energy's apparent intention to renege on its obligation to begin taking title to spent nuclear fuel by January 31, 1998. According to Ronald Russell, a commissioner on the Michigan Public Service Commission and cofounder of the NWSC, another six states have expressed interest in joining the coalition. open-quotes We're looking at encouraging the DOE to step up to its legal responsibility to take nuclear spent fuel by 1998,close quotes Russell said. The objectives of the coalition include asking the DOE to support privatization of nuclear storage, to review the management of the final repository program in order to make it more efficient, and to identify legislative changes that the DOE might feel are necessary for it to accomplish its charge. The NWSC is also considering filing a lawsuit in response to the DOE's open-quotes anticipatory breach of an executory contract.close quotes The NWSC and others feel that the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and the related standard contracts between the DOE and the utilities form a legal contract for the DOE to take the spent fuel on the agreed upon date

  16. Risk taking and refusal assertiveness in a longitudinal model of alcohol use among inner-city adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, J A; Griffin, K W; Botvin, G J

    2001-09-01

    Risk taking and refusal assertiveness have been shown to be important determinants of adolescent alcohol use. However, it remains unclear whether youth predisposed to risk taking would be less likely to assertively refuse. This study examined the relationships among risk taking, refusal assertiveness, and alcohol use in a sample of inner-city minority students (N = 1,459), using a cross-lagged longitudinal structural equation model. Data collectors administered the questionnaire to students following a standardized protocol during a 40-min class period. Based on the tested model, risk taking was more stable over time than refusal assertiveness. Furthermore, high risk takers reported less frequent subsequent refusal assertiveness, and less frequent refusal assertiveness predicted greater drinking. A predisposition toward risk taking appears to be an enduring characteristic that is associated with low refusal assertiveness and increased alcohol use. These findings suggest that alcohol prevention programs that emphasize refusal skills training may be less effective for high risk takers. But programs that focus on enhancing competence or reducing normative expectations for peer alcohol use might be more effective for high risk-taking youth.

  17. Risky procedures by nurses in hospitals: problems and (contemplated) refusals of orders by physicians, and views of physicians and nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bie, J.; Cuperus-Bosma, J.M.; van der Jagt, M.A.; Gevers, J.K.M.; van der Wal, G.

    2005-01-01

    Occurrence of problems with, refusals of orders and contemplated refusals of orders for risky procedures by nurses in Dutch hospitals and views on the safety of performance was studied using postal questionnaires (600 physicians and 3200 nurses, response 60-71%). Of the respondents, 11-30%

  18. Higher refusal rates for organ donation among older potential donors in the Netherlands: impact of the donor register and relatives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leiden, H.A. van; Jansen, N.E.; Haase-Kromwijk, B.J.; Hoitsma, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The availability of donor organs is considerably reduced by relatives refusing donation after death. There is no previous large-scale evaluation of the influence of the Donor Register (DR) consultation and the potential donor's age on this refusal in The Netherlands. METHODS: This study

  19. Predicting risk of school refusal: Examining the incremental role of trait EI beyond personality and emotion regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippello Pina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has not yet been deepened in the link between personality factors and risk of school refusal. Furthermore, previous studies fail to verify the direct relation between trait EI and the risk of school refusal. The present study examined personality traits, emotion regulation and trait EI for the contributory role they may play in predicting the risk of school refusal. The sample consisted of 311 participants, 112 males (36% and 199 females (64% with an average age of 14.19 (SD = .60, from a high school in the city of Messina (Sicily, Italy. Results show that the risk of school refusal is positively related to neuroticism and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies, while it is negatively related to the extroversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness and trait EI. Moreover, trait EI can be considered as a strong incremental negative predictor of risk of school refusal over and above personality traits and emotion regulation.

  20. 9 CFR 351.19 - Refusal of certification for specific lots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal of certification for specific lots. 351.19 Section 351.19 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  1. Psychological Factors behind Truancy, School Phobia, and School Refusal: A Literature Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, Hans; Eriksson, Rikard

    2013-01-01

    Truancy is a problem that normally leads to treatment interventions within different organizations. Within these organizations different perspectives on the causes and consequences of the above problem can be found. The purpose of this literature study is to map out and describe the current state of research within the fields of school refusal,…

  2. Mothers' reasons for refusing to give consent to HIV testing and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    under-five mortality rate by more than half since 1990. ... children in sub-Saharan Africa. ... In Limpopo Province, South Africa, the prevention of mother-to-child ... had attended antenatal care, 28 (93%) stated that their HIV results were negative ... (16%) mothers signed refusal of hospital treatment, three (12%) started ARV ...

