WorldWideScience

Sample records for open drug scene

  1. The Bench: An open drug scene and its people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grønnestad Trond Erik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIMS - This article describes life in an open illicit drug milieu in a Norwegian city. This site, called “the Bench”, is a stigmatised place, and if one sits there, one is marked with the stigma of the place. Our aim is to gain insights into what stigmatised people gain from frequently visiting and staying in a public place that in itself is stigmatised. METHOD - One of the authors spent a year of participant observation, studying what went on at the Bench. He managed to build rapport in a gradual process of inclusion. The theoretical perspective rests on classic ethnography, symbolic interactionism and sociology on labelling and purity and dirt. RESULTS - “The Bench” is not only a local drug market, but also a social meeting place in which one can feel dignity, and where a certain humanisation process takes place through the rituals of everyday life. On “the Bench” it is possible to tell stories of decay, failures and shortcomings in life, stories that in other social arenas would be interpreted as symbols of stigma and degradation. “The Bench” is also a place in which different established power relations may be turned around through storytelling and jokes. This provides the bench-sitters with a sense of mutual control and agency. CONCLUSION - Socialising at “the Bench” is an expression of the need among social human beings to have their existences confirmed, in a society where they have been marginalised and looked upon as second-class citizens, as urban outcasts.

  2. Open drug scenes and drug-related public nuisance: a visual rapid assessment research study in Dublin, Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hout, Marie Claire; Bingham, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The research was undertaken at a time of increasing public concerns for drug- and alcohol-related public nuisance in the city center of Dublin, Ireland. Rapid Assessment Research was conducted involving qualitative interviewing with drug service users; business, transport, community, voluntary, and statutory stakeholders (n = 61); and an environmental mapping exercise. The interplay between homelessness, loitering, an influx of drug users via city metro systems, transient open drug scenes, street drinking, drug injecting, intimidation, knife crime, and prescribed medication abuse was evident. Potential strategies to address drug and alcohol related public nuisance are advised to include the relocation of treatment services, targeted harm reduction initiatives, urban regeneration, improved community rehabilitation pathways, and heightened policing intensity.

  3. OpenSceneGraph 3 Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Rui

    2012-01-01

    This is a cookbook full of recipes with practical examples enriched with code and the required screenshots for easy and quick comprehension. You should be familiar with the basic concepts of the OpenSceneGraph API and should be able to write simple programs. Some OpenGL and math knowledge will help a lot, too.

  4. The drug scene in Mexico and the road ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Mora, María Elena; Real, Tania

    2013-01-01

    Mexico is a country affected by drugs in every aspect: it is a drug producing country of heroin, marihuana and methamphetamines, mainly for external markets but also for the growing internal demand; it is a transit country for cocaine that has found its way through the Central American and Mexican corridor on its way to external markets and for the internal supply. As a result of the increasing availability of substances and a favorable social environment, it has become a consuming country; drug experimentation use and dependence of illegal drugs, although still low, have increased. The abuse/dependence of legal substances such as alcohol and tobacco are the main substance abuse problems; only the abuse of pharmaceuticals remains low and relatively stable, mainly as a result of low availability for medical purposes and therefore limited scope for deviation. Social costs are considerable, as happens in other countries in the region, violence being the most prevailing characteristic of the drug scene, increasing from 2008 onwards. Within these important challenges for health and security, it is also true that significant, continuous efforts have been made by demand reduction programs at the national level since 1972 and adapted to the changing circumstances. This editorial seeks to tell the story of drug transitions in Mexico and the programs that have been implemented and discusses areas of opportunity for a new approach.

  5. Ocfentanil overdose fatality in the recreational drug scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopman, Vera; Cordonnier, Jan; De Leeuw, Marc; Cirimele, Vincent

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the first reported death involving ocfentanil, a potent synthetic opioid and structure analogue of fentanyl abused as a new psychoactive substance in the recreational drug scene. A 17-year-old man with a history of illegal substance abuse was found dead in his home after snorting a brown powder purchased over the internet with bitcoins. Acetaminophen, caffeine and ocfentanil were identified in the powder by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and reversed-phase liquid chromatography with diode array detector. Quantitation of ocfentanil in biological samples was performed using a target analysis based on liquid-liquid extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. In the femoral blood taken at the external body examination, the following concentrations were measured: ocfentanil 15.3μg/L, acetaminophen 45mg/L and caffeine 0.23mg/L. Tissues sampled at autopsy were analyzed to study the distribution of ocfentanil. The comprehensive systematic toxicological analysis on the post-mortem blood and tissue samples was negative for other compounds. Based on circumstantial evidence, autopsy findings and the results of the toxicological analysis, the medical examiner concluded that the cause of death was an acute intoxication with ocfentanil. The manner of death was assumed to be accidental after snorting the powder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Open PHACTS: semantic interoperability for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Antony J; Harland, Lee; Groth, Paul; Pettifer, Stephen; Chichester, Christine; Willighagen, Egon L; Evelo, Chris T; Blomberg, Niklas; Ecker, Gerhard; Goble, Carole; Mons, Barend

    2012-11-01

    Open PHACTS is a public-private partnership between academia, publishers, small and medium sized enterprises and pharmaceutical companies. The goal of the project is to deliver and sustain an 'open pharmacological space' using and enhancing state-of-the-art semantic web standards and technologies. It is focused on practical and robust applications to solve specific questions in drug discovery research. OPS is intended to facilitate improvements in drug discovery in academia and industry and to support open innovation and in-house non-public drug discovery research. This paper lays out the challenges and how the Open PHACTS project is hoping to address these challenges technically and socially.

  7. Automated 3D Scene Reconstruction from Open Geospatial Data Sources: Airborne Laser Scanning and a 2D Topographic Database

    OpenAIRE

    Lingli Zhu; Matti Lehtomäki; Juha Hyyppä; Eetu Puttonen; Anssi Krooks; Hannu Hyyppä

    2015-01-01

    Open geospatial data sources provide opportunities for low cost 3D scene reconstruction. In this study, based on a sparse airborne laser scanning (ALS) point cloud (0.8 points/m2) obtained from open source databases, a building reconstruction pipeline for CAD building models was developed. The pipeline includes voxel-based roof patch segmentation, extraction of the key-points representing the roof patch outline, step edge identification and adjustment, and CAD building model generation. The a...

  8. Visualization of large scale geologically related data in virtual 3D scenes with OpenGL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Dewen; Liang, Xi; Wang, Hongxia; Yue, Guoying

    2007-11-01

    This paper demonstrates a method for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and visualization of large scale multidimensional surficial, geological and mine planning data with the programmable visualization environment OpenGL. A simulation system developed by the authors is presented for importing, filtering and visualizing of multidimensional geologically related data. The approach for the visual simulation of complicated mining engineering environment implemented in the system is described in detail. Aspects like presentations of multidimensional data with spatial dependence, navigation in the surficial and geological frame of reference and in time, interaction techniques are presented. The system supports real 3D landscape representations. Furthermore, the system provides many visualization methods for rendering multidimensional data within virtual 3D scenes and combines them with several navigation techniques. Real data derived from an iron mine in Wuhan City of China demonstrates the effectiveness and efficiency of the system. A case study with the results and benefits achieved by using real 3D representations and navigations of the system is given.

  9. Drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents in a rural farming community in Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmann, Tyson; Fraga, Miguel A; Brodine, Stephanie K; Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Cepeda, Alice; Elder, John P; Garfein, Richard S; Viidai Team

    2013-01-01

    We examined drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents of a migrant farming community in rural Baja California, Mexico. In October 2010, 164 members of a single colonia (community) underwent an interviewer-administered survey to assess 'exposure to gang violence' and 'drug-scene familiarity', as well as other health indicators. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of exposure to gang violence. Overall, 20% of participants were male, the median age was 27 years, 24% spoke an indigenous language, 42% reported exposure to gang violence and 39% reported drug-scene familiarity. Factors independently associated with exposure to gang violence included being younger (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.80 per 5-year increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.67-0.96), living in the community longer (AOR=1.47 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.11-1.72), higher educational attainment (AOR=1.70 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.07-1.12) and drug-scene familiarity (AOR=5.10, 95% CI=2.39-10.89). Exposure to gang violence was very common in this community and was associated with drug-scene familiarity, suggesting a close relationship between drugs and gang violence in this rural community. In a region characterised by mass migration from poorer parts of Mexico, where drugs and gangs have not been previously reported, emerging social harms may affect these communities unless interventions are implemented.

  10. Drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents in a rural farming community in Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmann, Tyson; Fraga, Miguel A.; Brodine, Stephanie K.; Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Cepeda, Alice; Elder, John P.; Garfein, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    We examined drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents of a migrant farming community in rural Baja California, Mexico. In October 2010, 164 members of a single colonia (community) underwent an interviewer-administered survey to assess ‘exposure to gang violence’ and ‘drug-scene familiarity’, as well as other health indicators. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of exposure to gang violence. Overall, 20% of participants were male, the median age was 27 years, 24% spoke an indigenous language, 42% reported exposure to gang violence, and 39% reported drug-scene familiarity. Factors independently associated with exposure to gang violence included being younger (AOR=0.80 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=0.67–0.96), living in the community longer (AOR=1.47 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.11–1.72), higher educational attainment (AOR=1.70 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.07–1.12), and drug-scene familiarity (AOR=5.10, 95%CI=2.39–10.89). Exposure to gang violence was very common in this community and was associated with drug-scene familiarity, suggesting a close relationship between drugs and gang violence in this rural community. In a region characterised by mass migration from poorer parts of Mexico, where drugs and gangs have not been previously reported, emerging social harms may affect these communities unless interventions are implemented. PMID:23072623

  11. 道路交叉口自动检测与基于OpenSceneGraph的三维自动建模方法%ThreeGdimensional Road Intersection Automatic Inspection and Robotization Model ing Based on OpenSceneGraph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马小龙; 李成名; 赵占杰

    2014-01-01

    针对三维道路场景中多条道路交叉时出现的单纯重叠问题,基于开源三维图形渲染引擎 OSG (OpenSceneGraph),提出一种三维道路交叉口的自动检测与建模方法,该方法通过分析道路矢量数据的存储特点及道路交叉口的设计规范,快速获取交叉口区域并识别其所属类型,结合计算机图形学和OSG场景渲染技术实现道路交叉口的自动建模。试验表明,该方法可有效解决三叉型、四叉型、环岛型和分离式立体交叉口的一键式生产,无须人工干预,为大数据三维道路场景的快速构建提供了有效方法。%Targeting the simple overlap arising when multiple roads intersect in a threeGdimensional road scene,an automatic detection and modeling method is provided for 3D road intersections on the basis of openGsource 3D rendering engine OSG (OpenSceneGraph).In this method,by analyzing road vectorGdata storage characteristics and intersection design specifications,an intersection area can be quickly captured or formed,with its type being identified simultaneously,so as to achieve its automatic modeling by means of computer graphics and OSG scene rendering technique.The experiment proves that this method has effectually solved oneGbutton generation of threeGway,fourGway,roundabout,and separate 3D intersecG tions,without the need of manual intervention,serving as a foundation for the quick construction of future bigGdata 3DGroad scenes.

  12. Benzodiazepine Dependence among Young Adult Participants in the Club Scene Who Use Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Steven P; Buttram, Mance E; Surratt, Hilary L

    2017-01-01

    Young adults ages 18-29 report the highest rates of benzodiazepine (BZD) misuse in the United States. The majority of club drug users are also in this age group, and BZD misuse is prevalent among participants in club scenes. This article examines BZD dependence and its correlates among young adult participants in the electronic dance music (EDM) culture in Miami, Florida, who use drugs. Structured interviews were with men and women (N = 356) ages 18 to 29 who reported regular attendance at EDM venues and recent use of both club drugs and BZDs. Prevalences of BZD-related problems were 12.6% for BZD dependence, 21.1% BZD abuse, and 24.2% BZD abuse and/or dependence. In a multivariate logistic regression model, younger age (OR 0.85; 95% CI 0.76, 0.96), severe mental distress (OR 8.30; 95% CI 3.07, 22.49), daily marijuana use (OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.03, 4.27), and heavy opioid use (OR 2.33; 95% CI 1.12, 4.83) were associated with BZD dependence. BZD dependence was higher in this sample than in other populations described in the literature. The links between BZD dependence, overdose history, and heavy opioid misuse are especially worrisome among this young sample. Recommendations for intervention and research are discussed.

  13. Open Drug Discovery Toolkit (ODDT): a new open-source player in the drug discovery field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcikowski, Maciej; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr; Siedlecki, Pawel

    2015-01-01

    There has been huge progress in the open cheminformatics field in both methods and software development. Unfortunately, there has been little effort to unite those methods and software into one package. We here describe the Open Drug Discovery Toolkit (ODDT), which aims to fulfill the need for comprehensive and open source drug discovery software. The Open Drug Discovery Toolkit was developed as a free and open source tool for both computer aided drug discovery (CADD) developers and researchers. ODDT reimplements many state-of-the-art methods, such as machine learning scoring functions (RF-Score and NNScore) and wraps other external software to ease the process of developing CADD pipelines. ODDT is an out-of-the-box solution designed to be easily customizable and extensible. Therefore, users are strongly encouraged to extend it and develop new methods. We here present three use cases for ODDT in common tasks in computer-aided drug discovery. Open Drug Discovery Toolkit is released on a permissive 3-clause BSD license for both academic and industrial use. ODDT's source code, additional examples and documentation are available on GitHub (https://github.com/oddt/oddt).

  14. Open data in drug discovery and development: lessons from malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Timothy N C; Willis, Paul; Burrows, Jeremy N; Hooft van Huijsduijnen, Rob

    2016-10-01

    There is a growing consensus that drug discovery thrives in an open environment. Here, we describe how the malaria community has embraced four levels of open data - open science, open innovation, open access and open source - to catalyse the development of new medicines, and consider principles that could enable open data approaches to be applied to other disease areas.

  15. Automated 3D Scene Reconstruction from Open Geospatial Data Sources: Airborne Laser Scanning and a 2D Topographic Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingli Zhu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Open geospatial data sources provide opportunities for low cost 3D scene reconstruction. In this study, based on a sparse airborne laser scanning (ALS point cloud (0.8 points/m2 obtained from open source databases, a building reconstruction pipeline for CAD building models was developed. The pipeline includes voxel-based roof patch segmentation, extraction of the key-points representing the roof patch outline, step edge identification and adjustment, and CAD building model generation. The advantages of our method lie in generating CAD building models without the step of enforcing the edges to be parallel or building regularization. Furthermore, although it has been challenging to use sparse datasets for 3D building reconstruction, our result demonstrates the great potential in such applications. In this paper, we also investigated the applicability of open geospatial datasets for 3D road detection and reconstruction. Road central lines were acquired from an open source 2D topographic database. ALS data were utilized to obtain the height and width of the road. A constrained search method (CSM was developed for road width detection. The CSM method was conducted by splitting a given road into patches according to height and direction criteria. The road edges were detected patch by patch. The road width was determined by the average distance from the edge points to the central line. As a result, 3D roads were reconstructed from ALS and a topographic database.

  16. Behind the Scenes with OpenLearn: The Challenges of Researching the Provision of Open Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Stephen; McAndrew, Patrick; Santos, Andreia

    2008-01-01

    Web-enabled technology is now being applied on a large scale. In this paper we look at open access provision of teaching and learning leading to many users with varying patterns and motivations for use. This has provided us with a research challenge to find methods that help us understand and explain such initiatives. We describe ways to model the…

  17. Introduction of Scene Rendering with OpenGL%基于OpenGL的三维场景绘制简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任婉

    2007-01-01

    不管在图形学的教学中还是实际三维可视化应用里,OpenGL绝好的流水线设计和清晰明了的结构都使得它成为用户的首选.本文从一个最简单的例子出发,探究在这几行代码的背后究竟发生了什么.

  18. Hair testing to assess both known and unknown use of drugs amongst ecstasy users in the electronic dance music scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, Joseph J; Salomone, Alberto; Gerace, Enrico; Di Corcia, Daniele; Vincenti, Marco; Cleland, Charles M

    2017-08-12

    Data on both known and unknown drug use in the electronic dance music (EDM) scene is important to inform prevention and harm reduction. While surveys are the most common method of querying drug use, additional biological data can help validate use and detect unknown/unintentional use of drugs such as new psychoactive substances (NPS). We sought to determine the extent of both known and unknown use of various substances in this high-risk scene. We hair-tested 90 self-reported past-year ecstasy/MDMA/Molly users attending EDM parties in New York City during the summer of 2016 using UHPLC-MS/MS. Results were compared to self-reported past-year use. Three quarters (74.4%) tested positive for MDMA, a third (33.3%) tested positive for an NPS, and 27.8% tested positive specifically for one or more synthetic cathinones (e.g., butylone, ethylone, pentylone, methylone, alpha-PVP). Half (51.1%) of participants tested positive for a drug not self-reported, with most testing positive for synthetic cathinones (72.0%), methamphetamine (69.0%), other NPS stimulants (e.g., 4-FA, 5/6-APB; 66.7%), or new dissociatives (e.g., methoxetamine, diphenidine; 60.0%). Attending parties every other week or more often, reporting higher-frequency ecstasy pill use, having tested one's ecstasy, and having found out one's ecstasy was adulterated, were risk factors for testing positive for synthetic cathinones and NPS in general. Hair testing appears to be a valuable addition to drug epidemiology studies. Many EDM party attendees-even those who test their ecstasy-are unknowingly using NPS and/or other drugs. Prevention information and harm reduction may help reduce unknown/unintentional use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The multiple truths about crystal meth among young people entrenched in an urban drug scene: a longitudinal ethnographic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Danya; Kerr, Thomas; Wood, Evan; Small, Will

    2014-06-01

    Transitions into more harmful forms of illicit drug use among youth have been identified as important foci for research and intervention. In settings around the world, the transition to crystal methamphetamine (meth) use among youth is considered a particularly dangerous and growing problem. Epidemiological evidence suggests that, particularly among young, street-involved populations, meth use is associated with numerous sex- and drug-related "risks behaviors" and negative health outcomes. Relatively few studies, however, have documented how youth themselves understand, experience and script meth use over time. From 2008 to 2012, we conducted over 100 in-depth interviews with 75 street-entrenched youth in Vancouver, Canada, as well as ongoing ethnographic fieldwork, in order to examine youth's understandings and experiences of meth use in the context of an urban drug scene. Our findings revealed positive understandings and experiences of meth in relation to other forms of drug addiction and unaddressed mental health issues. Youth were simultaneously aware of the numerous health-related harms and social costs associated with heavy meth use. Over time, positive understandings of meth may become entirely contradictory to a lived reality in which escalating meth use is a factor in further marginalizing youth, although this may not lead to cessation of use. Recognition of these multiple truths about meth, and the social structural contexts that shape the scripting of meth use among youth in particular settings, may help us to move beyond moralizing debates about how to best educate youth on the "risks" associated with meth, and towards interventions that are congruent with youth's lived experiences and needs across the lifecourse.

  20. Open source drug discovery--a new paradigm of collaborative research in tuberculosis drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anshu; Scaria, Vinod; Raghava, Gajendra Pal Singh; Lynn, Andrew Michael; Chandra, Nagasuma; Banerjee, Sulagna; Raghunandanan, Muthukurussi V; Pandey, Vikas; Taneja, Bhupesh; Yadav, Jyoti; Dash, Debasis; Bhattacharya, Jaijit; Misra, Amit; Kumar, Anil; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Thomas, Zakir; Brahmachari, Samir K

    2011-09-01

    It is being realized that the traditional closed-door and market driven approaches for drug discovery may not be the best suited model for the diseases of the developing world such as tuberculosis and malaria, because most patients suffering from these diseases have poor paying capacity. To ensure that new drugs are created for patients suffering from these diseases, it is necessary to formulate an alternate paradigm of drug discovery process. The current model constrained by limitations for collaboration and for sharing of resources with confidentiality hampers the opportunities for bringing expertise from diverse fields. These limitations hinder the possibilities of lowering the cost of drug discovery. The Open Source Drug Discovery project initiated by Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, India has adopted an open source model to power wide participation across geographical borders. Open Source Drug Discovery emphasizes integrative science through collaboration, open-sharing, taking up multi-faceted approaches and accruing benefits from advances on different fronts of new drug discovery. Because the open source model is based on community participation, it has the potential to self-sustain continuous development by generating a storehouse of alternatives towards continued pursuit for new drug discovery. Since the inventions are community generated, the new chemical entities developed by Open Source Drug Discovery will be taken up for clinical trial in a non-exclusive manner by participation of multiple companies with majority funding from Open Source Drug Discovery. This will ensure availability of drugs through a lower cost community driven drug discovery process for diseases afflicting people with poor paying capacity. Hopefully what LINUX the World Wide Web have done for the information technology, Open Source Drug Discovery will do for drug discovery.

  1. Is Open Science the Future of Drug Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Daniel L.

    2017-01-01

    Traditional drug development models are widely perceived as opaque and inefficient, with the cost of research and development continuing to rise even as production of new drugs stays constant. Searching for strategies to improve the drug discovery process, the biomedical research field has begun to embrace open strategies. The resulting changes are starting to reshape the industry. Open science—an umbrella term for diverse strategies that seek external input and public engagement—has become an essential tool with researchers, who are increasingly turning to collaboration, crowdsourcing, data sharing, and open sourcing to tackle some of the most pressing problems in medicine. Notable examples of such open drug development include initiatives formed around malaria and tropical disease. Open practices have found their way into the drug discovery process, from target identification and compound screening to clinical trials. This perspective argues that while open science poses some risks—which include the management of collaboration and the protection of proprietary data—these strategies are, in many cases, the more efficient and ethical way to conduct biomedical research. PMID:28356902

  2. A Kernel for Open Source Drug Discovery in Tropical Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Leticia Ortí; Carbajo, Rodrigo J.; Ursula Pieper; Narayanan Eswar; Maurer, Stephen M.; Rai, Arti K.; Ginger Taylor; Todd, Matthew H; Antonio Pineda-Lucena; Andrej Sali; Marti-Renom, Marc A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conventional patent-based drug development incentives work badly for the developing world, where commercial markets are usually small to non-existent. For this reason, the past decade has seen extensive experimentation with alternative R&D institutions ranging from private-public partnerships to development prizes. Despite extensive discussion, however, one of the most promising avenues-open source drug discovery-has remained elusive. We argue that the stumbling block has been the...

  3. Linked open drug data for pharmaceutical research and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samwald Matthias

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is an abundance of information about drugs available on the Web. Data sources range from medicinal chemistry results, over the impact of drugs on gene expression, to the outcomes of drugs in clinical trials. These data are typically not connected together, which reduces the ease with which insights can be gained. Linking Open Drug Data (LODD is a task force within the World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C Health Care and Life Sciences Interest Group (HCLS IG. LODD has surveyed publicly available data about drugs, created Linked Data representations of the data sets, and identified interesting scientific and business questions that can be answered once the data sets are connected. The task force provides recommendations for the best practices of exposing data in a Linked Data representation. In this paper, we present past and ongoing work of LODD and discuss the growing importance of Linked Data as a foundation for pharmaceutical R&D data sharing.

  4. A kernel for open source drug discovery in tropical diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Ortí

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Conventional patent-based drug development incentives work badly for the developing world, where commercial markets are usually small to non-existent. For this reason, the past decade has seen extensive experimentation with alternative R&D institutions ranging from private-public partnerships to development prizes. Despite extensive discussion, however, one of the most promising avenues-open source drug discovery-has remained elusive. We argue that the stumbling block has been the absence of a critical mass of preexisting work that volunteers can improve through a series of granular contributions. Historically, open source software collaborations have almost never succeeded without such "kernels". METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HERE, WE USE A COMPUTATIONAL PIPELINE FOR: (i comparative structure modeling of target proteins, (ii predicting the localization of ligand binding sites on their surfaces, and (iii assessing the similarity of the predicted ligands to known drugs. Our kernel currently contains 143 and 297 protein targets from ten pathogen genomes that are predicted to bind a known drug or a molecule similar to a known drug, respectively. The kernel provides a source of potential drug targets and drug candidates around which an online open source community can nucleate. Using NMR spectroscopy, we have experimentally tested our predictions for two of these targets, confirming one and invalidating the other. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The TDI kernel, which is being offered under the Creative Commons attribution share-alike license for free and unrestricted use, can be accessed on the World Wide Web at http://www.tropicaldisease.org. We hope that the kernel will facilitate collaborative efforts towards the discovery of new drugs against parasites that cause tropical diseases.

  5. Open source drug discovery in practice: a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Årdal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Open source drug discovery offers potential for developing new and inexpensive drugs to combat diseases that disproportionally affect the poor. The concept borrows two principle aspects from open source computing (i.e., collaboration and open access and applies them to pharmaceutical innovation. By opening a project to external contributors, its research capacity may increase significantly. To date there are only a handful of open source R&D projects focusing on neglected diseases. We wanted to learn from these first movers, their successes and failures, in order to generate a better understanding of how a much-discussed theoretical concept works in practice and may be implemented. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A descriptive case study was performed, evaluating two specific R&D projects focused on neglected diseases. CSIR Team India Consortium's Open Source Drug Discovery project (CSIR OSDD and The Synaptic Leap's Schistosomiasis project (TSLS. Data were gathered from four sources: interviews of participating members (n = 14, a survey of potential members (n = 61, an analysis of the websites and a literature review. Both cases have made significant achievements; however, they have done so in very different ways. CSIR OSDD encourages international collaboration, but its process facilitates contributions from mostly Indian researchers and students. Its processes are formal with each task being reviewed by a mentor (almost always offline before a result is made public. TSLS, on the other hand, has attracted contributors internationally, albeit significantly fewer than CSIR OSDD. Both have obtained funding used to pay for access to facilities, physical resources and, at times, labor costs. TSLS releases its results into the public domain, whereas CSIR OSDD asserts ownership over its results. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Technically TSLS is an open source project, whereas CSIR OSDD is a crowdsourced project. However, both have enabled high

  6. Open source drug discovery in practice: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Årdal, Christine; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2012-01-01

    Open source drug discovery offers potential for developing new and inexpensive drugs to combat diseases that disproportionally affect the poor. The concept borrows two principle aspects from open source computing (i.e., collaboration and open access) and applies them to pharmaceutical innovation. By opening a project to external contributors, its research capacity may increase significantly. To date there are only a handful of open source R&D projects focusing on neglected diseases. We wanted to learn from these first movers, their successes and failures, in order to generate a better understanding of how a much-discussed theoretical concept works in practice and may be implemented. A descriptive case study was performed, evaluating two specific R&D projects focused on neglected diseases. CSIR Team India Consortium's Open Source Drug Discovery project (CSIR OSDD) and The Synaptic Leap's Schistosomiasis project (TSLS). Data were gathered from four sources: interviews of participating members (n = 14), a survey of potential members (n = 61), an analysis of the websites and a literature review. Both cases have made significant achievements; however, they have done so in very different ways. CSIR OSDD encourages international collaboration, but its process facilitates contributions from mostly Indian researchers and students. Its processes are formal with each task being reviewed by a mentor (almost always offline) before a result is made public. TSLS, on the other hand, has attracted contributors internationally, albeit significantly fewer than CSIR OSDD. Both have obtained funding used to pay for access to facilities, physical resources and, at times, labor costs. TSLS releases its results into the public domain, whereas CSIR OSDD asserts ownership over its results. Technically TSLS is an open source project, whereas CSIR OSDD is a crowdsourced project. However, both have enabled high quality research at low cost. The critical success factors appear to be clearly

  7. Categorization of natural dynamic audiovisual scenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli Rummukainen

    Full Text Available This work analyzed the perceptual attributes of natural dynamic audiovisual scenes. We presented thirty participants with 19 natural scenes in a similarity categorization task, followed by a semi-structured interview. The scenes were reproduced with an immersive audiovisual display. Natural scene perception has been studied mainly with unimodal settings, which have identified motion as one of the most salient attributes related to visual scenes, and sound intensity along with pitch trajectories related to auditory scenes. However, controlled laboratory experiments with natural multimodal stimuli are still scarce. Our results show that humans pay attention to similar perceptual attributes in natural scenes, and a two-dimensional perceptual map of the stimulus scenes and perceptual attributes was obtained in this work. The exploratory results show the amount of movement, perceived noisiness, and eventfulness of the scene to be the most important perceptual attributes in naturalistically reproduced real-world urban environments. We found the scene gist properties openness and expansion to remain as important factors in scenes with no salient auditory or visual events. We propose that the study of scene perception should move forward to understand better the processes behind multimodal scene processing in real-world environments. We publish our stimulus scenes as spherical video recordings and sound field recordings in a publicly available database.

  8. The application of the open pharmacological concepts triple store (open PHACTS to support drug discovery research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseline Ratnam

    Full Text Available Integration of open access, curated, high-quality information from multiple disciplines in the Life and Biomedical Sciences provides a holistic understanding of the domain. Additionally, the effective linking of diverse data sources can unearth hidden relationships and guide potential research strategies. However, given the lack of consistency between descriptors and identifiers used in different resources and the absence of a simple mechanism to link them, gathering and combining relevant, comprehensive information from diverse databases remains a challenge. The Open Pharmacological Concepts Triple Store (Open PHACTS is an Innovative Medicines Initiative project that uses semantic web technology approaches to enable scientists to easily access and process data from multiple sources to solve real-world drug discovery problems. The project draws together sources of publicly-available pharmacological, physicochemical and biomolecular data, represents it in a stable infrastructure and provides well-defined information exploration and retrieval methods. Here, we highlight the utility of this platform in conjunction with workflow tools to solve pharmacological research questions that require interoperability between target, compound, and pathway data. Use cases presented herein cover 1 the comprehensive identification of chemical matter for a dopamine receptor drug discovery program 2 the identification of compounds active against all targets in the Epidermal growth factor receptor (ErbB signaling pathway that have a relevance to disease and 3 the evaluation of established targets in the Vitamin D metabolism pathway to aid novel Vitamin D analogue design. The example workflows presented illustrate how the Open PHACTS Discovery Platform can be used to exploit existing knowledge and generate new hypotheses in the process of drug discovery.

  9. OpenCL-Based Real-Time KD-Tree and Raytracing for Dynamic Scene%基于OpenCL的实时KD-Tree与动态场景光线跟踪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢贺齐; 鲍鹏; 冯结青

    2013-01-01

    目前,基于GPU或多核CPU加速的光线跟踪算法是与硬件相关的.研究具有跨平台性能的实时光线跟踪算法既具有挑战性,又具有很强的应用价值.为此,提出一种基于OpenCL并且跨平台的动态场景实时光线跟踪绘制算法.首先通过对通用GPU并行处理性能进行发掘,将光线跟踪中KD-Tree建立、场景遍历和绘制3个过程均设计在GPU上,而CPU只负责其中各过程的调度,从而充分利用了GPU的计算性能,并有效地降低了数据传输开销;通过设计并行分区、并行SAH、紧密的数据管理以及区间性叶结点存储等算法,在GPU中高效、高质量地建立动态场景的KD-Tree,同时高质量的KD-Tree也有效地加速了场景的遍历速度.该算法以广度优先和大规模并行模式建立K D-Tree,更具通用性,既可以运行于NVIDIA GPU(CUDA GPU),也可以运行于AMD GPU.实验结果表明,文中算法可以在NVIDIA GPU和AMD GPU上对中等规模的动态场景实现实时光线跟踪绘制.%Due to acceleration algorithms of ray-tracing only designed for specified GPU or multi-core CPU,it is challenge to design a cross platform ray-tracing algorithm for real-time applications.This paper presents a cross-platform algorithm of ray-tracing dynamic scenes based on OpenCL.By exploiting parallel processing ability of general purpose GPU,three components of ray-tracing,i.e.,KD-Tree construction,scene traversal and shading,are performed on GPU,which are scheduled by CPU.Thus GPU computing ability is exploited thoroughly and data transmission overhead is reduced efficiently.By designing algorithms of parallel partitions and SAH,proposing strategies of compact data management and offset mark based leaf node storage,a high quality KD-Tree for dynamic scene is constructed on GPU in real-time,which will effectively facilitates scene traversal.The tree construction algorithm is breadth-first and suitable for large scale parallel implementation on both

  10. Open Drug Discovery Teams: A Chemistry Mobile App for Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekins, Sean; Clark, Alex M; Williams, Antony J

    2012-08-01

    The Open Drug Discovery Teams (ODDT) project provides a mobile app primarily intended as a research topic aggregator of predominantly open science data collected from various sources on the internet. It exists to facilitate interdisciplinary teamwork and to relieve the user from data overload, delivering access to information that is highly relevant and focused on their topic areas of interest. Research topics include areas of chemistry and adjacent molecule-oriented biomedical sciences, with an emphasis on those which are most amenable to open research at present. These include rare and neglected diseases, and precompetitive and public-good initiatives such as green chemistry. The ODDT project uses a free mobile app as user entry point. The app has a magazine-like interface, and server-side infrastructure for hosting chemistry-related data as well as value added services. The project is open to participation from anyone and provides the ability for users to make annotations and assertions, thereby contributing to the collective value of the data to the engaged community. Much of the content is derived from public sources, but the platform is also amenable to commercial data input. The technology could also be readily used in-house by organizations as a research aggregator that could integrate internal and external science and discussion. The infrastructure for the app is currently based upon the Twitter API as a useful proof of concept for a real time source of publicly generated content. This could be extended further by accessing other APIs providing news and data feeds of relevance to a particular area of interest. As the project evolves, social networking features will be developed for organizing participants into teams, with various forms of communication and content management possible.

  11. Open Access Could Transform Drug Discovery: A Case Study of JQ1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Zeeshaan; Smith, James; Roberts, Mackenna; Lee, Wen Hwa; Davies, Ben; Bure, Kim; Hollander, Georg A; Dopson, Sue; Bountra, Chas; Brindley, David

    2016-01-01

    The cost to develop a new drug from target discovery to market is a staggering $1.8 billion, largely due to the very high attrition rate of drug candidates and the lengthy transition times during development. Open access is an emerging model of open innovation that places no restriction on the use of information and has the potential to accelerate the development of new drugs. To date, no quantitative assessment has yet taken place to determine the effects and viability of open access on the process of drug translation. This need is addressed within this study. The literature and intellectual property landscapes of the drug candidate JQ1, which was made available on an open access basis when discovered, and conventionally developed equivalents that were not are compared using the Web of Science and Thomson Innovation software, respectively. Results demonstrate that openly sharing the JQ1 molecule led to a greater uptake by a wider and more multi-disciplinary research community. A comparative analysis of the patent landscapes for each candidate also found that the broader scientific diaspora of the publically released JQ1 data enhanced innovation, evidenced by a greater number of downstream patents filed in relation to JQ1. The authors' findings counter the notion that open access drug discovery would leak commercial intellectual property. On the contrary, JQ1 serves as a test case to evidence that open access drug discovery can be an economic model that potentially improves efficiency and cost of drug discovery and its subsequent commercialization.

  12. Common characteristics of open source software development and applicability for drug discovery: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardal, Christine; Alstadsæter, Annette; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2011-09-28

    Innovation through an open source model has proven to be successful for software development. This success has led many to speculate if open source can be applied to other industries with similar success. We attempt to provide an understanding of open source software development characteristics for researchers, business leaders and government officials who may be interested in utilizing open source innovation in other contexts and with an emphasis on drug discovery. A systematic review was performed by searching relevant, multidisciplinary databases to extract empirical research regarding the common characteristics and barriers of initiating and maintaining an open source software development project. Common characteristics to open source software development pertinent to open source drug discovery were extracted. The characteristics were then grouped into the areas of participant attraction, management of volunteers, control mechanisms, legal framework and physical constraints. Lastly, their applicability to drug discovery was examined. We believe that the open source model is viable for drug discovery, although it is unlikely that it will exactly follow the form used in software development. Hybrids will likely develop that suit the unique characteristics of drug discovery. We suggest potential motivations for organizations to join an open source drug discovery project. We also examine specific differences between software and medicines, specifically how the need for laboratories and physical goods will impact the model as well as the effect of patents.

  13. The Temporal Dynamics of Scene Processing: A Multifaceted EEG Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Dwight J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Our remarkable ability to process complex visual scenes is supported by a network of scene-selective cortical regions. Despite growing knowledge about the scene representation in these regions, much less is known about the temporal dynamics with which these representations emerge. We conducted two experiments aimed at identifying and characterizing the earliest markers of scene-specific processing. In the first experiment, human participants viewed images of scenes, faces, and everyday objects while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. We found that the first ERP component to evince a significantly stronger response to scenes than the other categories was the P2, peaking ∼220 ms after stimulus onset. To establish that the P2 component reflects scene-specific processing, in the second experiment, we recorded ERPs while the participants viewed diverse real-world scenes spanning the following three global scene properties: spatial expanse (open/closed), relative distance (near/far), and naturalness (man-made/natural). We found that P2 amplitude was sensitive to these scene properties at both the categorical level, distinguishing between open and closed natural scenes, as well as at the single-image level, reflecting both computationally derived scene statistics and behavioral ratings of naturalness and spatial expanse. Together, these results establish the P2 as an ERP marker for scene processing, and demonstrate that scene-specific global information is available in the neural response as early as 220 ms. PMID:27699208

  14. Sound System Design in Open Real Scene Theatre on Drama Rainstorm%《暴雨山洪》露天实景演艺剧场音频系统工程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国强

    2012-01-01

      介绍《暴雨山洪》露天实景演艺剧场音频系统的设计思路和器材配置,并对户外旅游剧目音响工程的实践进行了经验总结。%  The design idea and equipment configuration in the open air real scene theatreRainstorm were introduced and some practical experience of audio projects for outdoor dramas were summarized as well.

  15. Open innovation in early drug discovery: roadmaps and roadblocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichman, Melvin; Simpson, Peter B

    2016-05-01

    Open innovation in pharmaceutical R&D evolved from a triple helix of convergent paradigm shifts in academic, industrial and government research sectors. The birth of the biotechnology sector catalyzed shifts in location dynamics that led to the first wave of open innovation in pharmaceutical R&D between big pharma and startup companies. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap was a crucial inflection point that set the stage for a new wave of open innovation models between pharmaceutical companies and universities that have the potential to transform the pharmaceutical R&D landscape. We highlight the attributes of leading protected open innovation models that foster the sharing of proprietary small molecule collections by lowering the risk of premature escape of intellectual property, particularly structure-activity data.

  16. Open-access and Structured Data in Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixin Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A data journal in the biomedical field is an innovative and interesting task with potential benefits to the scientific society, the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industrials, as well as the medical institutions and authorities. It can serve as a source to stimulate, using computational modeling and bioinformatics, the bridging of biomedicine and basic biology researches and connecting of pharmaceutical and biotechnology industrials with academy. In the era of various high throughput technologies and big data, it could become a powerful driving force to combine expertise to understand the complexity of life and to catalyze new innovative therapeutics and diagnosis. The developments of various high-throughput and/or high-content drug-screening techniques are aiming not only to probe a large number of chemical compounds, but also to obtain deep insights into the molecule/molecule interaction associated with the diversity of chemical space, the structure-activity relationship, as well as the pharmacological mechanism. Moreover, the cell-based drug-screening approaches can also shed new light on the dynamics and regulation of proteins and genes associated with various physiological and pathological states. To reflect on these developments, the BMDJ Editorial Board announed a Call for Papers for a special issue on datasets in the field of drug screening and discovery: http://biomed-data.eu/calls-for-papers/high-throughput-drug-screening

  17. Infant death scene investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Pamela D; Ragan, Krista

    2015-01-01

    The sudden unexpected death of an infant is a tragedy to the family, a concern to the community, and an indicator of national health. To accurately determine the cause and manner of the infant's death, a thorough and accurate death scene investigation by properly trained personnel is key. Funding and resources are directed based on autopsy reports, which are only as accurate as the scene investigation. The investigation should include a standardized format, body diagrams, and a photographed or videotaped scene recreation utilizing doll reenactment. Forensic nurses, with their basic nursing knowledge and additional forensic skills and abilities, are optimally suited to conduct infant death scene investigations as well as train others to properly conduct death scene investigations. Currently, 49 states have child death review teams, which is an idea avenue for a forensic nurse to become involved in death scene investigations.

  18. OpenZika: An IBM World Community Grid Project to Accelerate Zika Virus Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, Alexander L.; Horta Andrade, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    The Zika virus outbreak in the Americas has caused global concern. To help accelerate this fight against Zika, we launched the OpenZika project. OpenZika is an IBM World Community Grid Project that uses distributed computing on millions of computers and Android devices to run docking experiments, in order to dock tens of millions of drug-like compounds against crystal structures and homology models of Zika proteins (and other related flavivirus targets). This will enable the identification of new candidates that can then be tested in vitro, to advance the discovery and development of new antiviral drugs against the Zika virus. The docking data is being made openly accessible so that all members of the global research community can use it to further advance drug discovery studies against Zika and other related flaviviruses. PMID:27764115

  19. OpenZika: An IBM World Community Grid Project to Accelerate Zika Virus Drug Discovery.

    OpenAIRE

    Sean Ekins; Perryman, Alexander L.; Carolina Horta Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The Zika virus outbreak in the Americas has caused global concern. To help accelerate this fight against Zika, we launched the OpenZika project. OpenZika is an IBM World Community Grid Project that uses distributed computing on millions of computers and Android devices to run docking experiments, in order to dock tens of millions of drug-like compounds against crystal structures and homology models of Zika proteins (and other related flavivirus targets). This will enable the identification of...

  20. Underwater Scene Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nanyoung

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an underwater scene composition for elementary-education majors. This project deals with watercolor with crayon or oil-pastel resist (medium); the beauty of nature represented by fish in the underwater scene (theme); texture and pattern (design elements); drawing simple forms (drawing skill); and composition…

  1. New drugs and preparations for open-angle glaucoma in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Primary (or chronic) open-angle glaucoma (POAG or COAG) may be asymptomatic but causes progressive optic nerve damage with significant loss of visual field. Treatments aim to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) by reducing the production of aqueous humour and/or increasing its drainage. Here we update our previous articles to reflect new drugs, preservative-free preparations and fixed-dose drug combinations for POAG.

  2. The Open Form Inducer Approach for Structure-Based Drug Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaoka, Daniel Ken; Iida, Maiko; Tabuchi, Toshiyuki; Honma, Teruki; Lee, Nayoung; Hashimoto, Satoshi; Matsuoka, Shigeru; Kuranaga, Takefumi; Sato, Kazuhito; Shiba, Tomoo; Sakamoto, Kimitoshi; Balogun, Emmanuel Oluwadare; Suzuki, Shigeo; Nara, Takeshi; da Rocha, Josmar Rodrigues; Montanari, Carlos Alberto; Tanaka, Akiko; Inoue, Masayuki; Kita, Kiyoshi; Harada, Shigeharu

    2016-01-01

    Many open form (OF) structures of drug targets were obtained a posteriori by analysis of co-crystals with inhibitors. Therefore, obtaining the OF structure of a drug target a priori will accelerate development of potent inhibitors. In addition to its small active site, Trypanosoma cruzi dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (TcDHODH) is fully functional in its monomeric form, making drug design approaches targeting the active site and protein-protein interactions unrealistic. Therefore, a novel a priori approach was developed to determination the TcDHODH active site in OF. This approach consists of generating an "OF inducer" (predicted in silico) to bind the target and cause steric repulsion with flexible regions proximal to the active site that force it open. We provide the first proof-of-concept of this approach by predicting and crystallizing TcDHODH in complex with an OF inducer, thereby obtaining the OF a priori with its subsequent use in designing potent and selective inhibitors. Fourteen co-crystal structures of TcDHODH with the designed inhibitors are presented herein. This approach has potential to encourage drug design against diseases where the molecular targets are such difficult proteins possessing small AS volume. This approach can be extended to study open/close conformation of proteins in general, the identification of allosteric pockets and inhibitors for other drug targets where conventional drug design approaches are not applicable, as well as the effective exploitation of the increasing number of protein structures deposited in Protein Data Bank. PMID:27893848

  3. Developing a framework for understanding and enabling open source drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allarakhia, Minna

    2010-08-01

    Open source drug discovery is increasingly being sought as a solution for managing product development complexities. Three drivers encouraging the use of the open source strategy include: upstream knowledge-based complexities associated with complementary assets, technological complexities given the scale of research and interdependencies between disciplines and downstream commercialization complexities. While literature currently discusses the need for open source strategies and their outcomes, we have reached a critical stage for a framework to cohesively understand how the drivers affect the open source models chosen as well as the governance strategies to ensure a successful outcome both in terms of knowledge access and product development. In this paper, an initial framework is designed with a focus on the type of participant as impacting the motivation to participate in an open source initiative, the objective of any open source strategy as impacting the structural model adopted and the structure of knowledge produced as impacting its management. It is anticipated that this framework should then provide an opportunity to develop governance rules for open source drug discovery initiatives.

  4. Drug discovery applications for KNIME: an open source data mining platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazanetz, Michael P; Marmon, Robert J; Reisser, Catherine B T; Morao, Inaki

    2012-01-01

    Technological advances in high-throughput screening methods, combinatorial chemistry and the design of virtual libraries have evolved in the pursuit of challenging drug targets. Over the last two decades a vast amount of data has been generated within these fields and as a consequence data mining methods have been developed to extract key pieces of information from these large data pools. Much of this data is now available in the public domain. This has been helpful in the arena of drug discovery for both academic groups and for small to medium sized enterprises which previously would not have had access to such data resources. Commercial data mining software is sometimes prohibitively expensive and the alternate open source data mining software is gaining momentum in both academia and in industrial applications as the costs of research and development continue to rise. KNIME, the Konstanz Information Miner, has emerged as a leader in open source data mining tools. KNIME provides an integrated solution for the data mining requirements across the drug discovery pipeline through a visual assembly of data workflows drawing from an extensive repository of tools. This review will examine KNIME as an open source data mining tool and its applications in drug discovery.

  5. Can open-source drug R&D repower pharmaceutical innovation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munos, B

    2010-05-01

    Open-source R&D initiatives are multiplying across biomedical research. Some of them-such as public-private partnerships-have achieved notable success in bringing new drugs to market economically, whereas others reflect the pharmaceutical industry's efforts to retool its R&D model. Is open innovation the answer to the innovation crisis? This Commentary argues that although it may likely be part of the solution, significant cultural, scientific, and regulatory barriers can prevent it from delivering on its promise.

  6. Open Access Target Validation Is a More Efficient Way to Accelerate Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen Hwa

    2015-01-01

    There is a scarcity of novel treatments to address many unmet medical needs. Industry and academia are finally coming to terms with the fact that the prevalent models and incentives for innovation in early stage drug discovery are failing to promote progress quickly enough. Here we will examine how an open model of precompetitive public–private research partnership is enabling efficient derisking and acceleration in the early stages of drug discovery, whilst also widening the range of communities participating in the process, such as patient and disease foundations. PMID:26042736

  7. A Low Cost/Low Power Open Source Sensor System for Automated Tuberculosis Drug Susceptibility Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Kyukwang Kim; Hyeong Keun Kim; Hwijoon Lim; Hyun Myung

    2016-01-01

    In this research an open source, low power sensor node was developed to check the growth of mycobacteria in a culture bottle with a nitrate reductase assay method for a drug susceptibility test. The sensor system reports the temperature and color sensor output frequency change of the culture bottle when the device is triggered. After the culture process is finished, a nitrite ion detecting solution based on a commercial nitrite ion detection kit is injected into the culture bottle by a syring...

  8. Fueling Open-Source Drug Discovery: 177 Small-Molecule Leads against Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballell, Lluís; Bates, Robert H; Young, Rob J; Alvarez-Gomez, Daniel; Alvarez-Ruiz, Emilio; Barroso, Vanessa; Blanco, Delia; Crespo, Benigno; Escribano, Jaime; González, Rubén; Lozano, Sonia; Huss, Sophie; Santos-Villarejo, Angel; Martín-Plaza, José Julio; Mendoza, Alfonso; Rebollo-Lopez, María José; Remuiñan-Blanco, Modesto; Lavandera, José Luis; Pérez-Herran, Esther; Gamo-Benito, Francisco Javier; García-Bustos, José Francisco; Barros, David; Castro, Julia P; Cammack, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    With the aim of fuelling open-source, translational, early-stage drug discovery activities, the results of the recently completed antimycobacterial phenotypic screening campaign against Mycobacterium bovis BCG with hit confirmation in M. tuberculosis H37Rv were made publicly accessible. A set of 177 potent non-cytotoxic H37Rv hits was identified and will be made available to maximize the potential impact of the compounds toward a chemical genetics/proteomics exercise, while at the same time providing a plethora of potential starting points for new synthetic lead-generation activities. Two additional drug-discovery-relevant datasets are included: a) a drug-like property analysis reflecting the latest lead-like guidelines and b) an early lead-generation package of the most promising hits within the clusters identified. PMID:23307663

  9. Automated Synthetic Scene Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Föerstner, 1999), environmental modeling (Brenner, 1999), navigation (Auer, et al., 2010; Brenner, 2005), games and entertainment (Hearn and Baker, 1997...city planning, games and entertainment, and military planning, scenes have the additional requirement to be accurately attributed with visible color...Observation Platform (AOP) Pathfinder 2010 data release, National Ecological Observatory Network, URL: http://neoninc.org/pds/files/NEON.AOP.015068

  10. Experiments in Scene Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    analyzer tha t we construct will very likely combine some of the ideas reported here with the approach described by our co-workers Brice and Fennema ...188-205 (1968). Brice , C. R., and C. L. Fennema , " Scene Analysis of Pictures Using Regions " Technical Note No. 17 , Artificial Intelligence Group

  11. Open Innovation Drug Discovery (OIDD): a potential path to novel therapeutic chemical space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvim-Gaston, Maria; Grese, Timothy; Mahoui, Abdelaziz; Palkowitz, Alan D; Pineiro-Nunez, Marta; Watson, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The continued development of computational and synthetic methods has enabled the enumeration or preparation of a nearly endless universe of chemical structures. Nevertheless, the ability of this chemical universe to deliver small molecules that can both modulate biological targets and have drug-like physicochemical properties continues to be a topic of interest to the pharmaceutical industry and academic researchers alike. The chemical space described by public, commercial, in-house and virtual compound collections has been interrogated by multiple approaches including biochemical, cellular and virtual screening, diversity analysis, and in-silico profiling. However, current drugs and known chemical probes derived from these efforts are contained within a remarkably small volume of the predicted chemical space. Access to more diverse classes of chemical scaffolds that maintain the properties relevant for drug discovery is certainly needed to meet the increasing demands for pharmaceutical innovation. The Lilly Open Innovation Drug Discovery platform (OIDD) was designed to tackle barriers to innovation through the identification of novel molecules active in relevant disease biology models. In this article we will discuss several computational approaches towards describing novel, biologically active, drug-like chemical space and illustrate how the OIDD program may facilitate access to previously untapped molecules that may aid in the search for innovative pharmaceuticals.

  12. Open access high throughput drug discovery in the public domain: a Mount Everest in the making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anuradha; McDonald, Peter R; Sittampalam, Sitta; Chaguturu, Rathnam

    2010-11-01

    High throughput screening (HTS) facilitates screening large numbers of compounds against a biochemical target of interest using validated biological or biophysical assays. In recent years, a significant number of drugs in clinical trails originated from HTS campaigns, validating HTS as a bona fide mechanism for hit finding. In the current drug discovery landscape, the pharmaceutical industry is embracing open innovation strategies with academia to maximize their research capabilities and to feed their drug discovery pipeline. The goals of academic research have therefore expanded from target identification and validation to probe discovery, chemical genomics, and compound library screening. This trend is reflected in the emergence of HTS centers in the public domain over the past decade, ranging in size from modestly equipped academic screening centers to well endowed Molecular Libraries Probe Centers Network (MLPCN) centers funded by the NIH Roadmap initiative. These centers facilitate a comprehensive approach to probe discovery in academia and utilize both classical and cutting-edge assay technologies for executing primary and secondary screening campaigns. The various facets of academic HTS centers as well as their implications on technology transfer and drug discovery are discussed, and a roadmap for successful drug discovery in the public domain is presented. New lead discovery against therapeutic targets, especially those involving the rare and neglected diseases, is indeed a Mount Everestonian size task, and requires diligent implementation of pharmaceutical industry's best practices for a successful outcome.

