WorldWideScience

Sample records for open space control

  1. Public demand for preserving local open space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kline

    2006-01-01

    Increased development results in the loss of forest, farm, range, and other open space lands that contribute to the quality of life of U.S. residents. I describe an economic rationale for growing public support for preserving local open space, based the growing scarcity of open space lands. I test the rationale empirically by correlating the prevalence of open space...

  2. Will this open space work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vischer, J

    1999-01-01

    Northern Oil is moving offices, and CEO Fritz Schumacher wants to make the most of the move in this fictional case study. He believes that adopting an open-plan work space will reinvent how the company works, not to mention cut costs. Facilities manager Sasha Pasternak also supports the open plan. Her job would be easier, and her budget would stretch further, if Northern had standardized workstations and used partitions, not walls. And she likes the way the new design flattens the organization: everyone has the same amount of space and the same ergonomically sound furniture. The new building would have more conference rooms and just-in-time work spaces for employees who worked mostly off-site. And although she knew that initial meetings between the architects and Northern employees hadn't yielded much support for open space--people were attached to their private offices--she expected that people would warm to the idea. But when the new design was unveiled, employees were less than enthusiastic. They hurled questions like, How will workers concentrate if they can't shut their office doors? How will people have confidential meetings with their boss? And why would people stay at Northern when the competition offers them private offices? There was even talk of circulating a petition refusing to move to the new space. A week later, the architect presented revised plans to the project group. The new options would add costs and reduce the amount of space savings, but offering a choice to employees might make them feel less threatened. What should the project team do? Five commentators offer advice.

  3. Spaces of Open-source Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Emil; Plesner, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    . Inspired by the literature on organizational space, the analysis explores how different organizational spaces configure the party’s process of policy development, thereby adding to our understanding of the relationship between organizational space and political organization. We analyze three different....... Curiously, it seems that physical spaces open up the political process, while digital spaces close it down by fixing meaning. Accordingly, we argue that open-source politics should not be equated with online politics but may be highly dependent on physical spaces. Furthermore, digital spaces may provide......The recent proliferation of Web 2.0 applications and their role in contemporary political life have inspired the coining of the term ‘open-source politics’. This article analyzes how open-source politics is organized in the case of a radical political party in Denmark called The Alternative...

  4. Transforming spaces into lively public open places

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cilliers, E.J.; Timmermans, W.

    2016-01-01

    Urban public open spaces are an important part of the urban environment, creating the framework for public life. The transformation of open space into successful public places is crucial in this regard. In the context of target-driven performance it is essential to identify the value of

  5. Open source IPSEC software in manned and unmanned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jacob

    Network security is a major topic of research because cyber attackers pose a threat to national security. Securing ground-space communications for NASA missions is important because attackers could endanger mission success and human lives. This thesis describes how an open source IPsec software package was used to create a secure and reliable channel for ground-space communications. A cost efficient, reproducible hardware testbed was also created to simulate ground-space communications. The testbed enables simulation of low-bandwidth and high latency communications links to experiment how the open source IPsec software reacts to these network constraints. Test cases were built that allowed for validation of the testbed and the open source IPsec software. The test cases also simulate using an IPsec connection from mission control ground routers to points of interest in outer space. Tested open source IPsec software did not meet all the requirements. Software changes were suggested to meet requirements.

  6. Review Essay: Controlled Openness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Wenninger

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The book reviewed here contains a written form of Niklas LUHMANN’s last lecture, delivered in winter term 1992/1993 at Bielefeld University, where he was professor for sociology from 1968 to 1993. A more comprehensive and systematic publication titled "Die Gesellschaft der Gesellschaft" was not published until 1997. In comparison to this and to other publications the present one provides an insight into the modality of the theoretical practice of LUHMANN. My review-essay follows up that point and reminds us that LUHMANN worked out his theory of society in view of a sociological problem he had conceived. He accused sociology of accumulating knowledge in a confusing way by empirical social research. His endeavour, in contrast, was to enable research within a consistent theoretical frame that was nevertheless open to expansive explorations. LUHMANN tries to achieve consistency through the reciprocal adjustment of his terms and his theoretical components, which should enable the construction of problems for comparison within global society. This means that his approach stays open for an empirical reality that remains to be explored because the theory of society does not deliver terms to categorize empirical reality. Instead, terms are conceptualized as distinctions with the function to construct problems that instruct observations and make them amenable to theorization. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0803237

  7. A Monstrous Alliance: Open Architecture and Common Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Kodalak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary built environment is absorbed by a dualist spatial organisation model divided between public and private space. Within this restrictive grammar, public space, despite its democratic promise, is heavily indoctrinated and anesthetised under the hegemony of regulatory apparatuses and control mechanisms, whereas private space has catalysed, if not directly engendered, prevalent spatial problems, such as ever-increasing slums, discriminatory gentrification and ecological catastrophes, despite its self-approving assurance. Underneath this dysfunctional couple lies common space, a third category that constitutes the shared spatial commonwealth of our entire natural and cultural milieu.The multitude, as an emerging body of self-organising political and spatial actors, has already started to unearth the potential of common space, actualising emergent and interactive spatial configurations all around the world. In this new, self-organisational model, architects do not become obsolete; rather, they leave behind their conventional roles as submissive experts and cosmetic speculators. By becoming anomalous architects, they affirm and augment the opening of spatial and architectural milieus to a myriad of new possibilities.This article theorises the possibility of a monstrous alliance between anomalous architects and the multitude, between open architectures and common space. Two specific case studies accompany these theoretical frameworks: the Gezi Event (Istanbul, 2013 demonstrates the actual emancipation of common space through the self-organising activity of the multitude, while Open-Cube (Antalya, 2013 attests to an early open architecture experiment based on the potentiating activity of the anomalous architect. 

  8. Universal design of public open spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Krajner

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban open spaces are public places that must assure access for all users. They should be designed for equal use despite disabilities and special recreational needs. Their design must be functional and must meet user’s special requirements, either everyday functional or special (recreational needs. It is not just about overcoming architectural obstacles by building ramps of suitable slope and size; it is about inclusive, universal landscape design of urban space made for all citizens. For this matter, different ways of public use for each group of users is defined, functional criteria are determined, and examples of good and bad design are assembled to present the differences between technically accomplished ramps, and slope paths that include quality landscape inclusive design. To prove the unsuitability of public open spaces in Ljubljana, various analyses were made, including the measurement of steepness, lengths and wideness of certain urban elements. As an application of results, the universal designing principles are summarized in new proposal for entrance into Tivoli Park.

  9. Open space preservation, property value, and optimal spatial configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong Jiang; Stephen K. Swallow

    2007-01-01

    The public has increasingly demonstrated a strong support for open space preservation. How to finance the socially efficient level of open space with the optimal spatial structure is of high policy relevance to local governments. In this study, we developed a spatially explicit open space model to help identify the socially optimal amount and optimal spatial...

  10. Open loop control of an induction motor's velocity using PWM with space vectors; Control en lazo abierto de la velocidad de un motor de induccion utilizando PWM con vectores espaciales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Lopez, Manuel

    2001-10-15

    This work describes the design and implementation of an open loop speed controller for an induction motor. This controller is based on a DSP TMS320F240 chip from Texas Instruments. Speed control is achieved by maintaining the magnetic flux constant through the regularization of stator voltage/frequency relationship. Voltage and frequency variation are achieved using the strategy of pulse width modulation with space vectors. Hardware design is presented (current source and the printed circuit for the intelligent power module) and the software (control algorithms and the modulation strategy using space vectors). The algorithms given were implement using the TMS320F240 language. [Spanish] Este trabajo describe el diseno y la implementacion de un control de la velocidad en lazo abierto de un motor de induccion, basado en el DSP TMS320F240 de Texas Instruments. El control de la velocidad se logra manteniendo el flujo en el entre hierro constante, lo cual es realizado al regular el valor de la relacion voltaje/frecuencia en el estator. La variacion del voltaje y la frecuencia se realiza utilizando la estrategia de modulacion del ancho de los pulsos con vectores espaciales. Se presenta el diseno de los circuitos (fuente de corriente continua y circuito impreso para el modulo inteligente de potencia) y de los programas (algoritmos de control y de la estrategia de modulacion con vectores espaciales) necesarios que se utilizaron durante la implementacion del accionamiento del motor. Los algoritmos dados fueron implementados en el lenguaje ensamblador del TMS320F240.

  11. 78 FR 53496 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Open Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the... the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The meeting will take place on...

  12. 77 FR 52108 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Open Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the... the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The meeting will take place on...

  13. 78 FR 18416 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Open Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the... the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The meeting will take place on...

  14. Evaluation of the effects of subgingival injection of Simvastatin on space re-opening after orthodontic space closure in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanbin, Arezoo; Abtahi, Mostafa; Namdar, Parastoo; Heravi, Farzin; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Arab, Hamidreza; Shafaee, Hooman

    2016-01-01

    Background. This clinical trial evaluated the effect of Simvastatin on space re-opening after orthodontic space closure and its effect on the gingival index (GI) and clinical attachment loss (CAL). Methods. 16 females, 25-40 years old, with spaces between anterior mandibular teeth due to chronic periodontitis were participated in this study. The patients were randomly divided into control and experimental groups. In the experimental group, 1.2% Simvastatin gel and in the control group, 0.9% sodium chloride as a placebo was injected into the pocket depth of the six anterior teeth. The amount of space reopening, GI and CAL were measured. Results. No serious complications were observed during interventions and follow-up periods. Space re-opening was significantly reduced in patients receiving Simvastatin (P space re-opening after orthodontic space closure in human anterior teeth.

  15. Controllable Subspaces of Open Quantum Dynamical Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ming; Gong Erling; Xie Hongwei; Hu Dewen; Dai Hongyi

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of controllable subspace for open quantum dynamical systems. It is constructively demonstrated that combining structural features of decoherence-free subspaces with the ability to perform open-loop coherent control on open quantum systems will allow decoherence-free subspaces to be controllable. This is in contrast to the observation that open quantum dynamical systems are not open-loop controllable. To a certain extent, this paper gives an alternative control theoretical interpretation on why decoherence-free subspaces can be useful for quantum computation.

  16. Open superstring field theory on the restricted Hilbert space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopka, Sebastian; Sachs, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    It appears that the formulation of an action for the Ramond sector of open superstring field theory requires to either restrict the Hilbert space for the Ramond sector or to introduce auxiliary fields with picture −3/2. The purpose of this note is to clarify the relation of the restricted Hilbert space with other approaches and to formulate open superstring field theory entirely in the small Hilbert space.

  17. The Spaces of Open-Source Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Emil; Plesner, Ursula

    The recent proliferation of Web 2.0 technologies and their role in contemporary political life has inspired the coining of the term ‘open-source politics’. This article analyzes how open-source politics is organized in the case of a young radical political party called The Alternative. Inspired...... processes, but may provide both closure and disconnection between the party’s universal body and its particular body. In conclusion, we propose that such a disconnection might be a precondition for success when institutionalizing radical politics, as it allows parties like The Alternative to maintain...

  18. Measuring the quality of public open space using Google Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bronwen T; Fernando, Peter; Bauman, Adrian E; Williamson, Anna; Craig, Jonathan C; Redman, Sally

    2011-02-01

    Proximity to public open space, such as parks and other green spaces, has considerable health benefits, and people have been shown to be more likely to use such space for physical activity if it is of high quality. This paper describes a new remote-assessment approach that makes use of Google Earth Pro (the free version of this program is Google Earth) to provide rapid and inexpensive measurement of the quality of public open space. The aim of the study was to assess the correlation between assessments of the quality of public open space using (1) the remote method (making use of Google Earth Pro) and (2) direct observation with a well-established measure of quality, the Public Open Space Tool (POST). Fifty parks selected from the southwest part of Sydney, Australia, were assessed in 2009 with the remote method (using Google Earth Pro), and scores were compared with those obtained from direct observation of the same parks using POST. The time taken to conduct the assessments using each method was also recorded. Raters for each method were blind to scores obtained from using the other method. Analyses were conducted in 2009. The Spearman correlation coefficient between the quality scores obtained for the 50 parks using the remote method and direct observation was 0.9 (pspaces without the need for in-person visits, dramatically reducing the time required for environmental audits of public open space. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Landscape Management of Public Open Space in Bogor Heritage City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusparini, F. D.; Nurhayati; Arifin, H. S.

    2017-10-01

    Public open space landscape plays important role in Bogor Heritage City. Although these spaces can carry various kind of public activities and enhance environment quality, they are fragile to disturbance and changing due to city development. Therefore, as an effort to maintain public open space landscape in 8 zones within Heritage City of Bogor, management of public open space landscape is necessary. Syntesys of public open space landscape management had held by using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). The AHP result showed public open space landscape in Palace and Botanical Garden of Bogor zone (20%) is in high priority to be maintained. The other zone are Situ Gede (16,9%), Plan Karsten (12,3%), European Settlement (12%), Suryakencana (11,2%), Batu Tulis (10,2%), Empang (9.2%) and West Development (8,2%). Ecological function (34,8%) becomes the most important function to be maintained (34.8%) then social culture (31.2%), economic (17%), and aesthetics (17%).

  20. Public open space for disaster mitigation in Tangerang housing estates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winandari, M. I. R.

    2018-01-01

    Public open space in housing estates plays an important role particularly in disaster mitigation. In some housing, there are indications of shape and use of space changes post-handover to local government. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between public open space condition and management related to disaster mitigation in Tangerang housing estates. Multiple case study method is used to analyse of 2 housing cases. Aspects of access and boundaries were used to evaluate the cases. The results showed that gated community housing type should have more than 1 access to facilitate evacuation by considering the farthest unit to the housing gate. This is necessary to provide open spaces that are easily accessible from all units as the first evacuation site during and post disaster.

  1. Open problems in the geometry and analysis of Banach spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Guirao, Antonio J; Zizler, Václav

    2016-01-01

    This is a collection of some easily-formulated problems that remain open in the study of the geometry and analysis of Banach spaces. Assuming the reader has a working familiarity with the basic results of Banach space theory, the authors focus on concepts of basic linear geometry, convexity, approximation, optimization, differentiability, renormings, weak compact generating, Schauder bases and biorthogonal systems, fixed points, topology and nonlinear geometry. The main purpose of this work is to help convince young researchers in Functional Analysis that the theory of Banach spaces is a fertile field of research, full of interesting open problems. Inside the Banach space area, the text should help expose young researchers to the depth and breadth of the work that remains, and to provide the perspective necessary to choose a direction for further study. Some of the problems presented herein are longstanding open problems, some are recent, some are more important and some are only "local" problems. Some would ...

  2. Green Open Space: Awareness for Health or Sustainability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, O. C.; Chairunnisa, I.; Hidayat, T.; Anggraini, M.; Napitupulu, A.

    2018-03-01

    Universitas Indonesia in cooperation with American Red Cross and Indonesian Red Cross have been assisting green open space revitalisation program in 7 locations in Bogor Regency (2016-2017). The program was held under The Urban Disaster Risk Reduction Greater Jakarta Project; an initiative program from American Red Cross Indonesia. This project was not only improving the existing green open space quality, but also creating one adapted from public land. The revitalization project figures what happened on daily basis on the existing land, proposing new programming facilities, community-based construction, monitoring and handing over. This paper discovers the meaning of a green space for the community, whether the community aware of its benefit on human health or environmental sustainability. The research question is does the community aware of green open space benefit for human health or environmental sustainability? Or both? The original data from the community was gathered and grouped based on its relevance with environmental quality and public health.

  3. Courts and open spaces in the Late Helladic III Argolid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siennicka, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    While space remains a neglected subject in research on Mycenaean settlements, archaeological and ethnographical studies devoted to social meaning of places and areas used by the inhabitants of the prehistoric and other communities increase in number. This paper aims to review the use and signific......While space remains a neglected subject in research on Mycenaean settlements, archaeological and ethnographical studies devoted to social meaning of places and areas used by the inhabitants of the prehistoric and other communities increase in number. This paper aims to review the use...... and significance of courts and other open spaces in the Mycenaean settlements in the Argolid during the Palatial and Post-Palatial periods (c. 15th–11th centuries BC). Various categories of areas, like courts, open spaces and open-air areas are discussed, with an emphasis on their functions and status. Courts...

  4. Soundscape of Urban Open Spaces in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui

    This study aims to investigate the soundscape of urban open spaces in Hong Kong. Open space in densely populated cities has been considered as an important asset for urban inhabitants in that they afford opportunities for leisure, recreation and an active involvement with nature. For quite a long time, visual aesthetic was the dominant consideration in open space design and other senses were given less concern. Continuous stream of attention-demanding sounds from the noisy environment may bombard these open spaces, rendering them no longer able to satisfy the eye alone. Sound and consequently the acoustic environment are receiving increasing attention. This study used noise mapping technique supplemented by GIS spatial analysis tools to delineate quiet open spaces with traffic noise exposure less than 60 dB (A) L10, 1h and conducted field observations to determine their usages. The identified quiet open spaces are either concentrated in hilly and remote areas with low accessibility, or sporadically scattered among tall buildings. Some large urban parks and small sitting-out areas are even located in the center of the city. Larger open spaces serve group visits, such as hiking and sightseeing, while smaller ones are easily accessible to local residents for social and recreational purposes. The acoustic environment III urban open spaces varies with space and time. To characterize the acoustic quality of soundscapes in the quiet open spaces, sound walk and field recording were undertaken place in 25 selected study sites. Despite the dominance of traffic noise, soundscapes in the urban open spaces are also shaped by natural sounds. Sounds from birds and water are common and prevalent particularly in gardens and playgrounds. Soundscape approach is a human-centered point of view. How the visitors perceive and evaluate sounds and the acoustic quality has great implication for soundscape design. On-site interview of 1,610 visitors unravels human preference of individual

  5. Space Power Theory: Controlling the Medium Without Weapons in Space

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilkerson, Don L

    2008-01-01

    .... strategic space assets and the ability to negate enemy space systems is essential to U.S. space strategy in controlling the geographical environment of space, predominately in the Lower Earth Orbit (LEO...

  6. Open control/display system for a telerobotics work station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keslowitz, Saul

    1987-01-01

    A working Advanced Space Cockpit was developed that integrated advanced control and display devices into a state-of-the-art multimicroprocessor hardware configuration, using window graphics and running under an object-oriented, multitasking real-time operating system environment. This Open Control/Display System supports the idea that the operator should be able to interactively monitor, select, control, and display information about many payloads aboard the Space Station using sets of I/O devices with a single, software-reconfigurable workstation. This is done while maintaining system consistency, yet the system is completely open to accept new additions and advances in hardware and software. The Advanced Space Cockpit, linked to Grumman's Hybrid Computing Facility and Large Amplitude Space Simulator (LASS), was used to test the Open Control/Display System via full-scale simulation of the following tasks: telerobotic truss assembly, RCS and thermal bus servicing, CMG changeout, RMS constrained motion and space constructible radiator assembly, HPA coordinated control, and OMV docking and tumbling satellite retrieval. The proposed man-machine interface standard discussed has evolved through many iterations of the tasks, and is based on feedback from NASA and Air Force personnel who performed those tasks in the LASS.

  7. Space thermal control development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, M. J.; Grodzka, P. G.; Oneill, M. J.

    1971-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations on a number of various phase change materials (PCMs) and PCMs in combination with metals and other materials are reported. The evaluations include the following PCM system performance characteristics: PCM and PCM/filler thermal diffusivities, the effects of long-term thermal cycling, PCM-container compatibility, and catalyst effectiveness and stability. Three PCMs demonstrated performance acceptable enough to be considered for use in prototype aluminum thermal control devices. These three PCMs are lithium nitrate trihydrate with zinc hydroxy nitrate catalyst, acetamide, and myristic acid. Of the fillers tested, aluminum honeycomb filler was found to offer the most increase in system thermal diffusivity.

  8. Space construction base control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Aspects of an attitude control system were studied and developed for a large space base that is structurally flexible and whose mass properties change rather dramatically during its orbital lifetime. Topics of discussion include the following: (1) space base orbital pointing and maneuvering; (2) angular momentum sizing of actuators; (3) momentum desaturation selection and sizing; (4) multilevel control technique applied to configuration one; (5) one-dimensional model simulation; (6) N-body discrete coordinate simulation; (7) structural analysis math model formulation; and (8) discussion of control problems and control methods.

  9. Open-Source RTOS Space Qualification: An RTEMS Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemerick, Scott

    2017-01-01

    NASA space-qualification of reusable off-the-shelf real-time operating systems (RTOSs) remains elusive due to several factors notably (1) The diverse nature of RTOSs utilized across NASA, (2) No single NASA space-qualification criteria, lack of verification and validation (V&V) analysis, or test beds, and (3) different RTOS heritages, specifically open-source RTOSs and closed vendor-provided RTOSs. As a leader in simulation test beds, the NASA IV&V Program is poised to help jump-start and lead the space-qualification effort of the open source Real-Time Executive for Multiprocessor Systems (RTEMS) RTOS. RTEMS, as a case-study, can be utilized as an example of how to qualify all RTOSs, particularly the reusable non-commercial (open-source) ones that are gaining usage and popularity across NASA. Qualification will improve the overall safety and mission assurance of RTOSs for NASA-agency wide usage. NASA's involvement in space-qualification of an open-source RTOS such as RTEMS will drive the RTOS industry toward a more qualified and mature open-source RTOS product.

  10. Evaluation of the effects of subgingival injection of Simvastatin on space re-opening after orthodontic space closure in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Jahanbin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. This clinical trial evaluated the effect of Simvastatin on space re-opening after orthodontic space closure and its effect on the gingival index (GI and clinical attachment loss (CAL. Methods. 16 females, 25‒40 years old, with spaces between anterior mandibular teeth due to chronic periodontitis were participated in this study. The patients were randomly divided into control and experimental groups. In the experimental group, 1.2% Simvastatin gel and in the control group, 0.9% sodium chloride as a placebo was injected into the pocket depth of the six anterior teeth. The amount of space reopening, GI and CAL were measured. Results. No serious complications were observed during interventions and follow-up periods. Space re-opening was significantly reduced in patients receiving Simvastatin (P < 0.001. Moreover, GI reduction was significantly greater in Sim-vastatin group compared to the control group (P < 0.001. However, CAL did not demonstrate a significant difference between the groups. Conclusion. Simvastatin may decrease space re-opening after orthodontic space closure in human anterior teeth.

  11. GREEN OPEN SPACE PERFORMANCE AS URBAN RECREASTION RESOURCES IN PEKANBARU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Hidayat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban green open space has significant benefits for the condition of urban living and its community. The availability of accessible and attractive green spaces for recreation activities is an integral part of urban quality of life. This research aims to assess the effectiveness of green open space provision as recreation resource for urban citizens in Pekanbaru, Indonesia. This study presents the assessment of two ele-ments which are equity and efficiency. These two elements are analyzed based on numerous independent variables such as number of the facil-ity, distance to house, accessibility and public transportation availability for equity assessment and frequency of usage, attractiveness of fa-cilities and safety level for efficiency assessment. The assessment of those variables is applied in three different subdistricts in Pekanbaru which are City Center, Sail and Tampan that represent different density categories. To achieve the objectives of this study, the method used to con-duct the study is field survey by questionnaire and interview. Stratified random sampling was the method used in data collection through the distribution of questionnaire, and the tool used to analyse data is through the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics to obtain frequency distributions, percentage and the level of equity and efficiency. Several types of test in SPSS data analysis are included to attain some significant information in the study such as Chi-Square test of independence and analysis of Correlation. The findings indicate that a majority of respondents were not satisfied with the distribution of green open space. This study also identified that the quality of green open space facilities was perceived by residents as at moderate level. This survey results indicate that there is significant relationship between subdistricts of respondents and the satisfaction level of green open space

  12. Transfer closed and transfer open multimaps in minimal spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimohammady, M.; Roohi, M.; Delavar, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is devoted to introduce the concepts of transfer closed and transfer open multimaps in minimal spaces. Also, some characterizations of them are considered. Further, the notion of minimal local intersection property will be introduced and characterized. Moreover, some maximal element theorems via minimal transfer closed multimaps and minimal local intersection property are given.

  13. On the Value of Foregone Open Space in Sprawling Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, W.; Rouwendal, J.

    2014-01-01

    Foregone benefits of the open space that is sacrificed through urban sprawl are hard to quantify. We obtain a simple benchmark measure by introducing a demand for trips beyond the urban boundary into the monocentric city model. The externality arises from the increase in travel costs that expansion

  14. Quality of Public Open Spaces and Recreational Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Gunn, Lucy D; Christian, Hayley; Francis, Jacinta; Foster, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Owen, Neville; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-12-01

    We examined associations between specific public open space (POS) attributes and recreational walking to local POS. Between October 2004 and December 2006, 1465 adults of the RESIDential Environments Project, conducted in Perth, Australia, reported whether they walk to a POS for recreation. For each participant, we identified all open spaces larger than 0.8 hectares within 1.6 kilometers from home. On the basis of field audit data, we created 3 scores (presence, count, size-weighted presence) for 19 specific open space attributes. With logistic regression analyses, we found that walking to a POS was associated with the presence of gardens, grassed areas, walking paths, water features, wildlife, amenities, dog-related facilities, and off-leash areas for dogs. It was also associated with the highest number of these attributes in a single open space, but not with the total number of attributes in all POSs within 1.6 kilometers of home. Building 1 high-quality local park may be more effective in promoting recreational walking than is providing many average-quality parks.

  15. Interactive human behavior analysis in open or public spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hung, H.; Odobez, J.-M.; Gavrila, D.; Keyson, D.V.; Maher, M.L.; Streitz, N.; Cheok, A.; Augusto, J.C.; Wichert, R.; Englebienne, G.; Aghajan, H.; Kröse, B.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    In the past years, efforts in surveillance and open space analysis have focused on traditional computer vision problems like scene modeling or object detection and tracking. Research on human behavior recognition have tended to work on predefined simple activities such as running, jumping or left

  16. An Open and Holistic Approach for Geo and Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschel, Bernd; Seelus, Christoph; Neher, Günther; Toshihiko, Iyemori; Yatagai, Akiyo; Koyama, Yukinobu; Murayama, Yasuhiro; King, Todd; Hughes, Steve; Fung, Shing; Galkin, Ivan; Hapgood, Mike; Belehaki, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Geo and space sciences thus far have been very successful, even often an open, cross-domain and holistic approach did not play an essential role. But this situation is changing rapidly. The research focus is shifting into more complex, non-linear and multi-domain specified phenomena, such as e.g. climate change or space environment. This kind of phenomena only can be understood step by step using the holistic idea. So, what is necessary for a successful cross-domain and holistic approach in geo and space sciences? Research and science in general become more and more dependent from a rich fundus of multi-domain data sources, related context information and the use of highly advanced technologies in data processing. Such buzzword phrases as Big Data and Deep Learning are reflecting this development. Big Data also addresses the real exponential growing of data and information produced by measurements or simulations. Deep Learning technology may help to detect new patterns and relationships in data describing high sophisticated natural phenomena. And further on, we should not forget science and humanities are only two sides of the same medal in the continuing human process of knowledge discovery. The concept of Open Data or in particular the open access to scientific data is addressing the free and open availability of -at least publicly founded and generated- data. The open availability of data covers the free use, reuse and redistribution of data which have been established with the formation of World Data Centers already more than 50 years ago. So, we should not forget, the foundation for open data is the responsibility of the individual scientist up until the big science institutions and organizations for a sustainable management of data. Other challenges are discovering and collecting the appropriate data, and preferably all of them or at least the majority of the right data. Therefore a network of individual or even better institutional catalog-based and at least

  17. Numerical Analysis of Thermal Comfort at Open Air Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, K.; Belias, C.; Pantos-Kikkos, S.; Assana, A.

    2008-09-01

    The present paper refers to the numerical simulation of air velocity at open air spaces and the conducting thermal comfort after the evaluation of the examined space using CFD methods, taking into account bioclimatic principles at the architectural design. More specially, the paper draws attention to the physical procedures governing air movement at an open environment area in Athens (urban park), named "Attiko Alsos," trying to form them in such way that will lead to the thermal comfort of the area's visitors. The study presents a mathematical model, implemented in a general computer code that can provide detailed information on velocity, prevailing in three-dimensional spaces of any geometrical complexity. Turbulent flow is simulated and buoyancy effects are taken into account. This modelling procedure is intended to contribute to the effort towards designing open areas, such as parks, squares or outdoor building environments, using thermal comfort criteria at the bioclimatic design. A computer model of this kind will provide the architects or the environmental engineers with powerful and economical means of evaluating alternative spaces' designs.

  18. OpenSpace: From Data Visualization Research to Planetariums and Classrooms Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmart, C.; Ynnerman, A.; Bock, A.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Kinzler, R. J.; Trakinski, V.; Mac Low, M. M.; Ebel, D. S. S.

    2016-12-01

    "OpenSpace" is a new NASA supported open source software that brings the latest techniques from data visualization research to the planetarium community and general public. The American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), in collaboration with informal science institutions (ISI), academic partners, key vendors that support planetariums worldwide, and NASA mission teams and Subject Matter Experts (SME), is creating OpenSpace to enable STEM education and improve U.S. scientific literacy by engaging a broad spectrum of the American public and STEM learners in cutting-edge NASA science and engineering content. The project's primary focus is the interactive presentation of dynamic data from observations (image sequences), astrophysical simulation (volumetric rendering), and space missions (observation geometry visualization). Development of the software began several years ago in collaboration with NASA Goddard's space weather modeling center and in conjunction with academic support from Linköping University (LiU) in Sweden, and continued last year with visualizations of NASA's New Horizons mission and ESA's Rosetta mission. For the New Horizons Pluto encounter, a dozen sites around the world running OpenSpace networked simultaneously to view the close approach to Pluto as narrated in real time by mission control scientists at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Subsequent image data from the Long Range Reconnaissance Imaging (LORRI) camera was released by NASA as it downloaded from the spacecraft in the following months. These images, along with post encounter navigation reconstruction data (NASA SPICE) were then used to update the OpenSpace New Horizons visualization, and create a February 2016 public program in which Deputy Project Scientist, Cathy Olkin, demonstrated these results visualized in OpenSpace to a sold out crowd in the AMNH Hayden Planetarium. As demonstrated with the New Horizons visualization in OpenSpace, the goals of the project are to make visible

  19. Open Space Office and it's Influence on Satisfaction of Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Novotná, Marta

    2015-01-01

    This bachelor thesis focuses on open space office in relation to satisfaction with employment. It focuses on research of factors of this specific working environment and tries to check hypothesis talking about negative impact on overal satsfacton with job. Through the research conducted within one company this bachelor thesis present evaluation of factos of working environment and show overal impact of these factors on satisfaction with job. This bachelor thesis finds out that noise and disco...

  20. Open Education as a Way for Space Education in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshev, V. V.; Karp, K. A.

    2002-01-01

    low level of state financial support. As a result there is a decreasing education quality. Scientific research was always an integral part of education and an alternative way for education financial support. But today the level of such support is too low as well. High experience of Russian space education system is not useful completely. This paper shows, that at present an open education could be a new step of space education in Russia. discussed in the paper. of students per one professor and also the number of students, which pay for education. New technology based on Internet technology would provide high methodology and technical level of education. The open education guarantees training in different areas and specialties on international standard level. education process, new education technology, new equipment of education system, new ways of financial support, international cooperation in education process, new professors and staffs in education system, increasing the level of salary for staff and comfortable conditions for students are discussed at the first. free education period, both traditional and new education methods are very important on the other side. about 4-5 years. The necessity of international educational system integration has to be taken into account. The international standard request, educational courses in different languages and free market conditions have to be under consideration. The partially ready open space education is discussed also. That system can be started even today.

  1. Open string T-duality in double space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sazdovic, B. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Physics, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2017-09-15

    The role of double space is essential in the new interpretation of T-duality and consequently in an attempt to construct M-theory. The case of the open string is missing in such an approach because until now there has been no appropriate formulation of open string T-duality. In the previous paper (Sazdovic, From geometry to non-geometry via T-duality, arXiv:1606.01938, 2017), we showed how to introduce vector gauge fields A{sup N}{sub a} and A{sup D}{sub i} at the end-points of an open string in order to enable open string invariance under local gauge transformations of the Kalb-Ramond field and its T-dual ''restricted general coordinate transformations''. We demonstrated that gauge fields A{sup N}{sub a} and A{sup D}{sub i} are T-dual to each other. In the present article we prove that all above results can be interpreted as coordinate permutations in double space. (orig.)

  2. Open string T-duality in double space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazdovic, B.

    2017-01-01

    The role of double space is essential in the new interpretation of T-duality and consequently in an attempt to construct M-theory. The case of the open string is missing in such an approach because until now there has been no appropriate formulation of open string T-duality. In the previous paper (Sazdovic, From geometry to non-geometry via T-duality, arXiv:1606.01938, 2017), we showed how to introduce vector gauge fields A"N_a and A"D_i at the end-points of an open string in order to enable open string invariance under local gauge transformations of the Kalb-Ramond field and its T-dual ''restricted general coordinate transformations''. We demonstrated that gauge fields A"N_a and A"D_i are T-dual to each other. In the present article we prove that all above results can be interpreted as coordinate permutations in double space. (orig.)

  3. Open core control software for surgical robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Jumpei; Kozuka, Hiroaki; Kim, Hyung Wook; Takesue, Naoyuki; Vladimirov, B; Sakaguchi, Masamichi; Tokuda, Junichi; Hata, Nobuhiko; Chinzei, Kiyoyuki; Fujimoto, Hideo

    2010-05-01

    In these days, patients and doctors in operation room are surrounded by many medical devices as resulting from recent advancement of medical technology. However, these cutting-edge medical devices are working independently and not collaborating with each other, even though the collaborations between these devices such as navigation systems and medical imaging devices are becoming very important for accomplishing complex surgical tasks (such as a tumor removal procedure while checking the tumor location in neurosurgery). On the other hand, several surgical robots have been commercialized, and are becoming common. However, these surgical robots are not open for collaborations with external medical devices in these days. A cutting-edge "intelligent surgical robot" will be possible in collaborating with surgical robots, various kinds of sensors, navigation system and so on. On the other hand, most of the academic software developments for surgical robots are "home-made" in their research institutions and not open to the public. Therefore, open source control software for surgical robots can be beneficial in this field. From these perspectives, we developed Open Core Control software for surgical robots to overcome these challenges. In general, control softwares have hardware dependencies based on actuators, sensors and various kinds of internal devices. Therefore, these control softwares cannot be used on different types of robots without modifications. However, the structure of the Open Core Control software can be reused for various types of robots by abstracting hardware dependent parts. In addition, network connectivity is crucial for collaboration between advanced medical devices. The OpenIGTLink is adopted in Interface class which plays a role to communicate with external medical devices. At the same time, it is essential to maintain the stable operation within the asynchronous data transactions through network. In the Open Core Control software, several

  4. Open Hardware for CERN's accelerator control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bij, E van der; Serrano, J; Wlostowski, T; Cattin, M; Gousiou, E; Sanchez, P Alvarez; Boccardi, A; Voumard, N; Penacoba, G

    2012-01-01

    The accelerator control systems at CERN will be upgraded and many electronics modules such as analog and digital I/O, level converters and repeaters, serial links and timing modules are being redesigned. The new developments are based on the FPGA Mezzanine Card, PCI Express and VME64x standards while the Wishbone specification is used as a system on a chip bus. To attract partners, the projects are developed in an 'Open' fashion. Within this Open Hardware project new ways of working with industry are being evaluated and it has been proven that industry can be involved at all stages, from design to production and support.

  5. Older Adults in Public Open Spaces: Age and Gender Segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noon, Rinat Ben; Ayalon, Liat

    2018-01-18

    There is a substantial body of literature on the importance of the environment in the lives of older adults. Nonetheless, to date, there has been limited research on everyday activities of urban older adults in public open spaces. The present study examined the activities of older adults in public open spaces in Israel with a specific focus on age and gender as potential variables of relevance. Using still photography, we systematically photographed four sessions in two different public outdoor settings attended by older Israelis. Still photographs were converted to narrative descriptions, and then coded, quantified, and compared using descriptive statistics. The majority (311, 97%) of older adults arrived alone to the public setting. Of these, 44% formed a social group of two or more people, whereas the remaining older adults stayed alone. When social interactions occurred, they were primarily gender homogenous (69%); women were more likely to integrate in spontaneous social conversations and men were more likely to participate in common games. Our findings call attention to the important role played by the outdoor environment as a venue for social activities among older adults. The findings further stress the high levels of aloneness experienced by older adults, which do not seem to be alleviated by the mere attendance of public spaces. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Phase-space quantum control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fechner, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    The von Neumann-representation introduced in this thesis describes each laser pulse in a one-to-one manner as a sum of bandwidth-limited, Gaussian laser pulses centered around different points in phase space. These pulses can be regarded as elementary building blocks from which every single laser pulse can be constructed. The von Neumann-representation combines different useful properties for applications in quantum control. First, it is a one-to-one map between the degrees of freedom of the pulse shaper and the phase-space representation of the corresponding shaped laser pulse. In other words: Every possible choice of pulse shaper parameters corresponds to exactly one von Neumann-representation and vice versa. Moreover, since temporal and spectral structures become immediately sizable, the von Neumann-representation, as well as the Husimi- or the Wigner-representations, allows for an intuitive interpretation of the represented laser pulse. (orig.)

  7. Generalizations of γ-open set in topological spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Baby, E-mail: babybhatt75@gmail.com; Paul, Arnab, E-mail: mrarnabpaul87@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, NIT Agartala, Jirania, Tripura (India)

    2016-06-21

    The main aim of this work is to study three generalized forms of γ-open set due to D. Andrijevic (D. Andrijevic, On the Topology Generated by pre-open sets, Presented at the Sixth Prague Topological Symposium, 39 (1987), 367-376)in a topological space. Out of which the dual appearance of one is the stronger form of b-locally closed set in the sense of Arafa A. Nasef (A. A Nasef,On b-locally closed sets and related topics, CHAOS SOLITONS & FRACTALS 12(2001) 1909-1915). Also, we introduce the concept of different types of continuity and study their basic properties by using these newly defined sets. Finally, we establish the interrelationships among themselves together with some already existing generalized forms of continuity.

  8. Economic analysis of open space box model utilization in spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Atif F.; Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    It is a known fact that the amount of data about space that is stored is getting larger on an everyday basis. However, the utilization of Big Data and related tools to perform ETL (Extract, Transform and Load) applications will soon be pervasive in the space sciences. We have entered in a crucial time where using Big Data can be the difference (for terrestrial applications) between organizations underperforming and outperforming their peers. The same is true for NASA and other space agencies, as well as for individual missions and the highly-competitive process of mission data analysis and publication. In most industries, conventional opponents and new candidates alike will influence data-driven approaches to revolutionize and capture the value of Big Data archives. The Open Space Box Model is poised to take the proverbial "giant leap", as it provides autonomic data processing and communications for spacecraft. We can find economic value generated from such use of data processing in our earthly organizations in every sector, such as healthcare, retail. We also can easily find retailers, performing research on Big Data, by utilizing sensors driven embedded data in products within their stores and warehouses to determine how these products are actually used in the real world.

  9. 77 FR 8801 - Request for Applications: The Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Request for Applications: The Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Request for applications. SUMMARY: The..., requests applications for the Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program (Community Forest...

  10. Public evaluation of open space in Illinois: citizen support for natural area acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backlund, Erik A; Stewart, William P; McDonald, Cary; Miller, Craig

    2004-11-01

    Numerous studies have indicated a broad-based support for open space preservation and protection. Research also has characterized the public values and rationale that underlie the widespread support for open space. In recognition of the widespread public support for open space, various levels of government have implemented programs to provide public access to open space. There are many different types of open space, ranging from golf courses, ball parks, wildlife areas, and prairies, to name a few. This paper addresses questions related to the types of open space that should be prioritized by planners and natural resource managers. The results of this study are based on a stratified random sample of 5000 households in Illinois that were sent a questionnaire related to their support for various types of open space. Through a comparatively simple action grid analysis, the open space types that should be prioritized for public access include forest areas, stream corridors, wildlife habitat, and lakes/ponds. These were the open space types rated of the highest importance, yet were also the open space types rated the lowest in respondent satisfaction. This kind of analysis does not require the technical expertise of other options for land-use prioritizations (e.g., conjoint analysis, contingent valuation), yet provides important policy directives for planners. Although open space funds often allow for purchase of developed sites such as golf courses, ball parks, and community parks, this study indicates that undeveloped (or nature-based) open space lands are most needed in Illinois.

  11. Personal Spaces in Public Repositories as a Facilitator for Open Educational Resource Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Anat; Reisman, Sorel; Sperling, Barbra Bied

    2015-01-01

    Learning object repositories are a shared, open and public space; however, the possibility and ability of personal expression in an open, global, public space is crucial. The aim of this study is to explore personal spaces in a big learning object repository as a facilitator for adoption of Open Educational Resources (OER) into teaching practices…

  12. Hydraulic loop: practices using open control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, J.A.; Alonso, L.; Sanchez, F.

    1998-01-01

    The Tecnatom Hydraulic Loop is a dynamic training platform. It has been designed with the purpose of improving the work in teams. With this system, the student can obtain a full scope vision of a system. The hydraulic Loop is a part of the Tecnatom Maintenance Centre. The first objective of the hydraulic Loop is the instruction in components, process and process control using open control system. All the personal of an electric power plant can be trained in the Hydraulic Loop with specific courses. The development of a dynamic tool for tests previous to plant installations has been an additional objective of the Hydraulic Loop. The use of this platform is complementary to the use of full-scope simulators in order to debug and to analyse advanced control strategies. (Author)

  13. Task-space sensory feedback control of robot manipulators

    CERN Document Server

    Cheah, Chien Chern

    2015-01-01

    This book presents recent advances in robot control theory on task space sensory feedback control of robot manipulators. By using sensory feedback information, the robot control systems are robust to various uncertainties in modelling and calibration errors of the sensors. Several sensory task space control methods that do not require exact knowledge of either kinematics or dynamics of robots, are presented. Some useful methods such as approximate Jacobian control, adaptive Jacobian control, region control and multiple task space regional feedback are included. These formulations and methods give robots a high degree of flexibility in dealing with unforeseen changes and uncertainties in its kinematics and dynamics, which is similar to human reaching movements and tool manipulation. It also leads to the solution of several long-standing problems and open issues in robot control, such as force control with constraint uncertainty, control of multi-fingered robot hand with uncertain contact points, singularity i...

  14. 76 FR 17474 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Open Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the... the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The meeting will take place on...

  15. 77 FR 16891 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Open Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the... the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The meeting will take place on...

  16. 76 FR 51461 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee open meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the... the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The meeting will take place on...

  17. 78 FR 69742 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Open Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the... the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The meeting will take place on...

  18. 75 FR 54002 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Open Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the... the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The meeting will take place on...

  19. 75 FR 16901 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Open meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 10(a)(2) of the... of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The meetings will take place on...

  20. Deep Space Network Antenna Logic Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Harlow; Morgan, Scott; Hames, Peter; Strain, Martha; Owen, Christopher; Shimizu, Kenneth; Wilson, Karen; Shaller, David; Doktomomtaz, Said; Leung, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    The Antenna Logic Controller (ALC) software controls and monitors the motion control equipment of the 4,000-metric-ton structure of the Deep Space Network 70-meter antenna. This program coordinates the control of 42 hydraulic pumps, while monitoring several interlocks for personnel and equipment safety. Remote operation of the ALC runs via the Antenna Monitor & Control (AMC) computer, which orchestrates the tracking functions of the entire antenna. This software provides a graphical user interface for local control, monitoring, and identification of faults as well as, at a high level, providing for the digital control of the axis brakes so that the servo of the AMC may control the motion of the antenna. Specific functions of the ALC also include routines for startup in cold weather, controlled shutdown for both normal and fault situations, and pump switching on failure. The increased monitoring, the ability to trend key performance characteristics, the improved fault detection and recovery, the centralization of all control at a single panel, and the simplification of the user interface have all reduced the required workforce to run 70-meter antennas. The ALC also increases the antenna availability by reducing the time required to start up the antenna, to diagnose faults, and by providing additional insight into the performance of key parameters that aid in preventive maintenance to avoid key element failure. The ALC User Display (AUD) is a graphical user interface with hierarchical display structure, which provides high-level status information to the operation of the ALC, as well as detailed information for virtually all aspects of the ALC via drill-down displays. The operational status of an item, be it a function or assembly, is shown in the higher-level display. By pressing the item on the display screen, a new screen opens to show more detail of the function/assembly. Navigation tools and the map button allow immediate access to all screens.

  1. A Global Space Control Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    ASAT testing and development before significant pushback is enacted. Further, a growing body of literature suggests that space-based intelligence...management process must be the foundation of plan- ning space operations and responses. Second, we must realize that in order to conduct effective space...end state where commanders considering multiple courses of action have a sensor architecture and a tasking, collection, processing , exploitation, and

  2. Open problems in Banach spaces and measure theory | Rodríguez ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We collect several open questions in Banach spaces, mostly related to measure theoretic aspects of the theory. The problems are divided into five categories: miscellaneous problems in Banach spaces (non-separable Lp spaces, compactness in Banach spaces, w*-null sequences in dual spaces), measurability in Banach ...

  3. A strong open mapping theorem for surjections from cones onto Banach spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeu, de M.F.E.; Messerschmidt, H.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    We show that a continuous additive positively homogeneous map from a closed not necessarily proper cone in a Banach space onto a Banach space is an open map precisely when it is surjective. This generalization of the usual Open Mapping Theorem for Banach spaces is then combined with Michael's

  4. Multimegawatt space nuclear power open-cycle MHD-facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavshuk, V.A.; Panchenko, V.P.

    2008-01-01

    Paper presents the results of the efforts to calculate the characteristics, the layout and the engineering design of the open cycle space power propulsion on the basis of the high-temperature nuclear reactor for a nuclear rocket engine and the Faraday 20 MW capacity MHD-generator. The IVG-1 heterogeneous channel-vessel reactor ensuring in the course of the experiments hydrogen heating up to 3100 K, up to 5 MPa pressure at the reactor core outlet, up to 5 kg/s flowsheet, up to 220 MW thermal power served as a reactor is considered. One determined the MHD-generator basic parameters, namely: the portion of Cs dope was equal to 20%, the outlet stagnation pressure - 2 MPa, the electric conductivity - ≅30 S/m, the Mach number - ≅0.7, the magnetic field induction - 6 T, the capacity - 20 MW, the specific power removal - ∼4 MJ/kg. Paper describes the design of the MHD-facility with the working fluid momentless discharge and its basic characteristics [ru

  5. Navigation through unknown and dynamic open spaces using topological notions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Tomé, Sergio

    2018-04-01

    Until now, most algorithms used for navigation have had the purpose of directing system towards one point in space. However, humans communicate tasks by specifying spatial relations among elements or places. In addition, the environments in which humans develop their activities are extremely dynamic. The only option that allows for successful navigation in dynamic and unknown environments is making real-time decisions. Therefore, robots capable of collaborating closely with human beings must be able to make decisions based on the local information registered by the sensors and interpret and express spatial relations. Furthermore, when one person is asked to perform a task in an environment, this task is communicated given a category of goals so the person does not need to be supervised. Thus, two problems appear when one wants to create multifunctional robots: how to navigate in dynamic and unknown environments using spatial relations and how to accomplish this without supervision. In this article, a new architecture to address the two cited problems is presented, called the topological qualitative navigation architecture. In previous works, a qualitative heuristic called the heuristic of topological qualitative semantics (HTQS) has been developed to establish and identify spatial relations. However, that heuristic only allows for establishing one spatial relation with a specific object. In contrast, navigation requires a temporal sequence of goals with different objects. The new architecture attains continuous generation of goals and resolves them using HTQS. Thus, the new architecture achieves autonomous navigation in dynamic or unknown open environments.

  6. Open innovation in the European space sector : existing practices, constraints and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Burg, E.; Giannopapa, C.G.; Reymen, I.M.M.J.

    2017-01-01

    To enhance innovative output and societal spillover of the European space sector, the open innovation approach is becoming popular. Yet, open innovation, referring to innovation practices that cross borders of individual firms, faces constraints. To explore these constraints and identify

  7. Public open space as the only urban space for walking: Sumatera Utara experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, A. D.; Zahrah, W.; Ginting, Nurlisa

    2018-03-01

    One of successful public open space (POS) criteria is the proper pedestrian linkage. Furthermore, a good quality POS should pay attention to pedestrian activities. This will contribute to the physical and mental health of people and enhance their quality of life. The research means to investigate how POS accommodate the pedestrians. The study takes place in twenty small towns in Sumatra Utara province, Indonesia. The analysis is a descriptive, explorative study that collects data about physical elements of POS. The survey also uses a set of questionnaire to get information about the visitors walking tradition. The result of the study shows that most of the citizens approach and get to the POS by vehicle, both cars, and motorcycles. They use their private vehicles although the distance between their houses and the POS is less than one kilometer. There is no pedestrian linkage that connects the POS with the other part of urban space. However, the POS is active by various physical activities, such as walking, playing and exercising. These events occur both in pedestrian ways in the periphery, inside the POS, and in the other spots of the POS, such as grass field or multipurpose plaza. The visitors’ vehicle tradition relates to the whole urban space which is planned in a car-oriented way. Thus, the POS becomes the only space that people can walk and enjoy the environment.

  8. Access control mechanism of wireless gateway based on open flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Rong; Ding, Lei

    2017-08-01

    In order to realize the access control of wireless gateway and improve the access control of wireless gateway devices, an access control mechanism of SDN architecture which is based on Open vSwitch is proposed. The mechanism utilizes the features of the controller--centralized control and programmable. Controller send access control flow table based on the business logic. Open vSwitch helps achieve a specific access control strategy based on the flow table.

  9. Factors related with public open space use among adolescents: a study using GPS and accelerometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Linde; Verhoeven, Hannah; Clarys, Peter; Van Dyck, Delfien; Van de Weghe, Nico; Baert, Tim; Deforche, Benedicte; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle

    2018-01-22

    Low physical activity levels and high levels of sedentary time among adolescents call for population wide interventions. Public open spaces can be important locations for adolescents' physical activity. This study aimed to describe the prevalence, frequency and context of public open space visitation and to gain insight into the individual, social and physical environmental factors associated with public open space use among 12- to 16-year-old Flemish (Belgian) adolescents. Global positioning system devices, accelerometers and one-on-one interviews were used to measure location-specific activity levels, time spent at, reasons for using and accompaniment at public open spaces among 173 adolescents. Multilevel hurdle and gamma models were used to estimate the associations between the independent variables (age, gender, ethnicity, education, sport club membership and accompaniment) and the amount of time, sedentary time, light-, moderate- to vigorous- and vigorous-intensity physical activity at public open spaces. Three out of four participants had visited a public open space (for recreational purposes) and participants were most often accompanied by friends/classmates. Mainly public transportation stops/stations were used, and subsequently the most reported reason for public open space use was "to wait for something or someone". Furthermore, boys, younger adolescents, non-western-European adolescents and lower educated adolescents were more likely to use public open spaces. Additionally, boys and younger adolescents were more likely to accumulate physical activity at public open spaces. The only social environmental variable associated with time spent at public open spaces was accompaniment by siblings: adolescents spent more time at public open spaces when accompanied by their siblings. Public open spaces may be effective areas to promote physical activity among groups at risk for physical inactivity (i.e. low educated and non-western-European adolescents

  10. Positional control of space robot manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurochkin, Vladislav; Shymanchuk, Dzmitry

    2018-05-01

    In this article the mathematical model of a planar space robot manipulator is under study. The space robot manipulator represents a solid body with attached manipulators. The system of equations of motion is determined using the Lagrange's equations. The control problem concerning moving the robot to a given point and return it to a given trajectory in the phase space is solved. Changes of generalized coordinates and necessary control actions are plotted for a specific model.

  11. Resonance controlled transport in phase space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoncini, Xavier; Vasiliev, Alexei; Artemyev, Anton

    2018-02-01

    We consider the mechanism of controlling particle transport in phase space by means of resonances in an adiabatic setting. Using a model problem describing nonlinear wave-particle interaction, we show that captures into resonances can be used to control transport in momentum space as well as in physical space. We design the model system to provide creation of a narrow peak in the distribution function, thus producing effective cooling of a sub-ensemble of the particles.

  12. Public open space, physical activity, urban design and public health: Concepts, methods and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Mavoa, Suzanne; Villanueva, Karen; Sugiyama, Takemi; Badland, Hannah; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Owen, Neville; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-05-01

    Public open spaces such as parks and green spaces are key built environment elements within neighbourhoods for encouraging a variety of physical activity behaviours. Over the past decade, there has been a burgeoning number of active living research studies examining the influence of public open space on physical activity. However, the evidence shows mixed associations between different aspects of public open space (e.g., proximity, size, quality) and physical activity. These inconsistencies hinder the development of specific evidence-based guidelines for urban designers and policy-makers for (re)designing public open space to encourage physical activity. This paper aims to move this research agenda forward, by identifying key conceptual and methodological issues that may contribute to inconsistencies in research examining relations between public open space and physical activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Open string fluctuations in AdS space with and without torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, A.L.; Lomholt, Michael Andersen

    2003-01-01

    The equations of motion and boundary conditions for the fluctuations around a classical open string, in a curved space-time with torsion, are considered in compact and world-sheet covariant form. The rigidly rotating open strings in anti-de Sitter space with and without torsion are investigated...

  14. A Comparison of Selective Auditory Attention Abilities in Open-Space Versus Closed Classroom Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinertsen, Gloria M.