  3. An investigation on the fuel savings potential of hybrid hydraulic refuse collection vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, Frank A., E-mail: bender@isys.uni-stuttgart.de; Bosse, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Driving cycle acquisition in a refuse collection vehicle. • Vehicle modeling and validation for numerical simulations based on the measured driving cycle. • Fuel consumption analysis for a conventional diesel vehicle and a hybrid hydraulic vehicle. - Abstract: Refuse trucks play an important role in the waste collection process. Due to their typical driving cycle, these vehicles are characterized by large fuel consumption, which strongly affects the overall waste disposal costs. Hybrid hydraulic refuse vehicles offer an interesting alternative to conventional diesel trucks, because they are able to recuperate, store and reuse braking energy. However, the expected fuel savings can vary strongly depending on the driving cycle and the operational mode. Therefore, in order to assess the possible fuel savings, a typical driving cycle was measured in a conventional vehicle run by the waste authority of the City of Stuttgart, and a dynamical model of the considered vehicle was built up. Based on the measured driving cycle and the vehicle model including the hybrid powertrain components, simulations for both the conventional and the hybrid vehicle were performed. Fuel consumption results that indicate savings of about 20% are presented and analyzed in order to evaluate the benefit of hybrid hydraulic vehicles used for refuse collection.

  4. An investigation on the fuel savings potential of hybrid hydraulic refuse collection vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, Frank A.; Bosse, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Driving cycle acquisition in a refuse collection vehicle. • Vehicle modeling and validation for numerical simulations based on the measured driving cycle. • Fuel consumption analysis for a conventional diesel vehicle and a hybrid hydraulic vehicle. - Abstract: Refuse trucks play an important role in the waste collection process. Due to their typical driving cycle, these vehicles are characterized by large fuel consumption, which strongly affects the overall waste disposal costs. Hybrid hydraulic refuse vehicles offer an interesting alternative to conventional diesel trucks, because they are able to recuperate, store and reuse braking energy. However, the expected fuel savings can vary strongly depending on the driving cycle and the operational mode. Therefore, in order to assess the possible fuel savings, a typical driving cycle was measured in a conventional vehicle run by the waste authority of the City of Stuttgart, and a dynamical model of the considered vehicle was built up. Based on the measured driving cycle and the vehicle model including the hybrid powertrain components, simulations for both the conventional and the hybrid vehicle were performed. Fuel consumption results that indicate savings of about 20% are presented and analyzed in order to evaluate the benefit of hybrid hydraulic vehicles used for refuse collection

  5. 37 CFR 1.47 - Filing when an inventor refuses to sign or cannot be reached.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reached. (a) If a joint inventor refuses to join in an application for patent or cannot be found or reached after diligent effort, the application may be made by the other inventor on behalf of himself or... PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National...

  6. Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhancing tomato plant growth and productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sortino, Orazio [Dipartimento di Scienze Agronomiche Agrochimiche e delle Produzioni Animali, Universita degli Studi di Catania, Via Valdisavoia 5, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipasquale, Mauro [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Montoneri, Enzo, E-mail: enzo.montoneri@unito.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Tomasso, Lorenzo; Perrone, Daniele G. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Vindrola, Daniela; Negre, Michele; Piccone, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Valorizzazione e Protezione delle Risorse Agroforestali, Universita di Torino, Via L. da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Municipal bio-wastes are a sustainable source of bio-based products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics promote chlorophyll synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhance plant growth and fruit ripening rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustainable chemistry exploiting urban refuse allows sustainable development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemistry, agriculture and the environment benefit from biowaste technology. - Abstract: Municipal bio-refuse (CVD), containing kitchen wastes, home gardening residues and public park trimmings, was treated with alkali to yield a soluble bio-organic fraction (SBO) and an insoluble residue. These materials were characterized using elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and then applied as organic fertilizers to soil for tomato greenhouse cultivation. Their performance was compared with a commercial product obtained from animal residues. Plant growth, fruit yield and quality, and soil and leaf chemical composition were the selected performance indicators. The SBO exhibited the best performance by enhancing leaf chlorophyll content, improving plant growth and fruit ripening rate and yield. No product performance-chemical composition relationship could be assessed. Solubility could be one reason for the superior performance of SBO as a tomato growth promoter. The enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content is discussed to identify a possible link with the SBO photosensitizing properties that have been demonstrated in other work, and thus with photosynthetic performance.

  7. Refusing in a Foreign Language: An Investigation of Problems Encountered by Chinese Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuh-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Whereas the speech act of refusal is universal across language, the politeness value and the types of linguistic forms used to perform it vary across language and culture. The majority of the comparative pragmatic research findings were derived from one single source of data (i.e., either production data or perception data). Few attempts have been…

  8. Influence of Refuse Sites on the Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella Serovars in Seagulls▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Raül; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Ramírez, Francisco; Jover, Lluís; Ruiz, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Wild animals are well-known reservoirs of Campylobacter and Salmonella. We investigated the influence of insalubrious diets on the prevalence of both enterobacteria in seagulls. Campylobacter occurrence in gull chicks sampled along the northeastern Iberian coast was directly related to the degree of refuse consumption. High Salmonella values from the sampling sites did not reflect any dietary relationship.