  13. Open innovation for phenotypic drug discovery: The PD2 assay panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan A; Chu, Shaoyou; Willard, Francis S; Cox, Karen L; Sells Galvin, Rachelle J; Peery, Robert B; Oliver, Sarah E; Oler, Jennifer; Meredith, Tamika D; Heidler, Steven A; Gough, Wendy H; Husain, Saba; Palkowitz, Alan D; Moxham, Christopher M

    2011-07-01

    Phenotypic lead generation strategies seek to identify compounds that modulate complex, physiologically relevant systems, an approach that is complementary to traditional, target-directed strategies. Unlike gene-specific assays, phenotypic assays interrogate multiple molecular targets and signaling pathways in a target "agnostic" fashion, which may reveal novel functions for well-studied proteins and discover new pathways of therapeutic value. Significantly, existing compound libraries may not have sufficient chemical diversity to fully leverage a phenotypic strategy. To address this issue, Eli Lilly and Company launched the Phenotypic Drug Discovery Initiative (PD(2)), a model of open innovation whereby external research groups can submit compounds for testing in a panel of Lilly phenotypic assays. This communication describes the statistical validation, operations, and initial screening results from the first PD(2) assay panel. Analysis of PD(2) submissions indicates that chemical diversity from open source collaborations complements internal sources. Screening results for the first 4691 compounds submitted to PD(2) have confirmed hit rates from 1.6% to 10%, with the majority of active compounds exhibiting acceptable potency and selectivity. Phenotypic lead generation strategies, in conjunction with novel chemical diversity obtained via open-source initiatives such as PD(2), may provide a means to identify compounds that modulate biology by novel mechanisms and expand the innovation potential of drug discovery.

  14. Behind the scenes of GS: Open Sesame!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    The section in the GS-IS Group responsible for running the CERN Stores processes hundreds of orders per day, checks the quality of each and every product and is responsible for warehousing thousands of items available in a richly-stocked catalogue.   Sprawling across several buildings (73, 128 and 129), a total surface area of 3640 m2, and providing 28,300 cubic metres of storage space, the equivalent of 330 semi-trailers, the CERN stores are a veritable treasure trove! The products on offer range from office stationery and computer hardware to fire extinguishers, cables, steel and chemicals. The new (above) and old storage system for the CERN stores. The CERN Stores catalogue contains nearly 48,000 referenced items, 12,000 of which are available on site. Goods arrive at either Building 194 (Meyrin) or Building 904 (Prévessin) and are then forwarded to the central stores in Building 73. “Every item that arrives here undergoes a strict quality control,” says M...

  15. Open drug discovery for the Zika virus [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Ekins

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Zika virus (ZIKV outbreak in the Americas has caused global concern that we may be on the brink of a healthcare crisis. The lack of research on ZIKV in the over 60 years that we have known about it has left us with little in the way of starting points for drug discovery. Our response can build on previous efforts with virus outbreaks and lean heavily on work done on other flaviviruses such as dengue virus. We provide some suggestions of what might be possible and propose an open drug discovery effort that mobilizes global science efforts and provides leadership, which thus far has been lacking. We also provide a listing of potential resources and molecules that could be prioritized for testing as in vitro assays for ZIKV are developed. We propose also that in order to incentivize drug discovery, a neglected disease priority review voucher should be available to those who successfully develop an FDA approved treatment. Learning from the response to the ZIKV, the approaches to drug discovery used and the success and failures will be critical for future infectious disease outbreaks.

  16. Open Source Drug Discovery with the Malaria Box Compound Collection for Neglected Diseases and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Adams, John H.; Adelfio, Roberto; Ahyong, Vida; Akabas, Myles H.; Alano, Pietro; Alday, Aintzane; Alemán Resto, Yesmalie; Alsibaee, Aishah; Alzualde, Ainhoa; Andrews, Katherine T.; Avery, Simon V.; Avery, Vicky M.; Ayong, Lawrence; Baker, Mark; Baker, Stephen; Ben Mamoun, Choukri; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Bickle, Quentin; Bounaadja, Lotfi; Bowling, Tana; Bosch, Jürgen; Boucher, Lauren E.; Boyom, Fabrice F.; Brea, Jose; Brennan, Marian; Burton, Audrey; Caffrey, Conor R.; Camarda, Grazia; Carrasquilla, Manuela; Carter, Dee; Belen Cassera, Maria; Chih-Chien Cheng, Ken; Chindaudomsate, Worathad; Chubb, Anthony; Colon, Beatrice L.; Colón-López, Daisy D.; Corbett, Yolanda; Crowther, Gregory J.; Cowan, Noemi; D’Alessandro, Sarah; Le Dang, Na; Delves, Michael; Du, Alan Y.; Duffy, Sandra; Abd El-Salam El-Sayed, Shimaa; Ferdig, Michael T.; Fernández Robledo, José A.; Fidock, David A.; Florent, Isabelle; Fokou, Patrick V. T.; Galstian, Ani; Gamo, Francisco Javier; Gold, Ben; Golub, Todd; Goldgof, Gregory M.; Guha, Rajarshi; Guiguemde, W. Armand; Gural, Nil; Guy, R. Kiplin; Hansen, Michael A. E.; Hanson, Kirsten K.; Hemphill, Andrew; Hooft van Huijsduijnen, Rob; Horii, Takaaki; Horrocks, Paul; Hughes, Tyler B.; Huston, Christopher; Igarashi, Ikuo; Ingram-Sieber, Katrin; Itoe, Maurice A.; Jadhav, Ajit; Naranuntarat Jensen, Amornrat; Jensen, Laran T.; Jiang, Rays H. Y.; Kaiser, Annette; Keiser, Jennifer; Ketas, Thomas; Kicka, Sebastien; Kim, Sunyoung; Kirk, Kiaran; Kumar, Vidya P.; Kyle, Dennis E.; Lafuente, Maria Jose; Landfear, Scott; Lee, Nathan; Lee, Sukjun; Lehane, Adele M.; Li, Fengwu; Little, David; Liu, Liqiong; Llinás, Manuel; Loza, Maria I.; Lubar, Aristea; Lucantoni, Leonardo; Lucet, Isabelle; Maes, Louis; Mancama, Dalu; Mansour, Nuha R.; March, Sandra; McGowan, Sheena; Medina Vera, Iset; Meister, Stephan; Mercer, Luke; Mestres, Jordi; Mfopa, Alvine N.; Misra, Raj N.; Moon, Seunghyun; Moore, John P.; Morais Rodrigues da Costa, Francielly; Müller, Joachim; Muriana, Arantza; Nakazawa Hewitt, Stephen; Nare, Bakela; Nathan, Carl; Narraidoo, Nathalie; Nawaratna, Sujeevi; Ojo, Kayode K.; Ortiz, Diana; Panic, Gordana; Papadatos, George; Parapini, Silvia; Patra, Kailash; Pham, Ngoc; Prats, Sarah; Plouffe, David M.; Poulsen, Sally-Ann; Pradhan, Anupam; Quevedo, Celia; Quinn, Ronald J.; Rice, Christopher A.; Abdo Rizk, Mohamed; Ruecker, Andrea; St. Onge, Robert; Salgado Ferreira, Rafaela; Samra, Jasmeet; Robinett, Natalie G.; Schlecht, Ulrich; Schmitt, Marjorie; Silva Villela, Filipe; Silvestrini, Francesco; Sinden, Robert; Smith, Dennis A.; Soldati, Thierry; Spitzmüller, Andreas; Stamm, Serge Maximilian; Sullivan, David J.; Sullivan, William; Suresh, Sundari; Suzuki, Brian M.; Suzuki, Yo; Swamidass, S. Joshua; Taramelli, Donatella; Tchokouaha, Lauve R. Y.; Theron, Anjo; Thomas, David; Tonissen, Kathryn F.; Townson, Simon; Tripathi, Abhai K.; Trofimov, Valentin; Udenze, Kenneth O.; Ullah, Imran; Vallieres, Cindy; Vigil, Edgar; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Voong Vinh, Phat; Vu, Hoan; Watanabe, Nao-aki; Weatherby, Kate; White, Pamela M.; Wilks, Andrew F.; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.; Wojcik, Edward; Wree, Melanie; Wu, Wesley; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Zollo, Paul H. A.; Abla, Nada; Blasco, Benjamin; Burrows, Jeremy; Laleu, Benoît; Leroy, Didier; Spangenberg, Thomas; Wells, Timothy; Willis, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    A major cause of the paucity of new starting points for drug discovery is the lack of interaction between academia and industry. Much of the global resource in biology is present in universities, whereas the focus of medicinal chemistry is still largely within industry. Open source drug discovery, with sharing of information, is clearly a first step towards overcoming this gap. But the interface could especially be bridged through a scale-up of open sharing of physical compounds, which would accelerate the finding of new starting points for drug discovery. The Medicines for Malaria Venture Malaria Box is a collection of over 400 compounds representing families of structures identified in phenotypic screens of pharmaceutical and academic libraries against the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite. The set has now been distributed to almost 200 research groups globally in the last two years, with the only stipulation that information from the screens is deposited in the public domain. This paper reports for the first time on 236 screens that have been carried out against the Malaria Box and compares these results with 55 assays that were previously published, in a format that allows a meta-analysis of the combined dataset. The combined biochemical and cellular assays presented here suggest mechanisms of action for 135 (34%) of the compounds active in killing multiple life-cycle stages of the malaria parasite, including asexual blood, liver, gametocyte, gametes and insect ookinete stages. In addition, many compounds demonstrated activity against other pathogens, showing hits in assays with 16 protozoa, 7 helminths, 9 bacterial and mycobacterial species, the dengue fever mosquito vector, and the NCI60 human cancer cell line panel of 60 human tumor cell lines. Toxicological, pharmacokinetic and metabolic properties were collected on all the compounds, assisting in the selection of the most promising candidates for murine proof-of-concept experiments and medicinal

  17. Open Source Drug Discovery with the Malaria Box Compound Collection for Neglected Diseases and Beyond.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley C Van Voorhis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A major cause of the paucity of new starting points for drug discovery is the lack of interaction between academia and industry. Much of the global resource in biology is present in universities, whereas the focus of medicinal chemistry is still largely within industry. Open source drug discovery, with sharing of information, is clearly a first step towards overcoming this gap. But the interface could especially be bridged through a scale-up of open sharing of physical compounds, which would accelerate the finding of new starting points for drug discovery. The Medicines for Malaria Venture Malaria Box is a collection of over 400 compounds representing families of structures identified in phenotypic screens of pharmaceutical and academic libraries against the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite. The set has now been distributed to almost 200 research groups globally in the last two years, with the only stipulation that information from the screens is deposited in the public domain. This paper reports for the first time on 236 screens that have been carried out against the Malaria Box and compares these results with 55 assays that were previously published, in a format that allows a meta-analysis of the combined dataset. The combined biochemical and cellular assays presented here suggest mechanisms of action for 135 (34% of the compounds active in killing multiple life-cycle stages of the malaria parasite, including asexual blood, liver, gametocyte, gametes and insect ookinete stages. In addition, many compounds demonstrated activity against other pathogens, showing hits in assays with 16 protozoa, 7 helminths, 9 bacterial and mycobacterial species, the dengue fever mosquito vector, and the NCI60 human cancer cell line panel of 60 human tumor cell lines. Toxicological, pharmacokinetic and metabolic properties were collected on all the compounds, assisting in the selection of the most promising candidates for murine proof-of-concept experiments

  18. Drug-loaded bubbles with matched focused ultrasound excitation for concurrent blood-brain barrier opening and brain-tumor drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ching-Hsiang; Ting, Chien-Yu; Chang, Yuan-Chih; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Liu, Hao-Li; Yeh, Chih-Kuang

    2015-03-01

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) with microbubbles has been used to achieve local blood-brain barrier opening (BBB opening) and increase the penetration of therapeutic drugs into brain tumors. However, inertial cavitation of microbubbles during FUS-induced BBB opening causes intracerebral hemorrhaging (ICH), leading to acute and chronic brain injury and limiting the efficiency of drug delivery. Here we investigated whether induction of drug (1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea, BCNU)-loaded bubbles (BCNU bubbles) to oscillate at their resonant frequency would reduce inertial cavitation during BBB opening, thereby eliminating ICH and enhancing drug delivery in a rat brain model. FUS was tested at 1 and 10 MHz, over a wide range of pressure (mechanical index ranging from 0.16 to 1.42) in the presence of BCNU bubbles. Excitation of BCNU bubbles by resonance frequency-matched FUS (10 MHz) resulted in predominantly stable cavitation and significantly reduced the occurrence of potential hazards of exposure to biological tissues during the BBB opening process. In addition, the drug release process could be monitored by acoustic emission obtained from ultrasound imaging. In tumor-bearing animals, BCNU bubbles with FUS showed significant control of tumor progression and improved maximum survival from 26 to 35 days. This study provides useful advancements toward the goal of successfully translating FUS theranostic bubble-enhanced brain drug delivery into clinical use.

  19. Research of global illumination algorithms rendering in glossy scene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Shuangxue; ZHANG Qiang; ZHOU Dongsheng

    2012-01-01

    In computer graphic (CG), illumination rendering generated realistic effect at virtual scene is amazing. Not only plausible lighting effect is to show the relative position between of the objects, but also to reflect the material of visual appearance of the vir- tual objects. The diffuse-scene rendering reflectance credibility has gradually matured. Global illumination rendering method for the glossy material is still a challenge for the CG research. Because of the shiny materials is highly energy reflection between the com- plex light paths. Whether we trace glossy reflection paths, or use of one-reflection or multi-reflection approximate above complex il- lumination transmission is a difficult working. This paper we gather some commonly used global illumination algorithms recently year and its extension glossy scene improvements. And we introduce the limitation of classical algorithms rendering glossy scene and some extended solution. Finally, we will summarize the illumination rendering for specular scene, there are still some open prob- lems.

  20. Open-access public-private partnerships to enable drug discovery--new approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Susanne; Weigelt, Johan

    2010-03-01

    The productivity of the pharmaceutical industry, as assessed by the number of NMEs produced per US dollar spent in R&D, has been in steady decline during the past 40 years. This decline in productivity not only poses a significant challenge to the pharmaceutical industry, but also to society because of the importance of developing drugs for the treatment of unmet medical needs. The major challenge in progressing a new drug to the market is the successful completion of clinical trials. However, the failure rate of drugs entering trials has not decreased, despite various technological and scientific breakthroughs in recent decades, and despite intense target validation efforts. This lack of success suggests limitations in the fundamental understanding of target biology and human pharmacology. One contributing factor may be the traditional secrecy of the pharmaceutical sector, a characteristic that does not promote scientific discovery in an optimal manner. Access to broader knowledge relating to target biology and human pharmacology is difficult to obtain because interactions between researchers in industry and academia are typically restricted to closed collaborations in which the knowledge gained is confidential.However, open-access collaborative partnerships are gaining momentum in industry, and are also favored by funding agencies. Such open-access collaborations may be a powerful alternative to closed collaborations; the sharing of early-stage research data is expected to enable scientific discovery by engaging a broader section of the scientific community in the exploration of new findings. Potentially, the sharing of data could contribute to an increased understanding of biological processes and a decrease in the attrition of clinical programs.

  1. Exploring open innovation with a patient focus in drug discovery: an evolving paradigm of patient engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allarakhia, Minna

    2015-06-01

    It is suggested in this article that patient engagement should occur further upstream during the drug discovery stage. 'Lead patients', namely those patients who are proactive with respect to their health, possess knowledge of their disease and resulting symptoms. They are also well informed about the conventional as well as non-conventional treatments for disease management; and so can provide a nuanced perspective to drug design. Understanding how patients view the management of their diseases and how they view the use of conventional versus non-conventional interventions is of imperative importance to researchers. Indeed, this can provide insight into how conventional treatments might be designed from the outset to encourage compliance and positive health outcomes. Consequently, a continuum of lead patient engagement is employed that focuses on drug discovery processes ranging from participative, informative to collaborative engagement. This article looks at a variety of open innovation models that are currently employed across this engagement spectrum. It is no longer sufficient for industry stakeholders to consider conventional therapies as the only mechanisms being sought after by patients. Without patient engagement, the industry risks being re-prioritized in terms of its role in the patient journey towards not only recovery of health, but also sustained health and wellness before disease onset.

  2. Chromatin opening of DNA satellites by targeted sequence-specific drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, S; Durussel, T; Laemmli, U K

    2000-11-01

    There are few tools available for dissecting and elucidating the functions of DNA satellites and other nongenic DNA. To address this, we have explored the experimental potential of DNA sequence-specific drugs containing pyrrole and imidazole amino acids (polyamides). Compounds were synthesized that target different Drosophila melanogaster satellites. Dimeric oligopyrroles were shown to target the AT-rich satellites I, III, and SARs (scaffold associated regions). One polyamide (P31) specifically binds the GAGAA satellite V. Specificity of targeting was established by footprinting, epifluorescence of nuclei, and polytene chromosomes stained with fluorescent derivatives. These polyamides were shown to mediate satellite-specific chromatin opening of the chromatin fiber. Remarkably, certain polyamides induced defined gain or loss-of-function phenotypes when fed to Drosophila melanogaster.

  3. Drug-induced histone eviction from open chromatin contributes to the chemotherapeutic effects of doxorubicin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Baoxu; Qiao, Xiaohang; Janssen, Lennert; Velds, Arno; Groothuis, Tom; Kerkhoven, Ron; Nieuwland, Marja; Ovaa, Huib; Rottenberg, Sven; van Tellingen, Olaf; Janssen, Jeroen; Huijgens, Peter; Zwart, Wilbert; Neefjes, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors are a major class of cancer chemotherapeutics, which are thought to eliminate cancer cells by inducing DNA double-strand breaks. Here we identify a novel activity for the anthracycline class of DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors: histone eviction from open chromosomal areas. We show that anthracyclines promote histone eviction irrespective of their ability to induce DNA double-strand breaks. The histone variant H2AX, which is a key component of the DNA damage response, is also evicted by anthracyclines, and H2AX eviction is associated with attenuated DNA repair. Histone eviction deregulates the transcriptome in cancer cells and organs such as the heart, and can drive apoptosis of topoisomerase-negative acute myeloid leukaemia blasts in patients. We define a novel mechanism of action of anthracycline anticancer drugs doxorubicin and daunorubicin on chromatin biology, with important consequences for DNA damage responses, epigenetics, transcription, side effects and cancer therapy. PMID:23715267

  4. Hydrological AnthropoScenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudennec, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    The Anthropocene concept encapsulates the planetary-scale changes resulting from accelerating socio-ecological transformations, beyond the stratigraphic definition actually in debate. The emergence of multi-scale and proteiform complexity requires inter-discipline and system approaches. Yet, to reduce the cognitive challenge of tackling this complexity, the global Anthropocene syndrome must now be studied from various topical points of view, and grounded at regional and local levels. A system approach should allow to identify AnthropoScenes, i.e. settings where a socio-ecological transformation subsystem is clearly coherent within boundaries and displays explicit relationships with neighbouring/remote scenes and within a nesting architecture. Hydrology is a key topical point of view to be explored, as it is important in many aspects of the Anthropocene, either with water itself being a resource, hazard or transport force; or through the network, connectivity, interface, teleconnection, emergence and scaling issues it determines. We will schematically exemplify these aspects with three contrasted hydrological AnthropoScenes in Tunisia, France and Iceland; and reframe therein concepts of the hydrological change debate. Bai X., van der Leeuw S., O'Brien K., Berkhout F., Biermann F., Brondizio E., Cudennec C., Dearing J., Duraiappah A., Glaser M., Revkin A., Steffen W., Syvitski J., 2016. Plausible and desirable futures in the Anthropocene: A new research agenda. Global Environmental Change, in press, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.09.017 Brondizio E., O'Brien K., Bai X., Biermann F., Steffen W., Berkhout F., Cudennec C., Lemos M.C., Wolfe A., Palma-Oliveira J., Chen A. C-T. Re-conceptualizing the Anthropocene: A call for collaboration. Global Environmental Change, in review. Montanari A., Young G., Savenije H., Hughes D., Wagener T., Ren L., Koutsoyiannis D., Cudennec C., Grimaldi S., Blöschl G., Sivapalan M., Beven K., Gupta H., Arheimer B., Huang Y

  5. Semantic Reasoning for Scene Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Baseski, Emre; Pugeault, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a hierarchical architecture for representing scenes, covering 2D and 3D aspects of visual scenes as well as the semantic relations between the different aspects. We argue that labeled graphs are a suitable representational framework for this representation and demonstrat...

  6. A Low Cost/Low Power Open Source Sensor System for Automated Tuberculosis Drug Susceptibility Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyukwang Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research an open source, low power sensor node was developed to check the growth of mycobacteria in a culture bottle with a nitrate reductase assay method for a drug susceptibility test. The sensor system reports the temperature and color sensor output frequency change of the culture bottle when the device is triggered. After the culture process is finished, a nitrite ion detecting solution based on a commercial nitrite ion detection kit is injected into the culture bottle by a syringe pump to check bacterial growth by the formation of a pigment by the reaction between the solution and the color sensor. Sensor status and NRA results are broadcasted via a Bluetooth low energy beacon. An Android application was developed to collect the broadcasted data, classify the status of cultured samples from multiple devices, and visualize the data for the end users, circumventing the need to examine each culture bottle manually during a long culture period. The authors expect that usage of the developed sensor will decrease the cost and required labor for handling large amounts of patient samples in local health centers in developing countries. All 3D-printerable hardware parts, a circuit diagram, and software are available online.

  7. A Low Cost/Low Power Open Source Sensor System for Automated Tuberculosis Drug Susceptibility Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyukwang; Kim, Hyeong Keun; Lim, Hwijoon; Myung, Hyun

    2016-06-22

    In this research an open source, low power sensor node was developed to check the growth of mycobacteria in a culture bottle with a nitrate reductase assay method for a drug susceptibility test. The sensor system reports the temperature and color sensor output frequency change of the culture bottle when the device is triggered. After the culture process is finished, a nitrite ion detecting solution based on a commercial nitrite ion detection kit is injected into the culture bottle by a syringe pump to check bacterial growth by the formation of a pigment by the reaction between the solution and the color sensor. Sensor status and NRA results are broadcasted via a Bluetooth low energy beacon. An Android application was developed to collect the broadcasted data, classify the status of cultured samples from multiple devices, and visualize the data for the end users, circumventing the need to examine each culture bottle manually during a long culture period. The authors expect that usage of the developed sensor will decrease the cost and required labor for handling large amounts of patient samples in local health centers in developing countries. All 3D-printerable hardware parts, a circuit diagram, and software are available online.

  8. Screening the Medicines for Malaria Venture Pathogen Box across Multiple Pathogens Reclassifies Starting Points for Open-Source Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Sandra; Sykes, Melissa L; Jones, Amy J; Shelper, Todd B; Simpson, Moana; Lang, Rebecca; Poulsen, Sally-Ann; Sleebs, Brad E; Avery, Vicky M

    2017-09-01

    Open-access drug discovery provides a substantial resource for diseases primarily affecting the poor and disadvantaged. The open-access Pathogen Box collection is comprised of compounds with demonstrated biological activity against specific pathogenic organisms. The supply of this resource by the Medicines for Malaria Venture has the potential to provide new chemical starting points for a number of tropical and neglected diseases, through repurposing of these compounds for use in drug discovery campaigns for these additional pathogens. We tested the Pathogen Box against kinetoplastid parasites and malaria life cycle stages in vitro Consequently, chemical starting points for malaria, human African trypanosomiasis, Chagas disease, and leishmaniasis drug discovery efforts have been identified. Inclusive of this in vitro biological evaluation, outcomes from extensive literature reviews and database searches are provided. This information encompasses commercial availability, literature reference citations, other aliases and ChEMBL number with associated biological activity, where available. The release of this new data for the Pathogen Box collection into the public domain will aid the open-source model of drug discovery. Importantly, this will provide novel chemical starting points for drug discovery and target identification in tropical disease research. Copyright © 2017 Duffy et al.

  9. Mad scenes in early 19th-century opera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfurth, A; Hoff, P

    2000-10-01

    It is our objective to examine the phenomenon of mad scenes in bel canto opera from a modern perspective. The development of psychiatry and music at the beginning of the 19th century is described. Common elements of romantic music and mental disorders are discussed. It is shown how bel canto composers represent psychiatric illness by musical means. The psychopathology depicted in a prototypical mad scene is evaluated. Early romantic music is characterized by imagination, illusion and loss of structure; characteristics which can be well expressed in mad scenes. While madness (withdrawal into a utopian world) gained a certain attraction in society, clinical psychiatry increasingly focused on emotional causes of illness and on drug-induction of mental disorders. Mad scenes in bel canto opera can be understood as expression of an increasing interest in emotional aspects in music and society as well as in clinical psychiatry.

  10. Probing kinetic drug binding mechanism in voltage-gated sodium ion channel: open state versus inactive state blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Krishnendu; Gangopadhyay, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    The kinetics and nonequilibrium thermodynamics of open state and inactive state drug binding mechanisms have been studied here using different voltage protocols in sodium ion channel. We have found that for constant voltage protocol, open state block is more efficient in blocking ionic current than inactive state block. Kinetic effect comes through peak current for mexiletine as an open state blocker and in the tail part for lidocaine as an inactive state blocker. Although the inactivation of sodium channel is a free energy driven process, however, the two different kinds of drug affect the inactivation process in a different way as seen from thermodynamic analysis. In presence of open state drug block, the process initially for a long time remains entropy driven and then becomes free energy driven. However in presence of inactive state block, the process remains entirely entropy driven until the equilibrium is attained. For oscillating voltage protocol, the inactive state blocking is more efficient in damping the oscillation of ionic current. From the pulse train analysis it is found that inactive state blocking is less effective in restoring normal repolarisation and blocks peak ionic current. Pulse train protocol also shows that all the inactive states behave differently as one inactive state responds instantly to the test pulse in an opposite manner from the other two states.

  11. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  12. Monocular visual scene understanding: understanding multi-object traffic scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojek, Christian; Walk, Stefan; Roth, Stefan; Schindler, Konrad; Schiele, Bernt

    2013-04-01

    Following recent advances in detection, context modeling, and tracking, scene understanding has been the focus of renewed interest in computer vision research. This paper presents a novel probabilistic 3D scene model that integrates state-of-the-art multiclass object detection, object tracking and scene labeling together with geometric 3D reasoning. Our model is able to represent complex object interactions such as inter-object occlusion, physical exclusion between objects, and geometric context. Inference in this model allows us to jointly recover the 3D scene context and perform 3D multi-object tracking from a mobile observer, for objects of multiple categories, using only monocular video as input. Contrary to many other approaches, our system performs explicit occlusion reasoning and is therefore capable of tracking objects that are partially occluded for extended periods of time, or objects that have never been observed to their full extent. In addition, we show that a joint scene tracklet model for the evidence collected over multiple frames substantially improves performance. The approach is evaluated for different types of challenging onboard sequences. We first show a substantial improvement to the state of the art in 3D multipeople tracking. Moreover, a similar performance gain is achieved for multiclass 3D tracking of cars and trucks on a challenging dataset.

  13. Correlates of Marijuana Drugged Driving and Openness to Driving While High: Evidence from Colorado and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kevin C.; Allen, Jane; Duke, Jennifer; Nonnemaker, James; Bradfield, Brian; Farrelly, Matthew C.; Shafer, Paul; Novak, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Aims A potential unintended consequence of legalizing recreational marijuana is increased marijuana-related driving impairment. Some states where recreational marijuana is legal have begun implementing interventions to mitigate driving under the influence (DUI) of marijuana, including media campaigns to increase knowledge about DUI laws. However, little is known about the associations between knowledge of DUI laws and marijuana DUI behavior. In this study, we provide new data from a survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington to examine associations between marijuana drugged driving and two potential behavioral precursors of marijuana DUI. We also explore other factors that may influence marijuana DUI. Methods Data are from an online survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington. Respondents who reported any marijuana use in the past 30 days (n = 865) served as the analytic sample. We examined prevalence of two behavioral outcomes: (1) any driving of a motor vehicle while high in the past year and (2) driving a motor vehicle within 1 hour of using marijuana 5 or more times in the past month. Additional outcomes measuring willingness to drive while high were also assessed. Logistic regressions were used to estimate each outcome as a function of two multi-item scales measuring knowledge of the legal consequences of driving high and perceptions that driving while high is not safe. Additional covariates for potential confounders were included in each model. Results Prevalence of past-year driving while under the influence of marijuana was 43.6% among respondents. The prevalence of driving within 1 hour of using marijuana at least 5 times in the past month was 23.9%. Increased perception that driving high is unsafe was associated with lower odds of past-year marijuana DUI (OR = 0.31, P marijuana (OR = 0.26, P marijuana DUI laws was also associated with lower odds of each of these outcomes (OR = 0.63, P marijuana DUI were greater in magnitude for safety

  14. Correlates of Marijuana Drugged Driving and Openness to Driving While High: Evidence from Colorado and Washington.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C Davis

    Full Text Available A potential unintended consequence of legalizing recreational marijuana is increased marijuana-related driving impairment. Some states where recreational marijuana is legal have begun implementing interventions to mitigate driving under the influence (DUI of marijuana, including media campaigns to increase knowledge about DUI laws. However, little is known about the associations between knowledge of DUI laws and marijuana DUI behavior. In this study, we provide new data from a survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington to examine associations between marijuana drugged driving and two potential behavioral precursors of marijuana DUI. We also explore other factors that may influence marijuana DUI.Data are from an online survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington. Respondents who reported any marijuana use in the past 30 days (n = 865 served as the analytic sample. We examined prevalence of two behavioral outcomes: (1 any driving of a motor vehicle while high in the past year and (2 driving a motor vehicle within 1 hour of using marijuana 5 or more times in the past month. Additional outcomes measuring willingness to drive while high were also assessed. Logistic regressions were used to estimate each outcome as a function of two multi-item scales measuring knowledge of the legal consequences of driving high and perceptions that driving while high is not safe. Additional covariates for potential confounders were included in each model.Prevalence of past-year driving while under the influence of marijuana was 43.6% among respondents. The prevalence of driving within 1 hour of using marijuana at least 5 times in the past month was 23.9%. Increased perception that driving high is unsafe was associated with lower odds of past-year marijuana DUI (OR = 0.31, P < 0.01 and lower past-month odds of driving 5 or more times within 1 hour of using marijuana (OR = 0.26, P < 0.01. Increased knowledge of marijuana DUI laws was also associated

  15. Multi- and hyperspectral scene modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Christoph C.; Tuttle, Ronald F.

    2011-06-01

    This paper shows how to use a public domain raytracer POV-Ray (Persistence Of Vision Raytracer) to render multiand hyper-spectral scenes. The scripting environment allows automatic changing of the reflectance and transmittance parameters. The radiosity rendering mode allows accurate simulation of multiple-reflections between surfaces and also allows semi-transparent surfaces such as plant leaves. We show that POV-Ray computes occlusion accurately using a test scene with two blocks under a uniform sky. A complex scene representing a plant canopy is generated using a few lines of script. With appropriate rendering settings, shadows cast by leaves are rendered in many bands. Comparing single and multiple reflection renderings, the effect of multiple reflections is clearly visible and accounts for 25% of the overall apparent canopy reflectance in the near infrared.

  16. Crime Scenes as Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    Using the concept of augmented reality, this article will investigate how places in various ways have become augmented by means of different mediatization strategies. Augmentation of reality implies an enhancement of the places' emotional character: a certain mood, atmosphere or narrative surplus......, physical damage: they are all readable and interpretable signs. As augmented reality the crime scene carries a narrative which at first is hidden and must be revealed. Due to the process of investigation and the detective's ability to reason and deduce, the crime scene as place is reconstructed as virtual...

  17. Crime Scenes as Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    Using the concept of augmented reality, this article will investigate how places in various ways have become augmented by means of different mediatization strategies. Augmentation of reality implies an enhancement of the places' emotional character: a certain mood, atmosphere or narrative surplus......, physical damage: they are all readable and interpretable signs. As augmented reality the crime scene carries a narrative which at first is hidden and must be revealed. Due to the process of investigation and the detective's ability to reason and deduce, the crime scene as place is reconstructed as virtual...

  18. Creating Three-Dimensional Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumpe, Norm

    2005-01-01

    Persistence of Vision Raytracer (POV-Ray), a free computer program for creating photo-realistic, three-dimensional scenes and a link for Mathematica users interested in generating POV-Ray files from within Mathematica, is discussed. POV-Ray has great potential in secondary mathematics classrooms and helps in strengthening students' visualization…

  19. Seabed scene simulation and its realization in extending Vega

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Zhi-ming; KANG Feng-ju; TANG Kai; CHU Yan-jun

    2003-01-01

    Realistic simulation of underwater scene is always difficult because of the special and complex vision effects in underwater space. Seabed is an important part of underwater environment. This paper describes the methods for seabed scene simulation based on OpenGL. It includes construction of fluctuant terrain based on the random sinusoidal algorithm, simulation of seabed flicker effect by means of circular texture mapping and generation of turbidity effect by using fog techniques. For the application based on the leading high level 3D development environment-Vega, underwater scene simulation is still a difficulty since there is no module for it. Based on the analysis of Vega software and the research on seabed scene simulation methods, a Vega extending module named "Underwater Space" was created through developing module class and extending lynx interface. The module class was designed through developing DLL written in C++. The Lynx was extended through developing keyword configure file, GUI configure file and lynx plug-in DLL. The problem that Vega can't simulate underwater space, is elementarily resolved. The results show that this module is efficient, easy using, and the seabed scene images are vivid.

  20. Open-source approaches for the repurposing of existing or failed candidate drugs: learning from and applying the lessons across diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allarakhia, Minna

    2013-01-01

    Repurposing has the objective of targeting existing drugs and failed, abandoned, or yet-to-be-pursued clinical candidates to new disease areas. The open-source model permits for the sharing of data, resources, compounds, clinical molecules, small libraries, and screening platforms to cost-effectively advance old drugs and/or candidates into clinical re-development. Clearly, at the core of drug-repurposing activities is collaboration, in many cases progressing beyond the open sharing of resources, technology, and intellectual property, to the sharing of facilities and joint program development to foster drug-repurposing human-capacity development. A variety of initiatives under way for drug repurposing, including those targeting rare and neglected diseases, are discussed in this review and provide insight into the stakeholders engaged in drug-repurposing discovery, the models of collaboration used, the intellectual property-management policies crafted, and human capacity developed. In the case of neglected tropical diseases, it is suggested that the development of human capital be a central aspect of drug-repurposing programs. Open-source models can support human-capital development through collaborative data generation, open compound access, open and collaborative screening, preclinical and possibly clinical studies. Given the urgency of drug development for neglected tropical diseases, the review suggests elements from current repurposing programs be extended to the neglected tropical diseases arena.

  1. Closed hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy with open abdomen: a novel technique to reduce exposure of the surgical team to chemotherapy drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Laurent; Cheynel, Nicolas; Ortega-Deballon, Pablo; Giacomo, Giovanni Di; Chauffert, Bruno; Rat, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Exposure of the surgical team to toxic drugs during hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) remains a matter of great concern. In closed-abdomen HIPEC operating room staffs are not exposed to drugs, but the distribution of the heated liquid within the abdomen is not optimal. In open-abdomen HIPEC, the opposite is true. Even though the open-abdomen method is potentially more effective, it has not become a standard procedure because of the risk of exposure of members of the team to drugs. We present a new technique (closed HIPEC with open abdomen) which ensures protection against potentially contaminating exposure to liquids, vapours and aerosols, and allows permanent access to the whole abdominal cavity. Its principle is to extend the abdominal surgical wound upwards with a sort of “glove-box”. The cutaneous edges of the laparotomy are stapled to a latex «wall expander». The expander is draped over a special L-section metal frame placed above the abdomen. A transparent cover containing a « hand-access » port like those used in laparoscopic surgery is fixed inside the frame. In 10 patients, this device proved to be hermetic both for liquids and vapours. Intra-abdominal temperature was maintained between 42 and 43°C during most of the procedure. The whole abdominal cavity was accessible to the surgeon allowing optimal exposure of all peritoneal surfaces. This technique allows optimal HIPEC while limiting the potential toxic effects for the surgical, medical and paramedical teams. PMID:17929098

  2. Open for collaboration: an academic platform for drug discovery and development at SciLifeLab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Per I; Sandberg, Kristian; Forsberg-Nilsson, Karin

    2016-10-01

    The Science for Life Laboratory Drug Discovery and Development (SciLifeLab DDD) platform reaches out to Swedish academia with an industry-standard infrastructure for academic drug discovery, supported by earmarked funds from the Swedish government. In this review, we describe the build-up and operation of the platform, and reflect on our first two years of operation, with the ambition to share learnings and best practice with academic drug discovery centers globally. We also discuss how the Swedish Teacher Exemption Law, an internationally unique aspect of the innovation system, has shaped the operation. Furthermore, we address how this investment in infrastructure and expertise can be utilized to facilitate international collaboration between academia and industry in the best interest of those ultimately benefiting the most from translational pharmaceutical research - the patients.

  3. Double pharmacological challenge on repolarization opens new avenues for drug safety research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Bækgaard

    2007-01-01

    pointes (TdP) arrhythmia. Both the pharmaceutical industry and the regulatory bodies are neglecting the available proarrhythmia models. In vitro studies have suggested that combined pharmacological hits on repolarization will produce a superior substrate for in vivo proarrhythmia, compared to the single......-drug assessment. By using consecutive pharmacological challenges, a simple model is proposed, in which combinatorial pharmacology is employed to provoke TdP in the conscious dog. The pharmaceutical industry interested in evaluating the proarrhythmic potential of their present and future drugs now has a simple...

  4. The scene is set for ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Now that the electromagnetic calorimeter support and the mini space frame have been installed, practically all ALICE’s infrastructure is in place. The calorimeter support, an austenitic stainless steel shell weighing 30 tonnes, was slid gently inside the detector, in between the face of the magnet and the space frame. With the completion of two major installation projects, the scene is finally set for the ALICE experiment…or at least it nearly is, as a few design studies, minor installation jobs and measurements still need to be carried out before the curtain can finally be raised. The experiment’s chief engineer Diego Perini confirms: "All the heavy infrastructure for ALICE has been in place and ready for the grand opening since December 2007." The next step will be the installation of additional modules on the TOF and TRD detectors between January and March 2008, and physicists have already started testing the equipment with co...

  5. Comparison of Occlusive and Open Application in a Psoriasis Plaque Test Design, Exemplarily Using Investigations of Mapracorat 0.1% Ointment versus Vehicle and Reference Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigger-Alberti, Walter; Williams, Ragna; von Mackensen, Yi-Ling; Hoffman-Wecker, Maciej; Grossmann, Ulrike; Staedtler, Gerald; Nkulikiyinka, Richard; Shakery, Kaweh

    2017-01-01

    Psoriasis plaque tests (PPTs) are important tools in the early phases of antipsoriatic drug development. Two distinct PPT design variants (open vs. occluded drug application) are commonly used, but no previous work has aimed to directly compare and contrast their performance. We compared the antipsoriatic efficacy of mapracorat 0.1% ointment and reference drugs reported in 2 separate studies, representing open and occluded PPT designs. The drug effect size was measured by sonography (mean change in echo-poor band thickness), chromametry, and standardized clinical assessment. Antipsoriatic effects were detectable for the study drugs in both occluded and open PPTs. Differences between the potency of antipsoriatic drugs and vehicle were observable. The total antipsoriatic effect size appeared to be higher in the occluded PPT than the open PPT, despite the shorter treatment duration (2 vs. 4 weeks). Effect dynamics over time revealed greater differences between some study drugs in the open PPT compared to the occluded PPT. Taking the higher technical challenges for the open PPT into account, we recommend the occluded PPT as a standard screening setting in early drug development. In special cases, considering certain drug aspects or study objectives that would require procedural adaptations, an open PPT could be the better-suited design. Finally, both PPT models show clear advantages: classification as phase I studies, small number of psoriatic subjects, relatively short study duration, excellent discrimination between compounds and concentrations, parallel measurement of treatment response, and go/no go decisions very early in clinical development. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Biomarkers: refining diagnosis and expediting drug development - reality, aspiration and the role of open innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, H; Holland, R

    2014-09-01

    In the last decade, there have been intensive efforts to invent, qualify and use novel biomarkers as a means to improve success rates in drug discovery and development. The biomarkers field is maturing and this article considers whether these research efforts have brought about the expected benefits. The characteristics of a clinically useful biomarker are described and the impact this area of research has had is evaluated by reviewing a few, key examples of emerging biomarkers. There is evidence that the impact has been genuine and is increasing in both the drug and the diagnostic discovery and development processes. Beneficial impact on patient health outcomes seems relatively limited thus far, with the greatest impact in oncology (again, both in terms of novel drugs and in terms of more refined diagnoses and therefore more individualized treatment). However, the momentum of research would indicate that patient benefits are likely to increase substantially and to broaden across multiple therapeutic areas. Even though this research was originally driven by a desire to improve the drug discovery and development process, and was therefore funded with this aim in mind, it seems likely that the largest impact may actually come from more refined diagnosis. Refined diagnosis will facilitate both better allocation of healthcare resources and the use of treatment regimens which are optimized for the individual patient. This article also briefly reviews emerging technological approaches and how they relate to the challenges inherent in biomarker discovery and validation, and discusses the role of public/private partnerships in innovative biomarker research.

  7. Open Source Drug Discovery: Highly Potent Antimalarial Compounds Derived from the Tres Cantos Arylpyrroles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The development of new antimalarial compounds remains a pivotal part of the strategy for malaria elimination. Recent large-scale phenotypic screens have provided a wealth of potential starting points for hit-to-lead campaigns. One such public set is explored, employing an open source research mechanism in which all data and ideas were shared in real time, anyone was able to participate, and patents were not sought. One chemical subseries was found to exhibit oral activity but contained a labile ester that could not be replaced without loss of activity, and the original hit exhibited remarkable sensitivity to minor structural change. A second subseries displayed high potency, including activity within gametocyte and liver stage assays, but at the cost of low solubility. As an open source research project, unexplored avenues are clearly identified and may be explored further by the community; new findings may be cumulatively added to the present work. PMID:27800551

  8. Multiple synergistic effects of emotion and memory on proactive processes leading to scene recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, Antonio; Loeys, Tom; Pourtois, Gilles

    2013-11-01

    Visual scene recognition is a proactive process through which contextual cues and top-down expectations facilitate the extraction of invariant features. Whether the emotional content of the scenes exerts a reliable influence on these processes or not, however, remains an open question. Here, topographic ERP mapping analysis and a distributed source localization method were used to characterize the electrophysiological correlates of proactive processes leading to scene recognition, as well as the potential modulation of these processes by memory and emotion. On each trial, the content of a complex neutral or emotional scene was progressively revealed, and participants were asked to decide whether this scene had previously been encountered or not (delayed match-to-sample task). Behavioral results showed earlier recognition for old compared to new scenes, as well as delayed recognition for emotional vs. neutral scenes. Electrophysiological results revealed that, ~400 ms following stimulus onset, activity in ventral object-selective regions increased linearly as a function of accumulation of perceptual evidence prior to recognition of old scenes. The emotional content of the scenes had an early influence in these areas. By comparison, at the same latency, the processing of new scenes was mostly achieved by dorsal and medial frontal brain areas, including the anterior cingulate cortex and the insula. In the latter region, emotion biased recognition at later stages, likely corresponding to decision making processes. These findings suggest that emotion can operate at distinct and multiple levels during proactive processes leading to scene recognition, depending on the extent of prior encounter with these scenes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Stages As Models of Scene Geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nedović, V.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Redert, A.; Geusebroek, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Reconstruction of 3D scene geometry is an important element for scene understanding, autonomous vehicle and robot navigation, image retrieval, and 3D television. We propose accounting for the inherent structure of the visual world when trying to solve the scene reconstruction problem. Consequently,

  10. The anatomy of the crime scene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    Crime scenes are constituted by a combination of a plot and a place. The crime scene is a place which has been in a certain state of transformation at a certain moment in time, the moment at which the place constituted the scene for some kind of criminal activity. As such the place has been encod...

  11. Stages As Models of Scene Geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nedović, V.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Redert, A.; Geusebroek, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Reconstruction of 3D scene geometry is an important element for scene understanding, autonomous vehicle and robot navigation, image retrieval, and 3D television. We propose accounting for the inherent structure of the visual world when trying to solve the scene reconstruction problem. Consequently,

  12. A novel compact mass detection platform for the open access (OA) environment in drug discovery and early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junling; Ceglia, Scott S; Jones, Michael D; Simeone, Jennifer; Antwerp, John Van; Zhang, Li-Kang; Ross, Charles W; Helmy, Roy

    2016-04-15

    A new 'compact mass detector' co-developed with an instrument manufacturer (Waters Corporation) as an interface for liquid chromatography (LC), specifically Ultra-high performance LC(®) (UPLC(®) or UHPLC) analysis was evaluated as a potential new Open Access (OA) LC-MS platform in the Drug Discovery and Early Development space. This new compact mass detector based platform was envisioned to provide increased reliability and speed while exhibiting significant cost, noise, and footprint reductions. The new detector was evaluated in batch mode (typically 1-3 samples per run) to monitor reactions and check purity, as well as in High Throughput Screening (HTS) mode to run 24, 48, and 96 well plates. The latter workflows focused on screening catalysis conditions, process optimization, and library work. The objective of this investigation was to assess the performance, reliability, and flexibility of the compact mass detector in the OA setting for a variety of applications. The compact mass detector results were compared to those obtained by current OA LC-MS systems, and the capabilities and benefits of the compact mass detector in the open access setting for chemists in the drug discovery and development space are demonstrated.

  13. Compressive Acquisition of Dynamic Scenes

    CERN Document Server

    Sankaranarayanan, Aswin C; Chellappa, Rama; Baraniuk, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) is a new approach for the acquisition and recovery of sparse signals and images that enables sampling rates significantly below the classical Nyquist rate. Despite significant progress in the theory and methods of CS, little headway has been made in compressive video acquisition and recovery. Video CS is complicated by the ephemeral nature of dynamic events, which makes direct extensions of standard CS imaging architectures and signal models difficult. In this paper, we develop a new framework for video CS for dynamic textured scenes that models the evolution of the scene as a linear dynamical system (LDS). This reduces the video recovery problem to first estimating the model parameters of the LDS from compressive measurements, and then reconstructing the image frames. We exploit the low-dimensional dynamic parameters (the state sequence) and high-dimensional static parameters (the observation matrix) of the LDS to devise a novel compressive measurement strategy that measures only the...

  14. Facilitatory priming of scene layout depends on experience with the scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanocki, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Facilitatory scene priming is the positive effect of a scene prime on the immediately subsequent spatial processing of a related target, relative to control primes. In the present experiments, a large set of scenes were presented, each several times. The accuracy of a relational spatial-layout judgment was the main measure (which of two probes in a scene was closer?). The effect of scene primes on sensitivity was near zero for the first presentation of a scene; advantages for scene primes occurred only after two or three presentations. In addition, a bias effect emerged in reaction times for novel scenes. These results imply that facilitatory scene priming requires learning and is top-down in nature. Scene priming may require the consolidation of interscene relations in a memory representation.

  15. Understand Scene Categories by Objects: A Semantic Regularized Scene Classifier Using Convolutional Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Scene classification is a fundamental perception task for environmental understanding in today's robotics. In this paper, we have attempted to exploit the use of popular machine learning technique of deep learning to enhance scene understanding, particularly in robotics applications. As scene images have larger diversity than the iconic object images, it is more challenging for deep learning methods to automatically learn features from scene images with less samples. Inspired by human scene u...

  16. Pharmacometrics Markup Language (PharmML): Opening New Perspectives for Model Exchange in Drug Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swat, M J; Moodie, S; Wimalaratne, S M; Kristensen, N R; Lavielle, M; Mari, A; Magni, P; Smith, M K; Bizzotto, R; Pasotti, L; Mezzalana, E; Comets, E; Sarr, C; Terranova, N; Blaudez, E; Chan, P; Chard, J; Chatel, K; Chenel, M; Edwards, D; Franklin, C; Giorgino, T; Glont, M; Girard, P; Grenon, P; Harling, K; Hooker, A C; Kaye, R; Keizer, R; Kloft, C; Kok, J N; Kokash, N; Laibe, C; Laveille, C; Lestini, G; Mentré, F; Munafo, A; Nordgren, R; Nyberg, H B; Parra-Guillen, Z P; Plan, E; Ribba, B; Smith, G; Trocóniz, I F; Yvon, F; Milligan, P A; Harnisch, L; Karlsson, M; Hermjakob, H; Le Novère, N

    2015-06-01

    The lack of a common exchange format for mathematical models in pharmacometrics has been a long-standing problem. Such a format has the potential to increase productivity and analysis quality, simplify the handling of complex workflows, ensure reproducibility of research, and facilitate the reuse of existing model resources. Pharmacometrics Markup Language (PharmML), currently under development by the Drug Disease Model Resources (DDMoRe) consortium, is intended to become an exchange standard in pharmacometrics by providing means to encode models, trial designs, and modeling steps.

  17. Crime scene investigation, reporting, and reconstuction (CSIRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, John F.; Young, Jeffrey M.; Corrigan, Paul

    1997-02-01

    Graphic Data Systems Corporation (GDS Corp.) and Intellignet Graphics Solutions, Inc. (IGS) combined talents in 1995 to design and develop a MicroGDSTM application to support field investiations of crime scenes, such as homoicides, bombings, and arsons. IGS and GDS Corp. prepared design documents under the guidance of federal, state, and local crime scene reconstruction experts and with information from the FBI's evidence response team field book. The application was then developed to encompass the key components of crime scene investigaton: staff assigned to the incident, tasks occuring at the scene, visits to the scene location, photogrpahs taken of the crime scene, related documents, involved persons, catalogued evidence, and two- or three- dimensional crime scene reconstruction. Crime scene investigation, reporting, and reconstruction (CSIRR$CPY) provides investigators with a single applicaiton for both capturing all tabular data about the crime scene and quickly renderng a sketch of the scene. Tabular data is captured through ituitive database forms, while MicroGDSTM has been modified to readily allow non-CAD users to sketch the scene.

  18. Motivational Objects in Natural Scenes (MONS: A Database of >800 Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Schomaker

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In daily life, we are surrounded by objects with pre-existing motivational associations. However, these are rarely controlled for in experiments with natural stimuli. Research on natural stimuli would therefore benefit from stimuli with well-defined motivational properties; in turn, such stimuli also open new paths in research on motivation. Here we introduce a database of Motivational Objects in Natural Scenes (MONS. The database consists of 107 scenes. Each scene contains 2 to 7 objects placed at approximately equal distance from the scene center. Each scene was photographed creating 3 versions, with one object (“critical object” being replaced to vary the overall motivational value of the scene (appetitive, aversive, and neutral, while maintaining high visual similarity between the three versions. Ratings on motivation, valence, arousal and recognizability were obtained using internet-based questionnaires. Since the main objective was to provide stimuli of well-defined motivational value, three motivation scales were used: (1 Desire to own the object; (2 Approach/Avoid; (3 Desire to interact with the object. Three sets of ratings were obtained in independent sets of observers: for all 805 objects presented on a neutral background, for 321 critical objects presented in their scene context, and for the entire scenes. On the basis of the motivational ratings, objects were subdivided into aversive, neutral, and appetitive categories. The MONS database will provide a standardized basis for future studies on motivational value under realistic conditions.

  19. Imaging spectroscopy for scene analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Robles-Kelly, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This book presents a detailed analysis of spectral imaging, describing how it can be used for the purposes of material identification, object recognition and scene understanding. The opportunities and challenges of combining spatial and spectral information are explored in depth, as are a wide range of applications. Features: discusses spectral image acquisition by hyperspectral cameras, and the process of spectral image formation; examines models of surface reflectance, the recovery of photometric invariants, and the estimation of the illuminant power spectrum from spectral imagery; describes

  20. Using selected scenes from Brazilian films to teach about substance use disorders, within medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldelli-Maia, João Mauricio; Oliveira, Hercílio Pereira; Andrade, Arthur Guerra; Lotufo-Neto, Francisco; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2012-01-01

    Themes like alcohol and drug abuse, relationship difficulties, psychoses, autism and personality dissociation disorders have been widely used in films. Psychiatry and psychiatric conditions in various cultural settings are increasingly taught using films. Many articles on cinema and psychiatry have been published but none have presented any methodology on how to select material. Here, the authors look at the portrayal of abusive use of alcohol and drugs during the Brazilian cinema revival period (1994 to 2008). Qualitative study at two universities in the state of São Paulo. Scenes were selected from films available at rental stores and were analyzed using a specifically designed protocol. We assessed how realistic these scenes were and their applicability for teaching. One author selected 70 scenes from 50 films (graded for realism and teaching applicability > 8). These were then rated by another two judges. Rating differences among the three judges were assessed using nonparametric tests (P 8) were defined as "quality scenes". Thirty-nine scenes from 27 films were identified as "quality scenes". Alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens and inhalants were included in these. Signs and symptoms of intoxication, abusive/harmful use and dependence were shown. We have produced rich teaching material for discussing psychopathology relating to alcohol and drug use that can be used both at undergraduate and at postgraduate level. Moreover, it could be seen that certain drug use behavioral patterns are deeply rooted in some Brazilian films and groups.