    A study compared performances on a test of selective auditory attention between students educated in open-space versus closed classroom environments. An open-space classroom environment was defined as having no walls separating it from hallways or other classrooms. It was hypothesized that the incidence of auditory figure-ground (ability to focus…

  15. Open-loop control of quasiperiodic thermoacoustic oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yu; Gupta, Vikrant; Kashinath, Karthik; Li, Larry K. B.

    2017-11-01

    The open-loop application of periodic acoustic forcing has been shown to be a potentially effective strategy for controlling periodic thermoacoustic oscillations, but its effectiveness on aperiodic thermoacoustic oscillations is less clear. In this experimental study, we apply periodic acoustic forcing to a ducted premixed flame oscillating quasiperiodically at two incommensurate natural frequencies, f1 and f2. We find that (i) above a critical forcing amplitude, the system locks into the forcing by oscillating only at the forcing frequency ff, producing a closed periodic orbit in phase space with no evidence of the original T2 torus attractor; (ii) the critical forcing amplitude required for lock-in decreases as ff approaches either f1 or f2, resulting in characteristic ∨-shaped lock-in boundaries around the two natural modes; and (iii) for a wide range of forcing frequencies, the system's oscillation amplitude can be reduced to less than 20% of that of the unforced system. These findings show that the open-loop application of periodic acoustic forcing can be an effective strategy for controlling aperiodic thermoacoustic oscillations. This work was supported by the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong (Project No. 16235716 and 26202815).

  16. Quantum Control of Open Systems and Dense Atomic Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLoreto, Christopher

    Controlling the dynamics of open quantum systems; i.e. quantum systems that decohere because of interactions with the environment, is an active area of research with many applications in quantum optics and quantum computation. My thesis expands the scope of this inquiry by seeking to control open systems in proximity to an additional system. The latter could be a classical system such as metal nanoparticles, or a quantum system such as a cluster of similar atoms. By modelling the interactions between the systems, we are able to expand the accessible state space of the quantum system in question. For a single, three-level quantum system, I examine isolated systems that have only normal spontaneous emission. I then show that intensity-intensity correlation spectra, which depend directly on the density matrix of the system, can be used detect whether transitions share a common energy level. This detection is possible due to the presence of quantum interference effects between two transitions if they are connected. This effect allows one to asses energy level structure diagrams in complex atoms/molecules. By placing an open quantum system near a nanoparticle dimer, I show that the spontaneous emission rate of the system can be changed "on demand" by changing the polarization of an incident, driving field. In a three-level, Lambda system, this allows a qubit to both retain high qubit fidelity when it is operating, and to be rapidly initialized to a pure state once it is rendered unusable by decoherence. This type of behaviour is not possible in a single open quantum system; therefore adding a classical system nearby extends the overall control space of the quantum system. An open quantum system near identical neighbours in a dense ensemble is another example of how the accessible state space can be expanded. I show that a dense ensemble of atoms rapidly becomes disordered with states that are not directly excited by an incident field becoming significantly populated

  17. Next Generation Space Interconnect Standard (NGSIS): a modular open standards approach for high performance interconnects for space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Charles Patrick

    2017-04-01

    The Next Generation Space Interconnect Standard (NGSIS) effort is a Government-Industry collaboration effort to define a set of standards for interconnects between space system components with the goal of cost effectively removing bandwidth as a constraint for future space systems. The NGSIS team has selected the ANSI/VITA 65 OpenVPXTM standard family for the physical baseline. The RapidIO protocol has been selected as the basis for the digital data transport. The NGSIS standards are developed to provide sufficient flexibility to enable users to implement a variety of system configurations, while meeting goals for interoperability and robustness for space. The NGSIS approach and effort represents a radical departure from past approaches to achieve a Modular Open System Architecture (MOSA) for space systems and serves as an exemplar for the civil, commercial, and military Space communities as well as a broader high reliability terrestrial market.

  18. Physical Origins of Space Weather Impacts: Open Physics Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzerotti, L. J.

    2011-12-01

    Beginning with the era of development of electrical telegraph systems in the early 19th century, physical processes in the space environment on the Sun, in the interplanetary medium, and around Earth have influenced the design and operations of ever-increasing and sophisticated technical systems, both in space and on the ground. Understanding of Earth's space environment has increased enormously in the last century and one-half. Nevertheless, many of the physical processes that produced effects on early cable and wireless technologies continue to plague modern-day systems. And as new technologies are developed for improved communications, surveillance, navigation, and conditions for human space flight, the solar-terrestrial environment often offers surprises to their safe, secure and uninterrupted operations. This talk will address some of the challenges that I see to the successful operations of some modern-day technical systems that are posed by significant deficiencies of understanding of physical processes operating from the Sun to the Earth.

  19. Open Problem: Kernel methods on manifolds and metric spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aasa; Hauberg, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Radial kernels are well-suited for machine learning over general geodesic metric spaces, where pairwise distances are often the only computable quantity available. We have recently shown that geodesic exponential kernels are only positive definite for all bandwidths when the input space has strong...... linear properties. This negative result hints that radial kernel are perhaps not suitable over geodesic metric spaces after all. Here, however, we present evidence that large intervals of bandwidths exist where geodesic exponential kernels have high probability of being positive definite over finite...... datasets, while still having significant predictive power. From this we formulate conjectures on the probability of a positive definite kernel matrix for a finite random sample, depending on the geometry of the data space and the spread of the sample....

  20. Open Data and Open Science for better Research in the Geo and Space Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschel, B.; Seelus, C.; Neher, G.; Iyemori, T.; Koyama, Y.; Yatagai, A. I.; Murayama, Y.; King, T. A.; Hughes, S.; Fung, S. F.; Galkin, I. A.; Hapgood, M. A.; Belehaki, A.

    2015-12-01

    Main open data principles had been worked out in the run-up and finally adopted in the Open Data Charta at the G8 summit in Lough Erne, Northern Ireland in June 2013. Important principles are also valid for science data, such as Open Data by Default, Quality and Quantity, Useable by All, Releasing Data for Improved Governance, Releasing Data for Innovation. There is also an explicit relationship to such areas of high values as earth observation, education and geospatial data. The European union implementation plan of the Open Data Charta identifies among other things objectives such as making data available in an open format, enabling semantic interoperability, ensuring quality, documentation and where appropriate reconciliation across different data sources, implementing software solutionsallowing easy management, publication or visualization of datasets and simplifying clearance of intellectual property rights.Open Science is not just a list of already for a longer time known principles but stands for a lot of initiatives and projects around a better handling of scientific data and openly shared scientific knowledge. It is also about transparency in methodology and collection of data, availability and reuse of scientific data, public accessibility to scientific communication and using of social media to facility scientific collaboration. Some projects are concentrating on open sharing of free and open source software and even further hardware in kind of processing capabilities. In addition question about the mashup of data and publication and an open peer review process are addressed.Following the principles of open data and open science the newest results of the collaboration efforts in mashing up the data servers related to the Japanese IUGONET, the European Union ESPAS and the GFZ ISDC semantic Web projects will be presented here. The semantic Web based approach for the mashup is focusing on the design and implementation of a common but still distributed data

  1. Remaking Nigeria’s Urbanism: Assessing and Redressing the Dearth of Open Spaces in Benin City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndubisi Onwuanyi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Unplanned land use in most Nigerian cities has meant that all urban land needs are not adequately provided for within their landscapes. Open spaces are either conspicuously missing or inadequate. There is a tendency for existing open spaces to be lost to urban development pressure and a disregard for zoning. This paper identifies available and accessible open spaces in Benin City and assesses their adequacy using as a guide standards established in two selected international jurisdictions, discusses the potential benefits of open space to the city on the one hand and its residents on the other given the incipient impacts of global warming and climate change, and the prospects of mitigation by greening the city even in its already built-up state. Data is sourced from journals, reports, archival records and inspections of the urban environment. The findings confirm a great dearth of open spaces as well as deteriorating urban environmental conditions which have implications for health, well-being and urban sustainability. The recommendations are that future expansions of the city space incorporate adequate provisions for open spaces, whilst within the existing built-up city, solutions be sought in the creation of greenways, green paths, private green spaces, promoting street trees and the conversion of brownfield sites to green areas.

  2. Opening up the future in space with nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Man's extraterrestrial development is dependent on abundant power. For example, space-based manufacturing facilities are projected to have a power demand of 300 kWe by the end of this Century, and several megawatts in the early part of next millennium. The development of the lunar resource base will result in power needs ranging from an initial 100 kW(e) to many megawatts. Human visits to Mars could be achieved using a multimegawatt nuclear electric propulsion system or high thrust nuclear rockets. Detailed exploration of the solar system will also be greatly enhanced by the availability of large nuclear electric propulsion systems. All of these activities will require substantial increases in space power - hundreds of kilowatts to many megawatts. The challenge is clear: how to effectively use nuclear energy to support humanity's expansion into space

  3. Autonomous Control of Space Reactor Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; K. Zhao; S.R.P. Perillo; Xiaojia Xu; M.G. Na

    2007-01-01

    Autonomous and semi-autonomous control is a key element of space reactor design in order to meet the mission requirements of safety, reliability, survivability, and life expectancy. Interrestrial nuclear power plants, human operators are available to perform intelligent control functions that are necessary for both normal and abnormal operational conditions

  4. Space Telescope Pointing Control System software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, H.; Rodoni, C.; Rossini, R.; Tompetrini, K.; Nakashima, A.; Bradley, A.

    1982-01-01

    The Space Telescope Pointing Control System software is in the advanced development stage, having been tested on both the airbearing and the static simulator. The overall structure of the software is discussed, along with timing and sizing evaluations. The interaction between the controls analysts and software designer is described.

  5. Autonomous Control of Space Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; K. Zhao; S.R.P. Perillo; Xiaojia Xu; M.G. Na

    2007-11-30

    Autonomous and semi-autonomous control is a key element of space reactor design in order to meet the mission requirements of safety, reliability, survivability, and life expectancy. Interrestrial nuclear power plants, human operators are avilable to perform intelligent control functions that are necessary for both normal and abnormal operational conditions.

  6. Keeping Our Eyes Open: Conducting Aerial Reconnaissance Without Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    TIMOTHY M. CULLEN (Date) ___________________________________ JAMES M. TUCCI (Date) iii DISCLAIMER The...in 2014/15, and USAF School of Advanced Air and Space Studies in 2015/16. v ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank Colonel Timothy Cullen for...Admiral William Owens. In 1996 Owens described ISR as involving “sensor and reporting technologies associated with intelligence collection

  7. Homology of the open moduli space of curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ib Henning

    2012-01-01

    This is a survey on the proof of a generalized version of the Mumford conjecture obtained in joint work with M. Weiss stating that a certain map between some classifying spaces which a priori have different natures induces an isomorphism at the level of integral homology. We also discuss our proo...

  8. Micropropulsion Systems for Precision Controlled Space Flight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jack

    . This project is thus concentrating on developing a method by which an entire, ecient, control system compensating for the disturbances from the space environment and thereby enabling precision formation flight can be realized. The space environment is initially studied and the knowledge gained is used......Space science is subject to a constantly increasing demand for larger coherence lengths or apertures of the space observation systems, which in turn translates into a demand for increased dimensions and subsequently cost and complexity of the systems. When this increasing demand reaches...... the pratical limitations of increasing the physical dimensions of the spacecrafts, the observation platforms will have to be distributed on more spacecrafts flying in very accurate formations. Consequently, the observation platform becomes much more sensitive to disturbances from the space environment...

  9. OpenLMD, multimodal monitoring and control of LMD processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Araújo, Jorge; García-Díaz, Antón

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents OpenLMD, a novel open-source solution for on-line multimodal monitoring of Laser Metal Deposition (LMD). The solution is also applicable to a wider range of laser-based applications that require on-line control (e.g. laser welding). OpenLMD is a middleware that enables the orchestration and virtualization of a LMD robot cell, using several open-source frameworks (e.g. ROS, OpenCV, PCL). The solution also allows reconfiguration by easy integration of multiple sensors and processing equipment. As a result, OpenLMD delivers significant advantages over existing monitoring and control approaches, such as improved scalability, and multimodal monitoring and data sharing capabilities.

  10. Robust on-off pulse control of flexible space vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wie, Bong; Sinha, Ravi

    1993-01-01

    The on-off reaction jet control system is often used for attitude and orbital maneuvering of various spacecraft. Future space vehicles such as the orbital transfer vehicles, orbital maneuvering vehicles, and space station will extensively use reaction jets for orbital maneuvering and attitude stabilization. The proposed robust fuel- and time-optimal control algorithm is used for a three-mass spacing model of flexible spacecraft. A fuel-efficient on-off control logic is developed for robust rest-to-rest maneuver of a flexible vehicle with minimum excitation of structural modes. The first part of this report is concerned with the problem of selecting a proper pair of jets for practical trade-offs among the maneuvering time, fuel consumption, structural mode excitation, and performance robustness. A time-optimal control problem subject to parameter robustness constraints is formulated and solved. The second part of this report deals with obtaining parameter insensitive fuel- and time- optimal control inputs by solving a constrained optimization problem subject to robustness constraints. It is shown that sensitivity to modeling errors can be significantly reduced by the proposed, robustified open-loop control approach. The final part of this report deals with sliding mode control design for uncertain flexible structures. The benchmark problem of a flexible structure is used as an example for the feedback sliding mode controller design with bounded control inputs and robustness to parameter variations is investigated.

  11. Frictionless segmented mechanics for controlled space closure

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Jr, Ildeu

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Extraction spaces may be needed to achieve specific orthodontic goals of positioning the dentition in harmony with the craniofacial complex. However, the fundamental reality that determines the occlusion final position is the control exerted by the orthodontist while closing the extraction spaces. A specific treatment objective may require the posterior teeth to remain in a constant position anteroposteriorly as well as vertically, while the anterior teeth occupy the entire extractio...

  12. Distribution of green open space in Malang City based on multispectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasyim, A. W.; Hernawan, F. P.

    2017-06-01

    Green open space is one of the land that its existence is quite important in urban areas where the minimum area is set to reach 30% of the total area of the city. Malang which has an area of 110,6 square kilometers, is one of the major cities in East Java Province that is prone to over-land conversion due to development needs. In support of the green space program, calculation of green space is needed precisely so that remote sensing which has high accuracy is now used for measurement of green space. This study aims to analyze the area of green open space in Malang by using Landsat 8 image in 2015. The method used was the vegetation index that is Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). From the study obtained the calculation of green open space was better to use the vegetation index method to avoid the occurrence of misclassification of other types of land use. The results of the calculation of green open space using NDVI found that the area of green open space in Malang City in 2015 reached 39% of the total area.

  13. Reaction Control Engine for Space Launch Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have begun a series of engine tests on a new breed of space propulsion: a Reaction Control Engine developed for the Space Launch Initiative (SLI). The engine, developed by TRW Space and Electronics of Redondo Beach, California, is an auxiliary propulsion engine designed to maneuver vehicles in orbit. It is used for docking, reentry, attitude control, and fine-pointing while the vehicle is in orbit. The engine uses nontoxic chemicals as propellants, a feature that creates a safer environment for ground operators, lowers cost, and increases efficiency with less maintenance and quicker turnaround time between missions. Testing includes 30 hot-firings. This photograph shows the first engine test performed at MSFC that includes SLI technology. Another unique feature of the Reaction Control Engine is that it operates at dual thrust modes, combining two engine functions into one engine. The engine operates at both 25 and 1,000 pounds of force, reducing overall propulsion weight and allowing vehicles to easily maneuver in space. The low-level thrust of 25 pounds of force allows the vehicle to fine-point maneuver and dock while the high-level thrust of 1,000 pounds of force is used for reentry, orbit transfer, and coarse positioning. SLI is a NASA-wide research and development program, managed by the MSFC, designed to improve safety, reliability, and cost effectiveness of space travel for second generation reusable launch vehicles.

  14. The Conservation of the Landscape in the Perspective of a Public Open Spaces System in Recife

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Ana Rita Sá; Duarte, Mirela; Marques, Eliábi A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the relationship between the study of public open spaces and the urban landscape in Recife, according a systemic vision. This relationship is defined with the historical analysis of the natural ecosystems in the site landscape such as rivers, coast vegetation and mangrove, and the atlantic forest, which was occupied by the time. This method was chosen to understand the morphology of open spaces, its typology and which is preserved as natural and cultural heritage. Nowadays...

  15. Exploring Open-Ended Design Space of Mechatronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun; Wang, J.; Goodman, E.

    2004-01-01

    To realize design automation of mechatronic systems, there are two major issues to be dealt with: open-topology generation of mechatronic systems and simulation or analysis of those models. For the first issue, we exploit the strong topology exploration capability of genetic programming to create...... and evolve structures representing mechatronic systems. With the help of ERCs (ephemeral random constants) in genetic programming, we can also evolve the sizing of mechatronic system components along with the structures. The second issue, simulation and analysis of those system models, is made more complex...... when they represent mixed-energy-domain systems. We take advantage of bond graphs as a tool for multi- or mixed-domain modeling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Because there are many considerations in mechatronic system design that are not completely captured by a bond graph, we would like...

  16. Alternative utilization of underground spaces with abandoned mine openings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, So Keul; Cho, Won Jai; Han, Kong Chang; Choi, Sung Oong [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Utilization of the openings of the abandoned mines could be planned by the principal parameters such as location and geotechnical impact. The local governments have not only to lead the each stage of the utilization project from the very beginning of conceptual design up to the construction stage, but also to promote the project for the development of public purpose. The possible tentative candidates for the utilization of the abandoned mine openings which are supported by the local governments could be summarized as follows. a. The Gahak mine of Kwangmyung, Kyunggi: The mine caverns which have been served as the storage of the pickled fishes, could be reexcavated by taking into consideration the geotechnical parameters for the public use such as: 1) Training center for the youth, 2) Fermentation and storehouse of marine products, 3) Sightseeing resort, 4) Sports and leisure complex, 5) Underground parking lot, 6) Underground shopping mall and chilled room storage, 7) Library, concert hall and museum. b. Hamtae mine of Taebaek, Kangwon: The Hambaek main haulage way and its shaft should be investigated in detail in order to find out a possible use as the underground challenging park of the coal mining operation. c. Mines of Boryung and Hongsung, Chungnam: Lots of mine caverns have been used as the storehouse for the pickled shrimp. However, they have to be promoted to a large scale industries. d. Imgok mine of Kwangju and Palbong mine of Jeongeup, Chunbuk: Mine caverns which have been used as the storehouse of pickles, need a detailed investigation for alternative promotion. e. Yongho mine of Pusan Dalsung mine of Taegu: Both of the mines are located near metropolitan communities. Reconstruction of the old mine caverns of the Yongho mine is highly recommended for a public use. The caverns of the Dalsung mine could be utilized as the storage facilities. Detailed geotechnical survey and sit investigation could be suggested to design the recommended facilities for both

  17. Modular reconfigurable machines incorporating modular open architecture control

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Padayachee, J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available degrees of freedom on a single platform. A corresponding modular Open Architecture Control (OAC) system is presented. OAC overcomes the inflexibility of fixed proprietary automation, ensuring that MRMs provide the reconfigurability and extensibility...

  18. Corrosion control for open cooling water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karweer, S.B.; Ramchandran, R.

    2000-01-01

    Frequent stoppage of water circulation due to shut down of the Detritiation Plant in Heavy Water Division, Trombay resulted in considerable algae growth. As polyphosphate is a nutrient to algae growth, studies were directed in the evaluation of a nonpolyphosphate formulation for controlling corrosion and scale formation of carbon-steel, copper and aluminium. A blend of HEDP, polyacrylate, zinc, and benzotriazole was used and the optimum condition was determined. In presence of 25 ppm kw-1002 [proprietary formulation, containing HEDP and polyacrylate], 10 ppm kw-201 [active ingredient benzotriazole] and 2 ppm zinc (as zinc sulphate), the corrosion rate of carbon-steel in Mumbai Municipal Corporation (MMC) water at pH 7.5 ± 0.1 for a period of 31 days was 10.4 x 10 -3 μm/h. When MMC water concentrated to half its original volume was used, the corrosion rate was still 9.74 x 10 -3 μm/h close to the original value without concentration. Hence, this formulation was used for controlling scale and corrosion. The results were satisfactory. (author)

  19. Open Hardware For CERN's Accelerator Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    van der Bij, E; Ayass, M; Boccardi, A; Cattin, M; Gil Soriano, C; Gousiou, E; Iglesias Gonsálvez, S; Penacoba Fernandez, G; Serrano, J; Voumard, N; Wlostowski, T

    2011-01-01

    The accelerator control systems at CERN will be renovated and many electronics modules will be redesigned as the modules they will replace cannot be bought anymore or use obsolete components. The modules used in the control systems are diverse: analog and digital I/O, level converters and repeaters, serial links and timing modules. Overall around 120 modules are supported that are used in systems such as beam instrumentation, cryogenics and power converters. Only a small percentage of the currently used modules are commercially available, while most of them had been specifically designed at CERN. The new developments are based on VITA and PCI-SIG standards such as FMC (FPGA Mezzanine Card), PCI Express and VME64x using transition modules. As system-on-chip interconnect, the public domain Wishbone specification is used. For the renovation, it is considered imperative to have for each board access to the full hardware design and its firmware so that problems could quickly be resolved by CERN engineers or its ...

  20. Open Cultural Spaces in Search of New Frontiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Švob-Đokić

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Crossing cultural borders opens up a new creativity, new expectations and new emptiness that provoke fear and existential nausea. Are we lost forever, in a specific historical time, in a specific culture, or in a specific geographical location? Are we forgotten in transitions, translations and intercultural misunderstandings? Are we bound to remain foreigners forever? In order to provide some answers, we hurriedly establish new borders and define new relations between the recently-established entities, a new creativity or a new understanding and knowledge that can help us to survive the confrontation with a limitless nihility. In the age of globalisation, an increased effort to position cultural creativity and cultural identification within the local, now multicultural and largely redefined context, is strongly felt. How does this affect people and societies? What are the limits of transgressions between cultures and different cultural values? How can the new cultural identities be redefined? The answers to these questions can turn out to be very different, but they seem to be confined to at least two already discernible directions: cultural hybridisation (García Canclini and the emergence of virtual cultures that promote de-standardised identities.

  1. Optimizing Ocean Space: Co-siting Open Ocean Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, B. L.; Wickliffe, L. C.; Morris, J. A., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    In January of 2016, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service released the Gulf Aquaculture Plan (GAP) to manage the development of environmentally sound and economically sustainable open ocean finfish aquaculture in the Gulf of Mexico (inside the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ]). The GAP provides the first regulatory framework for aquaculture in federal waters with estimated production of 64 million pounds of finfish, and an estimated economic impact of $264 million annually. The Gulf of Mexico is one of the most industrialized ocean basins in the world, with many existing ocean uses including oil and natural gas production, shipping and commerce, commercial fishing operations, and many protected areas to ensure conservation of valuable ecosystem resources and services. NOAA utilized spatial planning procedures and tools identifying suitable sites for establishing aquaculture through exclusion analyses using authoritative federal and state data housed in a centralized geodatabase. Through a highly collaborative, multi-agency effort a mock permitting exercise was conducted to illustrate the regulatory decision-making process for the Gulf. Further decision-making occurred through exploring co-siting opportunities with oil and natural gas platforms. Logistical co-siting was conducted to reduce overall operational costs by looking at distance to major port and commodity tonnage at each port. Importantly, the process of co-siting allows aquaculture to be coupled with other benefits, including the availability of previously established infrastructure and the reduction of environmental impacts.

  2. Valuing urban open space using the travel-cost method and the implications of measurement error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanauer, Merlin M; Reid, John

    2017-08-01

    Urbanization has placed pressure on open space within and adjacent to cities. In recent decades, a greater awareness has developed to the fact that individuals derive multiple benefits from urban open space. Given the location, there is often a high opportunity cost to preserving urban open space, thus it is important for both public and private stakeholders to justify such investments. The goals of this study are twofold. First, we use detailed surveys and precise, accessible, mapping methods to demonstrate how travel-cost methods can be applied to the valuation of urban open space. Second, we assess the degree to which typical methods of estimating travel times, and thus travel costs, introduce bias to the estimates of welfare. The site we study is Taylor Mountain Regional Park, a 1100-acre space located immediately adjacent to Santa Rosa, California, which is the largest city (∼170,000 population) in Sonoma County and lies 50 miles north of San Francisco. We estimate that the average per trip access value (consumer surplus) is $13.70. We also demonstrate that typical methods of measuring travel costs significantly understate these welfare measures. Our study provides policy-relevant results and highlights the sensitivity of urban open space travel-cost studies to bias stemming from travel-cost measurement error. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Criteria for Public Open Space Enhancement to Achieve Social Interaction: a Review Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, S. A.; Ismail, S.

    2017-12-01

    A This paper presents a various literatures, studies, transcripts and papers aiming to provide an overview of some theories and existing research on the significance of natural environments and green open spaces to achieve social interaction and outdoor recreation. The main objective of the paper is to identify the factors that affecting social interaction in green open spaces, through proving that an appropriate open spaces is important to enhance social interaction and community. This study employs (qualitative) summarizing content analysis method which mainly focused on collect and summarizing of documentation such as transcripts, articles, papers, and books from more than 25 source, regarding the importance of public open spaces for the community. The summarizing content analysis of this paper is the fundament for a qualitative oriented procedure of text interpretation used to analyse the information gathered. Results of this study confirms that sound social interaction need an appropriate physical space including criteria of: design, activities, access and linkage, administration and maintenance, place attachment and users’ characteristics, also previous studies in this area have a health perspective with measures of physical activity of open spaces in general.

  4. Practical Application of Neural Networks in State Space Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    the networks, although some modifications are needed for the method to apply to the multilayer perceptron network. In connection with the multilayer perceptron networks it is also pointed out how instantaneous, sample-by-sample linearized state space models can be extracted from a trained network, thus opening......In the present thesis we address some problems in discrete-time state space control of nonlinear dynamical systems and attempt to solve them using generic nonlinear models based on artificial neural networks. The main aim of the work is to examine how well such control algorithms perform when...... theoretic notions followed by a detailed description of the topology, neuron functions and learning rules of the two types of neural networks treated in the thesis, the multilayer perceptron and the neurofuzzy networks. In both cases, a Least Squares second-order gradient method is used to train...

  5. 10 Management Controller for Time and Space Partitioning Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachaize, Jerome; Deredempt, Marie-Helene; Galizzi, Julien

    2015-09-01

    The Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) has been industrialized in aeronautical domain to enable the independent qualification of different application softwares from different suppliers on the same generic computer, this latter computer being a single terminal in a deterministic network. This concept allowed to distribute efficiently and transparently the different applications across the network, sizing accurately the HW equipments to embed on the aircraft, through the configuration of the virtual computers and the virtual network. , This concept has been studied for space domain and requirements issued [D04],[D05]. Experiments in the space domain have been done, for the computer level, through ESA and CNES initiatives [D02] [D03]. One possible IMA implementation may use Time and Space Partitioning (TSP) technology. Studies on Time and Space Partitioning [D02] for controlling resources access such as CPU and memories and studies on hardware/software interface standardization [D01] showed that for space domain technologies where I/O components (or IP) do not cover advanced features such as buffering, descriptors or virtualization, CPU overhead in terms of performances is mainly due to shared interface management in the execution platform, and to the high frequency of I/O accesses, these latter leading to an important number of context switches. This paper will present a solution to reduce this execution overhead with an open, modular and configurable controller.

  6. Control landscapes for observable preparation with open quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Rebing; Pechen, Alexander; Rabitz, Herschel; Hsieh, Michael; Tsou, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    A quantum control landscape is defined as the observable as a function(al) of the system control variables. Such landscapes were introduced to provide a basis to understand the increasing number of successful experiments controlling quantum dynamics phenomena. This paper extends the concept to encompass the broader context of the environment having an influence. For the case that the open system dynamics are fully controllable, it is shown that the control landscape for open systems can be lifted to the analysis of an equivalent auxiliary landscape of a closed composite system that contains the environmental interactions. This inherent connection can be analyzed to provide relevant information about the topology of the original open system landscape. Application to the optimization of an observable expectation value reveals the same landscape simplicity observed in former studies on closed systems. In particular, no false suboptimal traps exist in the system control landscape when seeking to optimize an observable, even in the presence of complex environments. Moreover, a quantitative study of the control landscape of a system interacting with a thermal environment shows that the enhanced controllability attainable with open dynamics significantly broadens the range of the achievable observable values over the control landscape

  7. The Impact of Green Open Space on Community Attachment—A Case Study of Three Communities in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuemei Zhu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With the development of urbanization in China, the quality of urban life and community attachment have attracted increasing attention of the governments and society. Existing research on community attachment has mainly examined how individual characteristics affect community attachment, such as their length of residence and socioeconomic status. However, some scholars have become interested in exploring the effects of green open space on community attachment. This research examined whether the distribution of green open space in communities had significant effects on community attachment, and both the impact and path were also investigated. Through a questionnaire survey, relevant data in three communities of Beijing were collected. The impact of green open space layout on community attachment was evaluated by using hierarchical regression, and the impact path was examined by using a structural equation model. The results showed that green open space in a community had significant effects on the community attachment, with centralized green open space layout having a greater effect than that of dispersed green open space. Moreover, the more complex the shape of green open space is, the greater the impact is. The degree of satisfaction with the green open space had direct effects on the community attachment. The accessibility and perceived area of green open space could indirectly have an impact on the community attachment by affecting the degree of satisfaction with the green open space. Nevertheless, residents’ perceived importance of green open space could affect the community attachment directly and indirectly, as it affects the degree of satisfaction.

  8. The urban microclimate in open space. Case studies in Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Tumini

    2014-04-01

    de proyecto, aplicados a tres casos de estudio situados en un barrio periurbano de la ciudad de Madrid. Para la determinación de los parámetros climáticos se han empleado valores obtenidos con un proceso de simulación computarizada, basados en los principios de fluidodinámica, termodinámica y del intercambio radioactivo en el espacio construido. A través de uso de programas de simulación podemos hacer una previsión de las condiciones microclimáticas de las situaciones actuales y de los efectos de la aplicación de medidas. La gran ventaja en el uso de sistemas de cálculo es que se pueden evaluar diferentes escenarios de proyecto y elegir entre ellos el que asegura mejores prestaciones ambientales. Los resultados obtenidos en los diferentes escenarios han sido comparados con los valores de confort del estado actual, utilizando como indicador de la sensación térmica el índice UTCI. El análisis comparativo ha permitido la realización de una tabla de resumen donde se muestra la evaluación de las diferentes soluciones de rehabilitación. Se ha podido así demostrar que no existe una solución constructiva eficaz para todas las aplicaciones, sino que cada situación debe ser estudiada individualmente, aplicando caso por caso las medidas más oportunas. Si bien los sistemas de simulación computarizada pueden suponer un importante apoyo para la fase de diseño, es responsabilidad del proyectista emplear las herramientas más adecuadas en cada fase y elegir las soluciones más oportunas para cumplir con los objetivos del proyecto. Abstract: The urban microclimate plays an important role on buildings energy consumption and comfort sensation in exterior spaces. Nowadays, cities need to increase energy efficiency, reduce the pollutants emissions and mitigate the evident lack of sustainability. In reason of this, attention has focused on the bioclimatic urbanism as a reference of change proposal of the way to design and live the city. Hitherto, the researches on

  9. Going Open: Does it Mean Giving Away Control?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Weiss

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Open source software has evolved from being an effort driven by a collective of volunteers to become an integral part of commercial software. Constant demands for new features besides maintaining product quality made companies seek open source as an answer for these demands. These growing demands brought with them control of quality, architecture, contribution management, and community management. This article explores the governance strategies adopted by open source software projects to manage the quality of complements (such as plug-ins that extend a platform's functionality developed by community members outside the core team. The outcomes of the research contribute to our understanding of the strategies followed by different open source platform owners (the open source project initiators to manage external innovation in the case of platform extensions in two areas: i governance models and ii regulatory tools.

  10. Evaluation of comfort conditions in urban open spaces. Application in the island of Crete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitoura, Marianna; Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Daras, Tryfon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Outdoor spaces field surveys carried out in four different urban open spaces. • A strong connection between the microclimate and the use of open space. • Human physical and psychological factors can optimize the urban space design. - Abstract: The thermal environment in outdoor public spaces and their level of use are strongly connected. The design of outdoor spaces, especially in urban areas, is very critical in Southern Europe due to their extended use during summertime where the urban heat island phenomenon deteriorates the microclimatic conditions. In this paper the main outcomes of outdoor spaces field surveys are presented, which were carried out in four different urban open spaces in Crete. On site measurements were implemented and a questionnaire was used in order to estimate the thermal comfort of visitors. Thermal indices like Predicted Mean Vote, Physiologically Equivalent Temperature, Standard Effective Temperature, Wet Bulb Globe Temperature are used to evaluate the features of urban microclimate and then are being compared in order to find the most suitable for the Mediterranean microclimate. This suggests another way of approach to the researcher and provides essential tools to the designer

  11. An Open Source Rapid Computer Aided Control System Design Toolchain Using Scilab, Scicos and RTAI Linux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchpan-Lerust-Juéry, L.

    2007-08-01

    Current and next generation on-board computer systems tend to implement real-time embedded control applications (e.g. Attitude and Orbit Control Subsystem (AOCS), Packet Utililization Standard (PUS), spacecraft autonomy . . . ) which must meet high standards of Reliability and Predictability as well as Safety. All these requirements require a considerable amount of effort and cost for Space Sofware Industry. This paper, in a first part, presents a free Open Source integrated solution to develop RTAI applications from analysis, design, simulation and direct implementation using code generation based on Open Source and in its second part summarises this suggested approach, its results and the conclusion for further work.

  12. Open versus Controlled-Access Data | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    OCG employs stringent human subjects’ protection and data access policies to protect the privacy and confidentiality of the research participants. Depending on the risk of patient identification, OCG programs data are available to the scientific community in two tiers: open or controlled access. Both types of data can be accessed through its corresponding OCG program-specific data matrix or portal. Open-access Data

  13. Frictionless segmented mechanics for controlled space closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ildeu

    2017-02-01

    Extraction spaces may be needed to achieve specific orthodontic goals of positioning the dentition in harmony with the craniofacial complex. However, the fundamental reality that determines the occlusion final position is the control exerted by the orthodontist while closing the extraction spaces. A specific treatment objective may require the posterior teeth to remain in a constant position anteroposteriorly as well as vertically, while the anterior teeth occupy the entire extraction site. Another treatment objective may require the opposite, or any number of intentional alternatives of extraction site closure. The present case report describes a simple controlled segmented mechanic system that permitted definable and predictable force systems to be applied and allowed to predict the treatment outcome with confidence. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Diplomate certification.

  14. Frictionless segmented mechanics for controlled space closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildeu Andrade Jr

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Extraction spaces may be needed to achieve specific orthodontic goals of positioning the dentition in harmony with the craniofacial complex. However, the fundamental reality that determines the occlusion final position is the control exerted by the orthodontist while closing the extraction spaces. A specific treatment objective may require the posterior teeth to remain in a constant position anteroposteriorly as well as vertically, while the anterior teeth occupy the entire extraction site. Another treatment objective may require the opposite, or any number of intentional alternatives of extraction site closure. The present case report describes a simple controlled segmented mechanic system that permitted definable and predictable force systems to be applied and allowed to predict the treatment outcome with confidence. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Diplomate certification.

  15. Space Telescope Control System science user operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, H. J.; Rossini, R.; Simcox, D.; Bennett, N.

    1984-01-01

    The Space Telescope science users will have a flexible and efficient means of accessing the capabilities provided by the ST Pointing Control System, particularly with respect to managing the overal acquisition and pointing functions. To permit user control of these system functions - such as vehicle scanning, tracking, offset pointing, high gain antenna pointing, solar array pointing and momentum management - a set of special instructions called 'constructs' is used in conjuction with command data packets. This paper discusses the user-vehicle interface and introduces typical operational scenarios.

  16. Researching on Hawking Effect in a Kerr Space Time via Open Quantum System Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wen-Biao; Liu, Xian-Ming

    2014-01-01

    It has been proposed that Hawking radiation from a Schwarzschild or a de Sitter spacetime can be understood as the manifestation of thermalization phenomena in the framework of an open quantum system. Through examining the time evolution of a detector interacting with vacuum massless scalar fields, it is found that the detector would spontaneously excite with a probability the same as the thermal radiation at Hawking temperature. Following the proposals, the Hawking effect in a Kerr space time is investigated in the framework of an open quantum systems. It is shown that Hawking effect of the Kerr space time can also be understood as the the manifestation of thermalization phenomena via open quantum system approach. Furthermore, it is found that near horizon local conformal symmetry plays the key role in the quantum effect of the Kerr space time

  17. Investigating the Impact of Schools' Open Space on Learning and Educational Achievement of Elementary Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Gilavand

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background It is obvious that most of informal learnings of social skills and constructive plays occur in school yards and play-fields where children spend much of their non-official time of teaching. This study aimed to investigate the impact of schools' open space on learning and educational achievement of elementary students in Ahvaz, Southwest of Iran. Materials and Methods At a cross-sectional study, 210 students were selected randomly as sample of study. Data collection tools included Hermance’s achievement motivation questionnaire and researcher-constructed questionnaire (observation checklist to examine the physical parameters of learning schools' open space and interviews with students. Data of study were analyzed in SPSS- 21 software. Results Results of this study showed that schools' open space has a significant impact on learning and academic achievement of elementary school students in Ahvaz- Iran (P

  18. Move the Neighborhood: study design of a community-based participatory public open space intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Winge, Laura; Carroll, Sidse

    evaluation will be used to gain knowledge of the intervention processes. DISCUSSION: The study presents new methods and approaches in the field of public open space interventions through interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory co-design approach and combination of measurements. Using both effect......BACKGROUND: A limited amount of research has examined the effect of changing public open spaces on active living. This abstract presents the study protocol of an intervention study designed in an interdisciplinary collaboration built on principles of Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR...... and process evaluations the study will provide unique insights in the role and importance of the interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory processes, tailoring changes in public open space to local needs and wishes. These results can be used to guide urban renewal projects in deprived neighbourhoods...

  19. Controlling open quantum systems: tools, achievements, and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Christiane P

    2016-01-01

    The advent of quantum devices, which exploit the two essential elements of quantum physics, coherence and entanglement, has sparked renewed interest in the control of open quantum systems. Successful implementations face the challenge of preserving relevant nonclassical features at the level of device operation. A major obstacle is decoherence, which is caused by interaction with the environment. Optimal control theory is a tool that can be used to identify control strategies in the presence of decoherence. Here we review recent advances in optimal control methodology that allow typical tasks in device operation for open quantum systems to be tackled and discuss examples of relaxation-optimized dynamics. Optimal control theory is also a useful tool to exploit the environment for control. We discuss examples and point out possible future extensions. (topical review)

  20. Controlling open quantum systems: Tools, achievements, and limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Christiane P.

    2016-01-01

    The advent of quantum devices, which exploit the two essential elements of quantum physics, coherence and entanglement, has sparked renewed interest in the control of open quantum systems. Successful implementations face the challenge to preserve the relevant nonclassical features at the level of device operation. A major obstacle is decoherence which is caused by interaction with the environment. Optimal control theory is a tool that can be used to identify control strategies in the presence...

  1. Sustainability: an Approach in Planning to Raise the Quality of Life Through Open Space Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Y. Khobragade

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A presentation of the notion of sustainable development through the eye of a town planner, by elucidating how open space development would change the character of the city and augment towards harmony in the socio-environmental chords of sustainable development. It is an attempt to put forward awareness about the sustainability and environmental risk to ultimately reconcile ecological, social and economic factors of society. It is an attempt to reflect on socio-environmental dimension of the open space planning by addressing urban metamorphosis.

  2. Inherent-opening-controlled pattern formation in carbon nanotube arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiao; Zhou, Jijie J; Sansom, Elijah; Gharib, Morteza; Haur, Sow Chorng

    2007-01-01

    We have introduced inherent openings into densely packed carbon nanotube arrays to study self-organized pattern formation when the arrays undergo a wetting-dewetting treatment from nanotube tips. These inherent openings, made of circular or elongated hollows in nanotube mats, serve as dewetting centres, from where liquid recedes from. As the dewetting centres initiate dry zones and the dry zones expand, surrounding nanotubes are pulled away from the dewetting centres by liquid surface tension. Among short nanotubes, the self-organized patterns are consistent with the shape of the inherent openings, i.e. slender openings lead to elongated trench-like structures, and circular holes result in relatively round nest-like arrangements. Nanotubes in a relatively high mat are more connected, like in an elastic body, than those in a short mat. Small cracks often initialize themselves in a relatively high mat, along two or more adjacent round openings; each of the cracks evolves into a trench as liquid dries up. Self-organized pattern control with inherent openings needs to initiate the dewetting process above the nanotube tips. If there is no liquid on top, inherent openings barely enlarge themselves after the wetting-dewetting treatment

  3. Open Pit Water Control Safety A Case Of Nchanga Open Pit Mine Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Silwamba C; Chileshe P R K

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mining in Chingola Zambia started underground in 1931 and was catastrophically flooded and closed. The present Nchanga Underground Mine NUG started in 1937. The Nchanga Open Pit NOP mine started in 1955 situated to the west of NUG and partially overlying it. Open pit water control safety operations in the Nchanga-Chingola area have successfully enabled the safe extraction of millions of tonnes of copper ore annually over the past 60 years from NUG mining as well as the NOP. At the st...

  4. Space Launch System Ascent Flight Control Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Jeb S.; Wall, John H.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Hall, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    A robust and flexible autopilot architecture for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) family of launch vehicles is presented. The SLS configurations represent a potentially significant increase in complexity and performance capability when compared with other manned launch vehicles. It was recognized early in the program that a new, generalized autopilot design should be formulated to fulfill the needs of this new space launch architecture. The present design concept is intended to leverage existing NASA and industry launch vehicle design experience and maintain the extensibility and modularity necessary to accommodate multiple vehicle configurations while relying on proven and flight-tested control design principles for large boost vehicles. The SLS flight control architecture combines a digital three-axis autopilot with traditional bending filters to support robust active or passive stabilization of the vehicle's bending and sloshing dynamics using optimally blended measurements from multiple rate gyros on the vehicle structure. The algorithm also relies on a pseudo-optimal control allocation scheme to maximize the performance capability of multiple vectored engines while accommodating throttling and engine failure contingencies in real time with negligible impact to stability characteristics. The architecture supports active in-flight disturbance compensation through the use of nonlinear observers driven by acceleration measurements. Envelope expansion and robustness enhancement is obtained through the use of a multiplicative forward gain modulation law based upon a simple model reference adaptive control scheme.

  5. Development of a robot Holon using an open modular controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnell, Jakob; Andersen, Søren; Sørensen, Christian

    1999-01-01

    System (HoMuCS) architecture and methodology for implementing a HMS. This paper specifically reviews the development of a Robot Holon based on an open controller in the context of the HoMuCS architecture. The paper will describe the results and research work that was involved in developing a robot holon...... for a physical robot. The robot holon was implemented on an existing robot at the department which was upgraded by removing its native control system and replacing it with a new PC-based open controller. The development of the robot holon builds on the notion that a robot holon will be able to performboth......Holonic Manufacturing Systems (HMS) has during the last period presented itself as an advantageous theoretical foundation for the problems that arise in controlling agile manufacturing systems. Previous research, at the Department, has demonstrated how modern shop floor control systems can...

  6. Boosted PWM open loop control of hydraulic proportional valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirante, R.; Innone, A.; Catalano, L.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative open loop control technique for direct single stage hydraulic proportional valves whose response rate is significantly higher than that obtained by standard open loop control techniques, even comparable to more costly commercial closed loop systems. Different from standard open loop techniques, which provide the coil with a constant current proportional to the target position, the control strategy proposed in this paper employs the peak and hold (P and H) technique, widely used in Diesel engine modern supply systems, to boost the duty cycle value of the pulse width modulation (PWM) signal for a short time, namely during the spool displacement, while maintaining a lower duty cycle for holding the spool in the required opening position. The developed 'boosted PWM' technique only requires a low cost microcontroller, such as a peripheral interface controller (PIC) equipped with a metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) power driver. The PWM parameters are calibrated as a function of the spool displacement so as to maximize the response rate without introducing overshoots: the collected data are stored in the PIC. Different valve opening procedures with step response have been compared to demonstrate the merits of the proposed boosted PWM technique. No overshoots have been registered. Moreover, the proposed method is characterized by a significantly higher response rate with respect to a standard open loop control, which approximately has the same cost. Similar experimental tests show that the proposed boosted PWM technique has a response rate even higher than that provided by the more costly commercial closed loop system mounted on the valve, and it produces no overshoots

  7. Boosted PWM open loop control of hydraulic proportional valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirante, R.; Catalano, L.A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica e Gestionale, Politecnico di Bari, Via Re David 200, 70125 Bari (Italy); Innone, A. [Universita degli Studi di Foggia, via Napoli, 25 Foggia (Italy)

    2008-08-15

    This paper presents an innovative open loop control technique for direct single stage hydraulic proportional valves whose response rate is significantly higher than that obtained by standard open loop control techniques, even comparable to more costly commercial closed loop systems. Different from standard open loop techniques, which provide the coil with a constant current proportional to the target position, the control strategy proposed in this paper employs the peak and hold (P and H) technique, widely used in Diesel engine modern supply systems, to boost the duty cycle value of the pulse width modulation (PWM) signal for a short time, namely during the spool displacement, while maintaining a lower duty cycle for holding the spool in the required opening position. The developed 'boosted PWM' technique only requires a low cost microcontroller, such as a peripheral interface controller (PIC) equipped with a metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) power driver. The PWM parameters are calibrated as a function of the spool displacement so as to maximize the response rate without introducing overshoots: the collected data are stored in the PIC. Different valve opening procedures with step response have been compared to demonstrate the merits of the proposed boosted PWM technique. No overshoots have been registered. Moreover, the proposed method is characterized by a significantly higher response rate with respect to a standard open loop control, which approximately has the same cost. Similar experimental tests show that the proposed boosted PWM technique has a response rate even higher than that provided by the more costly commercial closed loop system mounted on the valve, and it produces no overshoots. (author)

  8. An Experimental Study on the Influence of Soundscapes on People's Behaviour in an Open Public Space

    OpenAIRE

    Aletta, F.; Lepore, F.; Kostara-Konstantinou, E.; Kang, J.; Astolfi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have investigated how environmental sounds and music can modulate people’s behaviours, particularly in marketing research. However, there are relatively few examples of research about such relationships with a focus on the management of urban public spaces. The current study investigated an open public space used mainly as a pedestrian crossing to analyse the relationship between the audio stimuli and peoples’ behaviours. An experiment relying on covert behavioural observation...

  9. Dynamic analysis of space robot remote control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakov, Felix; Alferov, Gennady; Sokolov, Boris; Gorovenko, Polina; Sharlay, Artem

    2018-05-01

    The article presents analysis on construction of two-stage remote control for space robots. This control ensures efficiency of the robot control system at large delays in transmission of control signals from the ground control center to the local control system of the space robot. The conditions for control stability of and high transparency are found.

  10. CLS A Fully Open-Source Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Matias, Elder; Johnson, Terry; Tanner, Robby; Wilson, Tony; Wright, Glen; Zhang, Hao

    2005-01-01

    The Canadian Light Source is one of the first major accelerator facility to adopt a fully open source control system. The control system is based on Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) in use at may other facilities. From the outset CLS utilised RTEMS and Linux as the underlying operating systems for real-time control computers, operator interface computers and servers. When communicating with PLC and other intelligent devices CLS has also adopted a policy of using open communications protocols where possible. Combined these strategies have lead to a system that can easily evolve over the life of the facility without being tied to specific hardware or software suppliers. The operational experience over the past few years has indicates the selected architecture is sufficiently robust and reliable.

  11. Remote control systems evolution in the new open energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castiglioni, L.

    2001-01-01

    Considering new energy market in Italy, the new role of remote control applications is discussed. In the open market the whole electric process is managed by several different actors; common protocol scheme and additional sharing data policies are necessaries facing the increased communications requirements due to deregulation. Remote control systems evolution then will lead from process oriented to data management oriented systems; related methodologies and solutions are described [it

  12. Space closing versus space opening for bilateral missing upper laterals - aesthetic judgments of laypeople: a web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Salim; Parkin, Nicola A; Benson, Philip E

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the opinions of laypeople regarding the aesthetic outcome of treating patients with developmental absence of both maxillary lateral incisors using either orthodontic space closure (OSC) or space opening and prosthetic replacement (PR). Cross sectional, web-based survey. A panel of five orthodontists and five restorative dentists examined post-treatment intra-oral images of 21 patients with developmental absence of both upper lateral incisors. A consensus view was obtained about the 10 most attractive images (5 OSC; 5 PR). The 10 selected images were used in a web-based survey involving staff and students at the University of Sheffield. In the first section, the participants were asked to evaluate the attractiveness of the 10 randomly arranged single images using a 5-point Likert scale. In the second section, an image of OSC was paired with an image of PR according to their attractiveness ranking by the clinician panel, and the participants were asked to indicate which of the two images they preferred. The survey received 959 completed responses with 9590 judgements. The images of OSC were perceived to be more attractive (mean rating 3·34 out of 5; SD 0·56) compared with the images of PR (mean rating 3·14 out of 5; SD 0·58) (mean diff 0·21; P Space closing was perceived to be more attractive than space opening by lay people. The findings have implications for advising patients about the best aesthetic outcome when both maxillary lateral incisors are missing.

  13. COSMO: a decision-support system for the central open space, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harms, W.B.; Knaapen, J.P.; Roos-Klein-Lankhorst sic, J.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate scenarios for nature restoration, a landscape ecological decision-support system has been developed, a knowledge-based system integrated in a geographical information system. The grid-based application in the Central Open Space of the Netherlands (the COSMO model) is presented here. Four

  14. How to Cope with Working in an Open-space Lab?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pautasso, Marco; Werf, van der Wopke

    2017-01-01

    Open-space labs and research environments are increasingly common worldwide. They are supposed to facilitate interactions among researchers, but can be disruptive to those who need to be in a quiet environment in order to concentrate. This problem is increasingly felt across the natural, medical

  15. Tidal wetland vegetation and ecotone profiles: The Rush Ranch Open Space Preserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Rush Ranch Open Space Preserve (Rush Ranch) is a component site of the San Francisco Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (SF Bay NERR) that includes one of the largest undiked tidal wetlands in the San Francisco Estuary. The brackish tidal wetlands grade into transitional vegetation and unde...

  16. 77 FR 13261 - Request for Applications: The Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Request for Applications: The Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program AGENCY: Forest Service. ACTION: Notice; Correction. SUMMARY: The Department..., published a document in the Federal Register of February 15, 2011, concerning requests for applications for...

  17. Best Management Practice, Fact Sheet 2. Sheet Flow to Open Space

    OpenAIRE

    Sample, David; Doumar, Lia

    2013-01-01

    This publication explains what sheet flow to open space is, where and how it is used, their limitations, routine and nonroutine maintenance, expected costs, and a glossary of terms. This fact sheet is one of a 15-part series on urban stormwater management practices.

  18. The social aspects of landscape change: protecting open space under the pressure of development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster; Susan I. Stewart; David N. Bengston

    2004-01-01

    The extent of developed land in many parts of the world has increased rapidly in recent decades, posing significant challenges to the protection of forests, agricultural lands, and other natural and culturally modified green areas in urban and rural settings. Sustaining these open spaces has long been seen as a critical issue economically, and it is now increasingly...

  19. Butterflies Diversity in Brawijaya University, Veteran, Jakarta and Velodrom Green Open Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Raisa Khairun Nisa'

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Butterflies have some roles in environmental as pollinator and bioindicator. Habitat is one of important factor to support butterflies growth. The aim of this research was to describe butterflies diversity in some green open spaces in Malang. Direct observations of butterflies diversity, vegetation structures and abiotic factors in Brawijaya University, Veteran, Jakarta and Velodrom Green Open Space were conducted on June 2012. Sampling was took place in each sites using cruising method in three times observation at 07.00, 11.00 a.m. and 3.30 p.m . Data were analyzed by statistical descriptive using Microsoft Excel 2007 and PAST. The result showed that butterflies composition in all sites dominated by Delias sp., Leptosia nina and Eurema venusta. The diversity index of all sites showed moderate rank that indicate communities equilibrium in environment was still good. In this case, Velodrom Green Open Space has the highest one of diversity index, it was about 2,199. Brawijaya University and Jakarta Green Open Space have a high similarity index based on Morisita Index. The highest abundance of butterflies was observed at 11.00-12.30 a.m. Delias sp. and Leptosia nina has temporal spread all day long, while Eurema venusta just in day light.