  9. Influence of Refuse Sites on the Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella Serovars in Seagulls▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Raül; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Ramírez, Francisco; Jover, Lluís; Ruiz, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Wild animals are well-known reservoirs of Campylobacter and Salmonella. We investigated the influence of insalubrious diets on the prevalence of both enterobacteria in seagulls. Campylobacter occurrence in gull chicks sampled along the northeastern Iberian coast was directly related to the degree of refuse consumption. High Salmonella values from the sampling sites did not reflect any dietary relationship. PMID:20208027

  10. Influence of refuse sites on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella serovars in seagulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Raül; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Ramírez, Francisco; Jover, Lluís; Ruiz, Xavier

    2010-05-01

    Wild animals are well-known reservoirs of Campylobacter and Salmonella. We investigated the influence of insalubrious diets on the prevalence of both enterobacteria in seagulls. Campylobacter occurrence in gull chicks sampled along the northeastern Iberian coast was directly related to the degree of refuse consumption. High Salmonella values from the sampling sites did not reflect any dietary relationship.

  11. Blood Transfusion in Children: The Refusal of Jehovah’s Witness Parents’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Adelaide; Capasso, Emanuele; Casella, Claudia; Fedeli, Piergiorgio; Salzano, Francesco Antonio; Policino, Fabio; Terracciano, Lucia; Delbon, Paola

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In Italy, both parents have parental responsibility; as a general principle they have the power to give or withhold consent to medical procedures on their children, including consent for blood transfusion; however these rights are not absolute and exist only to promote the welfare of children. Methods The Authors discuss ethical and legal framework for Jehovah’s Witness parents’ refusal of blood transfusion in Italy. They searched national judgments concerning Jehovah’s Witness parents’ refusal of blood transfusion – and related comments – in national legal databases and national legal journals, and literature on medical literature databases. Results In the case of Jehovah’s Witness parents’ refusal of blood transfusion for their child, Italian Courts adopt measures that prevents the parents from exercise their parental responsibility not in the child’s best interest. Discussion In the event that refusal by the parents, outside of emergency situations, exposes the child’s health to serious risk, health workers must proceed by notifying the competent authority, according also to the Italian Code of Medical Ethics. Conclusion When the patient is a minor, the child’s best interest always come first. PMID:29666843

  12. Rape myth acceptance and rape acknowledgment: The mediating role of sexual refusal assertiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newins, Amie R; Wilson, Laura C; White, Susan W

    2018-05-01

    Unacknowledged rape, defined as when an individual experiences an event that meets a legal or empirical definition of rape but the individual does not label it as such, is prevalent. Research examining predictors of rape acknowledgment is needed. Sexual assertiveness may be an important variable to consider, as an individual's typical behavior during sexual situations may influence rape acknowledgment. To assess the indirect effect of rape myth acceptance on rape acknowledgment through sexual refusal assertiveness, an online survey of 181 female rape survivors was conducted. The indirect effects of two types of rape myths (He didn't mean to and Rape is a deviant event) were significant and positive. Specifically, acceptance of these two rape myths was negatively related to sexual refusal assertiveness, which was negatively associated with likelihood of rape acknowledgment. The results of this study indicate that sexual refusal assertiveness is associated with lower likelihood of rape acknowledgment among rape survivors. As a result, it appears that, under certain circumstances, women high in rape myth acceptance may be more likely to acknowledge rape when it results in decreased sexual refusal assertiveness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. "To My Relations": Writing and Refusal toward an Indigenous Epistolary Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, Nora Alba

    2018-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an Indigenous Epistolary Methodology (IEM) to reflect on what it means for Indigenous women to engage the notion of refusal in traditional writing methods and qualitative research. The author proposes that an IEM, nestled within her familial genealogies, Indigenous Knowledges and Chicana Feminist Epistemology…

  14. Why parents refuse childhood vaccination: a qualitative study using online focus groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In high income countries, vaccine-preventable diseases have been greatly reduced through routine vaccination programs. Despite this success, many parents question, and a small proportion even refuse vaccination for their children. As no qualitative studies have explored the factors behind these decisions among Dutch parents, we performed a study using online focus groups. Methods In total, eight online focus groups (n = 60) which included Dutch parents with at least one child, aged 0–4 years, for whom they refused all or part of the vaccinations within the National Immunization Program (NIP). A thematic analysis was performed to explore factors that influenced the parents’ decisions to refuse vaccination. Results Refusal of vaccination was found to reflect multiple factors including family lifestyle; perceptions about the child’s body and immune system; perceived risks of disease, vaccine efficacy, and side effects; perceived advantages of experiencing the disease; prior negative experience with vaccination; and social environment. The use of online focus groups proved to be an effective qualitative research method providing meaningful data. Conclusion Information provided by the NIP turned out to be insufficient for this group of parents. More trust in the NIP and deliberate decisions might result from increased parental understanding of lifestyle and disease susceptibility, the impact of vaccinations on the immune system, and the relative risks of diseases and their vaccines. The public health institute should also inform parents that the NIP is recommended but non-mandatory. PMID:24341406