  1. Using selected scenes from Brazilian films to teach about substance use disorders, within medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Themes like alcohol and drug abuse, relationship difficulties, psychoses, autism and personality dissociation disorders have been widely used in films. Psychiatry and psychiatric conditions in various cultural settings are increasingly taught using films. Many articles on cinema and psychiatry have been published but none have presented any methodology on how to select material. Here, the authors look at the portrayal of abusive use of alcohol and drugs during the Brazilian cinema revival period (1994 to 2008. DESIGN AND SETTING: Qualitative study at two universities in the state of São Paulo. METHODS: Scenes were selected from films available at rental stores and were analyzed using a specifically designed protocol. We assessed how realistic these scenes were and their applicability for teaching. One author selected 70 scenes from 50 films (graded for realism and teaching applicability > 8. These were then rated by another two judges. Rating differences among the three judges were assessed using nonparametric tests (P 8 were defined as "quality scenes". RESULTS: Thirty-nine scenes from 27 films were identified as "quality scenes". Alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens and inhalants were included in these. Signs and symptoms of intoxication, abusive/harmful use and dependence were shown. CONCLUSIONS: We have produced rich teaching material for discussing psychopathology relating to alcohol and drug use that can be used both at undergraduate and at postgraduate level. Moreover, it could be seen that certain drug use behavioral patterns are deeply rooted in some Brazilian films and groups.

  2. Towards surgeon-authored VR training: the scene-development cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindar, Saleh; Nguyen, Thien; Peters, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Enabling surgeon-educators to themselves create virtual reality (VR) training units promises greater variety, specialization, and relevance of the units. This paper describes a software bridge that semi-automates the scene-generation cycle, a key bottleneck in authoring, modeling, and developing VR units. Augmenting an open source modeling environment with physical behavior attachment and collision specifications yields single-click testing of the full force-feedback enabled anatomical scene.

  3. The Lecture Video Scene Extracting System

    OpenAIRE

    石黒, 信啓; 白井,治彦; 黒岩,丈介; 小高, 知宏; 小倉, 久和; ISHIGURO, Nobuhiko; SHIRAI, Haruhiko; KUROIWA, Josuke; ODAKA, Tomohiko; OGURA, Hisakazu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the system of extracting feature of scenes in a lecture video. To avoid a hand work on a lecture video, we propose a new method automate the judgment of importance of a scene. This system uses the TF-IDF method that is the technique of the natural language processing. Our system has four functions to watch a lecture video efficiently. They are the function of extracting feature of scenes, character string choice, keyword search and important scene choice.These functi...

  4. A system of infrared scene simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haihe; Li, Yujian; Huo, Yi; Kuang, Wenqing; Zhang, Ting

    2016-10-01

    We propose an integral infrared scene simulation system. The proposed system, which is based on the parameters of the thermal physical property and optical property, computes the radiation distribution of the scenery on the focus plane of the camera according to the scene of the geometrical parameter, the position and intensity of the light source, the location and direction of the camera and so on. Then the radiation distribution is mapped to the space of gray, and we finally obtain the virtual image of the scene. The proposed system includes eight modules namely basic data maintaining, model importing, scene saving, geometry parameters setting and infrared property parameters of the scene, data pre-processing, infrared scene simulation, and scene loading. The proposed system organizes all the data by the mode of database lookup table that stores all relative parameters and computation results of different states to avoid repetitive computation. Experimental results show that the proposed system produces three dimension infrared images in real time to some extent, and can reach 60 frames/second in simple scene drawing and 20 frames/second in complex scene drawing. Experimental results also show that the simulated images can represent infrared features of the scenery to a certain degree.

  5. Audiovisual integration facilitates unconscious visual scene processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jye-Sheng; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2015-10-01

    Meanings of masked complex scenes can be extracted without awareness; however, it remains unknown whether audiovisual integration occurs with an invisible complex visual scene. The authors examine whether a scenery soundtrack can facilitate unconscious processing of a subliminal visual scene. The continuous flash suppression paradigm was used to render a complex scene picture invisible, and the picture was paired with a semantically congruent or incongruent scenery soundtrack. Participants were asked to respond as quickly as possible if they detected any part of the scene. Release-from-suppression time was used as an index of unconscious processing of the complex scene, which was shorter in the audiovisual congruent condition than in the incongruent condition (Experiment 1). The possibility that participants adopted different detection criteria for the 2 conditions was excluded (Experiment 2). The audiovisual congruency effect did not occur for objects-only (Experiment 3) and background-only (Experiment 4) pictures, and it did not result from consciously mediated conceptual priming (Experiment 5). The congruency effect was replicated when catch trials without scene pictures were added to exclude participants with high false-alarm rates (Experiment 6). This is the first study demonstrating unconscious audiovisual integration with subliminal scene pictures, and it suggests expansions of scene-perception theories to include unconscious audiovisual integration.

  6. Road Scene Segmentation from a Single Image

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Alvarez; T. Gevers; Y. LeCun; A.M. Lopez

    2012-01-01

    Road scene segmentation is important in computer vision for different applications such as autonomous driving and pedestrian detection. Recovering the 3D structure of road scenes provides relevant contextual information to improve their understanding. In this paper, we use a convolutional neural net

  7. History Scene Investigations: From Clues to Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Beverly

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces a social studies lesson that allows students to learn history and practice reading skills, critical thinking, and writing. The activity is called History Scene Investigation or HSI, which derives its name from the popular television series based on crime scene investigations (CSI). HSI uses discovery learning…

  8. Illumination discrimination in real and simulated scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radonjić, Ana; Pearce, Bradley; Aston, Stacey; Krieger, Avery; Dubin, Hilary; Cottaris, Nicolas P.; Brainard, David H.; Hurlbert, Anya C.

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing humans' ability to discriminate changes in illumination provides information about the visual system's representation of the distal stimulus. We have previously shown that humans are able to discriminate illumination changes and that sensitivity to such changes depends on their chromatic direction. Probing illumination discrimination further would be facilitated by the use of computer-graphics simulations, which would, in practice, enable a wider range of stimulus manipulations. There is no a priori guarantee, however, that results obtained with simulated scenes generalize to real illuminated scenes. To investigate this question, we measured illumination discrimination in real and simulated scenes that were well-matched in mean chromaticity and scene geometry. Illumination discrimination thresholds were essentially identical for the two stimulus types. As in our previous work, these thresholds varied with illumination change direction. We exploited the flexibility offered by the use of graphics simulations to investigate whether the differences across direction are preserved when the surfaces in the scene are varied. We show that varying the scene's surface ensemble in a manner that also changes mean scene chromaticity modulates the relative sensitivity to illumination changes along different chromatic directions. Thus, any characterization of sensitivity to changes in illumination must be defined relative to the set of surfaces in the scene.

  9. History Scene Investigations: From Clues to Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Beverly

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces a social studies lesson that allows students to learn history and practice reading skills, critical thinking, and writing. The activity is called History Scene Investigation or HSI, which derives its name from the popular television series based on crime scene investigations (CSI). HSI uses discovery learning…

  10. Auditory and visual scene analysis: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We perceive the world as stable and composed of discrete objects even though auditory and visual inputs are often ambiguous owing to spatial and temporal occluders and changes in the conditions of observation. This raises important questions regarding where and how ‘scene analysis’ is performed in the brain. Recent advances from both auditory and visual research suggest that the brain does not simply process the incoming scene properties. Rather, top-down processes such as attention, expectations and prior knowledge facilitate scene perception. Thus, scene analysis is linked not only with the extraction of stimulus features and formation and selection of perceptual objects, but also with selective attention, perceptual binding and awareness. This special issue covers novel advances in scene-analysis research obtained using a combination of psychophysics, computational modelling, neuroimaging and neurophysiology, and presents new empirical and theoretical approaches. For integrative understanding of scene analysis beyond and across sensory modalities, we provide a collection of 15 articles that enable comparison and integration of recent findings in auditory and visual scene analysis. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Auditory and visual scene analysis’. PMID:28044011

  11. Road Scene Segmentation from a Single Image

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez, J.M.; Gevers, T.; LeCun, Y.; Lopez, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Road scene segmentation is important in computer vision for different applications such as autonomous driving and pedestrian detection. Recovering the 3D structure of road scenes provides relevant contextual information to improve their understanding. In this paper, we use a convolutional neural

  12. On support relations and semantic scene graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Michael Ying; Liao, Wentong; Ackermann, Hanno; Rosenhahn, Bodo

    2017-09-01

    Scene understanding is one of the essential and challenging topics in computer vision and photogrammetry. Scene graph provides valuable information for such scene understanding. This paper proposes a novel framework for automatic generation of semantic scene graphs which interpret indoor environments. First, a Convolutional Neural Network is used to detect objects of interest in the given image. Then, the precise support relations between objects are inferred by taking two important auxiliary information in the indoor environments: the physical stability and the prior support knowledge between object categories. Finally, a semantic scene graph describing the contextual relations within a cluttered indoor scene is constructed. In contrast to the previous methods for extracting support relations, our approach provides more accurate results. Furthermore, we do not use pixel-wise segmentation to obtain objects, which is computation costly. We also propose different methods to evaluate the generated scene graphs, which lacks in this community. Our experiments are carried out on the NYUv2 dataset. The experimental results demonstrated that our approach outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in inferring support relations. The estimated scene graphs are accurately compared with ground truth.

  13. Look Closely: The Finer Points of Scene Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Continues a discussion of script analysis for actors. Focuses on specific scenes and how an eventual scene-by-scene analysis will help students determine a "throughline" of a play's action. Uses a scene from "Romeo and Juliet" to illustrate scene analysis. Gives 13 script questions for students to answer. Presents six tips for scoring the action.…

  14. Medial Temporal Lobe Contributions to Episodic Future Thinking: Scene Construction or Future Projection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palombo, D J; Hayes, S M; Peterson, K M; Keane, M M; Verfaellie, M

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has shown that the medial temporal lobes (MTL) are more strongly engaged when individuals think about the future than about the present, leading to the suggestion that future projection drives MTL engagement. However, future thinking tasks often involve scene processing, leaving open the alternative possibility that scene-construction demands, rather than future projection, are responsible for the MTL differences observed in prior work. This study explores this alternative account. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we directly contrasted MTL activity in 1) high scene-construction and low scene-construction imagination conditions matched in future thinking demands and 2) future-oriented and present-oriented imagination conditions matched in scene-construction demands. Consistent with the alternative account, the MTL was more active for the high versus low scene-construction condition. By contrast, MTL differences were not observed when comparing the future versus present conditions. Moreover, the magnitude of MTL activation was associated with the extent to which participants imagined a scene but was not associated with the extent to which participants thought about the future. These findings help disambiguate which component processes of imagination specifically involve the MTL. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. Understanding natural scenes: Contributions of image statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cesarei, Andrea; Loftus, Geoffrey R; Mastria, Serena; Codispoti, Maurizio

    2017-03-01

    Visual processing of natural scenes is carried out in a hierarchical sequence of stages that involve the analysis of progressively more complex features of the visual input. Recent studies have suggested that the semantic content of natural stimuli (e.g., real world photos) can be categorized based on statistical regularities in their appearance, which can be detected early in the visual processing stream. Here we review the studies which have investigated the role of scene statistics in the perception of natural scenes, focusing on both basic visual processing and specific tasks (visual search, expert categorization, emotional picture viewing). Visual processing seems to be adapted to visual regularities in the visual input, such as the amplitude-frequency relationship. Moreover, scene statistics can aid performance in specific tasks such as distinguishing animals from artifactual scenes, possibly by modulating early visual processing stages.

  16. Synthesis of biodegradable amphiphilic Y-shaped block co-polymers via ring-opening polymerization for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lin; Yan, Lifeng; Li, Yang

    2011-01-01

    A series of novel Y-shaped biodegradable block co-polymers of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(ethyl ethylene phosphate) (PEEP) (PCL-(PEEP)2) were synthesized via ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of EEP with bis-hydroxy-functional ROP initiator (init-PCL-(OH)2). The init-PCL-(OH)2 was synthesized by ROP of CL using 4-hydroxybutyl acrylate (HBA) as initiator and L-tartaric acid as catalyst in bulk, and subsequently the resulting vinyl-terminated PCL was end-capped by acetyl chloride, followed by Michael addition using excess diethanolamine. The Y-shaped co-polymers and their intermediates were characterized by (1)H-, (13)C-, (31)P-NMR, FT-IR and gel-permeation chromatography. The results indicated that the molecular weight of the Y-shaped co-polymers increased with the increasing of the molar ratios of EEP to init-PCL-(OH)2 in the feed, while the PCL chain length was kept constant. The amphiphilic block co-polymers could self-assemble into micelles in aqueous solution, which was demonstrated by dynamic light scattering, (1)H-NMR and atomic force microscopy. A study of controlled release of indomethacin indicated that the amphiphilic block co-polymers could potentially provide novel vehicles for drug delivery.

  17. Scene classification based on spatial pyramid representation by superpixel lattices and contextual visual features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Guanghua; Li, Fengcai; Zhao, Yao; Zhu, Zhenfeng

    2012-01-01

    Natural scene classification is a challenging open problem in computer vision. We present a novel spatial pyramid representation scheme for recognizing scene category. Initially, each image is partitioned into sub-blocks, applying the technology of superpixel lattices segmentation according to a boosted edge learning boundary map, which makes the objects in each sub-block have the integrity--that is, the features in each sub-block are relatively consistent. Then, we extract the dense scale-invariant feature transform features of the images and form the contextual visual feature description. Finally, the image representations are performed by following the methodology of spatial pyramid. The feature descriptions we present include both local structural information and global spatial structural information; therefore, they are more discriminative for scene classification. Experiments demonstrate that the classification rate can achieve about 87.13% on a set of 15 categories of complex scenes.

  18. Classification of Scenes into Indoor/Outdoor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective model for scene classification is essential, to access the desired images from large scale databases. This study presents an efficient scene classification approach by integrating low level features, to reduce the semantic gap between the visual features and richness of human perception. The objective of the study is to categorize an image into indoor or outdoor scene using relevant low level features such as color and texture. The color feature from HSV color model, texture feature through GLCM and entropy computed from UV color space forms the feature vector. To support automatic scene classification, Support Vector Machine (SVM is implemented on low level features for categorizing a scene into indoor/outdoor. Since the combination of these image features exhibit a distinctive disparity between images containing indoor or outdoor scenes, the proposed method achieves better performance in terms of classification accuracy of about 92.44%. The proposed method has been evaluated on IITM- SCID2 (Scene Classification Image Database and dataset of 3442 images collected from the web.

  19. Scenes of the self, and trance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M. Broekman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Trance shows the Self as a process involved in all sorts and forms of life. A Western perspective on a self and its reifying tendencies is only one (or one series of those variations. The process character of the self does not allow any coherent theory but shows, in particular when confronted with trance, its variability in all regards. What is more: the Self is always first on the scene of itself―a situation in which it becomes a sign for itself. That particular semiotic feature is again not a unified one but leads, as the Self in view of itself does, to series of scenes with changing colors, circumstances and environments. Our first scene “Beyond Monotheism” shows semiotic importance in that a self as determining component of a trance-phenomenon must abolish its own referent and seems not able to answer the question, what makes trance a trance. The Pizzica is an example here. Other social features of trance appear in the second scene, US post traumatic psychological treatments included. Our third scene underlines structures of an unfolding self: beginning with ‘split-ego’ conclusions, a self’s engenderment appears dependent on linguistic events and on spoken words in the first place. A fourth scene explores that theme and explains modern forms of an ego ―in particular those inherent to ‘citizenship’ or a ‘corporation’. The legal consequences are concentrated in the fifth scene, which considers a legal subject by revealing its ‘standing’. Our sixth and final scene pertains to the relation between trance and commerce. All scenes tie together and show parallels between Pizzica, rights-based behavior, RAVE music versus disco, commerce and trance; they demonstrate the meaning of trance as a multifaceted social phenomenon.

  20. Characteristics of plasmids in multi-drug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolated during prospective surveillance of a newly opened hospital in Iraq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Zhe Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gram-negative multidrug-resistant (MDR bacteria are major causes of nosocomial infections, and antibiotic resistance in these organisms is often plasmid mediated. Data are scarce pertaining to molecular mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in resource constrained areas such as Iraq. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, all MDR Enterobacteriaceae (n = 38 and randomly selected non-MDR counterparts (n = 41 isolated from patients, healthcare workers and environmental surfaces in a newly opened hospital in Iraq were investigated to characterize plasmids found in these isolates and determine their contribution to antibiotic resistance. Our results demonstrated that MDR E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates harbored significantly more (≥ 3 plasmids compared to their non-MDR counterparts, which carried ≤ 2 plasmids (p<0.01. Various large plasmids (~52 to 100 kb from representative isolates were confirmed to contain multiple resistance genes by DNA microarray analysis. Aminoglycoside (acc, aadA, aph, strA/B, and ksgA, β-lactam (bla(TEM1, bla(AMPC, bla(CTX-M-15, bla(OXA-1, bla(VIM-2 and bla(SHV, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (sul/dfr, tetracycline (tet and chloramphenicol (cat resistance genes were detected on these plasmids. Additionally, multiple plasmids carrying multiple antibiotic resistance genes were found in the same host strain. Genetic transfer-associated genes were identified on the plasmids from both MDR and non-MDR isolates. Seven plasmid replicon types (FII, FIA, FIB, B/O, K, I1 and N were detected in the isolates, while globally disseminated IncA/C and IncHI1 plasmids were not detected in these isolates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of the characteristics of the plasmids found in Enterobacteriaceae isolated following the opening of a new hospital in Iraq. The information provided here furthers our understanding of the mechanisms of drug resistance in this specific region and their evolutionary

  1. Scene analysis in the natural environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewicki, Michael S; Olshausen, Bruno A; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2014-01-01

    The problem of scene analysis has been studied in a number of different fields over the past decades. These studies have led to important insights into problems of scene analysis, but not all of these insights are widely appreciated, and there remain critical shortcomings in current approaches th...... ill-posed problems, (2) the ability to integrate and store information across time and modality, (3) efficient recovery and representation of 3D scene structure, and (4) the use of optimal motor actions for acquiring information to progress toward behavioral goals....

  2. Cognition inspired framework for indoor scene annotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhipeng; Liu, Peng; Zhao, Wei; Tang, Xianglong

    2015-09-01

    We present a simple yet effective scene annotation framework based on a combination of bag-of-visual words (BoVW), three-dimensional scene structure estimation, scene context, and cognitive theory. From a macroperspective, the proposed cognition-based hybrid motivation framework divides the annotation problem into empirical inference and real-time classification. Inspired by the inference ability of human beings, common objects of indoor scenes are defined for experience-based inference, while in the real-time classification stage, an improved BoVW-based multilayer abstract semantics labeling method is proposed by introducing abstract semantic hierarchies to narrow the semantic gap and improve the performance of object categorization. The proposed framework was evaluated on a variety of common data sets and experimental results proved its effectiveness.

  3. High level methods for scene exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri Plemenos

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Virtual worlds exploration techniques are used in a wide variety of domains — from graph drawing to robot motion. This paper is dedicated to virtual world exploration techniques which have to help a human being to understand a 3D scene. An improved method of viewpoint quality estimation is presented in the paper, together with a new off-line method for automatic 3D scene exploration, based on a virtual camera. The automatic exploration method is working in two steps. In the first step, a set of “good” viewpoints is computed. The second step uses this set of points of view to compute a camera path around the scene. Finally, we define a notion of semantic distance between objects of the scene to improve the approach.

  4. Extrapolating spatial layout in scene representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelhano, Monica S; Pollatsek, Alexander

    2010-12-01

    Can the visual system extrapolate spatial layout of a scene to new viewpoints after a single view? In the present study, we examined this question by investigating the priming of spatial layout across depth rotations of the same scene (Sanocki & Epstein, 1997). Participants had to indicate which of two dots superimposed on objects in the target scene appeared closer to them in space. There was as much priming from a prime with a viewpoint that was 10° different from the test image as from a prime that was identical to the target; however, there was no reliable priming from larger differences in viewpoint. These results suggest that a scene's spatial layout can be extrapolated, but only to a limited extent.

  5. Clandestine laboratory scene investigation and processing using portable GC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejczyk, Raymond J.

    1997-02-01

    This presentation describes the use of portable gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for on-scene investigation and processing of clandestine laboratories. Clandestine laboratory investigations present special problems to forensic investigators. These crime scenes contain many chemical hazards that must be detected, identified and collected as evidence. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry performed on-scene with a rugged, portable unit is capable of analyzing a variety of matrices for drugs and chemicals used in the manufacture of illicit drugs, such as methamphetamine. Technologies used to detect various materials at a scene have particular applications but do not address the wide range of samples, chemicals, matrices and mixtures that exist in clan labs. Typical analyses performed by GC/MS are for the purpose of positively establishing the identity of starting materials, chemicals and end-product collected from clandestine laboratories. Concerns for the public and investigator safety and the environment are also important factors for rapid on-scene data generation. Here is described the implementation of a portable multiple-inlet GC/MS system designed for rapid deployment to a scene to perform forensic investigations of clandestine drug manufacturing laboratories. GC/MS has long been held as the 'gold standard' in performing forensic chemical analyses. With the capability of GC/MS to separate and produce a 'chemical fingerprint' of compounds, it is utilized as an essential technique for detecting and positively identifying chemical evidence. Rapid and conclusive on-scene analysis of evidence will assist the forensic investigators in collecting only pertinent evidence thereby reducing the amount of evidence to be transported, reducing chain of custody concerns, reducing costs and hazards, maintaining sample integrity and speeding the completion of the investigative process.

  6. Three interactive scenes of The Crystal Cabinet

    OpenAIRE

    Unander-Scharin, Åsa

    2010-01-01

    The interactive scenes of The Crystal Cabinet (2008) constitute the first part in my choreographic research project exploring volatile bodies and multistable corporealities. This performance took the form of a dream play opera in twelve scenes including texts and images from William Blake’s (1757-1827) illuminated books. To create his books Blake invented a printing-machine with which he could print his handwritten poems and images. We transformed this idea into an interactive stage area wher...

  7. Statistics of high-level scene context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Michelle R

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT IS CRITICAL FOR RECOGNIZING ENVIRONMENTS AND FOR SEARCHING FOR OBJECTS WITHIN THEM: contextual associations have been shown to modulate reaction time and object recognition accuracy, as well as influence the distribution of eye movements and patterns of brain activations. However, we have not yet systematically quantified the relationships between objects and their scene environments. Here I seek to fill this gap by providing descriptive statistics of object-scene relationships. A total of 48, 167 objects were hand-labeled in 3499 scenes using the LabelMe tool (Russell et al., 2008). From these data, I computed a variety of descriptive statistics at three different levels of analysis: the ensemble statistics that describe the density and spatial distribution of unnamed "things" in the scene; the bag of words level where scenes are described by the list of objects contained within them; and the structural level where the spatial distribution and relationships between the objects are measured. The utility of each level of description for scene categorization was assessed through the use of linear classifiers, and the plausibility of each level for modeling human scene categorization is discussed. Of the three levels, ensemble statistics were found to be the most informative (per feature), and also best explained human patterns of categorization errors. Although a bag of words classifier had similar performance to human observers, it had a markedly different pattern of errors. However, certain objects are more useful than others, and ceiling classification performance could be achieved using only the 64 most informative objects. As object location tends not to vary as a function of category, structural information provided little additional information. Additionally, these data provide valuable information on natural scene redundancy that can be exploited for machine vision, and can help the visual cognition community to design experiments guided by statistics

  8. Gay and Lesbian Scene in Metelkova

    OpenAIRE

    Nataša Velikonja

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the development of the gay and lesbian scene in ACC Metelkova, while specifying the preliminary aspects of establishing and building gay and lesbian activism associated with spatial issues. The struggle for space or occupying public space is vital for the gay and lesbian scene, as it provides not only the necessary socializing opportunities for gays and lesbians, but also does away with the historical hiding of homosexuality in the closet, in seclusion and silence. Beca...

  9. Connection between Interception and Political Scene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Interception can shake Murdoch’s the News Corporation;can also make the president of a country quit the political scene;even can trigger a coup.There’s no exaggeration. Only knowing yourself as well as the enemy,then you can fight a hundred battles with no danger of defeat. But how can one know the enemy? Interception is the most powerful tool. It is doomed to have connection with political scene ever since its birth.

  10. Statistics of High-level Scene Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle R. Greene

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Context is critical to our ability to recognize environments and to search for objects within them: contextual associations have been shown to modulate reaction time and object recognition accuracy, as well as influence the distribution of eye movements and patterns of brain activations. However, we have not yet systematically quantified the relationships between objects and their scene environments. Here I seek to fill this gap by providing descriptive statistics of object-scene relationships. A total of 48,167 objects were hand-labeled in 3499 scenes using the LabelMe tool (Russell, Torralba, Muphy & Freeman, 2008. From these data, I computed a variety of descriptive statistics at three different levels of analysis: the ensemble statistics that describe the density and spatial distribution of unnamed things in the scene; the bag of words level where scenes are described by the list of objects contained within them; and the structural level where the spatial distribution and relationships between the objects are measured. The utility of each level of description for scene categorization was assessed through the use of linear classifiers, and the plausibility of each level for modeling human rapid scene categorization is discussed. Ensemble statistics were found to be the most informative (per feature, and also best explained human patterns of categorization errors. Although a bag of words classifier had similar performance to human observers, it had a markedly different pattern of errors. Some objects are more useful than others, and ceiling classification performance could be achieved using only the 64 most informative objects. As object location tends not to vary as a function of category, structural information provided little additional information. Additionally, these data provide valuable information on natural scene redundancy that can be exploited for machine vision, and can help researchers in visual cognition design new data

  11. Multi-Sensor Scene Synthesis and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    vol. 8, pp. 313-333, 1978. 34. C. R. Brice and C. L. Fennema , "Scene Analysis Using Regions," Artificial Intelligence, vol. 1, pp. 205-226, 1970. 35. D...Cliffs, NJ, 1972. 85. C. R. Brice and C. L. Fennema , "Scene Analysis Using Regions," Art. Intell., vol. 1, pp. 205-226, 1970. 86. S. K. Chang, N. Donato, J

  12. Scene analysis in the natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, Michael S; Olshausen, Bruno A; Surlykke, Annemarie; Moss, Cynthia F

    2014-01-01

    The problem of scene analysis has been studied in a number of different fields over the past decades. These studies have led to important insights into problems of scene analysis, but not all of these insights are widely appreciated, and there remain critical shortcomings in current approaches that hinder further progress. Here we take the view that scene analysis is a universal problem solved by all animals, and that we can gain new insight by studying the problems that animals face in complex natural environments. In particular, the jumping spider, songbird, echolocating bat, and electric fish, all exhibit behaviors that require robust solutions to scene analysis problems encountered in the natural environment. By examining the behaviors of these seemingly disparate animals, we emerge with a framework for studying scene analysis comprising four essential properties: (1) the ability to solve ill-posed problems, (2) the ability to integrate and store information across time and modality, (3) efficient recovery and representation of 3D scene structure, and (4) the use of optimal motor actions for acquiring information to progress toward behavioral goals.

  13. The roles of scene priming and location priming in object-scene consistency effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, Nils; Ansorge, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Presenting consistent objects in scenes facilitates object recognition as compared to inconsistent objects. Yet the mechanisms by which scenes influence object recognition are still not understood. According to one theory, consistent scenes facilitate visual search for objects at expected places. Here, we investigated two predictions following from this theory: If visual search is responsible for consistency effects, consistency effects could be weaker (1) with better-primed than less-primed object locations, and (2) with less-primed than better-primed scenes. In Experiments 1 and 2, locations of objects were varied within a scene to a different degree (one, two, or four possible locations). In addition, object-scene consistency was studied as a function of progressive numbers of repetitions of the backgrounds. Because repeating locations and backgrounds could facilitate visual search for objects, these repetitions might alter the object-scene consistency effect by lowering of location uncertainty. Although we find evidence for a significant consistency effect, we find no clear support for impacts of scene priming or location priming on the size of the consistency effect. Additionally, we find evidence that the consistency effect is dependent on the eccentricity of the target objects. These results point to only small influences of priming to object-scene consistency effects but all-in-all the findings can be reconciled with a visual-search explanation of the consistency effect.

  14. Accelerative and decelerative effects of hedonic valence and emotional arousal during visual scene processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihssen, Niklas; Keil, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Perceptual processing of natural scene pictures is enhanced when the scene conveys emotional content. Such "motivated attention" to pleasant and unpleasant pictures has been shown to improve identification accuracy in non-speeded behavioural tasks. An open question is whether emotional content also modulates the speed of visual scene processing. In the present studies we show that unpleasant content reliably slowed two-choice categorization of pictures, irrespective of physical image properties, perceptual complexity, and categorization instructions. Conversely, pleasant content did not slow or even accelerated choice reactions, relative to neutral scenes. As indicated by lateralized readiness potentials, these effects occurred at cognitive processing rather than motor preparation/execution stages. Specifically, analysis of event-related potentials showed a prolongation of early scene discrimination for stimuli perceived as emotionally arousing, regardless of valence, and reflected in delayed peaks of the N1 component. In contrast, the timing of other processing steps, reflected in the P2 and late positive potential components and presumably related to post-discriminatory processes such as stimulus-response mapping, appeared to be determined by hedonic valence, with more pleasant scenes eliciting faster processing. Consistent with this model, varying arousal (low/high) within the emotional categories mediated the effects of valence on choice reaction speed. Functionally, arousal may prolong stimulus analysis in order to prevent erroneous and potentially harmful decisions. Pleasantness may act as a safety signal allowing rapid initiation of overt responses.

  15. Drugs on Campus and in the Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrey, Roger F.

    This paper presents observations on the current drug scene. (1) There is a growing reluctance of high school students to examine the drug scene. (2) Students are ignorant regarding many factors of drugs. (3) There is a danger involving the use and abuse of alcohol among teenagers. (4) Younger children are now being added to those sampling drugs.…

  16. Estimating perception of scene layout properties from global image features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael G; Oliva, Aude

    2010-01-08

    The relationship between image features and scene structure is central to the study of human visual perception and computer vision, but many of the specifics of real-world layout perception remain unknown. We do not know which image features are relevant to perceiving layout properties, or whether those features provide the same information for every type of image. Furthermore, we do not know the spatial resolutions required for perceiving different properties. This paper describes an experiment and a computational model that provides new insights on these issues. Humans perceive the global spatial layout properties such as dominant depth, openness, and perspective, from a single image. This work describes an algorithm that reliably predicts human layout judgments. This model's predictions are general, not specific to the observers it trained on. Analysis reveals that the optimal spatial resolutions for determining layout vary with the content of the space and the property being estimated. Openness is best estimated at high resolution, depth is best estimated at medium resolution, and perspective is best estimated at low resolution. Given the reliability and simplicity of estimating the global layout of real-world environments, this model could help resolve perceptual ambiguities encountered by more detailed scene reconstruction schemas.

  17. Real-world scene representations in high-level visual cortex: it's the spaces more than the places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Dwight J; Peng, Cynthia S; Baker, Chris I

    2011-05-18

    Real-world scenes are incredibly complex and heterogeneous, yet we are able to identify and categorize them effortlessly. In humans, the ventral temporal parahippocampal place area (PPA) has been implicated in scene processing, but scene information is contained in many visual areas, leaving their specific contributions unclear. Although early theories of PPA emphasized its role in spatial processing, more recent reports of its function have emphasized semantic or contextual processing. Here, using functional imaging, we reconstructed the organization of scene representations across human ventral visual cortex by analyzing the distributed response to 96 diverse real-world scenes. We found that, although individual scenes could be decoded in both PPA and early visual cortex (EVC), the structure of representations in these regions was vastly different. In both regions, spatial rather than semantic factors defined the structure of representations. However, in PPA, representations were defined primarily by the spatial factor of expanse (open, closed) and in EVC primarily by distance (near, far). Furthermore, independent behavioral ratings of expanse and distance correlated strongly with representations in PPA and peripheral EVC, respectively. In neither region was content (manmade, natural) a major contributor to the overall organization. Furthermore, the response of PPA could not be used to decode the high-level semantic category of scenes even when spatial factors were held constant, nor could category be decoded across different distances. These findings demonstrate, contrary to recent reports, that the response PPA primarily reflects spatial, not categorical or contextual, aspects of real-world scenes.

  18. The new generation of OpenGL support in ROOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadel, M.

    2008-07-01

    OpenGL has been promoted to become the main 3D rendering engine of the ROOT framework. This required a major re-modularization of OpenGL support on all levels, from basic window-system specific interface to medium-level object-representation and top-level scene management. This new architecture allows seamless integration of external scene-graph libraries into the ROOT OpenGL viewer as well as inclusion of ROOT 3D scenes into external GUI and OpenGL-based 3D-rendering frameworks. Scene representation was removed from inside of the viewer, allowing scene-data to be shared among several viewers and providing for a natural implementation of multi-view canvas layouts. The object-graph traversal infrastructure allows free mixing of 3D and 2D-pad graphics and makes implementation of ROOT canvas in pure OpenGL possible. Scene-elements representing ROOT objects trigger automatic instantiation of user-provided rendering-objects based on the dictionary information and class-naming convention. Additionally, a finer, per-object control over scene-updates is available to the user, allowing overhead-free maintenance of dynamic 3D scenes and creation of complex real-time animations. User-input handling was modularized as well, making it easy to support application-specific scene navigation, selection handling and tool management.

  19. The new generation of OpenGL support in ROOT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadel, M [CERN (Switzerland)], E-mail: matevz.tadel@cern.ch

    2008-07-15

    OpenGL has been promoted to become the main 3D rendering engine of the ROOT framework. This required a major re-modularization of OpenGL support on all levels, from basic window-system specific interface to medium-level object-representation and top-level scene management. This new architecture allows seamless integration of external scene-graph libraries into the ROOT OpenGL viewer as well as inclusion of ROOT 3D scenes into external GUI and OpenGL-based 3D-rendering frameworks. Scene representation was removed from inside of the viewer, allowing scene-data to be shared among several viewers and providing for a natural implementation of multi-view canvas layouts. The object-graph traversal infrastructure allows free mixing of 3D and 2D-pad graphics and makes implementation of ROOT canvas in pure OpenGL possible. Scene-elements representing ROOT objects trigger automatic instantiation of user-provided rendering-objects based on the dictionary information and class-naming convention. Additionally, a finer, per-object control over scene-updates is available to the user, allowing overhead-free maintenance of dynamic 3D scenes and creation of complex real-time animations. User-input handling was modularized as well, making it easy to support application-specific scene navigation, selection handling and tool management.

  20. Behind the scenes at Microcosm

    CERN Multimedia

    Emma Sanders

    2015-01-01

    Works advance at Microcosm in preparation for a progressive opening of the new exhibitions from mid-July onwards.   Construction of the section on the LHC experiments (mid-June 2015).   The Microcosm exhibition space is undergoing a total revamp and will feature many new objects. Old favourites, such as the LHC tunnel model and the Linac module, will be brought up to date with more modern exhibition techniques. Another main thrust of the new exhibitions will be the focus on the people that make CERN work. This is both to show the huge diversity of expertise needed at CERN and also to help students envisage where a career in physics or engineering might take them. With the project getting the go-ahead last autumn and the closure of the Globe for building works starting from May this year, the new Microcosm exhibition areas will open progressively as and when installations are completed to ensure that summer visitors who haven’t booked a guided tour will have something to ...

  1. Exploiting spatial descriptions in visual scene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Leon; Johannsen, Katrin; Swadzba, Agnes; De Ruiter, Jan P; Wachsmuth, Sven

    2012-08-01

    The reliable automatic visual recognition of indoor scenes with complex object constellations using only sensor data is a nontrivial problem. In order to improve the construction of an accurate semantic 3D model of an indoor scene, we exploit human-produced verbal descriptions of the relative location of pairs of objects. This requires the ability to deal with different spatial reference frames (RF) that humans use interchangeably. In German, both the intrinsic and relative RF are used frequently, which often leads to ambiguities in referential communication. We assume that there are certain regularities that help in specific contexts. In a first experiment, we investigated how speakers of German describe spatial relationships between different pieces of furniture. This gave us important information about the distribution of the RFs used for furniture-predicate combinations, and by implication also about the preferred spatial predicate. The results of this experiment are compiled into a computational model that extracts partial orderings of spatial arrangements between furniture items from verbal descriptions. In the implemented system, the visual scene is initially scanned by a 3D camera system. From the 3D point cloud, we extract point clusters that suggest the presence of certain furniture objects. We then integrate the partial orderings extracted from the verbal utterances incrementally and cumulatively with the estimated probabilities about the identity and location of objects in the scene, and also estimate the probable orientation of the objects. This allows the system to significantly improve both the accuracy and richness of its visual scene representation.

  2. Maxwellian Eye Fixation during Natural Scene Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Duchesne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When we explore a visual scene, our eyes make saccades to jump rapidly from one area to another and fixate regions of interest to extract useful information. While the role of fixation eye movements in vision has been widely studied, their random nature has been a hitherto neglected issue. Here we conducted two experiments to examine the Maxwellian nature of eye movements during fixation. In Experiment 1, eight participants were asked to perform free viewing of natural scenes displayed on a computer screen while their eye movements were recorded. For each participant, the probability density function (PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed the law established by Maxwell for describing molecule velocity in gas. Only the mean amplitude of eye movements varied with expertise, which was lower in experts than novice participants. In Experiment 2, two participants underwent fixed time, free viewing of natural scenes and of their scrambled version while their eye movements were recorded. Again, the PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed Maxwell’s law for each participant and for each scene condition (normal or scrambled. The results suggest that eye fixation during natural scene perception describes a random motion regardless of top-down or of bottom-up processes.

  3. Scene analysis in the natural environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Lewicki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of scene analysis has been studied in a number of different fields over the past decades. These studies have led to a number of important insights into problems of scene analysis, but not all of these insights are widely appreciated. Despite this progress, there are also critical shortcomings in current approaches that hinder further progress. Here we take the view that scene analysis is a universal problem solved by all animals, and that we can gain new insight by studying the problems that animals face in complex natural environments. In particular, the jumping spider, songbird, echolocating bat, and electric fish, all exhibit behaviors that require robust solutions to scene analysis problems encountered in the natural environment. By examining the behaviors of these seemingly disparate animals, we emerge with a framework for studying analysis comprising four essential properties: 1 the ability to solve ill-posed problems, 2 the ability to integrate and store information across time and modality, 3 efficient recovery and representation of 3D scene structure, and 4 the use of optimal motor actions for acquiring information to progress towards behavioral goals.

  4. Visual scene perception in navigating wood ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, David D; Graham, Paul; Collett, Thomas S

    2013-04-22

    Ants, like honeybees, can set their travel direction along foraging routes using just the surrounding visual panorama. This ability gives us a way to explore how visual scenes are perceived. By training wood ants to follow a path in an artificial scene and then examining their path within transformed scenes, we identify several perceptual operations that contribute to the ants' choice of direction. The first is a novel extension to the known ability of insects to compute the "center of mass" of large shapes: ants learn a desired heading toward a point on a distant shape as the proportion of the shape that lies to the left and right of the aiming point--the 'fractional position of mass' (FPM). The second operation, the extraction of local visual features like oriented edges, is familiar from studies of shape perception. Ants may use such features for guidance by keeping them in desired retinal locations. Third, ants exhibit segmentation. They compute the learned FPM over the whole of a simple scene, but over a segmented region of a complex scene. We suggest how the three operations may combine to provide efficient directional guidance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The anatomy of the crime scene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    Crime scenes are constituted by a combination of a plot and a place. The crime scene is a place which has been in a certain state of transformation at a certain moment in time, the moment at which the place constituted the scene for some kind of criminal activity. As such the place has been encod...... scene is conducted by investigators (crime scene coordinators) who's task it is to decide how the investigation should be carried out and which is best described as a narrative practice; a systematic - and expertise based - work of imagination...... are signs to be read and interpreted. Thus the place carries a plot (a narrative) which at first is hidden and scattered and has to be revealed and pieced together through a process of investigation and exploration with the aid of different forensic methods, eyewitnesses and so on; - through reading...... this reconstructed place the story itself is also reconstructed: the crime is being solved, the murderer revealed.                       An important element in this narrative and performative practise is the use of simulation as a storytelling device. Simulation is a well-known method in investigation of crime...

  6. Moving through a multiplex holographic scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrongovius, Martina

    2013-02-01

    This paper explores how movement can be used as a compositional element in installations of multiplex holograms. My holographic images are created from montages of hand-held video and photo-sequences. These spatially dynamic compositions are visually complex but anchored to landmarks and hints of the capturing process - such as the appearance of the photographer's shadow - to establish a sense of connection to the holographic scene. Moving around in front of the hologram, the viewer animates the holographic scene. A perception of motion then results from the viewer's bodily awareness of physical motion and the visual reading of dynamics within the scene or movement of perspective through a virtual suggestion of space. By linking and transforming the physical motion of the viewer with the visual animation, the viewer's bodily awareness - including proprioception, balance and orientation - play into the holographic composition. How multiplex holography can be a tool for exploring coupled, cross-referenced and transformed perceptions of movement is demonstrated with a number of holographic image installations. Through this process I expanded my creative composition practice to consider how dynamic and spatial scenes can be conveyed through the fragmented view of a multiplex hologram. This body of work was developed through an installation art practice and was the basis of my recently completed doctoral thesis: 'The Emergent Holographic Scene — compositions of movement and affect using multiplex holographic images'.

  7. Actors of Columbian drug trade : development and transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Smolíková

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to portray the main shifts which have been taking place in Colombian drug scene since the 70’s up to the present especially in relation to actors of this business and form of their activity. At first the development of Colombian drug trade till the 80’s when two big cartels centered in Medellín and Cali arose will be briefly outlined. These cartels were able to control a great part of domestic drug trade and due to their enormous power represented serious threat to Colombian state. Thus the cartels declared open warfare with the state in the 80’s. After the cartels’ elimination in the middle of 90’s new actors represented by small drug organizations arose in Colombian drug scene. These small groups were dependent upon cooperation with foreign partners, especially with Mexican cartels. Ever more important role in drug business is played by Colombian left-wing guerilla groups which will be described in the next part of the article. The problem of right-wing paramilitary groups and their participation in Colombian drug trade will be mentioned as well.

  8. Improving semantic scene understanding using prior information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laddha, Ankit; Hebert, Martial

    2016-05-01

    Perception for ground robot mobility requires automatic generation of descriptions of the robot's surroundings from sensor input (cameras, LADARs, etc.). Effective techniques for scene understanding have been developed, but they are generally purely bottom-up in that they rely entirely on classifying features from the input data based on learned models. In fact, perception systems for ground robots have a lot of information at their disposal from knowledge about the domain and the task. For example, a robot in urban environments might have access to approximate maps that can guide the scene interpretation process. In this paper, we explore practical ways to combine such prior information with state of the art scene understanding approaches.

  9. PhID: an open-access integrated pharmacology interactions database for drugs, targets, diseases, genes, side-effects and pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhe; Tu, Weizhong; Deng, Zixin; Hu, Qian-Nan

    2017-09-14

    The current network pharmacology study encountered a bottleneck with a lot of public data scattered in different databases. There is the lack of open-access and consolidated platform that integrates this information for systemic research. To address this issue, we have developed PhID, an integrated pharmacology database which integrates >400,000 pharmacology elements (drug, target, disease, gene, side-effect, and pathway) and >200,000 element interactions in branches of public databases. The PhID has three major applications: (1) assists scientists searching through the overwhelming amount of pharmacology elements interaction data by names, public IDs, molecule structures, or molecular sub-structures; (2) helps visualizing pharmacology elements and their interactions with a web-based network graph; (3) provides prediction of drug-target interactions through two modules: PreDPI-ki and FIM, by which users can predict drug-target interactions of the PhID entities or some drug-target pairs they interest. To get a systems-level understanding of drug action and disease complexity, PhID as a network pharmacology tool was established from the perspective of data layer, visualization layer and prediction model layer to present information untapped by current databases. Database URL: http://phid.ditad.org/.

  10. The new generation of OpenGL support in ROOT

    CERN Document Server

    Tadel, M

    2008-01-01

    OpenGL has been promoted to become the main 3D rendering engine of the ROOT framework. This required a major re-modularization of OpenGL support on all levels, from basic window-system specific interface to medium-level object-representation and top-level scene management. This new architecture allows seamless integration of external scene-graph libraries into the ROOT OpenGL viewer as well as inclusion of ROOT 3D scenes into external GUI and OpenGL-based 3D-rendering frameworks.

  11. Recovering Intrinsic Scene Characteristics from Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-17

    IPstitute of Technology At Memo 518 (1979). [8] S. R. Cajal , "Histologie du systeme nerveux de l’homme et des vertebrates," 2, Paris, Maloine (1911). [9...tops and poor identification of bodies of water. 11 *u III CURRENT SYSTEM I- thtis, regions in the scene that can be confidently identified. The sky seed

  12. Augustus De Morgan behind the Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Augustus De Morgan's support was crucial to the achievements of the four mathematicians whose work is considered greater than his own. This article explores the contributions he made to mathematics from behind the scenes by supporting the work of Hamilton, Boole, Gompertz, and Ramchundra.

  13. The light field in natural scenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muryy, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the properties of light fields with respect to object appearance. More specifically, our interest was mainly directed to the structure and spatial variation of light fields in natural scenes. We approached the structure of light fields by means of spherical harmonics which

  14. Behind the scenes at the LHC inauguration

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On 21 October the LHC inauguration ceremony will take place and people from all over CERN have been busy preparing. With delegations from 38 countries attending, including ministers and heads of state, the Bulletin has gone behind the scenes to see what it takes to put together an event of this scale.

  15. Processing of Unattended Emotional Visual Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Manuel G.; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2007-01-01

    Prime pictures of emotional scenes appeared in parafoveal vision, followed by probe pictures either congruent or incongruent in affective valence. Participants responded whether the probe was pleasant or unpleasant (or whether it portrayed people or animals). Shorter latencies for congruent than for incongruent prime-probe pairs revealed affective…

  16. Evaluation methodology for query-based scene understanding systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huster, Todd P.; Ross, Timothy D.; Culbertson, Jared L.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we are proposing a method for the principled evaluation of scene understanding systems in a query-based framework. We can think of a query-based scene understanding system as a generalization of typical sensor exploitation systems where instead of performing a narrowly defined task (e.g., detect, track, classify, etc.), the system can perform general user-defined tasks specified in a query language. Examples of this type of system have been developed as part of DARPA's Mathematics of Sensing, Exploitation, and Execution (MSEE) program. There is a body of literature on the evaluation of typical sensor exploitation systems, but the open-ended nature of the query interface introduces new aspects to the evaluation problem that have not been widely considered before. In this paper, we state the evaluation problem and propose an approach to efficiently learn about the quality of the system under test. We consider the objective of the evaluation to be to build a performance model of the system under test, and we rely on the principles of Bayesian experiment design to help construct and select optimal queries for learning about the parameters of that model.

  17. Deconstructing visual scenes in cortex: gradients of object and spatial layout information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Assaf; Kravitz, Dwight J; Baker, Chris I

    2013-04-01

    Real-world visual scenes are complex cluttered, and heterogeneous stimuli engaging scene- and object-selective cortical regions including parahippocampal place area (PPA), retrosplenial complex (RSC), and lateral occipital complex (LOC). To understand the unique contribution of each region to distributed scene representations, we generated predictions based on a neuroanatomical framework adapted from monkey and tested them using minimal scenes in which we independently manipulated both spatial layout (open, closed, and gradient) and object content (furniture, e.g., bed, dresser). Commensurate with its strong connectivity with posterior parietal cortex, RSC evidenced strong spatial layout information but no object information, and its response was not even modulated by object presence. In contrast, LOC, which lies within the ventral visual pathway, contained strong object information but no background information. Finally, PPA, which is connected with both the dorsal and the ventral visual pathway, showed information about both objects and spatial backgrounds and was sensitive to the presence or absence of either. These results suggest that 1) LOC, PPA, and RSC have distinct representations, emphasizing different aspects of scenes, 2) the specific representations in each region are predictable from their patterns of connectivity, and 3) PPA combines both spatial layout and object information as predicted by connectivity.

  18. Prospective, non-interventional, uncontrolled, open-chart, pharmacoepidemiologic study of prescribing patterns for anti-diabetic drugs at tertiary care hospital in Erode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine current prescribing patterns for anti-diabetic drugs adopted by physicians in Erode. The prospective, non interventional, uncontrolled, open-chart, pharmacoepidemiological study was conducted from January -2007 to April -2007 at a diabetic care centre having 350 diabetic patients. The pattern of prescribing anti-diabetic drugs was recorded along with glycosylated haemoglobin levels, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients and the values were observed. The prescribing pattern of the oral anti-diabetic drugs shows that out of the various oral anti-diabetic drugs′ available, drugs from only two groups were prescribed. Sulphonylureas, biguanides and combination therapy accounts for 31.43%, 20.28% and 33.71% of prescriptions, respectively, while insulin alone and with OAD′s accounts for 6.28% and 8.29% prescriptions, respectively. Overall, prescribing trend is away from monotherapy with insulin and sulphonylureas and towards combination therapies.

  19. Emotional and neutral scenes in competition: orienting, efficiency, and identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Manuel G; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hyönä, Jukka

    2007-12-01

    To investigate preferential processing of emotional scenes competing for limited attentional resources with neutral scenes, prime pictures were presented briefly (450 ms), peripherally (5.2 degrees away from fixation), and simultaneously (one emotional and one neutral scene) versus singly. Primes were followed by a mask and a probe for recognition. Hit rate was higher for emotional than for neutral scenes in the dual- but not in the single-prime condition, and A' sensitivity decreased for neutral but not for emotional scenes in the dual-prime condition. This preferential processing involved both selective orienting and efficient encoding, as revealed, respectively, by a higher probability of first fixation on--and shorter saccade latencies to--emotional scenes and by shorter fixation time needed to accurately identify emotional scenes, in comparison with neutral scenes.

  20. Memory efficient atmospheric effects modeling for infrared scene generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavak, Çaǧlar; Özsaraç, Seçkin

    2015-05-01

    The infrared (IR) energy radiated from any source passes through the atmosphere before reaching the sensor. As a result, the total signature captured by the IR sensor is significantly modified by the atmospheric effects. The dominant physical quantities that constitute the mentioned atmospheric effects are the atmospheric transmittance and the atmospheric path radiance. The incoming IR radiation is attenuated by the transmittance and path radiance is added on top of the attenuated radiation. In IR scene simulations OpenGL is widely used for rendering purposes. In the literature there are studies, which model the atmospheric effects in an IR band using OpenGLs exponential fog model as suggested by Beers law. In the standard pipeline of OpenGL, the related fog model needs single equivalent OpenGL variables for the transmittance and path radiance, which actually depend on both the distance between the source and the sensor and also on the wavelength of interest. However, in the conditions where the range dependency cannot be modeled as an exponential function, it is not accurate to replace the atmospheric quantities with a single parameter. The introduction of OpenGL Shading Language (GLSL) has enabled the developers to use the GPU more flexible. In this paper, a novel method is proposed for the atmospheric effects modeling using the least squares estimation with polynomial fitting by programmable OpenGL shader programs built with GLSL. In this context, a radiative transfer model code is used to obtain the transmittance and path radiance data. Then, polynomial fits are computed for the range dependency of these variables. Hence, the atmospheric effects model data that will be uploaded in the GPU memory is significantly reduced. Moreover, the error because of fitting is negligible as long as narrow IR bands are used.

  1. Relaxation with Immersive Natural Scenes Presented Using Virtual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Allison P; Mayer, Michael D; Fellows, Abigail M; Cowan, Devin R; Hegel, Mark T; Buckey, Jay C

    2017-06-01

    Virtual reality (VR) can provide exposure to nature for those living in isolated confined environments. We evaluated VR-presented natural settings for reducing stress and improving mood. There were 18 participants (9 men, 9 women), ages 32 ± 12 yr, who viewed three 15-min 360° scenes (an indoor control, rural Ireland, and remote beaches). Subjects were mentally stressed with arithmetic before scenes. Electrodermal activity (EDA) and heart rate variability measured psycho-physiological arousal. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and the 15-question Modified Reality Judgment and Presence Questionnaire (MRJPQ) measured mood and scene quality. Reductions in EDA from baseline were greater at the end of the natural scenes compared to the control scene (-0.59, -0.52, and 0.32 μS, respectively). The natural scenes reduced negative affect from baseline ( 1.2 and 1.1 points), but the control scene did not ( 0.4 points). MRJPQ scores for the control scene were lower than both natural scenes (4.9, 6.7, and 6.5 points, respectively). Within the two natural scenes, the preferred scene reduced negative affect ( 2.4 points) more than the second choice scene ( 1.8 points) and scored higher on the MRJPQ (6.8 vs. 6.4 points). Natural scene VR provided relaxation both objectively and subjectively, and scene preference had a significant effect on mood and perception of scene quality. VR may enable relaxation for people living in isolated confined environments, particularly when matched to personal preferences.Anderson AP, Mayer MD, Fellows AM, Cowan DR, Hegel MT, Buckey JC. Relaxation with immersive natural scenes presented using virtual reality. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(6):520526.

  2. Neural correlates of recognition memory for emotional faces and scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Keightley, Michelle L.; Chiew, Kimberly S.; Anderson, John A. E.; Grady, Cheryl L.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the influence of emotional valence and type of item to be remembered on brain activity during recognition, using faces and scenes. We used multivariate analyses of event-related fMRI data to identify whole-brain patterns, or networks of activity. Participants demonstrated better recognition for scenes vs faces and for negative vs neutral and positive items. Activity was increased in extrastriate cortex and inferior frontal gyri for emotional scenes, relative to neutral scenes and ...