  20. The Role of Open Space in Urban Neighbourhoods for Health-Related Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestan, Katarina Ana; Eržen, Ivan; Golobič, Mojca

    2014-01-01

    The research reported in this paper addresses the relationship between quality of open space and health related lifestyle in urban residential areas. The research was performed in the residential developments in Ljubljana, Slovenia, dating from the time of political and economic changes in the early nineties. Compared to the older neighborhoods, these are typically single-use residential areas, with small open spaces and poor landscape design. The research is concerned with the quality of life in these areas, especially from the perspective of the vulnerable users, like the elderly and children. Both depend on easily accessible green areas in close proximity to their homes. The hypothesis is that the poor open space quality affects their health-related behavior and their perceived health status. The research has three methodological phases: (1) a comparison between urban residential areas by criteria describing their physical characteristics; (2) behavior observation and mapping and (3) a resident opinion survey. The results confirm differences between open spaces of the selected residential areas as well as their relation with outdoor activities: a lack of outdoor programs correlates with poor variety of outdoor activities, limited to transition type, less time spent outdoors and lower satisfaction with their home environment. The survey also disclosed a strong influence of a set of socio-economic variables such as education and economic status on physical activity and self-perceived health status of people. The results therefore confirm the hypothesis especially for less affluent and educated; i.e., vulnerable groups. PMID:25003173

  1. The Role of Open Space in Urban Neighbourhoods for Health-Related Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Ana Lestan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The research reported in this paper addresses the relationship between quality of open space and health related lifestyle in urban residential areas. The research was performed in the residential developments in Ljubljana, Slovenia, dating from the time of political and economic changes in the early nineties. Compared to the older neighborhoods, these are typically single-use residential areas, with small open spaces and poor landscape design. The research is concerned with the quality of life in these areas, especially from the perspective of the vulnerable users, like the elderly and children. Both depend on easily accessible green areas in close proximity to their homes. The hypothesis is that the poor open space quality affects their health-related behavior and their perceived health status. The research has three methodological phases: (1 a comparison between urban residential areas by criteria describing their physical characteristics; (2 behavior observation and mapping and (3 a resident opinion survey. The results confirm differences between open spaces of the selected residential areas as well as their relation with outdoor activities: a lack of outdoor programs correlates with poor variety of outdoor activities, limited to transition type, less time spent outdoors and lower satisfaction with their home environment. The survey also disclosed a strong influence of a set of socio-economic variables such as education and economic status on physical activity and self-perceived health status of people. The results therefore confirm the hypothesis especially for less affluent and educated; i.e., vulnerable groups.

  2. Field-oriented control of five-phase induction motor with open-end stator winding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Listwan Jacek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model of the five-phase squirrel-cage induction motor and the system of the dual five-phase voltage source inverter have been presented. The control methods and control systems of the field-oriented control of the five-phase induction motor with an open-end stator winding are described. The structures of the direct fieldoriented control system (DFOC and the Indirect Field-oriented control system (IFOC with PI controllers in outer and inner control loops are analyzed. A method of space vector modulation used to control the system of the dual five-phase voltage source inverter has been discussed. The results of simulation studies of the field-oriented control methods are presented. Comparative analysis of the simulation results was carried out.

  3. Open-Switch Fault Diagnosis and Fault Tolerant for Matrix Converter with Finite Control Set-Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Tao; Dan, Hanbing; Yang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    To improve the reliability of the matrix converter (MC), a fault diagnosis method to identify single open-switch fault is proposed in this paper. The introduced fault diagnosis method is based on finite control set-model predictive control (FCS-MPC), which employs a time-discrete model of the MC...... topology and a cost function to select the best switching state for the next sampling period. The proposed fault diagnosis method is realized by monitoring the load currents and judging the switching state to locate the faulty switch. Compared to the conventional modulation strategies such as carrier......-based modulation method, indirect space vector modulation and optimum Alesina-Venturini, the FCS-MPC has known and unchanged switching state in a sampling period. It is simpler to diagnose the exact location of the open switch in MC with FCS-MPC. To achieve better quality of the output current under single open...

  4. Perception of open urban space – Bevk square in Nova Gorica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Bratina

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In research on perception of open urban space, psychological and structural aspects are important, as well as social use. Social use however is most important, because open urban space and its green surfaces satisfies needs of an urban population. The psychological aspect applies to direct experiencing and perception of space, while the structural aspect proves that public urban places are an important category in the urban structure. On the example of Bevk square, Nova Gorica, three types of analyses were carried out. With the structural analysis and evaluation, development and structure of the place were shown, its problems and qualities. The survey on public opinion utilised the method of cognitive mapping, enabled definition of the image of the square, as perceived by everyday users. With the method of time samples events on the square were observed, in different time slots and days of the week.

  5. Open Pit Water Control Safety A Case Of Nchanga Open Pit Mine Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silwamba C

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mining in Chingola Zambia started underground in 1931 and was catastrophically flooded and closed. The present Nchanga Underground Mine NUG started in 1937. The Nchanga Open Pit NOP mine started in 1955 situated to the west of NUG and partially overlying it. Open pit water control safety operations in the Nchanga-Chingola area have successfully enabled the safe extraction of millions of tonnes of copper ore annually over the past 60 years from NUG mining as well as the NOP. At the start Nchanga mining license surface already had NUG and many watershed divides with the Nchanga and Chingola streams being the main streams feeding into Zambias second largest river Kafue river and 42 of the year was characterised by heavy rains ranging between 800mm to 1300mm per annum. In this paper the presence of very significant amounts of seasonal rain and subsurface water in the mining area was identified as both a curse and a blessing. An excess in seasonal rain and subsurface water would disrupt both open pit and underground mining operations. In order for NOP to be operated successfully stable and free from flooding coping water management tactics were adopted from 1955 to 2015 including 1. Underground mine pump chamber pumping system 2. Piezometer instrumented boreholes 3. Underground mine 1500-ft sub-haulage east borehole dewatering beneath the open pit 4. Nchanga and Chingola stream diversionary tunnel and open drains 5. Nchanga stream causeway and embankment dam in the Matero School Golf Club area 6. Pit perimeter borehole pumping 7. Outer and inner pit perimeter drains and bund walls 8. In-pit ramp side drains 9. In-pit sub-horizontal borehole geo-drains and water and 10. Pit bottom sump pumps. Application of grout curtains along the Vistula River Poland was noted as a possibility in the right circumstances although it had never been used at Nchanga Open Pit. An additional conclusion was that forward health safety and environmental end

  6. Sand control in open horizontal wells - case histories and developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovina, P. S. [Petrobras (Brazil); Filho, E. L.

    1998-12-31

    A number of unconventional sand control completion techniques have been adopted by Petrobras to achieve higher productivity, delay gas/water conning, and to support unconsolidated formations in water injection wells in recently discovered new fields in the Amazon forest and in the deep water offshore Campos Basin. Experiences acquired running screens on 23 horizontal open wells are described. Horizontal wells confirmed the expectations in both locations, i;e. in the Amazon forests water conning was delayed, and in the Marlim field productivity increase to three times that of conventional wells. It was also observed that the API threads used in the screen basepipe for horizontal wells with long radius and short open hole section were adequate, but in the new deep water fields where extended reach wells and long open hole section are likely to be common, it is necessary to use premium threads. 2 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  7. Open Hypermedia as User Controlled Meta Data for the Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Sloth, Lennert; Bouvin, Niels Olof

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces an approach to utilise open hypermedia structures such as links, annotations, collections and guided tours as meta data for Web resources. The paper introduces an XML based data format, called Open Hypermedia Interchange Format - OHIF, for such hypermedia structures. OHIF...... distributed open hypermedia linking between Web pages and WebDAV aware desktop applications. The paper describes the OHIF format and demonstrates how the Webvise system handles OHIF. Finally, it argues for better support for handling user controlled meta data, e.g. support for linking in non-XML data...... resembles XLink with respect to its representation of out-of-line links, but it goes beyond XLink with a more rich set of structuring mechanisms, including e.g. composites. Moreover OHIF includes an addressing mechanisms (LocSpecs) that goes beyond XPointer and URL in its ability to locate non-XML data...

  8. Exploring Psychological and Aesthetic Approaches of Bio-Retention Facilities in the Urban Open Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyeon Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, a number of bio-retention facilities have been installed in urban areas for flood control and green amenity purposes. As urban amenity facilities for citizens, bio-retentions have a lot potential; however, the literature on bio-retentions focused mostly on physiochemical aspects like water quality and runoffs. Hence, this paper aims to explore psychological aspects of bio-retentions such as perceptions and landscape aesthetic value for visitors. In order to achieve this purpose, the study employed on-site interviews and questionnaires in the chosen three case studies as research methodology. For the 3 different locations of bio-retention facilities, interviews and questionnaires were carried out. The surveys of 100 bio-retention users were conducted, investigating their general perceptions and landscape aesthetics of the bio-retention facilities. The paper found that only 34% of the interviewees recognised bio-detention facilities, illustrating that most visitors were not aware of such facilities and were unable to distinguish the differences between bio-retention and conventional gardens. On the other hand, the majority of interviewees strongly supported the concept and function of bio-retentions, especially those who recognised the differences in planting species with conventional urban open spaces. Such main findings also encourage further studies of seeking quantitative values by conducting a correlation analysis between the functions and aesthetics of bio-retention facilities.

  9. CERN opens up its control rooms to youngsters

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    CERN is inviting 13 to 18 year-olds to come and spend a couple of hours in the control rooms of the LHC and its experiments. Registration is now open.   Is your neighbour's kid eager to come and see what's going on in the CERN control rooms for himself? Is your niece from Germany fascinated by the famous accelerator near Geneva that she's heard about and asking to know more? Then Researchers Night is for them! From 6.00 p.m. on Friday 23 September until 1.00 a.m. the following morning, the LHC and its experiments will open their doors to 13 to 18 year-olds. They are invited to come and spend a couple of hours in the control rooms watching the physicists and taking part in various activities. ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, LHCb, TOTEM, and the CERN Control Centre (CCC) will all be welcoming visitors. For this second year of CERN's involvement in European Researchers Night, the CERN exhibitions will be open late and special activities will be organised in Microcosm....

  10. Scientific competency questions as the basis for semantically enriched open pharmacological space development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzaoui, Kamal; Jacoby, Edgar; Senger, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Molecular information systems play an important part in modern data-driven drug discovery. They do not only support decision making but also enable new discoveries via association and inference. In this review, we outline the scientific requirements identified by the Innovative Medicines Initiative...... (IMI) Open PHACTS consortium for the design of an open pharmacological space (OPS) information system. The focus of this work is the integration of compound–target–pathway–disease/phenotype data for public and industrial drug discovery research. Typical scientific competency questions provided...

  11. Modeling and control of flexible space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wie, B.; Bryson, A. E., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of actuator and sensor locations on transfer function zeros are investigated, using uniform bars and beams as generic models of flexible space structures. It is shown how finite element codes may be used directly to calculate transfer function zeros. The impulse response predicted by finite-dimensional models is compared with the exact impulse response predicted by the infinite dimensional models. It is shown that some flexible structures behave as if there were a direct transmission between actuator and sensor (equal numbers of zeros and poles in the transfer function). Finally, natural damping models for a vibrating beam are investigated since natural damping has a strong influence on the appropriate active control logic for a flexible structure.

  12. Applied Joint-Space Torque and Stiffness Control of Tendon-Driven Fingers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Muhammad E.; Platt, Robert, Jr.; Wampler, Charles W.; Hargrave, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Existing tendon-driven fingers have applied force control through independent tension controllers on each tendon, i.e. in the tendon-space. The coupled kinematics of the tendons, however, cause such controllers to exhibit a transient coupling in their response. This problem can be resolved by alternatively framing the controllers in the joint-space of the manipulator. This work presents a joint-space torque control law that demonstrates both a decoupled and significantly faster response than an equivalent tendon-space formulation. The law also demonstrates greater speed and robustness than comparable PI controllers. In addition, a tension distribution algorithm is presented here to allocate forces from the joints to the tendons. It allocates the tensions so that they satisfy both an upper and lower bound, and it does so without requiring linear programming or open-ended iterations. The control law and tension distribution algorithm are implemented on the robotic hand of Robonaut-2.

  13. Security in Wireless Sensor Networks for Open Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Engvall, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we develop, evaluate and implement a security solution for Open Controllers wireless sensor network platform. A scenario is used to describe an exemplar application showing how our system is supposed to function. The security of the platform is analyzed using a well-established threat modeling process and attack trees which result in the identification of a number of risks, which could be security weaknesses. These attack trees visualize the security weaknesses in an easy to ac...

  14. Open-pit production and control at Roessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodson, D.; Rich, C.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years metal prices have been severely depressed and most companies have directed efforts to controlling costs in order to stay in business. Roessing Uranium has consistently kept uranium production cost increases well below the domestic inflation rate and this has been the result of a firm commitment to production and cost control, which is the main theme of this paper. The subject of cost analysis is briefly presented and the paper then gives more technical detail under the main headings of grade control, production control and engineering projects. The main communication channels, which are used to ensure that different departments on the mine are all working for the same objectives, are mentioned. The paper, however, is intended to be a general overview of the engineering aspects of open-pit cost control

  15. B→τν: Opening up the charged Higgs parameter space with R-parity violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, Roshni; Kundu, Anirban

    2012-01-01

    The theoretically clean channel B + →τ + ν shows a close to 3σ discrepancy between the Standard Model prediction and the data. This in turn puts a strong constraint on the parameter space of a two-Higgs doublet model, including R-parity conserving supersymmetry. The constraint is so strong that it almost smells of fine-tuning. We show how the parameter space opens up with the introduction of suitable R-parity violating interactions, and release the tension between data and theory.

  16. GeneLab: NASA's Open Access, Collaborative Platform for Systems Biology and Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrios, Daniel C.; Thompson, Terri G.; Fogle, Homer W.; Rask, Jon C.; Coughlan, Joseph C.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is investing in GeneLab1 (http:genelab.nasa.gov), a multi-year effort to maximize utilization of the limited resources to conduct biological and medical research in space, principally aboard the International Space Station (ISS). High-throughput genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic or other omics analyses from experiments conducted on the ISS will be stored in the GeneLab Data Systems (GLDS), an open-science information system that will also include a biocomputation platform with collaborative science capabilities, to enable the discovery and validation of molecular networks.

  17. An open-source job management framework for parameter-space exploration: OACIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Y.; Uchitane, T.; Ito, N.

    2017-11-01

    We present an open-source software framework for parameter-space exporation, named OACIS, which is useful to manage vast amount of simulation jobs and results in a systematic way. Recent development of high-performance computers enabled us to explore parameter spaces comprehensively, however, in such cases, manual management of the workflow is practically impossible. OACIS is developed aiming at reducing the cost of these repetitive tasks when conducting simulations by automating job submissions and data management. In this article, an overview of OACIS as well as a getting started guide are presented.

  18. Suspicious Behavior Detection System for an Open Space Parking Based on Recognition of Human Elemental Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Teppei; Kimura, Kouji; Hagiwara, Masafumi

    Studies for video surveillance applications for preventing various crimes such as stealing and violence have become a hot topic. This paper proposes a new video surveillance system that can detect suspicious behaviors such as a car break-in and vandalization in an open space parking, and that is based on image processing. The proposed system has the following features: it 1)deals time series data flow, 2)recognizes “human elemental actions” using statistic features, and 3)detects suspicious behavior using Subspace method and AdaBoost. We conducted the experiments to test the performance of the proposed system using open space parking scenes. As a result, we obtained about 10.0% for false positive rate, and about 4.6% for false negative rate.

  19. Features of public open spaces and physical activity among children: findings from the CLAN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timperio, Anna; Giles-Corti, Billie; Crawford, David; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Ball, Kylie; Salmon, Jo; Hume, Clare

    2008-11-01

    To examine associations between features of public open spaces, and children's physical activity. 163 children aged 8-9 years and 334 adolescents aged 13-15 years from Melbourne, Australia participated in 2004. A Geographic Information System was used to identify all public open spaces (POS) within 800 m of participants' homes and their closest POS. The features of all POS identified were audited in 2004/5. Accelerometers measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) after school and on weekends. Linear regression analyses examined associations between features of the closest POS and participants' MVPA. Most participants had a POS within 800 m of their home. The presence of playgrounds was positively associated with younger boys' weekend MVPA (B=24.9 min/day; pPOS were associated with participants' MVPA, although mixed associations were evident. Further research is required to clarify these complex relationships.

  20. Community members’ initiatives in public open spaces: two case studies from Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Jelenc Krašovec

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with public spaces as open, everyday arenas where people share experiences beyond their immediate circle of friends, family and age group. Public space is understood as a forum for social and personal change (Harvey, 2011; Lefebvre, 2013; Arendt, 1996; Habermas, 1989; 2001. Questions are analysed from the point of view of community members, who are strongly attached to the space and who are interested in belonging and in proactive changes in their living environment (Iecovich, 2014; Kohn 2004; Mean and Tims, 2005. The paper is based on the presumptions that public space has an important role in generating ideas and activities of community members and that it is an important venue for community members’ informal learning. Ethnomethodological research in two public spaces (the Tabor community in Ljubljana and a small community in the coastal town of Izola show that there are differences between both public spaces regarding top-down initiatives and bottom-up, self-organized activities. However, although the activity initiators were in one case different associations rooted in the community, and in the other the local people themselves, most of the activities were conducted by people living in the selected communities/public spaces themselves as is typical of grassroots activities. It was confirmed that learning was not often mentioned by members of either community and was mostly a hidden activity, resulting in tacit knowledge.

  1. Audible vision for the blind and visually impaired in indoor open spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xunyi; Ganz, Aura

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we introduce Audible Vision, a system that can help blind and visually impaired users navigate in large indoor open spaces. The system uses computer vision to estimate the location and orientation of the user, and enables the user to perceive his/her relative position to a landmark through 3D audio. Testing shows that Audible Vision can work reliably in real-life ever-changing environment crowded with people.

  2. Agent Control for Reconfigurable Open Kinematic Chain Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Sluga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for the autonomous control of differently structured open kinematic chains based on multi-agent system technology. The appropriate level of distributing local autonomy (agents to a manipulative structure is defined, which makes it possible to dynamically change the number, type and structure of manipulative components without modifying their behavioural logic. To achieve fast reconfigurable and scalable manipulative systems, a new multi-agent method is developed for controlling the manipulator kinematics. The new method enables independent manipulator structure from the control system because of its structural and system modularity. The proposed method consists of kinematic equations for use in an agent environment, agent motion-planning algorithms, evaluation functions, agent control logic and kinematic algorithms. The results of simulations and real-world experiments demonstrate the usefulness of the approach for different non-redundant and redundant manipulation structures.

  3. Mapping urban green open space in Bontang city using QGIS and cloud computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agus, F.; Ramadiani; Silalahi, W.; Armanda, A.; Kusnandar

    2018-04-01

    Digital mapping techniques are available freely and openly so that map-based application development is easier, faster and cheaper. A rapid development of Cloud Computing Geographic Information System makes this system can help the needs of the community for the provision of geospatial information online. The presence of urban Green Open Space (GOS) provide great benefits as an oxygen supplier, carbon-binding agent and can contribute to providing comfort and beauty of city life. This study aims to propose a platform application of GIS Cloud Computing (CC) of Bontang City GOS mapping. The GIS-CC platform uses the basic map available that’s free and open source. The research used survey method to collect GOS data obtained from Bontang City Government, while application developing works Quantum GIS-CC. The result section describes the existence of GOS Bontang City and the design of GOS mapping application.

  4. Modular Open System Architecture for Reducing Contamination Risk in the Space and Missile Defense Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasly, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    To combat contamination of physical assets and provide reliable data to decision makers in the space and missile defense community, a modular open system architecture for creation of contamination models and standards is proposed. Predictive tools for quantifying the effects of contamination can be calibrated from NASA data of long-term orbiting assets. This data can then be extrapolated to missile defense predictive models. By utilizing a modular open system architecture, sensitive data can be de-coupled and protected while benefitting from open source data of calibrated models. This system architecture will include modules that will allow the designer to trade the effects of baseline performance against the lifecycle degradation due to contamination while modeling the lifecycle costs of alternative designs. In this way, each member of the supply chain becomes an informed and active participant in managing contamination risk early in the system lifecycle.

  5. Using observational methods to evaluate public open spaces and physical activity in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino A A, F; Reis, Rodrigo S; Ribeiro, Isabela C; Parra, Diana C; Brownson, Ross C; Fermino, Rogerio C

    2010-07-01

    Open public spaces have been identified as important facilities to promote physical activity (PA) at the community level. The main goals of this study are to describe open public spaces user's characteristics and to explore to what extent these characteristics are associated with PA behavior. A system of direct observation was used to evaluate the PA levels on parks and squares (smaller parks) and users's characteristics (gender and age). The 4 parks and 4 squares observed were selected from neighborhoods with different socioeconomic status and environmental characteristics. The settings were observed 3 times a day, 6 days per week, during 2 weeks. More men than women were observed in parks (63.1%) and squares (70.0%) as well as more adults and adolescents than older adults and children. Users were more physically active in parks (men = 34.1%, women = 36.1%) than in squares (men = 25.5%, women 22.8%). The characteristics of public open spaces may affect PA in the observed places. Initiatives to improve PA levels in community settings should consider users' characteristics and preferences to be more effective and reach a larger number of people.

  6. Public Open Spaces and Leisure-Time Walking in Brazilian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florindo, Alex Antonio; Barrozo, Ligia Vizeu; Cabral-Miranda, William; Rodrigues, Eduardo Quieroti; Turrell, Gavin; Goldbaum, Moisés; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2017-05-23

    Access to public open space is important to increase leisure-time walking (LTW) in high-income countries, but there is little evidence in middle-income countries. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to examine the relationship between LTW and the presence of different public open spaces (parks, bike paths, and squares) and the mix of these recreational destinations near the homes of adults participating in the Sao Paulo Health Survey ( n = 3145). LTW was evaluated by a questionnaire. We delineated buffers (500, 1000, and 1500 m) from the geographic coordinates of the adults' residential addresses using a geographic information system. We used multilevel logistic regression taking account of clustering by census tracts and households, and with adjustment for social, demographics, and health characteristics. The main results showed that the presence of at least two recreational destinations within a 500-m buffer of participants' homes were associated with an increased odds of LTW compared with no destinations present (OR = 1.65; 95% CI 1.09-2.55). No associations were found for destinations further away. These results support actions outlined in the new urban plan for Sao Paulo city and could be used to highlight the importance access to a mix of public open spaces to promote physical activity in megacities of middle-income countries.

  7. Natural woodland vegetation and plant species richness of the urban open spaces in Gauteng, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H. Grobler

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that approximately 60 % of the world’s population will be living in urban areas by 2025. In Gauteng, the most densely populated province in South Africa, the natural open spaces are continually under threat from development. Vegetation is the most physical representation of the environment on which all animals are ultimately dependent. In order to evaluate an areas potential for development or conservation it is necessary to make a thorough inventory of the plant communities and their associated habitats. A survey of the natural woodlands was undertaken as part of a project describing the vegetation of the natural open spaces within the Gauteng region. Relevés were compiled in 73 stratified random sample plots in selected open spaces within the study area. A TWINSPAN classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, indicated six woodland communities that can be grouped into two major woodland communities. A classification and description of these communities as well as their species richness are presented. The results indicate that there are still patches of well-preserved natural vegetation within the study area and contribute to the limited knowledge that presently exists for the vegetation of the area.

  8. Public Open Spaces and Leisure-Time Walking in Brazilian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Antonio Florindo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Access to public open space is important to increase leisure-time walking (LTW in high-income countries, but there is little evidence in middle-income countries. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to examine the relationship between LTW and the presence of different public open spaces (parks, bike paths, and squares and the mix of these recreational destinations near the homes of adults participating in the Sao Paulo Health Survey (n = 3145. LTW was evaluated by a questionnaire. We delineated buffers (500, 1000, and 1500 m from the geographic coordinates of the adults’ residential addresses using a geographic information system. We used multilevel logistic regression taking account of clustering by census tracts and households, and with adjustment for social, demographics, and health characteristics. The main results showed that the presence of at least two recreational destinations within a 500-m buffer of participants’ homes were associated with an increased odds of LTW compared with no destinations present (OR = 1.65; 95% CI 1.09–2.55. No associations were found for destinations further away. These results support actions outlined in the new urban plan for Sao Paulo city and could be used to highlight the importance access to a mix of public open spaces to promote physical activity in megacities of middle-income countries.

  9. Open Hypermedia as User Controlled Meta Data for the Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Sloth, Lennert; Bouvin, Niels Olof

    2000-01-01

    segments. By means of the Webvise system, OHIF structures can be authored, imposed on Web pages, and finally linked on the Web as any ordinary Web resource. Following a link to an OHIF file automatically invokes a Webvise download of the meta data structures and the annotated Web content will be displayed...... in the browser. Moreover, the Webvise system provides support for users to create, manipulate, and share the OHIF structures together with custom made web pages and MS Office 2000 documents on WebDAV servers. These Webvise facilities goes beyond ealier open hypermedia systems in that it now allows fully...... distributed open hypermedia linking between Web pages and WebDAV aware desktop applications. The paper describes the OHIF format and demonstrates how the Webvise system handles OHIF. Finally, it argues for better support for handling user controlled meta data, e.g. support for linking in non-XML data...

  10. Open branes in space-time non-commutative little string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmark, T.

    2001-01-01

    We conjecture the existence of two new non-gravitational six-dimensional string theories, defined as the decoupling limit of NS5-branes in the background of near-critical electrical two- and three-form RR fields. These theories are space-time non-commutative Little String Theories with open branes. The theory with (2,0) supersymmetry has an open membrane in the spectrum and reduces to OM theory at low energies. The theory with (1,1) supersymmetry has an open string in the spectrum and reduces to (5+1)-dimensional NCOS theory for weak NCOS coupling and low energies. The theories are shown to be T-dual with the open membrane being T-dual to the open string. The theories therefore provide a connection between (5+1)-dimensional NCOS theory and OM theory. We study the supergravity duals of these theories and we consider a chain of dualities that shows how the T-duality between the two theories is connected with the S-duality between (4+1)-dimensional NCOS theory and OM theory

  11. SpaceVPX Switch-Controller, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Crossfield Technology proposes a SpaceVPX (VITA 78) Switch-Controller Module implemented in a state-of-the-art Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) System on Chip...

  12. Integrated control of the cooling system and surface openings using the artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Jin Woo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at suggesting an indoor temperature control method that can provide a comfortable thermal environment through the integrated control of the cooling system and the surface openings. Four control logic were developed, employing different application levels of rules and artificial neural network models. Rule-based control methods represented the conventional approach while ANN-based methods were applied for the predictive and adaptive controls. Comparative performance tests for the conventional- and ANN-based methods were numerically conducted for the double-skin-facade building, using the MATLAB (Matrix Laboratory) and TRNSYS (Transient Systems Simulation) software, after proving the validity by comparing the simulation and field measurement results. Analysis revealed that the ANN-based controls of the cooling system and surface openings improved the indoor temperature conditions with increased comfortable temperature periods and decreased standard deviation of the indoor temperature from the center of the comfortable range. In addition, the proposed ANN-based logic effectively reduced the number of operating condition changes of the cooling system and surface openings, which can prevent system failure. The ANN-based logic, however, did not show superiority in energy efficiency over the conventional logic. Instead, they have increased the amount of heat removal by the cooling system. From the analysis, it can be concluded that the ANN-based temperature control logic was able to keep the indoor temperature more comfortably and stably within the comfortable range due to its predictive and adaptive features. - Highlights: • Integrated rule-based and artificial neural network based logics were developed. • A cooling device and surface openings were controlled in an integrated manner. • Computer simulation method was employed for comparative performance tests. • ANN-based logics showed the advanced features of thermal environment. • Rule

  13. Promoting Productive Urban Green Open Space Towards Food Security: Case Study Taman Sari, Bandung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridwan, M.; Sinatra, Fran; Natalivan, Petrus

    2017-10-01

    The common trend of urban population has been growing significantly in Indonesia for decades, are affected by urban green space conversion. Generally, this area is utilized for urban infrastructures and residences. Furthermore, urban area has grown uncontrollably that could enhance the phenomenon of urban sprawl. The conversion of green urban area and agricultural area will significantly decrease urban food security and quality of urban environment. This problem becomes a serious issue for urban sustainability. Bandung is a city with dense population where there are many poor inhabitants. Families living in poverty are subjected to food insecurity caused by the rise of food prices. Based on the urgency of urban food security and urban environment quality the local government has to achieve comprehensive solutions. This research aims to formulate the policy of productive green open space towards food security for poor people in Bandung. This research not only examines the role played by productive green open space to supply food for the urban poor but also how to govern urban areas sustainably and ensure food security. This research uses descriptive explanatory methodology that describes and explains how to generate policy and strategic planning for edible landscape to promote urban food security. Taman Sari is the location of this research, this area is a populous area that has amount of poor people and has a quite worse quality of urban environment. This study shows that urban green open space has the potential to be utilized as an urban farming land, which poor inhabitants could be main actors to manage urban agriculture to provide their food. Meanwhile, local government could contribute to subsidize the financial of urban farming activities.

  14. Metacognitive Control and the Spacing Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Lisa K.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates whether the use of a spacing strategy absolutely improves final performance, even when the learner had chosen, metacognitively, to mass. After making judgments of learning, adult and child participants chose to mass or space their study of word pairs. However, 1/3 of their choices were dishonored. That is, they were forced…

  15. Managing for Multifunctionality in Urban Open Spaces: Approaches for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzheng Shi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Landscape management plays a key role in improving the quality of urban environments and enhancing the multifunctionality of green infrastructure. It works to guide the efficient and effective management of green spaces for sustainability and the well-being of users. However, while most researchers have emphasised spatial planning as a basis for developing green infrastructure to promote new strategic connections in urban green space, they have simultaneously ignored the impact of management. Against this background, this paper argues that if our towns and cities seek to maintain the well-being of citizens while also achieving sustainable environments, they must engage in effective landscape management to improve their green infrastructure. It is not enough to simply design or maintain parks and green spaces so as to keep up their physical condition; rather, green infrastructure work should be adapted to the understanding and implementation of managers, users and stakeholders in an integrated management process in order to provide more services for sustainable development. A selected study in Sheffield investigated the management planning required for sustainable development. It is beneficial to learn the experiences of management planning in Sheffield, a city which has rich management practices for green and open spaces. This study will analyse how management planning helps local authorities and managers to improve multifunctional green and open spaces in the context of sustainable development. As a result, the study also explores the framework of management planning with regard to the transferability of the existing practices in Sheffield. It also attempts to provide a primer for sustainability impact assessments in other cities with a considered knowledge exchange. KEYWORDS: Management planning, green infrastructure, multifunctionality, sustainability, knowledge exchange

  16. DAYLIGHTING PERFORMANCE OF HORIZONTAL LIGHT PIPE BRANCHING ON OPEN PLAN OFFICE SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feny ELSIANA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For daylighting purpose, office buildings should have a shallow plan and increase the ratio of surface to building’s volume. However, intensive use of air-conditioning drives office building’s plan to be deep with a minimum surface to volume ratio. This leads to the presence of areas that have insufficient daylight level at the work plane. Considering limitations of some daylighting methods in distributing daylight to these areas, Horizontal Light Pipe (HLP was selected. The aim of this research was to evaluate and explain the effect of HLP branching on daylight quantity and distribution inside open plan office space. Experimental with simulation as a tool was used as the research method. HLP branching’s uniformity ratio, illuminance and Daylight Factor were compared with unbranching HLP, simultaneously with daylighting standards. Results showed that office space with HLP-L branching had higher daylight level than HLP-T branching, 296 lux and 295 lux, HLP-L and HLP-T, respectively. However, HLP-T branching distributed daylight more evenly than HLP-L branching, with uniformity ratio as 1.49:1 and 1.50:1, HLP-T and HLP-L, respectively. Both of them met the illuminance target value and uniformity at work plane. Light’s deflection and improvement amount of opening distribution decreased average illuminance and Daylight Factor up to 3.59%. Those also decreased uniformity of daylight inside the space.

  17. Thermal Performance of Housing Open Spaces in the City of Mosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. TURKI HASAN ALI ALHADIDI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid urban growth has lead to an urgent need to increase residential buildings in such a way that requires quick execution of such buildings. The appearance of modern materials such as reinforced concrete has helped in getting fast-constructed houses of a westerly pattern such that excluding the inherited styles that are in harmony with severe environment like that of the Middle East. This has resulted in a modern pattern of buildings lacks the microclimate which was enjoyed by the traditional pattern and which have provided the inhabitant with a relative thermal comfort. ‎This research try to compare different microclimates due to the variation of open architectural spaces patterns in the residential units (traditional ones represented by (the courtyards and Iwan and the modem one represented by the space of (garages and terraces in Summer in Mosul city. ‎ ‎The results showed that the traditional open spaces are the nearest to the thermal comfort zone, although both of them don't represent the ideal state of human comfort in this ‎period of Summer.

  18. Open modular architecture controls at GM Powertrain: technology and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailo, Clark P.; Yen, C. J.

    1997-01-01

    General Motors Powertrain Group (GMPTG) has been the leader in implementing open, modular architecture controller (OMAC) technologies in its manufacturing applications since 1986. The interest in OMAC has been greatly expanded for the past two years because of the advancement of personal computer technologies and the publishing of the OMAC whitepaper by the US automotive companies stating the requirements of OMAC technologies in automotive applications. The purpose of this paper is to describe the current OMAC projects and the future direction of implementation at GMPTG. An overview of the OMAC project and the definition of the OMAC concept are described first. The rationale of pursuing open technologies is explained from the perspective of GMPTG in lieu of its agile manufacturing strategy. Examples of existing PC-based control applications are listed to demonstrate the extensive commitment to PC-based technologies that has already been put in place. A migration plan form PC-based to OMAC-based systems with the thorough approach of validation are presented next to convey the direction that GMPTG is taking in implementing OMAC technologies. Leveraged technology development projects are described to illustrate the philosophy and approaches toward the development of OMAC technologies at GMPTG. Finally, certain implementation issues are discussed to emphasize efforts that are still required to have successful implementations of OMAC systems.

  19. Automatic Design of a Maglev Controller in State Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    Design of a Maglev Controller in State Space Feng Zhao Richard Thornton Abstract We describe the automatic synthesis of a global nonlinear controller for...the global switching points of the controller is presented. The synthesized control system can stabilize the maglev vehicle with large initial displace...NUMBERS Automation Desing of a Maglev Controller in State Space N00014-89-J-3202 MIP-9001651 6. AUTHOR(S) Feng Zhao and Richard Thornton 7. PERFORMING

  20. Grassland communities of urban open spaces in Bloemfontein, Free State, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamokete N.V. Dingaan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural vegetation in urban environments is greatly impacted by human activities and it is in constant threat of degradation and destruction as a result of urbanisation. This vegetation, although fragmented, serves an important ecological function and needs to be properly managed and conserved. Studies on urban vegetation are lacking in South Africa, with only a handful having been carried out since the end of the last century. This study was initiated to identify, classify and describe the grassland communities of the urban open spaces in Bloemfontein. Relevés were compiled in 61 sample plots, where species present and habitat information were recorded. Care was taken to restrict sample plots to vegetation in pristine condition, wherever possible, and severely degraded stands were avoided. A two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, revealed two distinct major communities, seven communities and four sub-communities. Both detrended and canonical correspondence analyses indicated the vegetation units to be associated with soil texture and pH, although biotic factors such as overgrazing, burning and mowing also influence the composition of the vegetation. The proper management and conservation of urban open spaces requires in-depth knowledge of the spatial distribution, floristic, structural and functional compositions within the major vegetation types in this environment. The present study further contributed towards formulating ways for the proper management, utilisation and functioning of the open spaces within the Bloemfontein area.Conservation implications: The Grassland Biome of South Africa is poorly conserved, mainly because of its status as an agricultural hub of the country. The preservation of natural and semi-natural forms of urban vegetation is important because such vegetation, although often disturbed and degraded, could form dispersal corridors between peri-urban and rural

  1. Powerful and large regional authorities are needed to preserve green open space for urban agglomerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Aalbers

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Identification and assessment of strategies for the conservation and multifunctional development of green open space in the urban fringe of European urban regions is a challenge to both the academic and the real life world. Within the EU funded research project PLUREL – Peri-urban land use relationships – ‘Strategies and sustainability assessment tools for urban rural linkages’, we developed a methodology for international comparison of regional strategies that considers the policy context at supra-regional level. This methodology helped to explain the reported impacts of strategies. For this we further elaborated the theoretical concept of policy arrangements and policy dimensions by Van Tatenhove et al. (2000 and Arts et al. (2006. Strategies and policy contexts referred to are from Montpellier Agglomeration, a formal coalition of now 31 municipalities, Leipzig-Halle region, a functional urban region (FUR with governance coalitions around green open space preservation strategies, and Hangzhou in China, a very large city with hierarchical formal government. Results showed how the means of influence from different government levels can complement and reinforce each other and raise the effectiveness of the strategies. A combination of hierarchical government with a horizontal coalition between local authorities covering the full FUR can be very effective for managing the land use developments in the urban fringe, even when private business, CSOs or other NGOs are not included in the coalition. Supra-regional authorities do not have to possess the land resources, but setting the Rules of the Game is a powerful means of influence to coerce local municipalities to preserve green open space in the urban fringe.

  2. Decoherence control in open quantum systems via classical feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, Narayan; Tarn, Tzyh-Jong

    2007-01-01

    In this work we propose a strategy using techniques from systems theory to completely eliminate decoherence and also provide conditions under which it can be done. A construction employing an auxiliary system, the bait, which is instrumental to decoupling the system from the environment is presented. Our approach to decoherence control in contrast to other approaches in the literature involves the bilinear input affine model of quantum control system which lends itself to various techniques from classical control theory, but with nontrivial modifications to the quantum regime. The elegance of this approach yields interesting results on open loop decouplability and decoherence free subspaces. Additionally, the feedback control of decoherence may be related to disturbance decoupling for classical input affine systems, which entails careful application of the methods by avoiding all the quantum mechanical pitfalls. In the process of calculating a suitable feedback the system must be restructured due to its tensorial nature of interaction with the environment, which is unique to quantum systems. In the subsequent section we discuss a general information extraction scheme to gain knowledge of the state and the amount of decoherence based on indirect continuous measurement. The analysis of continuous measurement on a decohering quantum system has not been extensively studied before. Finally, a methodology to synthesize feedback parameters itself is given, that technology permitting, could be implemented for practical 2-qubit systems to perform decoherence free quantum computing. The results obtained are qualitatively different and superior to the ones obtained via master equations

  3. Interactive scan control for kinematic study in open MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Tomohiro; Hamada, Kiyomi; Ito, Taeko; Nagao, Hisako; Takahashi, Tetsuhiko; Hayashida, Yoshiko; Hiai, Yasuhiro; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2007-01-01

    A tool to support the subject is generally used for kinematic joint imaging with an open MRI apparatus because of difficulty setting the image plane correctly. However, use of a support tool requires a complicated procedure to position the subject, and setting the image plane when the joint angle changes is time consuming. Allowing the subject to move freely enables better diagnoses when kinematic joint imaging is performed. We therefore developed an interactive scan control (ISC) to facilitate the easy, quick, and accurate setting of the image plane even when a support tool is not used. We used a 0.4T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging system open in the horizontal direction. The ISC determines the image plane interactively on the basis of fluoroscopy images displayed on a user interface. The imaging pulse is a balanced steady-state acquisition with rewound gradient echo (SARGE) sequence with update time less than 2 s. Without using a tool to support the knee, we positioned the knee of a healthy volunteer at 4 different joint angles and set the image plane through the patella and femur at each of the angles. Lumbar imaging is also demonstrated with ISC. Setting the image plane was easy and quick at all knee angles, and images obtained clearly showed the patella and femur. Total imaging time was less than 10 min, a fourth of the time needed when a support tool is used. We also used our ISC in kinematic imaging of the lumbar. The ISC shortens total time for kinematic joint imaging, and because a support tool is not needed, imaging can be done more freely in an open MR imaging apparatus. (author)

  4. [Effect of axial stress stimulation on tibial and fibular open fractures healing after Taylor space stent fixation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Qihang; Wan, Chunyou; Liu, Yabei; Ji, Xu; Ma, Jihai; Cao, Haikun; Yong, Wei; Liu, Zhao; Zhang, Ningning

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the effect of axial stress stimulation on tibial and fibular open fractures healing after Taylor space stent fixation. The data of 45 cases with tibial and fibular open fractures treated by Taylor space stent fixation who meet the selection criteria between January 2015 and June 2016 were retrospectively analysed. The patients were divided into trial group (23 cases) and control group (22 cases) according to whether the axial stress stimulation was performed after operation. There was no significant difference in gender, age, affected side, cause of injury, type of fracture, and interval time from injury to operation between 2 groups ( P >0.05). The axial stress stimulation was performed in trial group after operation. The axial load sharing ratio was tested, and when the value was less than 10%, the external fixator was removed. The fracture healing time, full weight-bearing time, and external fixator removal time were recorded and compared. After 6 months of external fixator removal, the function of the limb was assessed by Johner-Wruhs criteria for evaluation of final effectiveness of treatment of tibial shaft fractures. There were 2 and 3 cases of needle foreign body reaction in trial group and control group, respectively, and healed after symptomatic anti allergic treatment. All the patients were followed up 8-12 months with an average of 10 months. All the fractures reached clinical healing, no complication such as delayed union, nonunion, or osteomyelitis occurred. The fracture healing time, full weight-bearing time, and external fixator removal time in trial group were significantly shorter than those in control group ( P good in 6 cases, fair in 3 cases, and poor in 1 case in trial group, with an excellent and good rate of 82.6%; and was excellent in 5 cases, good in 10 cases, fair in 4 cases, and poor in 3 cases in control group, with an excellent and good rate of 68.2%, showing significant difference between 2 groups ( Z =-2.146, P =0

  5. What Attracts People to Visit Community Open Spaces? A Case Study of the Overseas Chinese Town Community in Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyong Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A well-designed open space that encourages outdoor activity and social communication is a community asset that could potentially contribute to the health of local residents and social harmony of the community. Numerous factors may influence the use of each single space and may result in a variety of visitors. Compared with previous studies that focused on accessibility, this study highlights the relationship between the utilization and characteristics of community open spaces in China. The Overseas Chinese Town community in Shenzhen is regarded as an example. The association between the number of visitors and space characteristics is examined with multivariate regression models. Results show that large areas with accessible lawns, well-maintained footpaths, seats, commercial facilities, and water landscapes are important characteristics that could increase the use of community open spaces. However, adding green vegetation, sculptures, and landscape accessories in open spaces has limited effects on increasing the outdoor activities of residents. Thus, to increase the use of community open spaces, landscape designers should focus more on creating user-oriented spaces with facilities that encourage active use than on improving ornamental vegetation and accessories.

  6. What Attracts People to Visit Community Open Spaces? A Case Study of the Overseas Chinese Town Community in Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiyong; Liu, Tao; Xie, Xiaohuan; Marušić, Barbara Goličnik

    2016-01-01

    A well-designed open space that encourages outdoor activity and social communication is a community asset that could potentially contribute to the health of local residents and social harmony of the community. Numerous factors may influence the use of each single space and may result in a variety of visitors. Compared with previous studies that focused on accessibility, this study highlights the relationship between the utilization and characteristics of community open spaces in China. The Overseas Chinese Town community in Shenzhen is regarded as an example. The association between the number of visitors and space characteristics is examined with multivariate regression models. Results show that large areas with accessible lawns, well-maintained footpaths, seats, commercial facilities, and water landscapes are important characteristics that could increase the use of community open spaces. However, adding green vegetation, sculptures, and landscape accessories in open spaces has limited effects on increasing the outdoor activities of residents. Thus, to increase the use of community open spaces, landscape designers should focus more on creating user-oriented spaces with facilities that encourage active use than on improving ornamental vegetation and accessories. PMID:27367713

  7. Quantum mechanics on the moduli space from the quantum geometrodynamics of the open topological membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogan, I.I.

    1991-01-01

    The quantum geometrodynamics of the open topological membrane is described in terms of 2+1 topologically massive gravity (TMG) where the inverse graviton mass is proportional to the 2D central charge and thus is the measure of the off-criticality. The hamiltonian quantization of TMG on Riemann surfaces is considered and the moduli space appears as the subspace of the quantum-mechanical configuration space containing, besides the moduli, the first-order time derivatives of half of the moduli. The appearance of the first-order time derivatives as coordinates, not momenta, is due to the third-order derivative in the TMG lagrangian. The hamiltonian for the latter leads us to the discrete levels picture which looks like the topologically massive gauge theory (TMGT) case, where we also get the Landau levels picture and the lowest Landau level corresponds to the Hilbert space of the Chern-Simons theory (CST). The connection between the positivity of the energy and the complex structure on the moduli space is discussed. (orig.)

  8. Opened athletic-educational space - the condition of professional development of future teacher of physical culture is needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragnev Y.V.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the opening of the sports and educational space is determined by the whole space, where the interaction of the activity of the pedagogical university with different educational institutions on the basis of integration, continuity of the educational process, aimed at physical education, the development of children and young people take place. It is revealed the importance of awareness of such concepts as the world educational space, the international educational space, the European higher education area, European space of higher education and educational space of the CIS countries.

  9. Real-time control using open source RTOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Philip C.; Johnson, Richard L., Jr.

    2002-12-01

    Complex telescope systems such as interferometers tend to rely heavily on hard real-time operating systems (RTOS). It has been standard practice at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and many other institutions to use costly commercial RTOSs and hardware. After developing a real-time toolkit for VxWorks on the PowerPC platform (dubbed RTC), the interferometry group at JPL is porting this code to the real-time Application Interface (RTAI), an open source RTOS that is essentially an extension to the Linux kernel. This port has the potential to reduce software and hardware costs for future projects, while increasing the level of performance. The goals of this paper are to briefly describe the RTC toolkit, highlight the successes and pitfalls of porting the toolkit from VxWorks to Linux-RTAI, and to discuss future enhancements that will be implemented as a direct result of this port. The first port of any body of code is always the most difficult since it uncovers the OS-specific calls and forces "red flags" into those portions of the code. For this reason, It has also been a huge benefit that the project chose a generic, platform independent OS extension, ACE, and its CORBA counterpart, TAO. This port of RTC will pave the way for conversions to other environments, the most interesting of which is a non-real-time simulation environment, currently being considered by the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) and the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) Projects.

  10. Space nonweaponization. An urgent task for arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Xiangwan; Pan Jusheng; Zhang Xinwei; Du Shuhua; Xu Changgen

    1990-05-01

    The authors attempt to expound the basic points of veiw and put forward a proposal on the space nonweaponization. The authors analyse the nature of space weaponry and its impact on arms race and point out that the space nonweaponization is an urgent task for arms control. The relations between prohibition of space and ASAT weapons, between prohibition of space weapons and reduction of nuclear weapons and between space weapon and nuclear test are all analysed. The inadequacy of the existing space treaties is made clear based on the evaluation. It is hoped that a verifiable treaty on the prohibition of space weapons should be made and international cooperation on peaceful use of outer space is necessary

  11. Implementation and performance evaluation open-source controller for precision control of gripper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Yong; Ham, Un-Hyeong; Park, Young-Woo; Jung, Hak-Sang; Jung, Il-Kyun; Lim, Sun

    2017-12-01

    This paper proposes integrating gripper embedded operating system, which consist of external interface structure for sophisticated gripper control. This system has multiple functions that control the gripping module and measure the pose of the gripper body with respect to contact environment. A controller based on open source only for the gripper is developed and an external communication interface between robot controller and gripper controller is designed. An experimental environment for the fixed-cycle test consists of integrating magic gripper software system and hardware on commercial business. As a result, a deviation is measured approximately 2% and the system were verified for gripper control.

  12. Examining public open spaces by neighborhood-level walkability and deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badland, Hannah M; Keam, Rosanna; Witten, Karen; Kearns, Robin

    2010-11-01

    Public open spaces (POS) are recognized as important to promote physical activity engagement. However, it is unclear how POS attributes, such as activities available, environmental quality, amenities present, and safety, are associated with neighborhood-level walkability and deprivation. Twelve neighborhoods were selected within 1 constituent city of Auckland, New Zealand based on higher (n = 6) or lower (n = 6) walkability characteristics. Neighborhoods were dichotomized as more (n = 7) or less (n = 5) socioeconomically deprived. POS (n = 69) were identified within these neighborhoods and audited using the New Zealand-Public Open Space Tool. Unpaired 1-way analysis of variance tests were applied to compare differences in attributes and overall score of POS by neighborhood walkability and deprivation. POS located in more walkable neighborhoods have significantly higher overall scores when compared with less walkable neighborhoods. Deprivation comparisons identified POS located in less deprived communities have better quality environments, but fewer activities and safety features present when compared with more deprived neighborhoods. A positive relationship existed between presence of POS attributes and neighborhood walkability, but the relationship between POS and neighborhood-level deprivation was less clear. Variation in neighborhood POS quality alone is unlikely to explain poorer health outcomes for residents in more deprived areas.

  13. Evaluation of speech transmission in open public spaces affected by combined noises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pyoung Jik; Jeon, Jin Yong

    2011-07-01

    In the present study, the effects of interference from combined noises on speech transmission were investigated in a simulated open public space. Sound fields for dominant noises were predicted using a typical urban square model surrounded by buildings. Then road traffic noise and two types of construction noises, corresponding to stationary and impulsive noises, were selected as background noises. Listening tests were performed on a group of adults, and the quality of speech transmission was evaluated using listening difficulty as well as intelligibility scores. During the listening tests, two factors that affect speech transmission performance were considered: (1) temporal characteristics of construction noise (stationary or impulsive) and (2) the levels of the construction and road traffic noises. The results indicated that word intelligibility scores and listening difficulty ratings were affected by the temporal characteristics of construction noise due to fluctuations in the background noise level. It was also observed that listening difficulty is unable to describe the speech transmission in noisy open public spaces showing larger variation than did word intelligibility scores. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  14. Thermal Comfort Assessment in The Open Space in Bandung Case Study Dago Street and Riau Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugangga, M.; Janesonia, K. I.; Illiyin, D. F.; Donny Koerniawan, M.

    2018-05-01

    Bandung’s temperature has been higher since last years. This phenomenon affects the level of thermal comfort in open space. One indicator that determines the thermal comfort level is the type of activity performed by the open space user. Riau Street and Dago Street are corridors that are often used by the people for strolling, jogging, shopping. Dago Street has special event every Sunday namely car free day. Both corridors have different orientation; Dago Street is North to South corridor while Riau Street’s is West to East. The goal of the study is to compare people’s perception of thermal comfort in both corridors. This research uses two methods, namely qualitative method and quantitative method. Based on the results of qualitative analysis found that the thermal conditions in Dago Street more comfortable than the Riau Street. The result of quantitative analysis found that the average PET (thermal comfort indices) value of Dago Street was at 27.5 °C PET and Riau Street 28.6 °C PET. Dago Street is considered more convenient because it has a lower PET value than Riau Street. The people perception of thermal comfort is very important to start the steps for designing the orientation of street in urban design.

  15. ACCESS TO PUBLIC OPEN SPACE: IS DISTRIBUTION EQUITABLE ACROSS DIFFERENT SOCIO-ECONOMIC AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Koohsari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade, the role of the built environment on physical activity has been well investigated by public health, transportation and urban design scholars and it has been shown that different aspects of the built environment can influence physical activity Public open spaces (POS like parks have many health benefits and they can be important settings and destinations for having physical activity. Inequality in access to POS which may influence the amount of physical activity can be a reason for lower physical activity among deprived neighbourhoods. This paper aims to examine whether objective access to public open spaces (POS like parks is equally across the different socio-economic status (SES areas in the City of Melbourne. Objective access to POS was measured in network distance using geographic information systems (GIS and area SES was obtained using the SEIFA (Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas index. The results showed there was a significant difference in access to POS according to the SES areas. There was a significant negative correlation between the access to POS and the SES areas in which lower SES areas had poorer access to POS in comparison with the higher ones.

  16. Factors Influencing Visitors to Suburban Open Space Areas near a Northern Japanese City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Shoji

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Visitor information often serves as the basis for the management plan of parks. However, there exist few scientific and fundamental surveys for parks and open spaces in Japan. We analyzed the correlation between the number of visitors and the various factors in a suburban open space in a northern Japanese city, Takino Park. To explain the fluctuations in the number of visitors in Takino Park, multiple regression analyses with the stepwise method were conducted. The analyses employed social factors and meteorological factors, such as the day of the week, school vacations, temperature and the weather. The results show that the most influential factor is the day of the week, i.e., Sundays and holidays. The weather is also influential as the number of visitors decreases on rainy and snowy days. Comparing different seasons of the year, we found that influential factors varied from one season to the other. A key distinguishing finding of our results is that the weather conditions at the departure site and the weather forecast are also determining factors. These findings will help park managers understand the current situations and examine future management strategies to maintain and enhance visitor satisfaction, and improve information services.

  17. Opening new institutional spaces for grappling with uncertainty: A constructivist perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, Ronlyn

    2013-01-01

    In the context of an increasing reliance on predictive computer simulation models to calculate potential project impacts, it has become common practice in impact assessment (IA) to call on proponents to disclose uncertainties in assumptions and conclusions assembled in support of a development project. Understandably, it is assumed that such disclosures lead to greater scrutiny and better policy decisions. This paper questions this assumption. Drawing on constructivist theories of knowledge and an analysis of the role of narratives in managing uncertainty, I argue that the disclosure of uncertainty can obscure as much as it reveals about the impacts of a development project. It is proposed that the opening up of institutional spaces that can facilitate the negotiation and deliberation of foundational assumptions and parameters that feed into predictive models could engender greater legitimacy and credibility for IA outcomes. - Highlights: ► A reliance on supposedly objective disclosure is unreliable in the predictive model context in which IA is now embedded. ► A reliance on disclosure runs the risk of reductionism and leaves unexamined the social-interactive aspects of uncertainty. ► Opening new institutional spaces could facilitate deliberation on foundational predictive model assumptions.

  18. An Effective Approach Control Scheme for the Tethered Space Robot System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongjie Meng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The tethered space robot system (TSR, which is composed of a platform, a gripper and a space tether, has great potential in future space missions. Given the relative motion among the platform, tether, gripper and the target, an integrated approach model is derived. Then, a novel coordinated approach control scheme is presented, in which the tether tension, thrusters and the reaction wheel are all utilized. It contains the open-loop trajectory optimization, the feedback trajectory control and attitude control. The numerical simulation results show that the rendezvous between TSR and the target can be realized by the proposed coordinated control scheme, and the propellant consumption is efficiently reduced. Moreover, the control scheme performs well in the presence of the initial state's perturbations, actuator characteristics and sensor errors.