  15. [A patient who refused treatment after self-poisoning with paracetamol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramers, C.; Jansman, F.G.A.; Droogleever Fortuyn, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Two patients, a 20-year-old man and a 33-year-old woman, were admitted with paracetamol poisoning. Both patients refused treatment initially but eventually complied. The man had a paracetamol concentration of 47.5 mg/l 2.5-5.0 h after ingestion, so antidote treatment was not considered necessary.

  16. 38 CFR 17.100 - Refusal of treatment by unnecessarily breaking appointments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and satisfactory reasons are advanced for breaking the appointment and circumstances were such that... unnecessarily breaking appointments. 17.100 Section 17.100 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Breaking Appointments § 17.100 Refusal of treatment by unnecessarily breaking...

  17. Determinants for refusal of HIV testing among women attending for antenatal care in Gambella Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanta, Wondimagegn; Worku, Alemayehu

    2012-07-26

    In Gambella region, inhabitants owe socio-cultural factors that might favor refusal for HIV testing service utilization among Antenatal Care attendees. To assess determinants for refusal of HIV testing service utilization among ANC attendees in Gambella Region. A comparative cross sectional study was conducted among ANC attendees from March 2008 to May 2008 in four selected health facilities of Gambella region. Sample size of 332 participants (83 who refused HIV testing and 249 who accepted HIV testing) were taken for the study. The study was supplemented with four focus group discussions. Multivariate binary logistic regression was employed to control for confounding factors. When adjusted with other factors pregnant women with 2-3 live births in the past; who claimed divorce as a perceived response of their husband following HIV positive test result; who had not sought agreement from their husband for testing; disclosure of test for husband and being from certain ethnic group (E.g. Mejenger) were independent predictors for refusal of HIV testing among ANC attendees. Based on the findings, the following recommendations were forwarded: Provision of innovative information and education on the pre-test session for those pregnant women having two or more children; community involvement to tackle stigma; women empowerment; designing couple friendly counseling service; and fighting harmful traditional practices related with decision of HIV testing.

  18. [Tuberculosis and refusal of treatment: resorting to legislation on serious health threats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, R; Le Gueut, M

    2013-06-01

    Clinicians are regularly confronted with the question of refusal of treatment from patients with tuberculosis. For several years, the French public health authorities have been studying the possibility of compelling treatment or isolation, but no plan has been implemented even though European and American experiences have shown the effectiveness of restrictive measures. Neither the statutory exceptions to the principle of consent to medical treatment nor the conditions of implementation of "required care" allow legally binding measures against patients refusing care or isolation. The legislation on serious health threats has recently been applied to the situation of a refusal of treatment in the context of tuberculosis. It allowed the patient to be ordered to observe prescribed care and the possibility of forced isolation in the event of breach of this order. The legislation on serious health threats is a response to the question of refusal of treatment from patients with tuberculosis. However the opinion of the legal authority as to its necessity and proportionality to the risk remains unknown. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Correlates of HIV testing refusal among emergency department patients in the opt-out testing era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setse, Rosanna W; Maxwell, Celia J

    2014-05-01

    Opt-out HIV screening is recommended by the CDC for patients in all healthcare settings. We examined correlates of HIV testing refusal among urban emergency department (ED) patients. Confidential free HIV screening was offered to 32,633 ED patients in an urban tertiary care facility in Washington, DC, during May 2007-December 2011. Demographic differences in testing refusals were examined using χ(2) tests and generalized linear models. HIV testing refusal rates were 47.7 % 95 % CI (46.7-48.7), 11.7 % (11.0-12.4), 10.7 % (10.0-11.4), 16.9 % (15.9-17.9) and 26.9 % (25.6-28.2) in 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011 respectively. Persons 33-54 years of age [adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) 1.42, (1.36-1.48)] and those ≥ 55 years [APR 1.39 (1.31-1.47)], versus 33-54 years; and females versus males [APR 1.07 (1.02-1.11)] were more likely to refuse testing. Opt-out HIV testing is feasible and sustainable in urban ED settings. Efforts are needed to encourage testing among older patients and women.

  20. 30 CFR 780.25 - Reclamation plan: Siltation structures, impoundments, and refuse piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... is capable of being done after consideration of cost, logistics, and available technology. The fact... COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS SURFACE MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM..., and refuse piles. (a) General. Each application must include a general plan and a detailed design plan...