  3. Dynamic Frames Based Generation of 3D Scenes and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kvesić, Anton; Radošević, Danijel; Orehovački, Tihomir

    2015-01-01

    Modern graphic/programming tools like Unity enables the possibility of creating 3D scenes as well as making 3D scene based program applications, including full physical model, motion, sounds, lightning effects etc. This paper deals with the usage of dynamic frames based generator in the automatic generation of 3D scene and related source code. The suggested model enables the possibility to specify features of the 3D scene in a form of textual specification, as well as exporting such features ...

  4. Release of 50 new, drug-like compounds and their computational target predictions for open source anti-tubercular drug discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo-Lopez, María Jose; Lelièvre, Joël; Alvarez-Gomez, Daniel; Castro-Pichel, Julia; Martínez-Jiménez, Francisco; Papadatos, George; Kumar, Vinod; Colmenarejo, Gonzalo; Mugumbate, Grace; Hurle, Mark; Barroso, Vanessa; Young, Rob J.; Martinez-Hoyos, María; González del Río, Rubén; Bates, Robert H.; Lopez-Roman, Eva Maria; Mendoza-Losana, Alfonso; Brown, James R.; Alvarez-Ruiz, Emilio; Marti-Renom, Marc A.; Overington, John P.; Cammack, Nicholas; Ballell, Lluís; Barros-Aguire, David

    2015-01-01

    As a follow up to the antimycobacterial screening exercise and the release of GSK´s first Tres Cantos Antimycobacterial Set (TCAMS-TB), this paper presents the results of a second antitubercular screening effort of two hundred and fifty thousand compounds recently added to the GSK collection. The compounds were further prioritized based on not only antitubercular potency but also on physicochemical characteristics. The 50 most attractive compounds were then progressed for evaluation in three different predictive computational biology algorithms based on structural similarity or GSK historical biological assay data in order to determine their possible mechanisms of action. This effort has resulted in the identification of novel compounds and their hypothesized targets that will hopefully fuel future TB drug discovery and target validation programs alike. PMID:26642067

  5. Release of 50 new, drug-like compounds and their computational target predictions for open source anti-tubercular drug discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jose Rebollo-Lopez

    Full Text Available As a follow up to the antimycobacterial screening exercise and the release of GSK´s first Tres Cantos Antimycobacterial Set (TCAMS-TB, this paper presents the results of a second antitubercular screening effort of two hundred and fifty thousand compounds recently added to the GSK collection. The compounds were further prioritized based on not only antitubercular potency but also on physicochemical characteristics. The 50 most attractive compounds were then progressed for evaluation in three different predictive computational biology algorithms based on structural similarity or GSK historical biological assay data in order to determine their possible mechanisms of action. This effort has resulted in the identification of novel compounds and their hypothesized targets that will hopefully fuel future TB drug discovery and target validation programs alike.

  6. Conference scene: pharmacogenomics: from cell to clinic (part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siest, Gérard; Medeiros, Rui; Melichar, Bohuslav; Stathopoulou, Maria; Van Schaik, Ron Hn; Cacabelos, Ramon; Abt, Peter Meier; Monteiro, Carolino; Gurwitz, David; Queiroz, Jao; Mota-Filipe, Helder; Ndiaye, Ndeye Coumba; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie

    2014-04-01

    Second International ESPT Meeting Lisbon, Portugal, 26-28 September 2013 The second European Society of Pharmacogenomics and Theranostics (ESPT) conference was organized in Lisbon, Portugal, and attracted 250 participants from 37 different countries. The participants could listen to 50 oral presentations, participate in five lunch symposia and were able to view 83 posters and an exhibition. Part 1 of this Conference Scene was presented in the previous issue of Pharmacogenomics. This second part will focus on: clinical implementation of pharmacogenomics tests; transporters and pharmacogenomics; stem cells and other new tools for pharmacogenomics and drug discovery; from system pharmacogenomics to personalized medicine; and, finally, we will discuss the Posters and Awards that were presented at the conference.

  7. A Guide for Explosion and Bombing Scene Investigation. Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. National Inst. of Justice.

    This document presents an investigative outline of the tasks that law enforcement personnel should consider at every bombing and explosion scene. The following are among the topics discussed in the guide's seven sections: (1) procuring equipment and tools (safety, general crime scene tools/equipment, scene documentation, evidence collection,…

  8. Memory, scene construction, and the human hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyun; Dede, Adam J O; Hopkins, Ramona O; Squire, Larry R

    2015-04-14

    We evaluated two different perspectives about the function of the human hippocampus--one that emphasizes the importance of memory and another that emphasizes the importance of spatial processing and scene construction. We gave tests of boundary extension, scene construction, and memory to patients with lesions limited to the hippocampus or large lesions of the medial temporal lobe. The patients were intact on all of the spatial tasks and impaired on all of the memory tasks. We discuss earlier studies that associated performance on these spatial tasks to hippocampal function. Our results demonstrate the importance of medial temporal lobe structures for memory and raise doubts about the idea that these structures have a prominent role in spatial cognition.

  9. Horizontal distribution of mixed cloud type scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, A.; Kahn, B. H.; Yue, Q.; Wong, S.; Manipon, G.; Hua, H.; Wilson, B. D.; Wang, T.; Fetzer, E. J.

    2016-12-01

    We describe a novel method to uniquely characterize and quantify the scale dependence of mixed cloud scene geometry using cloud type classification reported with the 94GHz CloudSat radar. Only a fraction of all possible combinations of cloud types are observed at any along-track length scale considered. Cloud scenes most frequently contain only one or two cloud types. We show how cloud occurrence depends on the grid cell spatial resolution used to define cloud scenes. A maximum number of observed cloud scenes occur near 100 km with fewer cloud type combinations at smaller and larger scales. We then quantify the cloud lengths along the CloudSat track using both the cloud top classification and the vertical structure of cloud classification separately for each of the nine cloud types defined by CloudSat and for all clouds considered independent of cloud type. While the individual cloud types do not follow a clear power law behavior as a function of horizontal or vertical scale, a robust power law scaling of cloud geometry is observed when cloud type is not considered. The power law scaling exponent of horizontal length is approximated by β ≈ -5/3 over two to three orders of magnitude. The power law scaling exponent of vertical length is approximated by β ≈ -7/3 over two orders of magnitude. These exponents are in agreement with previous studies using numerical models, satellite, and in situ aircraft observations. In particular, the anisotropy in the horizontal and vertical scaling are nearly identical to recent aircraft observations of wind kinetic energy spectra, suggesting the underlying three-dimensional cloud geometry is strongly related to kinetic energy spectra.

  10. Gay and Lesbian Scene in Metelkova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Velikonja

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the development of the gay and lesbian scene in ACC Metelkova, while specifying the preliminary aspects of establishing and building gay and lesbian activism associated with spatial issues. The struggle for space or occupying public space is vital for the gay and lesbian scene, as it provides not only the necessary socializing opportunities for gays and lesbians, but also does away with the historical hiding of homosexuality in the closet, in seclusion and silence. Because of their autonomy and long-term, continuous existence, homo-clubs at Metelkova contributed to the consolidation of the gay and lesbian scene in Slovenia and significantly improved the opportunities for cultural, social and political expression of gays and lesbians. Such a synthesis of the cultural, social and political, further intensified in Metelkova, and characterizes the gay and lesbian community in Slovenia from the very outset of gay and lesbian activism in 1984. It is this long-term synthesis that keeps this community in Slovenia so vital and politically resilient.

  11. Modeling Instantaneous Changes In Natural Scenes

    CERN Document Server

    Dhillon, Vikram

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for modeling instantaneous changes natural scenes in real time using Lagrangian Particle Framework and a fluid-particle grid approach. This research can be divided into 3 distinct sections: the first one discusses a multi-camera rig that can measure ego-motion accurately up to 88%, how this device becomes the backbone of our framework, and some improvements devised to optimize a know framework for depth maps and 3d structure estimation from a single still image called make3d. The second part discusses the fluid-particle framework to model natural scenes, presents some algorithms that we are using to accomplish this task and we show how an application of our framework can extend make3d to model natural scenes in real time. This part of the research constructs a bridge between computer vision and computer graphics so that now ideas, answers and intuitions that arose in the domain of computer graphics can now be applied to computer vision and natural modeling. The final part of th...

  12. Adverse drug reaction monitoring with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors: A prospective, randomized, open-label, comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangole, Nishant V; Dadkar, Vaishali N

    2010-02-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are known to possess different chemical structures, and change in structure of a drug can bring about change in its adverse drug reaction (ADR) profile. The study aims to observe the incidence and severity of ADRs between the di-carboxyl group containing ACEIs (d-ACEIs) versus phosphonate group containing ACEIs (p-ACEIs), in patients suffering from essential hypertension. One hundred and twenty patients with essential hypertension were randomized into four groups receiving enalapril, lisinopril, ramipril, and fosinopril. They were followed up for four months, to observe the clinical efficacy along with the associated ADRs. Mild, dry brassy cough (% incidence; 95% CI) was observed with d-ACEIs (6.6%; 0 to 15.6) versus p-ACEI (20%; 5.7 to 34.3), in which the cough observed was moderate-to-severe in intensity and two patients required treatment discontinuation (P ACEIs, whereas, two patients on p-ACEI (6.6%; 0 to15.6) had hypotension (P ACEIs had nausea, which was not observed with p-ACEI treatment (0%) (P ACEIs may have a probable relationship with increase in the incidence and severity of ADRs such as dry brassy cough and hypotension. The di-carboxyl group in d-ACEIs may have a probable relationship with increase in the incidence of ADRs like nausea.

  13. GPU-based Ray Tracing of Dynamic Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Lux

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Interactive ray tracing of non-trivial scenes is just becoming feasible on single graphics processing units (GPU. Recent work in this area focuses on building effective acceleration structures, which work well under the constraints of current GPUs. Most approaches are targeted at static scenes and only allow navigation in the virtual scene. So far support for dynamic scenes has not been considered for GPU implementations. We have developed a GPU-based ray tracing system for dynamic scenes consisting of a set of individual objects. Each object may independently move around, but its geometry and topology are static.

  14. Introduction to AVS2 Scene Video Coding Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaying Yan; Siwei Dong; Yonghong Tian; Tiejun Huang

    2016-01-01

    The second generation Audio Video Coding Standard (AVS2) is the most recent video coding standard. By introducing several new coding techniques, AVS2 can provide more efficient compression for scene videos such as surveillance videos, conference videos, etc. Due to the limited scenes, scene videos have great redundancy especially in background region. The new scene video coding techniques applied in AVS2 mainly focus on reducing redundancy in order to achieve higher compression. This paper introduces several important AVS2 scene video coding techniques. Experimental results show that with scene video coding tools, AVS2 can save nearly 40%BD⁃rate (Bjøntegaard⁃Delta bit⁃rate) on scene videos.

  15. Scene recognition by manifold regularized deep learning architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Mou, Lichao; Lu, Xiaoqiang

    2015-10-01

    Scene recognition is an important problem in the field of computer vision, because it helps to narrow the gap between the computer and the human beings on scene understanding. Semantic modeling is a popular technique used to fill the semantic gap in scene recognition. However, most of the semantic modeling approaches learn shallow, one-layer representations for scene recognition, while ignoring the structural information related between images, often resulting in poor performance. Modeled after our own human visual system, as it is intended to inherit humanlike judgment, a manifold regularized deep architecture is proposed for scene recognition. The proposed deep architecture exploits the structural information of the data, making for a mapping between visible layer and hidden layer. By the proposed approach, a deep architecture could be designed to learn the high-level features for scene recognition in an unsupervised fashion. Experiments on standard data sets show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art used for scene recognition.

  16. Magnetic-resonance imaging for kinetic analysis of permeability changes during focused ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening and brain drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Wen-Yen; Chu, Po-Chun; Tsai, Meng-Yen; Lin, Yu-Chun; Wang, Jiun-Jie; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Wai, Yau-Yau; Liu, Hao-Li

    2014-10-28

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) with the presence of microbubbles has been shown to induce transient and local opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) for the delivery of therapeutic molecules which normally cannot penetrate into the brain. The success of FUS brain-drug delivery relies on its integration with in-vivo imaging to monitor kinetic change of therapeutic molecules into the brain. In this study, we developed a dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) technique for kinetic analysis of delivered molecules during FUS-BBB opening. Three kinetic parameters (Ktrans, Ve, Kep) were characterized dynamically to describe BBB-permeability at two FUS exposure conditions (0.4 or 0.8MPa) over 24h. Ktrans, defined as the influx volume transfer constant from plasma to EES, and Ve, the EES volume fraction, were both found to be pressure-dependent. Ktrans and Ve showed a peak increase of 0.0086-0.0131min(-1) (for 0.4-0.8MPa pressure), and 0.0431-0.0692, respectively, immediately after FUS exposure. Both parameters subsequently decreased exponentially as a function of time, with estimated half-lives of decay of 2.89-5.3 and 2.2-4.93h, respectively. The kinetics of Kep, defined as the efflux rate constant from the extracellular extravascular space (EES) to the plasma, were complementary to Ktrans, with an initial decrease from 0.2010 to 0.1901min(-1) followed by a significantly longer recovery time (half-life of 17.39-99.92h). Our observations strongly supported the existence of imbalanced and mismatched kinetics of influx (Ktrans) and efflux (Kep) between the plasma and EES, indicating the existence of directional permeability during FUS-BBB opening. We further showed that kinetic change determined by DCE-MRI correlated well with the concentration of Evans Blue (EB)-albumin (coefficient of 0.74-0.89). These findings suggest that MRI kinetic monitoring may serve as an alternative method for in-vivo monitoring of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PK

  17. An unusual appearance of a common pollen type indicates the scene of the crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildenhall, D C

    2006-11-22

    Forensic palynology is a useful source of evidence in cases of violence committed in the open. A young girl was grabbed off the street, threatened and brutally raped. During the investigation the exact place of the rape became an issue. Growing around the scene identified by the victim were shrubs identified as Coprosma, a common New Zealand plant and one that produces abundant, easily wind-dispersed pollen. Abundant Coprosma pollen was found at the scene. The pollen were unusual in that the site was very damp, encouraging fungal growth, and fungal hyphae had penetrated the pores of many of the tricolporate pollen grains. Some grains had fungal spores inside. Coprosma pollen identical in preservational characteristics and morphology to those from the scene and containing fungal hyphae and spores were found in considerable numbers on the victim's clothes. This and rare Coprosma pollen grains and fungal remains recovered from vaginal swabs provided evidence that she had been at the scene where she claimed to have been raped. The diversity of pollen types recovered from the clothing in this case provides further evidence of the usefulness of clothing in picking up and retaining pollen from crime scenes and that obvious staining on clothes is not a pre-requisite for good pollen recovery. It also demonstrates the importance of collecting samples from different parts of the same garment in order to get a full picture of events since different parts of a garment can come into contact with different plants or different parts of the ground in a scuffle. It is also demonstrated that significant evidential material can be collected from the body, in this case from vaginal swabs from the victim. Forensic palynology should be considered in every case of violent assault, especially, but not exclusively, when having occurred in an open area subject to extensive pollen settlement.

  18. Applying artificial vision models to human scene understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elissa Michele Aminoff

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available How do we understand the complex patterns of neural responses that underlie scene understanding? Studies of the network of brain regions held to be scene-selective – the parahippocampal/lingual region (PPA, the retrosplenial complex (RSC, and the occipital place area (TOS – have typically focused on single visual dimensions (e.g., size, rather than the high-dimensional feature space in which scenes are likely to be neurally represented. Here we leverage well-specified artificial vision systems to explicate a more complex understanding of how scenes are encoded in this functional network. We correlated similarity matrices within three different scene-spaces arising from: 1 BOLD activity in scene-selective brain regions; 2 behavioral measured judgments of visually-perceived scene similarity; and 3 several different computer vision models. These correlations revealed: 1 models that relied on mid- and high-level scene attributes showed the highest correlations with the patterns of neural activity within the scene-selective network; 2 NEIL and SUN – the models that best accounted for the patterns obtained from PPA and TOS – were different from the GIST model that best accounted for the pattern obtained from RSC; 3 The best performing models outperformed behaviorally-measured judgments of scene similarity in accounting for neural data. One computer vision method – NEIL (Never-Ending-Image-Learner, which incorporates visual features learned as statistical regularities across web-scale numbers of scenes – showed significant correlations with neural activity in all three scene-selective regions and was one of the two models best able to account for variance in the PPA and TOS. We suggest that these results are a promising first step in explicating more fine-grained models of neural scene understanding, including developing a clearer picture of the division of labor among the components of the functional scene-selective brain network.

  19. Primal scene derivatives in the work of Yukio Mishima: the primal scene fantasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Ronald N

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the preoccupation with fire, revenge, crucifixion, and other fantasies as they relate to the primal scene. The manifestations of these fantasies are demonstrated in a work of fiction by Yukio Mishima. The Temple of the Golden Pavillion. As is the case in other writings of Mishima there is a fusion of aggressive and libidinal drives and a preoccupation with death. The primal scene is directly connected with pyromania and destructive "acting out" of fantasies. This article is timely with regard to understanding contemporary events of cultural and national destruction.

  20. TMS to object cortex affects both object and scene remote networks while TMS to scene cortex only affects scene networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Sara A; Solomon-Harris, Lily M; Steeves, Jennifer K E

    2015-12-01

    Viewing the world involves many computations across a great number of regions of the brain, all the while appearing seamless and effortless. We sought to determine the connectivity of object and scene processing regions of cortex through the influence of transient focal neural noise in discrete nodes within these networks. We consecutively paired repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) with functional magnetic resonance-adaptation (fMR-A) to measure the effect of rTMS on functional response properties at the stimulation site and in remote regions. In separate sessions, rTMS was applied to the object preferential lateral occipital region (LO) and scene preferential transverse occipital sulcus (TOS). Pre- and post-stimulation responses were compared using fMR-A. In addition to modulating BOLD signal at the stimulation site, TMS affected remote regions revealing inter and intrahemispheric connections between LO, TOS, and the posterior parahippocampal place area (PPA). Moreover, we show remote effects from object preferential LO to outside the ventral perception network, in parietal and frontal areas, indicating an interaction of dorsal and ventral streams and possibly a shared common framework of perception and action.

  1. Learning a Probabilistic Topology Discovering Model for Scene Categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luming; Ji, Rongrong; Xia, Yingjie; Zhang, Ying; Li, Xuelong

    2015-08-01

    A recent advance in scene categorization prefers a topological based modeling to capture the existence and relationships among different scene components. To that effect, local features are typically used to handle photographing variances such as occlusions and clutters. However, in many cases, the local features alone cannot well capture the scene semantics since they are extracted from tiny regions (e.g., 4×4 patches) within an image. In this paper, we mine a discriminative topology and a low-redundant topology from the local descriptors under a probabilistic perspective, which are further integrated into a boosting framework for scene categorization. In particular, by decomposing a scene image into basic components, a graphlet model is used to describe their spatial interactions. Accordingly, scene categorization is formulated as an intergraphlet matching problem. The above procedure is further accelerated by introducing a probabilistic based representative topology selection scheme that makes the pairwise graphlet comparison trackable despite their exponentially increasing volumes. The selected graphlets are highly discriminative and independent, characterizing the topological characteristics of scene images. A weak learner is subsequently trained for each topology, which are boosted together to jointly describe the scene image. In our experiment, the visualized graphlets demonstrate that the mined topological patterns are representative to scene categories, and our proposed method beats state-of-the-art models on five popular scene data sets.

  2. Lateralized discrimination of emotional scenes in peripheral vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Manuel G; Rodríguez-Chinea, Sandra; Fernández-Martín, Andrés

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates whether there is lateralized processing of emotional scenes in the visual periphery, in the absence of eye fixations; and whether this varies with emotional valence (pleasant vs. unpleasant), specific emotional scene content (babies, erotica, human attack, mutilation, etc.), and sex of the viewer. Pairs of emotional (positive or negative) and neutral photographs were presented for 150 ms peripherally (≥6.5° away from fixation). Observers judged on which side the emotional picture was located. Low-level image properties, scene visual saliency, and eye movements were controlled. Results showed that (a) correct identification of the emotional scene exceeded the chance level; (b) performance was more accurate and faster when the emotional scene appeared in the left than in the right visual field; (c) lateralization was equivalent for females and males for pleasant scenes, but was greater for females and unpleasant scenes; and (d) lateralization occurred similarly for different emotional scene categories. These findings reveal discrimination between emotional and neutral scenes, and right brain hemisphere dominance for emotional processing, which is modulated by sex of the viewer and scene valence, and suggest that coarse affective significance can be extracted in peripheral vision.

  3. Preparation of a β-Cyclodextrin-Based Open-Tubular Capillary Electrochromatography Column and Application for Enantioseparations of Ten Basic Drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Fang

    Full Text Available An open-tubular capillary electrochromatography column was prepared by chemically immobilized β-cyclodextrin modified gold nanoparticles onto new surface with the prederivatization of (3-mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane. The synthesized nanoparticles and the prepared column were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and ultraviolet visible spectroscopy. When the column was employed as the chiral stationary phase, no enantioselectivity was observed for ten model basic drugs. So β-cyclodextrin was added to the background electrolyte as chiral additive to expect a possible synergistic effect occurring and resulting in a better separation. Fortunately, significant improvement in enantioselectivity was obtained for ten pairs of drug enantiomers. Then, the effects of β-cyclodextrin concentration and background electrolyte pH on the chiral separation were investigated. With the developed separation mode, all the enantiomers (except for venlafaxine were baseline separated in resolutions of 4.49, 1.68, 1.88, 1.57, 2.52, 2.33, 3.24, 1.63 and 3.90 for zopiclone, chlorphenamine maleate, brompheniramine maleate, dioxopromethazine hydrochloride, carvedilol, homatropine hydrobromide, homatropine methylbromide, venlafaxine, sibutramine hydrochloride and terbutaline sulfate, respectively. Further, the possible separation mechanism involved was discussed.

  4. Recent Ⅳ-drug users with chronic hepatitis C can be efficiently treated with daily high dose induction therapy using consensus interferon: An open-label pilot study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Th Witthoeft; M Fuchs; D Ludwig

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the use of high dose consensusinterferon in combination with ribavirin in former iv drug users infected with hepatitis C.METHODS: We started, before pegylated (PEG)interferons were available, an open-label study to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of high dose induction therapy with consensus interferon (CIFN) and ribavirin in treatment of naiive patients with chronic hepatitis C. Fifty-eight patients who were former iv drug users, were enrolled receiving 18 μg of CIFN daily for 8 wk, followed by 9 μg daily for up to wk 24 or 48 and 800 mg of ribavirin daily. End point of the study was tolerability and eradication of the virus at wk 48 and sustained virological response at wk 72.RESULTS: More than 62% of patients responded to the treatment with CIFN at wk 24 or 48, respectively,showing a negative qualitative PCR [genotype 1 fourteen patients (56%), genotype 2 five (50%),genotype 3 thirteen (87%), genotype 4 four (50%)].Forty-eight percent of genotype 1 patients showed sustained virological response (SVR) six months after the treatment.CONCLUSION: CIFN on a daily basis is well tolerated and side effects like leuko- and thrombocytopenia are moderate. End of therapy (EOT) rates are slightly lower than the newer standard therapy with pegylated interferons. CIFN on a daily basis might be a favourable therapy regimen for patients with GT1 and high viral load or for non-responders after failure of standard therapy.

  5. Image policy, subjectivation and argument scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Cristina Salgueiro Marques

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at discussing, with focus on Jacques Rancière, how an image policy can be noticed in the creative production of scenes of dissent from which the political agent emerge, appears and constitute himself in a process of subjectivation. The political and critical power of the image is linked to survival acts: operations and attempts that enable to resist to captures, silences and excesses comitted by the media discourses, by the social institutions and by the State.

  6. Terrain Simplification Research in Augmented Scene Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    environment. As one of the most important tasks in augmented scene modeling, terrain simplification research has gained more and more attention. In this paper, we mainly focus on point selection problem in terrain simplification using triangulated irregular network. Based on the analysis and comparison of traditional importance measures for each input point, we put forward a new importance measure based on local entropy. The results demonstrate that the local entropy criterion has a better performance than any traditional methods. In addition, it can effectively conquer the "short-sight" problem associated with the traditional methods.

  7. Stuck in limbo: illicit drug users’ experiences with opioid maintenance treatment and the relation to recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Erik Grønnestad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this article is to gain insight into how individuals who frequent open illicit drug scenes experience opioid maintenance treatment (OMT and investigate how this appears to affect their recovery processes. Method: By means of the ethnographic method, one of the researchers spent time in an open illicit drug scene over a 1-year span, and gathered data on individuals who frequent the scene on a regular basis, and their experiences with OMT. The data are based on field notes and audiotaped interviews. Findings: Four themes emerged as relevant for the participants’ experiences with OMT: 1 the loss of hope, 2 trapped in OMT, 3 substitution treatment is not enough, and 4 stigmatization of identity. Conclusion: The participants found the OMT to be overruling and degrading. Several of the individuals from the illicit drug scene are part of the OMT programme, but as the treatment does not remove painful emotions, they supplement OMT with illegal substances, violate the OMT regulations, and run the risk of being excluded from the programme. In fear of losing the replacement opioid, they conceal parts of the addiction they seek treatment for and end up lying and cheating instead of exploring strategies for reducing and managing the addiction. The patients’ relation to the OMT personnel is negatively affected by the need to hide a large portion of their issues. The result is a feeling of hopelessness, increased stigmatization, lack of control and being trapped between two worlds—in limbo, an intermediate state which interferes with the recovery process.

  8. Efficient 3D scene modeling and mosaicing

    CERN Document Server

    Nicosevici, Tudor

    2013-01-01

    This book proposes a complete pipeline for monocular (single camera) based 3D mapping of terrestrial and underwater environments. The aim is to provide a solution to large-scale scene modeling that is both accurate and efficient. To this end, we have developed a novel Structure from Motion algorithm that increases mapping accuracy by registering camera views directly with the maps. The camera registration uses a dual approach that adapts to the type of environment being mapped.   In order to further increase the accuracy of the resulting maps, a new method is presented, allowing detection of images corresponding to the same scene region (crossovers). Crossovers then used in conjunction with global alignment methods in order to highly reduce estimation errors, especially when mapping large areas. Our method is based on Visual Bag of Words paradigm (BoW), offering a more efficient and simpler solution by eliminating the training stage, generally required by state of the art BoW algorithms.   Also, towards dev...

  9. Integration and segregation in auditory scene analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Elyse S.

    2005-03-01

    Assessment of the neural correlates of auditory scene analysis, using an index of sound change detection that does not require the listener to attend to the sounds [a component of event-related brain potentials called the mismatch negativity (MMN)], has previously demonstrated that segregation processes can occur without attention focused on the sounds and that within-stream contextual factors influence how sound elements are integrated and represented in auditory memory. The current study investigated the relationship between the segregation and integration processes when they were called upon to function together. The pattern of MMN results showed that the integration of sound elements within a sound stream occurred after the segregation of sounds into independent streams and, further, that the individual streams were subject to contextual effects. These results are consistent with a view of auditory processing that suggests that the auditory scene is rapidly organized into distinct streams and the integration of sequential elements to perceptual units takes place on the already formed streams. This would allow for the flexibility required to identify changing within-stream sound patterns, needed to appreciate music or comprehend speech..

  10. Recognition and memory for briefly presented scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C ePotter

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Three times per second, our eyes make a new fixation that generates a new bottom-up analysis in the visual system. How much is extracted from each glimpse? For how long and in what form is that information remembered? To answer these questions, investigators have mimicked the effect of continual shifts of fixation by using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP of sequences of unrelated pictures. Experiments in which viewers detect specified target pictures show that detection on the basis of meaning is possible at durations as brief as 13 ms, whereas memory for what was just seen is poor unless the viewer has about 500 ms to think about the scene: the scene does not need to remain in view. Initial memory loss after brief presentations occurs over several seconds, suggesting that at least some of the information from the previous few fixations persists long enough to support a coherent representation of the current environment. In contrast to marked memory loss shortly after brief presentations, memory for pictures viewed for 1 s or more is excellent. Although some specific visual information persists, the form and content of the perceptual and memory representations of pictures over time indicate that conceptual information is extracted early and determines most of what remains in longer term memory.

  11. Youth subcultures and problem behaviours in Slovakia : Hip-Hop, Techno-scene, Metal, Punk, Skinheads and Roma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobakova, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Jongeren die deel uitmaken van jeugdsubculturen als hip-hop, techno-scene, metal, punk en skinheads, gebruiken vaker drugs, zijn vaker dronken, spijbelen vaker en beginnen eerder aan seks. Roma-jongeren zijn minder vaak dronken. Dat concludeert Daniela Bobáková op basis van een onderzoek onder deze

  12. High-extensible scene graph framework based on component techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qi-cheng; WANG Guo-ping; ZHOU Feng

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a novel component-based scene graph is proposed, in which all objects in the scene are classified to different entities, and a scene can be represented as a hierarchical graph composed of the instances of entities. Each entity contains basic data and its operations which are encapsulated into the entity component. The entity possesses certain behaviours which are responses to rules and interaction defined by the high-level application. Such behaviours can be described by script or behaviours model. The component-based scene graph in the paper is more abstractive and high-level than traditional scene graphs. The contents of a scene could be extended flexibly by adding new entities and new entity components, and behaviour modification can be obtained by modifying the model components or behaviour scripts. Its robustness and efficiency are verified by many examples implemented in the Virtual Scenario developed by Peking University.

  13. Crime scene units: a look to the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Hayden B.

    1999-02-01

    The scientific examination of physical evidence is well recognized as a critical element in conducting successful criminal investigations and prosecutions. The forensic science field is an ever changing discipline. With the arrival of DNA, new processing techniques for latent prints, portable lasers, and electro-static dust print lifters, and training of evidence technicians has become more important than ever. These scientific and technology breakthroughs have increased the possibility of collecting and analyzing physical evidence that was never possible before. The problem arises with the collection of physical evidence from the crime scene not from the analysis of the evidence. The need for specialized units in the processing of all crime scenes is imperative. These specialized units, called crime scene units, should be trained and equipped to handle all forms of crime scenes. The crime scenes units would have the capability to professionally evaluate and collect pertinent physical evidence from the crime scenes.

  14. Global scene layout modulates contextual learning in change detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eConci

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Change in the visual scene often goes unnoticed – a phenomenon referred to as ‘change blindness’. This study examined whether the hierarchical structure, i.e., the global-local layout of a scene can influence performance in a one-shot change detection paradigm. To this end, natural scenes of a laid breakfast table were presented, and observers were asked to locate the onset of a new local object. Importantly, the global structure of the scene was manipulated by varying the relations among objects in the scene layouts. The very same items were either presented as global-congruent (typical layouts or as global-incongruent (random arrangements. Change blindness was less severe for congruent than for incongruent displays, and this congruency benefit increased with the duration of the experiment. These findings show that global layouts are learned, supporting detection of local changes with enhanced efficiency. However, performance was not affected by scene congruency in a subsequent control experiment that required observers to localize a static discontinuity (i.e., an object that was missing from the repeated layouts. Our results thus show that learning of the global layout is particularly linked to the local objects. Taken together, our results reveal an effect of global precedence in natural scenes. We suggest that relational properties within the hierarchy of a natural scene are governed, in particular, by global image analysis, reducing change blindness for local objects through scene learning.

  15. Landmark recognition using motion-derived scene structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Firooz A.

    1991-05-01

    One of the most important tasks in computational vision is to determine the structure of a scene in terms of its three dimensional objects and their spatial relationships. Functions such as landmark recognition, scene analysis, context based target recognition, digital map to scene correlation, and motion path planning all depend on accurate determination of the three dimensional description of the scene. In this paper we investigate a technique for determining structure of a scene from motion, based on the analysis of planes that "slice" a spatio-temporal volume. This technique uses a sequence of two dimensional images and generates a set of lines (epipolar-planar lines) corresponding to the planar surfaces in the scene. This technique was then applied to a variety of simulated scenes, sensor position and sensor speeds and the feasibility of the technique was established. For the reacquisition of landmarks we used the outputs of the epipolar-planar lines and performed a matching between the stored landmarks and the observed scene in a joint two dimensional Hough transform domain. This method was shown to be robust and fast in deciding whether a landmark is reobserved by the sensor. The result of this approach have significance in many fields such as scene analysis, autonomous navigation and target tracking.

  16. Applications of image metrics in dynamic scene adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Firooz A.

    1992-08-01

    One of the major problems in dealing with the changes in the information contented a scene which is one of the characteristics of any dynamic scene is how adapt to these variations such that the performance of any automatic scene analyzer such as object recognizer be at its optimum. In this paper we examine the use of image and signal metrics for characterizing any scene variations and then we describe an automated system for the extraction of these quality measures and finally we will show how these metrics can be used for the automatic adaptation of an object recognition system and the resulting jump in the performance of this system.

  17. Sensitivity to emotional scene content outside the focus of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Manuel G; Gutiérrez-García, Aida; Del Líbano, Mario

    2015-10-01

    We investigated whether the emotional content of visual scenes depicting people is processed in peripheral vision. Emotional or neutral scene photographs were paired with a matched scrambled image for 150ms in peripheral vision (≥5°). The pictures were immediately followed by a digit or letter in a discrimination task. Interference (i.e., slowed reaction times) with performance in this task indexed the processing resources drawn by the pictures. Twelve types of specific emotional scene contents (e.g., erotica or mutilation) were compared. Results showed, first, that emotional scenes caused greater interference than neutral scenes, in the absence of fixations. This suggests that emotional scenes are processed and draw covert attention outside the focus of overt attention. Second, interference was similar for female and male participants with pleasant scenes (except for erotica), but females were more affected by all types of unpleasant scenes than males. This reveals that sensitivity to peripheral vision is modulated by sex and affective valence. Third, low-level image properties, visual saliency, and size of bodies and faces, were generally equivalent for emotional and neutral scenes. This rules out the alternative hypothesis of a contribution of non-emotional, purely perceptual factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Global scene layout modulates contextual learning in change detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conci, Markus; Müller, Hermann J

    2014-01-01

    Change in the visual scene often goes unnoticed - a phenomenon referred to as "change blindness." This study examined whether the hierarchical structure, i.e., the global-local layout of a scene can influence performance in a one-shot change detection paradigm. To this end, natural scenes of a laid breakfast table were presented, and observers were asked to locate the onset of a new local object. Importantly, the global structure of the scene was manipulated by varying the relations among objects in the scene layouts. The very same items were either presented as global-congruent (typical) layouts or as global-incongruent (random) arrangements. Change blindness was less severe for congruent than for incongruent displays, and this congruency benefit increased with the duration of the experiment. These findings show that global layouts are learned, supporting detection of local changes with enhanced efficiency. However, performance was not affected by scene congruency in a subsequent control experiment that required observers to localize a static discontinuity (i.e., an object that was missing from the repeated layouts). Our results thus show that learning of the global layout is particularly linked to the local objects. Taken together, our results reveal an effect of "global precedence" in natural scenes. We suggest that relational properties within the hierarchy of a natural scene are governed, in particular, by global image analysis, reducing change blindness for local objects through scene learning.

  19. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRICAL NERVE STIMULATION (TENS V/S NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDS FOR POSTOPERATIVE PAIN MANAGEMENT IN OPEN CHOLECYSTECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Raj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pain is not only an unpleasant sensation but also increases morbidity of any operation like atelectasis, ileus, requirement of intensive care and increase in hospital stay. By neuro-modulation based on the gate control theory, we can achieve the similar results as with pharmaceutics without their side effects. Aim of this study was to compare the Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID with Transcutaneous Nerve Stimulation (TENS in terms of postoperative pain and duration of pain relief by using a visual analogue scale. MATERIAL AND METHODS Our study included open cholecystectomy patients, 25 patients in each group (Groups I with NSAID, group II with TENS use. The lower limit of age was 20 years. All patients who underwent open cholecystectomy and above 20 years of age without any comorbidities were included in the study. Data was analysed by using SPSS software version 16. RESULTS In TENS therapy group, patient’s acceptance was 84%. Patients in group I had a higher VAS score and less duration of pain relief than group II at 24 and 48 hours (VAS = 4 v/s 2, duration of pain relief = 8.0 and 8.8 hours v/s 10.8 and 11.2 hours. Average numbers of application for the group I was higher than group II (3 v/s 2.1. Both showed no complications of pain equal physiologic parameters like pulse and blood pressure, so both modalities were effective in controlling pain. CONCLUSION TENS can be used without analgesic for the postoperative pain of cholecystectomy with good patient acceptance and effectiveness.

  20. Retigabine, a Kv7.2/Kv7.3-Channel Opener, Attenuates Drug-Induced Seizures in Knock-In Mice Harboring Kcnq2 Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Yukiko; Tomonoh, Yuko; Deshimaru, Masanobu; Zhang, Bo; Uchida, Taku; Ishii, Atsushi; Hirose, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    The hetero-tetrameric voltage-gated potassium channel Kv7.2/Kv7.3, which is encoded by KCNQ2 and KCNQ3, plays an important role in limiting network excitability in the neonatal brain. Kv7.2/Kv7.3 dysfunction resulting from KCNQ2 mutations predominantly causes self-limited or benign epilepsy in neonates, but also causes early onset epileptic encephalopathy. Retigabine (RTG), a Kv7.2/ Kv7.3-channel opener, seems to be a rational antiepileptic drug for epilepsies caused by KCNQ2 mutations. We therefore evaluated the effects of RTG on seizures in two strains of knock-in mice harboring different Kcnq2 mutations, in comparison to the effects of phenobarbital (PB), which is the first-line antiepileptic drug for seizures in neonates. The subjects were heterozygous knock-in mice (Kcnq2Y284C/+ and Kcnq2A306T/+) bearing the Y284C or A306T Kcnq2 mutation, respectively, and their wild-type (WT) littermates, at 63-100 days of age. Seizures induced by intraperitoneal injection of kainic acid (KA, 12mg/kg) were recorded using a video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring system. Effects of RTG on KA-induced seizures of both strains of knock-in mice were assessed using seizure scores from a modified Racine's scale and compared with those of PB. The number and total duration of spike bursts on EEG and behaviors monitored by video recording were also used to evaluate the effects of RTG and PB. Both Kcnq2Y284C/+ and Kcnq2A306T/+ mice showed significantly more KA-induced seizures than WT mice. RTG significantly attenuated KA-induced seizure activities in both Kcnq2Y284C/+ and Kcnq2A306T/+ mice, and more markedly than PB. This is the first reported evidence of RTG ameliorating KA-induced seizures in knock-in mice bearing mutations of Kcnq2, with more marked effects than those observed with PB. RTG or other Kv7.2-channel openers may be considered as first-line antiepileptic treatments for epilepsies resulting from KCNQ2 mutations.

  1. Retigabine, a Kv7.2/Kv7.3-Channel Opener, Attenuates Drug-Induced Seizures in Knock-In Mice Harboring Kcnq2 Mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko Ihara

    Full Text Available The hetero-tetrameric voltage-gated potassium channel Kv7.2/Kv7.3, which is encoded by KCNQ2 and KCNQ3, plays an important role in limiting network excitability in the neonatal brain. Kv7.2/Kv7.3 dysfunction resulting from KCNQ2 mutations predominantly causes self-limited or benign epilepsy in neonates, but also causes early onset epileptic encephalopathy. Retigabine (RTG, a Kv7.2/ Kv7.3-channel opener, seems to be a rational antiepileptic drug for epilepsies caused by KCNQ2 mutations. We therefore evaluated the effects of RTG on seizures in two strains of knock-in mice harboring different Kcnq2 mutations, in comparison to the effects of phenobarbital (PB, which is the first-line antiepileptic drug for seizures in neonates. The subjects were heterozygous knock-in mice (Kcnq2Y284C/+ and Kcnq2A306T/+ bearing the Y284C or A306T Kcnq2 mutation, respectively, and their wild-type (WT littermates, at 63-100 days of age. Seizures induced by intraperitoneal injection of kainic acid (KA, 12mg/kg were recorded using a video-electroencephalography (EEG monitoring system. Effects of RTG on KA-induced seizures of both strains of knock-in mice were assessed using seizure scores from a modified Racine's scale and compared with those of PB. The number and total duration of spike bursts on EEG and behaviors monitored by video recording were also used to evaluate the effects of RTG and PB. Both Kcnq2Y284C/+ and Kcnq2A306T/+ mice showed significantly more KA-induced seizures than WT mice. RTG significantly attenuated KA-induced seizure activities in both Kcnq2Y284C/+ and Kcnq2A306T/+ mice, and more markedly than PB. This is the first reported evidence of RTG ameliorating KA-induced seizures in knock-in mice bearing mutations of Kcnq2, with more marked effects than those observed with PB. RTG or other Kv7.2-channel openers may be considered as first-line antiepileptic treatments for epilepsies resulting from KCNQ2 mutations.

  2. Using Ignorance in 3D Scene Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Harasymowicz-Boggio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Awareness of its own limitations is a fundamental feature of the human sight, which has been almost completely omitted in computer vision systems. In this paper we present a method of explicitly using information about perceptual limitations of a 3D vision system, such as occluded areas, limited field of view, loss of precision along with distance increase, and imperfect segmentation for a better understanding of the observed scene. The proposed mechanism integrates metric and semantic inference using Dempster-Shafer theory, which makes it possible to handle observations that have different degrees and kinds of uncertainty. The system has been implemented and tested in a real indoor environment, showing the benefits of the proposed approach.

  3. Wall grid structure for interior scene synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Wenzhuo

    2015-02-01

    We present a system for automatically synthesizing a diverse set of semantically valid, and well-arranged 3D interior scenes for a given empty room shape. Unlike existing work on layout synthesis, that typically knows potentially needed 3D models and optimizes their location through cost functions, our technique performs the retrieval and placement of 3D models by discovering the relationships between the room space and the models\\' categories. This is enabled by a new analytical structure, called Wall Grid Structure, which jointly considers the categories and locations of 3D models. Our technique greatly reduces the amount of user intervention and provides users with suggestions and inspirations. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach on three types of scenarios: conference rooms, living rooms and bedrooms.

  4. Decoding individual natural scene representations during perception and imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Robert Johnson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We used a multi-voxel classification analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data to determine to what extent item-specific information about complex natural scenes is represented in several category-selective areas of human extrastriate visual cortex during visual perception and visual mental imagery. Participants in the scanner either viewed or were instructed to visualize previously memorized natural scene exemplars, and the neuroimaging data were subsequently subjected to a multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA using a support vector machine (SVM classifier. We found that item-specific information was represented in multiple scene-selective areas: the occipital place area (OPA, parahippocampal place area (PPA, retrosplenial cortex (RSC, and a scene-selective portion of the precuneus/intraparietal sulcus region (PCu/IPS. Furthermore, item-specific information from perceived scenes was re-instantiated during mental imagery of the same scenes. These results support findings from previous decoding analyses for other types of visual information and/or brain areas during imagery or working memory, and extend them to the case of visual scenes (and scene-selective cortex. Taken together, such findings support models suggesting that reflective mental processes are subserved by the re-instantiation of perceptual information in high-level visual cortex. We also examined activity in the fusiform face area (FFA and found that it, too, contained significant item-specific scene information during perception, but not during mental imagery. This suggests that although decodable scene-relevant activity occurs in FFA during perception, FFA activity may not be a necessary (or even relevant component of one’s mental representation of visual scenes.

  5. Scene analysis for effective visual search in rough three-dimensional-modeling scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Hu, Xiaopeng

    2016-11-01

    Visual search is a fundamental technology in the computer vision community. It is difficult to find an object in complex scenes when there exist similar distracters in the background. We propose a target search method in rough three-dimensional-modeling scenes based on a vision salience theory and camera imaging model. We give the definition of salience of objects (or features) and explain the way that salience measurements of objects are calculated. Also, we present one type of search path that guides to the target through salience objects. Along the search path, when the previous objects are localized, the search region of each subsequent object decreases, which is calculated through imaging model and an optimization method. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method is capable of resolving the ambiguities resulting from distracters containing similar visual features with the target, leading to an improvement of search speed by over 50%.

  6. Intraocular pressure-lowering effects of commonly used fixed combination drugs with timolol in the management of primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Atabey Ozer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering effect and ocular tolerability of brimonidine/timolol, dorzolamide/timolol and latanoprost/timolol fixed combination therapies in the management of primary open angle glaucoma.METHODS:Each drug was administered for two months, after which a circadian tonometric curve was recorded using a Goldmann applanation tonometer. Ocular discomfort (conjunctival hyperemia, burning or stinging, foreign body sensation, itching, ocular pain of each eye was assessed by the subject on a standardized ocular discomfort scale.RESULTS:Among the three study groups, there were no significant differences in the mean baseline IOP measurements, mean 2nd mo IOP measurements, and mean (% change of IOPs from baseline. Among the three study groups, there were no significant differences in the mean IOP measurements obtained at circadian tonometric curves at baseline and at two months controls. In sum brimonidine/timolol, dorzolamide/timolol and latanoprost/timolol fixed combination therapies showed similar effects on IOP levels.CONCLUSION:Brimonidine/timolol, dorzolamide/timolol and latanoprost/timolol fixed combination therapies showed similar lowering efficaties on IOP levels whereas there was no any difference between each other.

  7. Being There: (Re)Making the Assessment Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Chris W.

    2011-01-01

    I use Burkean analysis to show how neoliberalism undermines faculty assessment expertise and underwrites testing industry expertise in the current assessment scene. Contending that we cannot extricate ourselves from our limited agency in this scene until we abandon the familiar "stakeholder" theory of power, I propose a rewriting of the…

  8. Capturing, processing, and rendering real-world scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, Lars S.; Lastra, Anselmo A.; McAllister, David K.; Popescu, Voicu; McCue, Chris; Fuchs, Henry

    2000-12-01

    While photographs vividly capture a scene from a single viewpoint, it is our goal to capture a scene in such a way that a viewer can freely move to any viewpoint, just as he or she would in an actual scene. We have built a prototype system to quickly digitize a scene using a laser rangefinder and a high-resolution digital camera that accurately captures a panorama of high-resolution range and color information. With real-world scenes, we have provided data to fuel research in many area, including representation, registration, data fusion, polygonization, rendering, simplification, and reillumination. The real-world scene data can be used for many purposes, including immersive environments, immersive training, re-engineering and engineering verification, renovation, crime-scene and accident capture and reconstruction, archaeology and historic preservation, sports and entertainment, surveillance, remote tourism and remote sales. We will describe our acquisition system, the necessary processing to merge data from the multiple input devices and positions. We will also describe high quality rendering using the data we have collected. Issues about specific rendering accelerators and algorithms will also be presented. We will conclude by describing future uses and methods of collection for real- world scene data.

  9. Automatic video surveillance of outdoor scenes using track before detect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Birkemark, Christian M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper concerns automatic video surveillance of outdoor scenes using a single camera. The first step in automatic interpretation of the video stream is activity detection based on background subtraction. Usually, this process will generate a large number of false alarms in outdoor scenes due...

  10. The Modelling of Stereoscopic 3D Scene Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hasmanda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work is to find a suitable method for calculating the best setting of a stereo pair of cameras that are viewing the scene to enable spatial imaging. The method is based on a geometric model of a stereo pair cameras currently used for the acquisition of 3D scenes. Based on selectable camera parameters and object positions in the scene, the resultant model allows calculating the parameters of the stereo pair of images that influence the quality of spatial imaging. For the purpose of presenting the properties of the model of a simple 3D scene, an interactive application was created that allows, in addition to setting the cameras and scene parameters and displaying the calculated parameters, also displaying the modelled scene using perspective views and the stereo pair modelled with the aid of anaglyphic images. The resulting modelling method can be used in practice to determine appropriate parameters of the camera configuration based on the known arrangement of the objects in the scene. Analogously, it can, for a given camera configuration, determine appropriate geometrical limits of arranging the objects in the scene being displayed. This method ensures that the resulting stereoscopic recording will be of good quality and observer-friendly.

  11. Intrinsic Frames of Reference and Egocentric Viewpoints in Scene Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Weimin; Fan, Yanli; McNamara, Timothy P.; Owen, Charles B.

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the roles of intrinsic directions of a scene and observer's viewing direction in recognizing the scene. Participants learned the locations of seven objects along an intrinsic direction that was different from their viewing direction and then recognized spatial arrangements of three or six of these objects from…

  12. Natural Scene Classification Inspired by Visual Perception and Cognition Mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Rui

    2011-01-01

    The process of human natural scene categorization consists of two correlated stages: visual perception and visual cognition of natural scenes. Inspired by this fact, we propose a biologically plausible approach for natural scene image classification. This approach consists of one visual perception model and two visual cognition models. The visual perception model, composed of two steps, is used to extract discriminative features from natural scene images. In the first step, we mimic the oriented and bandpass properties of human primary visual cortex by a special complex wavelets transform, which can decompose a natural scene image into a series of 2D spatial structure signals. In the second step, a hybrid statistical feature extraction method is used to generate gist features from those 2D spatial structure signals. Then we design a cognitive feedback model to realize adaptive optimization for the visual perception model. At last, we build a multiple semantics based cognition model to imitate human cognitive mode in rapid natural scene categorization. Experiments on natural scene datasets show that the proposed method achieves high efficiency and accuracy for natural scene classification.

  13. The Importance of Information Localization in Scene Gist Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loschky, Lester C.; Sethi, Amit; Simons, Daniel J.; Pydimarri, Tejaswi N.; Ochs, Daniel; Corbeille, Jeremy L.

    2007-01-01

    People can recognize the meaning or gist of a scene from a single glance, and a few recent studies have begun to examine the sorts of information that contribute to scene gist recognition. The authors of the present study used visual masking coupled with image manipulations (randomizing phase while maintaining the Fourier amplitude spectrum;…

  14. Three-dimensional scene capturing for the virtual reality display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jingsheng; Sang, Xinzhu; Guo, Nan; Chen, Duo; Yan, Binbin; Wang, Kuiru; Dou, Wenhua; Xiao, Liquan

    2016-10-01

    A virtual reality shooting and display system based on multiple degrees of freedom camera is designed and demonstrated. Three-dimensional scene display and the wide angle display can be achieved easily and quickly through the construction with the proposed system. The range of the viewing scene can be broaden with the image stitching process, and the display in the demonstrated system can achieve the effect of wide angle for applications of image mosaic. In the meantime, the system can realize 3D scene display, which can effectively reduce the complexity of the 3D scene generation, and provide a foundation for adding interactive characteristics for the 3D scene in the future. The system includes an adjustable bracket, computer software, and a virtual reality device. Multiple degrees of freedom of the adjustable bracket are developed to obtain 3D scene source images and mosaic source images easily. 5 degrees of freedom are realized, including rotation, lifting, translation, convergence and pitching. To realize the generation and display of three-dimensional scenes, two cameras are adjusted into a parallel state. With the process of image distortion eliminating and calibration, the image is transferred to the virtual reality device for display. In order to realize wide angle display, the cameras are adjusted into "V" type. The preprocessing includes image matching and fusion to realize image stitching. The mosaic image is transferred for virtual reality display with its image reading and display functions. The wide angle 3D scene display is realized by adjusting different states.

  15. Toward seamless multiview scene analysis from satellite to street level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefevre, Sebastien; Tuia, Devis; Wegner, Jan Dirk; Produit, Timothee; Nassar, Ahmed Samy

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss and review how combined multiview imagery from satellite to street level can benefit scene analysis. Numerous works exist that merge information from remote sensing and images acquired from the ground for tasks such as object detection, robots guidance, or scene

  16. Affective scenes influence fear perception of individual body expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Stock, J.B.; Vandenbulcke, M.; Sinke, C.B.A.; de Gelder, B.

    2014-01-01

    In natural viewing conditions, different stimulus categories such as people, objects, and natural scenes carry relevant affective information that is usually processed simultaneously. But these different signals may not always have the same affective meaning. Using body-scene compound stimuli, we

  17. Emotional Scene Content Drives the Saccade Generation System Reflexively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hyona, Jukka; Calvo, Manuel G.