  19. Optimal control of large space structures via generalized inverse matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Fang, Xiaowen

    1987-01-01

    Independent Modal Space Control (IMSC) is a control scheme that decouples the space structure into n independent second-order subsystems according to n controlled modes and controls each mode independently. It is well-known that the IMSC eliminates control and observation spillover caused when the conventional coupled modal control scheme is employed. The independent control of each mode requires that the number of actuators be equal to the number of modelled modes, which is very high for a faithful modeling of large space structures. A control scheme is proposed that allows one to use a reduced number of actuators to control all modeled modes suboptimally. In particular, the method of generalized inverse matrices is employed to implement the actuators such that the eigenvalues of the closed-loop system are as closed as possible to those specified by the optimal IMSC. Computer simulation of the proposed control scheme on a simply supported beam is given.

  20. ACOSS-16 (Active Control of Space Structures)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    intensity is I. Step 7: Compute K(s) = Kc(SI - A + BKc+ KfC ) _K "Step 8: If K(s)G(s) has desired bandwidth and loop gain, quit. Otherwise, increase q...1293B M/s 230 Hampton, VA 23665 NASA Johnson Space Center ’ 39 Attn: Robert Piland Ms. EA Houston, TX 77058 McDonald Douglas CorpAttn: Mr. Read Johnson

  1. An Experimental Study on the Influence of Soundscapes on People’s Behaviour in an Open Public Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Aletta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated how environmental sounds and music can modulate people’s behaviours, particularly in marketing research. However, there are relatively few examples of research about such relationships with a focus on the management of urban public spaces. The current study investigated an open public space used mainly as a pedestrian crossing to analyse the relationship between the audio stimuli and peoples’ behaviours. An experiment relying on covert behavioural observation was performed. During the experiment, three different music stimuli and a control condition (i.e., no music were reproduced in order to find out firstly whether music compared to no music could elicit an increase in the number of people stopping in the investigated area, and secondly whether music is associated with a longer duration of stay for those who stop. Results showed that the presence of music had no effect on the number of people stopping in the area, but it had a statistically significant effect on the duration of stay for those who stopped. The above findings support the idea that people felt more invited to stay in the area with music rather than with no music, and suggest that the acoustical manipulation of the existing sound environment could provide soundscape strategies capable of promoting social cohesion in public spaces.

  2. Open Innovation Drug Discovery (OIDD): a potential path to novel therapeutic chemical space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvim-Gaston, Maria; Grese, Timothy; Mahoui, Abdelaziz; Palkowitz, Alan D; Pineiro-Nunez, Marta; Watson, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The continued development of computational and synthetic methods has enabled the enumeration or preparation of a nearly endless universe of chemical structures. Nevertheless, the ability of this chemical universe to deliver small molecules that can both modulate biological targets and have drug-like physicochemical properties continues to be a topic of interest to the pharmaceutical industry and academic researchers alike. The chemical space described by public, commercial, in-house and virtual compound collections has been interrogated by multiple approaches including biochemical, cellular and virtual screening, diversity analysis, and in-silico profiling. However, current drugs and known chemical probes derived from these efforts are contained within a remarkably small volume of the predicted chemical space. Access to more diverse classes of chemical scaffolds that maintain the properties relevant for drug discovery is certainly needed to meet the increasing demands for pharmaceutical innovation. The Lilly Open Innovation Drug Discovery platform (OIDD) was designed to tackle barriers to innovation through the identification of novel molecules active in relevant disease biology models. In this article we will discuss several computational approaches towards describing novel, biologically active, drug-like chemical space and illustrate how the OIDD program may facilitate access to previously untapped molecules that may aid in the search for innovative pharmaceuticals.

  3. Active living : the impact of renovating urban open spaces on increasing the level of physical activity among social groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiggers, Hiske; Shokoohi, Roya

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The provision of active parks/public open space is the key factor in promoting active living, because people and specially low-income and elderlies are being more interested in doing non-organized/informal, and no-cost sports/physical activities in outdoor spaces in recent decades

  4. Translational control of Nrf2 within the open reading frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Leal, Oscar; Barrero, Carlos A.; Merali, Salim

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Identification of a novel Nrf2 translational repression mechanism. •The repressor is within the 3′ portion of the Nrf2 ORF. •The translation of Nrf2 or eGFP is reduced by the regulatory element. •The translational repression can be reversed with synonymous codon substitutions. •The molecular mechanism requires the mRNA sequence, but not the encoded amino acids. -- Abstract: Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that is essential for the regulation of an effective antioxidant and detoxifying response. The regulation of its activity can occur at transcription, translation and post-translational levels. Evidence suggests that under environmental stress conditions, new synthesis of Nrf2 is required – a process that is regulated by translational control and is not fully understood. Here we described the identification of a novel molecular process that under basal conditions strongly represses the translation of Nrf2 within the open reading frame (ORF). This mechanism is dependent on the mRNA sequence within the 3′ portion of the ORF of Nrf2 but not in the encoded amino acid sequence. The Nrf2 translational repression can be reversed with the use of synonymous codon substitutions. This discovery suggests an additional layer of control to explain the reason for the low Nrf2 concentration under quiescent state

  5. Models of anxiety: responses of mice to novelty and open spaces in a 3D maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennaceur, A; Michalikova, S; van Rensburg, R; Chazot, P L

    2006-11-01

    The present report describes the emotional responses of different strains of mice to exposure to a novel open space model of anxiety using a 3D spatial navigation task. The 3D maze is modification of the radial maze with flexible arms that can be raised above or lowered below the horizontal level of a central platform. To access the arms animals need to cross a bridge linking the arms to the central platform. In this model, mice are exposed to novelty in an unfamiliar open space setting with no safe alternative. Fear from novelty is compounded with the need to explore. The drive to escape and the drive to approach are intermingled making this open space model radically different from the current models of anxiety which provide animals with the choice between safe and anxiogenic spaces. In a series of experiments, we examined the behaviour of different groups of mice from C57, C3H, CD1 and Balb/c strains. In the first experiment, different groups of C57 mice were tested in one of the three arms configurations. In the second experiment, C57 mice were compared to C3H mice. In the third experiment, C57 mice were compared to CD1 and Balb/c mice in the raised arm configuration over three successive sessions. In the fourth experiment, we examined the behaviour of C57 mice in the lowered arm configuration with an open and an enclosed central. In the final experiment, we examined the difference between C57 and C3H mice of both genders. Using several spatio-temporal parameters of the transition responses between central platform, bridges and arms, we have been able to show consistent results demonstrating significant differences between C57 and C3H mice, and between Balb/c and both C57 and CD1 mice. C3H appear more anxious than C57 mice, and Balb/c mice seem more anxious than C57 and CD1 mice. We also observed significant differences between sexes in C3H mice but not in C57 mice. C3H male mice appear more anxious than C3H female mice and than both C57 male and female mice

  6. Open field modifications needed to measure, in the mouse, exploration- driven ambulation and fear of open space.

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal Gómez, José

    2014-01-01

    The open field test is used to assess ambulation and anxiety; one way to assess anxiety is to compare ambulation in the center with ambulation in the periphery: the more anxious is the mouse, the less it moves in the center. The results of this report cast doubts on the generality of that rule, because they show that ambulation, both in the center and in the periphery, depends on the mouse strain and on the size of the open field; specifically, in a brightly lit open-field of moderate size (3...

  7. Space Station Environmental Control/Life Support System engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. W.; Heppner, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with a systems engineering study which has provided an understanding of the overall Space Station ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support System). ECLSS/functional partitioning is considered along with function criticality, technology alternatives, a technology description, single thread systems, Space Station architectures, ECLSS distribution, mechanical schematics per space station, and Space Station ECLSS characteristics. Attention is given to trade studies and system synergism. The Space Station functional description had been defined by NASA. The ECLSS will utilize technologies which embody regenerative concepts to minimize the use of expendables.

  8. Control of large flexible space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandervelde, W. E.

    1986-01-01

    Progress in robust design of generalized parity relations, design of failure sensitive observers using the geometric system theory of Wonham, computational techniques for evaluation of the performance of control systems with fault tolerance and redundancy management features, and the design and evaluation od control systems for structures having nonlinear joints are described.

  9. Predictive Control Based upon State Space Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens G. Balchen

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive online computation of the control vector by solving the optimal control problem of a non-linear multivariable process with arbitrary performance indices is investigated. Two different methods are considered in the search for an optimal, parameterized control vector: Pontryagin's Maximum Principle and optimization by using the performance index and its gradient directly. Unfortunately, solving this optimization problem has turned out to be a rather time-consuming task which has resulted in a time delay that cannot be accepted when the actual process is exposed to rapidly-varying disturbances. However, an instantaneous feedback strategy operating in parallel with the original control aogorithm was found to be able to cope with this problem.

  10. An open-loop system design for deep space signal processing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jifei; Xia, Lanhua; Mahapatra, Rabi

    2018-06-01

    A novel open-loop system design with high performance is proposed for space positioning and navigation signal processing. Divided by functions, the system has four modules, bandwidth selectable data recorder, narrowband signal analyzer, time-delay difference of arrival estimator and ANFIS supplement processor. A hardware-software co-design approach is made to accelerate computing capability and improve system efficiency. Embedded with the proposed signal processing algorithms, the designed system is capable of handling tasks with high accuracy over long period of continuous measurements. The experiment results show the Doppler frequency tracking root mean square error during 3 h observation is 0.0128 Hz, while the TDOA residue analysis in correlation power spectrum is 0.1166 rad.

  11. Environment-behaviour studies: A synergetic bridge between designers and users of open space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Goličnik

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically reflects on a kind and use of knowledge about the users of urban open public spaces in urban planning and design. It shows that designers’ perceptions about usage-spatial relationships are inadequate and many times very different form the actual situations. The findings are based on results from workshops with urban landscape designers and on the basis of observation and behavioural mapping in squares and parks of city centres of two European cities, Edinburgh and Ljubljana. As the behavioural maps graphically express structural relationships between physical qualities of places and their users, they represent a useful tool for improvement of designers’ knowledge and perception about potential and actual use of a place. In this respect they represent a basis for better cooperation and synergy between users and planners or designers, as the knowledge about any possible or expected behavioural patterns in places may lead into effective and responsive design.

  12. Urban open spaces: the relationship of uses within the neighborhood scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilza Gomes Reis Lopes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the urban habitacionais areas the population needs areas with which they can be identified, of free spaces that reflect the identity of its inhabitants. Thus, the square is had as public good of the cities, opened to all and endowed with functions, that supply the physical and mental necessities of its inhabitants. This work had as objective to present the diverse joined uses and the way as the users if they appropriate of the squares in the Mocambinho quarter located in the zone north of the city of Teresina, its Inter-relations in the context where they are inserted.

  13. Open loop thanks to direct torque control (DTC). Motor control without feedback loop; Open loop dank direkter Drehmomentregelung (DTC). Hochwertige Motorregelung ohne Rueckfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, Michael [ABB Automation Products GmbH, Ladenburg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Servo drives are used in various applications. The range of applications is huge and thus also requirements to the drive system. Mainly, a fast torque and speed control is required. This is the domaine of direct torque control (DTC). In many applications DTC can meet this challenge to control the motor with full torque at zero speed. The servo converter based on DTC technology provides a control concept for synchronous and asynchronous motors for both closed loop and open loop control. DTC controlled drives support the whole range from open loop up to high performance motion control applications. (orig.)

  14. Influence of Music on the Behaviors of Crowd in Urban Open Public Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qi; Zhao, Tingting; Kang, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Sound environment plays an important role in urban open spaces, yet studies on the effects of perception of the sound environment on crowd behaviors have been limited. The aim of this study, therefore, is to explore how music, which is considered an important soundscape element, affects crowd behaviors in urban open spaces. On-site observations were performed at a 100 m × 70 m urban leisure square in Harbin, China. Typical music was used to study the effects of perception of the sound environment on crowd behaviors; then, these behaviors were classified into movement (passing by and walking around) and non-movement behaviors (sitting). The results show that the path of passing by in an urban leisure square with music was more centralized than without music. Without music, 8.3% of people passing by walked near the edge of the square, whereas with music, this percentage was zero. In terms of the speed of passing by behavior, no significant difference was observed with the presence or absence of background music. Regarding the effect of music on walking around behavior in the square, the mean area and perimeter when background music was played were smaller than without background music. The mean speed of those exhibiting walking around behavior with background music in the square was 0.296 m/s slower than when no background music was played. For those exhibiting sitting behavior, when background music was not present, crowd density showed no variation based on the distance from the sound source. When music was present, it was observed that as the distance from the sound source increased, crowd density of those sitting behavior decreased accordingly.

  15. Do features of public open spaces vary according to neighbourhood socio-economic status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, David; Timperio, Anna; Giles-Corti, Billie; Ball, Kylie; Hume, Clare; Roberts, Rebecca; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Salmon, Jo

    2008-12-01

    This study examined the relations between neighbourhood socio-economic status and features of public open spaces (POS) hypothesised to influence children's physical activity. Data were from the first follow-up of the Children Living in Active Neighbourhoods (CLAN) Study, which involved 540 families of 5-6 and 10-12-year-old children in Melbourne, Australia. The Socio-Economic Index for Areas Index (SEIFA) of Relative Socio-economic Advantage/Disadvantage was used to assign a socioeconomic index score to each child's neighbourhood, based on postcode. Participant addresses were geocoded using a Geographic Information System. The Open Space 2002 spatial data set was used to identify all POS within an 800 m radius of each participant's home. The features of each of these POS (1497) were audited. Variability of POS features was examined across quintiles of neighbourhood SEIFA. Compared with POS in lower socioeconomic neighbourhoods, POS in the highest socioeconomic neighbourhoods had more amenities (e.g. picnic tables and drink fountains) and were more likely to have trees that provided shade, a water feature (e.g. pond, creek), walking and cycling paths, lighting, signage regarding dog access and signage restricting other activities. There were no differences across neighbourhoods in the number of playgrounds or the number of recreation facilities (e.g. number of sports catered for on courts and ovals, the presence of other facilities such as athletics tracks, skateboarding facility and swimming pool). This study suggests that POS in high socioeconomic neighbourhoods possess more features that are likely to promote physical activity amongst children.

  16. 42: An Open-Source Simulation Tool for Study and Design of Spacecraft Attitude Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneking, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Simulation is an important tool in the analysis and design of spacecraft attitude control systems. The speaker will discuss the simulation tool, called simply 42, that he has developed over the years to support his own work as an engineer in the Attitude Control Systems Engineering Branch at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. 42 was intended from the outset to be high-fidelity and powerful, but also fast and easy to use. 42 is publicly available as open source since 2014. The speaker will describe some of 42's models and features, and discuss its applicability to studies ranging from early concept studies through the design cycle, integration, and operations. He will outline 42's architecture and share some thoughts on simulation development as a long-term project.

  17. Applying Space Technology to Enhance Control of an Artificial Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Diane; Donovan, William H.; Novy, Mara; Abramczyk, Robert

    1997-01-01

    At the present time, myoelectric prostheses perform only one function of the hand: open and close with the thumb, index and middle finger coming together to grasp various shaped objects. To better understand the limitations of the current single-function prostheses and the needs of the individuals who use them, The Institute for Rehabilitation and Research (TIRR), sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (August 1992 - November 1994), surveyed approximately 2500 individuals with upper limb loss. When asked to identify specific features of their current electric prosthesis that needed improvement, the survey respondents overwhelmingly identified the lack of wrist and finger movement as well as poor control capability. Simply building a mechanism with individual finger and wrist motion is not enough. Individuals with upper limb loss tend to reject prostheses that require continuous visual monitoring and concentration to control. Robotics researchers at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) and Rice University have made substantial progress in myoelectric teleoperation. A myoelectric teleoperation system translates signals generated by an able-bodied robot operator's muscles during hand motions into commands that drive a robot's hand through identical motions. Farry's early work in myoelectric teleoperation used variations over time in the myoelectric spectrum as inputs to neural networks to discriminate grasp types and thumb motions. The resulting schemes yielded up to 93% correct classification on thumb motions. More recently, Fernandez achieved 100% correct non-realtime classification of thumb abduction, extension, and flexion on the same myoelectric data. Fernandez used genetic programming to develop functions that discriminate between thumb motions using myoelectric signal parameters. Genetic programming (GP) is an evolutionary programming method where the computer can modify the discriminating functions' form to improve its performance, not just adjust

  18. Investment in Open Innovation Service Providers: NASA's Innovative Strategy for Solving Space Exploration Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Jennifer A.; Rando, Cynthia; Baumann, David; Richard, Elizabeth; Davis, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to expand routes for open communication and create additional opportunities for public involvement with NASA, Open Innovation Service Provider (OISP) methodologies have been incorporated as a tool in NASA's problem solving strategy. NASA engaged the services of two OISP providers, InnoCentive and Yet2.com, to test this novel approach and its feasibility in solving NASA s space flight challenges. The OISPs were chosen based on multiple factors including: network size and knowledge area span, established process, methodology, experience base, and cost. InnoCentive and Yet2.com each met the desired criteria; however each company s approach to Open Innovation is distinctly different. InnoCentive focuses on posting individual challenges to an established web-based network of approximately 200,000 solvers; viable solutions are sought and granted a financial award if found. Based on a specific technological need, Yet2.com acts as a talent scout providing a broad external network of experts as potential collaborators to NASA. A relationship can be established with these contacts to develop technologies and/or maintained as an established network of future collaborators. The results from the first phase of the pilot study have shown great promise for long term efficacy of utilizing the OISP methodologies. Solution proposals have been received for the challenges posted on InnoCentive and are currently under review for final disposition. In addition, Yet2.com has identified new external partners for NASA and we are in the process of understanding and acting upon these new opportunities. Compared to NASA's traditional routes for external problem solving, the OISP methodologies offered NASA a substantial savings in terms of time and resources invested. In addition, these strategies will help NASA extend beyond its current borders to build an ever expanding network of experts and global solvers.

  19. The parametric open-plus-closed-loop control of chaotic maps and its robustness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liqun

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a parametric open-plus-closed-loop control approach to controlling chaos. The logistic map is treated as an example to demonstrate the application of the proposed approach. It is proved that the approach is robust to the model error. Its relations to the open-plus-closed-loop control and the parametric entrainment control are discussed

  20. Attitude control of an orbiting space vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherlin, D. W.; Boland, J. S. , III; Borelli, M. T.

    1971-01-01

    Study of the normal and clamped modes of operation and dynamic response characteristics of the gimbaled control moment gyro (CMG) designed to fulfill the stringent pointing requirements of the Skylab telescope mount when the spacecraft is under the influence of both external and internal torques. The results indicate that the clamped mode of operation provides a feasible approach for significantly improving the system characteristics.

  1. Open Space between Residential Buildings as a Factor of Sustainable Development - Case Studies in Brno (Czech Republic) and Vienna (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilnarová, Pavla; Wittmann, Maxmilian

    2017-12-01

    The characteristics of open spaces between residential buildings have, as authors suppose, an impact on the sustainable development of urban areas. Spatial arrangement and accessibility of these spaces, the type and height of surrounding buildings, the quantity and character of greenery, and many more characteristics influence the quality of environment, and the quality of life of local residents. These and further characteristics of the open spaces between residential buildings influence the ecological stability of the area, its hygienic qualities, the intensity and way of using by various social groups, and also the prices of real estates. These qualities indicate the environmental, social and economic sustainability of the urban area. The proposed research methodology assessed specific indicators of sustainability within a range from 0 to 10 points. 5 points correspond to the general standard in the area, 0 points indicate degradation, and 10 points indicate the highest contribution to sustainable development. Observation methods, questionnaire survey, statistical analyses, and methods of measurement were used to determine the values of the given indicators. The paper analyses the impact of the open spaces between residential buildings on sustainability via the case studies performed in the Central European cities of Brno, Czech Republic and Vienna, Austria. Two forms of residential urban structures in the City of Brno in the Czech Republic were selected for the analysis: the closed courtyards in the urban block from the 19th century and the open spaces in the housing estates constructed under socialism in the 20th century. The question is, if the different forms of spaces between residential buildings influence the sustainability of urban area and satisfaction of inhabitants in different ways. A complementary case study in Vienna indicates that inhabitants of a housing estate in Vienna, as well as inhabitants of housing estates in Brno, highly appreciate the

  2. Research into command, control, and communications in space construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Randal

    1990-01-01

    Coordinating and controlling large numbers of autonomous or semi-autonomous robot elements in a space construction activity will present problems that are very different from most command and control problems encountered in the space business. As part of our research into the feasibility of robot constructors in space, the CSC Operations Group is examining a variety of command, control, and communications (C3) issues. Two major questions being asked are: can we apply C3 techniques and technologies already developed for use in space; and are there suitable terrestrial solutions for extraterrestrial C3 problems? An overview of the control architectures, command strategies, and communications technologies that we are examining is provided and plans for simulations and demonstrations of our concepts are described.

  3. Closed-Loop Optimal Control Implementations for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    with standard linear algebra techniques if is converted to a diagonal square matrix by multiplying by the identity matrix, I , as was done in (1.134...OPTIMAL CONTROL IMPLEMENTATIONS FOR SPACE APPLICATIONS by Colin S. Monk December 2016 Thesis Advisor: Mark Karpenko Second Reader: I. M...COVERED Master’s thesis, Jan-Dec 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CLOSED-LOOP OPTIMAL CONTROL IMPLEMENTATIONS FOR SPACE APPLICATIONS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS

  4. Controlling quantum interference in phase space with amplitude

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Yinghong; Li, Tingyu; Kasai, Katsuyuki; Okada-Shudo, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Masayoshi; Zhang, Yun

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally show a quantum interference in phase space by interrogating photon number probabilities (n?=?2, 3, and 4) of a displaced squeezed state, which is generated by an optical parametric amplifier and whose displacement is controlled by amplitude of injected coherent light. It is found that the probabilities exhibit oscillations of interference effect depending upon the amplitude of the controlling light field. This phenomenon is attributed to quantum interference in phase space a...

  5. Dynamics and control of robot for capturing objects in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Panfeng

    Space robots are expected to perform intricate tasks in future space services, such as satellite maintenance, refueling, and replacing the orbital replacement unit (ORU). To realize these missions, the capturing operation may not be avoided. Such operations will encounter some challenges because space robots have some unique characteristics unfound on ground-based robots, such as, dynamic singularities, dynamic coupling between manipulator and space base, limited energy supply and working without a fixed base, and so on. In addition, since contacts and impacts may not be avoided during capturing operation. Therefore, dynamics and control problems of space robot for capturing objects are significant research topics if the robots are to be deployed for the space services. A typical servicing operation mainly includes three phases: capturing the object, berthing and docking the object, then repairing the target. Therefore, this thesis will focus on resolving some challenging problems during capturing the object, berthing and docking, and so on. In this thesis, I study and analyze the dynamics and control problems of space robot for capturing objects. This work has potential impact in space robotic applications. I first study the contact and impact dynamics of space robot and objects. I specifically focus on analyzing the impact dynamics and mapping the relationship of influence and speed. Then, I develop the fundamental theory for planning the minimum-collision based trajectory of space robot and designing the configuration of space robot at the moment of capture. To compensate for the attitude of the space base during the capturing approach operation, a new balance control concept which can effectively balance the attitude of the space base using the dynamic couplings is developed. The developed balance control concept helps to understand of the nature of space dynamic coupling, and can be readily applied to compensate or minimize the disturbance to the space base

  6. Space station contamination control study: Internal combustion, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    Contamination inside Space Station modules was studied to determine the best methods of controlling contamination. The work was conducted in five tasks that identified existing contamination control requirements, analyzed contamination levels, developed outgassing specification for materials, wrote a contamination control plan, and evaluated current materials of offgassing tests used by NASA. It is concluded that current contamination control methods can be made to function on the Space Station for up to 1000 days, but that current methods are deficient for periods longer than about 1000 days.

  7. Analysis of Cisco Open Network Environment (ONE) OpenFlow Controller Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Software - Defined Networking ( SDN ), when fully realized, offer many improvements over the current rigid and...functionalities like handshake, connection setup, switch management, and security. 15. SUBJECT TERMS OpenFlow, software - defined networking , Cisco ONE, SDN ...innovating packet-forwarding technologies. Network device roles are strictly defined with little or no flexibility. In Software - Defined Networks ( SDNs ),

  8. Design of a real-time open architecture controller for a reconfigurable machine tool

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masekamela, I

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design and the development of a real-time, open architecture controller that is used for control of reconfigurable manufacturing tools (RMTs) in reconfigurable manufacturing systems (RMS). The controller that is presented can...

  9. Controlling Laser Spot Size in Outer Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Harold E.

    2005-01-01

    Three documents discuss a method of controlling the diameter of a laser beam projected from Earth to any altitude ranging from low orbit around the Earth to geosynchronous orbit. Such laser beams are under consideration as means of supplying power to orbiting spacecraft at levels of the order of tens of kilowatts apiece. Each such beam would be projected by use of a special purpose telescope having an aperture diameter of 15 m or more. Expanding the laser beam to such a large diameter at low altitude would prevent air breakdown and render the laser beam eyesafe. Typically, the telescope would include an adaptive-optics concave primary mirror and a convex secondary mirror. The laser beam transmitted out to the satellite would remain in the near field on the telescope side of the beam waist, so that the telescope focal point would remain effective in controlling the beam width. By use of positioning stages having submicron resolution and repeatability, the relative positions of the primary and secondary mirrors would be adjusted to change the nominal telescope object and image distances to obtain the desired beam diameter (typically about 6 m) at the altitude of the satellite. The limiting distance D(sub L) at which a constant beam diameter can be maintained is determined by the focal range of the telescope 4 lambda f(sup 2) where lambda is the wavelength and f the f/number of the primary mirror. The shorter the wavelength and the faster the mirror, the longer D(sub L) becomes.

  10. Stability control of a flexible maneuverable tethered space net robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Huang, Panfeng

    2018-04-01

    As a promising solution for active space debris capture and removal, a maneuverable Tethered Space Net Robot (TSNR) is proposed as an improved Space Tethered Net (TSN). In addition to the advantages inherit to the TSN, the TSNR's maneuverability expands the capture's potential. However, oscillations caused by the TSNR's flexibility and elasticity of make higher requests of the control scheme. Based on the dynamics model, a modified adaptive super-twisting sliding mode control scheme is proposed in this paper for TSNR stability control. The proposed continuous control force can effectively suppress oscillations. Theoretical verification and numerical simulations demonstrate that the desired trajectory can be tracked steadily and efficiently by employing the proposed control scheme.

  11. Procedures adopted by orthodontists for space closure and anchorage control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André da Costa Monini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the procedures adopted by Brazilian orthodontists in the following situations: extraction space closure, anchorage control in case of necessary anchorage for group A and frequency of skeletal anchorage use, especially in the upper jaw. METHOD: A questionnaire was sent to the e-mail address of all dentists registered in the Brazilian Federal Council of Dentistry. RESULTS: The results showed that most Brazilian orthodontists usually perform extraction space closure by means of sliding mechanics. The use of palatal bar, inclusion of second molars in the archwire and space closure performed in two phases are the most used techniques for anchorage control in the upper jaw. The skeletal anchorage is referenced by 36.5% of specialists as a routine practice for the upper jaw anchorage. CONCLUSIONS: There is a wide variety of procedures adopted by Brazilian orthodontists for orthodontic space closure and anchorage control.

  12. Procedures adopted by orthodontists for space closure and anchorage control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monini, André da Costa; Gandini Júnior, Luiz Gonzaga; dos Santos-Pinto, Ary; Maia, Luiz Guilherme Martins; Rodrigues, Willian Caetano

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the procedures adopted by Brazilian orthodontists in the following situations: extraction space closure, anchorage control in case of necessary anchorage for group A and frequency of skeletal anchorage use, especially in the upper jaw. A questionnaire was sent to the e-mail address of all dentists registered in the Brazilian Federal Council of Dentistry. The results showed that most Brazilian orthodontists usually perform extraction space closure by means of sliding mechanics. The use of palatal bar, inclusion of second molars in the archwire and space closure performed in two phases are the most used techniques for anchorage control in the upper jaw. The skeletal anchorage is referenced by 36.5% of specialists as a routine practice for the upper arch anchorage. There is a wide variety of procedures adopted by Brazilian orthodontists for orthodontic space closure and anchorage control.

  13. Robust coordinated control of a dual-arm space robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lingling; Kayastha, Sharmila; Katupitiya, Jay

    2017-09-01

    Dual-arm space robots are more capable of implementing complex space tasks compared with single arm space robots. However, the dynamic coupling between the arms and the base will have a serious impact on the spacecraft attitude and the hand motion of each arm. Instead of considering one arm as the mission arm and the other as the balance arm, in this work two arms of the space robot perform as mission arms aimed at accomplishing secure capture of a floating target. The paper investigates coordinated control of the base's attitude and the arms' motion in the task space in the presence of system uncertainties. Two types of controllers, i.e. a Sliding Mode Controller (SMC) and a nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (MPC) are verified and compared with a conventional Computed-Torque Controller (CTC) through numerical simulations in terms of control accuracy and system robustness. Both controllers eliminate the need to linearly parameterize the dynamic equations. The MPC has been shown to achieve performance with higher accuracy than CTC and SMC in the absence of system uncertainties under the condition that they consume comparable energy. When the system uncertainties are included, SMC and CTC present advantageous robustness than MPC. Specifically, in a case where system inertia increases, SMC delivers higher accuracy than CTC and costs the least amount of energy.

  14. Implementation of the Forest Service Open Space Conservation Strategy in Washington State: Exploring the Role of the National Forest System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard J. Pringle; Lee K. Cerveny; Gordon A. Bradley

    2015-01-01

    The loss of open space was declared one of the “four threats to the health of our nation’s forests” by former USDA Forest Service Chief Dale Bosworth in 2004. Since then, the agencywide Open Space Conservation Strategy (OSCS) was released and the “four threats” were incorporated into the agency’s National Strategic Plan. These actions indicate that the OSCS is in the...

  15. DETECTABILITY OF FREE FLOATING PLANETS IN OPEN CLUSTERS WITH THE JAMES WEBB SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacucci, Fabio; Ferrara, Andrea; D'Onghia, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations have shown the presence of extra-solar planets in Galactic open stellar clusters, such as in Praesepe (M44). These systems provide a favorable environment for planetary formation due to the high heavy-element content exhibited by the majority of their population. The large stellar density, and corresponding high close-encounter event rate, may induce strong perturbations of planetary orbits with large semimajor axes. Here we present a set of N-body simulations implementing a novel scheme to treat the tidal effects of external stellar perturbers on planetary orbit eccentricity and inclination. By simulating five nearby open clusters, we determine the rate of occurrence of bodies extracted from their parent stellar system by quasi-impulsive tidal interactions. We find that the specific free-floating planet production rate N-dot o (total number of free-floating planets per unit of time, normalized by the total number of stars), is proportional to the stellar density ρ * of the cluster: N-dot o =αρ ⋆ , with α = (23 ± 5) × 10 –6 pc 3 Myr –1 . For the Pleiades (M45), we predict that ∼26% of stars should have lost their planets. This raises the exciting possibility of directly observing these wandering planets with the James Webb Space Telescope in the near-infrared band. Assuming a surface temperature for the planet of ∼500 K, a free-floating planet of Jupiter size inside the Pleiades would have a specific flux of F ν (4.4 μm) ≈4 × 10 2  nJy, which would lead to a very clear detection (S/N ∼ 100) in only one hour of integration

  16. Detectability of Free Floating Planets in Open Clusters with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacucci, Fabio; Ferrara, Andrea; D'Onghia, Elena

    2013-12-01

    Recent observations have shown the presence of extra-solar planets in Galactic open stellar clusters, such as in Praesepe (M44). These systems provide a favorable environment for planetary formation due to the high heavy-element content exhibited by the majority of their population. The large stellar density, and corresponding high close-encounter event rate, may induce strong perturbations of planetary orbits with large semimajor axes. Here we present a set of N-body simulations implementing a novel scheme to treat the tidal effects of external stellar perturbers on planetary orbit eccentricity and inclination. By simulating five nearby open clusters, we determine the rate of occurrence of bodies extracted from their parent stellar system by quasi-impulsive tidal interactions. We find that the specific free-floating planet production rate \\dot{N}_o (total number of free-floating planets per unit of time, normalized by the total number of stars), is proportional to the stellar density ρsstarf of the cluster: \\dot{N}_o = \\alpha \\rho _\\star, with α = (23 ± 5) × 10-6 pc3 Myr-1. For the Pleiades (M45), we predict that ~26% of stars should have lost their planets. This raises the exciting possibility of directly observing these wandering planets with the James Webb Space Telescope in the near-infrared band. Assuming a surface temperature for the planet of ~500 K, a free-floating planet of Jupiter size inside the Pleiades would have a specific flux of F ν (4.4 μm) ≈4 × 102 nJy, which would lead to a very clear detection (S/N ~ 100) in only one hour of integration.

  17. DETECTABILITY OF FREE FLOATING PLANETS IN OPEN CLUSTERS WITH THE JAMES WEBB SPACE TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacucci, Fabio; Ferrara, Andrea [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); D' Onghia, Elena [University of Wisconsin, 475 Charter St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Recent observations have shown the presence of extra-solar planets in Galactic open stellar clusters, such as in Praesepe (M44). These systems provide a favorable environment for planetary formation due to the high heavy-element content exhibited by the majority of their population. The large stellar density, and corresponding high close-encounter event rate, may induce strong perturbations of planetary orbits with large semimajor axes. Here we present a set of N-body simulations implementing a novel scheme to treat the tidal effects of external stellar perturbers on planetary orbit eccentricity and inclination. By simulating five nearby open clusters, we determine the rate of occurrence of bodies extracted from their parent stellar system by quasi-impulsive tidal interactions. We find that the specific free-floating planet production rate N-dot {sub o} (total number of free-floating planets per unit of time, normalized by the total number of stars), is proportional to the stellar density ρ{sub *} of the cluster: N-dot {sub o}=αρ{sub ⋆}, with α = (23 ± 5) × 10{sup –6} pc{sup 3} Myr{sup –1}. For the Pleiades (M45), we predict that ∼26% of stars should have lost their planets. This raises the exciting possibility of directly observing these wandering planets with the James Webb Space Telescope in the near-infrared band. Assuming a surface temperature for the planet of ∼500 K, a free-floating planet of Jupiter size inside the Pleiades would have a specific flux of F {sub ν} (4.4 μm) ≈4 × 10{sup 2} nJy, which would lead to a very clear detection (S/N ∼ 100) in only one hour of integration.

  18. Evaluation of SPACE code for simulation of inadvertent opening of spray valve in Shin Kori unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seyun; Youn, Bumsoo

    2013-01-01

    SPACE code is expected to be applied to the safety analysis for LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) and Non-LOCA scenarios. SPACE code solves two-fluid, three-field governing equations and programmed with C++ computer language using object-oriented concepts. To evaluate the analysis capability for the transient phenomena in the actual nuclear power plant, an inadvertent opening of spray valve in startup test phase of Shin Kori unit 1 was simulated with SPACE code. To evaluate the analysis capability for the transient phenomena in the actual nuclear power plant, an inadvertent opening of spray valve in startup test phase of Shin Kori unit 1 was simulated with SPACE code

  19. Application of innovative policies for controlling radionuclide releases: The open-quotes open-market trading ruleclose quotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    In the past, most efforts for reducing airborne radio nuclide releases and controlling radioactive wastes have been directed to the development of new and improved technologies. Little attention has been paid to the possible application to these problems of new, innovative policies. Yet, experience in other fields shows that such applications could be beneficial. A prime example is the open-quotes open-market trading rule,close quotes now being widely used in the U.S. for the control of a range of environmental problems. Through this rule, nuclear facility operators would be permitted to control airborne emissions in a more cost-effective manner, and those responsible for decommissioning and decontaminating nuclear facilities no longer in operation could do so at far lower costs while generating significantly smaller volumes of radioactive wastes. Application of such a policy would also significantly reduce the demands on existing, and the need for research to develop new, improved, control technologies. 16 refs

  20. Application of innovative policies for controlling radionuclide releases: The {open_quotes}open-market trading rule{close_quotes}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, D.W. [Dade Moeller & Associates, Inc., New Bern, NC (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In the past, most efforts for reducing airborne radio nuclide releases and controlling radioactive wastes have been directed to the development of new and improved technologies. Little attention has been paid to the possible application to these problems of new, innovative policies. Yet, experience in other fields shows that such applications could be beneficial. A prime example is the {open_quotes}open-market trading rule,{close_quotes} now being widely used in the U.S. for the control of a range of environmental problems. Through this rule, nuclear facility operators would be permitted to control airborne emissions in a more cost-effective manner, and those responsible for decommissioning and decontaminating nuclear facilities no longer in operation could do so at far lower costs while generating significantly smaller volumes of radioactive wastes. Application of such a policy would also significantly reduce the demands on existing, and the need for research to develop new, improved, control technologies. 16 refs.

  1. Intelligent (Autonomous) Power Controller Development for Human Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, James; Raitano, Paul; McNelis, Anne

    2016-01-01

    As NASAs Evolvable Mars Campaign and other exploration initiatives continue to mature they have identified the need for more autonomous operations of the power system. For current human space operations such as the International Space Station, the paradigm is to perform the planning, operation and fault diagnosis from the ground. However, the dual problems of communication lag as well as limited communication bandwidth beyond GEO synchronous orbit, underscore the need to change the operation methodology for human operation in deep space. To address this need, for the past several years the Glenn Research Center has had an effort to develop an autonomous power controller for human deep space vehicles. This presentation discusses the present roadmap for deep space exploration along with a description of conceptual power system architecture for exploration modules. It then contrasts the present ground centric control and management architecture with limited autonomy on-board the spacecraft with an advanced autonomous power control system that features ground based monitoring with a spacecraft mission manager with autonomous control of all core systems, including power. It then presents a functional breakdown of the autonomous power control system and examines its operation in both normal and fault modes. Finally, it discusses progress made in the development of a real-time power system model and how it is being used to evaluate the performance of the controller and well as using it for verification of the overall operation.

  2. An Experimental Study on the Influence of Soundscapes on People’s Behaviour in an Open Public Space

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Aletta; Federica Lepore; Eirini Kostara-Konstantinou; Jian Kang; Arianna Astolfi

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have investigated how environmental sounds and music can modulate people’s behaviours, particularly in marketing research. However, there are relatively few examples of research about such relationships with a focus on the management of urban public spaces. The current study investigated an open public space used mainly as a pedestrian crossing to analyse the relationship between the audio stimuli and peoples’ behaviours. An experiment relying on covert behavioural observation...

  3. An Experimental Study on the Influence of Soundscapes on People’s Behaviour in an Open Public Space

    OpenAIRE

    Aletta, F.; Lepore, F.; Kostara-Konstantinou, E.; Kang, J.; Astolfi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have investigated how environmental sounds and music can modulate\\ud people’s behaviours, particularly in marketing research. However, there are relatively few examples\\ud of research about such relationships with a focus on the management of urban public spaces.\\ud The current study investigated an open public space used mainly as a pedestrian crossing to analyse\\ud the relationship between the audio stimuli and peoples’ behaviours. An experiment relying on\\ud covert behaviou...

  4. Enabling autonomous control for space reactor power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R. T.

    2006-01-01

    The application of nuclear reactors for space power and/or propulsion presents some unique challenges regarding the operations and control of the power system. Terrestrial nuclear reactors employ varying degrees of human control and decision-making for operations and benefit from periodic human interaction for maintenance. In contrast, the control system of a space reactor power system (SRPS) employed for deep space missions must be able to accommodate unattended operations due to communications delays and periods of planetary occlusion while adapting to evolving or degraded conditions with no opportunity for repair or refurbishment. Thus, a SRPS control system must provide for operational autonomy. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has conducted an investigation of the state of the technology for autonomous control to determine the experience base in the nuclear power application domain, both for space and terrestrial use. It was found that control systems with varying levels of autonomy have been employed in robotic, transportation, spacecraft, and manufacturing applications. However, autonomous control has not been implemented for an operating terrestrial nuclear power plant nor has there been any experience beyond automating simple control loops for space reactors. Current automated control technologies for nuclear power plants are reasonably mature, and basic control for a SRPS is clearly feasible under optimum circumstances. However, autonomous control is primarily intended to account for the non optimum circumstances when degradation, failure, and other off-normal events challenge the performance of the reactor and near-term human intervention is not possible. Thus, the development and demonstration of autonomous control capabilities for the specific domain of space nuclear power operations is needed. This paper will discuss the findings of the ORNL study and provide a description of the concept of autonomy, its key characteristics, and a prospective

  5. OPEN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Anders; Paterno, Fabio; Grasselli, Agnese

    2010-01-01

    and be controlled by the platform to enrich the user experience with the application. We describe the challenges following the centralisation of a migration platform that can support different types of applications, both games and business applications, implemented with either web-technologies or as component......One important aspect of ubiquitous environments is to provide users with the possibility to freely move about and continue to interact with the available applications through a variety of interactive devices such as cell phones, PDAs, desktop computers, intelligent watches or digital television...

  6. The Role of Stakeholders Related to the Management of Ecological Function of Urban Green Open Space. Case Study: City of Depok, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangopa Malik, Andy Anton

    2017-12-01

    Urban green open space is one of the assets that provide substantial benefits to the urban community. One important function of urban green open space is a function of ecology. This study will provide initial explanation on the various studies related to the ecological function of urban green open space. The study of urban space management approach related to ecological function will explain the extent of the role of stakeholders in the urban areas that will further strengthen the importance of the existence of green open space, especially in city of Depok. With so many problems related to the supply and use of green open space in the city of Depok. This approach was originally applied by the private sector and many applications made a great contribution, so it began to be used by the government in managing public assets there. This study will use descriptive method, at the beginning of the study will explain the existence of the reality of urban green open space as part of the urban space by viewing it from theoretical overview of space, function and role of the various problems that occur in it. The results of this study indicate there are six problems in the management of green open spaces in city of Depok. Using the stages in asset management will provide space for participation of existing stakeholders in the management of green open spaces in city of Depok.

  7. Integrating Space Flight Resource Management Skills into Technical Lessons for International Space Station Flight Controller Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Evelyn

    2008-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center s (JSC) International Space Station (ISS) Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM) training program is designed to teach the team skills required to be an effective flight controller. It was adapted from the SFRM training given to Shuttle flight controllers to fit the needs of a "24 hours a day/365 days a year" flight controller. More recently, the length reduction of technical training flows for ISS flight controllers impacted the number of opportunities for fully integrated team scenario based training, where most SFRM training occurred. Thus, the ISS SFRM training program is evolving yet again, using a new approach of teaching and evaluating SFRM alongside of technical materials. Because there are very few models in other industries that have successfully tied team and technical skills together, challenges are arising. Despite this, the Mission Operations Directorate of NASA s JSC is committed to implementing this integrated training approach because of the anticipated benefits.

  8. State Space Reduction of Linear Processes using Control Flow Reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Timmer, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We present a new method for fighting the state space explosion of process algebraic specifications, by performing static analysis on an intermediate format: linear process equations (LPEs). Our method consists of two steps: (1) we reconstruct the LPE's control flow, detecting control flow parameters

  9. State Space Reduction of Linear Processes Using Control Flow Reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Timmer, Mark; Liu, Zhiming; Ravn, Anders P.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new method for fighting the state space explosion of process algebraic specifications, by performing static analysis on an intermediate format: linear process equations (LPEs). Our method consists of two steps: (1) we reconstruct the LPE's control flow, detecting control flow parameters

  10. Design and control considerations for industrial and space manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, D. E.; Book, W. J.; Lynch, P. M.

    1974-01-01

    This paper is a progress report summarizing theoretical and practical results concerning integration of design and control aspects of manipulator arms for industrial or space applications. The relationships between task specifications, gross motions, fine motions, actuator type and location, size and strength of structural members, control servos and strategies, and overall design evaluation are briefly discussed, with some technical examples.

  11. A multilevel control approach for a modular structured space platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichester, F. D.; Borelli, M. T.

    1981-01-01

    A three axis mathematical representation of a modular assembled space platform consisting of interconnected discrete masses, including a deployable truss module, was derived for digital computer simulation. The platform attitude control system as developed to provide multilevel control utilizing the Gauss-Seidel second level formulation along with an extended form of linear quadratic regulator techniques. The objectives of the multilevel control are to decouple the space platform's spatial axes and to accommodate the modification of the platform's configuration for each of the decoupled axes.

  12. Toward an open-access global database for mapping, control, and surveillance of neglected tropical diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Hürlimann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: After many years of general neglect, interest has grown and efforts came under way for the mapping, control, surveillance, and eventual elimination of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. Disease risk estimates are a key feature to target control interventions, and serve as a benchmark for monitoring and evaluation. What is currently missing is a georeferenced global database for NTDs providing open-access to the available survey data that is constantly updated and can be utilized by researchers and disease control managers to support other relevant stakeholders. We describe the steps taken toward the development of such a database that can be employed for spatial disease risk modeling and control of NTDs. METHODOLOGY: With an emphasis on schistosomiasis in Africa, we systematically searched the literature (peer-reviewed journals and 'grey literature', contacted Ministries of Health and research institutions in schistosomiasis-endemic countries for location-specific prevalence data and survey details (e.g., study population, year of survey and diagnostic techniques. The data were extracted, georeferenced, and stored in a MySQL database with a web interface allowing free database access and data management. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At the beginning of 2011, our database contained more than 12,000 georeferenced schistosomiasis survey locations from 35 African countries available under http://www.gntd.org. Currently, the database is expanded to a global repository, including a host of other NTDs, e.g. soil-transmitted helminthiasis and leishmaniasis. CONCLUSIONS: An open-access, spatially explicit NTD database offers unique opportunities for disease risk modeling, targeting control interventions, disease monitoring, and surveillance. Moreover, it allows for detailed geostatistical analyses of disease distribution in space and time. With an initial focus on schistosomiasis in Africa, we demonstrate the proof-of-concept that the establishment

  13. Toward an Open-Access Global Database for Mapping, Control, and Surveillance of Neglected Tropical Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hürlimann, Eveline; Schur, Nadine; Boutsika, Konstantina; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Laserna de Himpsl, Maiti; Ziegelbauer, Kathrin; Laizer, Nassor; Camenzind, Lukas; Di Pasquale, Aurelio; Ekpo, Uwem F.; Simoonga, Christopher; Mushinge, Gabriel; Saarnak, Christopher F. L.; Utzinger, Jürg; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2011-01-01

    Background After many years of general neglect, interest has grown and efforts came under way for the mapping, control, surveillance, and eventual elimination of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Disease risk estimates are a key feature to target control interventions, and serve as a benchmark for monitoring and evaluation. What is currently missing is a georeferenced global database for NTDs providing open-access to the available survey data that is constantly updated and can be utilized by researchers and disease control managers to support other relevant stakeholders. We describe the steps taken toward the development of such a database that can be employed for spatial disease risk modeling and control of NTDs. Methodology With an emphasis on schistosomiasis in Africa, we systematically searched the literature (peer-reviewed journals and ‘grey literature’), contacted Ministries of Health and research institutions in schistosomiasis-endemic countries for location-specific prevalence data and survey details (e.g., study population, year of survey and diagnostic techniques). The data were extracted, georeferenced, and stored in a MySQL database with a web interface allowing free database access and data management. Principal Findings At the beginning of 2011, our database contained more than 12,000 georeferenced schistosomiasis survey locations from 35 African countries available under http://www.gntd.org. Currently, the database is expanded to a global repository, including a host of other NTDs, e.g. soil-transmitted helminthiasis and leishmaniasis. Conclusions An open-access, spatially explicit NTD database offers unique opportunities for disease risk modeling, targeting control interventions, disease monitoring, and surveillance. Moreover, it allows for detailed geostatistical analyses of disease distribution in space and time. With an initial focus on schistosomiasis in Africa, we demonstrate the proof-of-concept that the establishment and running of a

  14. Optimal grade control sampling practice in open-pit mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engström, Karin; Esbensen, Kim Harry

    2017-01-01

    Misclassification of ore grades results in lost revenues, and the need for representative sampling procedures in open pit mining is increasingly important in all mining industries. This study evaluated possible improvements in sampling representativity with the use of Reverse Circulation (RC) drill...... sampling compared to manual Blast Hole (BH) sampling in the Leveäniemi open pit mine, northern Sweden. The variographic experiment results showed that sampling variability was lower for RC than for BH sampling. However, the total costs for RC drill sampling are significantly exceeding current costs...... for manual BH sampling, which needs to be compensated for by other benefits to motivate introduction of RC drilling. The main conclusion is that manual BH sampling can be fit-for-purpose in the studied open pit mine. However, with so many mineral commodities and mining methods in use globally...

  15. Planning of Agro-Tourism Development, Specific Location in Green Open Space Sarbagita Area, Bali Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanya, I.; Subadiyasa, N.; Sardiana, K.; Ratna Adi, G. P.

    2018-02-01

    Tourism development has a negative impact on agricultural land in Bali, resulted in the transfer of rice field of 800 ha/year. Subak rice field area as a world cultural heritage, requires conservation strategy, increasing economic and environmental value, through integrated agriculture development with tourism. Tourism destination planning in the form of tourist destination (TD) and tourism object (TO) by raising local genius, at specific location, is expected to preserve nature and culture, as well as the economic value of the region. Research Methods: (1) identification of agrarian cultures, (2) field survey, (3) mapping of site specific TD/TO plans, and (4) compile documents of agro-tourism road map based on local genius. Seven subak areas in the green open space area have the potential to develop new TD/TO, namely: (1) Gedon2Subak in Tanah Lot area, is developed for the preservation of agriculture, the implementation of the zoning plan of the sacred, madya and nista areas, (2) the Kerdung and Penatih Subak areas, developed for urban farming in Denpasar City, (3) Cangi south Subak area, built for agro-tourism plasmanutfah banana and Cemagi Let Subak area developed agro-tourism food crops and horticulture, (4) Erjeruk Subak area, developed tourism plasmanutfah coconut.

  16. Working with Open BIM Standards to Source Legal Spaces for a 3D Cadastre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Oldfield

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Much work has already been done on how a 3D Cadastre should best be developed. An inclusive information model, the Land Administration Model (LADM ISO 19152 has been developed to provide an international framework for how this can best be done. This conceptual model does not prescribe the technical data format. One existing source from which data could be obtained is 3D Building Information Models (BIMs, or, more specifically in this context, BIMs in the form of one of buildingSMART’s open standards: the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC. The research followed a standard BIM methodology of first defining the requirements through the use of the Information Delivery Manual (IDM ISO29481 and then translating the process described in the IDM into technical requirements using a Model View Definition (MVD, a practice to coordinate upfront the multidisciplinary stakeholders of a construction project. The proposed process model illustrated how the time it takes to register 3D spatial units in a Land Registry could substantially be reduced compared to the first 3D registration in the Netherlands. The modelling of an MVD or a subset of the IFC data model helped enable the creation and exchange of boundary representations of topological objects capable of being combined into a 3D legal space overview map.

  17. Public open spaces and walking for recreation: moderation by attributes of pedestrian environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Paquet, Catherine; Howard, Natasha J; Coffee, Neil T; Taylor, Anne W; Adams, Robert J; Daniel, Mark

    2014-05-01

    This study examined whether attributes of pedestrian environments moderate the relationships between access to public open spaces (POS) and adults' recreational walking. Data were collected from participants of the North West Adelaide Health Study in 2007. Recreational walking was determined using self-reported walking frequency. Measures of POS access (presence, count, and distance to the nearest POS) were assessed using a Geographic Information System. Pedestrian environmental attributes included aesthetics, walking infrastructure, barrier/traffic, crime concern, intersection density, and access to walking trails. Regression analyses examined whether associations between POS access and recreational walking were moderated by pedestrian environmental attributes. The sample included 1574 participants (45% men, mean age: 55). POS access measures were not associated with recreational walking. However, aesthetics, walking infrastructure, and access to walking trail were found to moderate the POS-walking relationships. The presence of POS was associated with walking among participants with aesthetically pleasing pedestrian environments. Counter-intuitively, better access to POS was associated with recreational walking for those with poorer walking infrastructure or no access to walking trails. Local pedestrian environments moderate the relationships between access to POS and recreational walking. Our findings suggest the presence of complex relationships between POS availability and pedestrian environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. SiGN-SSM: open source parallel software for estimating gene networks with state space models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamada, Yoshinori; Yamaguchi, Rui; Imoto, Seiya; Hirose, Osamu; Yoshida, Ryo; Nagasaki, Masao; Miyano, Satoru

    2011-04-15

    SiGN-SSM is an open-source gene network estimation software able to run in parallel on PCs and massively parallel supercomputers. The software estimates a state space model (SSM), that is a statistical dynamic model suitable for analyzing short time and/or replicated time series gene expression profiles. SiGN-SSM implements a novel parameter constraint effective to stabilize the estimated models. Also, by using a supercomputer, it is able to determine the gene network structure by a statistical permutation test in a practical time. SiGN-SSM is applicable not only to analyzing temporal regulatory dependencies between genes, but also to extracting the differentially regulated genes from time series expression profiles. SiGN-SSM is distributed under GNU Affero General Public Licence (GNU AGPL) version 3 and can be downloaded at http://sign.hgc.jp/signssm/. The pre-compiled binaries for some architectures are available in addition to the source code. The pre-installed binaries are also available on the Human Genome Center supercomputer system. The online manual and the supplementary information of SiGN-SSM is available on our web site. tamada@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp.