    2009-01-01

    The authors assessed whether parafoveal perception of emotional content influences saccade programming. In Experiment 1, paired emotional and neutral scenes were presented to parafoveal vision. Participants performed voluntary saccades toward either of the scenes according to an imperative signal (color cue). Saccadic reaction times were faster…

  18. Mental Layout Extrapolations Prime Spatial Processing of Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesman, Carmela V.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments examined whether scene processing is facilitated by layout representation, including layout that was not perceived but could be predicted based on a previous partial view (boundary extension). In a priming paradigm (after Sanocki, 2003), participants judged objects' distances in photographs. In Experiment 1, full scenes (target),…

  19. DNA methylation: the future of crime scene investigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gršković, Branka; Zrnec, Dario; Vicković, Sanja; Popović, Maja; Mršić, Gordan

    2013-07-01

    Proper detection and subsequent analysis of biological evidence is crucial for crime scene reconstruction. The number of different criminal acts is increasing rapidly. Therefore, forensic geneticists are constantly on the battlefield, trying hard to find solutions how to solve them. One of the essential defensive lines in the fight against the invasion of crime is relying on DNA methylation. In this review, the role of DNA methylation in body fluid identification and other DNA methylation applications are discussed. Among other applications of DNA methylation, age determination of the donor of biological evidence, analysis of the parent-of-origin specific DNA methylation markers at imprinted loci for parentage testing and personal identification, differentiation between monozygotic twins due to their different DNA methylation patterns, artificial DNA detection and analyses of DNA methylation patterns in the promoter regions of circadian clock genes are the most important ones. Nevertheless, there are still a lot of open chapters in DNA methylation research that need to be closed before its final implementation in routine forensic casework.

  20. Interactive removal and ground truth for difficult shadow scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Han; Cosker, Darren

    2016-09-01

    A user-centric method for fast, interactive, robust and high-quality shadow removal is presented. Our algorithm can perform detection and removal in a range of difficult cases: such as highly textured and colored shadows. To perform detection an on-the-fly learning approach is adopted guided by two rough user inputs for the pixels of the shadow and the lit area. After detection, shadow removal is performed by registering the penumbra to a normalized frame which allows us efficient estimation of non-uniform shadow illumination changes, resulting in accurate and robust removal. Another major contribution of this work is the first validated and multi-scene category ground truth for shadow removal algorithms. This data set containing 186 images eliminates inconsistencies between shadow and shadow-free images and provides a range of different shadow types such as soft, textured, colored and broken shadow. Using this data, the most thorough comparison of state-of-the-art shadow removal methods to date is performed, showing our proposed new algorithm to outperform the state-of-the-art across several measures and shadow category. To complement our dataset, an online shadow removal benchmark website is also presented to encourage future open comparisons in this challenging field of research.

  1. Improving text recognition by distinguishing scene and overlay text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quehl, Bernhard; Yang, Haojin; Sack, Harald

    2015-02-01

    Video texts are closely related to the content of a video. They provide a valuable source for indexing and interpretation of video data. Text detection and recognition task in images or videos typically distinguished between overlay and scene text. Overlay text is artificially superimposed on the image at the time of editing and scene text is text captured by the recording system. Typically, OCR systems are specialized on one kind of text type. However, in video images both types of text can be found. In this paper, we propose a method to automatically distinguish between overlay and scene text to dynamically control and optimize post processing steps following text detection. Based on a feature combination a Support Vector Machine (SVM) is trained to classify scene and overlay text. We show how this distinction in overlay and scene text improves the word recognition rate. Accuracy of the proposed methods has been evaluated by using publicly available test data sets.

  2. Indoor versus Outdoor Scene Classification Using Probabilistic Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Lalit

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method for indoor versus outdoor scene classification using a probabilistic neural network (PNN. The scene is initially segmented (unsupervised using fuzzy -means clustering (FCM and features based on color, texture, and shape are extracted from each of the image segments. The image is thus represented by a feature set, with a separate feature vector for each image segment. As the number of segments differs from one scene to another, the feature set representation of the scene is of varying dimension. Therefore a modified PNN is used for classifying the variable dimension feature sets. The proposed technique is evaluated on two databases: IITM-SCID2 (scene classification image database and that used by Payne and Singh in 2005. The performance of different feature combinations is compared using the modified PNN.

  3. Indoor versus Outdoor Scene Classification Using Probabilistic Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhendu Das

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method for indoor versus outdoor scene classification using a probabilistic neural network (PNN. The scene is initially segmented (unsupervised using fuzzy C-means clustering (FCM and features based on color, texture, and shape are extracted from each of the image segments. The image is thus represented by a feature set, with a separate feature vector for each image segment. As the number of segments differs from one scene to another, the feature set representation of the scene is of varying dimension. Therefore a modified PNN is used for classifying the variable dimension feature sets. The proposed technique is evaluated on two databases: IITM-SCID2 (scene classification image database and that used by Payne and Singh in 2005. The performance of different feature combinations is compared using the modified PNN.

  4. Indoor versus Outdoor Scene Classification Using Probabilistic Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Lalit; Pathangay, Vinod; Patra, Arpita; Dyana, A.; Das, Sukhendu

    2006-12-01

    We propose a method for indoor versus outdoor scene classification using a probabilistic neural network (PNN). The scene is initially segmented (unsupervised) using fuzzy[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]-means clustering (FCM) and features based on color, texture, and shape are extracted from each of the image segments. The image is thus represented by a feature set, with a separate feature vector for each image segment. As the number of segments differs from one scene to another, the feature set representation of the scene is of varying dimension. Therefore a modified PNN is used for classifying the variable dimension feature sets. The proposed technique is evaluated on two databases: IITM-SCID2 (scene classification image database) and that used by Payne and Singh in 2005. The performance of different feature combinations is compared using the modified PNN.

  5. Dynamic Frames Based Generation of 3D Scenes and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Radošević

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern graphic/programming tools like Unity enables the possibility of creating 3D scenes as well as making 3D scene based program applications, including full physical model, motion, sounds, lightning effects etc. This paper deals with the usage of dynamic frames based generator in the automatic generation of 3D scene and related source code. The suggested model enables the possibility to specify features of the 3D scene in a form of textual specification, as well as exporting such features from a 3D tool. This approach enables higher level of code generation flexibility and the reusability of the main code and scene artifacts in a form of textual templates. An example of the generated application is presented and discussed.

  6. Indoor scene classification of robot vision based on cloud computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tao; Qi, Yuxiao; Li, Shipeng

    2016-07-01

    For intelligent service robots, indoor scene classification is an important issue. To overcome the weak real-time performance of conventional algorithms, a new method based on Cloud computing is proposed for global image features in indoor scene classification. With MapReduce method, global PHOG feature of indoor scene image is extracted in parallel. And, feature eigenvector is used to train the decision classifier through SVM concurrently. Then, the indoor scene is validly classified by decision classifier. To verify the algorithm performance, we carried out an experiment with 350 typical indoor scene images from MIT LabelMe image library. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can attain better real-time performance. Generally, it is 1.4 2.1 times faster than traditional classification methods which rely on single computation, while keeping stable classification correct rate as 70%.

  7. System and method for extracting dominant orientations from a scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Julian; Rosman, Guy; Freifeld, Oren; Leonard, John J.; Fisher, III; , John W.

    2017-05-30

    In one embodiment, a method of identifying the dominant orientations of a scene comprises representing a scene as a plurality of directional vectors. The scene may comprise a three-dimensional representation of a scene, and the plurality of directional vectors may comprise a plurality of surface normals. The method further comprises determining, based on the plurality of directional vectors, a plurality of orientations describing the scene. The determined plurality of orientations explains the directionality of the plurality of directional vectors. In certain embodiments, the plurality of orientations may have independent axes of rotation. The plurality of orientations may be determined by representing the plurality of directional vectors as lying on a mathematical representation of a sphere, and inferring the parameters of a statistical model to adapt the plurality of orientations to explain the positioning of the plurality of directional vectors lying on the mathematical representation of the sphere.

  8. Does object view influence the scene consistency effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastyin, Gergo; Niimi, Ryosuke; Yokosawa, Kazuhiko

    2015-04-01

    Traditional research on the scene consistency effect only used clearly recognizable object stimuli to show mutually interactive context effects for both the object and background components on scene perception (Davenport & Potter in Psychological Science, 15, 559-564, 2004). However, in real environments, objects are viewed from multiple viewpoints, including an accidental, hard-to-recognize one. When the observers named target objects in scenes (Experiments 1a and 1b, object recognition task), we replicated the scene consistency effect (i.e., there was higher accuracy for the objects with consistent backgrounds). However, there was a significant interaction effect between consistency and object viewpoint, which indicated that the scene consistency effect was more important for identifying objects in the accidental view condition than in the canonical view condition. Therefore, the object recognition system may rely more on the scene context when the object is difficult to recognize. In Experiment 2, the observers identified the background (background recognition task) while the scene consistency and object views were manipulated. The results showed that object viewpoint had no effect, while the scene consistency effect was observed. More specifically, the canonical and accidental views both equally provided contextual information for scene perception. These findings suggested that the mechanism for conscious recognition of objects could be dissociated from the mechanism for visual analysis of object images that were part of a scene. The "context" that the object images provided may have been derived from its view-invariant, relatively low-level visual features (e.g., color), rather than its semantic information.

  9. Hysteresis in the dynamic perception of scenes and objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltoratski, Sonia; Tong, Frank

    2014-10-01

    Scenes and objects are effortlessly processed and integrated by the human visual system. Given the distinct neural and behavioral substrates of scene and object processing, it is likely that individuals sometimes preferentially rely on one process or the other when viewing canonical "scene" or "object" stimuli. This would allow the visual system to maximize the specific benefits of these 2 types of processing. It is less obvious which of these modes of perception would be invoked during naturalistic visual transition between a focused view of a single object and an expansive view of an entire scene, particularly at intermediate views that may not be assigned readily to either stimulus category. In the current study, we asked observers to report their online perception of such dynamic image sequences, which zoomed and panned between a canonical view of a single object and an entire scene. We found a large and consistent effect of prior perception, or hysteresis, on the classification of the sequence: observers classified the sequence as an object for several seconds longer if the trial started at the object view and zoomed out, whereas scenes were perceived for longer on trials beginning with a scene view. This hysteresis effect resisted several manipulations of the movie stimulus and of the task performed, but hinged on the perceptual history built by unidirectional progression through the image sequence. Multiple experiments confirmed that this hysteresis effect was not purely decisional and was more prominent for transitions between corresponding objects and scenes than between other high-level stimulus classes. This finding suggests that the competitive mechanisms underlying hysteresis may be especially prominent in the perception of objects and scenes. We propose that hysteresis aids in disambiguating perception during naturalistic visual transitions, which may facilitate a dynamic balance between scene and object processing to enhance processing efficiency.

  10. Fixations on objects in natural scenes: dissociating importance from salience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Marius e’t Hart

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The relation of selective attention to understanding of natural scenes has been subject to intense behavioral research and computational modeling, and gaze is often used as a proxy for such attention. The probability of an image region to be fixated typically correlates with its contrast. However, this relation does not imply a causal role of contrast. Rather, contrast may relate to an object’s importance for a scene, which in turn drives attention. Here we operationalize importance by the probability that an observer names the object as characteristic for a scene. We modify luminance contrast of either a frequently named (common/important or a rarely named (rare/unimportant object, track the observers’ eye movements during scene viewing and ask them to provide keywords describing the scene immediately after.When no object is modified relative to the background, important objects draw more fixations than unimportant ones. Increases of contrast make an object more likely to be fixated, irrespective of whether it was important for the original scene, while decreases in contrast have little effect on fixations. Any contrast modification makes originally unimportant objects more important for the scene. Finally, important objects are fixated more centrally than unimportant objects, irrespective of contrast.Our data suggest a dissociation between object importance (relevance for the scene and salience (relevance for attention. If an object obeys natural scene statistics, important objects are also salient. However, when natural scene statistics are violated, importance and salience are differentially affected. Object salience is modulated by the expectation about object properties (e.g., formed by context or gist, and importance by the violation of such expectations. In addition, the dependence of fixated locations within an object on the object’s importance suggests an analogy to the effects of word frequency on landing positions in reading.

  11. Impairments of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goll, Johanna C; Kim, Lois G; Ridgway, Gerard R; Hailstone, Julia C; Lehmann, Manja; Buckley, Aisling H; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2012-01-01

    Parsing of sound sources in the auditory environment or 'auditory scene analysis' is a computationally demanding cognitive operation that is likely to be vulnerable to the neurodegenerative process in Alzheimer's disease. However, little information is available concerning auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease. Here we undertook a detailed neuropsychological and neuroanatomical characterization of auditory scene analysis in a cohort of 21 patients with clinically typical Alzheimer's disease versus age-matched healthy control subjects. We designed a novel auditory dual stream paradigm based on synthetic sound sequences to assess two key generic operations in auditory scene analysis (object segregation and grouping) in relation to simpler auditory perceptual, task and general neuropsychological factors. In order to assess neuroanatomical associations of performance on auditory scene analysis tasks, structural brain magnetic resonance imaging data from the patient cohort were analysed using voxel-based morphometry. Compared with healthy controls, patients with Alzheimer's disease had impairments of auditory scene analysis, and segregation and grouping operations were comparably affected. Auditory scene analysis impairments in Alzheimer's disease were not wholly attributable to simple auditory perceptual or task factors; however, the between-group difference relative to healthy controls was attenuated after accounting for non-verbal (visuospatial) working memory capacity. These findings demonstrate that clinically typical Alzheimer's disease is associated with a generic deficit of auditory scene analysis. Neuroanatomical associations of auditory scene analysis performance were identified in posterior cortical areas including the posterior superior temporal lobes and posterior cingulate. This work suggests a basis for understanding a class of clinical symptoms in Alzheimer's disease and for delineating cognitive mechanisms that mediate auditory scene analysis

  12. Substance Use in the Club Scene of Rome: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Emiliano Vento

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Over the last few years, a wide number of unregulated substances have been marketed on the Web and in smart and head shops; they are usually advertised as legal alternatives to commonly known drugs and are defined as “smart drugs,” “legal highs,” and “novel psychoactive substances” (NPS. Aim of our work is to describe use habits and distribution of NPS in a population of young adults in Rome club scene. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was proposed to subjects over 18 years of age at the entrance of 5 nightclubs in Rome. Socioeconomic characteristics and substance use were investigated. Results. Preliminary results give evidence that 78% of respondents have a lifetime history of NPS use. In addition, 56% of the sample has consumed illicit drugs in the past and 39% has used psychoactive substances in the 12 hours preceding the questionnaire administration. Conclusions. A significant proportion of subjects report use of novel psychoactive substances; traditional illicit drugs consumption, particularly cocaine, appears to be very high as well in the club scene. These data highlight a serious public health challenge, since pharmacological, toxicological, and psychopathological effects linked to interactions among all these substances may be unpredictable and sometimes fatal in vulnerable individuals.

  13. Crime scene investigation (as seen on TV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durnal, Evan W

    2010-06-15

    A mysterious green ooze is injected into a brightly illuminated and humming machine; 10s later, a printout containing a complete biography of the substance is at the fingertips of an attractive young investigator who exclaims "we found it!" We have all seen this event occur countless times on any and all of the three CSI dramas, Cold Cases, Crossing Jordans, and many more. With this new style of "infotainment" (Surette, 2007), comes an increasingly blurred line between the hard facts of reality and the soft, quick solutions of entertainment. With these advances in technology, how can crime rates be anything but plummeting as would-be criminals cringe at the idea of leaving the smallest speck of themselves at a crime scene? Surely there are very few serious crimes that go unpunished in today's world of high-tech, fast-paced gadgetry. Science and technology have come a great distance since Sir Arthur Conan Doyle first described the first famous forensic scientist (Sherlock Holmes), but still have light-years to go. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Medical Monitoring During Firefighter Incident Scene Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, David A; Haigh, Craig A; Haller, Jeannie M; Smith, Denise L

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to retrospectively investigate aspects of medical monitoring, including medical complaints, vital signs at entry, and vital sign recovery, in firefighters during rehabilitation following operational firefighting duties. Incident scene rehabilitation logs obtained over a 5-year span that included 53 incidents, approximately 40 fire departments, and more than 530 firefighters were reviewed. Only 13 of 694 cases involved a firefighter reporting a medical complaint. In most cases, vital signs were similar between firefighters who registered a complaint and those who did not. On average, heart rate was 104 ± 23 beats·min(-1), systolic blood pressure was 132 ± 17 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure was 81 ± 12 mmHg, and respiratory rate was 19 ± 3 breaths·min(-1) upon entry into rehabilitation. At least two measurements of heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and respiratory rate were obtained for 365, 383, 376, and 160 cases, respectively. Heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and respiratory rate decreased significantly (p recovery were highly variable. Data from this study indicated that most firefighters recovered from the physiological stress of firefighting without any medical complaint or symptoms. Furthermore, vital signs were within fire service suggested guidelines for release within 10 or 20 minutes of rehabilitation. The data suggested that vital signs of firefighters with medical symptoms were not significantly different from vital signs of firefighters who had an unremarkable recovery.

  15. Dense Correspondences across Scenes and Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tau, Moria; Hassner, Tal

    2016-05-01

    We seek a practical method for establishing dense correspondences between two images with similar content, but possibly different 3D scenes. One of the challenges in designing such a system is the local scale differences of objects appearing in the two images. Previous methods often considered only few image pixels; matching only pixels for which stable scales may be reliably estimated. Recently, others have considered dense correspondences, but with substantial costs associated with generating, storing and matching scale invariant descriptors. Our work is motivated by the observation that pixels in the image have contexts-the pixels around them-which may be exploited in order to reliably estimate local scales. We make the following contributions. (i) We show that scales estimated in sparse interest points may be propagated to neighboring pixels where this information cannot be reliably determined. Doing so allows scale invariant descriptors to be extracted anywhere in the image. (ii) We explore three means for propagating this information: using the scales at detected interest points, using the underlying image information to guide scale propagation in each image separately, and using both images together. Finally, (iii), we provide extensive qualitative and quantitative results, demonstrating that scale propagation allows for accurate dense correspondences to be obtained even between very different images, with little computational costs beyond those required by existing methods.

  16. Analyzing visual signals as visual scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, William L; Higham, James P

    2013-07-01

    The study of visual signal design is gaining momentum as techniques for studying signals become more sophisticated and more freely available. In this paper we discuss methods for analyzing the color and form of visual signals, for integrating signal components into visual scenes, and for producing visual signal stimuli for use in psychophysical experiments. Our recommended methods aim to be rigorous, detailed, quantitative, objective, and where possible based on the perceptual representation of the intended signal receiver(s). As methods for analyzing signal color and luminance have been outlined in previous publications we focus on analyzing form information by discussing how statistical shape analysis (SSA) methods can be used to analyze signal shape, and spatial filtering to analyze repetitive patterns. We also suggest the use of vector-based approaches for integrating multiple signal components. In our opinion elliptical Fourier analysis (EFA) is the most promising technique for shape quantification but we await the results of empirical comparison of techniques and the development of new shape analysis methods based on the cognitive and perceptual representations of receivers. Our manuscript should serve as an introductory guide to those interested in measuring visual signals, and while our examples focus on primate signals, the methods are applicable to quantifying visual signals in most taxa.

  17. Art Toys in the contemporary art scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sernissi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Art Toys phenomenon, better known as Art Toy Movement, was born in China in the mid-nineties and quickly spread out to the rest of the world. The toys are an artistic production of serial sculpture, made by handcrafts or on an industrial scale. There are several types of toys, such as custom toys and canvas toys, synonyms of designer toys, although they are often defined according to the constituent material, such as vinyl toys (plastic and plush toys (fabric. Art toys are the heirs of an already pop-surrealist and neo-pop circuit, which since the eighties of the twentieth century has pervaded the Japanese-American art scene, winking to the playful spirit of the avant-garde of the early century. Some psychoanalytic, pedagogical and anthropological studies about “play theories”, may also help us to understand and identify these heterogeneous products as real works of art and not simply as collectible toys.

  18. Affective scenes influence fear perception of individual body expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Stock, Jan; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Sinke, Charlotte B A; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2014-02-01

    In natural viewing conditions, different stimulus categories such as people, objects, and natural scenes carry relevant affective information that is usually processed simultaneously. But these different signals may not always have the same affective meaning. Using body-scene compound stimuli, we investigated how the brain processes fearful signals conveyed by either a body in the foreground or scenes in the background and the interaction between foreground body and background scene. The results showed that left and right extrastriate body areas (EBA) responded more to fearful than to neutral bodies. More interestingly, a threatening background scene compared to a neutral one showed increased activity in bilateral EBA and right-posterior parahippocampal place area (PPA) and decreased activity in right retrosplenial cortex (RSC) and left-anterior PPA. The emotional scene effect in EBA was only present when the foreground body was neutral and not when the body posture expressed fear (significant emotion-by-category interaction effect), consistent with behavioral ratings. The results provide evidence for emotional influence of the background scene on the processing of body expressions. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Neural correlates of recognition memory for emotional faces and scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keightley, Michelle L; Chiew, Kimberly S; Anderson, John A E; Grady, Cheryl L

    2011-01-01

    We examined the influence of emotional valence and type of item to be remembered on brain activity during recognition, using faces and scenes. We used multivariate analyses of event-related fMRI data to identify whole-brain patterns, or networks of activity. Participants demonstrated better recognition for scenes vs faces and for negative vs neutral and positive items. Activity was increased in extrastriate cortex and inferior frontal gyri for emotional scenes, relative to neutral scenes and all face types. Increased activity in these regions also was seen for negative faces relative to positive faces. Correct recognition of negative faces and scenes (hits vs correct rejections) was associated with increased activity in amygdala, hippocampus, extrastriate, frontal and parietal cortices. Activity specific to correctly recognized emotional faces, but not scenes, was found in sensorimotor areas and rostral prefrontal cortex. These results suggest that emotional valence and type of visual stimulus both modulate brain activity at recognition, and influence multiple networks mediating visual, memory and emotion processing. The contextual information in emotional scenes may facilitate memory via additional visual processing, whereas memory for emotional faces may rely more on cognitive control mediated by rostrolateral prefrontal regions.

  20. CB Database: A change blindness database for objects in natural indoor scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, Preeti; Ehinger, Krista A; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2016-12-01

    Change blindness has been a topic of interest in cognitive sciences for decades. Change detection experiments are frequently used for studying various research topics such as attention and perception. However, creating change detection stimuli is tedious and there is no open repository of such stimuli using natural scenes. We introduce the Change Blindness (CB) Database with object changes in 130 colored images of natural indoor scenes. The size and eccentricity are provided for all the changes as well as reaction time data from a baseline experiment. In addition, we have two specialized satellite databases that are subsets of the 130 images. In one set, changes are seen in rooms or in mirrors in those rooms (Mirror Change Database). In the other, changes occur in a room or out a window (Window Change Database). Both the sets have controlled background, change size, and eccentricity. The CB Database is intended to provide researchers with a stimulus set of natural scenes with defined stimulus parameters that can be used for a wide range of experiments. The CB Database can be found at http://search.bwh.harvard.edu/new/CBDatabase.html .

  1. Real-time computational attention model for dynamic scenes analysis: from implementation to evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courboulay, Vincent; Perreira Da Silva, Matthieu

    2012-06-01

    Providing real time analysis of the huge amount of data generated by computer vision algorithms in interactive applications is still an open problem. It promises great advances across a wide variety of fields. When using dynamics scene analysis algorithms for computer vision, a trade-off must be found between the quality of the results expected, and the amount of computer resources allocated for each task. It is usually a design time decision, implemented through the choice of pre-defined algorithms and parameters. However, this way of doing limits the generality of the system. Using an adaptive vision system provides a more flexible solution as its analysis strategy can be changed according to the new information available. As a consequence, such a system requires some kind of guiding mechanism to explore the scene faster and more efficiently. We propose a visual attention system that it adapts its processing according to the interest (or salience) of each element of the dynamic scene. Somewhere in between hierarchical salience based and competitive distributed, we propose a hierarchical yet competitive and non salience based model. Our original approach allows the generation of attentional focus points without the need of neither saliency map nor explicit inhibition of return mechanism. This new realtime computational model is based on a preys / predators system. The use of this kind of dynamical system is justified by an adjustable trade-off between nondeterministic attentional behavior and properties of stability, reproducibility and reactiveness.

  2. Instant Test for Crime Scene Compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James Randerson; 滕晓燕

    2004-01-01

    @@ A new technique for retrieving chemical residues① such as drugs or explosives from surfaces could allow forensic scientists to give answers to police within minutes, without taking the sample② to a lab.

  3. Picture models for 2-scene comics creating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki UENO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, computer understanding pictures and stories becomes one of the most important research topics in computer science. However, there are few researches about human like understanding by computers because pictures have not certain format and contain more lyric aspect than that of natural laguage. For picture understanding, a comic is the suitable target because it is consisted by clear and simple plot of stories and separated scenes.In this paper, we propose 2 different types of picture models for 2-scene comics creating system. We also show the method of the application of 2-scene comics creating system by means of proposed picture model.

  4. Scene change detection for video retrieval on MPEG streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eung-Kwan; Kim, Sung-Joo; Jahng, SurngGabb; Song, Ho-Keun; Choi, Jong S.

    2000-05-01

    IN this paper, we propose a new scene change detection (SCD) algorithm, and also provide a novel video-indexing scheme for fast content-based browsing and retrieval in video databases. We detect scene changes from the MPEG video sequence, and extract key frames to represent contents of a shot. Then, we perform the video indexing by applying the rosette pattern to the extracted key frames, and retrieve them. Our SCD method is better than the conventional ones in terms of the SCD performance. Moreover, by applying the rosette pattern for indexing, we can remarkably reduce the number of pixels required to index and excellently retrieve the video scene.

  5. Seeing scenes: topographic visual hallucinations evoked by direct electrical stimulation of the parahippocampal place area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mégevand, Pierre; Groppe, David M; Goldfinger, Matthew S; Hwang, Sean T; Kingsley, Peter B; Davidesco, Ido; Mehta, Ashesh D

    2014-04-16

    In recent years, functional neuroimaging has disclosed a network of cortical areas in the basal temporal lobe that selectively respond to visual scenes, including the parahippocampal place area (PPA). Beyond the observation that lesions involving the PPA cause topographic disorientation, there is little causal evidence linking neural activity in that area to the perception of places. Here, we combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and intracranial EEG (iEEG) recordings to delineate place-selective cortex in a patient implanted with stereo-EEG electrodes for presurgical evaluation of drug-resistant epilepsy. Bipolar direct electrical stimulation of a cortical area in the collateral sulcus and medial fusiform gyrus, which was place-selective according to both fMRI and iEEG, induced a topographic visual hallucination: the patient described seeing indoor and outdoor scenes that included views of the neighborhood he lives in. By contrast, stimulating the more lateral aspect of the basal temporal lobe caused distortion of the patient's perception of faces, as recently reported (Parvizi et al., 2012). Our results support the causal role of the PPA in the perception of visual scenes, demonstrate that electrical stimulation of higher order visual areas can induce complex hallucinations, and also reaffirm direct electrical brain stimulation as a tool to assess the function of the human cerebral cortex.

  6. A graphics pipeline for directtly rendering 3D scenes on web browsers

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Edgar Marchiel

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation we propose a graphics pipeline, in the form of aWeb3D graphics library, for directly rendering 3D scenes on web browsers. This open sourceWeb3D graphics library is called Glypher3D. It is entirely written in JavaScript (together with the HTML5 canvas element) and aims at enabling the creation, manipulation and rendering of 3D contents within a browser, without the need of installing any type of web browser plug-ins or add-ons (i.e. it does not take advantag...

  7. Immersive Virtual Moon Scene System Based on Panoramic Camera Data of Chang'E-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X.; Liu, J.; Mu, L.; Yan, W.; Zeng, X.; Zhang, X.; Li, C.

    2014-12-01

    The system "Immersive Virtual Moon Scene" is used to show the virtual environment of Moon surface in immersive environment. Utilizing stereo 360-degree imagery from panoramic camera of Yutu rover, the system enables the operator to visualize the terrain and the celestial background from the rover's point of view in 3D. To avoid image distortion, stereo 360-degree panorama stitched by 112 images is projected onto inside surface of sphere according to panorama orientation coordinates and camera parameters to build the virtual scene. Stars can be seen from the Moon at any time. So we render the sun, planets and stars according to time and rover's location based on Hipparcos catalogue as the background on the sphere. Immersing in the stereo virtual environment created by this imaged-based rendering technique, the operator can zoom, pan to interact with the virtual Moon scene and mark interesting objects. Hardware of the immersive virtual Moon system is made up of four high lumen projectors and a huge curve screen which is 31 meters long and 5.5 meters high. This system which take all panoramic camera data available and use it to create an immersive environment, enable operator to interact with the environment and mark interesting objects contributed heavily to establishment of science mission goals in Chang'E-3 mission. After Chang'E-3 mission, the lab with this system will be open to public. Besides this application, Moon terrain stereo animations based on Chang'E-1 and Chang'E-2 data will be showed to public on the huge screen in the lab. Based on the data of lunar exploration,we will made more immersive virtual moon scenes and animations to help the public understand more about the Moon in the future.

  8. Embryo disposition and the new death scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellison, David

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the IVF clinic - a place designed principally for the production and implantation of embryos - scientists and IVF recipients are faced with decisions regarding the disposition of frozen embryos. At this time there are hundred of thousands of cryopreserved embryos awaiting such determinations. They may be thawed for transfer to the woman herself, they may be donated for research or for use by other infertile couples, they may remain in frozen storage, or they may variously be discarded by being allowed to 'succumb', or 'perish'. Where the choice is discard, some IVF clients have chosen to formalise the process through ceremony. A new language is emerging in response to the desires of the would-be-parents who might wish to characterise the discard experience as a ‘good death’. This article examines the procedure known as ‘compassionate transfer’ where the embryo to be discarded is placed in the woman’s vagina where it is clear that it will not develop further. An alternate method has the embryo transferred in the usual manner but without the benefit of fertility-enhancing hormones at a point in the cycle unreceptive to implantation. The embryo destined for disposal is thus removed from the realm of technological possibility and ‘returned’ to the female body for a homely death. While debates continue about whether or not embryos constitute life, new practices are developing in response to the emotional experience of embryo discard. We argue that compassionate transfer is a death scene taking shape. In this article, we take the measure of this new death scene’s fabrication, and consider the form, significance, and legal complexity of its ceremonies.

  9. Scene recognition for mine rescue robot localization based on vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Yi-an; CAI Zi-xing; WANG Lu

    2008-01-01

    A new scene recognition system was presented based on fuzzy logic and hidden Markov model(HMM) that can be applied in mine rescue robot localization during emergencies. The system uses monocular camera to acquire omni-directional images of the mine environment where the robot locates. By adopting center-surround difference method, the salient local image regions are extracted from the images as natural landmarks. These landmarks are organized by using HMM to represent the scene where the robot is, and fuzzy logic strategy is used to match the scene and landmark. By this way, the localization problem, which is the scene recognition problem in the system, can be converted into the evaluation problem of HMM. The contributions of these skills make the system have the ability to deal with changes in scale, 2D rotation and viewpoint. The results of experiments also prove that the system has higher ratio of recognition and localization in both static and dynamic mine environments.

  10. Big visual data analysis scene classification and geometric labeling

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Chen; Kuo, C -C Jay

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an overview of traditional big visual data analysis approaches and provides state-of-the-art solutions for several scene comprehension problems, indoor/outdoor classification, outdoor scene classification, and outdoor scene layout estimation. It is illustrated with numerous natural and synthetic color images, and extensive statistical analysis is provided to help readers visualize big visual data distribution and the associated problems. Although there has been some research on big visual data analysis, little work has been published on big image data distribution analysis using the modern statistical approach described in this book. By presenting a complete methodology on big visual data analysis with three illustrative scene comprehension problems, it provides a generic framework that can be applied to other big visual data analysis tasks.

  11. 3D scene modeling from multiple range views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, Vitor; Goncalves, Joao G. M.; Ribeiro, M. Isabel

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents a new 3D scene analysis system that automatically reconstructs the 3D geometric model of real-world scenes from multiple range images acquired by a laser range finder on board of a mobile robot. The reconstruction is achieved through an integrated procedure including range data acquisition, geometrical feature extraction, registration, and integration of multiple views. Different descriptions of the final 3D scene model are obtained: a polygonal triangular mesh, a surface description in terms of planar and biquadratics surfaces, and a 3D boundary representation. Relevant experimental results from the complete 3D scene modeling are presented. Direct applications of this technique include 3D reconstruction and/or update of architectual or industrial plans into a CAD model, design verification of buildings, navigation of autonomous robots, and input to virtual reality systems.

  12. Earth Virtual-Environment Immersive Scene Display System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to the NASA need for a free-standing immersive virtual scene display system interfaced with an exercise treadmill to mimic terrestrial exercise...

  13. The influence of color on emotional perception of natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codispoti, Maurizio; De Cesarei, Andrea; Ferrari, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Is color a critical factor when processing the emotional content of natural scenes? Under challenging perceptual conditions, such as when pictures are briefly presented, color might facilitate scene segmentation and/or function as a semantic cue via association with scene-relevant concepts (e.g., red and blood/injury). To clarify the influence of color on affective picture perception, we compared the late positive potentials (LPP) to color versus grayscale pictures, presented for very brief (24 ms) and longer (6 s) exposure durations. Results indicated that removing color information had no effect on the affective modulation of the LPP, regardless of exposure duration. These findings imply that the recognition of the emotional content of scenes, even when presented very briefly, does not critically rely on color information.

  14. Visual definition of procedures for automatic virtual scene generation

    CERN Document Server

    Lucanin, Drazen

    2012-01-01

    With more and more digital media, especially in the field of virtual reality where detailed and convincing scenes are much required, procedural scene generation is a big helping tool for artists. A problem is that defining scene descriptions through these procedures usually requires a knowledge in formal language grammars, programming theory and manually editing textual files using a strict syntax, making it less intuitive to use. Luckily, graphical user interfaces has made a lot of tasks on computers easier to perform and out of the belief that creating computer programs can also be one of them, visual programming languages (VPLs) have emerged. The goal in VPLs is to shift more work from the programmer to the integrated development environment (IDE), making programming an user-friendlier task. In this thesis, an approach of using a VPL for defining procedures that automatically generate virtual scenes is presented. The methods required to build a VPL are presented, including a novel method of generating read...

  15. Crime scene ethics: souvenirs, teaching material, and artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Tracy L

    2004-03-01

    Police and forensic specialists are ethically obliged to preserve the integrity of their investigations and their agencies' reputations. The American Academy of Forensic Sciences and the Canadian Society of Forensic Science provide no guidelines for crime scene ethics, or the retention of items from former crime scenes. Guidelines are necessary to define acceptable behavior relating to removing, keeping, or selling artifacts, souvenirs, or teaching specimens from former crime scenes, where such activities are not illegal, to prevent potential conflicts of interest and the appearance of impropriety. Proposed guidelines permit the retention of objects with educational value, provided they are not of significance to the case, they are not removed until the scene is released, permission has been obtained from the property owner and police investigator, and the item has no significant monetary value. Permission is necessary even if objects appear discarded, or are not typically regarded as property, e.g., animal bones.

  16. Crime scene investigation in child-abuse cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, G N

    1986-06-01

    Although child abuse and neglect continue to appear in the medical literature frequently, little regarding scene investigation in such cases has been discussed. Many explanations have been offered for this deficit, the most common one is based on the time delay between infliction of the injury and discovery. At the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, child-abuse cases submitted for consultation repeatedly show deficits in the scene investigation and its documentation. Since the discovery of child abuse is dependent on either physical evidence of repetitive punitive measures or an injury pattern not in agreement with the alleged circumstances, it behooves the assigned investigator to make every attempt to document the scene(s) as in any other criminal investigation.

  17. Scan patterns when viewing natural scenes: Emotion, complexity, and repetition

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, Margaret M.; Houbova, Petra; Miccoli,Laura; Costa, Vincent D.; Lang, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Eye movements were monitored during picture viewing and effects of hedonic content, perceptual composition, and repetition on scanning assessed. In Experiment 1, emotional and neutral pictures that were figure-ground compositions or more complex scenes were presented for a 6 s free viewing period. Viewing emotional pictures or complex scenes prompted more fixations and broader scanning of the visual array, compared to neutral pictures or simple figure-ground compositions. Effects of emotion a...

  18. Phase III, multicenter, open-label, long-term study of the safety of abatacept in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis and an inadequate response to conventional or biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Matsubara, Tsukasa; Urata, Yukitomo; Suematsu, Eiichi; Ohta, Shuji; Honjo, Shigeru; Abe, Tohru; Yamamoto, Ami; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; ,

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the long-term safety of intravenous (IV) abatacept treatment in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and an inadequate response to methotrexate (MTX) or other conventional or biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Methods This Phase III, open-label, long-term study (NCT00484289) comprised Japanese patients with RA who had completed abatacept Phase I or Phase II studies, and new patients intolerant to MTX. Patients from Phase I and Phase II studies re...

  19. Crime Scene Reconstruction Using a Fully Geomatic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lingua

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on two main topics: crime scene reconstruction, based on a geomatic approach, and crime scene analysis, through GIS based procedures. According to the experience of the authors in performing forensic analysis for real cases, the aforesaid topics will be examined with the specific goal of verifying the relationship of human walk paths at a crime scene with blood patterns on the floor. In order to perform such analyses, the availability of pictures taken by first aiders is mandatory, since they provide information about the crime scene before items are moved or interfered with. Generally, those pictures are affected by large geometric distortions, thus - after a brief description of the geomatic techniques suitable for the acquisition of reference data (total station surveying, photogrammetry and laser scanning - it will be shown the developed methodology, based on photogrammetric algorithms, aimed at calibrating, georeferencing and mosaicking the available images acquired on the scene. The crime scene analysis is based on a collection of GIS functionalities for simulating human walk movements and creating a statistically significant sample. The developed GIS software component will be described in detail, showing how the analysis of this statistical sample of simulated human walks allows to rigorously define the probability of performing a certain walk path without touching the bloodstains on the floor.

  20. Emotional scene content drives the saccade generation system reflexively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hyönä, Jukka; Calvo, Manuel G

    2009-04-01

    The authors assessed whether parafoveal perception of emotional content influences saccade programming. In Experiment 1, paired emotional and neutral scenes were presented to parafoveal vision. Participants performed voluntary saccades toward either of the scenes according to an imperative signal (color cue). Saccadic reaction times were faster when the cue pointed toward the emotional picture rather than toward the neutral picture. Experiment 2 replicated these findings with a reflexive saccade task, in which abrupt luminosity changes were used as exogenous saccade cues. In Experiment 3, participants performed vertical reflexive saccades that were orthogonal to the emotional-neutral picture locations. Saccade endpoints and trajectories deviated away from the visual field in which the emotional scenes were presented. Experiment 4 showed that computationally modeled visual saliency does not vary as a function of scene content and that inversion abolishes the rapid orienting toward the emotional scenes. Visual confounds cannot thus explain the results. The authors conclude that early saccade target selection and execution processes are automatically influenced by emotional picture content. This reveals processing of meaningful scene content prior to overt attention to the stimulus.

  1. SIFT flow: dense correspondence across scenes and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ce; Yuen, Jenny; Torralba, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    While image alignment has been studied in different areas of computer vision for decades, aligning images depicting different scenes remains a challenging problem. Analogous to optical flow, where an image is aligned to its temporally adjacent frame, we propose SIFT flow, a method to align an image to its nearest neighbors in a large image corpus containing a variety of scenes. The SIFT flow algorithm consists of matching densely sampled, pixelwise SIFT features between two images while preserving spatial discontinuities. The SIFT features allow robust matching across different scene/object appearances, whereas the discontinuity-preserving spatial model allows matching of objects located at different parts of the scene. Experiments show that the proposed approach robustly aligns complex scene pairs containing significant spatial differences. Based on SIFT flow, we propose an alignment-based large database framework for image analysis and synthesis, where image information is transferred from the nearest neighbors to a query image according to the dense scene correspondence. This framework is demonstrated through concrete applications such as motion field prediction from a single image, motion synthesis via object transfer, satellite image registration, and face recognition.

  2. Helicopter Scene Response for Stroke Patients: A 5-Year Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Andrew; Marco, Catherine; Huang, Matt; Chow, Bonnie

    The purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of an emergency medical service (EMS)-requested air medical helicopter response directly to the scene for a patient with clinical evidence of an ischemic cerebrovascular accident (CVA) and transport to a regional comprehensive CVA center. CareFlight, an air medical critical care transportation service, is based in Dayton, OH. The 3 CareFlight helicopters are geographically located and provided transport to all CVA scene patients in this study. A retrospective chart review was completed for all CareFlight CVA scene flights for 5 years (2011-2015). A total of 136 adult patients were transported. EMS criteria included CVA symptom presence for less than 3 hours or awoke abnormal, nonhypoglycemia, and a significantly positive Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale. The majority of patients (75%) met all 3 EMS CVA scene criteria; 27.5% of these patients received peripheral tissue plasminogen activator, and 9.8% underwent a neurointerventional procedure. Using a 3-step EMS triage for acute CVA, air medical transport from the scene to a comprehensive stroke center allowed for the timely administration of tissue plasminogen activator and/or a neurointerventional procedure in a substantive percentage of patients. Further investigation into air medical scene response for acute stroke is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Political conservatism predicts asymmetries in emotional scene memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Mark; Gonzalez, Frank J; Giuseffi, Karl; Sievert, Benjamin; Smith, Kevin B; Hibbing, John R; Dodd, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    Variation in political ideology has been linked to differences in attention to and processing of emotional stimuli, with stronger responses to negative versus positive stimuli (negativity bias) the more politically conservative one is. As memory is enhanced by attention, such findings predict that memory for negative versus positive stimuli should similarly be enhanced the more conservative one is. The present study tests this prediction by having participants study 120 positive, negative, and neutral scenes in preparation for a subsequent memory test. On the memory test, the same 120 scenes were presented along with 120 new scenes and participants were to respond whether a scene was old or new. Results on the memory test showed that negative scenes were more likely to be remembered than positive scenes, though, this was true only for political conservatives. That is, a larger negativity bias was found the more conservative one was. The effect was sizeable, explaining 45% of the variance across subjects in the effect of emotion. These findings demonstrate that the relationship between political ideology and asymmetries in emotion processing extend to memory and, furthermore, suggest that exploring the extent to which subject variation in interactions among emotion, attention, and memory is predicted by conservatism may provide new insights into theories of political ideology. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Object shape classification and scene shape representation for three-dimensional laser scanned outdoor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Xiaojuan; Wang, Yinghui; Zhang, Xiaopeng

    2013-02-01

    Shape analysis of a three-dimensional (3-D) scene is an important issue and could be widely used for various applications: city planning, robot navigation, virtual tourism, etc. We introduce an approach for understanding the primitive shape of the scene to reveal the semantic scene shape structure and represent the scene using shape elements. The scene objects are labeled and recognized using the geometric and semantic features for each cluster, which is based on the knowledge of scene. Furthermore, the object in scene with a different primitive shape could also be classified and fitted using the Gaussian map of the segmented scene. We demonstrate the presented approach on several complex scenes from laser scanning. According to the experimental result, the proposed method can accurately represent the geometric structure of the 3-D scene.

  5. Recreation in Different Forest Settings: A Scene Preference Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Olsson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recreation activity preferences in forest settings were explored in a scene preference study. The importance of type of human intervention and the level of biodiversity for preference and intention to engage in recreation activities were examined in a sample of forestry and social science students in Sweden. Results showed that forestry students displayed an almost equally strong preference for natural-looking scenes as for scenes with traces of recreation (e.g., paths, whereas social science students preferred recreational scenes the most. Least preferred were scenes with traces of forest management. Different forest settings were furthermore preferred for different recreation activities. Recreational settings were favored for walking and going on outings, and natural-looking settings were more appreciated for picking berries or mushrooms. Respondents displayed a stronger intention to study plants and animals in high biodiversity settings and the intention to exercise was stronger in low biodiversity settings. Implications for future land use planning and forest management are discussed.

  6. Video Pedestrian Detection Based on Orthogonal Scene Motion Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming Qu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In fixed video scenes, scene motion patterns can be a very useful prior knowledge for pedestrian detection which is still a challenge at present. A new approach of cascade pedestrian detection using an orthogonal scene motion pattern model in a general density video is developed in this paper. To statistically model the pedestrian motion pattern, a probability grid overlaying the whole scene is set up to partition the scene into paths and holding areas. Features extracted from different pattern areas are classified by a group of specific strategies. Instead of using a unitary classifier, the employed classifier is composed of two directional subclassifiers trained, respectively, with different samples which are selected by two orthogonal directions. Considering that the negative images from the detection window scanning are much more than the positive ones, the cascade AdaBoost technique is adopted by the subclassifiers to reduce the negative image computations. The proposed approach is proved effectively by static classification experiments and surveillance video experiments.

  7. Monocular concurrent recovery of structure and motion scene flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar eMitiche

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a variational method of joint three-dimensional structure and motion scene flow recovery from a single image sequence. A basic scheme is developed by minimizing a functional with a term of conformity of scene flow and depth to the image sequence spatiotemporal variations, and quadratic smoothness regularization terms. The data term follows by re-writing optical velocity in the optical flow gradient constraint in terms of scene flow and depth. As a result, this problem statement is analogous to the classical Horn and Schunck optical flow formulation except that it involves scene flow and depth rather than image motion. When discretized, the Euler-Lagrange equations give a large scale sparse system of linear equations in the unknowns of the scene flow three coordinates and depth. The equations can be ordered in such a way that its matrix is symmetric positive definite such that they can be solved efficiently by Gauss-Seidel iterations. Experiments are shown to verify the scheme’s validity and efficiency.

  8. The anatomy of the crime scene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    Crime scenes are constituted by a combination of a plot and a place. The crime scene is a place which has been in a certain state of transformation at a certain moment in time, the moment at which the place constituted the scene for some kind of criminal activity. As such the place has been encod...... scene is conducted by investigators (crime scene coordinators) who's task it is to decide how the investigation should be carried out and which is best described as a narrative practice; a systematic - and expertise based - work of imagination....... are signs to be read and interpreted. Thus the place carries a plot (a narrative) which at first is hidden and scattered and has to be revealed and pieced together through a process of investigation and exploration with the aid of different forensic methods, eyewitnesses and so on; - through reading...... this reconstructed place the story itself is also reconstructed: the crime is being solved, the murderer revealed.                       An important element in this narrative and performative practise is the use of simulation as a storytelling device. Simulation is a well-known method in investigation of crime...

  9. Research on hyperspectral dynamic scene and image sequence simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dandan; Liu, Fang; Gao, Jiaobo; Sun, Kefeng; Hu, Yu; Li, Yu; Xie, Junhu; Zhang, Lei

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a simulation method of hyperspectral dynamic scene and image sequence for hyperspectral equipment evaluation and target detection algorithm. Because of high spectral resolution, strong band continuity, anti-interference and other advantages, in recent years, hyperspectral imaging technology has been rapidly developed and is widely used in many areas such as optoelectronic target detection, military defense and remote sensing systems. Digital imaging simulation, as a crucial part of hardware in loop simulation, can be applied to testing and evaluation hyperspectral imaging equipment with lower development cost and shorter development period. Meanwhile, visual simulation can produce a lot of original image data under various conditions for hyperspectral image feature extraction and classification algorithm. Based on radiation physic model and material characteristic parameters this paper proposes a generation method of digital scene. By building multiple sensor models under different bands and different bandwidths, hyperspectral scenes in visible, MWIR, LWIR band, with spectral resolution 0.01μm, 0.05μm and 0.1μm have been simulated in this paper. The final dynamic scenes have high real-time and realistic, with frequency up to 100 HZ. By means of saving all the scene gray data in the same viewpoint image sequence is obtained. The analysis results show whether in the infrared band or the visible band, the grayscale variations of simulated hyperspectral images are consistent with the theoretical analysis results.

  10. Selective looking at natural scenes: Hedonic content and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Margaret M; Costa, Vincent D; Lang, Peter J

    2015-10-01

    Choice viewing behavior when looking at affective scenes was assessed to examine differences due to hedonic content and gender by monitoring eye movements in a selective looking paradigm. On each trial, participants viewed a pair of pictures that included a neutral picture together with an affective scene depicting either contamination, mutilation, threat, food, nude males, or nude females. The duration of time that gaze was directed to each picture in the pair was determined from eye fixations. Results indicated that viewing choices varied with both hedonic content and gender. Initially, gaze duration for both men and women was heightened when viewing all affective contents, but was subsequently followed by significant avoidance of scenes depicting contamination or nude males. Gender differences were most pronounced when viewing pictures of nude females, with men continuing to devote longer gaze time to pictures of nude females throughout viewing, whereas women avoided scenes of nude people, whether male or female, later in the viewing interval. For women, reported disgust of sexual activity was also inversely related to gaze duration for nude scenes. Taken together, selective looking as indexed by eye movements reveals differential perceptual intake as a function of specific content, gender, and individual differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Selective looking at natural scenes: Hedonic content and gender☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Margaret M.; Costa, Vincent D.; Lang, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Choice viewing behavior when looking at affective scenes was assessed to examine differences due to hedonic content and gender by monitoring eye movements in a selective looking paradigm. On each trial, participants viewed a pair of pictures that included a neutral picture together with an affective scene depicting either contamination, mutilation, threat, food, nude males, or nude females. The duration of time that gaze was directed to each picture in the pair was determined from eye fixations. Results indicated that viewing choices varied with both hedonic content and gender. Initially, gaze duration for both men and women was heightened when viewing all affective contents, but was subsequently followed by significant avoidance of scenes depicting contamination or nude males. Gender differences were most pronounced when viewing pictures of nude females, with men continuing to devote longer gaze time to pictures of nude females throughout viewing, whereas women avoided scenes of nude people, whether male or female, later in the viewing interval. For women, reported disgust of sexual activity was also inversely related to gaze duration for nude scenes. Taken together, selective looking as indexed by eye movements reveals differential perceptual intake as a function of specific content, gender, and individual differences. PMID:26156939

  12. Design and Implementation of One Missile Visual Simulation System Based on OpenGL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ying; ZHANG Pu-zhao; PENG Yu-xin; HUANG Jian-guo

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of a missile's visual simulation system is explained that is developed with OpenGL(open graphic library) and the flight path and flight carriage in different stages of the missile are displayed. The establishment problems of the 3D scene are circumstantiated including the construction and redeployment of the model, creation of the virtual scene, setting of the multi-viewports and multi-windows etc. The missile's data driver, system flow, the modules and their mutual relations of the missile visual simulation system are discussed. The missile flight simulation results and effect of the scenes are given.

  13. SAR Raw Data Generation for Complex Airport Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The method of generating the SAR raw data of complex airport scenes is studied in this paper. A formulation of the SAR raw signal model of airport scenes is given. Via generating the echoes from the background, aircrafts and buildings, respectively, the SAR raw data of the unified SAR imaging geometry is obtained from their vector additions. The multipath scattering and the shadowing between the background and different ground covers of standing airplanes and buildings are analyzed. Based on the scattering characteristics, coupling scattering models and SAR raw data models of different targets are given, respectively. A procedure is given to generate the SAR raw data of airport scenes. The SAR images from the simulated raw data demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  14. Use of AFIS for linking scenes of crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefetz, Ido; Liptz, Yakir; Vaturi, Shaul; Attias, David

    2016-05-01

    Forensic intelligence can provide critical information in criminal investigations - the linkage of crime scenes. The Automatic Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) is an example of a technological improvement that has advanced the entire forensic identification field to strive for new goals and achievements. In one example using AFIS, a series of burglaries into private apartments enabled a fingerprint examiner to search latent prints from different burglary scenes against an unsolved latent print database. Latent finger and palm prints coming from the same source were associated with over than 20 cases. Then, by forensic intelligence and profile analysis the offender's behavior could be anticipated. He was caught, identified, and arrested. It is recommended to perform an AFIS search of LT/UL prints against current crimes automatically as part of laboratory protocol and not by an examiner's discretion. This approach may link different crime scenes.

  15. Foggy Scene Rendering Based on Transmission Map Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Realistic rendering of foggy scene is important in game development and virtual reality. Traditional methods have many parameters to control or require a long time to compute, and they are usually limited to depicting a homogeneous fog without considering the foggy scene with heterogeneous fog. In this paper, a new rendering method based on transmission map estimation is proposed. We first generate perlin noise image as the density distribution texture of heterogeneous fog. Then we estimate the transmission map using the Markov random field (MRF model and the bilateral filter. Finally, virtual foggy scene is realistically rendered with the generated perlin noise image and the transmission map according to the atmospheric scattering model. Experimental results show that the rendered results of our approach are quite satisfactory.

  16. COMBINING SCENE MODEL AND FUSION FOR NIGHT VIDEO ENHANCEMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jing; Yang Tao; Pan Quan; Cheng Yongmei

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a video context enhancement method for night surveillance. The basic idea is to extract and fuse the meaningful information of video sequence captured from a fixed camera under different illuminations. A unique characteristic of the algorithm is to separate the image context into two classes and estimate them in different ways. One class contains basic surrounding scene information and scene model, which is obtained via background modeling and object tracking in daytime video sequence. The other class is extracted from nighttime video, including frequently moving region, high illumination region and high gradient region. The scene model and pixel-wise difference method are used to segment the three regions. A shift-invariant discrete wavelet based image fusion technique is used to integral all those context information in the final result. Experiment results demonstrate that the proposed approach can provide much more details and meaningful information for nighttime video.

  17. Abnormal events detection in crowded scenes by trajectory cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shifu; Zhang, Zhijiang; Zeng, Dan; Shen, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Abnormal events detection in crowded scenes has been a challenge due to volatility of the definitions for both normality and abnormality, the small number of pixels on the target, appearance ambiguity resulting from the dense packing, and severe inter-object occlusions. A novel framework was proposed for the detection of unusual events in crowded scenes using trajectories produced by moving pedestrians based on an intuition that the motion patterns of usual behaviors are similar to these of group activity, whereas unusual behaviors are not. First, spectral clustering is used to group trajectories with similar spatial patterns. Different trajectory clusters represent different activities. Then, unusual trajectories can be detected using these patterns. Furthermore, behavior of a mobile pedestrian can be defined by comparing its direction with these patterns, such as moving in the opposite direction of the group or traversing the group. Experimental results indicated that the proposed algorithm could be used to reliably locate the abnormal events in crowded scenes.

  18. Emotional scenes and facial expressions elicit different psychophysiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, Georg W; Adolph, Dirk; Pauli, Paul

    2011-06-01

    We examined if emotional faces elicit physiological responses similar to pictures of emotional scenes. Forty one students viewed emotional scenes (negative, neutral, and positive) and emotional faces (angry, neutral, and happy). Heart rate, orbicularis oculi and electrodermal activity were measured continuously, and the startle reflex was elicited. Although the patterns of valence and arousal ratings were comparable, physiological response patterns differed. For scenes we replicated the valence-specific modulation of the startle response, heart rate deceleration, and the arousal-related modulation of the electrodermal response. In contrast, for faces we found valence-specific modulation only for the electrodermal response, but the startle and heart rate deceleration were modulated by arousal. Although arousal differences may account for some differences in physiological responding this shows that not all emotional material that is decoded similarly leads to the same psychophysiological output. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Virtual environments for scene of crime reconstruction and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Toby L. J.; Murta, Alan D.; Gibson, Simon

    2000-02-01

    This paper describes research conducted in collaboration with Greater Manchester Police (UK), to evalute the utility of Virtual Environments for scene of crime analysis, forensic investigation, and law enforcement briefing and training. We present an illustrated case study of the construction of a high-fidelity virtual environment, intended to match a particular real-life crime scene as closely as possible. We describe and evaluate the combination of several approaches including: the use of the Manchester Scene Description Language for constructing complex geometrical models; the application of a radiosity rendering algorithm with several novel features based on human perceptual consideration; texture extraction from forensic photography; and experiments with interactive walkthroughs and large-screen stereoscopic display of the virtual environment implemented using the MAVERIK system. We also discuss the potential applications of Virtual Environment techniques in the Law Enforcement and Forensic communities.

  20. Color appearance and color rendering of HDR scenes: an experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraman, Carinna; Rizzi, Alessandro; McCann, John J.

    2009-01-01

    In order to gain a deeper understanding of the appearance of coloured objects in a three-dimensional scene, the research introduces a multidisciplinary experimental approach. The experiment employed two identical 3-D Mondrians, which were viewed and compared side by side. Each scene was subjected to different lighting conditions. First, we used an illumination cube to diffuse the light and illuminate all the objects from each direction. This produced a low-dynamicrange (LDR) image of the 3-D Mondrian scene. Second, in order to make a high-dynamic range (HDR) image of the same objects, we used a directional 150W spotlight and an array of WLEDs assembled in a flashlight. The scenes were significant as each contained exactly the same three-dimensional painted colour blocks that were arranged in the same position in the still life. The blocks comprised 6 hue colours and 5 tones from white to black. Participants from the CREATE project were asked to consider the change in the appearance of a selection of colours according to lightness, hue, and chroma, and to rate how the change in illumination affected appearance. We measured the light coming to the eye from still-life surfaces with a colorimeter (Yxy). We captured the scene radiance using multiple exposures with a number of different cameras. We have begun a programme of digital image processing of these scene capture methods. This multi-disciplinary programme continues until 2010, so this paper is an interim report on the initial phases and a description of the ongoing project.

  1. Improved content aware scene retargeting for retinitis pigmentosa patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Atabany Walid I

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper we present a novel scene retargeting technique to reduce the visual scene while maintaining the size of the key features. The algorithm is scalable to implementation onto portable devices, and thus, has potential for augmented reality systems to provide visual support for those with tunnel vision. We therefore test the efficacy of our algorithm on shrinking the visual scene into the remaining field of view for those patients. Methods Simple spatial compression of visual scenes makes objects appear further away. We have therefore developed an algorithm which removes low importance information, maintaining the size of the significant features. Previous approaches in this field have included seam carving, which removes low importance seams from the scene, and shrinkability which dynamically shrinks the scene according to a generated importance map. The former method causes significant artifacts and the latter is inefficient. In this work we have developed a new algorithm, combining the best aspects of both these two previous methods. In particular, our approach is to generate a shrinkability importance map using as seam based approach. We then use it to dynamically shrink the scene in similar fashion to the shrinkability method. Importantly, we have implemented it so that it can be used in real time without prior knowledge of future frames. Results We have evaluated and compared our algorithm to the seam carving and image shrinkability approaches from a content preservation perspective and a compression quality perspective. Also our technique has been evaluated and tested on a trial included 20 participants with simulated tunnel vision. Results show the robustness of our method at reducing scenes up to 50% with minimal distortion. We also demonstrate efficacy in its use for those with simulated tunnel vision of 22 degrees of field of view or less. Conclusions Our approach allows us to perform content aware video

  2. Primate Visual Perception: Motivated Attention in Naturalistic Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David W.; Sabatinelli, Dean

    2017-01-01

    Research has consistently revealed enhanced neural activation corresponding to attended cues coupled with suppression to unattended cues. This attention effect depends both on the spatial features of stimuli and internal task goals. However, a large majority of research supporting this effect involves circumscribed tasks that possess few ecologically relevant characteristics. By comparison, natural scenes have the potential to engage an evolved attention system, which may be characterized by supplemental neural processing and integration compared to mechanisms engaged during reduced experimental paradigms. Here, we describe recent animal and human studies of naturalistic scene viewing to highlight the specific impact of social and affective processes on the neural mechanisms of attention modulation.

  3. A New Method to Extract Text from Natural Scenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for text detection, location and binarization fron natural scenes. Several morphological steps are used to detect the general positian of the text, including English, Chinese and Japanese characters. Next bounding boxes are processed by a new "Expand, Break and Merge" (EBM) method to get the precise text areas. Finally, text is binarized by a hybrid method based on Otsu and Niblack. This new approach can extract different kinds of text from complicated natural scenes. It is insensitive to noise, distortedness, and text orientation. It also has good performance on extracting texts in various sizes.

  4. Image Chunking: Defining Spatial Building Blocks for Scene Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    mumgs0.USmusa 7.AUWOJO 4. CIUTAC Rm6ANT Wuugme*j James V/. Mlahoney DACA? 6-85-C-00 10 NOQ 1 4-85-K-O 124 Artificial Inteligence Laboratory US USS 545...0197 672 IMAGE CHUWING: DEINING SPATIAL UILDING PLOCKS FOR 142 SCENE ANRLYSIS(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAIIAIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAO J...Technical Report 980 F-Image Chunking: Defining Spatial Building Blocks for Scene DTm -Analysis S ELECTED James V. Mahoney’ MIT Artificial Intelligence

  5. The TB Portals: An open-access, web-based platform for global drug-resistant tuberculosis data sharing and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Alex; Gabrielian, Andrei; Engle, Eric; Hurt, Darrell E; Alexandru, Sofia; Crudu, Valeriu; Sergueev, Eugene; Kirichenko, Valery; Lapitskii, Vladzimir; Snezhko, Eduard; Kovalev, Vassili; Astrovko, Andrei; Skrahina, Alena; Taaffe, Jessica; Harris, Michael; Long, Alyssa; Wollenberg, Kurt; Akhundova, Irada; Ismayilova, Sharafat; Skrahin, Aliaksandr; Mammadbayov, Elcan; Gadirova, Hagigat; Abuzarov, Rafik; Seyfaddinova, Mehriban; Avaliani, Zaza; Strambu, Irina; Zaharia, Dragos; Muntean, Alexandru; Ghita, Eugenia; Bogdan, Miron; Mindru, Roxana; Spinu, Victor; Sora, Alexandra; Ene, Catalina; Vashakidze, Sergo; Shubladze, Natalia; Nanava, Ucha; Tuzikov, Alexander; Tartakovsky, Michael

    2017-09-13

    The TB Portals Program is an international consortium of physicians, radiologists, and microbiologists from countries with a heavy burden of drug-resistant tuberculosis working with data scientists and IT professionals. Together, we have built the TB Portals, a repository of socioeconomic/geographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological, and genomic data from patient cases of drug-resistant tuberculosis and backed by shareable, physical samples. Currently, there are 1,299 total cases from five country sites (Azerbaijan, Belarus, Moldova, Georgia, and Romania), of which 976 (75.1%) are multi- or extensively drug resistant, and 38.2%, 51.9%, and 36.3% of cases contain X-ray, CT scan, and genomic data, respectively. The top Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages represented among collected samples are Beijing, T1, and H3, and SNPs that confer resistance to isoniazid, rifampicin, ofloxacin, and moxifloxacin occur the most frequently. These data and samples have promoted drug discovery efforts and research into genomics and quantitative image analysis to improve diagnostics, while also serving as a valuable resource for researchers and clinical providers. The TB Portals database and associated projects are continually growing, and we invite new partners and collaborations in our initiative. The TB Portals data and their associated analytical and statistical tools are freely available at: https://tbportals.niaid.nih.gov.

  6. Cognitive Effects of Antipsychotic Drugs in First-Episode Schizophrenia and Schizophreniform Disorder: A Randomized, Open-Label Clinical Trial (EUFEST)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Davidson; S. Galderisi; M. Weiser; N. Werbeloff; W.W. Fleischhacker; R.S. Keefe; H. Boter; I.P.M. Keet; D. Prelipceanu; J.K. Rybakowski; J. Libiger; M. Hummer; S. Dollfus; J.J. López-Ibor; L.G. Hranov; W. Gaebel; J. Peuskens; N. Lindefors; A. Riecher-Roessler; R.S. Kahn

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive impairment, manifested as mild to moderate deviations from psychometric norms, is present in many but not all schizophrenia patients. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of haloperidol with that of second-generation antipsychotic drugs on the cognitive per

  7. Crime scene as spatial production on screen, online and offline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Waade, Anne Marit

    Our field of investigation is site specific realism in crime fiction and spatial production as media specific features. We will analyze the (re)production of crime scenes in respectively crime series, computer games and tourist practice, and relate this to the ideas of emotional geography. The use...

  8. Range sections as rock models for intensity rock scene segmentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkwelo, S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents another approach to segmenting a scene of rocks on a conveyor belt for the purposes of measuring rock size. Rock size estimation instruments are used to monitor, optimize and control milling and crushing in the mining industry...

  9. Surface formation and depth in monocular scene perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, M K

    1999-01-01

    The visual perception of monocular stimuli perceived as 3-D objects has received considerable attention from researchers in human and machine vision. However, most previous research has focused on how individual 3-D objects are perceived. Here this is extended to a study of how the structure of 3-D scenes containing multiple, possibly disconnected objects and features is perceived. Da Vinci stereopsis, stereo capture, and other surface formation and interpolation phenomena in stereopsis and structure-from-motion suggest that small features having ambiguous depth may be assigned depth by interpolation with features having unambiguous depth. I investigated whether vision may use similar mechanisms to assign relative depth to multiple objects and features in sparse monocular images, such as line drawings, especially when other depth cues are absent. I propose that vision tends to organize disconnected objects and features into common surfaces to construct 3-D-scene interpretations. Interpolations that are too weak to generate a visible surface percept may still be strong enough to assign relative depth to objects within a scene. When there exists more than one possible surface interpolation in a scene, the visual system's preference for one interpolation over another seems to be influenced by a number of factors, including: (i) proximity, (ii) smoothness, (iii) a preference for roughly frontoparallel surfaces and 'ground' surfaces, (iv) attention and fixation, and (v) higher-level factors. I present a variety of demonstrations and an experiment to support this surface-formation hypothesis.

  10. Successful Scene Encoding in Presymptomatic Early-Onset Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Yakeel T; Willment, Kim Celone; Castrillon, Gabriel; Muniz, Martha; Lopera, Francisco; Budson, Andrew; Stern, Chantal E

    2015-01-01

    Brain regions critical to episodic memory are altered during the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, reliable means of identifying cognitively-normal individuals at higher risk to develop AD have not been established. To examine whether functional MRI can detect early functional changes associated with scene encoding in a group of presymptomatic presenilin-1 (PSEN1) E280A mutation carriers. Participants were 39 young, cognitively-normal individuals from an autosomal dominant early-onset AD kindred, located in Antioquia, Colombia. Participants performed a functional MRI scene encoding task and a post-scan subsequent memory test. PSEN1 mutation carriers exhibited hyperactivation within medial temporal lobe regions (hippocampus,parahippocampal formation) during successful scene encoding compared to age-matched non-carriers. Hyperactivation in medial temporal lobe regions during scene encoding is seen in individuals genetically-determined to develop AD years before their clinical onset. Our findings will guide future research with the ultimate goal of using functional neuroimaging in the early detection of preclinical AD.

  11. Scene Context Dependency of Pattern Constancy of Time Series Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodell, Glenn A.; Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental element of future generic pattern recognition technology is the ability to extract similar patterns for the same scene despite wide ranging extraneous variables, including lighting, turbidity, sensor exposure variations, and signal noise. In the process of demonstrating pattern constancy of this kind for retinex/visual servo (RVS) image enhancement processing, we found that the pattern constancy performance depended somewhat on scene content. Most notably, the scene topography and, in particular, the scale and extent of the topography in an image, affects the pattern constancy the most. This paper will explore these effects in more depth and present experimental data from several time series tests. These results further quantify the impact of topography on pattern constancy. Despite this residual inconstancy, the results of overall pattern constancy testing support the idea that RVS image processing can be a universal front-end for generic visual pattern recognition. While the effects on pattern constancy were significant, the RVS processing still does achieve a high degree of pattern constancy over a wide spectrum of scene content diversity, and wide ranging extraneousness variations in lighting, turbidity, and sensor exposure.

  12. The Rescue Mission: Assigning Guilt to a Chaotic Scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, David E.

    1987-01-01

    Seeks to identify rhetorical distinctiveness of the rescue mission as a form of belligerency--examining presidential discourse justifying the 1985 Lebanon intervention, the 1965 Dominican intervention, and the 1983 Grenada intervention. Argues that the distinction is in guilt narrowly assigned to a chaotic scene and the concomitant call for…

  13. Toward Holistic Scene Understanding: Feedback Enabled Cascaded Classification Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Congcong; Kowdle, Adarsh; Saxena, Ashutosh; Chen, Tsuhan

    2012-07-01

    Scene understanding includes many related subtasks, such as scene categorization, depth estimation, object detection, etc. Each of these subtasks is often notoriously hard, and state-of-the-art classifiers already exist for many of them. These classifiers operate on the same raw image and provide correlated outputs. It is desirable to have an algorithm that can capture such correlation without requiring any changes to the inner workings of any classifier. We propose Feedback Enabled Cascaded Classification Models (FE-CCM), that jointly optimizes all the subtasks while requiring only a "black box" interface to the original classifier for each subtask. We use a two-layer cascade of classifiers, which are repeated instantiations of the original ones, with the output of the first layer fed into the second layer as input. Our training method involves a feedback step that allows later classifiers to provide earlier classifiers information about which error modes to focus on. We show that our method significantly improves performance in all the subtasks in the domain of scene understanding, where we consider depth estimation, scene categorization, event categorization, object detection, geometric labeling, and saliency detection. Our method also improves performance in two robotic applications: an object-grasping robot and an object-finding robot.

  14. Towards Unsupervised Familiar Scene Recognition in Egocentric Videos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talavera Martínez, Estefanía

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, there is an upsurge of interest in using lifelogging devices. Such devices generate huge amounts of image data; consequently, the need for automatic methods for analyzing and summarizing these data is drastically increasing. We present a new method for familiar scene recognition in egocent

  15. Coping with Perceived Ethnic Prejudice on the Gay Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspal, Rusi

    2017-01-01

    There has been only cursory research into the sociological and psychological aspects of ethnic/racial discrimination among ethnic minority gay and bisexual men, and none that focuses specifically upon British ethnic minority gay men. This article focuses on perceptions of intergroup relations on the gay scene among young British South Asian gay…

  16. Behind the scenes: the corporate governance preferences of institutional investors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCahery, J.A.; Sautner, Z.; Starks, L.T.

    2010-01-01

    Institutional investors are a dominant force in financial markets today, yet their preferences about corporate governance are generally undisclosed and their activities in this area tend to be performed behind the scenes. We conduct a survey to elicit institutional investors’ views on investor

  17. Logical unit and scene detection: a comparative survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersohn, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Logical units are semantic video segments above the shot level. Depending on the common semantics within the unit and data domain, different types of logical unit extraction algorithms have been presented in literature. Topic units are typically extracted for documentaries or news broadcasts while scenes are extracted for narrative-driven video such as feature films, sitcoms, or cartoons. Other types of logical units are extracted from home video and sports. Different algorithms in literature used for the extraction of logical units are reviewed in this paper based on the categories unit type, data domain, features used, segmentation method, and thresholds applied. A detailed comparative study is presented for the case of extracting scenes from narrative-driven video. While earlier comparative studies focused on scene segmentation methods only or on complete news-story segmentation algorithms, in this paper various visual features and segmentation methods with their thresholding mechanisms and their combination into complete scene detection algorithms are investigated. The performance of the resulting large set of algorithms is then evaluated on a set of video files including feature films, sitcoms, children's shows, a detective story, and cartoons.

  18. MIRAGE dynamic IR scene projector overview and status

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Stephen W.; Warner, Jon A.; Pollack, Mike; Irwin, Alan; Hoelter, Theodore R.; Parrish, William J.; Woolaway, James T., II

    1999-07-01

    The MIRAGE Dynamic IR Scene Projector is a standard product being developed jointly by Santa Barbara Infrared, Inc. and Indigo Systems Corporation. MIRAGE is a complete IR scene projection system, accepting digital or analog scene data as the input and providing all other electronics, optics and mechanics to project high fidelity dynamic IR scenes to the unit under test. At the heart of the MIRAGE system is the 512 X 512 microemitter array that incorporates many state-of-the-art features previously not available. The Read-In-Integrated-Circuit (RIIC) leverages technology from IR Focal Plane electronics to provide a system with advanced capability with low risk. The RIIC incorporates on chip DACs, snap-shot frame updating, constant current mode, voltage drive emitters and substrate ground plane providing high resolution and low noise performance in a very small package. The first 512 X 512 microemitter assembly has been received and was imaged on 2 APR 99. The complete MIRAGE system is currently in integration with the first deliverable unit scheduled for June 1999.

  19. Forensic DNA Evidence at a Crime Scene: An Investigator's Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blozis, J

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold. The first is to present a law enforcement perspective of the importance of a crime scene, the value of probative evidence, and how to properly recognize, document, and collect evidence. The second purpose is to provide forensic scientists who primarily work in laboratories with the ability to gain insight on how law enforcement personnel process a crime scene. With all the technological advances in the various disciplines associated with forensic science, none have been more spectacular than those in the field of DNA. The development of sophisticated and sensitive instrumentation has led forensic scientists to be able to detect DNA profiles from minute samples of evidence in a much timelier manner. In forensic laboratories, safeguards and protocols associated with ASCLD/LAB International, Forensic Quality Services, and or ISO/IEC 17020:1998 accreditation have been established and implemented to ensure proper case analysis. But no scientist, no instrumentation, and no laboratory could come to a successful conclusion about evidence if that evidence had been compromised or simply missed at a crime scene. Evidence collectors must be trained thoroughly to process a scene and to be able to distinguish between probative evidence and non probative evidence. I am a firm believer of the phrase "garbage in is garbage out." One of the evidence collector's main goals is not only to recover enough DNA so that an eligible CODIS profile can be generated to identify an offender but also, more importantly, to recover sufficient DNA to exonerate the innocent.

  20. Figure-Ground Organization in Visual Cortex for Natural Scenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williford, Jonathan R; von der Heydt, Rüdiger

    2016-01-01

    Figure-ground organization and border-ownership assignment are essential for understanding natural scenes. It has been shown that many neurons in the macaque visual cortex signal border-ownership in displays of simple geometric shapes such as squares, but how well these neurons resolve border-owners

  1. Dynamic scene stitching driven by visual cognition model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Li-hui; Zhang, Dezheng; Wulamu, Aziguli

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic scene stitching still has a great challenge in maintaining the global key information without missing or deforming if multiple motion interferences exist in the image acquisition system. Object clips, motion blurs, or other synthetic defects easily occur in the final stitching image. In our research work, we proceed from human visual cognitive mechanism and construct a hybrid-saliency-based cognitive model to automatically guide the video volume stitching. The model consists of three elements of different visual stimuli, that is, intensity, edge contour, and scene depth saliencies. Combined with the manifold-based mosaicing framework, dynamic scene stitching is formulated as a cut path optimization problem in a constructed space-time graph. The cutting energy function for column width selections is defined according to the proposed visual cognition model. The optimum cut path can minimize the cognitive saliency difference throughout the whole video volume. The experimental results show that it can effectively avoid synthetic defects caused by different motion interferences and summarize the key contents of the scene without loss. The proposed method gives full play to the role of human visual cognitive mechanism for the stitching. It is of high practical value to environmental surveillance and other applications.

  2. Dynamic Scene Stitching Driven by Visual Cognition Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-hui Zou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic scene stitching still has a great challenge in maintaining the global key information without missing or deforming if multiple motion interferences exist in the image acquisition system. Object clips, motion blurs, or other synthetic defects easily occur in the final stitching image. In our research work, we proceed from human visual cognitive mechanism and construct a hybrid-saliency-based cognitive model to automatically guide the video volume stitching. The model consists of three elements of different visual stimuli, that is, intensity, edge contour, and scene depth saliencies. Combined with the manifold-based mosaicing framework, dynamic scene stitching is formulated as a cut path optimization problem in a constructed space-time graph. The cutting energy function for column width selections is defined according to the proposed visual cognition model. The optimum cut path can minimize the cognitive saliency difference throughout the whole video volume. The experimental results show that it can effectively avoid synthetic defects caused by different motion interferences and summarize the key contents of the scene without loss. The proposed method gives full play to the role of human visual cognitive mechanism for the stitching. It is of high practical value to environmental surveillance and other applications.

  3. 3D Priors for Scene Learning from a Single View

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Conference on Articulated Motion and Deformable Objects, 2006. [13] Seemann, E., Leibe, B. and Schiele , B., "Multi-aspect detection of articulated objects...Seemann, E. and Schiele , B., "Pedestrian detection in crowded scenes." CVPR, 2005. [16] Wang, J. J. L. and Singh, S., "Video analysis of human

  4. Ontology of a scene based on Java 3D architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén González Crespo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article seeks to make an approach to the class hierarchy of a scene built with the architecture Java 3D, to develop an ontology of a scene as from the semantic essential components for the semantic structuring of the Web3D. Java was selected because the language recommended by the W3C Consortium for the Development of the Web3D oriented applications as from X3D standard is Xj3D which compositionof their Schemas is based the architecture of Java3D In first instance identifies the domain and scope of the ontology, defining classes and subclasses that comprise from Java3D architecture and the essential elements of a scene, as its point of origin, the field of rotation, translation The limitation of the scene and the definition of shaders, then define the slots that are declared in RDF as a framework for describing the properties of the classes established from identifying thedomain and range of each class, then develops composition of the OWL ontology on SWOOP Finally, be perform instantiations of the ontology building for a Iconosphere object as from class expressions defined.

  5. Fuzzy Emotional Semantic Analysis and Automated Annotation of Scene Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfang Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advances in electronic and imaging techniques, the production of digital images has rapidly increased, and the extraction and automated annotation of emotional semantics implied by images have become issues that must be urgently addressed. To better simulate human subjectivity and ambiguity for understanding scene images, the current study proposes an emotional semantic annotation method for scene images based on fuzzy set theory. A fuzzy membership degree was calculated to describe the emotional degree of a scene image and was implemented using the Adaboost algorithm and a back-propagation (BP neural network. The automated annotation method was trained and tested using scene images from the SUN Database. The annotation results were then compared with those based on artificial annotation. Our method showed an annotation accuracy rate of 91.2% for basic emotional values and 82.4% after extended emotional values were added, which correspond to increases of 5.5% and 8.9%, respectively, compared with the results from using a single BP neural network algorithm. Furthermore, the retrieval accuracy rate based on our method reached approximately 89%. This study attempts to lay a solid foundation for the automated emotional semantic annotation of more types of images and therefore is of practical significance.

  6. Fuzzy emotional semantic analysis and automated annotation of scene images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianfang; Chen, Lichao

    2015-01-01

    With the advances in electronic and imaging techniques, the production of digital images has rapidly increased, and the extraction and automated annotation of emotional semantics implied by images have become issues that must be urgently addressed. To better simulate human subjectivity and ambiguity for understanding scene images, the current study proposes an emotional semantic annotation method for scene images based on fuzzy set theory. A fuzzy membership degree was calculated to describe the emotional degree of a scene image and was implemented using the Adaboost algorithm and a back-propagation (BP) neural network. The automated annotation method was trained and tested using scene images from the SUN Database. The annotation results were then compared with those based on artificial annotation. Our method showed an annotation accuracy rate of 91.2% for basic emotional values and 82.4% after extended emotional values were added, which correspond to increases of 5.5% and 8.9%, respectively, compared with the results from using a single BP neural network algorithm. Furthermore, the retrieval accuracy rate based on our method reached approximately 89%. This study attempts to lay a solid foundation for the automated emotional semantic annotation of more types of images and therefore is of practical significance.

  7. Understanding road scenes using visual cues and GPS information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez, J.M.; Lumbreras, F.; Lopez, A.M.; Gevers, T.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding road scenes is important in computer vision with different applications to improve road safety (e.g., advanced driver assistance systems) and to develop autonomous driving systems (e.g., Google driver-less vehicle). Current vision-based approaches rely on the robust combination of

  8. Memory, emotion, and pupil diameter: Repetition of natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Margaret M; Lang, Peter J

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have suggested that pupil diameter, like the "old-new" ERP, may be a measure of memory. Because the amplitude of the old-new ERP is enhanced for items encoded in the context of repetitions that are distributed (spaced), compared to massed (contiguous), we investigated whether pupil diameter is similarly sensitive to repetition. Emotional and neutral pictures of natural scenes were viewed once or repeated with massed (contiguous) or distributed (spaced) repetition during incidental free viewing and then tested on an explicit recognition test. Although an old-new difference in pupil diameter was found during successful recognition, pupil diameter was not enhanced for distributed, compared to massed, repetitions during either recognition or initial free viewing. Moreover, whereas a significant old-new difference was found for erotic scenes that had been seen only once during encoding, this difference was absent when erotic scenes were repeated. Taken together, the data suggest that pupil diameter is not a straightforward index of prior occurrence for natural scenes. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  9. Emotional Reactions to Frightening and Neutral Scenes in Story Theatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Judith B.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Children's reactions to emotionally neutral and frightening scenes were compared using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children. Differences in the reactions of boys and girls were interpreted as reflecting both their identification with different characters in the play and their perceptions of the physical danger and psychological threat to…

  10. Semantic Categorization Precedes Affective Evaluation of Visual Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hyona, Jukka; Calvo, Manuel G.

    2010-01-01

    We compared the primacy of affective versus semantic categorization by using forced-choice saccadic and manual response tasks. Participants viewed paired emotional and neutral scenes involving humans or animals flashed rapidly in extrafoveal vision. Participants were instructed to categorize the targets by saccading toward the location occupied by…

  11. Modelling Technology for Building Fire Scene with Virtual Geographic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y.; Zhao, L.; Wei, M.; Zhang, H.; Liu, W.

    2017-09-01

    Building fire is a risky activity that can lead to disaster and massive destruction. The management and disposal of building fire has always attracted much interest from researchers. Integrated Virtual Geographic Environment (VGE) is a good choice for building fire safety management and emergency decisions, in which a more real and rich fire process can be computed and obtained dynamically, and the results of fire simulations and analyses can be much more accurate as well. To modelling building fire scene with VGE, the application requirements and modelling objective of building fire scene were analysed in this paper. Then, the four core elements of modelling building fire scene (the building space environment, the fire event, the indoor Fire Extinguishing System (FES) and the indoor crowd) were implemented, and the relationship between the elements was discussed also. Finally, with the theory and framework of VGE, the technology of building fire scene system with VGE was designed within the data environment, the model environment, the expression environment, and the collaborative environment as well. The functions and key techniques in each environment are also analysed, which may provide a reference for further development and other research on VGE.

  12. Anesthesiologist: The silent force behind the scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajan; Mohan, Brij; Attri, Joginder Pal; Chatrath, Veena; Bala, Anju; Singh, Manjit

    2015-01-01

    The Anesthesiologist provides continuous medical care before, during, and after operation to permit the surgeons to perform surgeries; sometimes quite challenging that could otherwise cause substantial threats to the patient's survival. Anesthesiologists, because of their combination of skills are uniquely qualified to care for dying patients suffering from end diseases like cancer. These skills include knowledge of analgesic and sedative pharmacology for the management of pain, awareness of perceptual alterations along with well-known skills in drug titration and experience with critically ill and highly anxious, often agitated patients under stressful circumstances. Anesthesiologists are physicians who provide medical care to patients in a wide variety of situations. This includes preoperative evaluation, consultation with the surgical team, creation of a plan for the anesthesia (which is different in each patient), airway management, intraoperative life support, pain control, intraoperative stabilization of all the vitals, postoperative pain management. Outside the operating room, Anesthesiologist's spectrum of action includes with general emergencies, trauma, intensive care units, acute and chronic pain management. In spite of providing these highly skilled services, Anesthesiologists are facing a lot of stress these days which predisposes them to burnout, fatigue, substance abuse, and suicide. The practice of anesthesia in Indian scenario is different as compared to the western countries. In India, the Anesthesiologists are dependent on surgeons for their work. The degree of stress faced is due to a number of factors like the type and quality of work, his/her relationship with surgeons and the support he/she receives from colleagues and family. PMID:26712962

  13. SCENE SEMANTIC SEGMENTATION FROM INDOOR RGB-D IMAGES USING ENCODE-DECODER FULLY CONVOLUTIONAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available With increasing attention for the indoor environment and the development of low-cost RGB-D sensors, indoor RGB-D images are easily acquired. However, scene semantic segmentation is still an open area, which restricts indoor applications. The depth information can help to distinguish the regions which are difficult to be segmented out from the RGB images with similar color or texture in the indoor scenes. How to utilize the depth information is the key problem of semantic segmentation for RGB-D images. In this paper, we propose an Encode-Decoder Fully Convolutional Networks for RGB-D image classification. We use Multiple Kernel Maximum Mean Discrepancy (MK-MMD as a distance measure to find common and special features of RGB and D images in the network to enhance performance of classification automatically. To explore better methods of applying MMD, we designed two strategies; the first calculates MMD for each feature map, and the other calculates MMD for whole batch features. Based on the result of classification, we use the full connect CRFs for the semantic segmentation. The experimental results show that our method can achieve a good performance on indoor RGB-D image semantic segmentation.

  14. Automated scene generated background context for near-nadir look angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jonathan D.; Stanfill, S. Robert

    2016-05-01

    Multi-INT fusion of GEOINT and IMINT can enable performance optimization of target detection and target tracking problem domains1, amongst others. Contextual information, which defines the relationship of foreground to background scene content, is a source of GEOINT for which various online repositories exist today including but not limited to the following: Open Street Maps (OSM)2 and the United States Geological Survey (USGS)3. However, as the nature of the world's landscape is dynamic and ever-changing, such contextual information can easily become stagnant and irrelevant if not maintained. In this paper we discuss our approach to providing the latest relevant context by performing automated scene generated background context segmentation and classification for near-nadir look angles for the purpose of defining roadways or parking lots, buildings, and natural areas. This information can be used in a variety of ways including augmenting context data from repositories, performing mission pre-planning, and for real-time missions such that GEOINT and IMINT fusion can occur and enable significant performance advantages in target detection and tracking applications in all areas of the world.

  15. A target detection model predicting field observer performance in maritime scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpepper, Joanne B.; Wheaton, Vivienne C.

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Army's target acquisition models, the ACQUIRE and Target Task Performance (TTP) models, have been employed for many years to assess the performance of thermal infrared sensors. In recent years, ACQUIRE and the TTP models have been adapted to assess the performance of visible sensors. These adaptations have been primarily focused on the performance of an observer viewing a display device. This paper describes an implementation of the TTP model to predict field observer performance in maritime scenes. Predictions of the TTP model implementation were compared to observations of a small watercraft taken in a field trial. In this field trial 11 Australian Navy observers viewed a small watercraft in an open ocean scene. Comparisons of the observed probability of detection to predictions of the TTP model implementation showed the normalised RSS metric overestimated the probability of detection. The normalised Pixel Contrast using a literature value for V50 yielded a correlation of 0.58 between the predicted and observed probability of detection. With a measured value of N50 or V50 for the small watercraft used in this investigation, this implementation of the TTP model may yield stronger correlation with observed probability of detection.

  16. Scene Semantic Segmentation from Indoor Rgb-D Images Using Encode-Decoder Fully Convolutional Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Li, T.; Pan, L.; Kang, Z.

    2017-09-01

    With increasing attention for the indoor environment and the development of low-cost RGB-D sensors, indoor RGB-D images are easily acquired. However, scene semantic segmentation is still an open area, which restricts indoor applications. The depth information can help to distinguish the regions which are difficult to be segmented out from the RGB images with similar color or texture in the indoor scenes. How to utilize the depth information is the key problem of semantic segmentation for RGB-D images. In this paper, we propose an Encode-Decoder Fully Convolutional Networks for RGB-D image classification. We use Multiple Kernel Maximum Mean Discrepancy (MK-MMD) as a distance measure to find common and special features of RGB and D images in the network to enhance performance of classification automatically. To explore better methods of applying MMD, we designed two strategies; the first calculates MMD for each feature map, and the other calculates MMD for whole batch features. Based on the result of classification, we use the full connect CRFs for the semantic segmentation. The experimental results show that our method can achieve a good performance on indoor RGB-D image semantic segmentation.

  17. Auditory scene analysis: The sweet music of ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel ePressnitzer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review paper aimed at the non-specialist, we explore the use that neuroscientists and musicians have made of perceptual illusions based on ambiguity. The pivotal issue is auditory scene analysis, or what enables us to make sense of complex acoustic mixtures in order to follow, for instance, a single melody in the midst of an orchestra. In general, auditory scene analysis uncovers the most likely physical causes that account for the waveform collected at the ears. However, the acoustical problem is ill-posed and it must be solved from noisy sensory input. Recently, the neural mechanisms implicated in the transformation of ambiguous sensory information into coherent auditory scenes have been investigated using so-called bistability illusions (where an unchanging ambiguous stimulus evokes a succession of distinct percepts in the mind of the listener. After reviewing some of those studies, we turn to music, which arguably provides some of the most complex acoustic scenes that a human listener will ever encounter. Interestingly, musicians will not always aim at making each physical source intelligible, but rather to express one or more melodic lines with a small or large number of instruments. By means of a few musical illustrations and by using a computational model inspired by neuro-physiological principles, we suggest that this relies on a detailed (if perhaps implicit knowledge of the rules of auditory scene analysis and of its inherent ambiguity. We then put forward the opinion that some degree perceptual ambiguity may participate in our appreciation of music.

  18. Monocular, boundary preserving joint recovery of scene flow and depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Mitiche

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Variational joint recovery of scene flow and depth from a single image sequence, rather than from a stereo sequence as others required, was investigated in Mitiche et al. (2015 using an integral functional with a term of conformity of scene flow and depth to the image sequence spatiotemporal variations, and L2 regularization terms for smooth depth field and scene flow. The resulting scheme was analogous to the Horn and Schunck optical flow estimation method except that the unknowns were depth and scene flow rather than optical flow. Several examples were given to show the basic potency of the method: It was able to recover good depth and motion, except at their boundaries because L2 regularization is blind to discontinuities which it smooths indiscriminately. The method we study in this paper generalizes to L1 regularization the formulation of Mitiche et al. (2015 so that it computes boundary preserving estimates of both depth and scene flow. The image derivatives, which appear as data in the functional, are computed from the recorded image sequence also by a variational method which uses L1 regularization to preserve their discontinuities. Although L1 regularization yields nonlinear Euler-Lagrange equations for the minimization of the objective functional, these can be solved efficiently. The advantages of the generalization, namely sharper computed depth and three-dimensional motion, are put in evidence in experimentation with real and synthetic images which shows the results of L1 versus L2 regularization of depth and motion, as well as the results using L1 rather than L2 regularization of image derivatives.

  19. OpenGL VGIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Nickolas L.; Bhaumik, Dharmajyoti; Hodges, Larry F.; Ribarsky, William; Koller, David; Lindstrom, Peter

    1996-06-01

    Georgia Tech has developed the Virtual GIS (VGIS) system, a real time visualization system for terrain, image, and geographic information systems (GIS) data sets. The initial systems developed at Georgia Tech were non- realtime, but had fast generation of perspective scenes from multisources data sets and the ability to query for GIS attributes associated with terrain of 3D structures inserted within the terrain. The basic concept of a virtual GIS was implemented in realtime using the Silicon Graphics International graphics language. This system has been extended in capability to allow realtime traversal within a very large geographic database and to show the finest detail information available when it is near to the view point. Extensive work has been done in the management of large arrays of information and the efficient paging of that information into the rendering system. An effective level of detail management system is implemented to dynamically allocate the appropriate amount of detail relative to the viewer location. A major use of this system has been in the area of battlefield visualization. The advent of OpenGL as a defacto standard has now made it possible to provide the VGIS capacity on a number of other platforms, thereby extending its usefulness to other applications and users. OpenGL has been developed as a general purpose Graphics rendering toolkit that will be supported on various computers and special purpose rendering systems. There are hardware and software implementations of OpenGL. This should allow VGIS to operate on many systems, taking advantage of specialized graphics hardware when it is present. This paper addresses the implementation of the VGIS system in OpenGL and the use of the system in driving the Evans and Sutherland Freedom series graphics rendering hardware.

  20. Open access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Open access week Van 19 tot en met 25 oktober 2015 vond wereldwijd de Open Access Week plaats. Tijdens deze week werden er over de hele wereld evenementen georganiseerd waar open access een rol speelt. Ook in Nederland zijn er diverse symposia, workshops en debatten georganiseerd zoals het debat in

  1. Sensory substitution: the spatial updating of auditory scenes ‘mimics’ the spatial updating of visual scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achille ePasqualotto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Visual-to-auditory sensory substitution is used to convey visual information through audition, and it was initially created to compensate for blindness; it consists of software converting the visual images captured by a video-camera into the equivalent auditory images, or ‘soundscapes’. Here, it was used by blindfolded sighted participants to learn the spatial position of simple shapes depicted in images arranged on the floor. Very few studies have used sensory substitution to investigate spatial representation, while it has been widely used to investigate object recognition. Additionally, with sensory substitution we could study the performance of participants actively exploring the environment through audition, rather than passively localising sound sources. Blindfolded participants egocentrically learnt the position of six images by using sensory substitution and then a judgement of relative direction task (JRD was used to determine how this scene was represented. This task consists of imagining being in a given location, oriented in a given direction, and pointing towards the required image. Before performing the JRD task, participants explored a map that provided allocentric information about the scene. Although spatial exploration was egocentric, surprisingly we found that performance in the JRD task was better for allocentric perspectives. This suggests that the egocentric representation of the scene was updated. This result is in line with previous studies using visual and somatosensory scenes, thus supporting the notion that different sensory modalities produce equivalent spatial representation(s. Moreover, our results have practical implications to improve training methods with sensory substitution devices.

  2. A novel open-source drug-delivery system that allows for first-of-kind simulation of nonadherence to pharmacological interventions in animal disease models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Kyle E; White, H Steve

    2014-12-30

    Nonadherence to a physician-prescribed therapeutic intervention is a costly, dangerous, and sometimes fatal concern in healthcare. To date, the study of nonadherence has been constrained to clinical studies. The novel approach described herein allows for the preclinical study of nonadherence in etiologically relevant disease animal model systems. The method herein describes a novel computer-automated pellet delivery system which allows for the study of nonadherence in animals. This system described herein allows for tight experimenter control of treatment using a drug-in-food protocol. Food-restricted animals receive either medicated or unmedicated pellets, designed to mimic either "taking" or "missing" a drug. The system described permits the distribution of medicated or unmedicated food pellets on an experimenter-defined feeding schedule. The flexibility of this system permits the delivery of drug according to the known pharmacokinetics of investigational drugs. Current clinical adherence research relies on medication-event monitoring system (MEMS) tracking caps, which allows clinicians to directly monitor patient adherence. However, correlating the effects of nonadherence to efficacy still relies on the accuracy of patient journals. This system allows for the design of studies to address the impact of nonadherence in an etiologically relevant animal model. Given methodological and ethical concerns of designing clinical studies of nonadherence, animal studies are critical to better understand medication adherence. While the system described was designed to measure the impact of nonadherence on seizure control, it is clear that the utility of this system extends beyond epilepsy to include other disease states. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficacy and safety of canagliflozin alone or as add-on to other oral antihyperglycemic drugs in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes: A 52-week open-label study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Nobuya; Kondo, Kazuoki; Yoshinari, Toru; Kuki, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Canagliflozin is a sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor under development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Our aim was to examine its efficacy and safety as monotherapy or in combination with commonly used oral antihyperglycemic drugs in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods Patients on diet/exercise alone or diet/exercise plus an oral antihyperglycemic drug (sulfonylurea, glinide, α-glucosidase inhibitor, biguanide, thiazolidinedione or dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor) were randomized to either 100 or 200 mg canagliflozin while continuing prior therapy. Patients were treated for 52 weeks in an open-label manner. Results Canagliflozin significantly reduced hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose and bodyweight in all the study groups. Improvements were apparent by 4 weeks of treatment, and were maintained for 52 weeks. The reduction in hemoglobin A1c ranged from −0.80 to −1.06%, and from −0.93 to −1.26% in the 100 and 200 mg canagliflozin groups, respectively. Drug-related adverse events occurred in approximately one-third of patients, and included hypoglycemia/asymptomatic hypoglycemia and pollakiuria. Hypoglycemia/asymptomatic hypoglycemia was most common in patients treated with a sulfonylurea. Most adverse events were classified as mild or moderate in severity. Conclusions The results of the present study confirmed that treatment with canagliflozin resulted in significant reductions in glycemic control and bodyweight that were maintained for 52 weeks of treatment irrespective of whether it was administered as monotherapy or in combination with another oral antihyperglycemic drug. Canagliflozin was well tolerated, with a low incidence of drug-related adverse events. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (no. NCT01387737). PMID:25802729

  4. Research on Virtual Scene Generation Technology of Anti-ship Missile in Range Test%反舰导弹靶场试验虚拟视景生成技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱华; 秦武

    2015-01-01

    以Visual C++为开发平台,应用OpenGL构建3D虚拟场景应用程序框架,建立海浪的数学模型并实现海面的动态模拟,采用天空盒法绘制天空场景,并将3D MAX下建立的舰船实体模型导入OpenGL中,利用OpenGL中的纹理映射、场景的合成和双缓存等技术,并以实例形式实现反舰导弹靶场试验虚拟视景的生成与显示。%Taking Visual C++as developing platform, OpenGL is used to establish 3D virtual scene applica⁃tion program frame to build sea wave mathematical model and realize sea dynamic simulation. Sky box method is ad⁃opted to draw sky scene. And the ship substance model built under 3D MAX is imported to OpenGL. The technolo⁃gies in OpenGL such as texture mapping, scene synthesizing and double buffer are used. And living example meth⁃od is used to realize the virtual scene generation and display of anti-ship missile in range test.

  5. Contextual effects of scene on the visual perception of object orientation in depth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Niimi

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of background scene on the human visual perception of depth orientation (i.e., azimuth angle of three-dimensional common objects. Participants evaluated the depth orientation of objects. The objects were surrounded by scenes with an apparent axis of the global reference frame, such as a sidewalk scene. When a scene axis was slightly misaligned with the gaze line, object orientation perception was biased, as if the gaze line had been assimilated into the scene axis (Experiment 1. When the scene axis was slightly misaligned with the object, evaluated object orientation was biased, as if it had been assimilated into the scene axis (Experiment 2. This assimilation may be due to confusion between the orientation of the scene and object axes (Experiment 3. Thus, the global reference frame may influence object orientation perception when its orientation is similar to that of the gaze-line or object.

  6. Liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) devices and their application to scene projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Teresa; Buck, Joseph; Serati, Steve; Linnenberger, Anna; Masterson, Hugh; Stockley, Jay

    2012-06-01

    Liquid Crystal on Silicon micro-displays are the enabling components on a variety of commercial consumer products including high-definition projection televisions, office projectors, camera view-finders, head-mounted displays and picoprojectors. The use and potential application of LCOS technology in calibrated scene projectors is just beginning to be explored. Calibrated LCOS displays and projectors have been built and demonstrated not only in the visible regime, but also in the SWIR, MWIR and LWIR. However, LCOS devices are not only capable of modulating the intensity of a broadband illumination source, but can also manipulate the polarization and/or phase of a laser source. This opens the possibility of both calibrated polarization displays and holographic projection displays.

  7. 696 Weihai Road:A Contemporary Art Scene in Shanghai & Open Workshops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jade; Franklin

    2007-01-01

    Upon entering the lane leading to 696 Weihai Road one encounters a ramshackle area ot disused and decaying warehouses and factories. Proving to be the perfect spot for artists seeking a fordable rents, many of these spacious interiors now serve as studios. Since 2006 more than thirty artists from all over the world have moved into the area.

  8. Scene-Selectivity and Retinotopy in Medial Parietal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silson, Edward H.; Steel, Adam D.; Baker, Chris I.

    2016-01-01

    Functional imaging studies in human reliably identify a trio of scene-selective regions, one on each of the lateral [occipital place area (OPA)], ventral [parahippocampal place area (PPA)], and medial [retrosplenial complex (RSC)] cortical surfaces. Recently, we demonstrated differential retinotopic biases for the contralateral lower and upper visual fields within OPA and PPA, respectively. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we combine detailed mapping of both population receptive fields (pRF) and category-selectivity, with independently acquired resting-state functional connectivity analyses, to examine scene and retinotopic processing within medial parietal cortex. We identified a medial scene-selective region, which was contained largely within the posterior and ventral bank of the parieto-occipital sulcus (POS). While this region is typically referred to as RSC, the spatial extent of our scene-selective region typically did not extend into retrosplenial cortex, and thus we adopt the term medial place area (MPA) to refer to this visually defined scene-selective region. Intriguingly MPA co-localized with a region identified solely on the basis of retinotopic sensitivity using pRF analyses. We found that MPA demonstrates a significant contralateral visual field bias, coupled with large pRF sizes. Unlike OPA and PPA, MPA did not show a consistent bias to a single visual quadrant. MPA also co-localized with a region identified by strong differential functional connectivity with PPA and the human face-selective fusiform face area (FFA), commensurate with its functional selectivity. Functional connectivity with OPA was much weaker than with PPA, and similar to that with face-selective occipital face area (OFA), suggesting a closer link with ventral than lateral cortex. Consistent with prior research, we also observed differential functional connectivity in medial parietal cortex for anterior over posterior PPA, as well as a region on the lateral

  9. Interview as intervention: the case of young adult multidrug users in the club scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Steven P; Surratt, Hilary L; Buttram, Mance E; Levi-Minzi, Maria A; Chen, Minxing

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports on changes in substance use and substance dependence symptoms-without intervention-among young adult multidrug users in the club scene, ages 18-29, (N = 444) who participated in a natural history study. Computer-assisted personal interviews at baseline and 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-ups included well-tested measures of substance use and dependence. Changes in substance dependence symptoms and drug use frequencies were calculated using Cohen's d statistic. Mean age was 22; 40% were female; 58% were Hispanic, 17% White, and 21% Black. At 18-month follow-up assessment, participants reported significantly fewer days of cocaine (d = -.85 at 18 months), ecstasy (d = -.93), benzodiazepine (d = -.82), and prescription opioid (d = -.81) use, as well as reduced substance dependence symptoms (d = -.42). These results, together with data from focus groups with completers, suggest that comprehensive health and social risk assessments may have quite strong intervention effects among young adult multidrug users.

  10. Scene complexity: influence on perception, memory, and development in the medial temporal lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian J Chai

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Regions in the medial temporal lobe (MTL and prefrontal cortex (PFC are involved in memory formation for scenes in both children and adults. The development in children and adolescents of successful memory encoding for scenes has been associated with increased activation in PFC, but not MTL, regions. However, evidence suggests that a functional subregion of the MTL that supports scene perception, located in the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG, goes through a prolonged maturation process. Here we tested the hypothesis that maturation of scene perception supports the development of memory for complex scenes. Scenes were characterized by their levels of complexity defined by the number of unique object categories depicted in the scene. Recognition memory improved with age, in participants ages 8-24, for high, but not low, complexity scenes. High-complexity compared to low-complexity scenes activated a network of regions including the posterior PHG. The difference in activations for high- versus low- complexity scenes increased with age in the right posterior PHG. Finally, activations in right posterior PHG were associated with age-related increases in successful memory formation for high-, but not low-, complexity scenes. These results suggest that functional maturation of the right posterior PHG plays a critical role in the development of enduring long-term recollection for high-complexity scenes.

  11. Scene complexity: influence on perception, memory, and development in the medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xiaoqian J; Ofen, Noa; Jacobs, Lucia F; Gabrieli, John D E

    2010-01-01

    Regions in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) are involved in memory formation for scenes in both children and adults. The development in children and adolescents of successful memory encoding for scenes has been associated with increased activation in PFC, but not MTL, regions. However, evidence suggests that a functional subregion of the MTL that supports scene perception, located in the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), goes through a prolonged maturation process. Here we tested the hypothesis that maturation of scene perception supports the development of memory for complex scenes. Scenes were characterized by their levels of complexity defined by the number of unique object categories depicted in the scene. Recognition memory improved with age, in participants ages 8-24, for high-, but not low-, complexity scenes. High-complexity compared to low-complexity scenes activated a network of regions including the posterior PHG. The difference in activations for high- versus low-complexity scenes increased with age in the right posterior PHG. Finally, activations in right posterior PHG were associated with age-related increases in successful memory formation for high-, but not low-, complexity scenes. These results suggest that functional maturation of the right posterior PHG plays a critical role in the development of enduring long-term recollection for high-complexity scenes.

  12. Mirth and Murder: Crime Scene Investigation as a Work Context for Examining Humor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Gene L.; Vivona, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Within work settings, humor is used by workers for a wide variety of purposes. This study examines humor applications of a specific type of worker in a unique work context: crime scene investigation. Crime scene investigators examine death and its details. Members of crime scene units observe death much more frequently than other police officers…

  13. Mirth and Murder: Crime Scene Investigation as a Work Context for Examining Humor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Gene L.; Vivona, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Within work settings, humor is used by workers for a wide variety of purposes. This study examines humor applications of a specific type of worker in a unique work context: crime scene investigation. Crime scene investigators examine death and its details. Members of crime scene units observe death much more frequently than other police officers…

  14. Modelling a crime scene in 3D and adding thermal information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, M. van; Veerman, H.E.T.; Mark, W. van der

    2009-01-01

    Once a crime has been perpetrated, forensic traces will only be persevered in the crime scene for a limited time frame. It is therefore necessary to record a crime scene meticulously. Usually, photographs and/or videos are taken at the scene to document it, so that later on one will know the exact p

  15. Natural auditory scene statistics shapes human spatial hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, Cesare V; Knorre, Katharina; Ernst, Marc O

    2014-04-22

    Human perception, cognition, and action are laced with seemingly arbitrary mappings. In particular, sound has a strong spatial connotation: Sounds are high and low, melodies rise and fall, and pitch systematically biases perceived sound elevation. The origins of such mappings are unknown. Are they the result of physiological constraints, do they reflect natural environmental statistics, or are they truly arbitrary? We recorded natural sounds from the environment, analyzed the elevation-dependent filtering of the outer ear, and measured frequency-dependent biases in human sound localization. We find that auditory scene statistics reveals a clear mapping between frequency and elevation. Perhaps more interestingly, this natural statistical mapping is tightly mirrored in both ear-filtering properties and in perceived sound location. This suggests that both sound localization behavior and ear anatomy are fine-tuned to the statistics of natural auditory scenes, likely providing the basis for the spatial connotation of human hearing.

  16. DJ Culture in the Commercial Sydney Dance Music Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed Montano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of contemporary, post-disco dance music and its associated culture, as representative of a (supposedly underground, radical subculture, has been given extensive consideration within popular music studies. Significantly less attention has been given to the commercial, mainstream manifestations of this music. Therefore, this article examines the contemporary commercial dance music scene in Sydney, Australia, incorporating an analytical framework that revolves mainly around the work of DJs and the commercial scene they operate within. The ideas, opinions and interpretations of a selection of local DJs and other music industry practitioners who work in Sydney are central to the article’s analysis of DJ culture within the city and of, more specifically, DJ self-understandings with respect to choices of records and in relation to the twin imperatives of entertainment and education.