  19. Control of free-flying space robot manipulator systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    New control techniques for self contained, autonomous free flying space robots were developed and tested experimentally. Free flying robots are envisioned as a key element of any successful long term presence in space. These robots must be capable of performing the assembly, maintenance, and inspection, and repair tasks that currently require human extravehicular activity (EVA). A set of research projects were developed and carried out using lab models of satellite robots and a flexible manipulator. The second generation space robot models use air cushion vehicle (ACV) technology to simulate in 2-D the drag free, zero g conditions of space. The current work is divided into 5 major projects: Global Navigation and Control of a Free Floating Robot, Cooperative Manipulation from a Free Flying Robot, Multiple Robot Cooperation, Thrusterless Robotic Locomotion, and Dynamic Payload Manipulation. These projects are examined in detail.

  20. OpenSKOS next edition: triplestore support for controlled vocabularies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shkaravska, O.; Windhouwer, M.; Kemps-Snijders, M.

    2016-01-01

    OpenSKOS software implements a web-service-based approach to management and use of vocabularies based on SKOS design principles. This paper motivates and describes the most recent developments in the software. These developments include migrating from a relational MySQL database to a triplestore and

  1. Misting-cooling systems for microclimatic control in public space

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Joao; Zoilo, Inaki; Jacinto, Nuno; Nunes, Ana; Torres-Campos, Tiago; Pacheco, Manuel; Fonseca, David

    2011-01-01

    Misting-cooling systems have been used in outdoor spaces mainly for aesthetic purposes, and punctual cooling achievement. However, they can be highly effective in outdoor spaces’ bioclimatic comfort, in terms of microclimatic control, as an evaporative cooling system. Recent concerns in increasing bioclimatic standards in public outdoor spaces, along with more sustainable practices, gave origin to reasoning where plastic principles are combined with the study of cooling efficacy, in order to ...

  2. Range-Space Predictive Control for Optimal Robot Motion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Belda, Květoslav; Böhm, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2008), s. 1-7 ISSN 1998-0140 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP102/06/P275 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Accurate manipulation * Industrial robotics * Predictive control * Range-space control Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/historie/belda-0305644.pdf

  3. Space Weather Influence on Relative Motion Control using the Touchless Electrostatic Tractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Erik A.; Schaub, Hanspeter

    2016-09-01

    With recent interest in the use of electrostatic forces for contactless tugging and attitude control of noncooperative objects for orbital servicing and active debris mitigation, the need for a method of remote charge control arises. In this paper, the use of a directed electron beam for remote charge control is considered in conjunction with the relative motion control. A tug vehicle emits an electron beam onto a deputy object, charging it negatively. At the same time, the tug is charged positively due to beam emission, resulting in an attractive electrostatic force. The relative position feedback control between the tug and the passive debris object is studied subject to the charging being created through an electron beam. Employing the nominal variations of the GEO space weather conditions across longitude slots, two electrostatic tugging strategies are considered. First, the electron beam current is adjusted throughout the orbit in order to maximize this resulting electrostatic force. This open-loop control strategy compensates for changes in the nominally expected local space weather environment in the GEO region to adjust for fluctuations in the local plasma return currents. Second, the performance impact of using a fixed electron beam current on the electrostatic tractor is studied if the same natural space weather variations are assumed. The fixed electron beam current shows a minor performance penalty (<5 %) while providing a much simpler implementation that does not require any knowledge of local space weather conditions.

  4. The influence of personal belief, agency mission and city size on open space decision making processes in three southwestern cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megan Friggens; Carol Raish; Deborah Finch; Alice McSweeney

    2015-01-01

    The southwest has experienced dramatic population increases over the last 30 years, a trend that is expected to continue. Open space conservation is important both from the standpoint of preserving ecosystem services as well as maintaining quality of life for urban populations. Federal agencies manage a large proportion of the public land in the Southwestern U.S. We...

  5. Public policies for managing urban growth and protecting open space: policy instruments and lessons learned in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; Jennifer O. Fletcher

    2003-01-01

    The public sector in the United States has responded to growing concern about the social and environmental costs of sprawling development patterns by creating a wide range of policy instruments designed to manage urban growth and protect open space. These techniques have been implemented at the local, regional, state and, to a limited extent, national levels. This...

  6. Direct adaptive control of manipulators in Cartesian space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, H.

    1987-01-01

    A new adaptive-control scheme for direct control of manipulator end effector to achieve trajectory tracking in Cartesian space is developed in this article. The control structure is obtained from linear multivariable theory and is composed of simple feedforward and feedback controllers and an auxiliary input. The direct adaptation laws are derived from model reference adaptive control theory and are not based on parameter estimation of the robot model. The utilization of adaptive feedforward control and the inclusion of auxiliary input are novel features of the present scheme and result in improved dynamic performance over existing adaptive control schemes. The adaptive controller does not require the complex mathematical model of the robot dynamics or any knowledge of the robot parameters or the payload, and is computationally fast for on-line implementation with high sampling rates. The control scheme is applied to a two-link manipulator for illustration.

  7. A proof that Witten's open string theory gives a single cover of moduli space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwiebach, B.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge

    1991-01-01

    We show that Witten's open string diagrams are surfaces with metrics of minimal area under the condition that all nontrivial open Jordan curves be longer or equal to π. The minimal area property is used together with a mini-max problem to establish a new existence and uniqueness theorem for quadratic differentials in open Riemann surfaces with or without punctures on the boundaries. This theorem implies that the Feynman rules of open string theory give a single cover of the moduli of open Riemann surfaces. (orig.)

  8. Adaptive Backstepping Controller Design for Leveling Control of an Underwater Platform Based on Joint Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Lin Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on high precision leveling control of an underwater heavy load platform, which is viewed as an underwater parallel robot on the basis of its work pattern. The kinematic of platform with deformation is analyzed and the dynamics model of joint space is established. An adaptive backstepping controller according to Lyapunov's function is proposed for leveling control of platform based on joint space. Furthermore, the “lowest point fixed angle error” leveling scheme called “chase” is chosen for leveling control of platform. The digital simulation and practical experiment of single joint space actuator are carried out, and the results show high precision servo control of joint space. On the basis of this, the platform leveling control simulation relies on the hardware-in-loop system. The results indicate that the proposed controller can effectively restrain the influence from system parameter uncertainties and external disturbance to realize high precision leveling control of the underwater platform.

  9. Plutonium contamination in soils in open space and residential areas near Rocky Flats, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litaor, M.I.

    1999-01-01

    Spatial analysis of the 240 Pu: 239 Pu isotopic ratio of 42 soil samples collected around Rocky Flats Plant near Golden, Colorado, was conducted to assess the effect of Rocky Flats Plant activity on the soil environment. Two probability maps that quantified the uncertainty of the spatial distribution of plutonium isotopic ratios were constructed using the sequential Gaussian simulation technique (sGs). Assuming a plutonium isotopic ratio range of 0.152 ± 0.003 to 0.169 ± 0.009 is characteristic to global fallout in Colorado, and a mean value of 0.155 is representative for the Rocky Flats Plant area, the main findings of the current work were (1) the areas northwest and southwest of Rocky Flats Plant exhibited a plutonium ratio ≥0.155, this were minimally impacted by the plant activity; (2) he study area east of Rocky Flats Plant exhibited a plutonium isotopic ratio ≤0.155, which is a definitive indicator of Rocky Flats Plant-derived plutonium; and (3) inventory calculations across the study area exhibited large standard error of estimates. These errors were originated from the high variability in plutonium activity over a small sampling scale and the uncertainty in the global fallout isotopic ratio. Using the mean simulated estimates of plutonium isotopic ratio, coupled with plutonium activity measured at 11 soil pits and additional plutonium information published elsewhere, the plutonium loading on the open space and residential areas amounted to 111.2 GBq, with a standard error of estimate of 50.8 GBq

  10. Open Spaces and Urban Ecosystem Services. Cooling Effect towards Urban Planning in South American Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Inostroza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Open space (OS is a key element in the provision of ecosystem services (ES in urban environments. Under a land cover-land use perspective, cities are incorporating into the expansion process to different types of surfaces: sealed, paved surfaces and OS. The first corresponds to a land cover change while the second, which includes bare soil, grass, forest or any other type of non-sealed surface, corresponds to a land use change, without physical transformations. As a land use change OS is able to keep fundamental pre-existing ecological properties. However, besides specific ecological characteristics, the overall capacity to provide ES depends also on the size, number and spatial distribution of OSs within the urban fabric. Those aspects which can determine the very ecological performance of urban ecosystem services (UES are not yet included in the current urban planning in Latin America. OS is still understood mainly as green infrastructure and related mostly with aesthetic and cultural benefits. On the contrary, under an ecological point of view, OS is capable to provide fundamental UES, which can be spatially assessed and analyzed. In this paper the provision of cooling services (CS is assessed in 2 South American cities: Lima and Santiago de Chile. The provision of CS is measured by means of a Remote Sensing-GIS-based method. Two aspects of CS are explored: (1 the current amount of existing OS; and (2 the trend of increasing/reducing CS within the urban tissue, in a dynamic assessment of spatial distribution and rates of OS incorporation to the continuous urban tissue. The aim is to analyze the CS generated by OS in those two cities. The analysis discusses the role of OS in the provision of CS, considering the current urban development trends and planning practice in these specific Latin American cities, highlighting the need to keep unsealed surfaces and increase in trees coverage, to retain the CS provision in certain levels.

  11. Work/control stations in Space Station weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willits, Charles

    1990-01-01

    An ergonomic integration of controls, displays, and associated interfaces with an operator, whose body geometry and dynamics may be altered by the state of weightlessness, is noted to rank in importance with the optimal positioning of controls relative to the layout and architecture of 'body-ported' work/control stations applicable to the NASA Space Station Freedom. A long-term solution to this complex design problem is envisioned to encompass the following features: multiple imaging, virtual optics, screen displays controlled by a keyboard ergonomically designed for weightlessness, cursor control, a CCTV camera, and a hand-controller featuring 'no-grip' vernier/tactile positioning. This controller frees all fingers for multiple-switch actuations, while retaining index/register determination with the hand controller. A single architectural point attachment/restraint may be used which requires no residual muscle tension in either brief or prolonged operation.

  12. Fluctuation theorems in feedback-controlled open quantum systems: Quantum coherence and absolute irreversibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashita, Yûto; Gong, Zongping; Ashida, Yuto; Ueda, Masahito

    2017-10-01

    The thermodynamics of quantum coherence has attracted growing attention recently, where the thermodynamic advantage of quantum superposition is characterized in terms of quantum thermodynamics. We investigate the thermodynamic effects of quantum coherent driving in the context of the fluctuation theorem. We adopt a quantum-trajectory approach to investigate open quantum systems under feedback control. In these systems, the measurement backaction in the forward process plays a key role, and therefore the corresponding time-reversed quantum measurement and postselection must be considered in the backward process, in sharp contrast to the classical case. The state reduction associated with quantum measurement, in general, creates a zero-probability region in the space of quantum trajectories of the forward process, which causes singularly strong irreversibility with divergent entropy production (i.e., absolute irreversibility) and hence makes the ordinary fluctuation theorem break down. In the classical case, the error-free measurement ordinarily leads to absolute irreversibility, because the measurement restricts classical paths to the region compatible with the measurement outcome. In contrast, in open quantum systems, absolute irreversibility is suppressed even in the presence of the projective measurement due to those quantum rare events that go through the classically forbidden region with the aid of quantum coherent driving. This suppression of absolute irreversibility exemplifies the thermodynamic advantage of quantum coherent driving. Absolute irreversibility is shown to emerge in the absence of coherent driving after the measurement, especially in systems under time-delayed feedback control. We show that absolute irreversibility is mitigated by increasing the duration of quantum coherent driving or decreasing the delay time of feedback control.

  13. Socializing in an open drug scene: the relationship between access to private space and drug-related street disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debeck, Kora; Wood, Evan; Qi, Jiezhi; Fu, Eric; McArthur, Doug; Montaner, Julio; Kerr, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Limited attention has been given to the potential role that the structure of housing available to people who are entrenched in street-based drug scenes may play in influencing the amount of time injection drug users (IDU) spend on public streets. We sought to examine the relationship between time spent socializing in Vancouver's drug scene and access to private space. Using multivariate logistic regression we evaluated factors associated with socializing (three+ hours each day) in Vancouver's open drug scene among a prospective cohort of IDU. We also assessed attitudes towards relocating socializing activities if greater access to private indoor space was provided. Among our sample of 1114 IDU, 43% fit our criteria for socializing in the open drug scene. In multivariate analysis, having limited access to private space was independently associated with socializing (adjusted odds ratio: 1.80, 95% confidence interval: 1.28-2.55). In further analysis, 65% of 'socializers' reported positive attitudes towards relocating socializing if they had greater access to private space. These findings suggest that providing IDU with greater access to private indoor space may reduce one component of drug-related street disorder. Low-threshold supportive housing based on the 'housing first' model that include safeguards to manage behaviors associated with illicit drug use appear to offer important opportunities to create the types of private spaces that could support a reduction in street disorder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Method for Controlling Space Transportation System Life Cycle Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, Carey M.; Bartine, David E.

    2006-01-01

    A structured, disciplined methodology is required to control major cost-influencing metrics of space transportation systems during design and continuing through the test and operations phases. This paper proposes controlling key space system design metrics that specifically influence life cycle costs. These are inclusive of flight and ground operations, test, and manufacturing and infrastructure. The proposed technique builds on today's configuration and mass properties control techniques and takes on all the characteristics of a classical control system. While the paper does not lay out a complete math model, key elements of the proposed methodology are explored and explained with both historical and contemporary examples. Finally, the paper encourages modular design approaches and technology investments compatible with the proposed method.

  15. Voice loops as coordination aids in space shuttle mission control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, E S; Watts-Perotti, J; Woods, D D

    1999-01-01

    Voice loops, an auditory groupware technology, are essential coordination support tools for experienced practitioners in domains such as air traffic management, aircraft carrier operations and space shuttle mission control. They support synchronous communication on multiple channels among groups of people who are spatially distributed. In this paper, we suggest reasons for why the voice loop system is a successful medium for supporting coordination in space shuttle mission control based on over 130 hours of direct observation. Voice loops allow practitioners to listen in on relevant communications without disrupting their own activities or the activities of others. In addition, the voice loop system is structured around the mission control organization, and therefore directly supports the demands of the domain. By understanding how voice loops meet the particular demands of the mission control environment, insight can be gained for the design of groupware tools to support cooperative activity in other event-driven domains.

  16. Judging Criterion of Controlled Structures with Closely Spaced Natural Frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Faxiang; Sun Limin

    2010-01-01

    The structures with closely spaced natural frequencies widely exist in civil engineering; however, the judging criterion of the density of closely spaced frequencies is in dispute. This paper suggests a judging criterion for structures with closely spaced natural frequencies based on the analysis on a controlled 2-DOF structure. The analysis results indicate that the optimal control gain of the structure with velocity feedback is dependent on the frequency density parameter of structure and the maximum attainable additional modal damping ratio is 1.72 times of the frequency density parameter when state feedback is applied. Based on a brief review on the previous researches, a judging criterion related the minimum frequency density parameter and the required mode damping ratio was proposed.

  17. Dissipative differential systems and the state space H∞ control problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trentelman, H.L.; Willems, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to apply our very recent results on the synthesis of dissipative linear differential systems to the 'classical' state space H∞ control problem. We first review our general problem set-up, where the problem of rendering a given plant dissipative by general

  18. Robust control of flexible space vehicles with minimum structural excitation: On-off pulse control of flexible space vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wie, Bong; Liu, Qiang

    1992-01-01

    Both feedback and feedforward control approaches for uncertain dynamical systems (in particular, with uncertainty in structural mode frequency) are investigated. The control objective is to achieve a fast settling time (high performance) and robustness (insensitivity) to plant uncertainty. Preshaping of an ideal, time optimal control input using a tapped-delay filter is shown to provide a fast settling time with robust performance. A robust, non-minimum-phase feedback controller is synthesized with particular emphasis on its proper implementation for a non-zero set-point control problem. It is shown that a properly designed, feedback controller performs well, as compared with a time optimal open loop controller with special preshaping for performance robustness. Also included are two separate papers by the same authors on this subject.

  19. Autonomous Control Capabilities for Space Reactor Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Richard T.; Neal, John S.; Brittain, C. Ray; Mullens, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, is investigating a possible Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission, which would conduct in-depth studies of three of the moons of Jupiter by using a space reactor power system (SRPS) to provide energy for propulsion and spacecraft power for more than a decade. Terrestrial nuclear power plants rely upon varying degrees of direct human control and interaction for operations and maintenance over a forty to sixty year lifetime. In contrast, an SRPS is intended to provide continuous, remote, unattended operation for up to fifteen years with no maintenance. Uncertainties, rare events, degradation, and communications delays with Earth are challenges that SRPS control must accommodate. Autonomous control is needed to address these challenges and optimize the reactor control design. In this paper, we describe an autonomous control concept for generic SRPS designs. The formulation of an autonomous control concept, which includes identification of high-level functional requirements and generation of a research and development plan for enabling technologies, is among the technical activities that are being conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy's Space Reactor Technology Program in support of the NASA's Project Prometheus. The findings from this program are intended to contribute to the successful realization of the JIMO mission

  20. The Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscope with open sample space observes dynamic phenomena in liquid or gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Mitsuo; Nishiyama, Hidetoshi; Konyuba, Yuji; Iwamatsu, Shinnosuke; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Yoshiura, Chie; Ueda, Takumi; Sato, Chikara

    2011-12-01

    Although conventional electron microscopy (EM) requires samples to be in vacuum, most chemical and physical reactions occur in liquid or gas. The Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscope (ASEM) can observe dynamic phenomena in liquid or gas under atmospheric pressure in real time. An electron-permeable window made of pressure-resistant 100 nm-thick silicon nitride (SiN) film, set into the bottom of the open ASEM sample dish, allows an electron beam to be projected from underneath the sample. A detector positioned below captures backscattered electrons. Using the ASEM, we observed the radiation-induced self-organization process of particles, as well as phenomena accompanying volume change, including evaporation-induced crystallization. Using the electrochemical ASEM dish, we observed tree-like electrochemical depositions on the cathode. In silver nitrate solution, we observed silver depositions near the cathode forming incidental internal voids. The heated ASEM dish allowed observation of patterns of contrast in melting and solidifying solder. Finally, to demonstrate its applicability for monitoring and control of industrial processes, silver paste and solder paste were examined at high throughput. High resolution, imaging speed, flexibility, adaptability, and ease of use facilitate the observation of previously difficult-to-image phenomena, and make the ASEM applicable to various fields. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Energy efficient window opening for air quality control in classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faria Da Silva, Nuno Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    of naturally and mechanically ventilated classrooms during normal school hours with and without CO2 sensors that provided a green/yellow/red visual indication. At the end of each week children reported their perceptions and symptoms using a questionnaire. The classroom temperature, humidity and CO2 levels were......The aim of the present work was to study how to maximize indoor environmental quality and energy performance in classrooms, when having different ventilation alternatives combined with a visual CO2 feedback. In this effort, in heating and cooling seasons, field experiments were carried out in pairs...... continuously measured together with the outdoor conditions. Magnetic sensors recorded opening of windows and classrooms energy usage was recorded by the meters installed on water-based radiators. An energy simulation model was created in IDA-ICE-4 to reproduce and compare energy demands...

  2. Resonator reset in circuit QED by optimal control for large open quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Samuel; Andersen, Christian Kraglund; Venkatraman, Jayameenakshi; Ferris, Andrew J.; Blais, Alexandre

    2017-10-01

    We study an implementation of the open GRAPE (gradient ascent pulse engineering) algorithm well suited for large open quantum systems. While typical implementations of optimal control algorithms for open quantum systems rely on explicit matrix exponential calculations, our implementation avoids these operations, leading to a polynomial speedup of the open GRAPE algorithm in cases of interest. This speedup, as well as the reduced memory requirements of our implementation, are illustrated by comparison to a standard implementation of open GRAPE. As a practical example, we apply this open-system optimization method to active reset of a readout resonator in circuit QED. In this problem, the shape of a microwave pulse is optimized such as to empty the cavity from measurement photons as fast as possible. Using our open GRAPE implementation, we obtain pulse shapes, leading to a reset time over 4 times faster than passive reset.

  3. Integration of advanced teleoperation technologies for control of space robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagnaro, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    Teleoperated robots require one or more humans to control actuators, mechanisms, and other robot equipment given feedback from onboard sensors. To accomplish this task, the human or humans require some form of control station. Desirable features of such a control station include operation by a single human, comfort, and natural human interfaces (visual, audio, motion, tactile, etc.). These interfaces should work to maximize performance of the human/robot system by streamlining the link between human brain and robot equipment. This paper describes development of a control station testbed with the characteristics described above. Initially, this testbed will be used to control two teleoperated robots. Features of the robots include anthropomorphic mechanisms, slaving to the testbed, and delivery of sensory feedback to the testbed. The testbed will make use of technologies such as helmet mounted displays, voice recognition, and exoskeleton masters. It will allow tor integration and testing of emerging telepresence technologies along with techniques for coping with control link time delays. Systems developed from this testbed could be applied to ground control of space based robots. During man-tended operations, the Space Station Freedom may benefit from ground control of IVA or EVA robots with science or maintenance tasks. Planetary exploration may also find advanced teleoperation systems to be very useful.

  4. Contamination control research activities for space optics in JAXA RANDD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Y.

    2017-11-01

    Contamination control research activities for space optics projects in JAXA R&D are described. More accurate contamination control techniques are requested because of intensified recent science mission requirements. One approach to control the contamination effects is analysis by software. JAXA has been developing a contamination analytical tool "J-SPICE" (Japanese Spacecraft Induced Contamination analysis software) as well as experiment facilities to improve the J-SPICE. A reflection model in J-SPICE has been experimentally verified and outgassing model data has been acquired by a facility. JAXA has developed a facility which could determine the influence of the contamination at a specific wavelength by combining a vacuum chamber with an I-R spectrometer and performed an experiment to inspect the effect of baking. Space material exposure experiment results reveal the actual thickness of the contamination layer in ISS orbit.

  5. Development of magnetostrictive active members for control of space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bruce G.; Avakian, Kevin M.; Fenn, Ralph C.; Gaffney, Monique S.; Gerver, Michael J.; Hawkey, Timothy J.; Boudreau, Donald J.

    1992-08-01

    The goal of this Phase 2 Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) project was to determine the technical feasibility of developing magnetostrictive active members for use as truss elements in space structures. Active members control elastic vibrations of truss-based space structures and integrate the functions of truss structure element, actively controlled actuator, and sensor. The active members must control structural motion to the sub-micron level and, for many proposed space applications, work at cryogenic temperatures. Under this program both room temperature and cryogenic temperature magnetostrictive active members were designed, fabricated, and tested. The results of these performance tests indicated that room temperature magnetostrictive actuators feature higher strain, stiffness, and force capability with lower amplifier requirements than similarly sized piezoelectric or electrostrictive active members, at the cost of higher mass. Two different cryogenic temperature magnetostrictive materials were tested at liquid nitrogen temperatures, both with larger strain capability than the room temperature magnetostrictive materials. The cryogenic active member development included the design and fabrication of a cryostat that allows operation of the cryogenic active member in a space structure testbed.

  6. NFL Films music scoring stage and control room space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Russ; Schrag, Richard C.; Ridings, Jason J.

    2003-04-01

    NFL Films' new 200,000 sq. ft. corporate headquarters is home to an orchestral scoring stage used to record custom music scores to support and enhance their video productions. Part of the 90,000 sq. ft. of sound critical technical space, the music scoring stage and its associated control room are at the heart of the audio facilities. Driving the design were the owner's mandate for natural light, wood textures, and an acoustical environment that would support small rhythm sections, soloists, and a full orchestra. Being an industry leader in cutting-edge video and audio formats, the NFLF required that the technical spaces allow the latest in technology to be continually integrated into the infrastructure. Never was it more important for a project to hold true to the adage of ``designing from the inside out.'' Each audio and video space within the facility had to stand on its own with regard to user functionality, acoustical accuracy, sound isolation, noise control, and monitor presentation. A detailed look at the architectural and acoustical design challenges encountered and the solutions developed for the performance studio and the associated control room space will be discussed.

  7. Integrated multi-sensory control of space robot hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Kan, E. P.; Killion, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Dexterous manipulation of a robot hand requires the use of multiple sensors integrated into the mechanical hand under distributed microcomputer control. Where space applications such as construction, assembly, servicing and repair tasks are desired of smart robot arms and robot hands, several critical drives influence the design, engineering and integration of such an electromechanical hand. This paper describes a smart robot hand developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for experimental use and evaluation with the Protoflight Manipulator Arm (PFMA) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  8. Moving targets: Promoting physical activity in public spaces via open streets in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, J Aaron; Bird, Alyssa; van Bakergem, Margaret; Yarnall, Elizabeth

    2017-10-01

    Popularity of Open Streets, temporarily opening streets to communities and closing streets to vehicles, in the US has recently surged. As of January 2016, 122 cities have hosted an Open Streets program. Even with this great expansion, the sustainability of Open Streets remains a challenge in many cities and overall Open Streets in the US differ from their successful counterparts in Central and South America. Between summer 2015 and winter 2016, we reviewed the websites and social media of the 122 identified programs and interviewed 32 unique Open Streets programs. Websites and social media were reviewed for program initiation, number of Open Streets days, length of routes, duration of program, and reported participation. Interview questions focused on barriers and facilitators of expanding Open Streets and specific questioning regarding local evaluation activities. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed with constant comparative methodology. Over three-quarters of US Open Streets programs have been initiated since 2010, with median frequency of one time per year, 4h per date, and 5000-9999 participants. Seventy-seven percent of program routes are under 5km in length. Success of programs was measured by enthusiasm, attendance, social media, survey metrics, and sustainability. Thirteen of 32 program organizers expressed interest in expanding their programs to 12 dates per year, but noted consistent barriers to expansion including funding, permitting, and branding. Though many cities now host Open Streets programs, their ability to effect public health remains limited with few program dates per year. Coordinated efforts, especially around funding, permitting, and branding may assist in expanding program dates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Expose-R experiment on effects of open space condition on survivorship in dormant stages of aquatic invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, Victor; Novikova, Nataliya; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Yusoff, Fatimah; Azuraidi, Osman

    2012-07-01

    Dormancy protects animals and plants in harsh environmental conditions from months up to hundred years. This phenomenon is perspective for space researches especially for interplanetary missions. Direct experiments in open space BYORYSK supported in principle the fact of survivorship of bacteria, fungi spores, seed of plants and crustacean dormant cysts. Even though the rate of survivorship in long-term treatments was low but good enough to conclude that biological invasion even to Mars is a real danger. As soon as the BYORYSK lunch was made of metal the possibility for resting stages to survive under UV treatment in vacuum without some protection was not clear. To test it an ESA and RSA equipment titled EXPOSE-R was applied. The EXPOSE-R facility was an external facility attached to the outside of the Zvezda Service Module in ISS in the end of November 2008. It had glace windows transparent for UV-radiation and possibility to measure temperature, space- and UV-radiation. Among a number of experiments requiring exposure to the open space environment it had a biological launch containing resting stages of terrestrial and aquatic organisms. These stages included dried ephippia of cladoceran Daphnia magna differentiated on size, dormant eggs of ostracode Eucypris ornate, cysts of fair-shrimp Streptocephalus torvicornis ( all from hemi desert Caspian area) and Artemis salina from salt lake Crimean populations. All dormant stages were kept in transparent to UV plastic bags placed in three layers. After about two years of exposing in open space dormant stages of 3 species A. salina, D. magna, S. torvicornis successfully survived at different scales but in second and third layers only . The highest level of survivorship was found in A. salina cysts. In preliminary land experiments that imitated land EXPOSE imitation of outside space station UV and vacuum conditions survivorship in resting eggs of D .magna, S. torvicornis and E. ornate was tested also. The total UV dose of

  10. Control of free-flying space robot manipulator systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Control techniques for self-contained, autonomous free-flying space robots are being tested and developed. Free-flying space robots are envisioned as a key element of any successful long term presence in space. These robots must be capable of performing the assembly, maintenance, and inspection, and repair tasks that currently require astronaut extra-vehicular activity (EVA). Use of robots will provide economic savings as well as improved astronaut safety by reducing and in many cases, eliminating the need for human EVA. The focus of the work is to develop and carry out a set of research projects using laboratory models of satellite robots. These devices use air-cushion-vehicle (ACV) technology to simulate in two dimensions the drag-free, zero-g conditions of space. Current work is divided into six major projects or research areas. Fixed-base cooperative manipulation work represents our initial entry into multiple arm cooperation and high-level control with a sophisticated user interface. The floating-base cooperative manipulation project strives to transfer some of the technologies developed in the fixed-base work onto a floating base. The global control and navigation experiment seeks to demonstrate simultaneous control of the robot manipulators and the robot base position so that tasks can be accomplished while the base is undergoing a controlled motion. The multiple-vehicle cooperation project's goal is to demonstrate multiple free-floating robots working in teams to carry out tasks too difficult or complex for a single robot to perform. The Location Enhancement Arm Push-off (LEAP) activity's goal is to provide a viable alternative to expendable gas thrusters for vehicle propulsion wherein the robot uses its manipulators to throw itself from place to place. Because the successful execution of the LEAP technique requires an accurate model of the robot and payload mass properties, it was deemed an attractive testbed for adaptive control technology.

  11. Morphological Control: A Design Principal for Applications in Space Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füchslin, R. M.; Dumont, E.; Flumini, D.; Fuchs, H. U.; Hauser, H.; Jaeger, C.; Scheidegger, S.; Schönenberger-Deuel, J.; Lichtensteiger, L.; Luchsinger, R.; Weyland, M.

    Designing robots for applications in space flight requires a different prioritization of design criteria than for systems operating on Earth. In this article, we argue that the field of soft robotics offers novel approaches meeting the specific requirements of space flight. We present one especially promising construction principle, so called Tensairity, in some detail. Tensairity, as the name suggests, takes ideas from Tensegrity, but uses inflatable structures instead of cables and struts. Soft robots pose substantial challenges with respect to control. One way to meet these challenges is given by the concept of morphological computation and control. Morphological computation can be loosely defined as the exploitation of the shape, material properties, and dynamics of a physical system to improve the efficiency of computation and to deal with systems for which it is difficult to construct a virtual representation using a kinematic model. We discuss fundamental aspects of morphological control and their relevance for space flight. Besides low weight, small consumption of space in the inactive state and advantageous properties with respect to intrinsic safety and energy consumption, we discuss how the blurring of the discrimination of hard- and software leads to control strategies that require only very little and very simple electronic circuitry (which is beneficial in an environment with high irradiation). Finally, we present a research strategy that bundles activities in space flight with research and development in medicine, especially for support systems for an aging population, that are faced with similar morphological computing challenges to astronauts. Such a combination meets the demands for research that is not only effective, but also efficient with respect to economic resources.

  12. Deep Space Control Challenges of the New Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, David S.; Burdick, Garry M.

    1999-01-01

    The exploration of deep space presents a variety of significant control challenges. Long communication delays coupled with challenging new science objectives require high levels of system autonomy and increasingly demanding pointing and control capabilities. Historically, missions based on the use of a large single spacecraft have been successful and popular since the early days of NASA. However, these large spacecraft missions are currently being displaced by more frequent and more focused missions based on the use of smaller and less expensive spacecraft designs. This trend drives the need to design smart software and good algorithms which together with the miniaturization of control components will improve performance while replacing the heavier and more expensive hardware used in the past. NASA's future space exploration will also include mission types that have never been attempted before, posing significant challenges to the underlying control system. This includes controlled landing on small bodies (e.g., asteroids and comets), sample return missions (where samples are brought back from other planets), robotic exploration of planetary surfaces (e.g., intelligent rovers), high precision formation flying, and deep space optical interferometry, While the control of planetary spacecraft for traditional flyby and orbiter missions are based on well-understood methodologies, control approaches for many future missions will be fundamentally different. This paradigm shift will require completely new control system development approaches, system architectures, and much greater levels of system autonomy to meet expected performance in the presence of significant environmental disturbances, and plant uncertainties. This paper will trace the motivation for these changes and will layout the approach taken to meet the new challenges. Emerging missions will be used to explain and illustrate the need for these changes.

  13. Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Test Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Darlene

    1989-01-01

    Different aspects of Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) testing are currently taking place at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Unique to this testing is the variety of test areas and the fact that all are located in one building. The north high bay of building 4755, the Core Module Integration Facility (CMIF), contains the following test areas: the Subsystem Test Area, the Comparative Test Area, the Process Material Management System (PMMS), the Core Module Simulator (CMS), the End-use Equipment Facility (EEF), and the Pre-development Operational System Test (POST) Area. This paper addresses the facility that supports these test areas and briefly describes the testing in each area. Future plans for the building and Space Station module configurations will also be discussed.

  14. The Model-Driven openETCS Paradigm for Secure, Safe and Certifiable Train Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peleska, Jan; Feuser, Johannes; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    -driven openETCS approach, a threat analysis is performed, identifying both safety and security hazards that may be common to all model-based development paradigms for safety-critical railway control systems, or specific to the openETCS approach. In the subsequent sections state-of-the-art methods suitable...

  15. Expert Opinion versus Transaction Evidence: Using the Reilly Index to Measure Open Space premiums in the Urban-Rural Fringe

    OpenAIRE

    Geerte Cotteleer; Tracy Stobbe; G. Cornelis van Kooten

    2008-01-01

    Due to economic and population growth farmland and to a lesser extend other undeveloped areas are under pressure in the urban-rural fringe in British Columbia, Canada. The objectives of this paper are to determine if residential property values near Victoria, BC include open-space premiums for farmland, parks or golf courses, and to determine if using assessed values instead of market prices of the property result in the same findings. We estimate a Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) model ...

  16. Noise and Sound Control in Open Plan Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Ben

    This annotated bibliography includes summaries of 19 articles and reports dealing with noise control and acoustical design in school buildings. A brief introduction discusses the need for careful attention to acoustics in any school construction or remodeling project, with particular emphasis on the need for special acoustical measures in an open…

  17. Control of open end plasma flow utilizing orbital stochasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojo, Hitoshi

    1995-01-01

    It has been known that the control of plasma outside the confinement region of diverter plasma and others in a magnetic field confinement device is very important for improveing the confinement of bulk plasma. The control of plasma outside a confinement region bears two roles, one is the reduction of the thermal load on a diverter plate and others due to the plasma particles lost from the confinement region, and another is the restriction of the back flow of cold plasma and impurities generated outside the confinement region to a bulk plasma region. In this study, the new method of controlling plasma outside a confinement region called magnetic diverter is considered. To the plasma particles advancing along magnetic force lines, the reflection and capture of the plasma particles occur in the region of orbital stochasticity, and the thermal load on an end plate and the reverse flow to a bulk plasma region are restricted. The numerical computation model used regarding the particle control utilizing the orbital stochasticity and the results of calculating the orbit of plasma particles in a magnetic field are reported. (K.I.)

  18. Comment on 'Relation between space charge limited current and power loss in open drift tubes' [Phys. Plasmas 13, 073101 (2006)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanekamp, S. B.; Schumer, J. W.

    2007-01-01

    In Phys Plasmas 13, 073101 (2006), the drop in the space-charge-limited (SCL) current for a beam injected into a space with an open boundary is analyzed with an electromagnetic particle-in-cell code. The authors explained the power loss observed at the open boundary as the loss of electromagnetic radiation created from the deceleration of electrons in the gap, and they developed an effective voltage theory to predict the drop in the SCL current observed in the simulations. In this Comment, we show that, provided the current remains below the SCL value, the electric and magnetic fields are constant in time so that power loss from the open boundary is a dc phenomenon with no rf power leaving through the boundary. We show that the electric and magnetic fields are static in time and static fields DO NOT RADIATE. Instead, the electron beam charges the collector plate, which causes a real electrostatic electric field to develop. The electron energy loss is not due to radiation but rather to the work done by this electrostatic field on the electrons as they move across the gap. This is precisely the energy dissipated in the matched resistance across the open boundary, which is a consequence of the boundary condition. Furthermore, since a real electrostatic potential develops, the voltage drop is real and there is no need to call the voltage drop an effective voltage

  19. A platform for dynamic simulation and control of movement based on OpenSim and MATLAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Misagh; Reinbolt, Jeffrey A

    2012-05-11

    Numerical simulations play an important role in solving complex engineering problems and have the potential to revolutionize medical decision making and treatment strategies. In this paper, we combine the rapid model-based design, control systems and powerful numerical method strengths of MATLAB/Simulink with the simulation and human movement dynamics strengths of OpenSim by developing a new interface between the two software tools. OpenSim is integrated with Simulink using the MATLAB S-function mechanism, and the interface is demonstrated using both open-loop and closed-loop control systems. While the open-loop system uses MATLAB/Simulink to separately reproduce the OpenSim Forward Dynamics Tool, the closed-loop system adds the unique feature of feedback control to OpenSim, which is necessary for most human movement simulations. An arm model example was successfully used in both open-loop and closed-loop cases. For the open-loop case, the simulation reproduced results from the OpenSim Forward Dynamics Tool with root mean square (RMS) differences of 0.03° for the shoulder elevation angle and 0.06° for the elbow flexion angle. MATLAB's variable step-size integrator reduced the time required to generate the forward dynamic simulation from 7.1s (OpenSim) to 2.9s (MATLAB). For the closed-loop case, a proportional-integral-derivative controller was used to successfully balance a pole on model's hand despite random force disturbances on the pole. The new interface presented here not only integrates the OpenSim and MATLAB/Simulink software tools, but also will allow neuroscientists, physiologists, biomechanists, and physical therapists to adapt and generate new solutions as treatments for musculoskeletal conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimizing grade-control drillhole spacing with conditional simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Martínez-Vargas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes a method to determine the optimum spacing of grade-control drillholes drilled with reverse-circulation. The optimum drillhole spacing was defined as that one whose cost equals the cost of misclassifying ore and waste in selection mining units (SMU. The cost of misclassification of a given drillhole spacing is equal to the cost of processing waste misclassified as ore (Type I error plus the value of the ore misclassified as waste (Type II error. Type I and Type II errors were deduced by comparing true and estimated grades at SMUs, in relation to a cuttoff grade value and assuming free ore selection. True grades at SMUs and grades at drillhole samples were generated with conditional simulations. A set of estimated grades at SMU, one per each drillhole spacing, were generated with ordinary kriging. This method was used to determine the optimum drillhole spacing in a gold deposit. The results showed that the cost of misclassification is sensitive to extreme block values and tend to be overrepresented. Capping SMU’s lost values and implementing diggability constraints was recommended to improve calculations of total misclassification costs.

  1. Learning Competences in Open Mobile Environments: A Comparative Analysis Between Formal and Non-Formal Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dominguez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the increasing use of mobile devices in education, new approaches to define the learning competences in the field of digitally mediated learning have emerged. This paper examines these approaches, using data obtained from empirical research with a group of Spanish university students. The analysis is focused on the experiences of students in the use of mobile devices in both formal and open-informal educational contexts. The theoretical framework of the study is based on the ecological focus applied to explanatory models of digital literacy. As a result of the data it is possible to study this framework in depth, taking into account the theories defending an open view of digital literacy. The study may be of interest to instructional designers and researchers in the fields of open educational resources and technologies applied to education in open contexts.

  2. Galerkin approximations of nonlinear optimal control problems in Hilbert spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickael D. Chekroun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear optimal control problems in Hilbert spaces are considered for which we derive approximation theorems for Galerkin approximations. Approximation theorems are available in the literature. The originality of our approach relies on the identification of a set of natural assumptions that allows us to deal with a broad class of nonlinear evolution equations and cost functionals for which we derive convergence of the value functions associated with the optimal control problem of the Galerkin approximations. This convergence result holds for a broad class of nonlinear control strategies as well. In particular, we show that the framework applies to the optimal control of semilinear heat equations posed on a general compact manifold without boundary. The framework is then shown to apply to geoengineering and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions formulated here in terms of optimal control of energy balance climate models posed on the sphere $\\mathbb{S}^2$.

  3. A Survey of Open-Source UAV Flight Controllers and Flight Simulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebeid, Emad Samuel Malki; Skriver, Martin; Terkildsen, Kristian Husum

    2018-01-01

    , which are all tightly linked to the UAV flight controller hardware and software. The lack of standardization of flight controller architectures and the use of proprietary closed-source flight controllers on many UAV platforms, however, complicates this work: solutions developed for one flight controller...... may be difficult to port to another without substantial extra development and testing. Using open-source flight controllers mitigates some of these challenges and enables other researchers to validate and build upon existing research. This paper presents a survey of the publicly available open...

  4. Level of Abstraction and Feelings of Presence in Virtual Space: Business English Negotiation in Open Wonderland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Judy F.; Warden, Clyde A.; Tai, David Wen-Shung; Chen, Farn-Shing; Chao, Chich-Yang

    2011-01-01

    Virtual spaces allow abstract representations of reality that not only encourage student self-directed learning but also reinforce core content of the learning objective through visual metaphors not reproducible in the physical world. One of the advantages of such a space is the ability to escape the restrictions of the physical classroom, yet…

  5. OpenAnalogInput(): Hybrid Spaces, Self-Making and Power in the Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Fernanda da Costa Portugal

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation investigates how the emergence of the Internet of Things and the embeddedness of sensors and networked connectivity onto things, physical spaces and biological bodies rearticulates embodied spaces, devises practices of self-making and forms of power in the governance of the self and society. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).…

  6. The opening up of hospitality spaces to difference : exploring the nature of home exchange experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grit, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    It can be argued that many potentialities within society are left unused by organising hospitality venues based on modern planning practices. These planning practises regard the setting as a rational space which is predictable and manageable. By applying modern management principles to spaces of

  7. Variable versus conventional lung protective mechanical ventilation during open abdominal surgery (PROVAR): a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spieth, P. M.; Güldner, A.; Uhlig, C.; Bluth, T.; Kiss, T.; Conrad, C.; Bischlager, K.; Braune, A.; Huhle, R.; Insorsi, A.; Tarantino, F.; Ball, L.; Schultz, M. J.; Abolmaali, N.; Koch, T.; Pelosi, P.; Gama de Abreu, M.

    2018-01-01

    Experimental studies showed that controlled variable ventilation (CVV) yielded better pulmonary function compared to non-variable ventilation (CNV) in injured lungs. We hypothesized that CVV improves intraoperative and postoperative respiratory function in patients undergoing open abdominal surgery.

  8. Effectiveness of adenoidectomy in children with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections: open randomised controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardweg, M.T. van den; Boonacker, C.W.; Rovers, M.M.; Hoes, A.W.; Schilder, A.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of adenoidectomy in children with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections. DESIGN: Open randomised controlled trial. SETTING: 11 general hospitals and two academic centres. PARTICIPANTS: 111 children aged 1-6 with recurrent upper respiratory tract

  9. Automated space vehicle control for rendezvous proximity operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Robert N.

    1988-01-01

    Rendezvous during the unmanned space exploration missions, such as a Mars Rover/Sample Return will require a completely automatic system from liftoff to docking. A conceptual design of an automated rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking system is being implemented and validated at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). The emphasis is on the progress of the development and testing of a prototype system for control of the rendezvous vehicle during proximity operations that is currently being developed at JSC. Fuzzy sets are used to model the human capability of common sense reasoning in decision making tasks and such models are integrated with the expert systems and engineering control system technology to create a system that performs comparably to a manned system.

  10. Responsive micellar films of amphiphilic block copolymer micelles: control on micelle opening and closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiquan; He, Changcheng; Li, Fengbin; Tong, Ling; Liao, Xingzhi; Wang, Yong

    2010-06-01

    We reported the deliberate control on the micelle opening and closing of amphiphilic polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) micellar films by exposing them to selective solvents. We first treated the micellar films with polar solvents including ethanol and water (pH = 4, 8, and 12) that have different affinities to P2VP. We observed opening of the micelles in all the cases. Both the size of opened pores and the opening rate are dependent on the solvency of different solvents for P2VP. We then explored the closing behavior of the opened micelles using solvents having different affinities to PS. We found that the opened micelles were recovered to their initial closed micelle forms. The recovery was accompanied by a slow micelle disassociation process which gradually reduced the micelle size. The rates of the micelle closing and disassociation are also dependent on the solvency of different solvents for PS.

  11. The return of "Gasoline station-park" status into green-open space in DKI Jakarta Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautsar, L. H. R.; Waryono, T.; Sobirin

    2017-07-01

    The development of gasoline stations in 1970 increased drastically due to the Government support through DKT Jaya Official Note (DKT Jakarta), resulting in a great number of the parks (green open space or RTH - Ruang Terbuka Hijau) converted into a gasoline station. Currently, to meet the RTH target (13.94 % RTH based RTRW [(Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah) DKT Jakarta 2010], the policy was changed by Decree No.728 year 2009 and Governor Tnstruction No.75 year 2009. Land function of 27 gasoline stations unit must be returned. This study is to determine the appropriateness of gasoline Station-Park conversion into RTH based site and situation approach. The scope of this study was limited only to gasoline stations not converted into RTH. The methodology was the combination of AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) and ranking method. Site variables were meant for prone to flooding, the width of land for gasoline station, land status. Situation variables were meant for other public space, availability of other gasoline stations, gasoline stations service, road segments, and the proportions of built space. Analysis study used quantitative descriptive analysis. The results were three of the five gasoline stations were congruence to be converted into a green open space (RTH).

  12. Procedures adopted by orthodontists for space closure and anchorage control

    OpenAIRE

    Monini,André da Costa; Gandini Júnior,Luiz Gonzaga; Santos-Pinto,Ary dos; Maia,Luiz Guilherme Martins; Rodrigues,Willian Caetano

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the procedures adopted by Brazilian orthodontists in the following situations: extraction space closure, anchorage control in case of necessary anchorage for group A and frequency of skeletal anchorage use, especially in the upper jaw. METHOD: A questionnaire was sent to the e-mail address of all dentists registered in the Brazilian Federal Council of Dentistry. RESULTS: The results showed that most Brazilian orthodontists usually perform extra...

  13. Automatic generation control of TCPS based hydrothermal system under open market scenario: A fuzzy logic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, C. Srinivasa [EEE Department, G. Pulla Reddy Engineering College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh (India); Nagaraju, S. Siva [EEE Department, J.N.T.U College of Engg., Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh (India); Raju, P. Sangameswara [EEE Department, S.V. University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2009-09-15

    This paper presents the analysis of automatic generation control of a two-area interconnected thyristor controlled phase shifter based hydrothermal system in the continuous mode using fuzzy logic controller under open market scenario. Open transmission access and the evolving of more socialized companies for generation, transmission and distribution affects the formulation of AGC problem. So the traditional AGC two-area system is modified to take into account the effect of bilateral contracts on the dynamics. It is possible to stabilize the system frequency and tie-power oscillations by controlling the phase angle of TCPS which is expected to provide a new ancillary service for the future power systems. A control strategy using TCPS is proposed to provide active control of system frequency. Further dynamic responses for small perturbation considering fuzzy logic controller and PI controller (dual mode controller) have been observed and the superior performance of fuzzy logic controller has been reported analytically and also through simulation. (author)

  14. Individual dynamic lighting control in a daylit space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadóttir, Asta; Christoffersen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    in combination with daylight. Subjects performed office work for one day in a simulated office environment. Every 30 minutes the subjects were invited to use the dimmer controls to change the lighting conditions to their preferred level. Measurements were made of illuminance, luminance, CCT and energy use......The objectives of the study are to observe individual preferences for dynamic lighting, individual control and possibly achieve energy savings in a daylit space. The dynamics in this study are modifications of light level and correlated colour temperature (CCT) from the electric lighting system...

  15. Steering the dynamics within reduced space through quantum learning control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Sik

    2003-01-01

    In quantum dynamics of many-body systems, to identify the Hamiltonian becomes more difficult very rapidly as the number of degrees of freedom increases. In order to simplify the dynamics and to deduce dynamically relevant Hamiltonian information, it is desirable to control the dynamics to lie within a reduced space. With a judicious choice for the cost functional, the closed loop optimal control experiments can be manipulated efficiently to steer the dynamics to lie within a subspace of the system eigenstates without requiring any prior detailed knowledge about the system Hamiltonian. The procedure is simulated for optimally controlled population transfer experiments in the system of two degrees of freedom. To show the feasibility of steering the dynamics to lie in a specified subspace, the learning algorithms guiding the dynamics are presented along with frequency filtering. The results demonstrate that the optimal control fields derive the system to the desired target state through the desired subspace

  16. Survey of orbital dynamics and control of space rendezvous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Yazhong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rendezvous orbital dynamics and control (RODC is a key technology for operating space rendezvous and docking missions. This paper surveys the studies on RODC. Firstly, the basic relative dynamics equation set is introduced and its improved versions are evaluated. Secondly, studies on rendezvous trajectory optimization are commented from three aspects: the linear rendezvous, the nonlinear two-body rendezvous, and the perturbed and constrained rendezvous. Thirdly, studies on relative navigation are briefly reviewed, and then close-range control methods including automated control, manual control, and telecontrol are analyzed. Fourthly, advances in rendezvous trajectory safety and robust analysis are surveyed, and their applications in trajectory optimization are discussed. Finally, conclusions are drawn and prospects of studies on RODC are presented.

  17. Residence space/graphic space: engravings in the open air in the municipality of La Hinojosa (Cuenca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bueno Ramírez, Primitiva

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The work that now we present is based on the analysis of graphic designs, their location and their relationship to the environment, in the municipality of La Hinojosa Cuenca, a place where we have well documented occupations of the Copper and Bronze Ages. Our aim is to understand these engravings as part of the expressions of peninsular Schematic Art, in this case associated with an occupational context, and to provide elements for the comprehension of its message in a broader context that includes occupational contexts for other open aire engravings in the Iberian Peninsula.

    El trabajo que ahora presentamos se basa en el análisis de las grafías, su ubicación en el soporte y su relación con el entorno, en una zona concreta, el término de La Hinojosa, en Cuenca, lugar en el que tenemos bien documentadas ocupaciones calcolíticas y de la Edad del Bronce. Nuestra propuesta es la de comprender dichos grabados como una parte de las expresiones del Arte Esquemático peninsular, en este caso asociadas a un contexto habitacional y, a partir de ahí, aportar elementos para la comprensión de su "mensaje" desde una perspectiva más amplia que incluye otros contextos habitacionales para conjuntos de grabados al aire libre en la Península Ibérica.

  18. The Effect of Operating Temperature on Open, Multimegawatt Space Power Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edenburn, Michael

    1988-01-01

    .... Both systems will provide power to space-based antiballistic missile weapons that require hydrogen for cooling, and both use this hydrogen coolant as a working fluid or as a fuel for power generation...

  19. Controlling criteria for radiation exposure of astronauts and space workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Kazuaki

    1989-01-01

    Space workers likely to suffer from radiation exposure in the outer space are currently limited to the U.S. and Soviet Union, and only a small amount of data and information is available concerning the techniques and criteria for control of radiation exposure in this field. Criteria used in the Soviet Union are described first. The criteria (TRS-75), called the Radiation Safety Criteria for Space Navigation, are tentative ones set up in 1975. They are based on risk assessment. The standard radiation levels are established based on unit flight time: 50rem for 1 month, 80rem for 3 months, 110rem for 6 months and 150rem for 12 months. These are largely different from the emergency exposure limit of 100mSv (10rem) specified in a Japanese law, and the standard annual exposure value of 50mSv (5rem) for workers in nuclear power plants at normal times. For the U.S., J.A. Angelo, Jr., presented a paper titled 'Radiation Protection Issues and Techniques concerning Extended Manned Space Missions' at an IAEA meeting held in 1988. Though the criteria shown in the paper are not formal ones at the national level, similar criteria are expected to be adopted by the nation in the near future. The exposure limits recommended in the paper include a depth dose of 1-4Sv for the whole life span of a worker. (Nogami, K.)

  20. Generalized space vector control for current source inverters and rectifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseline J. Anitha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Current source inverters (CSI is one of the widely used converter topology in medium voltage drive applications due to its simplicity, motor friendly waveforms and reliable short circuit protection. The current source inverters are usually fed by controlled current source rectifiers (CSR with a large inductor to provide a constant supply current. A generalized control applicable for both CSI and CSR and their extension namely current source multilevel inverters (CSMLI are dealt in this paper. As space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM features the advantages of flexible control, faster dynamic response, better DC utilization and easy digital implementation it is considered for this work. This paper generalizes SVPWM that could be applied for CSI, CSR and CSMLI. The intense computation involved in framing a generalized space vector control are discussed in detail. The algorithm includes determination of band, region, subregions and vectors. The algorithm is validated by simulation using MATLAB /SIMULINK for CSR 5, 7, 13 level CSMLI and for CSR fed CSI.

  1. Process Control for Precipitation Prevention in Space Water Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargusingh, Miriam; Callahan, Michael R.; Muirhead, Dean

    2015-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, rotary distillation systems have been actively pursued by NASA as one of the technologies for water recovery from wastewater primarily comprised of human urine. A specific area of interest is the prevention of the formation of solids that could clog fluid lines and damage rotating equipment. To mitigate the formation of solids, operational constraints are in place that limits such that the concentration of key precipitating ions in the wastewater brine are below the theoretical threshold. This control in effected by limiting the amount of water recovered such that the risk of reaching the precipitation threshold is within acceptable limits. The water recovery limit is based on an empirically derived worst case wastewater composition. During the batch process, water recovery is estimated by monitoring the throughput of the system. NASA Johnson Space Center is working on means of enhancing the process controls to increase water recovery. Options include more precise prediction of the precipitation threshold. To this end, JSC is developing a means of more accurately measuring the constituent of the brine and/or wastewater. Another means would be to more accurately monitor the throughput of the system. In spring of 2015, testing will be performed to test strategies for optimizing water recovery without increasing the risk of solids formation in the brine.