  17. Optical slicing of large scenes by synthetic aperture integral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Héctor; Saavedra, Genaro; Molina, Ainhoa; Martínez-Corral, Manuel; Martínez-Cuenca, Raúl; Javidi, Bahram

    2010-04-01

    Integral imaging (InI) technology was created with the aim of providing the binocular observers of monitors, or matrix display devices, with auto-stereoscopic images of 3D scenes. However, along the last few years the inventiveness of researches has allowed to find many other interesting applications of integral imaging. Examples of this are the application of InI in object recognition, the mapping of 3D polarization distributions, or the elimination of occluding signals. One of the most interesting applications of integral imaging is the production of views focused at different depths of the 3D scene. This application is the natural result of the ability of InI to create focal stacks from a single input image. In this contribution we present new algorithm for this optical slicing application, and show that it is possible the 3D reconstruction with improved lateral resolution.

  18. Scene From The Birth Of Venus: Kajian Karya Fotografi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agra Locita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scene From The Birth Of Venus is a photographic artwork that created in 1949. The artwork was the result of collaboration between Salvador Dali and two photographers, Baron George Hoyningen-Huene and George Platt Lynes. They created Birth of Venus differently with first painting whom created by Bottocelli Sandro. He depicted the goddess Venus graceful and shy, but it recreated by Salvador Dali in an imaginative photographic artwork. In Scene From The Birth Of Venus, the goddess Venus depicted as half human and fish. Two creations in different way but still in the birth of the goddess Venus theme.  Key words: photography, painting, imaginative

  19. Atlante del bianco: new dancers on the contemporary scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Germanà

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay deals with the experience of the newborn Italian dance company Damasco Corner, a group of visually impaired professional dancers working with the choreographer Virgilio Sieni in Firenze, at CANGO_Cantieri Goldonetta. The text looks at the performance process they went through (workshops, training and rehearsals preparing the first official piece of the company: Atlante del bianco. The access of these new dancers to the field of professional artistic education implies different changing, in the studio as well as on the scene. Inclusive approaches are applied, teaching dance techniques, improvisation and creating choreographies. The audience needs to embrace different perspectives to feel and understand the dance that is lived and presented on the scene

  20. Multimodal computational attention for scene understanding and robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Schauerte, Boris

    2016-01-01

    This book presents state-of-the-art computational attention models that have been successfully tested in diverse application areas and can build the foundation for artificial systems to efficiently explore, analyze, and understand natural scenes. It gives a comprehensive overview of the most recent computational attention models for processing visual and acoustic input. It covers the biological background of visual and auditory attention, as well as bottom-up and top-down attentional mechanisms and discusses various applications. In the first part new approaches for bottom-up visual and acoustic saliency models are presented and applied to the task of audio-visual scene exploration of a robot. In the second part the influence of top-down cues for attention modeling is investigated. .

  1. Discrimination of features in natural scenes by a dragonfly neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederman, Steven D; O'Carroll, David C

    2011-05-11

    Flying insects engage in spectacular high-speed pursuit of targets, requiring visual discrimination of moving objects against cluttered backgrounds. As a first step toward understanding the neural basis for this complex task, we used computational modeling of insect small target motion detector (STMD) neurons to predict responses to features within natural scenes and then compared this with responses recorded from an identified STMD neuron in the dragonfly brain (Hemicordulia tau). A surprising model prediction confirmed by our electrophysiological recordings is that even heavily cluttered scenes contain very few features that excite these neurons, due largely to their exquisite tuning for small features. We also show that very subtle manipulations of the image cause dramatic changes in the response of this neuron, because of the complex inhibitory and facilitatory interactions within the receptive field.

  2. Scan patterns when viewing natural scenes: emotion, complexity, and repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Margaret M; Houbova, Petra; Miccoli, Laura; Costa, Vincent D; Lang, Peter J

    2011-11-01

    Eye movements were monitored during picture viewing, and effects of hedonic content, perceptual composition, and repetition on scanning assessed. In Experiment 1, emotional and neutral pictures that were figure-ground compositions or more complex scenes were presented for a 6-s free viewing period. Viewing emotional pictures or complex scenes prompted more fixations and broader scanning of the visual array, compared to neutral pictures or simple figure-ground compositions. Effects of emotion and composition were independent, supporting the hypothesis that these oculomotor indices reflect enhanced information seeking. Experiment 2 tested an orienting hypothesis by repeatedly presenting the same pictures. Although repetition altered specific scan patterns, emotional, compared to neutral, picture viewing continued to prompt oculomotor differences, suggesting that motivationally relevant cues enhance information seeking in appetitive and defensive contexts. Copyright © 2011 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  3. A corticothalamic circuit model for sound identification in complex scenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo H Otazu

    Full Text Available The identification of the sound sources present in the environment is essential for the survival of many animals. However, these sounds are not presented in isolation, as natural scenes consist of a superposition of sounds originating from multiple sources. The identification of a source under these circumstances is a complex computational problem that is readily solved by most animals. We present a model of the thalamocortical circuit that performs level-invariant recognition of auditory objects in complex auditory scenes. The circuit identifies the objects present from a large dictionary of possible elements and operates reliably for real sound signals with multiple concurrently active sources. The key model assumption is that the activities of some cortical neurons encode the difference between the observed signal and an internal estimate. Reanalysis of awake auditory cortex recordings revealed neurons with patterns of activity corresponding to such an error signal.

  4. Nature and place of crime scene management within forensic sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispino, Frank

    2008-03-01

    This short paper presents the preliminary results of a recent study aimed at appreciating the relevant parameters required to qualify forensic science as a science through an epistemological analysis. The reader is invited to reflect upon references within a historical and logical framework which assert that forensic science is based upon two fundamental principles (those of Locard and Kirk). The basis of the assertion that forensic science is indeed a science should be appreciated not only on one epistemological criteria (as Popper's falsification raised by the Daubert hearing was), but also on the logical frameworks used by the individuals involved (investigator, expert witness and trier of fact) from the crime scene examination to the final interpretation of the evidence. Hence, it can be argued that the management of the crime scene should be integrated into the scientific way of thinking rather than remain as a technical discipline as recently suggested by Harrison.

  5. Three-dimensional imaging in crime scene investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Hayden B.

    1999-02-01

    Law enforcement is responsible for investigating crimes, identifying and arresting the suspects, and presenting evidence to a judge and jury in court. In order to objectively perform these duties, police need to gather accurate information and clearly explain the crime scene and physical evidence in a court of law. Part of this information includes the documentation of the incident. Documenting an incident has always been divided into three categories: notes, sketch, and photographs. This method of recording crime scenes has been the standard for years. The major drawback, however, is that the visual documents of sketches and photographs are two dimensional. This greatly restricts the actual visualization of the incident requiring a careful cross referencing of the details in order to understand it.

  6. Opening the door to innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurman, Janine; Graus, Yvo F; Labrijn, Aran F; Ruuls, Sigrid; Parren, Paul W H I

    2014-01-01

    Open innovation is the new buzz, with initiatives popping up left and right. Here, we give a personal perspective on a very successful, knowledge-driven innovation initiated in an academia- industry alliance, which culminated in technology platforms that enable the generation of therapeutic antibodies with novel properties. To start, we provide a general background on open innovation in the drug development field.

  7. Interactive human behavior analysis in open or public spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hung, H.; Odobez, J.M.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    In the past years, efforts in surveillance and open space analysis have focused on traditional computer vision problems like scene modeling or object detection and tracking. Research on human behavior recognition have tended to work on predefined simple activities such as running, jumping or left lu

  8. Contested identities: Identity constructions in a youth recreational drug culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Signe

    2012-01-01

    as responsible drug users. The article studies this recreational drug culture and its internal distinctions, conceptions and norms as they are expressed discursively. The analysis identifies six dimensions of the identity as a responsible, recreational drug user: drug practice, general drug knowledge, context......-specific drug knowledge, practices for checking drugs, acknowledging one’s position in the surrounding drug scene and age. The analysis shows how being able to perform a coherent identity in line with these dimensions is necessary for being acknowledged as a responsible, recreational drug user....

  9. Acoustic simulation in realistic 3D virtual scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozard, Patrick; Le Goff, Alain; Naz, Pierre; Cathala, Thierry; Latger, Jean

    2003-09-01

    The simulation workshop CHORALE developed in collaboration with OKTAL SE company for the French MoD is used by government services and industrial companies for weapon system validation and qualification trials in the infrared domain. The main operational reference for CHORALE is the assessment of the infrared guidance system of the Storm Shadow missile French version, called Scalp. The use of CHORALE workshop is now extended to the acoustic domain. The main objective is the simulation of the detection of moving vehicles in realistic 3D virtual scenes. This article briefly describes the acoustic model in CHORALE. The 3D scene is described by a set of polygons. Each polygon is characterized by its acoustic resistivity or its complex impedance. Sound sources are associated with moving vehicles and are characterized by their spectra and directivities. A microphone sensor is defined by its position, its frequency band and its sensitivity. The purpose of the acoustic simulation is to calculate the incoming acoustic pressure on microphone sensors. CHORALE is based on a generic ray tracing kernel. This kernel possesses original capabilities: computation time is nearly independent on the scene complexity, especially the number of polygons, databases are enhanced with precise physical data, special mechanisms of antialiasing have been developed that enable to manage very accurate details. The ray tracer takes into account the wave geometrical divergence and the atmospheric transmission. The sound wave refraction is simulated and rays cast in the 3D scene are curved according to air temperature gradient. Finally, sound diffraction by edges (hill, wall,...) is also taken into account.

  10. Modular and Scalable Firmware for Infrared LED Scene Projectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Array) to increase performance or add functionality as needed by the customer . Keywords: Infrared LED scene projector; FPGA; Modular and scalable...controls the operation of this hardware platform. TCSA IRSP Hardware Designing a building block type architecture allows one to customize a projector...testing. Instead, we connect macro LEDs to the RIIC test board to replicate the final version. Once the cursor moves to an address of a specific

  11. Efficient Bistatic SAR Raw Signal Simulator of Extended Scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Liang Yang; Weidong Yu; Shichao Zheng; Lei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Bistatic SAR system is a new mode that allocates the radar transmitter and receiver on different platforms and has more advantages compared to the monostatic case. However, the existing bistatic SAR raw data simulator in the frequency domain can only handle the case of translation invariant system. In this paper, an efficient 2D frequency-domain raw data simulator of extended scenes for bistatic SAR of translation variant system is proposed by a geometric transformation method for the first t...

  12. SpaceTime Environmental Image Information for Scene Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of...OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 26 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Arnold Tunick a. REPORT Unclassified b...unlimited. 1 1. Introduction Rapid and robust scene understanding is a critically important goal for the development of Army autonomous intelligent

  13. Rendering Optical Effects Based on Spectra Representation in Complex Scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Weiming

    2006-01-01

    http://www.springerlink.com/; Rendering the structural color of natural objects or modern industrial products in the 3D environment is not possible with RGB-based graphics platforms and software and very time consuming, even with the most efficient spectra representation based methods previously proposed. Our framework allows computing full spectra light object interactions only when it is needed, i.e. for the part of the scene that requires simulating special spectra sensitive phenomena. Ach...

  14. Neural Correlates of Divided Attention in Natural Scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagioli, Sabrina; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2016-09-01

    Individuals are able to split attention between separate locations, but divided spatial attention incurs the additional requirement of monitoring multiple streams of information. Here, we investigated divided attention using photos of natural scenes, where the rapid categorization of familiar objects and prior knowledge about the likely positions of objects in the real world might affect the interplay between these spatial and nonspatial factors. Sixteen participants underwent fMRI during an object detection task. They were presented with scenes containing either a person or a car, located on the left or right side of the photo. Participants monitored either one or both object categories, in one or both visual hemifields. First, we investigated the interplay between spatial and nonspatial attention by comparing conditions of divided attention between categories and/or locations. We then assessed the contribution of top-down processes versus stimulus-driven signals by separately testing the effects of divided attention in target and nontarget trials. The results revealed activation of a bilateral frontoparietal network when dividing attention between the two object categories versus attending to a single category but no main effect of dividing attention between spatial locations. Within this network, the left dorsal premotor cortex and the left intraparietal sulcus were found to combine task- and stimulus-related signals. These regions showed maximal activation when participants monitored two categories at spatially separate locations and the scene included a nontarget object. We conclude that the dorsal frontoparietal cortex integrates top-down and bottom-up signals in the presence of distractors during divided attention in real-world scenes.

  15. A Framework for Symmetric Part Detection in Cluttered Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Lee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of symmetry in computer vision has waxed and waned in importance during the evolution of the field from its earliest days. At first figuring prominently in support of bottom-up indexing, it fell out of favour as shape gave way to appearance and recognition gave way to detection. With a strong prior in the form of a target object, the role of the weaker priors offered by perceptual grouping was greatly diminished. However, as the field returns to the problem of recognition from a large database, the bottom-up recovery of the parts that make up the objects in a cluttered scene is critical for their recognition. The medial axis community has long exploited the ubiquitous regularity of symmetry as a basis for the decomposition of a closed contour into medial parts. However, today’s recognition systems are faced with cluttered scenes and the assumption that a closed contour exists, i.e., that figure-ground segmentation has been solved, rendering much of the medial axis community’s work inapplicable. In this article, we review a computational framework, previously reported in [1–3], that bridges the representation power of the medial axis and the need to recover and group an object’s parts in a cluttered scene. Our framework is rooted in the idea that a maximally-inscribed disc, the building block of a medial axis, can be modelled as a compact superpixel in the image. We evaluate the method on images of cluttered scenes.

  16. From image statistics to scene gist: evoked neural activity reveals transition from low-level natural image structure to scene category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Iris I A; Ghebreab, Sennay; Prins, Hielke; Lamme, Victor A F; Scholte, H Steven

    2013-11-27

    The visual system processes natural scenes in a split second. Part of this process is the extraction of "gist," a global first impression. It is unclear, however, how the human visual system computes this information. Here, we show that, when human observers categorize global information in real-world scenes, the brain exhibits strong sensitivity to low-level summary statistics. Subjects rated a specific instance of a global scene property, naturalness, for a large set of natural scenes while EEG was recorded. For each individual scene, we derived two physiologically plausible summary statistics by spatially pooling local contrast filter outputs: contrast energy (CE), indexing contrast strength, and spatial coherence (SC), indexing scene fragmentation. We show that behavioral performance is directly related to these statistics, with naturalness rating being influenced in particular by SC. At the neural level, both statistics parametrically modulated single-trial event-related potential amplitudes during an early, transient window (100-150 ms), but SC continued to influence activity levels later in time (up to 250 ms). In addition, the magnitude of neural activity that discriminated between man-made versus natural ratings of individual trials was related to SC, but not CE. These results suggest that global scene information may be computed by spatial pooling of responses from early visual areas (e.g., LGN or V1). The increased sensitivity over time to SC in particular, which reflects scene fragmentation, suggests that this statistic is actively exploited to estimate scene naturalness.

  17. Live User-Guided Intrinsic Video for Static Scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meka, Abhimitra; Fox, Gereon; Zollhofer, Michael; Richardt, Christian; Theobalt, Christian

    2017-08-11

    We present a novel real-time approach for user-guided intrinsic decomposition of static scenes captured by an RGB-D sensor. In the first step, we acquire a three-dimensional representation of the scene using a dense volumetric reconstruction framework. The obtained reconstruction serves as a proxy to densely fuse reflectance estimates and to store user-provided constraints in three-dimensional space. User constraints, in the form of constant shading and reflectance strokes, can be placed directly on the real-world geometry using an intuitive touch-based interaction metaphor, or using interactive mouse strokes. Fusing the decomposition results and constraints in three-dimensional space allows for robust propagation of this information to novel views by re-projection. We leverage this information to improve on the decomposition quality of existing intrinsic video decomposition techniques by further constraining the ill-posed decomposition problem. In addition to improved decomposition quality, we show a variety of live augmented reality applications such as recoloring of objects, relighting of scenes and editing of material appearance.

  18. The Anthropo-scene: A guide for the perplexed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorimer, Jamie

    2017-02-01

    The scientific proposal that the Earth has entered a new epoch as a result of human activities - the Anthropocene - has catalysed a flurry of intellectual activity. I introduce and review the rich, inchoate and multi-disciplinary diversity of this Anthropo-scene. I identify five ways in which the concept of the Anthropocene has been mobilized: scientific question, intellectual zeitgeist, ideological provocation, new ontologies and science fiction. This typology offers an analytical framework for parsing this diversity, for understanding the interactions between different ways of thinking in the Anthropo-scene, and thus for comprehending elements of its particular and peculiar sociabilities. Here I deploy this framework to situate Earth Systems Science within the Anthropo-scene, exploring both the status afforded science in discussions of this new epoch, and the various ways in which the other means of engaging with the concept come to shape the conduct, content and politics of this scientific enquiry. In conclusion the paper reflects on the potential of the Anthropocene for new modes of academic praxis.

  19. An adaptive correspondence algorithm for modeling scenes with strong interreflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Aliaga, Daniel G

    2009-01-01

    Modeling real-world scenes, beyond diffuse objects, plays an important role in computer graphics, virtual reality, and other commercial applications. One active approach is projecting binary patterns in order to obtain correspondence and reconstruct a densely sampled 3D model. In such structured-light systems, determining whether a pixel is directly illuminated by the projector is essential to decoding the patterns. When a scene has abundant indirect light, this process is especially difficult. In this paper, we present a robust pixel classification algorithm for this purpose. Our method correctly establishes the lower and upper bounds of the possible intensity values of an illuminated pixel and of a non-illuminated pixel. Based on the two intervals, our method classifies a pixel by determining whether its intensity is within one interval but not in the other. Our method performs better than standard method due to the fact that it avoids gross errors during decoding process caused by strong inter-reflections. For the remaining uncertain pixels, we apply an iterative algorithm to reduce the inter-reflection within the scene. Thus, more points can be decoded and reconstructed after each iteration. Moreover, the iterative algorithm is carried out in an adaptive fashion for fast convergence.

  20. Hierarchical, Three-Dimensional Measurement System for Crime Scene Scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin, Adamczyk; Maciej, Sieniło; Robert, Sitnik; Adam, Woźniak

    2017-02-02

    We present a new generation of three-dimensional (3D) measuring systems, developed for the process of crime scene documentation. This measuring system facilitates the preparation of more insightful, complete, and objective documentation for crime scenes. Our system reflects the actual requirements for hierarchical documentation, and it consists of three independent 3D scanners: a laser scanner for overall measurements, a situational structured light scanner for more minute measurements, and a detailed structured light scanner for the most detailed parts of tscene. Each scanner has its own spatial resolution, of 2.0, 0.3, and 0.05 mm, respectively. The results of interviews we have conducted with technicians indicate that our developed 3D measuring system has significant potential to become a useful tool for forensic technicians. To ensure the maximum compatibility of our measuring system with the standards that regulate the documentation process, we have also performed a metrological validation and designated the maximum permissible length measurement error EMPE for each structured light scanner. In this study, we present additional results regarding documentation processes conducted during crime scene inspections and a training session.

  1. Efficient sliding spotlight SAR raw signal simulation of extended scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Pingping

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sliding spotlight mode is a novel synthetic aperture radar (SAR imaging scheme with an achieved azimuth resolution better than stripmap mode and ground coverage larger than spotlight configuration. However, its raw signal simulation of extended scenes may not be efficiently implemented in the two-dimensional (2D Fourier transformed domain. This article presents a novel sliding spotlight raw signal simulation approach from the wide-beam SAR imaging modes. This approach can generate sliding spotlight raw signal not only from raw data evaluated by the simulators, but also from real data in the stripmap/spotlight mode. In order to obtain the desired raw data from conventional stripmap/spotlight mode, the azimuth time-varying filtering, which is implemented by de-rotation and low-pass filtering, is adopted. As raw signal of extended scenes in the stripmap/spotlight mode can efficiently be evaluated in the 2D Fourier domain, the proposed approach provides an efficient sliding spotlight SAR simulator of extended scenes. Simulation results validate this efficient simulator.

  2. Labeling 3D scenes for Personal Assistant Robots

    CERN Document Server

    Koppula, Hema Swetha; Joachims, Thorsten; Saxena, Ashutosh

    2011-01-01

    Inexpensive RGB-D cameras that give an RGB image together with depth data have become widely available. We use this data to build 3D point clouds of a full scene. In this paper, we address the task of labeling objects in this 3D point cloud of a complete indoor scene such as an office. We propose a graphical model that captures various features and contextual relations, including the local visual appearance and shape cues, object co-occurrence relationships and geometric relationships. With a large number of object classes and relations, the model's parsimony becomes important and we address that by using multiple types of edge potentials. The model admits efficient approximate inference, and we train it using a maximum-margin learning approach. In our experiments over a total of 52 3D scenes of homes and offices (composed from about 550 views, having 2495 segments labeled with 27 object classes), we get a performance of 84.06% in labeling 17 object classes for offices, and 73.38% in labeling 17 object classe...

  3. Open hardware for open science

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by the open source software movement, the Open Hardware Repository was created to enable hardware developers to share the results of their R&D activities. The recently published CERN Open Hardware Licence offers the legal framework to support this knowledge and technology exchange.   Two years ago, a group of electronics designers led by Javier Serrano, a CERN engineer, working in experimental physics laboratories created the Open Hardware Repository (OHR). This project was initiated in order to facilitate the exchange of hardware designs across the community in line with the ideals of “open science”. The main objectives include avoiding duplication of effort by sharing results across different teams that might be working on the same need. “For hardware developers, the advantages of open hardware are numerous. For example, it is a great learning tool for technologies some developers would not otherwise master, and it avoids unnecessary work if someone ha...

  4. Scene classification of infrared images based on texture feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Bai, Tingzhu; Shang, Fei

    2008-12-01

    Scene Classification refers to as assigning a physical scene into one of a set of predefined categories. Utilizing the method texture feature is good for providing the approach to classify scenes. Texture can be considered to be repeating patterns of local variation of pixel intensities. And texture analysis is important in many applications of computer image analysis for classification or segmentation of images based on local spatial variations of intensity. Texture describes the structural information of images, so it provides another data to classify comparing to the spectrum. Now, infrared thermal imagers are used in different kinds of fields. Since infrared images of the objects reflect their own thermal radiation, there are some shortcomings of infrared images: the poor contrast between the objectives and background, the effects of blurs edges, much noise and so on. Because of these shortcomings, it is difficult to extract to the texture feature of infrared images. In this paper we have developed an infrared image texture feature-based algorithm to classify scenes of infrared images. This paper researches texture extraction using Gabor wavelet transform. The transformation of Gabor has excellent capability in analysis the frequency and direction of the partial district. Gabor wavelets is chosen for its biological relevance and technical properties In the first place, after introducing the Gabor wavelet transform and the texture analysis methods, the infrared images are extracted texture feature by Gabor wavelet transform. It is utilized the multi-scale property of Gabor filter. In the second place, we take multi-dimensional means and standard deviation with different scales and directions as texture parameters. The last stage is classification of scene texture parameters with least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) algorithm. SVM is based on the principle of structural risk minimization (SRM). Compared with SVM, LS-SVM has overcome the shortcoming of

  5. Open Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  6. Open Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  7. 从毒品公开场所视角评述欧洲毒品政策%Commentary of the European drug policy from the perspective of drug open places

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾东明; 马立骥

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of public places of drug’s historical evolution,we analysed European strategy for drug abuser and drug addicts of five European cities:joint of prevention,harm reduction and treatment. This strategy should be combined with law en-forcement based on cooperation between police,health care and social services. The aim should be“coexistence”between society and users of illegal substances,combination of harm reduction and restrictive measures is the most suitable solution.%从欧洲五大城市毒品公开场所历史演变来分析欧洲对于吸毒和戒毒人员的策略:预防、降低危害和治疗相结合。这一策略是基于警察执法、卫生保健和社会服务三者基础之上的。通过共同努力实现社会与吸毒者之间“共存”的目标,降低危害和限制性措施的组合是最适合的解决方案。

  8. DrugCentral: online drug compendium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursu, Oleg; Holmes, Jayme; Knockel, Jeffrey; Bologa, Cristian G; Yang, Jeremy J; Mathias, Stephen L; Nelson, Stuart J; Oprea, Tudor I

    2017-01-04

    DrugCentral (http://drugcentral.org) is an open-access online drug compendium. DrugCentral integrates structure, bioactivity, regulatory, pharmacologic actions and indications for active pharmaceutical ingredients approved by FDA and other regulatory agencies. Monitoring of regulatory agencies for new drugs approvals ensures the resource is up-to-date. DrugCentral integrates content for active ingredients with pharmaceutical formulations, indexing drugs and drug label annotations, complementing similar resources available online. Its complementarity with other online resources is facilitated by cross referencing to external resources. At the molecular level, DrugCentral bridges drug-target interactions with pharmacological action and indications. The integration with FDA drug labels enables text mining applications for drug adverse events and clinical trial information. Chemical structure overlap between DrugCentral and five online drug resources, and the overlap between DrugCentral FDA-approved drugs and their presence in four different chemical collections, are discussed. DrugCentral can be accessed via the web application or downloaded in relational database format. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Student Drug and Alcohol Abuse. How Schools Can Help Combat Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, Richard L.

    This book was written to help school personnel combat drug and alcohol abuse among students. It gives readers a basic understanding of drugs and their effects on the mind and body. The stages of chemical dependency and the vocabulary of the drug scene are reviewed and reasons that children and adolescents take drugs are discussed. Signs of student…

  10. Effects of scene content and layout on the perceived light direction in 3D spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ling; Pont, Sylvia C; Heynderickx, Ingrid

    2016-08-01

    The lighting and furnishing of an interior space (i.e., the reflectance of its materials, the geometries of the furnishings, and their arrangement) determine the appearance of this space. Conversely, human observers infer lighting properties from the space's appearance. We conducted two psychophysical experiments to investigate how the perception of the light direction is influenced by a scene's objects and their layout using real scenes. In the first experiment, we confirmed that the shape of the objects in the scene and the scene layout influence the perceived light direction. In the second experiment, we systematically investigated how specific shape properties influenced the estimation of the light direction. The results showed that increasing the number of visible faces of an object, ultimately using globally spherical shapes in the scene, supported the veridicality of the estimated light direction. Furthermore, symmetric arrangements in the scene improved the estimation of the tilt direction. Thus, human perception of light should integrally consider materials, scene content, and layout.

  11. Open Source and Open Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Publication reference: Koper, R. (2008). Open Source and Open Standards. In J. M. Spector, M. Merrill, J. van Merriënboer & M. P. Driscol (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology (3rd ed., pp. 355-368). New York: Routledge.

  12. Comparison of hydrodynamically closed isotachophoresis-capillary zone electrophoresis with hydrodynamically open capillary zone electrophoresis hyphenated with tandem mass spectrometry in drug analysis: pheniramine, its metabolite and phenylephrine in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piešťanský, Juraj; Maráková, Katarína; Kovaľ, Marián; Mikuš, Peter

    2014-09-05

    The advanced two dimensional isotachophoresis (ITP)-capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) hyphenated with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS, here triple quadrupole, QqQ) was developed in this work to demonstrate analytical potentialities of this approach in the analysis of drugs in multicomponent ionic matrices. Pheniramine (PHM), phenylephrine (PHE), paracetamol (PCM) and their potential metabolic products were taken for the analysis by the ITP-CZE-ESI-QqQ technique working in hydrodynamically closed CE separation system and then a comparison with the conventional (hydrodynamically open) CZE-ESI-QqQ technique was made. The ITP-CZE-ESI-QqQ method was favorable in terms of obtainable selectivity (due to highly effective heart-cut analysis), concentration limits of detection (LOD at pgmL(-1) levels due to enhanced sample load capacity and ITP preconcentration), sample handling (on-line sample pretreatment, i.e. clean-up, preconcentration, preseparation), and, by that, possibilities for future automation and miniaturization. On the other hand, this experimental arrangement, in contrast to the CZE-ESI-QqQ arrangement supported by an electroosmotic flow, is principally limited to the analysis of uniformly (i.e. positively or negatively) charged analytes in one run without any possibilities to analyze neutral compounds (here, PCM and neutral or acidic metabolites of the drugs had to be excluded from the analysis). Hence, these general characteristics should be considered when choosing a proper analytical CE-MS approach for a given biomedical application. Here, the analytical potential of the ITP-CZE-ESI-QqQ method was demonstrated showing the real time profiles of excreted targeted drugs and metabolite (PHM, PHE, M-PHM) in human urine after the administration of one dose of Theraflu(®) to the volunteers.

  13. Evaluation of feature-based 3-d registration of probabilistic volumetric scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Maria I.; Ulusoy, Ali O.; Mundy, Joseph L.

    2014-12-01

    Automatic estimation of the world surfaces from aerial images has seen much attention and progress in recent years. Among current modeling technologies, probabilistic volumetric models (PVMs) have evolved as an alternative representation that can learn geometry and appearance in a dense and probabilistic manner. Recent progress, in terms of storage and speed, achieved in the area of volumetric modeling, opens the opportunity to develop new frameworks that make use of the PVM to pursue the ultimate goal of creating an entire map of the earth, where one can reason about the semantics and dynamics of the 3-d world. Aligning 3-d models collected at different time-instances constitutes an important step for successful fusion of large spatio-temporal information. This paper evaluates how effectively probabilistic volumetric models can be aligned using robust feature-matching techniques, while considering different scenarios that reflect the kind of variability observed across aerial video collections from different time instances. More precisely, this work investigates variability in terms of discretization, resolution and sampling density, errors in the camera orientation, and changes in illumination and geographic characteristics. All results are given for large-scale, outdoor sites. In order to facilitate the comparison of the registration performance of PVMs to that of other 3-d reconstruction techniques, the registration pipeline is also carried out using Patch-based Multi-View Stereo (PMVS) algorithm. Registration performance is similar for scenes that have favorable geometry and the appearance characteristics necessary for high quality reconstruction. In scenes containing trees, such as a park, or many buildings, such as a city center, registration performance is significantly more accurate when using the PVM.

  14. Crime scene investigations using portable, non-destructive space exploration technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombka, Jacob I.; Schweitzer, Jeffrey; Selavka, Carl; Dale, Mark; Gahn, Norman; Floyd, Samuel; Marie, James; Hobson, Maritza; Zeosky, Jerry; Martin, Ken; McClannahan, Timothy; Solomon, Pamela; Gottschang, Elyse

    2002-01-01

    The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASAs) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) have teamed up to explore the use of NASA developed technologies to help criminal justice agencies and professionals solve crimes. The objective of the program is to produce instruments and communication networks that have application within both NASA's space program and NIJ programs with state and local forensic laboratories. A working group of NASA scientists and law enforcement professionals has been established to develop and implement a feasibility demonstration program. Specifically, the group has focused its efforts on identifying gunpowder and primer residue, blood, and semen at crime scenes. Non-destructive elemental composition identification methods are carried out using portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) systems. These systems are similar to those being developed for planetary exploration programs. A breadboard model of a portable XRF system has been constructed for these tests using room temperature silicon and cadmium-zinc telluride (CZT) detectors. Preliminary tests have been completed with gunshot residue (GSR), blood-spatter and semen samples. Many of the element composition lines have been identified. Studies to determine the minimum detectable limits needed for the analyses of GSR, blood and semen in the crime scene environment have been initiated and preliminary results obtained. Furthermore, a database made up of the inorganic composition of GSR is being developed. Using data obtained from the open literature of the elemental composition of barium (Ba) and antimony (Sb) in handswipes of GSR, we believe that there may be a unique GSR signature based on the Sb to Ba ratio.

  15. Open IS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Germonprez, Matt; Crowston, Kevin; Avital, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The collective intelligence and collective action of “open” communities have produced a variety of complex knowledge goods and radical social change. The Information Systems (IS) community has invested significant effort into researching open communities and the ecosystems in which they operate...... therefore seeks to stimulate a thoughtful and dynamic discussion around the proposition that becoming a more open community will enhance the IS discipline’s scholarly inquiry and global impact....

  16. Open IS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Germonprez, Matt; Crowston, Kevin; Avital, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The collective intelligence and collective action of “open” communities have produced a variety of complex knowledge goods and radical social change. The Information Systems (IS) community has invested significant effort into researching open communities and the ecosystems in which they operate...... therefore seeks to stimulate a thoughtful and dynamic discussion around the proposition that becoming a more open community will enhance the IS discipline’s scholarly inquiry and global impact....

  17. Adaptive optimal spectral range for dynamically changing scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsky, Ephi; Siman-tov, Avihay; Peles, David

    2012-06-01

    A novel multispectral video system that continuously optimizes both its spectral range channels and the exposure time of each channel autonomously, under dynamic scenes, varying from short range-clear scene to long range-poor visibility, is currently being developed. Transparency and contrast of high scattering medium of channels with spectral ranges in the near infrared is superior to the visible channels, particularly to the blue range. Longer wavelength spectral ranges that induce higher contrast are therefore favored. Images of 3 spectral channels are fused and displayed for (pseudo) color visualization, as an integrated high contrast video stream. In addition to the dynamic optimization of the spectral channels, optimal real-time exposure time is adjusted simultaneously and autonomously for each channel. A criterion of maximum average signal, derived dynamically from previous frames of the video stream is used (Patent Application - International Publication Number: WO2009/093110 A2, 30.07.2009). This configuration enables dynamic compatibility with the optimal exposure time of a dynamically changing scene. It also maximizes the signal to noise ratio and compensates each channel for the specified value of daylight reflections and sensors response for each spectral range. A possible implementation is a color video camera based on 4 synchronized, highly responsive, CCD imaging detectors, attached to a 4CCD dichroic prism and combined with a common, color corrected, lens. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) technique is then applied for real time "dimensional collapse" in color space, in order to select and fuse, for clear color visualization, the 3 most significant principal channels out of at least 4 characterized by high contrast and rich details in the image data.

  18. Monocular 3D scene reconstruction at absolute scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhler, Christian; d'Angelo, Pablo; Krüger, Lars; Kuhl, Annika; Groß, Horst-Michael

    In this article we propose a method for combining geometric and real-aperture methods for monocular three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of static scenes at absolute scale. Our algorithm relies on a sequence of images of the object acquired by a monocular camera of fixed focal setting from different viewpoints. Object features are tracked over a range of distances from the camera with a small depth of field, leading to a varying degree of defocus for each feature. Information on absolute depth is obtained based on a Depth-from-Defocus approach. The parameters of the point spread functions estimated by Depth-from-Defocus are used as a regularisation term for Structure-from-Motion. The reprojection error obtained from bundle adjustment and the absolute depth error obtained from Depth-from-Defocus are simultaneously minimised for all tracked object features. The proposed method yields absolutely scaled 3D coordinates of the scene points without any prior knowledge about scene structure and camera motion. We describe the implementation of the proposed method both as an offline and as an online algorithm. Evaluating the algorithm on real-world data, we demonstrate that it yields typical relative scale errors of a few per cent. We examine the influence of random effects, i.e. the noise of the pixel grey values, and systematic effects, caused by thermal expansion of the optical system or by inclusion of strongly blurred images, on the accuracy of the 3D reconstruction result. Possible applications of our approach are in the field of industrial quality inspection; in particular, it is preferable to stereo cameras in industrial vision systems with space limitations or where strong vibrations occur.

  19. Functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah L. Golden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory scene analysis is a demanding computational process that is performed automatically and efficiently by the healthy brain but vulnerable to the neurodegenerative pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Here we assessed the functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease using the well-known ‘cocktail party effect’ as a model paradigm whereby stored templates for auditory objects (e.g., hearing one's spoken name are used to segregate auditory ‘foreground’ and ‘background’. Patients with typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease (n = 13 and age-matched healthy individuals (n = 17 underwent functional 3T-MRI using a sparse acquisition protocol with passive listening to auditory stimulus conditions comprising the participant's own name interleaved with or superimposed on multi-talker babble, and spectrally rotated (unrecognisable analogues of these conditions. Name identification (conditions containing the participant's own name contrasted with spectrally rotated analogues produced extensive bilateral activation involving superior temporal cortex in both the AD and healthy control groups, with no significant differences between groups. Auditory object segregation (conditions with interleaved name sounds contrasted with superimposed name sounds produced activation of right posterior superior temporal cortex in both groups, again with no differences between groups. However, the cocktail party effect (interaction of own name identification with auditory object segregation processing produced activation of right supramarginal gyrus in the AD group that was significantly enhanced compared with the healthy control group. The findings delineate an altered functional neuroanatomical profile of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease that may constitute a novel computational signature of this neurodegenerative pathology.

  20. Navigating the auditory scene: an expert role for the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teki, Sundeep; Kumar, Sukhbinder; von Kriegstein, Katharina; Stewart, Lauren; Lyness, C Rebecca; Moore, Brian C J; Capleton, Brian; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2012-08-29

    Over a typical career piano tuners spend tens of thousands of hours exploring a specialized acoustic environment. Tuning requires accurate perception and adjustment of beats in two-note chords that serve as a navigational device to move between points in previously learned acoustic scenes. It is a two-stage process that depends on the following: first, selective listening to beats within frequency windows, and, second, the subsequent use of those beats to navigate through a complex soundscape. The neuroanatomical substrates underlying brain specialization for such fundamental organization of sound scenes are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that professional piano tuners are significantly better than controls matched for age and musical ability on a psychophysical task simulating active listening to beats within frequency windows that is based on amplitude modulation rate discrimination. Tuners show a categorical increase in gray matter volume in the right frontal operculum and right superior temporal lobe. Tuners also show a striking enhancement of gray matter volume in the anterior hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and superior temporal gyrus, and an increase in white matter volume in the posterior hippocampus as a function of years of tuning experience. The relationship with gray matter volume is sensitive to years of tuning experience and starting age but not actual age or level of musicality. Our findings support a role for a core set of regions in the hippocampus and superior temporal cortex in skilled exploration of complex sound scenes in which precise sound "templates" are encoded and consolidated into memory over time in an experience-dependent manner.

  1. Rapid discrimination of visual scene content in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokhin, Andrey P.; Golosheykin, Simon; Sirevaag, Erik; Kristjansson, Sean; Rohrbaugh, John W.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2007-01-01

    The rapid evaluation of complex visual environments is critical for an organism's adaptation and survival. Previous studies have shown that emotionally significant visual scenes, both pleasant and unpleasant, elicit a larger late positive wave in the event-related brain potential (ERP) than emotionally neutral pictures. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether neuroelectric responses elicited by complex pictures discriminate between specific, biologically relevant contents of the visual scene and to determine how early in the picture processing this discrimination occurs. Subjects (n=264) viewed 55 color slides differing in both scene content and emotional significance. No categorical judgments or responses were required. Consistent with previous studies, we found that emotionally arousing pictures, regardless of their content, produce a larger late positive wave than neutral pictures. However, when pictures were further categorized by content, anterior ERP components in a time window between 200−600 ms following stimulus onset showed a high selectivity for pictures with erotic content compared to other pictures regardless of their emotional valence (pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant) or emotional arousal. The divergence of ERPs elicited by erotic and non-erotic contents started at 185 ms post-stimulus in the fronto-central midline regions, with a later onset in parietal regions. This rapid, selective, and content-specific processing of erotic materials and its dissociation from other pictures (including emotionally positive pictures) suggests the existence of a specialized neural network for prioritized processing of a distinct category of biologically relevant stimuli with high adaptive and evolutionary significance. PMID:16712815

  2. Colour agnosia impairs the recognition of natural but not of non-natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; Van Der Smagt, Maarten J; Van Zandvoort, Martine J E; De Haan, Edward H F

    2007-03-01

    Scene recognition can be enhanced by appropriate colour information, yet the level of visual processing at which colour exerts its effects is still unclear. It has been suggested that colour supports low-level sensory processing, while others have claimed that colour information aids semantic categorization and recognition of objects and scenes. We investigated the effect of colour on scene recognition in a case of colour agnosia, M.A.H. In a scene identification task, participants had to name images of natural or non-natural scenes in six different formats. Irrespective of scene format, M.A.H. was much slower on the natural than on the non-natural scenes. As expected, neither M.A.H. nor control participants showed any difference in performance for the non-natural scenes. However, for the natural scenes, appropriate colour facilitated scene recognition in control participants (i.e., shorter reaction times), whereas M.A.H.'s performance did not differ across formats. Our data thus support the hypothesis that the effect of colour occurs at the level of learned associations.

  3. Synthetic Aperture Radar Raw Signals Simulation of Extended Scenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Jin-yao; Sun Hong

    2004-01-01

    A synthetic aperture radar (SAR) raw signal simulation algorithm for extended scenes is presented. This algorithm is based on the SAR two-dimensional system transform function (STF). To cope with range-variant nature of SAR STF and increase the speed of this algorithm, new formulas for range-variant phase corrections in range Doppler (RD) domain are developed. In this way, many azimuth lines can be simulated with the same SAR STF. It only needs twodimensional fast Fourier transform code and complex multiplications. Comparing with time-domain simulation algorithm, it is very simple and thus efficient. Simulation results have shown that this algorithm is accurate and efficient.

  4. Photorealistic ray tracing to visualize automobile side mirror reflective scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hocheol; Kim, Kyuman; Lee, Gang; Lee, Sungkoo; Kim, Jingu

    2014-10-20

    We describe an interactive visualization procedure for determining the optimal surface of a special automobile side mirror, thereby removing the blind spot, without the need for feedback from the error-prone manufacturing process. If the horizontally progressive curvature distributions are set to the semi-mathematical expression for a free-form surface, the surface point set can then be derived through numerical integration. This is then converted to a NURBS surface while retaining the surface curvature. Then, reflective scenes from the driving environment can be virtually realized using photorealistic ray tracing, in order to evaluate how these reflected images would appear to drivers.

  5. Stereo Scene Flow for 3D Motion Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wedel, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This book presents methods for estimating optical flow and scene flow motion with high accuracy, focusing on the practical application of these methods in camera-based driver assistance systems. Clearly and logically structured, the book builds from basic themes to more advanced concepts, culminating in the development of a novel, accurate and robust optic flow method. Features: reviews the major advances in motion estimation and motion analysis, and the latest progress of dense optical flow algorithms; investigates the use of residual images for optical flow; examines methods for deriving mot

  6. PRACE resources to study extreme natural events: the SCENE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Elisabetta; Galizia, Antonella; Danovaro, Emanuele; Clematis, Andrea; Bedrina, Tatiana; Parodi, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Forecasting severe storms and floods is one of the main challenges of 21th century. Floods are the most dangerous meteorological hazard in the Mediterranean basins due to both the number of people affected and to the relatively high frequency by which human activities and goods suffer damages and losses. The numerical simulations of extreme events which happen over small basins as the Mediterranean ones are need a very fine-resolution in space and time and as a consequence considerable memory and computational power are required. Since the resources provided by the PRACE project represent the solution for satisfying such requirements, the Super Computing of Extreme Natural Events (SCENE) project has been proposed. SCENE aims to provide an advanced understanding of the intrinsic predictability of severe precipitation processes and the associated predictive ability of high-resolution meteorological models with a special focus on flash flood-producing storms in regions of complex orography (e.g. Mediterranean area) through the assessment of the role of both the convective and microphysical processes. The meteorological model considered in the project is the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, a state of the art mesoscale numerical weather prediction system designed to serve both operational forecasting and atmospheric research needs. Thus, among all the parameterizations available in the WRF model, the WRF Single-Moment 6-Class Scheme and the Thompson microphysics scheme will be adopted for the numerical simulations in combination with three different approaches for the treatment of the convective processes, that is the use of explicit method, Betts-Miller-Janjic Scheme and Kain-Fritsch. As for flash-flood producing storms, the project considers the recent sequence of extreme events occurred in the north-western portion of the Mediterranean sea; some of these events are the so-called critical cases of the DRIHM project (www.drihm.eu), i.e. selected severe

  7. Portable X-ray Fluorescence Unit for Analyzing Crime Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, A.

    2003-12-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center and the National Institute of Justice have teamed up to apply NASA technology to the field of forensic science. NASA hardware that is under development for future planetary robotic missions, such as Mars exploration, is being engineered into a rugged, portable, non-destructive X-ray fluorescence system for identifying gunshot residue, blood, and semen at crime scenes. This project establishes the shielding requirements that will ensure that the exposure of a user to ionizing radiation is below the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's allowable limits, and also develops the benchtop model for testing the system in a controlled environment.

  8. Scene recognition and colorization for vehicle infrared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Junjie; Sun, Shaoyuan; Shen, Zhenyi; Huang, Zhen; Zhao, Haitao

    2016-10-01

    In order to make better use of infrared technology for driving assistance system, a scene recognition and colorization method is proposed in this paper. Various objects in a queried infrared image are detected and labelled with proper categories by a combination of SIFT-Flow and MRF model. The queried image is then colorized by assigning corresponding colors according to the categories of the objects appeared. The results show that the strategy here emphasizes important information of the IR images for human vision and could be used to broaden the application of IR images for vehicle driving.

  9. Eye tracking to evaluate evidence recognition in crime scene investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watalingam, Renuka Devi; Richetelli, Nicole; Pelz, Jeff B; Speir, Jacqueline A

    2017-08-23

    Crime scene analysts are the core of criminal investigations; decisions made at the scene greatly affect the speed of analysis and the quality of conclusions, thereby directly impacting the successful resolution of a case. If an examiner fails to recognize the pertinence of an item on scene, the analyst's theory regarding the crime will be limited. Conversely, unselective evidence collection will most likely include irrelevant material, thus increasing a forensic laboratory's backlog and potentially sending the investigation into an unproductive and costly direction. Therefore, it is critical that analysts recognize and properly evaluate forensic evidence that can assess the relative support of differing hypotheses related to event reconstruction. With this in mind, the aim of this study was to determine if quantitative eye tracking data and qualitative reconstruction accuracy could be used to distinguish investigator expertise. In order to assess this, 32 participants were successfully recruited and categorized as experts or trained novices based on their practical experiences and educational backgrounds. Each volunteer then processed a mock crime scene while wearing a mobile eye tracker, wherein visual fixations, durations, search patterns, and reconstruction accuracy were evaluated. The eye tracking data (dwell time and task percentage on areas of interest or AOIs) were compared using Earth Mover's Distance (EMD) and the Needleman-Wunsch (N-W) algorithm, revealing significant group differences for both search duration (EMD), as well as search sequence (N-W). More specifically, experts exhibited greater dissimilarity in search duration, but greater similarity in search sequences than their novice counterparts. In addition to the quantitative visual assessment of examiner variability, each participant's reconstruction skill was assessed using a 22-point binary scoring system, in which significant group differences were detected as a function of total

  10. Scene projection technology development for imaging sensor testing at AEDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, H.; Fedde, M.; Crider, D.; Horne, H.; Bynum, K.; Steely, S.; Labello, J.

    2012-06-01

    Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) is tasked with visible-to-LWIR imaging sensor calibration and characterization, as well as hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) testing with high-fidelity complex scene projection to validate sensor mission performance. They are thus involved in the development of technologies and methodologies that are used in space simulation chambers for such testing. These activities support a variety of program needs such as space situational awareness (SSA). This paper provides an overview of pertinent technologies being investigated and implemented at AEDC.

  11. Cooperation of mobile robots for accident scene inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, R.H.; Harrington, J.

    1992-11-01

    A telerobotic system demonstration was developed for the Department of Energy`s Accident Response group to highlight the applications of telerobotic vehicles to accident site inspection. The proof-of- principle system employs two mobile robots, Dixie and RAYBOT, to inspect a simulated accident site. Both robots are controlled serially from a single driving station, allowing an operator to take advantage of having multiple robots at the scene. The telerobotic system is described and some of the advantages of having more than one robot present are discussed. Future plans for the system are also presented.

  12. Cooperation of mobile robots for accident scene inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, R.H.; Harrington, J.

    1992-01-01

    A telerobotic system demonstration was developed for the Department of Energy's Accident Response group to highlight the applications of telerobotic vehicles to accident site inspection. The proof-of- principle system employs two mobile robots, Dixie and RAYBOT, to inspect a simulated accident site. Both robots are controlled serially from a single driving station, allowing an operator to take advantage of having multiple robots at the scene. The telerobotic system is described and some of the advantages of having more than one robot present are discussed. Future plans for the system are also presented.

  13. Increasing Student Engagement and Enthusiasm: A Projectile Motion Crime Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, David

    2010-05-01

    Connecting physics concepts with real-world events allows students to establish a strong conceptual foundation. When such events are particularly interesting to students, it can greatly impact their engagement and enthusiasm in an activity. Activities that involve studying real-world events of high interest can provide students a long-lasting understanding and positive memorable experiences, both of which heighten the learning experiences of those students. One such activity, described in depth in this paper, utilizes a murder mystery and crime scene investigation as an application of basic projectile motion.

  14. Acoustic scanning of natural scenes by echolocation in the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Ghose, Kaushik; Moss, Cynthia F

    2009-01-01

    Echolocation allows bats to orient and localize prey in complete darkness. The sonar beam of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, is directional but broad enough to provide audible echo information from within a 60-90 deg. cone. This suggests that the big brown bat could interrogate a natural scene...... without fixating each important object separately. We tested this idea by measuring the directional aim and duration of the bat's sonar beam as it performed in a dual task, obstacle avoidance and insect capture. Bats were trained to fly through one of two openings in a fine net to take a tethered insect...... at variable distances behind the net. The bats sequentially scanned the edges of the net opening and the prey by centering the axis of their sonar beam with an accuracy of approximately 5 deg. The bats also shifted the duration of their sonar calls, revealing sequential sampling along the range axis. Changes...

  15. opened capsule

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ARTICLE. Paediatric clinicians are often forced to use medicines in an off- label manner, as pharmaceutical companies tend to avoid the ... mean recovery of active drug from solution of over 97%, confirming the accuracy of this dosing method.

  16. Open access

    CERN Document Server

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder consent, and many authors, musicians, filmmakers, and other creators who depend on royalties are understandably unwilling to give their consent. But for 350 years, scholars have written peer-reviewed journal articles for impact, not for money, and are free to consent to open access without losing revenue. In this concise introduction, Peter Suber tells us what open access is and isn't, how it benefits authors and readers of research, how we pay for it, how it avoids copyright problems, how it has moved from the periphery to the mainstream, and what its future may hold. Distilling a decade of Suber's influential writing and thinking about open access, this is the indispe...

  17. Constrained sampling experiments reveal principles of detection in natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Stephen; Abrams, Jared; Geisler, Wilson S

    2017-07-11

    A fundamental everyday visual task is to detect target objects within a background scene. Using relatively simple stimuli, vision science has identified several major factors that affect detection thresholds, including the luminance of the background, the contrast of the background, the spatial similarity of the background to the target, and uncertainty due to random variations in the properties of the background and in the amplitude of the target. Here we use an experimental approach based on constrained sampling from multidimensional histograms of natural stimuli, together with a theoretical analysis based on signal detection theory, to discover how these factors affect detection in natural scenes. We sorted a large collection of natural image backgrounds into multidimensional histograms, where each bin corresponds to a particular luminance, contrast, and similarity. Detection thresholds were measured for a subset of bins spanning the space, where a natural background was randomly sampled from a bin on each trial. In low-uncertainty conditions, both the background bin and the amplitude of the target were fixed, and, in high-uncertainty conditions, they varied randomly on each trial. We found that thresholds increase approximately linearly along all three dimensions and that detection accuracy is unaffected by background bin and target amplitude uncertainty. The results are predicted from first principles by a normalized matched-template detector, where the dynamic normalizing gain factor follows directly from the statistical properties of the natural backgrounds. The results provide an explanation for classic laws of psychophysics and their underlying neural mechanisms.

  18. Perceptual expertise improves category detection in natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Reshanne R; Stein, Timo; Peelen, Marius V

    2016-02-01

    There is much debate about how detection, categorization, and within-category identification relate to one another during object recognition. Whether these tasks rely on partially shared perceptual mechanisms may be determined by testing whether training on one of these tasks facilitates performance on another. In the present study we asked whether expertise in discriminating objects improves the detection of these objects in naturalistic scenes. Self-proclaimed car experts (N = 34) performed a car discrimination task to establish their level of expertise, followed by a visual search task where they were asked to detect cars and people in hundreds of photographs of natural scenes. Results revealed that expertise in discriminating cars was strongly correlated with car detection accuracy. This effect was specific to objects of expertise, as there was no influence of car expertise on person detection. These results indicate a close link between object discrimination and object detection performance, which we interpret as reflecting partially shared perceptual mechanisms and neural representations underlying these tasks: the increased sensitivity of the visual system for objects of expertise - as a result of extensive discrimination training - may benefit both the discrimination and the detection of these objects. Alternative interpretations are also discussed.