  2. Automated procedure execution for space vehicle autonomous control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broten, Thomas A.; Brown, David A.

    1990-01-01

    Increased operational autonomy and reduced operating costs have become critical design objectives in next-generation NASA and DoD space programs. The objective is to develop a semi-automated system for intelligent spacecraft operations support. The Spacecraft Operations and Anomaly Resolution System (SOARS) is presented as a standardized, model-based architecture for performing High-Level Tasking, Status Monitoring and automated Procedure Execution Control for a variety of spacecraft. The particular focus is on the Procedure Execution Control module. A hierarchical procedure network is proposed as the fundamental means for specifying and representing arbitrary operational procedures. A separate procedure interpreter controls automatic execution of the procedure, taking into account the current status of the spacecraft as maintained in an object-oriented spacecraft model.

  3. Visually and force controlled opening and closing of doors by means of a mobile robot arm

    OpenAIRE

    Milighetti, G.; Hoffmann, E.; Fetzner, Angelika; Kuntze, Helge-Björn

    2012-01-01

    A multi-sensory discrete-continuous control concept has been developed to realize interactive basic skills for humanoid and mobile service robots. In the upper hierarchy level a discrete task control structure enables the flexible execution of primitive skill sequences. In the lower continuous level a suitable controller is chosen with control parameters adapted to the current primitive skill. The basic skill for the frequently occurring task of unlocking and opening a door by means of a mobi...

  4. The Chrysalis Opens? Photometry from the η Carinae Hubble Space Telescope Treasury Project, 2002-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. C.; Davidson, Kris; Koppelman, M. D.

    2006-12-01

    During the past decade η Car has brightened markedly, possibly indicating a change of state. Here we summarize photometry gathered by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) as part of the HST Treasury Project on this object. Our data include Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) CCD acquisition images, Advanced Camera for Surveys HRC images in four filters, and synthetic photometry in flux-calibrated STIS spectra. The HST's spatial resolution allows us to examine the central star separate from the bright circumstellar ejecta. Its apparent brightness continued to increase briskly during 2002-2006, especially after the mid-2003 spectroscopic event. If this trend continues, the central star will soon become brighter than its ejecta, quite different from the state that existed only a few years ago. One precedent may be the rapid change observed in 1938-1953. We conjecture that the star's mass-loss rate has been decreasing throughout the past century. This research was conducted as part of the η Car Hubble Space Telescope Treasury project via grant GO-9973 from the Space Telescope Science Institute. HST is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Some of the data presented in this paper were obtained from the Multimission Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute (MAST). STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Support for MAST for non-HST data is provided by the NASA Office of Space Science via grant NAG5-7584 and by other grants and contracts.

  5. Simulating closed- and open-loop voluntary movement: a nonlinear control-systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Paul R; Jones, Richard D; Andreae, John H; Sirisena, Harsha R

    2002-11-01

    In many recent human motor control models, including feedback-error learning and adaptive model theory (AMT), feedback control is used to correct errors while an inverse model is simultaneously tuned to provide accurate feedforward control. This popular and appealing hypothesis, based on a combination of psychophysical observations and engineering considerations, predicts that once the tuning of the inverse model is complete the role of feedback control is limited to the correction of disturbances. This hypothesis was tested by looking at the open-loop behavior of the human motor system during adaptation. An experiment was carried out involving 20 normal adult subjects who learned a novel visuomotor relationship on a pursuit tracking task with a steering wheel for input. During learning, the response cursor was periodically blanked, removing all feedback about the external system (i.e., about the relationship between hand motion and response cursor motion). Open-loop behavior was not consistent with a progressive transfer from closed- to open-loop control. Our recently developed computational model of the brain--a novel nonlinear implementation of AMT--was able to reproduce the observed closed- and open-loop results. In contrast, other control-systems models exhibited only minimal feedback control following adaptation, leading to incorrect open-loop behavior. This is because our model continues to use feedback to control slow movements after adaptation is complete. This behavior enhances the internal stability of the inverse model. In summary, our computational model is currently the only motor control model able to accurately simulate the closed- and open-loop characteristics of the experimental response trajectories.

  6. Lag Synchronization Between Two Coupled Networks via Open-Plus-Closed-Loop and Adaptive Controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong-Chun Hu; Yong-Qing Wu; Shi-Xing Li

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study lag synchronization between two coupled networks and apply two types of control schemes, including the open-plus-closed-loop (OPCL) and adaptive controls. We then design the corresponding control algorithms according to the OPCL and adaptive feedback schemes. With the designed controllers, we obtain two theorems on the lag synchronization based on Lyapunov stability theory and Barbalat's lemma. Finally we provide numerical examples to show the effectiveness of the obtained controllers and see that the adaptive control is stronger than the OPCL control when realizing the lag synchronization between two coupled networks with different coupling structures. (paper)

  7. Controller Design for Direct Torque Controlled Space Vector Modulated (DTC-SVM) Induction Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zelechowski, M.; Kazmierkowski, M.P.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    In this paper two different methods of PI controllers for direct torque controlled-space vector modulated induction motor drives have been studied. The first one is simple method based only on symmetric optimum criterion. The second approach takes into account the full model of induction motor in...

  8. Study on upgrade on nuclear control related open source information website

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. T.; Park, S. S.; Park, W. S.; Choi, Y. M.

    2002-01-01

    The open source information relevant to the nuclear control is regularly collected, analyzed, and published to the three web sites by the Technology Center for Nuclear Control (TCNC) of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). These web sites are world-wide, KAERI-wide, and TCNC-wide, respectively. We are to upgrade the KAERI-wide website to the access-controlled world-wide web site with some additional functionality. In this research, the current status of the three nuclear control related open source information websites managed by the TCNC was introduced and methods for upgrading the KAERI-wide open source information website and associated information security technology were reviewed

  9. Importance of open (green) spaces in the polluted Ruhr and the resultant consequences for land use planning in the Ruhr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froriep, S

    1972-01-01

    The Siedlungsverband Ruhrkohlenbezirk (SVR) is a regional association formed in 1920, which covers the fourth largest conurbation in the world. At the present time, over 5 1/2 million people live in it, on an area of nearly 4600 sq km, i.e. almost 10% of the population of the Federal Republic on 2% of its area (225 inhabitants per sq km). Apart from its legal obligations in the field of land use planning, it also undertakes other important tasks in the field of landscape care and conservation. The conservation and care of the landscape inside a conurbation is an extremely important social and political problem. Here the open space policy is of special importance. Open (green) spaces help to improve the climate in the development area, to reduce temperature extremes, to restore the air, and to provide scope for recreation outside the residential areas. It is obvious that the open spaces in a conurbation, with a rising population and associated extension of civic and industrial development, are exposed to the danger of being alienated. This applies especially to forest areas. Even so, despite the considerable building activity in the last 50 years, the forest has been maintained so that only about 10,000 ha. (out of 82,000 ha. in 1920) have been lost. The forest forms 15.5% of the total surface area of the SVR region. Every effort should be made not merely to maintain but to increase this percentage. This can be done by afforestation of marginal land, waste land, tips and spoil mounds, and other unused areas. However, a further reduction of the pollution which adversely affects the vegetation is a prerequisite for the conservation of the natural basis of life for man. Environmental hygiene must therefore be included in environmental planning.

  10. Impact of Location of the Central Activities on Development of Open Public Space in the City Centers of Small Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volgemut, Mateja

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas of the central activities with mixed land use are crucial for the development of city center, even in small cities. In the last decades or two the attention is drawn on the retail and service activities that are usually located outside of cities near main roads. Municipalities had already detected this problem, but they are not implementing any of the measures (Rebernik, 2010. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the central activities in small cities in Slovenia are located in freestanding buildings, which is most appropriate in terms of forming the open public space in the city center. In this research we compared ten central activities (Vrišer, 1988, 1990, Kokole, 1971 in 34 small cities. We selected only those small cities (Prosen et al, 2008 which have among other activities a county court. The results showed the differences and commonalities of the central activities in selected small cities according to the indicators. Litija, Domžale and Sevnica are small cities, where activities that could articulate open public space are located in the larger building complexes. The phenomenon is similar to a modern machine, where action in it and indirectly the insight into the functioning of the society is invisible to the observer (Kos, 2008. We found out that in these tree cities the central activities are not forming the open public spaces in front of the public buildings (Vertelj Nared, 2014. The result is problematic image of the city and changed forces of the city life.

  11. Recovery Act: Water Heater ZigBee Open Standard Wireless Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, William P. [Emerson Electric Co., St. Louis, MO (United States); Buescher, Tom [Emerson Electric Co., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2014-04-30

    The objective of Emerson's Water Heater ZigBee Open Standard Wireless Controller is to support the DOE's AARA priority for Clean, Secure Energy by designing a water heater control that levels out residential and small business peak electricity demand through thermal energy storage in the water heater tank.

  12. A new open-source Python-based Space Weather data access, visualization, and analysis toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Larquier, S.; Ribeiro, A.; Frissell, N. A.; Spaleta, J.; Kunduri, B.; Thomas, E. G.; Ruohoniemi, J.; Baker, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    Space weather research relies heavily on combining and comparing data from multiple observational platforms. Current frameworks exist to aggregate some of the data sources, most based on file downloads via web or ftp interfaces. Empirical models are mostly fortran based and lack interfaces with more useful scripting languages. In an effort to improve data and model access, the SuperDARN community has been developing a Python-based Space Science Data Visualization Toolkit (DaViTpy). At the center of this development was a redesign of how our data (from 30 years of SuperDARN radars) was made available. Several access solutions are now wrapped into one convenient Python interface which probes local directories, a new remote NoSQL database, and an FTP server to retrieve the requested data based on availability. Motivated by the efficiency of this interface and the inherent need for data from multiple instruments, we implemented similar modules for other space science datasets (POES, OMNI, Kp, AE...), and also included fundamental empirical models with Python interfaces to enhance data analysis (IRI, HWM, MSIS...). All these modules and more are gathered in a single convenient toolkit, which is collaboratively developed and distributed using Github and continues to grow. While still in its early stages, we expect this toolkit will facilitate multi-instrument space weather research and improve scientific productivity.

  13. Cultural Artifacts: Using "Sylvia and Aki" for Opening up Authoring Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Minda Morren; Ynostroza, Adeli; Fránquiz, María E.; Curiel, Lucía Cárdenas

    2015-01-01

    Classrooms of teachers who participated in Proyecto Bilingüe, a cohort-based master's degree program, used the historical novel, "Sylvia and Aki". The research question was: What spaces for authoring were created when using "Sylvia and Aki" in the figured worlds of bilingual elementary classrooms? The first theme in relation to…

  14. TCP-Call Admission Control Interaction in Multiplatform Space Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Theodoridis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of efficient call admission control (CAC algorithms is useful to prevent congestion and guarantee target quality of service (QoS. When TCP protocol is adopted, some inefficiencies can arise due to the peculiar evolution of the congestion window. The development of cross-layer techniques can greatly help to improve efficiency and flexibility for wireless networks. In this frame, the present paper addresses the introduction of TCP feedback into the CAC procedures in different nonterrestrial wireless architectures. CAC performance improvement is shown for different space-based architectures, including both satellites and high altitude platform (HAP systems.

  15. TCP-Call Admission Control Interaction in Multiplatform Space Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseti Cesare

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of efficient call admission control (CAC algorithms is useful to prevent congestion and guarantee target quality of service (QoS. When TCP protocol is adopted, some inefficiencies can arise due to the peculiar evolution of the congestion window. The development of cross-layer techniques can greatly help to improve efficiency and flexibility for wireless networks. In this frame, the present paper addresses the introduction of TCP feedback into the CAC procedures in different nonterrestrial wireless architectures. CAC performance improvement is shown for different space-based architectures, including both satellites and high altitude platform (HAP systems.

  16. Peer-to-Peer Planning for Space Mission Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro, Javier; Jones, Grailing, Jr.; Schaffer, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Planning and scheduling for space operations entails the development of applications that embed intimate domain knowledge of distinct areas of mission control, while allowing for significant collaboration among them. The separation is useful because of differences in the planning problem, solution methods, and frequencies of replanning that arise in the different disciplines. For example, planning the activities of human spaceflight crews requires some reasoning about all spacecraft resources at timescales of minutes or seconds, and is subject to considerable volatility. Detailed power planning requires managing the complex interplay of power consumption and production, involves very different classes of constraints and preferences, but once plans are generated they are relatively stable.

  17. Cardiovascular and fluid volume control in humans in space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norsk, Peter

    2005-01-01

    on this complex interaction, because it is the only way to completely abolish the effects of gravity over longer periods. Results from space have been unexpected, because astronauts exhibit a fluid and sodium retaining state with activation of the sympathetic nervous system, which subjects during simulations...... by head-down bed rest do not. Therefore, the concept as to how weightlessness affects the cardiovascular system and modulates regulation of body fluids should be revised and new simulation models developed. Knowledge as to how gravity and weightlessness modulate integrated fluid volume control...

  18. Future Market Share of Space Solar Electric Power Under Open Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. J.; Mahasenan, N.; Clarke, J. F.; Edmonds, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper assesses the value of Space Solar Power deployed under market competition with a full suite of alternative energy technologies over the 21st century. Our approach is to analyze the future energy system under a number of different scenarios that span a wide range of possible future demographic, socio-economic, and technological developments. Scenarios both with, and without, carbon dioxide concentration stabilization policies are considered. We use the comprehensive set of scenarios created for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (Nakicenovic and Swart 2000). The focus of our analysis will be the cost of electric generation. Cost is particularly important when considering electric generation since the type of generation is, from a practical point of view, largely irrelevant to the end-user. This means that different electricity generation technologies must compete on the basis of price. It is important to note, however, that even a technology that is more expensive than average can contribute to the overall generation mix due to geographical and economic heterogeneity (Clarke and Edmonds 1993). This type of competition is a central assumption of the modeling approach used here. Our analysis suggests that, under conditions of full competition of all available technologies, Space Solar Power at 7 cents per kW-hr could comprise 5-10% of global electric generation by the end of the century, with a global total generation of 10,000 TW-hr. The generation share of Space Solar Power is limited due to competition with lower-cost nuclear, biomass, and terrestrial solar PV and wind. The imposition of a carbon constraint does not significantly increase the total amount of power generated by Space Solar Power in cases where a full range of advanced electric generation technologies are also available. Potential constraints on the availability of these other electric generation options can increase the amount of

  19. Public open space characteristics influencing adolescents' use and physical activity: A systematic literature review of qualitative and quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Linde; Ghekiere, Ariane; Veitch, Jenny; Van Dyck, Delfien; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Clarys, Peter; Deforche, Benedicte

    2018-04-06

    The objective of this systematic review was to provide insight into the specific characteristics of public open spaces (POS) associated with adolescents' POS visitation and physical activity (PA). Qualitative research suggests many characteristics to be associated with POS visitation and PA. Quantitative evidence confirmed a positive association between presence of trails, playgrounds and specific types of sports fields (e.g. basketball) with POS visitation and PA, whereas safety and aesthetics seemed subordinate. Suggestions for future research, as well as some methodological recommendations are provided. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cell Culture in Microgravity: Opening the Door to Space Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellis, Neal R.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Adaptational response of human cell populations to microgravity is investigated using simulation, short-term Shuttle experiments, and long-term microgravity. Simulation consists of a clinostatically-rotated cell culture system. The system is a horizontally-rotated cylinder completely filled with culture medium. Low speed rotation results in continuous-fall of the cells through the fluid medium. In this setting, cells: 1) aggregate, 2) propagate in three dimensions, 3) synthesize matrix, 4) differentiate, and 5) form sinusoids that facilitate mass transfer. Space cell culture is conducted in flight bioreactors and in static incubators. Cells grown in microgravity are: bovine cartilage, promyelocytic leukemia, kidney proximal tubule cells, adrenal medulla, breast and colon cancer, and endothelium. Cells were cultured in space to test specific hypotheses. Cartilage cells were used to determine structural differences in cartilage grown in space compared to ground-based bioreactors. Results from a 130-day experiment on Mir revealed that cartilage grown in space was substantially more compressible due to insufficient glycosaminoglycan in the matrix. Interestingly, earth-grown cartilage conformed better to the dimensions of the scaffolding material, while the Mir specimens were spherical. The other cell populations are currently being analyzed for cell surface properties, gene expression, and differentiation. Results suggest that some cells spontaneously differentiate in microgravity. Additionally, vast changes in gene expression may occur in response to microgravity. In conclusion, the transition to microgravity may constitute a physical perturbation in cells resulting in unique gene expressions, the consequences of which may be useful in tissue engineering, disease modeling, and space cell biology.

  1. Description of the attitude control, guidance and navigation space replaceable units for automated space servicing of selected NASA missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chobotov, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    Control elements such as sensors, momentum exchange devices, and thrusters are described which can be used to define space replaceable units (SRU), in accordance with attitude control, guidance, and navigation performance requirements selected for NASA space serviceable mission spacecraft. A number of SRU's are developed, and their reliability block diagrams are presented. An SRU assignment is given in order to define a set of feasible space serviceable spacecraft for the missions of interest.

  2. ÁREAS VERDES URBANAS, ESPAÇOS LIVRES PARA O LAZER / Urban green areas, open spaces for leisure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia MAZZEI Mazzei

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The creation and the management of Conservation Units in urban areas, as in the category ofintegral protection as of sustainable use, aims to improve the quality of life of the urban citizenat the same time that it promotes an improvement in the urban environment quality, endowingthe urban space with vegetal covering and fundamental green areas to the reproduction of thenatural cycle and maintenance of the dynamic balance. In the urban environment, the differentcategories of open spaces and the indexes of green area per inhabitant intend to offer optionsto the leisure and recreation activities, besides of characterizing as strategic instruments forthe municipal planning, integrating the characteristics and the limits of the environment to theurban expansion.

  3. Experiments in teleoperator and autonomous control of space robotic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Harold L.

    1991-01-01

    A program of research embracing teleoperator and automatic navigational control of freely flying satellite robots is presented. Current research goals include: (1) developing visual operator interfaces for improved vehicle teleoperation; (2) determining the effects of different visual interface system designs on operator performance; and (3) achieving autonomous vision-based vehicle navigation and control. This research program combines virtual-environment teleoperation studies and neutral-buoyancy experiments using a space-robot simulator vehicle currently under development. Visual-interface design options under investigation include monoscopic versus stereoscopic displays and cameras, helmet-mounted versus panel-mounted display monitors, head-tracking versus fixed or manually steerable remote cameras, and the provision of vehicle-fixed visual cues, or markers, in the remote scene for improved sensing of vehicle position, orientation, and motion.

  4. Planar reorientation maneuvers of space multibody systems using internal controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyhanoglu, Mahmut; Mcclamroch, N. H.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a reorientation maneuvering strategy for an interconnection of planar rigid bodies in space is developed. It is assumed that there are no exogeneous torques, and torques generated by joint motors are used as means of control so that the total angular momentum of the multibody system is a constant, assumed to be zero in this paper. The maneuver strategy uses the nonintegrability of the expression for the angular momentum. We demonstrate that large-angle maneuvers can be designed to achieve an arbitrary reorientation of the multibody system with respect to an inertial frame. The theoretical background for carrying out the required maneuvers is briefly summarized. Specifications and computer simulations of a specific reorientation maneuver, and the corresponding control strategies, are described.

  5. Instrumentation and Controls evaluation for space nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.; Oakes, L.C.

    1984-01-01

    Design of control and protection systems should be coordinated with the design of the neutronic, thermal-hydraulic, and mechanical aspects of the core and plant at the earliest possible stage of concept development. An integrated systematic design approach is necessary to prevent uncoordinated choices in one technology area from imposing impractical or impossible requirements in another. Significant development and qualification will be required for virtually every aspect of reactor control and instrumentation. In-core instrumentation widely used in commercial light water reactors will not likely be usable in the higher temperatures of a space power plant. Thermocouples for temperature measurement and gamma thermometers for flux measurement appear to be the only viable candidates. Recent developments in ex-core neutron detectors may provide achievable alternatives to in-core measurements. Reliable electronic equipment and high-temperature actuators will require major development efforts

  6. Space Station CMIF extended duration metabolic control test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, Richard G.; Bagdigian, Robert M.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Ogle, Kathryn Y.; Wieland, Paul O.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Extended Duration Metabolic Control Test (EMCT) was conducted at the MSFC Core Module Integration Facility. The primary objective of the EMCT was to gather performance data from a partially-closed regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system functioning under steady-state conditions. Included is a description of the EMCT configuration, a summary of events, a discussion of anomalies that occurred during the test, and detailed results and analysis from individual measurements of water and gas samples taken during the test. A comparison of the physical, chemical, and microbiological methods used in the post test laboratory analyses of the water samples is included. The preprototype ECLS hardware used in the test, providing an overall process description and theory of operation for each hardware item. Analytical results pertaining to a system level mass balance and selected system power estimates are also included.

  7. Pylogeny: an open-source Python framework for phylogenetic tree reconstruction and search space heuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Safatli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Pylogeny is a cross-platform library for the Python programming language that provides an object-oriented application programming interface for phylogenetic heuristic searches. Its primary function is to permit both heuristic search and analysis of the phylogenetic tree search space, as well as to enable the design of novel algorithms to search this space. To this end, the framework supports the structural manipulation of phylogenetic trees, in particular using rearrangement operators such as NNI, SPR, and TBR, the scoring of trees using parsimony and likelihood methods, the construction of a tree search space graph, and the programmatic execution of a few existing heuristic programs. The library supports a range of common phylogenetic file formats and can be used for both nucleotide and protein data. Furthermore, it is also capable of supporting GPU likelihood calculation on nucleotide character data through the BEAGLE library.Availability. Existing development and source code is available for contribution and for download by the public from GitHub (http://github.com/AlexSafatli/Pylogeny. A stable release of this framework is available for download through PyPi (Python Package Index at http://pypi.python.org/pypi/pylogeny.

  8. Space charge calibration of the ALICE TPC operated with an open gating grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellbaer, Ernst [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany); Ivanov, Marian [GSI (Germany); Wiechula, Jens [Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main particle identification detector of the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC. High interaction rates of 50 kHz in Pb-Pb during the Run 3 period after 2020 require a major upgrade of the TPC readout. The currently used Multiwire Proportional Chambers (MWPCs) will be replaced by readout chambers (ROCs) based on Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology which will be operated in a continuous mode. While the gating grid of the MWPCs prevents the positive ions of the amplification region from entering the drift volume, the GEM-based ROCs will introduce an ion backflow (IBF) of about 1%. In combination with the high-luminosity environment, this amount of back-drifting ions results in a considerable space charge density which distorts the drift path of the primary ionisation electrons significantly. In order to still provide a high tracking efficiency and cluster-to-track association, an efficient calibration scheme will be implemented. As a test ground for the new calibration scheme, pp collision data was taken during Run 1 with the gating grid operated in a transparent mode allowing the ions to enter the drift volume. The measured space point distortions due to the space charge are presented together with the corrected data and compared to simulations for Run 3.

  9. Controlled release of agrochemicals intercalated into montmorillonite interlayer space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanyika, Harrison

    2014-01-01

    Periodic application of agrochemicals has led to high cost of production and serious environmental pollution. In this study, the ability of montmorillonite (MMT) clay to act as a controlled release carrier for model agrochemical molecules has been investigated. Urea was loaded into MMT by a simple immersion technique while loading of metalaxyl was achieved by a rotary evaporation method. The successful incorporation of the agrochemicals into the interlayer space of MMT was confirmed by several techniques, such as, significant expansion of the interlayer space, reduction of Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) pore volumes and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas, and appearance of urea and metalaxyl characteristic bands on the Fourier-transform infrared spectra of the urea loaded montmorillonite (UMMT) and metalaxyl loaded montmorillonite (RMMT) complexes. Controlled release of the trapped molecules from the matrix was done in water and in the soil. The results reveal slow and sustained release behaviour for UMMT for a period of 10 days in soil. For a period of 30 days, MMT delayed the release of metalaxyl in soil by more than 6 times. It is evident that MMT could be used to improve the efficiency of urea and metalaxyl delivery in the soil.

  10. The Space Technology-7 Disturbance Reduction System Precision Control Flight Validation Experiment Control System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, James R.; Hsu, Oscar C.; Maghami, Peirman G.; Markley, F. Landis

    2006-01-01

    As originally proposed, the Space Technology-7 Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) project, managed out of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was designed to validate technologies required for future missions such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). The two technologies to be demonstrated by DRS were Gravitational Reference Sensors (GRSs) and Colloidal MicroNewton Thrusters (CMNTs). Control algorithms being designed by the Dynamic Control System (DCS) team at the Goddard Space Flight Center would control the spacecraft so that it flew about a freely-floating GRS test mass, keeping it centered within its housing. For programmatic reasons, the GRSs were descoped from DRS. The primary goals of the new mission are to validate the performance of the CMNTs and to demonstrate precise spacecraft position control. DRS will fly as a part of the European Space Agency (ESA) LISA Pathfinder (LPF) spacecraft along with a similar ESA experiment, the LISA Technology Package (LTP). With no GRS, the DCS attitude and drag-free control systems make use of the sensor being developed by ESA as a part of the LTP. The control system is designed to maintain the spacecraft s position with respect to the test mass, to within 10 nm/the square root of Hz over the DRS science frequency band of 1 to 30 mHz.

  11. Flexible body stability analysis of Space Shuttle ascent flight control system by using lambda matrix solution techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bown, R. L.; Christofferson, A.; Lardas, M.; Flanders, H.

    1980-01-01

    A lambda matrix solution technique is being developed to perform an open loop frequency analysis of a high order dynamic system. The procedure evaluates the right and left latent vectors corresponding to the respective latent roots. The latent vectors are used to evaluate the partial fraction expansion formulation required to compute the flexible body open loop feedback gains for the Space Shuttle Digital Ascent Flight Control System. The algorithm is in the final stages of development and will be used to insure that the feedback gains meet the design specification.

  12. The Effectiveness of Building Permit Regulation for Green Open Space at Housing Estates: Case Study of Kendal Regency, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianti, Wiwik; Hadi, Sudharto P.

    2018-02-01

    Increasing demand for settlements steamed by population growth declines the quality of the environment specifically at urban area. The existing spatial planning could not able to prevent the change of land use for settlement and other infrastructures. The Act no. 26 of 2007 on spatial planning stipulates that green open space must reach 30% of the total area, consisting of 20% public open space and 10% private open space. The existing condition of urban area at Kendal Regency reach 245,6 million m2 with 88.145,5 m2 green open space or 0,036% out of total area. An effort to increase green open space in urban areas taken by the Government of Kendal Regency is by promulgating a local regulation stipulating that each housing developer request a building permit is obliged to provide a green open space at least 10 percent of the total housing area. This paper reviews the effectiveness of building permit regulation, the problems encountered and the concept proposed to make the local regulation work. The area of sample taken is three urban districts out of five urban districts, the resource persons chosen are those from relevant offices (Dinas) involved at the implementation of the local regulation. The data collection techniques employed are the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), Geographic Information System (GIS) technology, social observation and informal interview. The data gathered will be analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively.

  13. The Effectiveness of Building Permit Regulation for Green Open Space at Housing Estates: Case Study of Kendal Regency, Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulianti Wiwik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing demand for settlements steamed by population growth declines the quality of the environment specifically at urban area. The existing spatial planning could not able to prevent the change of land use for settlement and other infrastructures. The Act no. 26 of 2007 on spatial planning stipulates that green open space must reach 30% of the total area, consisting of 20% public open space and 10% private open space. The existing condition of urban area at Kendal Regency reach 245,6 million m2 with 88.145,5 m2 green open space or 0,036% out of total area. An effort to increase green open space in urban areas taken by the Government of Kendal Regency is by promulgating a local regulation stipulating that each housing developer request a building permit is obliged to provide a green open space at least 10 percent of the total housing area. This paper reviews the effectiveness of building permit regulation, the problems encountered and the concept proposed to make the local regulation work. The area of sample taken is three urban districts out of five urban districts, the resource persons chosen are those from relevant offices (Dinas involved at the implementation of the local regulation. The data collection techniques employed are the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP, Geographic Information System (GIS technology, social observation and informal interview. The data gathered will be analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively.

  14. Note: Tormenta: An open source Python-powered control software for camera based optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabas, Federico M; Masullo, Luciano A; Stefani, Fernando D

    2016-12-01

    Until recently, PC control and synchronization of scientific instruments was only possible through closed-source expensive frameworks like National Instruments' LabVIEW. Nowadays, efficient cost-free alternatives are available in the context of a continuously growing community of open-source software developers. Here, we report on Tormenta, a modular open-source software for the control of camera-based optical microscopes. Tormenta is built on Python, works on multiple operating systems, and includes some key features for fluorescence nanoscopy based on single molecule localization.

  15. The development of an open architecture control system for CBN high speed grinding

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, E. Jannone da; Biffi, M.; Oliveira, J. F. G. de

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this project is the development of an open architecture controlling (OAC) system to be applied in the high speed grinding process using CBN tools. Besides other features, the system will allow a new monitoring and controlling strategy, by the adoption of open architecture CNC combined with multi-sensors, a PC and third-party software. The OAC system will be implemented in a high speed CBN grinding machine, which is being developed in a partnership between the University of São Paul...

  16. Use of open systems for control, analysis, and data acquisition of the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henline, P.A.

    1993-10-01

    For the past several years, it has been evident that the very old MODCOMP 16-bit computers being used at DIII-D for control and data acquisition were no longer adequate to perform the services needed. In early 1992, the computer systems group began to look seriously into alternate systems to replace these aged MODCOMP systems. The decision was made to investigate open-quote OPEN close-quote system computers and also to maintain the compatibility with the large usage of CAMAC equipment as the real-time hardware interface. Information about the needs for real-time capabilities and open-quote OPEN close-quote systems ability to meet these needs is discussed. The needs include hardware requirements, operating system software which has known response rates, interconnectability and access of data from other workstations and computers. Some of the parameters and pitfalls of open systems are discussed as well as the advantages of OPEN systems for use in a real-time environment. The success at arriving at an OPEN systems solution is examined

  17. Critical Spaces for Critical Times: Global Conversations in Literacy Research as an Open Professional Development and Practices Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Albers

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects an OER (Open Educational Resources critical literacy project, Global Conversations in Literacy Research (GCLR, (www.globalconversationsinliteracy.wordpress.com, now in its fourth year. GCLR annually hosts seven web seminars presented by internationally recognized literacy and education scholars. We outline key dimensions of GCLR not only as an OER but as an open educational practice (OEP (Andrade et al., 2011 that through its design, not only provides open access to scholarship, but also understands the critical nexus among resources, practices and theory. Informed by data from a longitudinal study, this paper situates these dimensions within professional development literature, and outlines GCLR as a critical space designed for critical times, and the importance of intentionality when accessing OER. Like scholars before us, we argue that that availability is not the only consideration when using OER (Andrade et al., 2011; OER must be considered in relation to pedagogical considerations and how OER are used as a critical component to online professional development.

  18. An Enhanced Three-Level Voltage Switching State Scheme for Direct Torque Controlled Open End Winding Induction Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisetti, V. Praveen Kumar; Thippiripati, Vinay Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Open End Winding Induction Motors (OEWIM) are popular for electric vehicles, ship propulsion applications due to less DC link voltage. Electric vehicles, ship propulsions require ripple free torque. In this article, an enhanced three-level voltage switching state scheme for direct torque controlled OEWIM drive is implemented to reduce torque and flux ripples. The limitations of conventional Direct Torque Control (DTC) are: possible problems during low speeds and starting, it operates with variable switching frequency due to hysteresis controllers and produces higher torque and flux ripple. The proposed DTC scheme can abate the problems of conventional DTC with an enhanced voltage switching state scheme. The three-level inversion was obtained by operating inverters with equal DC-link voltages and it produces 18 voltage space vectors. These 18 vectors are divided into low and high frequencies of operation based on rotor speed. The hardware results prove the validity of proposed DTC scheme during steady-state and transients. From simulation and experimental results, proposed DTC scheme gives less torque and flux ripples on comparison to two-level DTC. The proposed DTC is implemented using dSPACE DS-1104 control board interface with MATLAB/SIMULINK-RTI model.

  19. VICTORIA PARK: A DEMOCTRATIC PUBLIC OPEN SPACE FOR INDONESIA DOMESTIC HELPERS (TKW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmonangan Manurung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Victoria Park is the largest city park in Hong Kong. This city park is not only known in Hong Kong, but also very well known in Indonesia as a gathering place for Indonesia domestic helpers (TKW in Hong Kong. This research tried to find out some determinant factors that have been affected the public open spac of Victoria Park to be a gathering place for thousands of TKW in Sunday and holidays as their day off. In order to get the results of research, some methodological research had been conducted such as: observation (survey, mapping, interviews and literature studies. The results showed that Victoria Park has a number of factors capable of meeting the needs of domestic help-ers in Hong Kong, these factors consist of internal factors and external factors. Internally, the character and functions held Victoria Park became a very influential factor, while externally, the accessibility and support functions around Victoria Park also has a considerable influence.

  20. An optimal open/closed-loop control method with application to a pre-stressed thin duralumin plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadimpalli, Sruthi Raju

    The excessive vibrations of a pre-stressed duralumin plate, suppressed by a combination of open-loop and closed-loop controls, also known as open/closed-loop control, is studied in this thesis. The two primary steps involved in this process are: Step (I) with an assumption that the closed-loop control law is proportional, obtain the optimal open-loop control by direct minimization of the performance measure consisting of energy at terminal time and a penalty on open-loop control force via calculus of variations. If the performance measure also involves a penalty on closed-loop control effort then a Fourier based method is utilized. Step (II) the energy at terminal time is minimized numerically to obtain optimal values of feedback gains. The optimal closed-loop control gains obtained are used to describe the displacement and the velocity of open-loop, closed-loop and open/closed-loop controlled duralumin plate.

  1. An open-closed-loop iterative learning control approach for nonlinear switched systems with application to freeway traffic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shu-Ting; Li, Xiao-Dong; Zhong, Ren-Xin

    2017-10-01

    For nonlinear switched discrete-time systems with input constraints, this paper presents an open-closed-loop iterative learning control (ILC) approach, which includes a feedforward ILC part and a feedback control part. Under a given switching rule, the mathematical induction is used to prove the convergence of ILC tracking error in each subsystem. It is demonstrated that the convergence of ILC tracking error is dependent on the feedforward control gain, but the feedback control can speed up the convergence process of ILC by a suitable selection of feedback control gain. A switched freeway traffic system is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed ILC law.

  2. Designing an Electro-Hydraulic Control Module for an Open-Circuit Variable Displacement Pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2005-01-01

    , in the form of an electric control signal, under varying working conditions, when having access to engine speed and actual pump pressure. The paper presents a model of both the pump and the control module, along with design considerations on which linear controllers are developed for a worst point......This paper deals with the problem of designing an electric control module for a Sauer-Danfoss Series 45 H-frame open circuit axial piston pump. The purpose of the electric control module is to replace the existing hydro-mechanical (LS) regulator, and enable the pump to follow a reference pressure...

  3. Space motion sickness: The sensory motor controls and cardiovascular correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souvestre, Philippe A.; Blaber, Andrew P.; Landrock, Clinton K.

    Background and PurposeSpace motion sickness (SMS) and related symptoms remain a major limiting factor in Space operations. A recent comprehensive literature review [J.R. Lackner, Z. DiZio, Space motion sickness, Experimental Brain Research 175 (2006) 377-399, doi 10.1007/s00221-006-0697-y] concluded that SMS does not represent a unique diagnostic entity, and there is no adequate predictor of SMS' susceptibility and severity. No countermeasure has been found reliable to prevent or treat SMS symptoms onset. Recent neurophysiological findings on sensory-motor controls monitoring [P.A. Souvestre, C. Landrock, Biomedical-performance monitoring and assessment of astronauts by means of an ocular vestibular monitoring system, Acta Astronautica, 60 (4-7) (2007) 313-321, doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2006.08.013] and heart-rate variability (HRV) measurements relationship could explain post-flight orthostatic intolerance (PFOI) in astronauts [A.P. Blaber, R.L. Bondar, M.S. Kassam, Heart rate variability and short duration space flight: relationship to post-flight orthostatic intolerance, BMC Physiology 4 (2004) 6]. These two methodologies are generally overlooked in SMS' analysis. In this paper we present the case for a strong relationship between sensory-motor controls related symptoms, including orthostatic intolerance (OI) and SMS symptoms. MethodsThis paper expands on several previously published papers [J.R. Lackner, Z. DiZio, Space motion sickness, Experimental Brain Research 175 (2006) 377-399, doi 10.1007/s00221-006-0697-y; P.A. Souvestre, C. Landrock, Biomedical-performance monitoring and assessment of astronauts by means of an ocular vestibular monitoring system, Acta Astronautica, 60 (4-7) (2007) 313-321, doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2006.08.013] along with an updated literature review. An analysis of a 10-year period clinical data from trauma patients experiencing postural deficiency syndrome (PDS) show assessment and monitoring techniques which successfully identify trauma

  4. Optimal control of open quantum systems: A combined surrogate Hamiltonian optimal control theory approach applied to photochemistry on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asplund, Erik; Kluener, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, control of open quantum systems with emphasis on the control of surface photochemical reactions is presented. A quantum system in a condensed phase undergoes strong dissipative processes. From a theoretical viewpoint, it is important to model such processes in a rigorous way. In this work, the description of open quantum systems is realized within the surrogate Hamiltonian approach [R. Baer and R. Kosloff, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 8862 (1997)]. An efficient and accurate method to find control fields is optimal control theory (OCT) [W. Zhu, J. Botina, and H. Rabitz, J. Chem. Phys. 108, 1953 (1998); Y. Ohtsuki, G. Turinici, and H. Rabitz, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 5509 (2004)]. To gain control of open quantum systems, the surrogate Hamiltonian approach and OCT, with time-dependent targets, are combined. Three open quantum systems are investigated by the combined method, a harmonic oscillator immersed in an ohmic bath, CO adsorbed on a platinum surface, and NO adsorbed on a nickel oxide surface. Throughout this paper, atomic units, i.e., (ℎ/2π)=m e =e=a 0 = 1, have been used unless otherwise stated.

  5. Optimal control of open quantum systems: a combined surrogate hamiltonian optimal control theory approach applied to photochemistry on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Erik; Klüner, Thorsten

    2012-03-28

    In this paper, control of open quantum systems with emphasis on the control of surface photochemical reactions is presented. A quantum system in a condensed phase undergoes strong dissipative processes. From a theoretical viewpoint, it is important to model such processes in a rigorous way. In this work, the description of open quantum systems is realized within the surrogate hamiltonian approach [R. Baer and R. Kosloff, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 8862 (1997)]. An efficient and accurate method to find control fields is optimal control theory (OCT) [W. Zhu, J. Botina, and H. Rabitz, J. Chem. Phys. 108, 1953 (1998); Y. Ohtsuki, G. Turinici, and H. Rabitz, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 5509 (2004)]. To gain control of open quantum systems, the surrogate hamiltonian approach and OCT, with time-dependent targets, are combined. Three open quantum systems are investigated by the combined method, a harmonic oscillator immersed in an ohmic bath, CO adsorbed on a platinum surface, and NO adsorbed on a nickel oxide surface. Throughout this paper, atomic units, i.e., ℏ = m(e) = e = a(0) = 1, have been used unless otherwise stated.

  6. Building-Related Symptoms, Energy, and Thermal Control in the Workplace: Personal and Open Plan Offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally S. Shahzad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study compared building-related symptoms in personal and open plan offices, where high and low levels of control over the thermal environment were provided, respectively. The individualized approach in Norway provided every user with a personal office, where they had control over an openable window, door, blinds, and thermostat. In contrast, the open plan case studies in the United Kingdom provided control over openable windows and blinds only for limited occupants seated around the perimeter of the building, with users seated away from the windows having no means of environmental control. Air conditioning was deployed in the Norwegian case study buildings, while displacement ventilation and natural ventilation were utilized in the British examples. Field studies of thermal comfort were applied with questionnaires, environmental measurements, and interviews. Users’ health was better in the Norwegian model (28%, while the British model was much more energy efficient (up to 10 times. The follow-up interviews confirmed the effect of lack of thermal control on users’ health. A balanced appraisal was made of energy performance and users’ health between the two buildings.

  7. Space and energy. [space systems for energy generation, distribution and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekey, I.

    1976-01-01

    Potential contributions of space to energy-related activities are discussed. Advanced concepts presented include worldwide energy distribution to substation-sized users using low-altitude space reflectors; powering large numbers of large aircraft worldwide using laser beams reflected from space mirror complexes; providing night illumination via sunlight-reflecting space mirrors; fine-scale power programming and monitoring in transmission networks by monitoring millions of network points from space; prevention of undetected hijacking of nuclear reactor fuels by space tracking of signals from tagging transmitters on all such materials; and disposal of nuclear power plant radioactive wastes in space.

  8. Analytical design of an industrial two-term controller for optimal regulatory control of open-loop unstable processes under operational constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchamna, Rodrigue; Lee, Moonyong

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel optimization-based approach for the design of an industrial two-term proportional-integral (PI) controller for the optimal regulatory control of unstable processes subjected to three common operational constraints related to the process variable, manipulated variable and its rate of change. To derive analytical design relations, the constrained optimal control problem in the time domain was transformed into an unconstrained optimization problem in a new parameter space via an effective parameterization. The resulting optimal PI controller has been verified to yield optimal performance and stability of an open-loop unstable first-order process under operational constraints. The proposed analytical design method explicitly takes into account the operational constraints in the controller design stage and also provides useful insights into the optimal controller design. Practical procedures for designing optimal PI parameters and a feasible constraint set exclusive of complex optimization steps are also proposed. The proposed controller was compared with several other PI controllers to illustrate its performance. The robustness of the proposed controller against plant-model mismatch has also been investigated. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Genelab: Scientific Partnerships and an Open-Access Database to Maximize Usage of Omics Data from Space Biology Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinsch, S. S.; Galazka, J..; Berrios, D. C; Chakravarty, K.; Fogle, H.; Lai, S.; Bokyo, V.; Timucin, L. R.; Tran, P.; Skidmore, M.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's mission includes expanding our understanding of biological systems to improve life on Earth and to enable long-duration human exploration of space. The GeneLab Data System (GLDS) is NASA's premier open-access omics data platform for biological experiments. GLDS houses standards-compliant, high-throughput sequencing and other omics data from spaceflight-relevant experiments. The GeneLab project at NASA-Ames Research Center is developing the database, and also partnering with spaceflight projects through sharing or augmentation of experiment samples to expand omics analyses on precious spaceflight samples. The partnerships ensure that the maximum amount of data is garnered from spaceflight experiments and made publically available as rapidly as possible via the GLDS. GLDS Version 1.0, went online in April 2015. Software updates and new data releases occur at least quarterly. As of October 2016, the GLDS contains 80 datasets and has search and download capabilities. Version 2.0 is slated for release in September of 2017 and will have expanded, integrated search capabilities leveraging other public omics databases (NCBI GEO, PRIDE, MG-RAST). Future versions in this multi-phase project will provide a collaborative platform for omics data analysis. Data from experiments that explore the biological effects of the spaceflight environment on a wide variety of model organisms are housed in the GLDS including data from rodents, invertebrates, plants and microbes. Human datasets are currently limited to those with anonymized data (e.g., from cultured cell lines). GeneLab ensures prompt release and open access to high-throughput genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics data from spaceflight and ground-based simulations of microgravity, radiation or other space environment factors. The data are meticulously curated to assure that accurate experimental and sample processing metadata are included with each data set. GLDS download volumes indicate strong

  10. Research on Open-Closed-Loop Iterative Learning Control with Variable Forgetting Factor of Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an iterative learning control algorithm (ILC that is developed using a variable forgetting factor to control a mobile robot. The proposed algorithm can be categorized as an open-closed-loop iterative learning control, which produces control instructions by using both previous and current data. However, introducing a variable forgetting factor can weaken the former control output and its variance in the control law while strengthening the robustness of the iterative learning control. If it is applied to the mobile robot, this will reduce position errors in robot trajectory tracking control effectively. In this work, we show that the proposed algorithm guarantees tracking error bound convergence to a small neighborhood of the origin under the condition of state disturbances, output measurement noises, and fluctuation of system dynamics. By using simulation, we demonstrate that the controller is effective in realizing the prefect tracking.

  11. Control of Flowing Liquid Films By Electrostatic Fields in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankoff, S. George; Miksis, Michael J.; Kim, Hyo

    1996-01-01

    A novel type of lightweight space radiator has been proposed which employs internal electrostatic fields to stop coolant leaks from punctures caused by micrometeorites or space debris. Extensive calculations have indicated the feasibility of leak stoppage without film destabilization for both stationary and rotating designs. Solutions of the evolution equation for a liquid-metal film on an inclined plate, using lubrication theory for low Reynolds numbers, Karman-Pohlhausen quadratic velocity profiles for higher Reynolds numbers, and a direct numerical solution are shown. For verification an earth-based falling-film experiment on a precisely-vertical wall with controllable vacuum on either side of a small puncture is proposed. The pressure difference required to start and to stop the leak, in the presence and absence of a strong electric field, will be measured and compared with calculations. Various parameters, such as field strength, film Reynolds number, contact angle, and hole diameter will be examined. A theoretical analysis will be made of the case where the electrode is close enough to the film surface that the electric field equation and the surface dynamics equations are coupled. Preflight design calculations will be made in order to transfer the modified equipment to a flight experiment.

  12. Star laws: legal controls on armed conflict in outer space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Dale

    2016-01-01

    An undeclared military space race is unfolding yet there is no clear understanding of how international las operates in the field of armed conflict in outer space. In conjunction with McGill University Law School, Montreal, Canada, a 'Manual on international law applicable to military uses of outer space' has been drafted. This article looks at types of space weapons, previous space treaties and discusses humanitarian law.

  13. Implementation of an Open-Scenario, Long-Term Space Debris Simulation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Bron; Yang Yang, Fan; Carlino, Roberto; Dono Perez, Andres; Faber, Nicolas; Henze, Chris; Karacalioglu, Arif Goktug; O'Toole, Conor; Swenson, Jason; Stupl, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a status update on the implementation of a flexible, long-term space debris simulation approach. The motivation is to build a tool that can assess the long-term impact of various options for debris-remediation, including the LightForce space debris collision avoidance concept that diverts objects using photon pressure [9]. State-of-the-art simulation approaches that assess the long-term development of the debris environment use either completely statistical approaches, or they rely on large time steps on the order of several days if they simulate the positions of single objects over time. They cannot be easily adapted to investigate the impact of specific collision avoidance schemes or de-orbit schemes, because the efficiency of a collision avoidance maneuver can depend on various input parameters, including ground station positions and orbital and physical parameters of the objects involved in close encounters (conjunctions). Furthermore, maneuvers take place on timescales much smaller than days. For example, LightForce only changes the orbit of a certain object (aiming to reduce the probability of collision), but it does not remove entire objects or groups of objects. In the same sense, it is also not straightforward to compare specific de-orbit methods in regard to potential collision risks during a de-orbit maneuver. To gain flexibility in assessing interactions with objects, we implement a simulation that includes every tracked space object in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and propagates all objects with high precision and variable time-steps as small as one second. It allows the assessment of the (potential) impact of physical or orbital changes to any object. The final goal is to employ a Monte Carlo approach to assess the debris evolution during the simulation time-frame of 100 years and to compare a baseline scenario to debris remediation scenarios or other scenarios of interest. To populate the initial simulation, we use the entire space

  14. Tripartite nonlocality for an open Dirac system in the background of Schwarzschild space-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhi-Yong; Shi, Jia-Dong; Wu, Tao; He, Juan

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the behavior of the tripartite nonlocality for a Dirac system in the background of Schwarzschild space-time is studied. It is shown that the nonlocality of the ultimate physical accessible state always decreases as the Hawking effect increases monotonically, which is independent of the number of particles located near the event horizon. Besides, the more particles there are located near the event horizon, the more difficult the violation of the Svetlichny inequality becomes. Furthermore, we investigate the property of these particles suffering from a non-Markovian environment, and derive that the nonlocality decreases quickly with the increasing decoherence time accompanied by damping revivals. To preserve tripartite nonlocality in the non-Markovian environment, we propose a scheme by means of prior weak measurement and post measurement reversal. It is worth noticing that the effect is better for larger measurement strengths, while it induces smaller success probability.

  15. Case history of controlling a landslide at Panluo open-pit mine in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zuoan; Yin, Guangzhi; Wan, Ling; Shen, Louyan

    2008-04-01

    Controlling of landsides safely and economically is a great challenge to mine operators because landslides are major geological problems especially in open-pit mines. In this paper, a case history at Panluo open-pit mine is presented in detail to share the experiences and lessons with mine operators. Panluo open-pit mine is located in the southwestern Fujian province of China. It is the largest open-pit iron mine in the Fujian province and was planned in 1965 and is in full operation from 1978. In July 1990, an earthquake of magnitude 5.3 in Taiwan Strait and big rainstorms impacted the mine slope, causing tension cracks and rather large-scale failures, and forming a U-shaped landslide. Total potential volume was estimated to be up to 1.0 × 106 m3. This directly threatened the mine production. In order to protect the mine production and the dwellers’ safety around, a dynamic comprehensive method was implemented including geotechnical investigations, in-situ testing and monitoring, stability analysis, and many mitigation and preventive measures. These measures slowed down the development and further occurrence of the landslide. The results showed that the landslides were still active, it was slowed with the control measures and moved rapidly with rainfall and mining down. However, no catastrophic accidents occurred and the pit mining was continued till it was closed at the elevation of 887 m in 2000. As a successful case of landslide control at an open-pit mine for 10 years, this paper reports the controlling measures in details. These experiences of landslide control may be beneficial to other similar mines for landslide control.

  16. Measuring Completeness of Building Footprints in OpenStreetMap over Space and Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola Kunze

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to financial or administrative constraints, access to official spatial base data is currently limited to a small subset of all potential users in the field of spatial planning and research. This increases the usefulness of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI, in particular OpenStreetMap (OSM, as supplementary datasets or, in some cases, alternative sources of primary data. In contrast to the OSM street network, which has already been thoroughly investigated and found to be practically complete in many areas, the degree of completeness of OSM data on buildings is still unclear. In this paper we describe methods to analyze building completeness and apply these to various test areas in Germany. Official data from national mapping and cadastral agencies is used as a basis for comparison. The results show that unit-based completeness measurements (e.g., total number or area of buildings are highly sensitive to disparities in modeling between official data and VGI. Therefore, we recommend object-based methods to study the completeness of OSM building footprint data. An analysis from November 2011 in Germany indicated a completeness of 25% in the federal states of North Rhine-Westphalia and 15% in Saxony. Although further analyses from 2012 confirm that data completeness in Saxony has risen to 23%, the rate of new data input was slowing in the year 2012.

  17. Implementing Cooperative Behavior & Control Using Open Source Technology Across Heterogeneous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    cooperative control algorithms used for multiple SUAS to perform surveillance using equal angular spacing from the ground target [16]. The algorithm...allows each SUAS in the surveillance mission to loiter around a target at an equal angular spacing from one another on the same loiter path. This...Planner has included. For instance, Mission Planner has the ability to run Python scripts. Python is a programming language like Java . With the

  18. Dynamic behavior of HTSC opening switch models controlled by short over-critical current pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agafonov, A.V.; Krastelev, E.G.; Voronin, V.S.

    1999-01-01

    We present results of experimental research of dynamical properties of thin films of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 HTSC-switch models under action of short overcritical current pulses to test this method of control of fast high-power opening switches for accelerator applications

  19. Open reduction versus endoscopically controlled reconstruction of orbital floor fractures: a retrospective analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hundepool, A.C.; Willemsen, M.A.A.P.; Koudstaal, M.J.; Wal, K.G.H. van der

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the postoperative results of open reduction versus endoscopically controlled reconstructions of orbital floor fractures. The medical records of 83 patients, treated between January 2000 and December 2008, were reviewed for enophthalmos, diplopia and

  20. An open software system based on X Windows for process control and equipment monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aimar, A.; Carlier, E.; Mertens, V.

    1992-01-01

    The construction and application of a configurable open software system for process control and equipment monitoring can speed up and simplify the development and maintenance of equipment specific software as compared to individual solutions. The present paper reports the status of such an approach for the distributed control systems of SPS and LEP beam transfer components, based on X Windows and the OSF/Motif tool kit and applying data modeling and software engineering methods. (author)

  1. Present condition and theme of the planning standards of parks and open space planning. Koen ryokuchi keikaku gijutsu hyojun no genjo to kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takanashi, M. (Kanagawa Prefectural Government, Kanagawa (Japan))

    1992-08-06

    With the dramatic progress of urbanization, the rapid decrease of the green area and the open space, which is basis for ensuring the safety and the comfort of city life and formation of a good city environment, lead to the worsen of city environment. For the basic purpose of achieving the harmony between development and environment by considering the preservation of the green area and the open space, the green master plan is a representative example, and was made as the constitution of from a ground plan to the various plans such as region, city and nation based on the space unit of developing the human action. One of the important planning approach for the green area plan from conception to implementation is the planning standards of park and open space planning. This paper introduced the change of the system about the planning standards of park and open space planning, and explained necessarily the present state of greens master plan about preservation of the national environment and adjustment the park and open space. 1tab.

  2. Do features of public open spaces vary between urban and rural areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, Jenny; Salmon, Jo; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; Timperio, Anna

    2013-02-01

    Parks are an important setting for physical activity and specific park features have been shown to be associated with park visitation and physical activity. Most park-based research has been conducted in urban settings with few studies examining rural parks. This study examined differences in features of parks in urban compared with rural areas. In 2009/10 a tool was developed to audit 433 urban and 195 rural parks located in disadvantaged areas of Victoria, Australia. Features assessed included: access; lighting/safety; aesthetics; amenities; paths; outdoor courts/ovals; informal play spaces; and playgrounds (number, diversity, age appropriateness and safety of play equipment). Rural parks scored higher for aesthetics compared with urban parks (5.08 vs 4.44). Urban parks scored higher for access (4.64 vs 3.89), lighting/safety (2.01 vs 1.76), and diversity of play equipment (7.37 vs 6.24), and were more likely to have paths suitable for walking/cycling (58.8% vs 40.9%) and play equipment for older children (68.2% vs 17.1%). Although the findings cannot be generalized to all urban and rural parks, the results may be used to inform advocacy for park development in rural areas to create parks that are more supportive of physical activity for children and adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Laparoscopic Versus Open Resection for Colorectal Liver Metastases: The OSLO-COMET Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretland, Åsmund Avdem; Dagenborg, Vegar Johansen; Bjørnelv, Gudrun Maria Waaler; Kazaryan, Airazat M; Kristiansen, Ronny; Fagerland, Morten Wang; Hausken, John; Tønnessen, Tor Inge; Abildgaard, Andreas; Barkhatov, Leonid; Yaqub, Sheraz; Røsok, Bård I; Bjørnbeth, Bjørn Atle; Andersen, Marit Helen; Flatmark, Kjersti; Aas, Eline; Edwin, Bjørn

    2018-02-01

    To perform the first randomized controlled trial to compare laparoscopic and open liver resection. Laparoscopic liver resection is increasingly used for the surgical treatment of liver tumors. However, high-level evidence to conclude that laparoscopic liver resection is superior to open liver resection is lacking. Explanatory, assessor-blinded, single center, randomized superiority trial recruiting patients from Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway from February 2012 to January 2016. A total of 280 patients with resectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer were randomly assigned to undergo laparoscopic (n = 133) or open (n = 147) parenchyma-sparing liver resection. The primary outcome was postoperative complications within 30 days (Accordion grade 2 or higher). Secondary outcomes included cost-effectiveness, postoperative hospital stay, blood loss, operation time, and resection margins. The postoperative complication rate was 19% in the laparoscopic-surgery group and 31% in the open-surgery group (12 percentage points difference [95% confidence interval 1.67-21.8; P = 0.021]). The postoperative hospital stay was shorter for laparoscopic surgery (53 vs 96 hours, P < 0.001), whereas there were no differences in blood loss, operation time, and resection margins. Mortality at 90 days did not differ significantly from the laparoscopic group (0 patients) to the open group (1 patient). In a 4-month perspective, the costs were equal, whereas patients in the laparoscopic-surgery group gained 0.011 quality-adjusted life years compared to patients in the open-surgery group (P = 0.001). In patients undergoing parenchyma-sparing liver resection for colorectal metastases, laparoscopic surgery was associated with significantly less postoperative complications compared to open surgery. Laparoscopic resection was cost-effective compared to open resection with a 67% probability. The rate of free resection margins was the same in both groups. Our results support the continued

  4. Generating optimal control simulations of musculoskeletal movement using OpenSim and MATLAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Leng-Feng; Umberger, Brian R

    2016-01-01

    Computer modeling, simulation and optimization are powerful tools that have seen increased use in biomechanics research. Dynamic optimizations can be categorized as either data-tracking or predictive problems. The data-tracking approach has been used extensively to address human movement problems of clinical relevance. The predictive approach also holds great promise, but has seen limited use in clinical applications. Enhanced software tools would facilitate the application of predictive musculoskeletal simulations to clinically-relevant research. The open-source software OpenSim provides tools for generating tracking simulations but not predictive simulations. However, OpenSim includes an extensive application programming interface that permits extending its capabilities with scripting languages such as MATLAB. In the work presented here, we combine the computational tools provided by MATLAB with the musculoskeletal modeling capabilities of OpenSim to create a framework for generating predictive simulations of musculoskeletal movement based on direct collocation optimal control techniques. In many cases, the direct collocation approach can be used to solve optimal control problems considerably faster than traditional shooting methods. Cyclical and discrete movement problems were solved using a simple 1 degree of freedom musculoskeletal model and a model of the human lower limb, respectively. The problems could be solved in reasonable amounts of time (several seconds to 1-2 hours) using the open-source IPOPT solver. The problems could also be solved using the fmincon solver that is included with MATLAB, but the computation times were excessively long for all but the smallest of problems. The performance advantage for IPOPT was derived primarily by exploiting sparsity in the constraints Jacobian. The framework presented here provides a powerful and flexible approach for generating optimal control simulations of musculoskeletal movement using OpenSim and MATLAB. This

  5. Shape control of slack space reflectors using modulated solar pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borggräfe, Andreas; Heiligers, Jeannette; Ceriotti, Matteo; McInnes, Colin R

    2015-07-08

    The static deflection profile of a large spin-stabilized space reflector because of solar radiation pressure acting on its surface is investigated. Such a spacecraft consists of a thin reflective circular film, which is deployed from a supporting hoop structure in an untensioned, slack manner. This paper investigates the use of a variable reflectivity distribution across the surface to control the solar pressure force and hence the deflected shape. In this first analysis, the film material is modelled as one-dimensional slack radial strings with no resistance to bending or transverse shear, which enables a semi-analytic derivation of the nominal deflection profile. An inverse method is then used to find the reflectivity distribution that generates a specific, for example, parabolic deflection shape of the strings. Applying these results to a parabolic reflector, short focal distances can be obtained when large slack lengths of the film are employed. The development of such optically controlled reflector films enables future key mission applications such as solar power collection, radio-frequency antennae and optical telescopes.

  6. Acoustic evaluation and adjustment of an open-plan office through architectural design and noise control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passero, Carolina Reich Marcon; Zannin, Paulo Henrique Trombetta

    2012-11-01

    Arranging office space into a single open room offers advantages in terms of easy exchange of information and interaction among coworkers, but reduces privacy and acoustic comfort. Thus, the purpose of this work was to evaluate the acoustic quality of a real open-plan office and to propose changes in the room to improve the acoustic conditioning of this office. The computational model of the office under study was calibrated based on RT and STI measurements. Predictions were made of the RT and STI, which generated the radius of distraction r(D), and the rate of spatial decay of sound pressure levels per distance doubling DL(2) in the real conditions of the office and after modifications of the room. The insertion of dividers between work stations and an increase in the ceiling's sound absorption improved the acoustic conditions in the office under study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  7. A Bullet Entered through the Open Mouth and Ended Up in the Parapharyngeal Space and Skull Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saileswar Goswami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shot from a revolver from a close range, a bullet pierced the chest of a policeman and entered through the open mouth of a young male person standing behind. The entry wound was found in the cheek mucosa adjacent to the left lower third molar. After hitting and fracturing the body and the ramus of the mandible, the bullet was deflected and was finally lodged in the parapharyngeal space and skull base, anterolateral to the transverse process of the atlas. The great vessels of the neck were not injured. The patient’s condition was very critical but his life could be saved. The bullet was approached through a modified Blair’s incision and was found to be lying over the carotid sheath. It was removed safely and the patient recovered completely.

  8. Nonlinear Attitude Control of Planar Structures in Space Using Only Internal Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyhanoglu, Mahmut; Mcclamroch, N. Harris

    1993-01-01

    An attitude control strategy for maneuvers of an interconnection of planar bodies in space is developed. It is assumed that there are no exogeneous torques and that torques generated by joint motors are used as means of control so that the total angular momentum of the multibody system is a constant, assumed to be zero. The control strategy utilizes the nonintegrability of the expression for the angular momentum. Large angle maneuvers can be designed to achieve an arbitrary reorientation of the multibody system with respect to an inertial frame. The theoretical background for carrying out the required maneuvers is summarized.

  9. Simulation of neutron multiplicity measurements using Geant4. Open source software for nuclear arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuett, Moritz

    2016-07-07

    Nuclear arms control, including nuclear safeguards and verification technologies for nuclear disarmament typically use software as part of many different technological applications. This thesis proposes to use three open source criteria for such software, allowing users and developers to have free access to a program, have access to the full source code and be able to publish modifications for the program. This proposition is presented and analyzed in detail, together with the description of the development of ''Open Neutron Multiplicity Simulation'', an open source software tool to simulate neutron multiplicity measurements. The description includes physical background of the method, details of the developed program and a comprehensive set of validation calculations.

  10. Dynamics and Control of a Disordered System in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadrelli, Marco B.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present some ideas regarding the modeling, dynamics and control aspects of granular spacecraft. Granular spacecraft are complex multibody systems composed of a spatially disordered distribution of a large number of elements, for instance a cloud of N grains in orbit, with N greater than 10(exp 3). These grains can be large (Cubesat-size) or small (mm-size), and can be active, i.e., a fully equipped vehicle capable sensing their own position and attitude, and enabled with propulsion means, or entirely passive. The ultimate objective would be to study the behavior of the single grains and of large ensembles of grains in orbit and to identify ways to guide and control the shape of a cloud composed of these grains so that it can perform a useful function in space, for instance, as an element of an optical imaging system for astrophysical applications. This concept, in which the aperture does not need to be continuous and monolithic, would increase the aperture size several times compared to large NASA observatories such as ATLAST, allowing for a true Terrestrial Planet Imager that would be able to resolve exo-planet details and do meaningful spectroscopy on distant world. In the paper, we address the modeling and autonomous operation of a distributed assembly (the cloud) of large numbers of highly miniaturized space-borne elements (the grains). A multi-scale, multi-physics model is proposed of the dynamics of the cloud in orbit, as well as a control law for cloud shape maintenance, and preliminary simulation studies yield an estimate of the computational effort, indicating a scale factor of approximately N(exp 1.4) as a function of the number of grains. A granular spacecraft can be defined as a collection of a large number of space-borne elements (in the 1000s) designed and controlled such that a desirable collective behavior emerges, either from the interactions among neighboring grains, and/or between the grains and the environment. In this paper

  11. Highly porous open cell Ti-foam using NaCl as temporary space holder through powder metallurgy route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Nidhi; Mondal, D.P.; Dutta Majumdar, J.; Badkul, Anshul; Jha, A.K.; Khare, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► NaCl crystals has been used as space holder. ► Variation of NaCl:Ti ratio varies porosity (65–80%). ► NaCl is cubic but the cells are spherical. ► Two types of pores: micro and macro pores are obtained. ► Foams are suitable for bones scaffolds and engineering applications. - Abstract: Open cell Titanium-foam (Ti-foam) with varying porosities (65–80%) was prepared using sodium chloride (NaCl) particles as space holder through powder metallurgy route. In order to ensure sufficient handling strength in cold compacted pallets, 2 wt.% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solutions (5 wt.% PVA in water) was mixed with the mixture of Ti and NaCl powders prior to cold compaction. After sintering, NaCl salt was removed by dissolving it in hot water. Detailed Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and X-ray diffraction studies of the prepared Ti-foams were conducted to examine any physical and chemical changes in the phase constituents. The micro-architectural characteristics, density vis-a-vis porosity, and compressive deformation behavior of the synthesized foams were evaluated to examine their suitability as biomaterial and engineering applications

  12. A Matched Case-Control Study on Open and Endovascular Treatment of Popliteal Artery Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorigo, W; Fargion, A; Masciello, F; Piffaretti, G; Pratesi, G; Giacomelli, E; Pratesi, C

    2018-01-01

    To compare early and late results of open and endovascular management of popliteal artery aneurysm in a retrospective single-center matched case-control study Methods: From 1981 to 2015, 309 consecutive interventions for popliteal artery aneurysm were performed in our institution, in 59 cases with endovascular repair and in 250 cases with open repair. Endovascular repair was preferred in older asymptomatic patients, while open repair was offered more frequently to patients with a thrombosed popliteal artery aneurysm and a poor run-off status. A one-to-one coarsened exact matching on the basis of the baseline demographic, clinical, and anatomical covariates significantly different between the two treatment options was performed and two equivalent groups of 56 endovascular repairs and open repairs were generated. The two groups were compared in terms of perioperative results with χ 2 test and of follow-up outcomes with the Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank test. There were no differences between the two groups in terms of perioperative outcomes. Median duration of follow-up was 38 months. Five-year survival rates were 94% in endovascular repair group and 89.5% in open repair group (p = 0.4, log-rank 0.6). Primary patency rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 81%, 78%, and 72% in endovascular repair group and 82.5%, 80%, and 64% in open repair group (p = 0.8, log-rank 0.01). Freedom from reintervention at 5 years was 65.5% in endovascular repair group and 76% in open repair group (p = 0.2, log-rank 1.2). Secondary patency at 1, 3, and 5 years was 94%, 86%, and 74% in endovascular repair group, and 94%, 89%, and 71% in open repair group, respectively (p = 0.9, log-rank 0.01). The rates of limb preservation at 5 years were 94% in endovascular repair group and 86.4% in open repair group (p = 0.3, log-rank 0.8). Open repair and endovascular repair of popliteal artery aneurysms provided in this retrospective single-center experience similar perioperative and follow-up results in

  13. A Survey on Open-Source Flight Control Platforms of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebeid, Emad Samuel Malki; Skriver, Martin; Jin, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Recently, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), so-called drones, have gotten a lot of attention in academic research and commercial applications due to their simple structure, ease of operations and low-cost hardware components. Flight controller, embedded electronics component, represents the core part...... of the drone. It aims at performing the main operations of the drone (e.g., autonomous control and navigation). There are various types of flight controllers and each of them has its own characteristics and features. This paper presents an extensive survey on the publicly available open-source flight...

  14. Robust trajectory tracking control of a dual-arm space robot actuated by control moment gyroscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yinghong; Misra, Arun K.

    2017-08-01

    It is a new design concept to employ control moment gyroscopes (CMGs) as reactionless actuators for space robots. Such actuation has several noticeable advantages such as weak dynamical coupling and low power consumption over traditional joint motor actuation. This paper presents a robust control law for a CMG-actuated space robot in presence of system uncertainties and closed-chain constraints. The control objective is to make the manipulation variables to track the desired trajectories, and reduce the possibility of CMG saturation simultaneously. A reduced-order dynamical equation in terms of independent motion variables is derived using Kane's equations. Desired trajectories of the independent motion variables are derived by minimum-norm trajectory planning algorithm, and an adaptive sliding mode controller with improved adaptation laws is proposed to drive the independent motion variables tracking the desired trajectories. Uniformly ultimate boundedness of the closed loop system is proven using Lyapunov method. The redundancy of the full-order actual control torques is utilized to generate a null torque vector which reduces the possibility of CMG angular momentum saturation while producing no effect on the reduced-order control input. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms and the advantage of weak dynamical coupling of the CMG-actuated system.

  15. Identifying a cooperative control mechanism between an applied field and the environment of open quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fang; Rey-de-Castro, Roberto; Wang, Yaoxiong; Rabitz, Herschel; Shuang, Feng

    2016-05-01

    Many systems under control with an applied field also interact with the surrounding environment. Understanding the control mechanisms has remained a challenge, especially the role played by the interaction between the field and the environment. In order to address this need, here we expand the scope of the Hamiltonian-encoding and observable-decoding (HE-OD) technique. HE-OD was originally introduced as a theoretical and experimental tool for revealing the mechanism induced by control fields in closed quantum systems. The results of open-system HE-OD analysis presented here provide quantitative mechanistic insights into the roles played by a Markovian environment. Two model open quantum systems are considered for illustration. In these systems, transitions are induced by either an applied field linked to a dipole operator or Lindblad operators coupled to the system. For modest control yields, the HE-OD results clearly show distinct cooperation between the dynamics induced by the optimal field and the environment. Although the HE-OD methodology introduced here is considered in simulations, it has an analogous direct experimental formulation, which we suggest may be applied to open systems in the laboratory to reveal mechanistic insights.

  16. Laparoscopic versus open repair for perforated peptic ulcer: A meta analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shanjun; Wu, Guohao; Zhuang, Qiulin; Xi, Qiulei; Meng, Qingyang; Jiang, Yi; Han, Yusong; Yu, Chao; Yu, Zhen; Li, Ning

    2016-09-01

    The role of laparoscopic surgery in the repair for peptic ulcer disease is unclear. The present study aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic versus open repair for peptic ulcer disease. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing laparoscopic versus open repair for peptic ulcer disease were identified from MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and references of identified articles and relevant reviews. Primary outcomes were postoperative complications, mortality, and reoperation. Secondary outcomes were operative time, postoperative pain, postoperative hospital stay, nasogastric tube duration, and time to resume diet. Statistical analysis was carried out by Review Manage software. Five RCTs investigating a total of 549 patients, of whom, 279 received laparoscopic repair and 270 received open repair, were included in the final analysis. There were no significant differences between these two procedures in some primary outcomes including overal postoperative complication rate, mortality, and reoperation rate. Subcategory analysis of postoperative complications showed that laparoscopic repair had also similar rates of repair site leakage, intra-abdominal abscess, postoperative ileus, pneumonia, and urinary tract infection as open surgery, except of the lower surgical site infection rate (P peptic ulcer. The obvious advantages of laparoscopic surgery are the lower surgical site infection rate, shorter nasogastric tube duration and less postoperative pain. However, more higher quality studies should be undertaken to further assess the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic repair for peptic ulcer disease. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Offset-Free Model Predictive Control of Open Water Channel Based on Moving Horizon Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekin Aydin, Boran; Rutten, Martine

    2016-04-01

    Model predictive control (MPC) is a powerful control option which is increasingly used by operational water managers for managing water systems. The explicit consideration of constraints and multi-objective management are important features of MPC. However, due to the water loss in open water systems by seepage, leakage and evaporation a mismatch between the model and the real system will be created. These mismatch affects the performance of MPC and creates an offset from the reference set point of the water level. We present model predictive control based on moving horizon estimation (MHE-MPC) to achieve offset free control of water level for open water canals. MHE-MPC uses the past predictions of the model and the past measurements of the system to estimate unknown disturbances and the offset in the controlled water level is systematically removed. We numerically tested MHE-MPC on an accurate hydro-dynamic model of the laboratory canal UPC-PAC located in Barcelona. In addition, we also used well known disturbance modeling offset free control scheme for the same test case. Simulation experiments on a single canal reach show that MHE-MPC outperforms disturbance modeling offset free control scheme.

  18. Nonlinear State Space Modeling and System Identification for Electrohydraulic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with nonlinear modeling and identification of an electrohydraulic control system for improving its tracking performance. We build the nonlinear state space model for analyzing the highly nonlinear system and then develop a Hammerstein-Wiener (H-W model which consists of a static input nonlinear block with two-segment polynomial nonlinearities, a linear time-invariant dynamic block, and a static output nonlinear block with single polynomial nonlinearity to describe it. We simplify the H-W model into a linear-in-parameters structure by using the key term separation principle and then use a modified recursive least square method with iterative estimation of internal variables to identify all the unknown parameters simultaneously. It is found that the proposed H-W model approximates the actual system better than the independent Hammerstein, Wiener, and ARX models. The prediction error of the H-W model is about 13%, 54%, and 58% less than the Hammerstein, Wiener, and ARX models, respectively.

  19. Onboard Space Autonomy Through Integration of Health Management and Control Reconfiguration, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project we propose to integrate spacecraft control and vehicle health functions to improve the robustness and productivity of space operations. The main...

  20. Digital acquisition and wavelength control of seed laser for space-based Lidar applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposes to establish the feasibility of using a space qualifiable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based digital controller to autonomously...

  1. Novel Photobioreactor Development for Space Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Capability for controlled and efficient cultivation of microbial cells in microgravity environments opens the possibility for a plethora of applications. One such...

  2. OPEN-LOOP CONTROL OF A BIPOLAR STEPPER MOTORS USING THE SPECIALIZED INTEGRATED CIRCUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe BALUTA

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the open-loop control of a stepper motors. Bipolar stepper motors can be driven with an L297, an L298N bridge driver and very few external components. With an L298N this configuration drives motors with winding currents up to 2.5A. If very high powers are required an equivalent circuit made with discrete transistors replaces the bridge driver. Together these two chips form a complete microprocessor-to-stepper motor interface. The command signals for the controller L297 are generated through an IBM-PC486 interface. It was developed an open-loop command program written in BorlandC programming language.

  3. Emerging opportunities in enterprise integration with open architecture computer numerical controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Christopher A.

    1997-01-01

    The shift to open-architecture machine tool computer numerical controls is providing new opportunities for metal working oriented manufacturers to streamline the entire 'art to part' process. Production cycle times, accuracy, consistency, predictability and process reliability are just some of the factors that can be improved, leading to better manufactured product at lower costs. Open architecture controllers are allowing manufacturers to apply general purpose software and hardware tools increase where previous approaches relied on proprietary and unique hardware and software. This includes DNC, SCADA, CAD, and CAM, where the increasing use of general purpose components is leading to lower cost system that are also more reliable and robust than the past proprietary approaches. In addition, a number of new opportunities exist, which in the past were likely impractical due to cost or performance constraints.

  4. RoMPS concept review automatic control of space robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The Robot operated Material Processing in Space (RoMPS) experiment is being performed to explore the marriage of two emerging space commercialization technologies: materials processing in microgravity and robotics. This concept review presents engineering drawings and limited technical descriptions of the RoMPS programs' electrical and software systems.

  5. The comparison between limited open carpal tunnel release using direct vision and tunneling technique and standard open carpal tunnel release: a randomized controlled trial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppaphol, Sorasak; Worathanarat, Patarawan; Kawinwongkovit, Viroj; Pittayawutwinit, Preecha

    2012-04-01

    To compare the operative outcome of carpal tunnel release between limited open carpal tunnel release using direct vision and tunneling technique (group A) with standard open carpal tunnel release (group B). Twenty-eight patients were enrolled in the present study. A single blind randomized control trial study was conducted to compare the postoperative results between group A and B. The study parameters were Levine's symptom severity and functional score, grip and pinch strength, and average two-point discrimination. The postoperative results between two groups were comparable with no statistical significance. Only grip strength at three months follow up was significantly greater in group A than in group B. The limited open carpal tunnel release in the present study is effective comparable to the standard open carpal tunnel release. The others advantage of this technique are better cosmesis and improvement in grip strength at the three months postoperative period.

  6. Environmental Controls on Space-Time Biodiversity Patterns in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porporato, A. M.; Bonetti, S.; Feng, X.

    2014-12-01

    The Amazon/Andes territory is characterized by the highest biodiversity on Earth and understanding how all these ecological niches and different species originated and developed is an open challenge. The niche perspective assumes that species have evolved and occupy deterministically different roles within its environment. This view differs from that of the neutral theories, which assume ecological equivalence between all species but incorporates stochastic demographic processes along with long-term migration and speciation rates. Both approaches have demonstrated tremendous power in predicting aspects species biodiversity. By combining tools from both approaches, we use modified birth and death processes to simulate plant species diversification in the Amazon/Andes and their space-time ecohydrological controls. By defining parameters related to births and deaths as functions of available resources, we incorporate the role of space-time resource variability on niche formation and community composition. We also explicitly include the role of a heterogeneous landscape and topography. The results are discussed in relation to transect datasets from neotropical forests.

  7. Understanding Outdoor Gyms in Public Open Spaces: A Systematic Review and Integrative Synthesis of Qualitative and Quantitative Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Janet Lok Chun; Lo, Temmy Lee Ting; Ho, Rainbow Tin Hung

    2018-03-25

    (1) Background: An outdoor gym (OG) is environmental infrastructure built in a public open space to promote structured physical activity. The provision of OGs is increasingly seen as an important strategy to realize public health agendas promoting habitual physical activity. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize characteristics of OG and OG users' experiences and perceptions in different cultural contexts; (2) Methods: Online searches of multidisciplinary databases were conducted in health, sport and recreation, and urban planning disciplines. Characteristics of OGs were synthesized by integrating evidence from quantitative, qualitative, and mix-methods studies. The experiences and perceptions of OG users from both qualitative data and survey responses were synthesized through framework analysis; (3) Results: Nine studies met the inclusion criteria (three quantitative studies, four mixed-methods studies, and two pure qualitative studies). None were excluded on the basis of quality. OGs mainly serve adult and older adult population groups. Their size, design, and instructional support vary across studies. The inclusion of functional types of equipment did not have a unified standard. Regarding experiences and perceptions of OGs, five major themes emerged: "health", "social connectedness", "affordable", "support", and "design and promotion"; (4) Conclusions: The OG characteristics synthesis guides the direction in further studies regarding exploration of design parameters. The qualitative and quantitative synthesis revealed that health was a central theme of users' experiences. OGs are also spaces where community-dwellers can find social connectedness while participating in structured physical activity at no cost. Findings from this review create knowledge support for OG as environmental infrastructure for further research and facilitate the understanding of users' experiences and perceptions of OGs in different cultural contexts.

  8. Understanding Outdoor Gyms in Public Open Spaces: A Systematic Review and Integrative Synthesis of Qualitative and Quantitative Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Janet Lok Chun; Lo, Temmy Lee Ting

    2018-01-01

    (1) Background: An outdoor gym (OG) is environmental infrastructure built in a public open space to promote structured physical activity. The provision of OGs is increasingly seen as an important strategy to realize public health agendas promoting habitual physical activity. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize characteristics of OG and OG users’ experiences and perceptions in different cultural contexts; (2) Methods: Online searches of multidisciplinary databases were conducted in health, sport and recreation, and urban planning disciplines. Characteristics of OGs were synthesized by integrating evidence from quantitative, qualitative, and mix-methods studies. The experiences and perceptions of OG users from both qualitative data and survey responses were synthesized through framework analysis; (3) Results: Nine studies met the inclusion criteria (three quantitative studies, four mixed-methods studies, and two pure qualitative studies). None were excluded on the basis of quality. OGs mainly serve adult and older adult population groups. Their size, design, and instructional support vary across studies. The inclusion of functional types of equipment did not have a unified standard. Regarding experiences and perceptions of OGs, five major themes emerged: “health”, “social connectedness”, “affordable”, “support”, and “design and promotion”; (4) Conclusions: The OG characteristics synthesis guides the direction in further studies regarding exploration of design parameters. The qualitative and quantitative synthesis revealed that health was a central theme of users’ experiences. OGs are also spaces where community-dwellers can find social connectedness while participating in structured physical activity at no cost. Findings from this review create knowledge support for OG as environmental infrastructure for further research and facilitate the understanding of users’ experiences and perceptions of OGs in different cultural contexts

  9. Structural-Diagenetic Controls on Fracture Opening in Tight Gas Sandstone Reservoirs, Alberta Foothills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukar, Estibalitz; Eichhubl, Peter; Fall, Andras; Hooker, John

    2013-04-01

    relatively undeformed backlimb strata. Fracture apertures locally increase adjacent to reverse faults without an overall increase in fracture frequency. Fluid inclusion analyses of crack-seal quartz cement indicate both aqueous and methane-rich inclusions are present. Homogenization temperatures of two-phase inclusions indicate synkinematic fracture cement precipitation and fracture opening under conditions at or near maximum burial of 190-210°C in core samples, and 120-160°C in outcrop samples. In comparison with the fracture evolution in other, less deformed tight-gas sandstone reservoirs such as the Piceance and East Texas basins where fracture opening is primarily controlled by gas generation, gas charge, and pore fluid pressure, these results suggest a strong control of regional tectonic processes on fracture generation. In conjunction with timing and rate of gas charge, rates of fracture cement growth, and stratigraphic-lithological controls, these processes determine the overall distribution of open fractures in these reservoirs.

  10. Modular space vehicle boards, control software, reprogramming, and failure recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; McCabe, Kevin; Delapp, Jerry; Prichard, Dean; Proicou, Michael; Seitz, Daniel; Stein, Paul; Michel, John; Tripp, Justin; Palmer, Joseph; Storms, Steven

    2017-09-12

    A space vehicle may have a modular board configuration that commonly uses some or all components and a common operating system for at least some of the boards. Each modular board may have its own dedicated processing, and processing loads may be distributed. The space vehicle may be reprogrammable, and may be launched without code that enables all functionality and/or components. Code errors may be detected and the space vehicle may be reset to a working code version to prevent system failure.

  11. Leveraging master-slave OpenFlow controller arrangement to improve control plane resiliency in SD-EONs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoliang; Zhao, Bin; Ma, Shoujiang; Chen, Cen; Hu, Daoyun; Zhou, Wenshuang; Zhu, Zuqing

    2015-03-23

    In this paper, we study how to improve the control plane resiliency of software-defined elastic optical networks (SD-EONs) and design a master-slave OpenFlow (OF) controller arrangement. Specifically, we introduce two OF controllers (OF-Cs), i.e., the master and slave OF-Cs, and make them work in a collaborative way to protect the SD-EON against controller failures. We develop a controller communication protocol (CCP) to facilitate the cooperation of the two OF-Cs. With the CCP, the master OF-C (M-OF-C) can synchronize network status to the slave OF-C (S-OF-C) in real time, while S-OF-C can quickly detect the failure of M-OF-C and take over the network control and management (NC&M) tasks timely to avoid service disruption. We implement the proposed framework in an SD-EON control plane testbed built with high-performance servers, and perform NC&M experiments with different network failure scenarios to demonstrate its effectiveness. Experimental results indicate that the proposed system can restore services in both the data and control planes of SD-EON jointly while maintaining relatively good scalability. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that realizes control plane resiliency in SD-EONs.

  12. Aspects of Cultural Landscape Application on Classical Stage Art. Ballet Performance in the Open Space as a Significant Element of the Cultural Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Lebedeva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the applications aspects of cultural landscape for the preparation of the classical performing arts staging. Research findings highlighted that the cultural landscape (parks, estates, castles, bastions, etc. objects occupies an increasingly important role in public recreation and classical art development programs. At the same time it is noted that event’s aesthetic and emotional quality suffers due to the fact that no specific attention was given for the preparation of the event space. More methodological materials are necessary for preparation of this type of design spaces. In Lithuania classical performing arts events in cultural landscape open spaces are based on XVI–XVII century tradition and has good prospects for modern development. A review of some of the classical art events installations, based on the importance of quality of open spaces influence on the emotional impact, that should be an integral part of the cultural event. The author summarizes his experience of ballet events in open spaces in the cultural landscape – Klaipėda, Trakai. Presented is Tchaikovsky's ballet “Swan Lake” construction in Klaipėda John Hill project that includes infrastructure and environmental design concept: audience space, stage design, stage design performance solutions. Analogous key decisions are later adapted to the ballet performance in the natural environment of the lake Trakai. Experience of this project dictated the necessity of deeper understanding and methodological basis for the classical performing arts analysis and design.

  13. Tuning a space-time scalable PI controller using thermal parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riverol, C. [University of West Indies, Chemical Engineering Department, St. Augustine, Trinidad (Trinidad and Tobago); Pilipovik, M.V. [Armach Engineers, Urb. Los Palos Grandes, Project Engineering Department, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2005-03-01

    The paper outlines the successful empirical design and validation of a space-time PI controller based on study of the controlled variable output as function of time and space. The developed control was implemented on two heat exchanger systems (falling film evaporator and milk pasteurizer). The strategy required adding a new term over the classical PI controller, such that a new parameter should be tuned. Measurements made on commercial installations have confirmed the validity of the new controller. (orig.)

  14. Modeling, system identification, and control for slosh-free motion of an open container of liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feddema, J.; Baty, R.; Dykhuizen, R.; Dohrmann, C.; Parker, G.; Robinett, R.; Romero, V.; Schmitt, D.

    1996-04-01

    This report discusses work performed under a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) with Corning, Inc., to analyze and test various techniques for controlling the motion of a high speed robotic arm carrying an open container of viscous liquid, in this case, molten glass. A computer model was generated to estimate the modes of oscillation of the liquid based on the shape of the container and the viscosity of the liquid. This fluid model was experimentally verified and tuned based on experimental data from a capacitive sensor on the side of the container. A model of the robot dynamics was also developed and verified through experimental tests on a Fanuc S-800 robot arm. These two models were used to estimate the overall modes of oscillation of an open container of liquid being carried by a robot arm. Using the estimated modes, inverse dynamic control techniques were used to determine a motion profile which would eliminate waves on the liquid's surface. Experimental tests showed that residual surface waves in an open container of water at the end of motion were reduced by over 95% and that in-motion surface waves were reduced by over 75%

  15. Irregular Techniques for Controlling Under-Governed Space

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coburn, Matthew D

    2007-01-01

    The United States government has identified undergoverned areas in weakened or failed states as one of the threats faced by the United States and its allies because these spaces can provide safe havens for terrorists...

  16. Open versus arthroscopic approach in the treatment of femoroacetabular impingement: a case–control study with two-years follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Dutra Roos

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare clinical and imaging results and complications between patients treated for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI who underwent either anterior open surgery or an arthroscopic approach, with a minimum follow-up of two years. Methods This retrospective case–control study included patients submitted to FAI surgical treatment between November 2007 and March 2012. Patients treated with open surgery were compared with those treated with arthroscopy. Patients were clinically assessed by the modified Harris Hip Score, Non-Arthritic Hip Score, and internal hip rotation. Patients were radiographically assessed by the center-edge angle, joint space width, alpha angle, neck-head index, degree of arthrosis, and presence of heterotopic ossification of the hip. Results In the study period, 56 patients (58 hips with FAI were included; 16 underwent open surgery and 40 underwent arthroscopy. The 40 patients treated by the arthroscopic route had a mean follow-up of 29.1 months, and 75.6% presented good or excellent clinical results. The radiographic evaluation parameters progressed to normal levels. The 16 patients who underwent open surgery had a mean follow-up of 52 months, and 70.58% presented good or excellent clinical results. The radiographic evaluation parameters progressed to normal levels. Postoperative clinical and radiographic results were considered similar in both groups. Conclusions Arthroscopy and open surgery treatments for FAI provided comparable clinical and radiographic results. However, a higher rate of complications was observed in the open surgery group.

  17. Right hemisphere control of visuospatial attention in near space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Matthew R; Trippier, Sarah; Vagnoni, Eleonora; Lourenco, Stella F

    2015-04-01

    Traditionally, the right cerebral hemisphere has been considered to be specialized for spatial attention and orienting. A large body of research has demonstrated dissociable representations of the near space immediately surrounding the body and the more distance far space. In this study, we investigated whether right hemisphere activations commonly reported for tasks involving spatial attention (such as the line bisection and landmark tasks) are specific to stimuli presented in near space. In separate blocks of trials, participants judged either whether a vertical transector was to the left or right of the centre of a line (landmark task) or whether the line was red or blue (colour task). Stimuli were seen from four distances (30, 60, 90, 120 cm). We used EEG to measure an ERP component (the 'line-bisection effect') specific to the direction of spatial attention (i.e., landmark minus colour). Consistent with previous results, spatial attention produced a right-lateralized negativity over occipito-parietal channels. The magnitude of this negativity was inversely related to viewing distance, being largest in near space and reduced in far space. These results suggest that the right occipito-temporal cortex may be specialized not just for the orientation of spatial attention generally, but specifically for orienting attention in the near space immediately surrounding the body. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Land surface temperature distribution and development for green open space in Medan city using imagery-based satellite Landsat 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistiyono, N.; Basyuni, M.; Slamet, B.

    2018-03-01

    Green open space (GOS) is one of the requirements where a city is comfortable to stay. GOS might reduce land surface temperature (LST) and air pollution. Medan is one of the biggest towns in Indonesia that experienced rapid development. However, the early development tends to neglect the GOS existence for the city. The objective of the study is to determine the distribution of land surface temperature and the relationship between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the priority of GOS development in Medan City using imagery-based satellite Landsat 8. The method approached to correlate the distribution of land surface temperature derived from the value of digital number band 10 with the NDVI which was from the ratio of groups five and four on satellite images of Landsat 8. The results showed that the distribution of land surface temperature in the Medan City in 2016 ranged 20.57 - 33.83 °C. The relationship between the distribution of LST distribution with NDVI was reversed with a negative correlation of -0.543 (sig 0,000). The direction of GOS in Medan City is therefore developed on the allocation of LST and divided into three priority classes namely first priority class had 5,119.71 ha, the second priority consisted of 16,935.76 ha, and third priority of 6,118.50 ha.

  19. The Open Space Sculptures Used in the Gençlik Park towards Visual Perception of Park Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Polat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban parks are the most important areas that allow recreational activities in our towns. Increasing the visual quality of urban parks provides positive impacts on urban quality. Besides the artistic and technical features of open space sculptures which are used for urban park designs are the visual perceptions and preferences of park users are also important. In the context of this study, six sculptures in Gençlik Park which is in the boundaries Ankara have been considered. The aim of the study, to measure the visual quality of the sculptures in the urban parks through park users and to reveal the relationship between visual landscape indicators (of being interesting, coherence, complexity, meaningfulness, and mystery and the visual quality. For this purpose, the six pieces in Ankara Youth Park of sculpture were evaluated the scope of research. According to the results of the study; it was realized that park users like sculptures visually. A statistically significant relationship was found between the visual quality of the sculptures and some landscape indicators (to be interesting, mystery and harmony. In addition to these, some suggestions were made regarding the use of sculptures in urban parks.

  20. A Fault-tolerable Control Scheme for an Open-frame Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Hai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Open-frame is one of the major types of structures of Remote Operated Vehicles (ROV because it is easy to place sensors and operations equipment onboard. Firstly, this paper designed a petri-based recurrent neural network (PRFNN to improve the robustness with response to nonlinear characteristics and strong disturbance of an open-frame underwater vehicle. A threshold has been set in the third layer to reduce the amount of calculations and regulate the training process. The whole network convergence is guaranteed with the selection of learning rate parameters. Secondly, a fault tolerance control (FTC scheme is established with the optimal allocation of thrust. Infinity-norm optimization has been combined with 2-norm optimization to construct a bi-criteria primal-dual neural network FTC scheme. In the experiments and simulation, PRFNN outperformed fuzzy neural networks in motion control, while bi-criteria optimization outperformed 2-norm optimization in FTC, which demonstrates that the FTC controller can improve computational efficiency, reduce control errors, and implement fault tolerable thrust allocation.

  1. Robustness study of the pseudo open-loop controller for multiconjugate adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatrou, Piotr; Gilles, Luc

    2005-02-20

    Robustness of the recently proposed "pseudo open-loop control" algorithm against various system errors has been investigated for the representative example of the Gemini-South 8-m telescope multiconjugate adaptive-optics system. The existing model to represent the adaptive-optics system with pseudo open-loop control has been modified to account for misalignments, noise and calibration errors in deformable mirrors, and wave-front sensors. Comparison with the conventional least-squares control model has been done. We show with the aid of both transfer-function pole-placement analysis and Monte Carlo simulations that POLC remains remarkably stable and robust against very large levels of system errors and outperforms in this respect least-squares control. Approximate stability margins as well as performance metrics such as Strehl ratios and rms wave-front residuals averaged over a 1-arc min field of view have been computed for different types and levels of system errors to quantify the expected performance degradation.

  2. Holographic control of information and dynamical topology change for composite open quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aref'eva, I. Ya.; Volovich, I. V.; Inozemcev, O. V.

    2017-12-01

    We analyze how the compositeness of a system affects the characteristic time of equilibration. We study the dynamics of open composite quantum systems strongly coupled to the environment after a quantum perturbation accompanied by nonequilibrium heating. We use a holographic description of the evolution of entanglement entropy. The nonsmooth character of the evolution with holographic entanglement is a general feature of composite systems, which demonstrate a dynamical change of topology in the bulk space and a jumplike velocity change of entanglement entropy propagation. Moreover, the number of jumps depends on the system configuration and especially on the number of composite parts. The evolution of the mutual information of two composite systems inherits these jumps. We present a detailed study of the mutual information for two subsystems with one of them being bipartite. We find five qualitatively different types of behavior of the mutual information dynamics and indicate the corresponding regions of the system parameters.

  3. Space Vehicle Guidance, Navigation, Control, and Estimation Operations Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-29

    closed vs. open (periodic vs. non-periodic) and self-intersecting vs. non-self-intersecting ( conjunctive vs. non- conjunctive ). Fig. 8 illustrates the...non-self-intersecting curve. A non- conjunctive periodic Lissajous curve is called a Lissajous knot in mathematical knot theory [41]. A three

  4. The Political Economy of "Open Regionalism" and Education in Small (and Micro) States: The Construction of the Caribbean Educational Policy Space in CARICOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Tavis D.

    2014-01-01

    In this era of amplified regionalisation, the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean's (ECLAC) conceptualisation of 'open regionalism' is pertinent to examine the role of regional governance mechanisms in constructing what I call the "Caribbean Educational Policy Space." With the aid of a latent content analysis of…

  5. Junior Primary Greek School Pupils' Perceptions of the City's Public Open Spaces and Especially of the Urban Square: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Nikoletta; Galani, Apostolia; Mavrikaki, Evangelia

    2016-01-01

    This work--part of a wider project aimed at engaging first year primary school pupils in public open-space design--explores the perceptions of junior primary school children as to the urban square. Data collection tools comprised semi-structured interviews, sketches and storytelling via puppet-animation. Our findings have shown that--according to…

  6. Using OpenTarget to Generate Potential Countermeasures for Long-Term Space Exposure from Data Available on GeneLab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Afshin

    2018-01-01

    GeneLab as a general tool for the scientific community; Utilizing GeneLab datasets to generate hypothesis and determining potential biological targets against health risks due to long-term space missions; How can OpenTarget be used to discover novel drugs to test as countermeasures that can be utilized by astronauts.

  7. Total aircraft flight-control system - Balanced open- and closed-loop control with dynamic trim maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. A.; Meyer, G.

    1979-01-01

    The availability of the airborne digital computer has made possible a Total Aircraft Flight Control System (TAFCOS) that uses virtually the complete nonlinear propulsive and aerodynamic data for the aircraft to construct dynamic trim maps that represent an inversion of the aircraft model. The trim maps, in series with the aircraft, provide essentially a linear feed-forward path. Basically, open-loop trajectory control is employed with only a small perturbation feedback signal required to compensate for inaccuracy in the aircraft model and for external disturbances. Simulation results for application to an automatic carrier-landing system are presented. Flight-test results for a STOL aircraft operating automatically over a major portion of its flight regime are presented. The concept promises a more rapid and straightforward design from aerodynamic principles, particularly for highly nonlinear configurations, and requires substantially less digital computer capacity than conventional automatic flight-control system designs.

  8. Active Vibration Control Method for Space Truss Using Piezoelectric Actuators and Finite Elements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pantling, Carey

    1999-01-01

    .... With the use of a dSPACE data acquisition and processing system, quartz force transducer and piezoelectric actuator, active controls using an integral plus double integral control law were used...

  9. Research on Control Method Based on Real-Time Operational Reliability Evaluation for Space Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A control method based on real-time operational reliability evaluation for space manipulator is presented for improving the success rate of a manipulator during the execution of a task. In this paper, a method for quantitative analysis of operational reliability is given when manipulator is executing a specified task; then a control model which could control the quantitative operational reliability is built. First, the control process is described by using a state space equation. Second, process parameters are estimated in real time using Bayesian method. Third, the expression of the system's real-time operational reliability is deduced based on the state space equation and process parameters which are estimated using Bayesian method. Finally, a control variable regulation strategy which considers the cost of control is given based on the Theory of Statistical Process Control. It is shown via simulations that this method effectively improves the operational reliability of space manipulator control system.

  10. Performance of International Space Station Alpha Trace Contaminant Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    The analysis presented herein was conducted during the early transitional period between the Space Station Freedom and the International Space Station programs as part of an effort to evaluate key design specifications and standards used by the United States and Russia. The analysis was originally documented under NASA cover letter ED62(36-94) dated August 16, 1994. The analysis was revised and rereleased under NASA cover letter ED62(51-94) dated November 14, 1994. These cover letters are provided here to guide programmatic context for the reader.

  11. Open-air sprays for capturing and controlling airborne float coal dust on longwall faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, T.W.; Seaman, C.E.; Shahan, M.R.; Mischler, S.E.

    2018-01-01

    Float dust deposits in coal mine return airways pose a risk in the event of a methane ignition. Controlling airborne dust prior to deposition in the return would make current rock dusting practices more effective and reduce the risk of coal-dust-fueled explosions. The goal of this U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health study is to determine the potential of open-air water sprays to reduce concentrations of airborne float coal dust, smaller than 75 µm in diameter, in longwall face airstreams. This study evaluated unconfined water sprays in a featureless tunnel ventilated at a typical longwall face velocity of 3.6 m/s (700 fpm). Experiments were conducted for two nozzle orientations and two water pressures for hollow cone, full cone, flat fan, air atomizing and hydraulic atomizing spray nozzles. Gravimetric samples show that airborne float dust removal efficiencies averaged 19.6 percent for all sprays under all conditions. The results indicate that the preferred spray nozzle should be operated at high fluid pressures to produce smaller droplets and move more air. These findings agree with past respirable dust control research, providing guidance on spray selection and spray array design in ongoing efforts to control airborne float dust over the entire longwall ventilated opening. PMID:29348700

  12. Open-air sprays for capturing and controlling airborne float coal dust on longwall faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, T W; Seaman, C E; Shahan, M R; Mischler, S E

    2018-01-01

    Float dust deposits in coal mine return airways pose a risk in the event of a methane ignition. Controlling airborne dust prior to deposition in the return would make current rock dusting practices more effective and reduce the risk of coal-dust-fueled explosions. The goal of this U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health study is to determine the potential of open-air water sprays to reduce concentrations of airborne float coal dust, smaller than 75 µm in diameter, in longwall face airstreams. This study evaluated unconfined water sprays in a featureless tunnel ventilated at a typical longwall face velocity of 3.6 m/s (700 fpm). Experiments were conducted for two nozzle orientations and two water pressures for hollow cone, full cone, flat fan, air atomizing and hydraulic atomizing spray nozzles. Gravimetric samples show that airborne float dust removal efficiencies averaged 19.6 percent for all sprays under all conditions. The results indicate that the preferred spray nozzle should be operated at high fluid pressures to produce smaller droplets and move more air. These findings agree with past respirable dust control research, providing guidance on spray selection and spray array design in ongoing efforts to control airborne float dust over the entire longwall ventilated opening.

  13. Employing open/hidden administration in psychotherapy research: A randomized-controlled trial of expressive writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondorf, Theresa; Kaufmann, Lisa-Katrin; Degel, Alexander; Locher, Cosima; Birkhäuer, Johanna; Gerger, Heike; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Psychotherapy has been shown to be effective, but efforts to prove specific effects by placebo-controlled trials have been practically and conceptually hampered. We propose that adopting open/hidden designs from placebo research would offer a possible way to establish specificity in psychotherapy. Therefore, we tested the effects of providing opposing treatment rationales in an online expressive writing intervention on affect in healthy subjects. Results indicate that it was possible to conduct the expressive writing intervention both covertly and openly, but that participants in the hidden administration condition did not fully benefit from the otherwise effective expressive writing intervention in the long-run. Effect sizes between open and hidden administration groups were comparable to pre-post effect sizes of the intervention. While this finding is important for the understanding of psychotherapy's effects per se, it also proves that alternative research approaches to establish specificity are feasible and informative in psychotherapy research. Trial registration: German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00009428 PMID:29176768

  14. An application of gain-scheduled control using state-space interpolation to hydroactive gas bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Camino, Juan F.; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2016-01-01

    with a gain-scheduling strategy using state-space interpolation, which avoids both the performance loss and the increase of controller order associated to the Youla parametrisation. The proposed state-space interpolation for gain-scheduling is applied for mass imbalance rejection for a controllable gas...... bearing scheduled in two parameters. Comparisons against the Youla-based scheduling demonstrate the superiority of the state-space interpolation....

  15. Open-loop position tracking control of a piezoceramic flexible beam using a dynamic hysteresis compensator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Phuong-Bac; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel hysteresis compensator to enhance control accuracy in open-loop position tracking control of a piezoceramic flexible beam. The proposed hysteresis compensator consists of two components: a rate-independent hysteresis compensator and a nonlinear filter. The compensator is formulated based on the inverse Preisach model, while the weight coefficients of the filter are identified adaptively using a recursive least square (RLS) algorithm. In this work, two dynamic hysteresis compensators (or rate-independent hysteresis compensators) are developed by adopting two different nonlinear filters: Volterra and bilinear filters. In order to demonstrate the improved control accuracy of the proposed dynamic compensators, a flexible beam associated with the piezoceramic actuator is modeled using the finite element method (FEM) and Euler–Bernoulli beam theory. The beam model is then integrated with the proposed hysteresis model to achieve accurate position tracking control at the tip of the beam. An experimental investigation on the tip position tracking control is undertaken by realizing three different hysteresis compensators: a rate-independent hysteresis compensator, a rate-dependent hysteresis compensator with a Volterra nonlinear filter and a rate-independent hysteresis compensator with a bilinear nonlinear filter. It is shown that the proposed dynamic hysteresis compensators can provide much better tracking control accuracy than conventional rate-independent hysteresis compensators

  16. Experimental evaluation of open-loop UpLink Power Control using ACTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, Asoka

    1995-01-01

    The present investigation deals with the implementation of open-loop up-link power control using a beacon signal in the down-link frequency band as the control parameter. A power control system was developed and tested using the ACTS satellite. ACTS carries beacon signals in both up- and down-link bands with which the relationship between the up- and down-link fading can be established. A power controlled carrier was transmitted to the ACTS satellite from a NASA operated ground station and the transponded signal was received at COMSAT Laboratories using a terminal that was routinely used to monitor the two ACTS beacon signals. The experiment ran for a period of approximately six months and the collected data were used to evaluate the performance of the power control system. A brief review of propagation factors involved in estimating the up-link fade using a beacon signal in the down-link band are presented. The power controller design and the experiment configuration are discussed. Results of the experiment are discussed.

  17. Quality or quantity? Exploring the relationship between Public Open Space attributes and mental health in Perth, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Jacinta; Wood, Lisa J; Knuiman, Matthew; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2012-05-01

    Mental health is a public health priority globally. Public Open Space (POS) may enhance mental health by facilitating contact with nature and the development of supportive relationships. Despite growing interest in the influence of the built environment on mental health, associations between POS attributes and mental health remain relatively unexplored. In particular, few studies have examined the relative effects of the quantity and quality of POS within a neighbourhood on mental health. Guided by a social-ecological framework, this study investigated the relationship between POS attributes (i.e., quantity and quality) and better mental health (i.e., low risk of psychological distress) in residents of new housing developments in the Perth metropolitan area, Western Australia. The extent to which relationships between POS attributes and mental health were confounded by psychosocial factors (e.g., social support, sense of community) and frequent use of POS was also explored. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey (n = 911), a POS audit, and Geographical Information Systems, and was analysed using logistic regression. Approximately 80% of survey participants were at low risk of psychological distress. Residents of neighbourhoods with high quality POS had higher odds of low psychosocial distress than residents of neighbourhoods with low quality POS. This appeared to be irrespective of whether or not they used POS. However, the quantity of neighbourhood POS was not associated with low psychological distress. From a mental health perspective, POS quality within a neighbourhood appears to be more important than POS quantity. This finding has policy implications and warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Weak openness and almost openness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Rose

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Weak openness and almost openness for arbitrary functions between topological spaces are defined as duals to the weak continuity of Levine and the almost continuity of Husain respectively. Independence of these two openness conditions is noted and comparison is made between these and the almost openness of Singal and Singal. Some results dual to those known for weak continuity and almost continuity are obtained. Nearly almost openness is defined and used to obtain an improved link from weak continuity to almost continuity.

  19. Direct vector controlled six-phase asymmetrical induction motor with power balanced space vector PWM multilevel operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padmanaban, Sanjeevi Kumar; Grandi, Gabriele; Ojo, Joseph Olorunfemi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a six-phase (asymmetrical) machine is investigated, 300 phase displacement is set between two three-phase stator windings keeping deliberately in open-end configuration. Power supply consists of four classical three-phase voltage inverters (VSIs), each one connected to the open......-winding terminals. An original synchronous field oriented control (FOC) algorithm with three variables as degree of freedom is proposed, allowing power sharing among the four VSIs in symmetric/asymmetric conditions. A standard three-level space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) by nearest three vector (NTV......) approach was adopted for each couple of VSIs to operate as multilevel output voltage generators. The proposed power sharing algorithm is verified for the ac drive system by observing the dynamic behaviours in different set conditions by complete simulation modelling in software (Matlab...

  20. 40 CFR 424.10 - Applicability; description of the open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory. 424.10 Section 424.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Open...

  1. Regional assessment of urban impacts on landcover and open space finds a smart urban growth policy performs little better than business as usual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, James H; Santos, Maria J; Bjorkman, Jacquelyn H

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of landscape change is critical for attainment of regional sustainability goals. Urban growth assessments are needed because over half the global population now lives in cities, which impact biodiversity, ecosystem structure and ecological processes. Open space protection is needed to preserve these attributes, and provide the resources humans need. The San Francisco Bay Area, California, is challenged to accommodate a population increase of 3.07 million while maintaining the region's ecosystems and biodiversity. Our analysis of 9275 km² in the Bay Area links historic trends for three measures: urban growth, protected open space, and landcover types over the last 70 years to future 2050 projections of urban growth and open space. Protected open space totaled 348 km² (3.7% of the area) in 1940, and expanded to 2221 km² (20.2%) currently. An additional 1038 km² of protected open space is targeted (35.1%). Urban area historically increased from 396.5 km² to 2239 km² (24.1% of the area). Urban growth during this time mostly occurred at the expense of agricultural landscapes (62.9%) rather than natural vegetation. Smart Growth development has been advanced as a preferred alternative in many planning circles, but we found that it conserved only marginally more open space than Business-as-usual when using an urban growth model to portray policies for future urban growth. Scenarios to 2050 suggest urban development on non-urban lands of 1091, 956, or 179 km², under Business-as-usual, Smart Growth and Infill policy growth scenarios, respectively. The Smart Growth policy converts 88% of natural lands and agriculture used by Business-as-usual, while Infill used only 40% of those lands. Given the historic rate of urban growth, 0.25%/year, and limited space available, the Infill scenario is recommended. While the data may differ, the use of an historic and future framework to track these three variables can be easily applied to other metropolitan areas.

  2. Space station communications and tracking equipment management/control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapell, M. H.; Seyl, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Design details of a communications and tracking (C and T) local area network and the distribution system requirements for the prospective space station are described. The hardware will be constructed of LRUs, including those for baseband, RF, and antenna subsystems. It is noted that the C and T equipment must be routed throughout the station to accommodate growth of the station. Configurations of the C and T modules will therefore be dependent on the function of the space station module where they are located. A block diagram is provided of a sample C and T hardware distribution configuration. A topology and protocol will be needed to accommodate new terminals, wide bandwidths, bidirectional message transmission, and distributed functioning. Consideration will be given to collisions occurring in the data transmission channels.

  3. Distributed computing environments for future space control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallefont, Pierre

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the results of a CNES research project on distributed computing systems. The purpose of this research was to study the impact of the use of new computer technologies in the design and development of future space applications. The first part of this study was a state-of-the-art review of distributed computing systems. One of the interesting ideas arising from this review is the concept of a 'virtual computer' allowing the distributed hardware architecture to be hidden from a software application. The 'virtual computer' can improve system performance by adapting the best architecture (addition of computers) to the software application without having to modify its source code. This concept can also decrease the cost and obsolescence of the hardware architecture. In order to verify the feasibility of the 'virtual computer' concept, a prototype representative of a distributed space application is being developed independently of the hardware architecture.

  4. Laparoscopic versus open total mesorectal excision: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breukink, S O; Pierie, J P E N; Grond, A J K; Hoff, C; Wiggers, T; Meijerink, W J H J

    2005-09-01

    Because definitive long-term results are not yet available, the oncological safety of laparoscopic surgery for treatment of rectal cancer remains unproven. The aim of this prospective non-randomised study was to assess the feasibility and short-term outcome of laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (LTME) after 25--30 Gy preoperative radiotherapy and to compare the results with a matched-control group of open TME (OTME). A series of 41 patients with primary rectal cancer underwent LTME for rectal cancer and were matched with a historical control group of 41 patients who underwent OTME. Both groups received preoperative short-term radiotherapy. There was no mortality in the LTME group and 2% mortality in the OTME group. The overall postoperative morbidity was 37% in the LTME group and 51% in the OTME group, including an anastomotic leakage of 9 and 14% in the LTME and OTME groups respectively. A positive circumferential margin was found in 7% of patients in the LTME group and in 12% of the patients in the OTME group. This study shows that LTME is technically feasible and can be performed safely. We show at least a similar surgical completeness using a laparoscopic technique compared with open surgery.

  5. Fault-Tolerant Control of ANPC Three-Level Inverter Based on Order-Reduction Optimal Control Strategy under Multi-Device Open-Circuit Fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shi-Zhou; Wang, Chun-Jie; Lin, Fang-Li; Li, Shi-Xiang

    2017-10-31

    The multi-device open-circuit fault is a common fault of ANPC (Active Neutral-Point Clamped) three-level inverter and effect the operation stability of the whole system. To improve the operation stability, this paper summarized the main solutions currently firstly and analyzed all the possible states of multi-device open-circuit fault. Secondly, an order-reduction optimal control strategy was proposed under multi-device open-circuit fault to realize fault-tolerant control based on the topology and control requirement of ANPC three-level inverter and operation stability. This control strategy can solve the faults with different operation states, and can works in order-reduction state under specific open-circuit faults with specific combined devices, which sacrifices the control quality to obtain the stability priority control. Finally, the simulation and experiment proved the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  6. Open coil traction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibhute, Pavankumar Janardan

    2012-01-01

    Sliding mechanics have become a popular method for space closure, with the development of preadjusted edgewise appliances. Furthermore, various space closing auxiliaries have been developed and extensively evaluated for their clinical efficiency. Their effectiveness is enhanced with optimum force magnitude and low load deflection rate/force decay. With the advent of nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) springs in orthodontics, load deflection rates have been markedly reduced. To use Ni-Ti springs, clinicians have to depend upon prefabricated closed coil springs. The open coil traction system, or open coil retraction spring, is developed utilizing Ni-Ti open coil springs for orthodontic space closure. This article describes the fabrication and clinical application of the open coil traction system, which has a number of advantages. It sustains a low load deflection rate with optimum force magnitude, and its design is adjustable for a desired length and force level. It is fail-safe for both activation and deactivation (ie, it cannot be overactivated, and the decompression limit of the open coil is controlled by the operator). The open coil traction system can be offset from the mucosa to help reduce soft tissue impingement.

  7. Passive Control of Attachment in Legged Space Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Gasparetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the space environment the absence of gravity calls for constant safe attachment of any loose object, but the low-pressure conditions prohibit the use of glue-type adhesives. The attachment system of freely hunting spiders, e.g. Evarcha arcuata, employs van der Waals forces and mechanical interlocking. Furthermore, detachment is achieved passively and requires little force. Hence, the spider serves as a model for a versatile legged robot for space applications, e.g. on the outer surface of a space station. In this paper, we analyse the dry attachment systems of E. arcuata and geckos as well as the kinematics of freely hunting spiders. We generalise the results of biological studies on spider locomotion and mobility, including the major movement and the position constraints set by the dry adhesion system. From these results, we define a simplified spider model and study the overall kinematics of the legs both in flight and in contact with the surface. The kinematic model, the data on spider gait characteristics and the adhesion constraints are implemented in a kinematic simulator. The simulator results confirm the principal functionality of our concept.

  8. Controllable Fabrication of Au Nanocups by Confined-Space Thermal Dewetting for OCT Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Aiqin; Xu, Wenjing; Ponce de León, Yenisey; Bai, Yaocai; Gong, Mingfu; Xie, Kongliang; Park, Boris Hyle; Yin, Yadong

    2017-07-01

    Here, this study reports a novel confined-space thermal dewetting strategy for the fabrication of Au nanocups with tunable diameter, height, and size of cup opening. The nanocup morphology is defined by the cup-shaped void space created by a yolk-shell silica template that spontaneously takes an eccentric configuration during annealing. Thermal dewetting of Au, which is sandwiched between the yolk and shell, leads to the desired nanocup morphology. With strong scattering in near infrared, the Au nanocups exhibit superior efficiency as contrast agents for spectral-domain optical coherence tomography imaging. This confined-space thermal dewetting strategy is scalable and general, and can be potentially extended to the synthesis of novel anisotropic nanostructures of various compositions that are difficult to produce by conventional wet chemical or physical methods, thus opening up opportunities for many new applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Rat sightings in New York City are associated with neighborhood sociodemographics, housing characteristics, and proximity to open public space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Walsh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rats are ubiquitous in urban environments and, as established reservoirs for infectious pathogens, present a control priority for public health agencies. New York City (NYC harbors one of the largest rat populations in the United States, but surprising little study has been undertaken to define rat ecology across varied features of this urban landscape. More importantly, factors that may contribute to increased encounters between rats and humans have rarely been explored. Using city-wide records of rat sightings reported to the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, this investigation sought to identify sociodemographic, housing, and physical landscape characteristics that are associated with increased rat sightings across NYC census tracts. A hierarchical Bayesian conditional autoregressive Poisson model was used to assess these associations while accounting for spatial heterogeneity in the variance. Closer proximity to both subway lines and recreational public spaces was associated with a higher concentration of rat sightings, as was a greater presence of older housing, vacant housing units, and low education among the population. Moreover, these aspects of the physical and social landscape accurately predicted rat sightings across the city. These findings have identified specific features of the NYC urban environment that may help to provide direct control targets for reducing human–rat encounters.

  10. Rat sightings in New York City are associated with neighborhood sociodemographics, housing characteristics, and proximity to open public space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    Rats are ubiquitous in urban environments and, as established reservoirs for infectious pathogens, present a control priority for public health agencies. New York City (NYC) harbors one of the largest rat populations in the United States, but surprising little study has been undertaken to define rat ecology across varied features of this urban landscape. More importantly, factors that may contribute to increased encounters between rats and humans have rarely been explored. Using city-wide records of rat sightings reported to the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, this investigation sought to identify sociodemographic, housing, and physical landscape characteristics that are associated with increased rat sightings across NYC census tracts. A hierarchical Bayesian conditional autoregressive Poisson model was used to assess these associations while accounting for spatial heterogeneity in the variance. Closer proximity to both subway lines and recreational public spaces was associated with a higher concentration of rat sightings, as was a greater presence of older housing, vacant housing units, and low education among the population. Moreover, these aspects of the physical and social landscape accurately predicted rat sightings across the city. These findings have identified specific features of the NYC urban environment that may help to provide direct control targets for reducing human-rat encounters.

  11. The impact of urban open space and 'lift-up' building design on building intake fraction and daily pollutant exposure in idealized urban models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Chenyuan; Wang, Xuemei; Lin, Yuanyuan; Fan, Yifan; Chen, Xi; Hang, Jian

    2018-08-15

    Sustainable urban design is an effective way to improve urban ventilation and reduce vehicular pollutant exposure to urban residents. This paper investigated the impacts of urban open space and 'lift-up' building design on vehicular CO (carbon monoxide) exposure in typical three-dimensional (3D) urban canopy layer (UCL) models under neutral atmospheric conditions. The building intake fraction (IF) represents the fraction of total vehicular pollutant emissions inhaled by residents when they stay at home. The building daily CO exposure (E t ) means the extent of human beings' contact with CO within one day indoor at home. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations integrating with these two concepts were performed to solve turbulent flow and assess vehicular CO exposure to urban residents. CFD technique with the standard k-ε model was successfully validated by wind tunnel data. The initial numerical UCL model consists of 5-row and 5-column (5×5) cubic buildings (building height H=street width W=30m) with four approaching wind directions (θ=0°, 15°, 30°, 45°). In Group I, one of the 25 building models is removed to attain urban open space settings. In Group II, the first floor (Lift-up1), or second floor (Lift-up2), or third floor (Lift-up3) of all buildings is elevated respectively to create wind pathways through buildings. Compared to the initial case, urban open space can slightly or significantly reduce pollutant exposure for urban residents. As θ=30° and 45°, open space settings are more effective to reduce pollutant exposure than θ=0° and 15°.The pollutant dilution near or surrounding open space and in its adjacent downstream regions is usually enhanced. Lift-up1 and Lift-up2 experience much greater pollutant exposure reduction in all wind directions than Lift-up3 and open space. Although further investigations are still required to provide practical guidelines, this study is one of the first attempts for reducing urban pollutant exposure by

  12. A space vector control stradegy for improvement of control speed and reduction of sensitivity of phase jump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes a full space vector control stradegy. The synchronisation used to improveboth the control speed of reactive power and reduce the sensitivity to large phase jumps in the grid caused by switching arge loads. The control stradegy is tested with a 5-level 10kvar laboratory model....

  13. Lightweight space radiator with leakage control by internal electrostatic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.; Bankoff, S.G.; Miksis, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    An electrostatic liquid film space radiator is proposed. This will employ an internal electrostatic field to prevent leakage of the liquid-metal coolant out of a puncture. This overcomes the major disadvantage of membrane radiators, which is their vulnerability to micrometeorite impacts. Calculations show that leaks of liquid lithium at 700 degree K can easily be stopped from punctures which are several mm in diameter, with very large safety factors. The basic idea lends itself to a variety of radiator concepts, both rotating and non-rotating. Some typical film thickness and pressure calculations in the presence of an electric field are shown

  14. A research on the excavation, support, and environment control of large scale underground space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Pil Chong; Kwon, Kwang Soo; Jeong, So Keul [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    With the growing necessity of the underground space due to the deficiency of above-ground space, the size and shape of underground structures tend to be complex and diverse. This complexity and variety force the development of new techniques for rock mass classification, excavation and supporting of underground space, monitoring and control of underground environment. All these techniques should be applied together to make the underground space comfortable. To achieve this, efforts have been made on 5 different areas; research on the underground space design and stability analysis, research on the techniques for excavation of rock by controlled blasting, research on the development of monitoring system to forecast the rock behaviour of underground space, research on the environment inspection system in closed space, and research on dynamic analysis of the airflow and environmental control in the large geos-spaces. The 5 main achievements are improvement of the existing structure analysis program(EXCRACK) to consider the deformation and failure characteristics of rock joints, development of new blasting design (SK-cut), prediction of ground vibration through the newly proposed wave propagation equation, development and In-Situ application of rock mass deformation monitoring system and data acquisition software, and trial manufacture of the environment inspection system in closed space. Should these techniques be applied to the development of underground space, prevention of industrial disaster, cut down of construction cost, domestication of monitoring system, improvement of tunnel stability, curtailment of royalty, upgrade of domestic technologies will be brought forth. (Abstract Truncated)

  15. Dynamic simulation of space heating systems with radiators controlled by TRVs in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Baoping; Fu, Lin; Di, Hongfa [Department of Building Science, School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a model for simulating the thermal and hydraulic behavior of space heating systems with radiators controlled by thermostat valves (TRVs) in multi-family buildings. This is done by treating the building and the heating system as a complete entity. Sub-models for rooms, radiators, TRVs, and the hydraulic network are derived. Then the suggested sub-models are combined to form an integrated model by considering interactions between them. The proposed model takes into account the heat transfer between neighboring rooms, the transport delay in the radiator, the self-adjusting function of the TRV, and the consumer's regulation behavior, as well as the hydraulic interactions between consumers. To test the model, two space heating systems in Beijing and Tianjin were investigated, and the model was validated under three operation modes. There was good agreement between the measured and simulated values for room temperature, return water temperature, and flow rate. A modeling analysis case was given based on an existing building and heating system. It was found that when the set value of the TRVs were kept on 2-3, about 12.4% reduction of heat consumption could be gained, compared with the situation in which the TRVs were kept fully open. The water flow rate was an important index that truly reflected the heat load change. It was also noted that if the flow rate or supply water temperature changed much during the transport delay time in the radiator, ignoring the transport delay would introduce an obvious deviation of the simulation results. Additionally, when an apartment stopped using the heating system during a heating season, the heat consumption of its neighboring apartments would be increased about 6-14%. (author)

  16. Building highly available control system applications with Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture and open standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakov, Artem; Furukawa, Kazuro

    2010-01-01

    Requirements for modern and future control systems for large projects like International Linear Collider demand high availability for control system components. Recently telecom industry came up with a great open hardware specification - Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA). This specification is aimed for better reliability, availability and serviceability. Since its first market appearance in 2004, ATCA platform has shown tremendous growth and proved to be stable and well represented by a number of vendors. ATCA is an industry standard for highly available systems. On the other hand Service Availability Forum, a consortium of leading communications and computing companies, describes interaction between hardware and software. SAF defines a set of specifications such as Hardware Platform Interface, Application Interface Specification. SAF specifications provide extensive description of highly available systems, services and their interfaces. Originally aimed for telecom applications, these specifications can be used for accelerator controls software as well. This study describes benefits of using these specifications and their possible adoption to accelerator control systems. It is demonstrated how EPICS Redundant IOC was extended using Hardware Platform Interface specification, which made it possible to utilize benefits of the ATCA platform.

  17. dc SQUID electronics based on adaptive noise cancellation and a high open-loop gain controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seppae, H.

    1992-01-01

    A low-noise SQUID readout electronics with a high slew rate and an automatic gain control feature has been developed. Flux noise levels of 5x10 -7 Φ 0 /√Hz at 1 kHz and 2x10 -6 Φ 0 /√Hz at 1 Hz have been measured with this readout scheme. The system tolerates sinusoidal disturbances having amplitudes up to 140 Φ 0 at 1 kHz without loosing lock. The electronics utilizes a cooled GaAs FET to control the cancellation of the voltage noise of the room temperature amplifier, a PI 3/2 controller to provide a high open-loop gain at low frequencies, and a square-wave flux and offset voltage modulation to enable automatic control of the noise reduction. The cutoff frequency of the flux-locked-loop is 300 kHz and the feedback gain is more than 130 dB at 10 Hz. (orig.)

  18. Space Stirling Cryocooler Contamination Lessons Learned and Recommended Control Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, D. S.; Price, K.; Gully, W.; Castles, S.; Reilly, J.

    The most important characteristic of a space cryocooler is its reliability over a lifetime typically in excess of 7 years. While design improvements have reduced the probability of mechanical failure, the risk of internal contamination is still significant and has not been addressed in a consistent approach across the industry. A significant fraction of the endurance test and flight units have experienced some performance degradation related to internal contamination. The purpose of this paper is to describe and assess the contamination issues inside long life, space cryocoolers and to recommend procedures to minimize the probability of encountering contamination related failures and degradation. The paper covers the sources of contamination, the degradation and failure mechanisms, the theoretical and observed cryocooler sensitivity, and the recommended prevention procedures and their impact. We begin with a discussion of the contamination sources, both artificial and intrinsic. Next, the degradation and failure mechanisms are discussed in an attempt to arrive at a contaminant susceptibility, from which we can derive a contamination budget for the machine. This theoretical sensitivity is then compared with the observed sensitivity to illustrate the conservative nature of the assumed scenarios. A number of lessons learned on Raytheon, Ball, Air Force Research Laboratory, and NASA GSFC programs are shared to convey the practical aspects of the contamination problem. Then, the materials and processes required to meet the proposed budget are outlined. An attempt is made to present a survey of processes across industry.

  19. A Template for Open Inquiry: Using Questions to Encourage and Support Inquiry in Earth and Space Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Ronald S.; Miranda, Rommel J.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an instructional approach to helping students generate open-inquiry research questions, which the authors call the "open-inquiry question template." This template was created based on their experience teaching high school science and preservice university methods courses. To help teachers implement this template, they…

  20. Variable versus conventional lung protective mechanical ventilation during open abdominal surgery (PROVAR): a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieth, P M; Güldner, A; Uhlig, C; Bluth, T; Kiss, T; Conrad, C; Bischlager, K; Braune, A; Huhle, R; Insorsi, A; Tarantino, F; Ball, L; Schultz, M J; Abolmaali, N; Koch, T; Pelosi, P; Gama de Abreu, M

    2018-03-01

    Experimental studies showed that controlled variable ventilation (CVV) yielded better pulmonary function compared to non-variable ventilation (CNV) in injured lungs. We hypothesized that CVV improves intraoperative and postoperative respiratory function in patients undergoing open abdominal surgery. Fifty patients planned for open abdominal surgery lasting >3 h were randomly assigned to receive either CVV or CNV. Mean tidal volumes and PEEP were set at 8 ml kg -1 (predicted body weight) and 5 cm H 2 O, respectively. In CVV, tidal volumes varied randomly, following a normal distribution, on a breath-by-breath basis. The primary endpoint was the forced vital capacity (FVC) on postoperative Day 1. Secondary endpoints were oxygenation, non-aerated lung volume, distribution of ventilation, and pulmonary and extrapulmonary complications until postoperative Day 5. FVC did not differ significantly between CVV and CNV on postoperative Day 1, 61.5 (standard deviation 22.1) % vs 61.9 (23.6) %, respectively; mean [95% confidence interval (CI)] difference, -0.4 (-13.2-14.0), P=0.95. Intraoperatively, CVV did not result in improved respiratory function, haemodynamics, or redistribution of ventilation compared to CNV. Postoperatively, FVC, forced expiratory volume at the first second (FEV 1 ), and FEV 1 /FVC deteriorated, while atelectasis volume and plasma levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 increased, but values did not differ between groups. The incidence of postoperative pulmonary and extrapulmonary complications was comparable in CVV and CNV. In patients undergoing open abdominal surgery, CVV did not improve intraoperative and postoperative respiratory function compared with CNV. NCT 01683578. Copyright © 2017 British Journal of Anaesthesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Low cost monitoring from space using Landsat TM time series and open source technologies: the case study of Iguazu park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nole, Gabriele; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    Up to nowadays, satellite data have become increasingly available, thus offering a low cost or even free of charge unique tool, with a great potential for operational monitoring of vegetation cover, quantitative assessment of urban expansion and urban sprawl, as well as for monitoring of land use changes and soil consumption. This growing observational capacity has also highlighted the need for research efforts aimed at exploring the potential offered by data processing methods and algorithms, in order to exploit as much as possible this invaluable space-based data source. The work herein presented concerns an application study on the monitoring of vegetation cover and urban sprawl conducted with the use of satellite Landsat TM data. The selected test site is the Iguazu park highly significant, being it one of the most threatened global conservation priorities (http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/303/). In order to produce synthetic maps of the investigated areas to monitor the status of vegetation and ongoing subtle changes, satellite Landsat TM data images were classified using two automatic classifiers, Maximum Likelihood (MLC) and Support Vector Machines (SVMs) applied by changing setting parameters, with the aim to compare their respective performances in terms of robustness, speed and accuracy. All process steps have been developed integrating Geographical Information System and Remote Sensing, and adopting free and open source software. Results pointed out that the SVM classifier with RBF kernel was generally the best choice (with accuracy higher than 90%) among all the configurations compared, and the use of multiple bands globally improves classification. One of the critical elements found in the case of monitoring of urban area expansion is given by the presence of urban garden mixed with urban fabric. The use of different configurations for the SVMs, i.e. different kernels and values of the setting parameters, allowed us to calibrate the classifier also to

  2. State-space Generalized Predicitve Control for redundant parallel robots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Belda, Květoslav; Böhm, Josef; Valášek, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2003), s. 413-432 ISSN 1539-7734 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/03/0620 Grant - others:CTU(CZ) 0204512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : parallel robot construction * generalized predictive control * drive redundancy Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/historie/belda-0411126.pdf

  3. Robust Model-based Control of Open-loop Unstable Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emad, Ali

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses the development of new formulations for estimating modeling errors or unmeasured disturbances to be used in Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithms during open-loop prediction. Two different formulations were developed in this paper. One is used in MPC that directly utilizes linear models and the other in MPC that utilizes non-linear models. These estimation techniques were utilized to provide robust performance for MPC algorithms when the plant is open-loop unstable and under the influence of modeling error and/or unmeasured disturbances. For MPC that utilizes a non-linear model, the estimation technique is formulated as a fixed small size on-line optimization problem, while for linear MPC, the unmeasured disturbances are estimated via a proposed linear disturbance model. The disturbance model coefficients are identified on-line from historical estimates of plant-model mismatch. The effectiveness of incorporating these proposed estimation techniques into MPC is tested through simulated implementation on non-linear unstable exothermic fluidized bed reactor. Closed-loop simulations proved the capability of the proposed estimation methods to stabilize and, thereby, improve the MPC performance in such cases. (Author)

  4. A comparison of controlled self-pollination and open pollination results based on maize grain quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Sulewska

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. grain endosperm is triploid (3n, of which 2n come from the male (transferred by pollen and only 1n from the female plant, thus a major impact of the male form can be expected on grain quality parameters. A good example of this relationship is the phenomenon of xenia. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pollen on grain quality. The field experiment was conducted in 2011; seeds were harvested from eight cultivars: Bosman, Blask, Tur, Kozak, Bielik, Smok, SMH 220 and Kresowiak, derived from free pollination and controlled self-pollination of maize. Analyses of nutrient contents and starch content in the grain were conducted in the laboratory. In addition, 1000 grain weight and the hectoliter weight of all grain samples were recorded. The results confirmed differences in grain quality of maize hybrids obtained by self-pollination and by open pollination. Grain of maize plants obtained by open-pollination was characterised by higher contents of N-free extract and starch, and lower protein content. Undertaking further studies on this subject may indicate specific recommendations for agricultural practice, such as mixtures of hybrids with good combining abilities, which will contribute to improved grain quality without additional costs.

  5. Open-label placebo treatment in chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Cláudia; Caetano, Joaquim Machado; Cunha, Lidia; Rebouta, Paula; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Kirsch, Irving

    2016-12-01

    This randomized controlled trial was performed to investigate whether placebo effects in chronic low back pain could be harnessed ethically by adding open-label placebo (OLP) treatment to treatment as usual (TAU) for 3 weeks. Pain severity was assessed on three 0- to 10-point Numeric Rating Scales, scoring maximum pain, minimum pain, and usual pain, and a composite, primary outcome, total pain score. Our other primary outcome was back-related dysfunction, assessed on the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. In an exploratory follow-up, participants on TAU received placebo pills for 3 additional weeks. We randomized 97 adults reporting persistent low back pain for more than 3 months' duration and diagnosed by a board-certified pain specialist. Eighty-three adults completed the trial. Compared to TAU, OLP elicited greater pain reduction on each of the three 0- to 10-point Numeric Rating Scales and on the 0- to 10-point composite pain scale (P Pain reduction on the composite Numeric Rating Scales was 1.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.0-2.0) in the OLP group and 0.2 (-0.3 to 0.8) in the TAU group. Open-label placebo treatment also reduced disability compared to TAU (P pain (1.5, 0.8-2.3) and disability (3.4, 2.2-4.5). Our findings suggest that OLP pills presented in a positive context may be helpful in chronic low back pain.

  6. A Control Law Definition of the Open Loop Stepping Electric Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Krasovskii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an open loop stepping electric drive (SEP with electric crushing of a step and motor fed from the controlled current invertor which should meet the requirement that is to trial a free-form guided trajectory with a split-hair accuracy. It is shown that with traditional programmed control, when the SEP forms motor phase currents of identical amplitude and variable frequency proportional to the set speed of movement, there may be considerable errors reducing a trial accuracy of the set movement trajectory, dynamic indicators provoking oscillatory processes, and even loss of motor synchronism because influence on a dynamic moment of the motor is impossible.The paper offers and proves a new way to define a control algorithm adequate to drive parameters and programmed trajectory of movement, providing error minimization and thereby increasing trial accuracy of set parameters of movement and expanding dynamic capabilities of a drive. The essence of the offered way is to use a modified mathematical model of a drive in d,q coordinates with a motor fed by the current source. In this model a programmed trajectory of movement is chosen as an input action while solving the appropriate equations defines the necessary law of control. The paper describes a developed simulation model of the stepping electric drive in the environment of MATLAB – SIMULINK, which has been used to verify and prove an efficiency of the offered method to define a control law via typical examples.It is established that no error trial of set movement trajectory in case it has breaks (jogs is technically unfeasible, as it demands an infinitely high forcing voltage of the power supply to maintain the instant positive or negative phase shifts of currents formed in the motor windings.The obtained results can be used in designing programmable precision SEPs in robots, numerically controlled machine tools, and assembly equipment.

  7. Damage control surgery and open abdomen in trauma patients with exsanguinating bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutafchiĭski, V; Popivanov, G

    2014-01-01

    Acute coagulopathy with exsanguinating bleeding occurs in 2-5% of all trauma cases carrying mortality rate near 100% after conventional management. In the last few decades, the development of damage control surgery (DCS) in combination with the technique of open abdomen led to significantly improved survival among these patients. A descriptive study based on a retrospective analysis of 12 consecutive blast victims with exsanguinating bleeding underwent DCS and open abdomen management. All patients were soldiers injured during their deployment in Iraq and Afghanistan during 2002-2007, treated by our deployed surgical teams. Vacuum Assisted Closure (V.A.C., KCI) and vacuum pack (VP) was used for a temporary closure of abdomen. A cumulative analysis of all relevant series used these methods during the period 2000-2013 was performed. DCS was applied in 12 of 114 consecutive blast victims (10.5%) with survival rate 66.7% (8/12). Eleven had open abdomen with temporary closure with V.A.C. in 6 and VP in 5. Four patients died before the definitive closure (36.4%). The survivors (n = 8) were with a mean age 28.5 years, suffered from a critical trauma with a mean Injury Severity Score 35.5. V.A.C was used in 4 of them, VP in 3. Primary closure of abdomen was achieved in 6 (85.7%) within 3.5 days and mean 1.3 dressing changes. Due to ACS, the abdomen was closed through skin suture only and a creation of planned ventral hernia in 1 patient treated with VP (1/7, 14.3%). Wound infection was observed in 1 case (14.3%). Despite the small sample size, our series clearly demonstrate the benefits of DCS and open abdomen in trauma patients with exsangiunating bleeding. The survival rate is highly dependent on the rapid implementation of DCS in properly selected patients. V.A.C. and VP provide a high rate of primary fascial closure in trauma.

  8. 3 x 3 free-space optical router based on crossbar network and its control algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Peipei; Sun, Jianfeng; Yu, Zhou; Lu, Wei; Wang, Lijuan; Liu, Liren

    2015-08-01

    A 3 × 3 free-space optical router, which comprises optical switches and polarizing beam splitter (PBS) and based on crossbar network, is proposed in this paper. A control algorithm for the 3 × 3 free-space optical router is also developed to achieve rapid control without rearrangement. In order to test the performance of the network based on 3 × 3 free-space optical router and that of the algorithm developed for the optical router, experiments are designed. The experiment results show that the interconnection network based on the 3 × 3 free-space optical router has low cross talk, fast connection speed. Under the control of the algorithm developed, a non-block and real free interconnection network is obtained based on the 3 × 3 free-space optical router we proposed.

  9. Open-Rate Controlled Experiment in E-Mail Marketing Campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antun Biloš

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The main purpose of this paper is to test the controlled experiment (A/B split methodology in B2C oriented e-mail marketing campaigns. Design/Methodology/Approach – E-mail marketing techniques have been a substantial part of e-marketing methodology since the early Internet days of the mid-1990s. From the very beginning of Internet utilization for business purposes, e-mail was one of the most widely used communication techniques in B2B and B2C markets alike. Due to high volumes of spamming and progression of online communication clutter, some practitioners began to question the usability of e-mail as a marketing communication channel, while others embarked on working on improving the message itself. Efforts were invested into improving message quality, as well as into better understanding user expectations. One of the most commonly used techniques to test specific e-mail message elements is the controlled experiment. Findings and implications – This paper explores several types of controlled experiments in a specific Croatian B2C market. Tests were run to determine subscriber behavior towards several newsletter components, including sending time, sending day, sender’s name, and subject line. Open and click rates for tested campaigns, and several other metrics were investigated using MailChimp software. An N − 1 two-proportion test using an adjusted Wald confidence interval around the difference in the proportions was used for comparing the open-rate measure in the controlled experiments between subjects. Limitation – Controlled experiments (A/B split tests showed a lot of potential as a way of measuring behavior and preferences of subscribers, although several apparent limitations (the data-set scope, comparability issues indicated a clear need for standardization on a managerial and scientific level. Originality – This paper provides an up-to-date e-mail marketing effectiveness literature review, describes and tests the

  10. PLACE: an open-source python package for laboratory automation, control, and experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jami L; Tom Wörden, Henrik; van Wijk, Kasper

    2015-02-01

    In modern laboratories, software can drive the full experimental process from data acquisition to storage, processing, and analysis. The automation of laboratory data acquisition is an important consideration for every laboratory. When implementing a laboratory automation scheme, important parameters include its reliability, time to implement, adaptability, and compatibility with software used at other stages of experimentation. In this article, we present an open-source, flexible, and extensible Python package for Laboratory Automation, Control, and Experimentation (PLACE). The package uses modular organization and clear design principles; therefore, it can be easily customized or expanded to meet the needs of diverse laboratories. We discuss the organization of PLACE, data-handling considerations, and then present an example using PLACE for laser-ultrasound experiments. Finally, we demonstrate the seamless transition to post-processing and analysis with Python through the development of an analysis module for data produced by PLACE automation. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  11. Study on Intelligent Control of Metal Filling System by Welding Robots in the Open Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available robot model of three-arm and five-degree freedom plus large scope of traversing welding was established, and decoupling of models of “large scope of traversing”, “triangle movement of two arms” and “spherical movement of one arm” was realized. The model of “triangle movement of two arms ”is able to use geometrical calculation to solve the kinematics inverse problem , avoid the multiplicity, improve the calculation speed, eliminate the blind spots of the motions of welding gun of welding robot, and simplify the kinematic pair of kinematic mechanism for the arc filling strategy during welding travelling of robot. Binocular stereo vision camera was used to detect the edges of welds, and laser array sensor was used to detect the amount of metal filling of welds. In completely open conditions, feedback was fused based on sensor data to realize the welding tracking control by welding robot.

  12. Bose-Hubbard lattice as a controllable environment for open quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosco, Francesco; Borrelli, Massimo; Mendoza-Arenas, Juan José; Plastina, Francesco; Jaksch, Dieter; Maniscalco, Sabrina

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the open dynamics of an atomic impurity embedded in a one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard lattice. We derive the reduced evolution equation for the impurity and show that the Bose-Hubbard lattice behaves as a tunable engineered environment allowing one to simulate both Markovian and non-Markovian dynamics in a controlled and experimentally realizable way. We demonstrate that the presence or absence of memory effects is a signature of the nature of the excitations induced by the impurity, being delocalized or localized in the two limiting cases of a superfluid and Mott insulator, respectively. Furthermore, our findings show how the excitations supported in the two phases can be characterized as information carriers.

  13. The Need for Intelligent Control of Space Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Ryan David; Soeder, James F.; Beach, Raymond F.; McNelis, Nancy B.

    2013-01-01

    As manned spacecraft venture farther from Earth, the need for reliable, autonomous control of vehicle subsystems becomes critical. This is particularly true for the electrical power system which is critical to every other system. Autonomy can not be achieved by simple scripting techniques due to the communication latency times and the difficulty associated with failures (or combinations of failures) that need to be handled in as graceful a manner as possible to ensure system availability. Therefore an intelligent control system must be developed that can respond to disturbances and failures in a robust manner and ensure that critical system loads are served and all system constraints are respected.

  14. Achieving Energy Savings with Highly-Controlled Lighting in an Open-Plan Office

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, Francis; Enscoe, Abby

    2010-04-19

    An installation in a Federal building tested the effectiveness of a highly-controlled, workstation-specific lighting retrofit. The study took place in an open-office area with 86 cubicles and low levels of daylight. Each cubicle was illuminated by a direct/indirectpendant luminaire with three 32 watt lamps, two dimmable DALI ballasts, and an occupancy sensor. A centralized control system programmed all three lamps to turn on and off according to occupancy on a workstation-by-workstation basis. Field measurements taken over the course of several monthsdemonstrated 40% lighting energy savings compared to a baseline without advanced controls that conforms to GSA's current retrofit standard. A photometric analysis found that the installation provided higher desktop light levels than the baseline, while an occupant survey found that occupants in general preferred the lighting system to thebaseline.Simple payback is fairly high; projects that can achieve lower installation costs and/or higher energy savings and those in which greenhouse gas reduction and occupant satisfaction are significant priorities provide the ideal setting for workstation-specific lighting retrofits.

  15. Minimally invasive versus open distal pancreatectomy (LEOPARD): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rooij, Thijs; van Hilst, Jony; Vogel, Jantien A; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; de Boer, Marieke T; Boerma, Djamila; van den Boezem, Peter B; Bonsing, Bert A; Bosscha, Koop; Coene, Peter-Paul; Daams, Freek; van Dam, Ronald M; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G; van Eijck, Casper H; Festen, Sebastiaan; Gerhards, Michael F; Groot Koerkamp, Bas; Hagendoorn, Jeroen; van der Harst, Erwin; de Hingh, Ignace H; Dejong, Cees H; Kazemier, Geert; Klaase, Joost; de Kleine, Ruben H; van Laarhoven, Cornelis J; Lips, Daan J; Luyer, Misha D; Molenaar, I Quintus; Nieuwenhuijs, Vincent B; Patijn, Gijs A; Roos, Daphne; Scheepers, Joris J; van der Schelling, George P; Steenvoorde, Pascal; Swijnenburg, Rutger-Jan; Wijsman, Jan H; Abu Hilal, Moh'd; Busch, Olivier R; Besselink, Marc G

    2017-04-08

    Observational cohort studies have suggested that minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy (MIDP) is associated with better short-term outcomes compared with open distal pancreatectomy (ODP), such as less intraoperative blood loss, lower morbidity, shorter length of hospital stay, and reduced total costs. Confounding by indication has probably influenced these findings, given that case-matched studies failed to confirm the superiority of MIDP. This accentuates the need for multicenter randomized controlled trials, which are currently lacking. We hypothesize that time to functional recovery is shorter after MIDP compared with ODP even in an enhanced recovery setting. LEOPARD is a randomized controlled, parallel-group, patient-blinded, multicenter, superiority trial in all 17 centers of the Dutch Pancreatic Cancer Group. A total of 102 patients with symptomatic benign, premalignant or malignant disease will be randomly allocated to undergo MIDP or ODP in an enhanced recovery setting. The primary outcome is time (days) to functional recovery, defined as all of the following: independently mobile at the preoperative level, sufficient pain control with oral medication alone, ability to maintain sufficient (i.e. >50%) daily required caloric intake, no intravenous fluid administration and no signs of infection. Secondary outcomes are operative and postoperative outcomes, including clinically relevant complications, mortality, quality of life and costs. The LEOPARD trial is designed to investigate whether MIDP reduces the time to functional recovery compared with ODP in an enhanced recovery setting. Dutch Trial Register, NTR5188 . Registered on 9 April 2015.

  16. Environmental control and life support testing at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, Richard G.; Humphries, William R.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) test program at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is addressed. The immediate goals and current activities of the test program are discussed. Also described are the Core Module Integration Facility (CMIF) and the initial ECLSS test configuration. Future plans for the ECLSS test program and the CMIF are summarized.

  17. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard: Parts, Materials, and Processes Control Program for Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    preparation , implementation, and operation of a Parts, Materials, and Processes (PMP) control program for use during the design, development...Processes List CDR Critical Design Review CDRL Contract Data Requirements List CMOS Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor CONOPS Concept of Operations...Failure Review Board GFE Government Furnished Equipment GIDEP Government Industry Data Exchange Program HBT Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor IPT

  18. Bringing 3D Memory Cubes to Space: a "Rad-Hard by Design Study" with an Open Architecture, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The computing capabilities of onboard spacecraft are a major limiting factor for accomplishing many classes of future missions. Although technology development...

  19. Bringing 3D Memory Cubes to Space: a "Rad-Hard by Design Study" with an Open Architecture, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The computing capabilities of onboard spacecraft are a major limiting factor for accomplishing many classes of future missions. Although technology development...

  20. The Incidence of Propionibacterium acnes in Open Shoulder Surgery: A Controlled Diagnostic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mook, William R; Klement, Mitchell R; Green, Cynthia L; Hazen, Kevin C; Garrigues, Grant E

    2015-06-17

    Propionibacterium acnes has arisen as the most common microorganism identified at the time of revision shoulder arthroplasty. There is limited evidence to suggest how frequently false-positive cultures occur. The purpose of this prospective controlled study was to evaluate culture growth from specimens obtained during open shoulder surgery. Patients undergoing an open deltopectoral approach to the shoulder were prospectively enrolled. Patients with a history of shoulder surgery or any concern for active or previous shoulder infection were excluded. Three pericapsular soft-tissue samples were taken from the shoulder for bacterial culture and were incubated for fourteen days. A sterile sponge was also analyzed in parallel with the tissue cultures. In addition, similar cultures were obtained from patients who had undergone previous shoulder surgery. Overall, 20.5% of surgeries (twenty-four of 117) yielded at least one specimen removed for culture that was positive for bacterial growth, and 13.0% of sterile control specimens (seven of fifty-four) had positive culture growth (p = 0.234). P. acnes represented 83.0% of all positive cultures (thirty-nine of forty-seven) at a median incubation time of fourteen days. Among the subjects who had not undergone previous surgery, 17.1% (fourteen of eighty-two) had at least one positive P. acnes culture. Male sex was univariably associated with a greater likelihood of bacterial growth (p surgery and had received two or more preoperative corticosteroid injections had a higher likelihood of bacterial growth (p = 0.047). The clinical importance of positive P. acnes cultures from specimens obtained from open shoulder surgery remains uncertain. Male sex and preoperative corticosteroid injections were associated with a higher likelihood of bacterial growth on culture and are risk factors that merit further investigation. Previously reported incidences of positive P. acnes culture results from specimens from primary and revision shoulder

  1. Extraterrestrial Hemorrhage Control: Terrestrial Developments in Technique, Technology, and Philosophy with Applicability to Traumatic Hemorrhage in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew; Dawson, David; Campbell, Mark; Jones, Jeff; Ball, Chad G.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Dulchavsky, Scott; McBeth, Paul; Holcomb, John

    2004-01-01

    Managing injury and illness during long duration space flight limits efforts to explore beyond low earths orbit. Traumatic injury may be expected to occur in space and is a frequent cause of preventable deaths, often related to uncontrolled or ongoing hemorrhage (H). Such bleeding causes 40% of terrestrial injury mortality. Current guidelines emphasize early control of H compared to intravenous infusions. Recent advances in surgical and critical care may be applicable to trauma care in space, with appropriate considerations of the extreme logistical and personnel limitations. Methods: Recent developments in technique, resuscitation fluids, hemoglobin (Hb) substitutes, hemostatic agents, interventional angiography, damage control principles, and concepts related to suspended animation were reviewed. Results: H associated with instability frequently requires definitive intervention. Direct pressure should be applied to all compressible bleeding, but novel approaches are required for intracavitary noncompressible bleeding. Intravenous hemostatic agents such as recombinant Factor VII may facilitate hemostasis especially when combined with a controlled hypotension approach. Both open and laparoscopic techniques could be used in weightlessness, but require technical expertise not likely to be available. Specific rehearsed invasive techniques such as laparotomy with packing, or arterial catherterization with with robotic intravascular embolization might be considered . Hemodynamic support, thermal manipulation, or pharmacologic induction of a state of metabolic down regulation for whole body preservation may be appropriate. Hypertonic saline, with or without dextran, may temporize vascular support and decrease reperfusion injury, with less mass than other solutions. Hb substitutes have other theoretical advantages. Conclusions: Terrestrial developments suggest potential novel strategies to control H in space, but will required a coordinated program of evaluation and

  2. Force-sensed interface for control and training space robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseev, O. S.; Sarsadskikh, A. S.; Povalyaev, N. D.; Gorbunov, V. I.; Kulakov, F. M.; Vasilev, V. V.

    2018-05-01

    A method of positional and force-torque control of robots is proposed. Prototypes of the system and the master handle have been created. Algorithm of bias estimation and gravity compensation for force-torque sensor and force-torque trajectory correction are described.

  3. Command and Control Across Space and Cyberspace Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    debilitating impact on security, national economic security, national public health or safety, or any combination of those matters.”16).17 From Joint...Third, push control (if not command) to the theater or operational level. Returning to the inbound ICBM scenario proposed by Maj Gen Zabel and detailed

  4. Numerical analysis using state space method for vibration control of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ATHARVA

    carried out for two cases namely car moving on sagged bridges and car ... the vibrations of steel moment resisting frame in reinforced cement concrete buildings. ... active or semi-active dampers rolled into one (Spencer Jr. and Soong, 1999). ... implementation cost, low power consumption, ease of control, simple design ...

  5. Adaptive Neural Control for Space Structure Vibration Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-01

    based implementations is the subject of the next chapter. 17 ANC Final Report Kam VdI k (~k)A .. loco[ Excitation --Control ON 1 15 20 25 30 Figure 2...must’write something to the update register to cause ~ 1* a conversion. * #def ine MODE OxOOOO 1* Keep things in range * #def ine NAXDA 2048 #define DASENS

  6. Pulse-density modulation control of chemical oscillation far from equilibrium in a droplet open-reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Haruka; Ito, Manami; Okuaki, Tomoya; Mori, Yoshihito; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Takinoue, Masahiro

    2016-01-20

    The design, construction and control of artificial self-organized systems modelled on dynamical behaviours of living systems are important issues in biologically inspired engineering. Such systems are usually based on complex reaction dynamics far from equilibrium; therefore, the control of non-equilibrium conditions is required. Here we report a droplet open-reactor system, based on droplet fusion and fission, that achieves dynamical control over chemical fluxes into/out of the reactor for chemical reactions far from equilibrium. We mathematically reveal that the control mechanism is formulated as pulse-density modulation control of the fusion-fission timing. We produce the droplet open-reactor system using microfluidic technologies and then perform external control and autonomous feedback control over autocatalytic chemical oscillation reactions far from equilibrium. We believe that this system will be valuable for the dynamical control over self-organized phenomena far from equilibrium in chemical and biomedical studies.

  7. Bridge between control science and technology. Volume 5 Manufacturing man-machine systems, computers, components, traffic control, space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rembold, U; Kempf, K G; Towill, D R; Johannsen, G; Paul, M

    1985-01-01

    Among the topics discussed are: robotics; CAD/CAM applications; and man-machine systems. Consideration is also given to: tools and software for system design and integration; communication systems for real-time computer control; fail-safe design of real-time computer systems; and microcomputer-based control systems. Additional topics discussed include: programmable and intelligent components and instruments in automatic control; transportation systems; and space applications of automatic control systems.

  8. Evolved finite state controller for hybrid system in reduced search space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Jean-Francois; Fan, Zhun

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary methodology to automatically generate finite state automata (FSA) controllers to control hybrid systems. The proposed approach reduces the search space using an invariant analysis of the system. FSA controllers for a case study of two-tank system have been...

  9. RoMPS concept review automatic control of space robot, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, M. E.

    1991-01-01

    Topics related to robot operated materials processing in space (RoMPS) are presented in view graph form and include: (1) system concept; (2) Hitchhiker Interface Requirements; (3) robot axis control concepts; (4) Autonomous Experiment Management System; (5) Zymate Robot Controller; (6) Southwest SC-4 Computer; (7) oven control housekeeping data; and (8) power distribution.

  10. Experiments in Neural-Network Control of a Free-Flying Space Robot

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Edward

    1995-01-01

    Four important generic issues are identified and addressed in some depth in this thesis as part of the development of an adaptive neural network based control system for an experimental free flying space robot prototype...

  11. An integrated control scheme for space robot after capturing non-cooperative target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingming; Luo, Jianjun; Yuan, Jianping; Walter, Ulrich

    2018-06-01

    How to identify the mass properties and eliminate the unknown angular momentum of space robotic system after capturing a non-cooperative target is of great challenge. This paper focuses on designing an integrated control framework which includes detumbling strategy, coordination control and parameter identification. Firstly, inverted and forward chain approaches are synthesized for space robot to obtain dynamic equation in operational space. Secondly, a detumbling strategy is introduced using elementary functions with normalized time, while the imposed end-effector constraints are considered. Next, a coordination control scheme for stabilizing both base and end-effector based on impedance control is implemented with the target's parameter uncertainty. With the measurements of the forces and torques exerted on the target, its mass properties are estimated during the detumbling process accordingly. Simulation results are presented using a 7 degree-of-freedom kinematically redundant space manipulator, which verifies the performance and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Controllability of impulsive neutral functional differential inclusions with infinite delay in Banach spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.-K.; Anguraj, A.; Mallika Arjunan, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we establish a sufficient condition for the controllability of the first-order impulsive neutral functional differential inclusions with infinite delay in Banach spaces. The results are obtained by using the Dhage's fixed point theorem.

  13. Control of the interparticle spacing in gold nanoparticle superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARTIN,JAMES E.; WILCOXON,JESS P.; ODINEK,JUDY G.; PROVENCIO,PAULA P.

    2000-04-06

    The authors have investigated the formation of 2-D and 3-D superlattices of Au nanoclusters synthesized in nonionic inverse micelles, and capped with alkyl thiol ligands, with alkane chains ranging from C{sub 6} to C1{sub 18}. The thiols are found to play a significant role in the ripening of these nanoclusters, and in the formation of superlattices. Image processing techniques were developed to reliably extract from transmission electron micrographs (TEMs) the particle size distribution, and information about the superlattice domains and their boundaries. The latter permits one to compute the intradomain vector pair correlation function, from which one can accurately determine the lattice spacing and the coherent domain size. From these data the gap between the particles in the coherent domains can be determined as a function of the thiol chain length. It is found that as the thiol chain length increases, the nanoclusters become more polydisperse and larger, and the gaps between particles within superlattice domains increases. Annealing studies at elevated temperatures confirm nanocluster ripening. Finally, the effect of the particle gaps on physical properties is illustrated by computing the effective dielectric constant, and it is shown that the gap size now accessible in superlattices is rather large for dielectric applications.

  14. Human Engineering of Space Vehicle Displays and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Holden, Kritina L.; Boyer, Jennifer; Stephens, John-Paul; Ezer, Neta; Sandor, Aniko

    2010-01-01

    Proper attention to the integration of the human needs in the vehicle displays and controls design process creates a safe and productive environment for crew. Although this integration is critical for all phases of flight, for crew interfaces that are used during dynamic phases (e.g., ascent and entry), the integration is particularly important because of demanding environmental conditions. This panel addresses the process of how human engineering involvement ensures that human-system integration occurs early in the design and development process and continues throughout the lifecycle of a vehicle. This process includes the development of requirements and quantitative metrics to measure design success, research on fundamental design questions, human-in-the-loop evaluations, and iterative design. Processes and results from research on displays and controls; the creation and validation of usability, workload, and consistency metrics; and the design and evaluation of crew interfaces for NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle are used as case studies.

  15. Approaching control for tethered space robot based on disturbance observer using super twisting law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yongxin; Huang, Panfeng; Meng, Zhongjie; Wang, Dongke; Lu, Yingbo

    2018-05-01

    Approaching control is a key mission for the tethered space robot to perform the task of removing space debris. But the uncertainties of the TSR such as the change of model parameter have an important effect on the approaching mission. Considering the space tether and the attitude of the gripper, the dynamic model of the TSR is derived using Lagrange method. Then a disturbance observer is designed to estimate the uncertainty based on STW control method. Using the disturbance observer, a controller is designed, and the performance is compared with the dynamic inverse controller which turns out that the proposed controller performs better. Numerical simulation validates the feasibility of the proposed controller on the position and attitude tracking of the TSR.

  16. Reflected kinetics model for nuclear space reactor kinetics and control scoping calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, K.E.

    1986-05-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a model that offers an alternative to the point kinetics (PK) modelling approach in the analysis of space reactor kinetics and control studies. Modelling effort will focus on the explicit treatment of control drums as reactivity input devices so that the transition to automatic control can be smoothly done. The proposed model is developed for the specific integration of automatic control and the solution of the servo mechanism problem. The integration of the kinetics model with an automatic controller will provide a useful tool for performing space reactor scoping studies for different designs and configurations. Such a tool should prove to be invaluable in the design phase of a space nuclear system from the point of view of kinetics and control limitations.

  17. Reflected kinetics model for nuclear space reactor kinetics and control scoping calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington, K.E.

    1986-05-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a model that offers an alternative to the point kinetics (PK) modelling approach in the analysis of space reactor kinetics and control studies. Modelling effort will focus on the explicit treatment of control drums as reactivity input devices so that the transition to automatic control can be smoothly done. The proposed model is developed for the specific integration of automatic control and the solution of the servo mechanism problem. The integration of the kinetics model with an automatic controller will provide a useful tool for performing space reactor scoping studies for different designs and configurations. Such a tool should prove to be invaluable in the design phase of a space nuclear system from the point of view of kinetics and control limitations

  18. Reliability issues in active control of large flexible space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandervelde, W. E.

    1986-01-01

    Efforts in this reporting period were centered on four research tasks: design of failure detection filters for robust performance in the presence of modeling errors, design of generalized parity relations for robust performance in the presence of modeling errors, design of failure sensitive observers using the geometric system theory of Wonham, and computational techniques for evaluation of the performance of control systems with fault tolerance and redundancy management

  19. PLK4 trans-Autoactivation Controls Centriole Biogenesis in Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Carla A M; Jana, Swadhin Chandra; Cunha-Ferreira, Inês; Zitouni, Sihem; Bento, Inês; Duarte, Paulo; Gilberto, Samuel; Freixo, Francisco; Guerrero, Adán; Francia, Maria; Lince-Faria, Mariana; Carneiro, Jorge; Bettencourt-Dias, Mónica

    2015-10-26

    Centrioles are essential for cilia and centrosome assembly. In centriole-containing cells, centrioles always form juxtaposed to pre-existing ones, motivating a century-old debate on centriole biogenesis control. Here, we show that trans-autoactivation of Polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4), the trigger of centriole biogenesis, is a critical event in the spatial control of that process. We demonstrate that centrioles promote PLK4 activation through its recruitment and local accumulation. Though centriole removal reduces the proportion of active PLK4, this is rescued by concentrating PLK4 to the peroxisome lumen. Moreover, while mild overexpression of PLK4 only triggers centriole amplification at the existing centriole, higher PLK4 levels trigger both centriolar and cytoplasmatic (de novo) biogenesis. Hence, centrioles promote their assembly locally and disfavor de novo synthesis. Similar mechanisms enforcing the local concentration and/or activity of other centriole components are likely to contribute to the spatial control of centriole biogenesis under physiological conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Humans, 'things' and space: costing hospital infection control interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, K; Graves, N; Halton, K; Barnett, A G

    2013-07-01

    Previous attempts at costing infection control programmes have tended to focus on accounting costs rather than economic costs. For studies using economic costs, estimates tend to be quite crude and probably underestimate the true cost. One of the largest costs of any intervention is staff time, but this cost is difficult to quantify and has been largely ignored in previous attempts. To design and evaluate the costs of hospital-based infection control interventions or programmes. This article also discusses several issues to consider when costing interventions, and suggests strategies for overcoming these issues. Previous literature and techniques in both health economics and psychology are reviewed and synthesized. This article provides a set of generic, transferable costing guidelines. Key principles such as definition of study scope and focus on large costs, as well as pitfalls (e.g. overconfidence and uncertainty), are discussed. These new guidelines can be used by hospital staff and other researchers to cost their infection control programmes and interventions more accurately. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.