  19. S3-2: Colorfulness Perception Adapting to Natural Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Mizokami

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Our visual system has the ability to adapt to the color characteristics of environment and maintain stable color appearance. Many researches on chromatic adaptation and color constancy suggested that the different levels of visual processes involve the adaptation mechanism. In the case of colorfulness perception, it has been shown that the perception changes with adaptation to chromatic contrast modulation and to surrounding chromatic variance. However, it is still not clear how the perception changes in natural scenes and what levels of visual mechanisms contribute to the perception. Here, I will mainly present our recent work on colorfulness-adaptation in natural images. In the experiment, we examined whether the colorfulness perception of an image was influenced by the adaptation to natural images with different degrees of saturation. Natural and unnatural (shuffled or phase-scrambled images are used for adapting and test images, and all combinations of adapting and test images were tested (e.g., the combination of natural adapting images and a shuffled test image. The results show that colorfulness perception was influenced by adaptation to the saturation of images. A test image appeared less colorful after adaptation to saturated images, and vice versa. The effect of colorfulness adaptation was the strongest for the combination of natural adapting and natural test images. The fact that the naturalness of the spatial structure in an image affects the strength of the adaptation effect implies that the recognition of natural scene would play an important role in the adaptation mechanism.

  20. Gray-Scale Image Dehazing Guided by Scene Depth Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined with two different types of image dehazing strategies based on image enhancement and atmospheric physical model, respectively, a novel method for gray-scale image dehazing is proposed in this paper. For image-enhancement-based strategy, the characteristics of its simplicity, effectiveness, and no color distortion are preserved, and the common guided image filter is modified to match the application of image enhancement. Through wavelet decomposition, the high frequency boundary of original image is preserved in advance. Moreover, the process of image dehazing can be guided by the image of scene depth proportion directly estimated from the original gray-scale image. Our method has the advantages of brightness consistency and no distortion over the state-of-the-art methods based on atmospheric physical model. Particularly, our method overcomes the essential shortcoming of the abovementioned methods that are mainly working for color image. Meanwhile, an image of scene depth proportion is acquired as a byproduct of image dehazing.

  1. No emotional "pop-out" effect in natural scene viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acunzo, David J; Henderson, John M

    2011-10-01

    It has been shown that attention is drawn toward emotional stimuli. In particular, eye movement research suggests that gaze is attracted toward emotional stimuli in an unconscious, automated manner. We addressed whether this effect remains when emotional targets are embedded within complex real-world scenes. Eye movements were recorded while participants memorized natural images. Each image contained an item that was either neutral, such as a bag, or emotional, such as a snake or a couple hugging. We found no latency difference for the first target fixation between the emotional and neutral conditions, suggesting no extrafoveal "pop-out" effect of emotional targets. However, once detected, emotional targets held attention for a longer time than neutral targets. The failure of emotional items to attract attention seems to contradict previous eye-movement research using emotional stimuli. However, our results are consistent with studies examining semantic drive of overt attention in natural scenes. Interpretations of the results in terms of perceptual and attentional load are provided.

  2. Collaborating Filtering Community Image Recommendation System Based on Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Tao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of smart city, the development of intelligent mobile terminal and wireless network, the traditional text information service no longer meet the needs of the community residents, community image service appeared as a new media service. “There are pictures of the truth” has become a community residents to understand and master the new dynamic community, image information service has become a new information service. However, there are two major problems in image information service. Firstly, the underlying eigenvalues extracted by current image feature extraction techniques are difficult for users to understand, and there is a semantic gap between the image content itself and the user’s understanding; secondly, in community life of the image data increasing quickly, it is difficult to find their own interested image data. Aiming at the two problems, this paper proposes a unified image semantic scene model to express the image content. On this basis, a collaborative filtering recommendation model of fusion scene semantics is proposed. In the recommendation model, a comprehensiveness and accuracy user interest model is proposed to improve the recommendation quality. The results of the present study have achieved good results in the pilot cities of Wenzhou and Yan'an, and it is applied normally.

  3. The Influence of Familiarity on Affective Responses to Natural Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria Z., Jorge C.; Cho, Youngil; Yamanaka, Toshimasa

    This kansei study explored how familiarity with image-word combinations influences affective states. Stimuli were obtained from Japanese print advertisements (ads), and consisted of images (e.g., natural-scene backgrounds) and their corresponding headlines (advertising copy). Initially, a group of subjects evaluated their level of familiarity with images and headlines independently, and stimuli were filtered based on the results. In the main experiment, a different group of subjects rated their pleasure and arousal to, and familiarity with, image-headline combinations. The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) scale was used to evaluate pleasure and arousal, and a bipolar scale was used to evaluate familiarity. The results showed a high correlation between familiarity and pleasure, but low correlation between familiarity and arousal. The characteristics of the stimuli, and their effect on the variables of pleasure, arousal and familiarity, were explored through ANOVA. It is suggested that, in the case of natural-scene ads, familiarity with image-headline combinations may increase the pleasure response to the ads, and that certain components in the images (e.g., water) may increase arousal levels.

  4. 3D scene reconstruction: why, when, and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Jonah C.; Snorrason, Magnus S.; Goodsell, Thomas R.; Eaton, Ross S.; Stevens, Mark R.

    2004-09-01

    Mobile robot designers frequently look to computer vision to solve navigation, obstacle avoidance, and object detection problems. Potential solutions using low-cost video cameras are particularly alluring. Recent results in 3D scene reconstruction from a single moving camera seem particularly relevant, but robot designers who attempt to use such 3D techniques have uncovered a variety of practical concerns. We present lessons-learned from developing a single-camera 3D scene reconstruction system that provides both a real-time camera motion estimate and a rough model of major 3D structures in the robot"s vicinity. Our objective is to use the motion estimate to supplement GPS (indoors in particular) and to use the model to provide guidance for further vision processing (look for signs on walls, obstacles on the ground, etc.). The computational geometry involved is closely related to traditional two-camera stereo, however a number of degenerate cases exist. We also demonstrate how SFM can use used to improve the performance of two specific robot navigation tasks.

  5. Extended census transform histogram for land-use scene classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Baohua; Li, Shijin

    2017-04-01

    With the popular use of high-resolution satellite images, more and more research efforts have been focused on land-use scene classification. In scene classification, effective visual features can significantly boost the final performance. As a typical texture descriptor, the census transform histogram (CENTRIST) has emerged as a very powerful tool due to its effective representation ability. However, the most prominent limitation of CENTRIST is its small spatial support area, which may not necessarily be adept at capturing the key texture characteristics. We propose an extended CENTRIST (eCENTRIST), which is made up of three subschemes in a greater neighborhood scale. The proposed eCENTRIST not only inherits the advantages of CENTRIST but also encodes the more useful information of local structures. Meanwhile, multichannel eCENTRIST, which can capture the interactions from multichannel images, is developed to obtain higher categorization accuracy rates. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve competitive performance when compared to state-of-the-art methods.

  6. Using Bayesian neural networks to classify forest scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehtari, Aki; Heikkonen, Jukka; Lampinen, Jouko; Juujarvi, Jouni

    1998-10-01

    We present results that compare the performance of Bayesian learning methods for neural networks on the task of classifying forest scenes into trees and background. Classification task is demanding due to the texture richness of the trees, occlusions of the forest scene objects and diverse lighting conditions under operation. This makes it difficult to determine which are optimal image features for the classification. A natural way to proceed is to extract many different types of potentially suitable features, and to evaluate their usefulness in later processing stages. One approach to cope with large number of features is to use Bayesian methods to control the model complexity. Bayesian learning uses a prior on model parameters, combines this with evidence from a training data, and the integrates over the resulting posterior to make predictions. With this method, we can use large networks and many features without fear of overfitting. For this classification task we compare two Bayesian learning methods for multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural networks: (1) The evidence framework of MacKay uses a Gaussian approximation to the posterior weight distribution and maximizes with respect to hyperparameters. (2) In a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method due to Neal, the posterior distribution of the network parameters is numerically integrated using the MCMC method. As baseline classifiers for comparison we use (3) MLP early stop committee, (4) K-nearest-neighbor and (5) Classification And Regression Tree.

  7. Learning to Place New Objects in a Scene

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Yun; Zheng, Changxi; Saxena, Ashutosh

    2012-01-01

    Placing is a necessary skill for a personal robot to have in order to perform tasks such as arranging objects in a disorganized room. The object placements should not only be stable but also be in their semantically preferred placing areas and orientations. This is challenging because an environment can have a large variety of objects and placing areas that may not have been seen by the robot before. In this paper, we propose a learning approach for placing multiple objects in different placing areas in a scene. Given point-clouds of the objects and the scene, we design appropriate features and use a graphical model to encode various properties, such as the stacking of objects, stability, object-area relationship and common placing constraints. The inference in our model is an integer linear program, which we solve efficiently via an LP relaxation. We extensively evaluate our approach on 98 objects from 16 categories being placed into 40 areas. Our robotic experiments show a success rate of 98% in placing kno...

  8. A hybrid multiview stereo algorithm for modeling urban scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafarge, Florent; Keriven, Renaud; Brédif, Mathieu; Vu, Hoang-Hiep

    2013-01-01

    We present an original multiview stereo reconstruction algorithm which allows the 3D-modeling of urban scenes as a combination of meshes and geometric primitives. The method provides a compact model while preserving details: Irregular elements such as statues and ornaments are described by meshes, whereas regular structures such as columns and walls are described by primitives (planes, spheres, cylinders, cones, and tori). We adopt a two-step strategy consisting first in segmenting the initial meshbased surface using a multilabel Markov Random Field-based model and second in sampling primitive and mesh components simultaneously on the obtained partition by a Jump-Diffusion process. The quality of a reconstruction is measured by a multi-object energy model which takes into account both photo-consistency and semantic considerations (i.e., geometry and shape layout). The segmentation and sampling steps are embedded into an iterative refinement procedure which provides an increasingly accurate hybrid representation. Experimental results on complex urban structures and large scenes are presented and compared to state-of-the-art multiview stereo meshing algorithms.

  9. Hdr Imaging for Feature Detection on Detailed Architectural Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontogianni, G.; Stathopoulou, E. K.; Georgopoulos, A.; Doulamis, A.

    2015-02-01

    3D reconstruction relies on accurate detection, extraction, description and matching of image features. This is even truer for complex architectural scenes that pose needs for 3D models of high quality, without any loss of detail in geometry or color. Illumination conditions influence the radiometric quality of images, as standard sensors cannot depict properly a wide range of intensities in the same scene. Indeed, overexposed or underexposed pixels cause irreplaceable information loss and degrade digital representation. Images taken under extreme lighting environments may be thus prohibitive for feature detection/extraction and consequently for matching and 3D reconstruction. High Dynamic Range (HDR) images could be helpful for these operators because they broaden the limits of illumination range that Standard or Low Dynamic Range (SDR/LDR) images can capture and increase in this way the amount of details contained in the image. Experimental results of this study prove this assumption as they examine state of the art feature detectors applied both on standard dynamic range and HDR images.

  10. Novel scenes improve recollection and recall of words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenker, Daniela B; Frey, Julietta U; Schuetze, Hartmut; Heipertz, Dorothee; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Duzel, Emrah

    2008-07-01

    Exploring a novel environment can facilitate subsequent hippocampal long-term potentiation in animals. We report a related behavioral enhancement in humans. In two separate experiments, recollection and free recall, both measures of hippocampus-dependent memory formation, were enhanced for words studied after a 5-min exposure to unrelated novel as opposed to familiar images depicting indoor and outdoor scenes. With functional magnetic resonance imaging, the enhancement was predicted by specific activity patterns observed during novelty exposure in parahippocampal and dorsal prefrontal cortices, regions which are known to be linked to attentional orienting to novel stimuli and perceptual processing of scenes. Novelty was also associated with activation of the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area of the midbrain and the hippocampus, but these activations did not correlate with contextual memory enhancement. These findings indicate remarkable parallels between contextual memory enhancement in humans and existing evidence regarding contextually enhanced hippocampal plasticity in animals. They provide specific behavioral clues to enhancing hippocampus-dependent memory in humans.

  11. HDR IMAGING FOR FEATURE DETECTION ON DETAILED ARCHITECTURAL SCENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kontogianni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available 3D reconstruction relies on accurate detection, extraction, description and matching of image features. This is even truer for complex architectural scenes that pose needs for 3D models of high quality, without any loss of detail in geometry or color. Illumination conditions influence the radiometric quality of images, as standard sensors cannot depict properly a wide range of intensities in the same scene. Indeed, overexposed or underexposed pixels cause irreplaceable information loss and degrade digital representation. Images taken under extreme lighting environments may be thus prohibitive for feature detection/extraction and consequently for matching and 3D reconstruction. High Dynamic Range (HDR images could be helpful for these operators because they broaden the limits of illumination range that Standard or Low Dynamic Range (SDR/LDR images can capture and increase in this way the amount of details contained in the image. Experimental results of this study prove this assumption as they examine state of the art feature detectors applied both on standard dynamic range and HDR images.

  12. Reversed effects of spatial compatibility in natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müsseler, Jochen; Aschersleben, Gisa; Arning, Katrin; Proctor, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    Effects of spatial stimulus-response compatibility are often attributed to automatic position-based activation of the response elicited by a stimulus. Three experiments examined this assumption in natural scenes. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants performed simulated driving, and a person appeared periodically on either side of the road. Participants were to turn toward a person calling a taxi and away from a person carelessly entering the street. The spatially incompatible response was faster than the compatible response, but neutral stimuli showed a typical benefit for spatially compatible responses. Placing the people further in the visual periphery eliminated the advantage for the incompatible response and showed an advantage for the compatible response. In Experiment 3, participants made left-right joystick responses to a vicious dog or puppy in a walking scenario. Instructions were to avoid the vicious dog and approach the puppy or vice versa. Results again showed an advantage for the spatially incompatible response. Thus, the typically observed advantage of spatially compatible responses was reversed for dangerous situations in natural scenes.

  13. Building 3D scenes from 2D image sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristea, Paul D.

    2006-05-01

    Sequences of 2D images, taken by a single moving video receptor, can be fused to generate a 3D representation. This dynamic stereopsis exists in birds and reptiles, whereas the static binocular stereopsis is common in mammals, including humans. Most multimedia computer vision systems for stereo image capture, transmission, processing, storage and retrieval are based on the concept of binocularity. As a consequence, their main goal is to acquire, conserve and enhance pairs of 2D images able to generate a 3D visual perception in a human observer. Stereo vision in birds is based on the fusion of images captured by each eye, with previously acquired and memorized images from the same eye. The process goes on simultaneously and conjointly for both eyes and generates an almost complete all-around visual field. As a consequence, the baseline distance is no longer fixed, as in the case of binocular 3D view, but adjustable in accordance with the distance to the object of main interest, allowing a controllable depth effect. Moreover, the synthesized 3D scene can have a better resolution than each individual 2D image in the sequence. Compression of 3D scenes can be achieved, and stereo transmissions with lower bandwidth requirements can be developed.

  14. Online scene change detection of multicast (MBone) video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wensheng; Shen, Ye; Vellaikal, Asha; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    1998-10-01

    Many multimedia applications, such as multimedia data management systems and communication systems, require efficient representation of multimedia content. Thus semantic interpretation of video content has been a popular research area. Currently, most content-based video representation involves the segmentation of video based on key frames which are generated using scene change detection techniques as well as camera/object motion. Then, video features can be extracted from key frames. However most of such research performs off-line video processing in which the whole video scope is known as a priori which allows multiple scans of the stored video files during video processing. In comparison, relatively not much research has been done in the area of on-line video processing, which is crucial in video communication applications such as on-line collaboration, news broadcasts and so on. Our research investigates on-line real-time scene change detection of multicast video over the Internet. Our on-line processing system are designed to meet the requirements of real-time video multicasting over the Internet and to utilize the successful video parsing techniques available today. The proposed algorithms extract key frames from video bitstreams sent through the MBone network, and the extracted key frames are multicasted as annotations or metadata over a separate channel to assist in content filtering such as those anticipated to be in use by on-line filtering proxies in the Internet. The performance of the proposed algorithms are demonstrated and discussed in this paper.

  15. 3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen

    2016-03-01

    It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.

  16. Open Brief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Leach

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To commence the thirtieth annual conference of the Society of Architectural Historians, Australia and New Zealand (SAHANZ, held on Australia’s Gold Coast in July 2013, ten delegates were invited with very little warning to take five minutes and one image to offer a provocation on the open matters of architectural history in the present moment. The term “open” was taken as the conference theme—a device used by SAHANZ meetings not so much to define the scope of papers presented as to declare the conference flavour year by year. It was not, therefore, an open conference (anything goes so much as a conference on open issues (where, indeed, to go.  The ten interlocutors were invited after the conference to document their interventions and they are presented here as a record of the preoccupations of a specific moment and institutional geography with all the idiosyncrasies and commonalities it might reveal to a broader audience.

  17. Crime Scene Investigation: Clinical Application of Chemical Shift Imaging as a Problem Solving Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-26

    MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approva l 26 FEB 2016 1. Your paper, entitled Crime Scene Investigation: Clinical Aoolication of...or technical information as a publication/presentation, a new 59 MDW Form 3039 must be submitted for review and approval.] Crime Scene Investiga...tion: Clinical Application of Chemical Shift Imaging as a Problem Solving Tool 1. TITLE OF MATERIAL TO BE PUBLISHED OR PRESENTED Crime Scene

  18. Prehospital treatment of opioid overdose in Copenhagen--is it safe to discharge on-scene?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, Søren; Jehu, G; Nielsen, Søren Loumann

    2011-01-01

    In the prehospital setting opioid overdose is often treated with naloxone. In our physician-based medical emergency care unit (MECU) we have adopted a discharge-on-scene policy, where patients are released on scene if no residual signs of opioid intoxication are found after treatment. The aim...... of this study was to describe our experience with the discharge-on-scene policy used during a 10-year-period with focus on the frequency of rebound opioid toxicity....

  19. Emergence of visual saliency from natural scenes via context-mediated probability distributions coding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Xu

    Full Text Available Visual saliency is the perceptual quality that makes some items in visual scenes stand out from their immediate contexts. Visual saliency plays important roles in natural vision in that saliency can direct eye movements, deploy attention, and facilitate tasks like object detection and scene understanding. A central unsolved issue is: What features should be encoded in the early visual cortex for detecting salient features in natural scenes? To explore this important issue, we propose a hypothesis that visual saliency is based on efficient encoding of the probability distributions (PDs of visual variables in specific contexts in natural scenes, referred to as context-mediated PDs in natural scenes. In this concept, computational units in the model of the early visual system do not act as feature detectors but rather as estimators of the context-mediated PDs of a full range of visual variables in natural scenes, which directly give rise to a measure of visual saliency of any input stimulus. To test this hypothesis, we developed a model of the context-mediated PDs in natural scenes using a modified algorithm for independent component analysis (ICA and derived a measure of visual saliency based on these PDs estimated from a set of natural scenes. We demonstrated that visual saliency based on the context-mediated PDs in natural scenes effectively predicts human gaze in free-viewing of both static and dynamic natural scenes. This study suggests that the computation based on the context-mediated PDs of visual variables in natural scenes may underlie the neural mechanism in the early visual cortex for detecting salient features in natural scenes.

  20. Use of Data Mining Techniques to Model Crime Scene Investigator Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adderley, Richard; Townsley, Michael; Bond, John

    This paper examines how data mining techniques can assist the monitoring of Crime Scene Investigator performance. The findings show that Investigators can be placed in one of four groups according to their ability to recover DNA and fingerprints from crime scenes. They also show that their ability to predict which crime scenes will yield the best opportunity of recovering forensic samples has no correlation to their actual ability to recover those samples.

  1. Open Education and the Open Science Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Openness as a complex code word for a variety of digital trends and movements has emerged as an alternative mode of "social production" based on the growing and overlapping complexities of open source, open access, open archiving, open publishing, and open science. This paper argues that the openness movement with its reinforcing structure of…

  2. Seek and you shall remember: scene semantics interact with visual search to build better memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draschkow, Dejan; Wolfe, Jeremy M; Võ, Melissa L H

    2014-07-11

    Memorizing critical objects and their locations is an essential part of everyday life. In the present study, incidental encoding of objects in naturalistic scenes during search was compared to explicit memorization of those scenes. To investigate if prior knowledge of scene structure influences these two types of encoding differently, we used meaningless arrays of objects as well as objects in real-world, semantically meaningful images. Surprisingly, when participants were asked to recall scenes, their memory performance was markedly better for searched objects than for objects they had explicitly tried to memorize, even though participants in the search condition were not explicitly asked to memorize objects. This finding held true even when objects were observed for an equal amount of time in both conditions. Critically, the recall benefit for searched over memorized objects in scenes was eliminated when objects were presented on uniform, non-scene backgrounds rather than in a full scene context. Thus, scene semantics not only help us search for objects in naturalistic scenes, but appear to produce a representation that supports our memory for those objects beyond intentional memorization. © 2014 ARVO.

  3. Parallel programming of saccades during natural scene viewing: evidence from eye movement positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Esther X W; Gilani, Syed Omer; van Boxtel, Jeroen J A; Amihai, Ido; Chua, Fook Kee; Yen, Shih-Cheng

    2013-10-24

    Previous studies have shown that saccade plans during natural scene viewing can be programmed in parallel. This evidence comes mainly from temporal indicators, i.e., fixation durations and latencies. In the current study, we asked whether eye movement positions recorded during scene viewing also reflect parallel programming of saccades. As participants viewed scenes in preparation for a memory task, their inspection of the scene was suddenly disrupted by a transition to another scene. We examined whether saccades after the transition were invariably directed immediately toward the center or were contingent on saccade onset times relative to the transition. The results, which showed a dissociation in eye movement behavior between two groups of saccades after the scene transition, supported the parallel programming account. Saccades with relatively long onset times (>100 ms) after the transition were directed immediately toward the center of the scene, probably to restart scene exploration. Saccades with short onset times (programming of saccades during scene viewing. Additionally, results from the analyses of intersaccadic intervals were also consistent with the parallel programming hypothesis.

  4. THE SCENE OF ARCHITECTURAL SPACE IN THE CONTEX PRESSIVE BEING OF ARCHITECTURAL SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena E. BIRYUKOVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aesthetic aspects of the existence of architectural space is closely related to its scene. The scene of architectural objects and all the architectural space allow enables the existence and active external expression of its non-use component, abstract spiritual meanings, ideas and images. The purpose of this study is the aesthetic and philosophical analysis of the shape of architectural space. The research problem is the search for the relationship between the scene of the architectural space and its existence as the outer presentation of spiritual meanings. Under the scene of architectural space we mean to its expressive exterior shell that is available to the perception of the senses. Architectural space is a certain visibility. This space by which can act spiritual aspects of the human content of architecture. The architectural scene is not only the look of the architectural object or element of architectural space, but and architectural appearance (face of the people. The architectural scene is built in accordance with the needs of the inner world of man and contains the image of the person in the material form. It is also the external scene of the architectural environment for human been and appearance of the individual life. Therefore, the scene of architecture is concrete space. National, social, cultural identity finds expression through the scene of its architectural space. 

  5. Self-interference polarization holographic imaging of a three-dimensional incoherent scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ziyi; Shi, Zhimin

    2016-08-01

    We present a self-interference polarization holographic imaging (Si-Phi) technique to capture the three-dimensional information of an incoherent scene in a single shot. The light from the scene is modulated by a polarization-dependent lens, and a complex-valued polarization hologram is obtained by measuring directly the polarization profile of the light at the detection plane. Using a backward-propagating Green's function, we can numerically retrieve the transverse intensity profile of the scene at any desired focus plane. We demonstrate experimentally our Si-Phi technique by imaging, in real time, three-dimensional mimicked incoherent scenes created by a fast spatial light modulator.

  6. Viewing nature scenes positively affects recovery of autonomic function following acute-mental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel K; Barton, Jo L; Gladwell, Valerie F

    2013-06-04

    A randomized crossover study explored whether viewing different scenes prior to a stressor altered autonomic function during the recovery from the stressor. The two scenes were (a) nature (composed of trees, grass, fields) or (b) built (composed of man-made, urban scenes lacking natural characteristics) environments. Autonomic function was assessed using noninvasive techniques of heart rate variability; in particular, time domain analyses evaluated parasympathetic activity, using root-mean-square of successive differences (RMSSD). During stress, secondary cardiovascular markers (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) showed significant increases from baseline which did not differ between the two viewing conditions. Parasympathetic activity, however, was significantly higher in recovery following the stressor in the viewing scenes of nature condition compared to viewing scenes depicting built environments (RMSSD; 50.0 ± 31.3 vs 34.8 ± 14.8 ms). Thus, viewing nature scenes prior to a stressor alters autonomic activity in the recovery period. The secondary aim was to examine autonomic function during viewing of the two scenes. Standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDRR), as change from baseline, during the first 5 min of viewing nature scenes was greater than during built scenes. Overall, this suggests that nature can elicit improvements in the recovery process following a stressor.

  7. Accumulating and remembering the details of neutral and emotional natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, David

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to our rich sensory experience with complex scenes in everyday life, the capacity of visual working memory is thought to be quite limited. Here our memory has been examined for the details of naturalistic scenes as a function of display duration, emotional valence of the scene, and delay before test. Individual differences in working memory and long-term memory for pictorial scenes were examined in experiment 1. The accumulation of memory for emotional scenes and the retention of these details in long-term memory were investigated in experiment 2. Although there were large individual differences in performance, memory for scene details generally exceeded the traditional working memory limit within a few seconds. Information about positive scenes was learned most quickly, while negative scenes showed the worst memory for details. The overall pattern of results was consistent with the idea that both short-term and long-term representations are mixed together in a medium-term 'online' memory for scenes.

  8. A rational approach to the principles and practice of crime scene investigation: I. Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, A

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a structured approach to crime scene investigation that may be applied to the wider aspects of criminal investigation. The approach is an adaptation of the hypotheticodeductive method. The investigator begins with observation of the scene leading to a cycle of hypotheses creation and testing with other information being supplied only after the initial scene examination and hypotheses creation. The recording of observation, hypotheses creation and testing, and information received creates an audit trail of the investigative process. The method seeks to minimise observer bias by providing a rational and recorded approach to crime scene investigation.

  9. The Open

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saitya Brata Das

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Open darkness and light, remembrance and oblivion, coming into existence and disappearing in death play their originary co-belonging, or co-figuration. Existence belongs to this opening and is exposed to its coming to presence: it is on the basis of this originary opening, this originary historical which is revealed to this mortal being called ‘man,’ on the basis of this revelation, man founds something like politics and history. There thus comes into existence out of this freedom, out of this “play space”2, this field called ‘polis’3 where there takes place war and festival, where historical revolutions tear apart history, brings ruptures and discontinuities in the very mode of his existence, where man seeks the foundation of his own foundation (which is his metaphysical task , where occurs the dialectics of negativity between man and man, where man puts at stake his own death, his own dissolution, and by the power of his own dissolution stands in relation to the total world that he seeks to dominate. This means that man’s attempts to metaphysically found his own political and historical existence must presuppose a far more originary non-foundation, the differentiating revealing of the open, the ungrounded spacing play, or playing space of natality and mortality.

  10. Open innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Joel; Bogers, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    by small, new, and not-for-profit organizations, as well as the linkage of individual actions and motivations to open innovation. Other opportunities include better measuring the costs, benefits, antecedents, mediators and moderators of the effects of OI on performance, and understanding why and how OI...

  11. Open Source, Open Access, Open Review, Open Data. Initiativen zu mehr Offenheit in der digitalen Welt

    OpenAIRE

    Herb, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the principles of openess, open access and open availability of information based on the examples of open access to scientific information, open government data, open geographical data and open source software.

  12. Open Source, Open Access, Open Review, Open Data. Initiativen zu mehr Offenheit in der digitalen Welt

    OpenAIRE

    Herb, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the principles of openess, open access and open availability of information based on the examples of open access to scientific information, open government data, open geographical data and open source software.

  13. IR image generation of space target based on OpenGL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tongsheng; Guo, Ming; Wang, Chenggang

    2007-11-01

    IR Scene simulation has been an important way to design and assess the IR sensor, and the key of simulation is the generation of IR scene image. Based on OpenGL, the method of IR image generation is proposed. The geometry model is constructed with professional CAD software, and the observer location is determined after scene transformation. The full infrared model of space target is built based on infrared physics and heat transfer, which includes the radiation, convection, conduction between different parts of the space target, and which also includes the radiation, convection of environment. Radiance of space target is converted to gray value, and properties of scene are defined according to the gray level. After a series of processing, dynamic IR images are generated with the technology of double buffering.

  14. Complete Scene Recovery and Terrain Classification in Textured Terrain Meshes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyhyun Um

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Terrain classification allows a mobile robot to create an annotated map of its local environment from the three-dimensional (3D and two-dimensional (2D datasets collected by its array of sensors, including a GPS receiver, gyroscope, video camera, and range sensor. However, parts of objects that are outside the measurement range of the range sensor will not be detected. To overcome this problem, this paper describes an edge estimation method for complete scene recovery and complete terrain reconstruction. Here, the Gibbs-Markov random field is used to segment the ground from 2D videos and 3D point clouds. Further, a masking method is proposed to classify buildings and trees in a terrain mesh.

  15. Behinds the scenes of GS: a DSO like no other

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    At CERN, Departmental Safety Officers (DSOs) are responsible for making the members of their department aware of safety issues. They’re our first point of call every time a problem arises relating to environmental matters or the safety of people and installations. In GS, this role is even more crucial as the Department’s activities are scattered across the Laboratory and affect everyone.   As we have pointed out in our article series "Behind the scenes of GS”, the GS Department is responsible for the construction, renovation and maintenance of buildings and related technical infrastructures. The latter include heating and toilet facilities; detection and alarm systems; the management of the hotels, stores, stocks, shuttle services and mail; and the development of technical and administrative databases. The activities of the Medical Service and the Fire and Rescue Service also come under the umbrella of GS, as do the many other daily activities that are pa...

  16. Photo Essay: Chinese Leisure Scenes through Sidney Gamble's Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Zhou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sidney D. Gamble was a trained sociologist and an amateur photographer. He took nearly five thousand photographs during four trips to China between 1908 and 1932, covering a wide range of elements of Chinese society and providing a visual archive for an important period in Chinese history. Among Gamble’s many interesting images documenting events and moments during those turbulent years, the photographs that capture leisure scenes are uniquely charming, giving us a peek into the daily lives of Chinese people a century ago. This article accompanies the September 2013 Cross-Currents photo essay, which features images selected by curator Luo Zhou from the Sidney D. Gamble Photographs collection (http://library.duke.edu/ digitalcollections/gamble/.

  17. Automatic character detection and segmentation in natural scene images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Kai-hua; QI Fei-hu; JIANG Ren-jie; XU Li

    2007-01-01

    We present a robust connected-component (CC) based method for automatic detection and segmentation of text in real-scene images. This technique can be applied in robot vision, sign recognition, meeting processing and video indexing. First, a Non-Linear Niblack method (NLNiblack) is proposed to decompose the image into candidate CCs. Then, all these CCs are fed into a cascade of classifiers trained by Adaboost algorithm. Each classifier in the cascade responds to one feature of the CC. Proposed here are 12 novel features which are insensitive to noise, scale, text orientation and text language. The classifier cascade allows non-text CCs of the image to be rapidly discarded while more computation is spent on promising text-like CCs. The CCs passing through the cascade are considered as text components and are used to form the segmentation result. A prototype system was built,with experimental results proving the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  18. Saliency-based abnormal event detection in crowded scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yanjiao; Liu, Yunxiang; Zhang, Qing; Yi, Yugen; Li, Wenju

    2016-11-01

    Abnormal event detection plays a critical role for intelligent video surveillance, and detection in crowded scenes is a challenging but more practical task. We present an abnormal event detection method for crowded video. Region-wise modeling is proposed to address the inconsistent detected motion of the same object due to different depths of field. Comparing to traditional block-wise modeling, the region-wise method not only can reduce heavily the number of models to be built but also can enrich the samples for training the normal events model. In order to reduce the computational burden and make the region-based anomaly detection feasible, a saliency detection technique is adopted in this paper. By identifying the salient parts of the image sequences, the irrelevant blocks are ignored, which removes the disturbance and improves the detection performance further. Experiments on the benchmark dataset and comparisons with the state-of-the-art algorithms validate the advantages of the proposed method.

  19. Crime scene as spatial production on screen, online and offline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Waade, Anne Marit

    of Swedish town Ystad as location in Henning Mankell's crime novels and as film locations in remediating the novels into movies is turning the actual town into a virtual crime scene for visiting tourists. In the computer game Dollar the adaptation of Liza Marklund's crime universe remediates Stockholm...... as a virtual interactive space in which the player moves around to find the murderer. In the pervasive game Botfighters actual towns are used as game worlds and communication, tracking and positioning technology as navigational tools as part of the gameplay. Using a distinction between places as locations...... situated in the physical world and spaces as imagined or virtual locations as our point of departure, this paper investigate how places in various ways have become augmented by means of mediatization. Augmented reality represents processes of mediatization that broaden and enhance spatial experiences...

  20. Efficient Bistatic SAR Raw Signal Simulator of Extended Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bistatic SAR system is a new mode that allocates the radar transmitter and receiver on different platforms and has more advantages compared to the monostatic case. However, the existing bistatic SAR raw data simulator in the frequency domain can only handle the case of translation invariant system. In this paper, an efficient 2D frequency-domain raw data simulator of extended scenes for bistatic SAR of translation variant system is proposed by a geometric transformation method for the first time, where inverse STOLT interpolation is used to formulate the range migration terms. The presented simulator can accommodate the translation variant bistatic SAR system compared with existing bistatic SAR simulator. And it is more efficient than the time domain one by making use of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT. Simulation results for point targets and a real SAR image demonstrate its validity and effectiveness.

  1. Development of a high-definition IR LED scene projector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Dennis T.; LaVeigne, Joe; Franks, Greg; McHugh, Steve; Vengel, Tony; Oleson, Jim; MacDougal, Michael; Westerfeld, David

    2016-05-01

    Next-generation Infrared Focal Plane Arrays (IRFPAs) are demonstrating ever increasing frame rates, dynamic range, and format size, while moving to smaller pitch arrays.1 These improvements in IRFPA performance and array format have challenged the IRFPA test community to accurately and reliably test them in a Hardware-In-the-Loop environment utilizing Infrared Scene Projector (IRSP) systems. The rapidly-evolving IR seeker and sensor technology has, in some cases, surpassed the capabilities of existing IRSP technology. To meet the demands of future IRFPA testing, Santa Barbara Infrared Inc. is developing an Infrared Light Emitting Diode IRSP system. Design goals of the system include a peak radiance >2.0W/cm2/sr within the 3.0-5.0μm waveband, maximum frame rates >240Hz, and >4million pixels within a form factor supported by pixel pitches system design considerations, and future development work.

  2. Learning Building Extraction in Aerial Scenes with Convolutional Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiangye

    2017-09-11

    Extracting buildings from aerial scene images is an important task with many applications. However, this task is highly difficult to automate due to extremely large variations of building appearances, and still heavily relies on manual work. To attack this problem, we design a deep convolutional network with a simple structure that integrates activation from multiple layers for pixel-wise prediction, and introduce the signed distance function of building boundaries as the output representation, which has an enhanced representation power. To train the network, we leverage abundant building footprint data from geographic information systems (GIS) to generate large amounts of labeled data. The trained model achieves a superior performance on datasets that are significantly larger and more complex than those used in prior work, demonstrating that the proposed method provides a promising and scalable solution for automating this labor-intensive task.

  3. Human supervisory approach to modeling industrial scenes using geometric primitives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luck, J.P.; Little, C.Q.; Roberts, R.S.

    1997-11-19

    A three-dimensional world model is crucial for many robotic tasks. Modeling techniques tend to be either fully manual or autonomous. Manual methods are extremely time consuming but also highly accurate and flexible. Autonomous techniques are fast but inflexible and, with real-world data, often inaccurate. The method presented in this paper combines the two, yielding a highly efficient, flexible, and accurate mapping tool. The segmentation and modeling algorithms that compose the method are specifically designed for industrial environments, and are described in detail. A mapping system based on these algorithms has been designed. It enables a human supervisor to quickly construct a fully defined world model from unfiltered and unsegmented real-world range imagery. Examples of how industrial scenes are modeled with the mapping system are provided.

  4. When anticipation beats accuracy: Threat alters memory for dynamic scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, Michael; Franklin, Nancy; Martins, Mariana; Sewack, Christine; Meier, Markus A

    2016-05-01

    Threat frequently leads to the prioritization of survival-relevant processes. Much of the work examining threat-related processing advantages has focused on the detection of static threats or long-term memory for details. In the present study, we examined immediate memory for dynamic threatening situations. We presented participants with visually neutral, dynamic stimuli using a representational momentum (RM) paradigm, and manipulated threat conceptually. Although the participants in both the threatening and nonthreatening conditions produced classic RM effects, RM was stronger for scenarios involving threat (Exps. 1 and 2). Experiments 2 and 3 showed that this effect does not generalize to the nonthreatening objects within a threatening scene, and that it does not extend to arousing happy situations. Although the increased RM effect for threatening objects by definition reflects reduced accuracy, we argue that this reduced accuracy may be offset by a superior ability to predict, and thereby evade, a moving threat.

  5. Is crime scene examination science, and does it matter anyway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, K

    2006-01-01

    This short piece aims to assess the kind of data collected by Crime Scene Examiners (CSEs), and to discuss whether this collection constitutes a scientific process. It also seeks to examine the balance of roles performed by the CSE, between data gatherer and investigator. The piece also aims to conclude on whether a clearer understanding of the structure of data collected by CSEs might be of some practical use in developing a greater understanding of the architecture of knowledge that forensic science as a whole relies upon. As a piece of work it is unapologetically theoretical in its perspective, and seeks to prompt further discussion regarding the structure of scientific knowledge, and any relevance this might have to its application in a forensic context. Ultimately, it seeks the inclusion of the processes of data gathering performed largely by CSEs within the wider processes of forensic science.

  6. Infrared imaging of the crime scene: possibilities and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Gerda J; Hoveling, Richelle J M; Roos, Martin; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Aalders, Maurice C G

    2013-09-01

    All objects radiate infrared energy invisible to the human eye, which can be imaged by infrared cameras, visualizing differences in temperature and/or emissivity of objects. Infrared imaging is an emerging technique for forensic investigators. The rapid, nondestructive, and noncontact features of infrared imaging indicate its suitability for many forensic applications, ranging from the estimation of time of death to the detection of blood stains on dark backgrounds. This paper provides an overview of the principles and instrumentation involved in infrared imaging. Difficulties concerning the image interpretation due to different radiation sources and different emissivity values within a scene are addressed. Finally, reported forensic applications are reviewed and supported by practical illustrations. When introduced in forensic casework, infrared imaging can help investigators to detect, to visualize, and to identify useful evidence nondestructively.

  7. Efficacy, adherence and tolerability of once daily tenofovir DF-containing antiretroviral therapy in former injecting drug users with HIV-1 receiving opiate treatment: results of a 48-week open-label study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esser S

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess efficacy, adherence and tolerability of once daily antiretroviral therapy containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF 300 mg in HIV-1-infected former injecting drug users receiving opiate treatment (IVDU. Methods European, 48-week, open-label, single-arm, multicenter study. Patients were either antiretroviral therapy-naïve, restarting therapy after treatment discontinuation without prior virological failure or switching from existing stable treatment. Results Sixty-seven patients were enrolled in the study and 41 patients completed treatment. In the primary analysis (intent-to-treat missing = failure at week 48, 34% of patients (23/67; 95% CI: 23%-47% had plasma HIV-1 RNA 3. Although self-reported adherence appeared high, there were high levels of missing data and adherence results should be treated with caution. No new safety issues were identified. Conclusions Levels of missing data were high in this difficult-to-treat population, but potent antiretroviral suppression was achieved in a substantial proportion of HIV-infected IVDU-patients.

  8. The rise of club drugs in a heroin society: the case of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe Laidler, Karen A

    2005-01-01

    Although the contemporary dance drug scene is a global phenomenon, with many countries and cultures reporting similar developments with ecstasy and other club drug use, the scene, in many respects, is a reflection and expression of local culture. This article examines the rise of the dance drug scene in a society long associated with opiate use. After briefly describing Hong Kong's drug history, this article describes the diversification of its drug market to include ecstasy and ketamine in the context of a distinctive dance setting. The paper examines the trends in club drug use, particularly with the emergence of the dance scene, motivations to use, types of users, and the problems they experience with club drugs. The paper discusses the reasons for the rise and popularity of club drugs in the context of other locally available drugs, in particular, heroin. This discussion draws from three studies that tracked drug use trends from 1995 to 2002 through a variety of data sources, including official statistics, field observations, individual interviews with 20 law enforcement officials, 16 focus groups with outreach and drug treatment workers, teachers, and representatives from different communities, and in-depth interviews with 27 club drug users.

  9. Teens in Action. Creating a Drug-Free Future for America's Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Tom; Resnik, Hank

    This book on drug abuse prevention is addressed to teenagers and covers five main areas where drug use can be prevented: schools, communities, media, the social scene, and the family. The first chapter on school programs briefly discusses peer-led alcohol and drug education, peer counseling, creating a positive school climate, and developing…

  10. Adaptive fusion of infrared and visible images in dynamic scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Yin, Yafeng; Man, Hong; Desai, Sachi

    2011-11-01

    Multiple modalities sensor fusion has been widely employed in various surveillance and military applications. A variety of image fusion techniques including PCA, wavelet, curvelet and HSV has been proposed in recent years to improve human visual perception for object detection. One of the main challenges for visible and infrared image fusion is to automatically determine an optimal fusion strategy for different input scenes along with an acceptable computational cost. This paper, we propose a fast and adaptive feature selection based image fusion method to obtain high a contrast image from visible and infrared sensors for targets detection. At first, fuzzy c-means clustering is applied on the infrared image to highlight possible hotspot regions, which will be considered as potential targets' locations. After that, the region surrounding the target area is segmented as the background regions. Then image fusion is locally applied on the selected target and background regions by computing different linear combination of color components from registered visible and infrared images. After obtaining different fused images, histogram distributions are computed on these local fusion images as the fusion feature set. The variance ratio which is based on Linear Discriminative Analysis (LDA) measure is employed to sort the feature set and the most discriminative one is selected for the whole image fusion. As the feature selection is performed over time, the process will dynamically determine the most suitable feature for the image fusion in different scenes. Experiment is conducted on the OSU Color-Thermal database, and TNO Human Factor dataset. The fusion results indicate that our proposed method achieved a competitive performance compared with other fusion algorithms at a relatively low computational cost.

  11. Catchment areas of panoramic snapshots in outdoor scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeil, Jochen; Hofmann, Martin I.; Chahl, Javaan S.

    2003-03-01

    We took panoramic snapshots in outdoor scenes at regular intervals in two- or three-dimensional grids covering 1 m2 or 1 m3 and determined how the root mean square pixel differences between each of the images and a reference image acquired at one of the locations in the grid develop over distance from the reference position. We then asked whether the reference position can be pinpointed from a random starting position by moving the panoramic imaging device in such a way that the image differences relative to the reference image are minimized. We find that on time scales of minutes to hours, outdoor locations are accurately defined by a clear, sharp minimum in a smooth three-dimensional (3D) volume of image differences (the 3D difference function). 3D difference functions depend on the spatial-frequency content of natural scenes and on the spatial layout of objects therein. They become steeper in the vicinity of dominant objects. Their shape and smoothness, however, are affected by changes in illumination and shadows. The difference functions generated by rotation are similar in shape to those generated by translation, but their plateau values are higher. Rotational difference functions change little with distance from the reference location. Simple gradient descent methods are surprisingly successful in recovering a goal location, even if faced with transient changes in illumination. Our results show that view-based homing with panoramic images is in principle feasible in natural environments and does not require the identification of individual landmarks. We discuss the relevance of our findings to the study of robot and insect homing.

  12. Optimized 3D Street Scene Reconstruction from Driving Recorder Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an automatic region detection based method to reconstruct street scenes from driving recorder images. The driving recorder in this paper is a dashboard camera that collects images while the motor vehicle is moving. An enormous number of moving vehicles are included in the collected data because the typical recorders are often mounted in the front of moving vehicles and face the forward direction, which can make matching points on vehicles and guardrails unreliable. Believing that utilizing these image data can reduce street scene reconstruction and updating costs because of their low price, wide use, and extensive shooting coverage, we therefore proposed a new method, which is called the Mask automatic detecting method, to improve the structure results from the motion reconstruction. Note that we define vehicle and guardrail regions as “mask” in this paper since the features on them should be masked out to avoid poor matches. After removing the feature points in our new method, the camera poses and sparse 3D points that are reconstructed with the remaining matches. Our contrast experiments with the typical pipeline of structure from motion (SfM reconstruction methods, such as Photosynth and VisualSFM, demonstrated that the Mask decreased the root-mean-square error (RMSE of the pairwise matching results, which led to more accurate recovering results from the camera-relative poses. Removing features from the Mask also increased the accuracy of point clouds by nearly 30%–40% and corrected the problems of the typical methods on repeatedly reconstructing several buildings when there was only one target building.

  13. OpenAPC. Open-Access-Publikationskosten als Open Data

    OpenAIRE

    Tullney, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Präsentationsfolien zum Vortrag „OpenAPC. Open-Access-Publikationskosten als Open Data“ in der Session „Ausgestaltung eines wissenschaftsadäquaten APC-Marktes: Grundsätze, Finanzierungsansätze und Management“ der Open-Access-Tage 2015 in Zürich (https://www.open-access.net/community/open-access-tage/open-access-tage-2015-zuerich/programm/#c1974)

  14. Non-compliance with Drug Therapy in Patients with Primary Open-angle Glaucoma No cumplimiento del tratamiento farmacológico en pacientes con glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Fernández García

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Early treatment and patient’s compliance with this treatment are the most effective ways of preventing glaucoma related blindness. Objectives: To identify the behavior of patients` compliance or non compliance with the treatment in cases of primary open-angle glaucoma. Methods: A descriptive and cross sectional study was conducted including 106 patients with confirmed primary open-angle glaucoma who were treated at the Glaucoma Service of the Dr. Salvador Allende Hospital in Havana during the first quarter of 2011. We analyzed the following variables: age, sex, educational level, personal pathological antecedents and family history of glaucoma, treatment and treatment compliance and self-reported general health condition and vision. Results: Average age among patients was 60.7 years old, 72.7% were women and 51.9% did not comply with drug treatment. 91, 6% of patients used monotherapy and 73.6% used timolol alone or in combination with another drug. 68, 9% had a family history of glaucoma. Hypertension (51, 1% was the most commonly reported chronic disease. The most referred self-assessment of general health and vision was that of regular (42, 5% and 49, 1% respectively. Conclusions: More than half of patients did not comply with drug therapy as indicated for the control of the disease. This behavior was associated with age in the cases included in this study.


    Fundamento: el tratamiento precoz y su cumplimiento, por parte del paciente, son las formas más efectivas de prevenir la ceguera por glaucoma. Objetivos: identificar el cumplimiento o no cumplimiento del tratamiento en pacientes con glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto. Métodos: estudio descriptivo,  transversal en 106 pacientes con glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto confirmado, atendidos en el

  15. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drug Use Hurts Kids Drug Use Hurts Unborn Children Drug Use Hurts Your Health Drug Use Hurts ... Find Treatment/Rehab Resources Prevent Drug Use Help Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking to Kids ...

  16. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get Addicted to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? ... Drug Use and Other People Drug Use and Families Drug Use and Kids Drug Use and Unborn ...

  17. Real-time detection of moving objects in a dynamic scene from moving robotic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansar, A.; Talukder, S.; Goldberg, L.; Matthies, A.

    2003-01-01

    Dynamic scene perception is currently limited to detection of moving objects from a static platform or scenes with flat backgrounds. We discuss novel methods to segment moving objects in the motion field formed by a moving camera/robotic platform in real time.

  18. The Interplay of Episodic and Semantic Memory in Guiding Repeated Search in Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Melissa L.-H.; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2013-01-01

    It seems intuitive to think that previous exposure or interaction with an environment should make it easier to search through it and, no doubt, this is true in many real-world situations. However, in a recent study, we demonstrated that previous exposure to a scene does not necessarily speed search within that scene. For instance, when observers…

  19. Was That Levity or Livor Mortis? Crime Scene Investigators' Perspectives on Humor and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivona, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Humor is common and purposeful in most work settings. Although researchers have examined humor and joking behavior in various work settings, minimal research has been done on humor applications in the field of crime scene investigation. The crime scene investigator encounters death, trauma, and tragedy in a more intimate manner than any other…

  20. Terrain Scene Analysis and Obstacle Reconstruction for Navigation of Mobile Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    AD-A159 469 1AD TECHNICAL REPORT ARLCB TR-85026 TERRAIN SCENE ANALYSIS AND OBSTACLE RECONJSTRUCTION FOR NAVIGATION OF MOBILE ROBOTS C. N. SHEN DTIC...of their utilizatioi for navigation of mobile robots . Previous work on scene analysis has created a common body of knowledge which will be used in

  1. The Incongruency Advantage for Environmental Sounds Presented in Natural Auditory Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gygi, Brian; Shafiro, Valeriy

    2011-01-01

    The effect of context on the identification of common environmental sounds (e.g., dogs barking or cars honking) was tested by embedding them in familiar auditory background scenes (street ambience, restaurants). Initial results with subjects trained on both the scenes and the sounds to be identified showed a significant advantage of about five…

  2. Was That Levity or Livor Mortis? Crime Scene Investigators' Perspectives on Humor and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivona, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Humor is common and purposeful in most work settings. Although researchers have examined humor and joking behavior in various work settings, minimal research has been done on humor applications in the field of crime scene investigation. The crime scene investigator encounters death, trauma, and tragedy in a more intimate manner than any other…

  3. Making a scene: exploring the dimensions of place through Dutch popular music, 1960-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandellero, A.; Pfeffer, K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper applies a multi-layered conceptualisation of place to the analysis of particular music scenes in the Netherlands, 1960-2010. We focus on: the clustering of music-related activities in locations; the delineation of spatially tied music scenes, based on a shared identity, reproduced over ti

  4. Making a scene: exploring the dimensions of place through Dutch popular music, 1960-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandellero, A.; Pfeffer, K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper applies a multi-layered conceptualisation of place to the analysis of particular music scenes in the Netherlands, 1960-2010. We focus on: the clustering of music-related activities in locations; the delineation of spatially tied music scenes, based on a shared identity, reproduced over

  5. Emotional signals from faces, bodies and scenes influence observers' face expressions, fixations and pupil-size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kret, M.E.; Roelofs, K.; Stekelenburg, J.J.; de Gelder, B.

    2013-01-01

    We receive emotional signals from different sources, including the face, the whole body, and the natural scene. Previous research has shown the importance of context provided by the whole body and the scene on the recognition of facial expressions. This study measured physiological responses to face

  6. Target detection in complex scene of SAR image based on existence probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuo; Cao, Zongjie; Wu, Honggang; Pi, Yiming; Yang, Haiyi

    2016-12-01

    This study proposes a target detection approach based on the target existence probability in complex scenes of a synthetic aperture radar image. Superpixels are the basic unit throughout the approach and are labelled into each classified scene by a texture feature. The original and predicted saliency depth values for each scene are derived through self-information of all the labelled superpixels in each scene. Thereafter, the target existence probability is estimated based on the comparison of two saliency depth values. Lastly, an improved visual attention algorithm, in which the scenes of the saliency map are endowed with different weights related to the existence probabilities, derives the target detection result. This algorithm enhances the attention for the scene that contains the target. Hence, the proposed approach is self-adapting for complex scenes and the algorithm is substantially suitable for different detection missions as well (e.g. vehicle, ship or aircraft detection in the related scenes of road, harbour or airport, respectively). Experimental results on various data show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. The Role of Visual Experience on the Representation and Updating of Novel Haptic Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualotto, Achille; Newell, Fiona N.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the role of visual experience on the spatial representation and updating of haptic scenes by comparing recognition performance across sighted, congenitally and late blind participants. We first established that spatial updating occurs in sighted individuals to haptic scenes of novel objects. All participants were required to…

  8. Face, Body, and Center of Gravity Mediate Person Detection in Natural Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindemann, Markus; Scheepers, Christoph; Ferguson, Heather J.; Burton, A. Mike

    2010-01-01

    Person detection is an important prerequisite of social interaction, but is not well understood. Following suggestions that people in the visual field can capture a viewer's attention, this study examines the role of the face and the body for person detection in natural scenes. We observed that viewers tend first to look at the center of a scene,…

  9. Object Attention Patches for Text Detection and Recognition in Scene Images using SIFT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sriman, Bowornrat; Schomaker, Lambertus; De Marsico, Maria; Figueiredo, Mário; Fred, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Natural urban scene images contain many problems for character recognition such as luminance noise, varying font styles or cluttered backgrounds. Detecting and recognizing text in a natural scene is a difficult problem. Several techniques have been proposed to overcome these problems. These are, how

  10. Automating the construction of scene classifiers for content-based video retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Israël, Menno; Broek, van den Egon L.; Putten, van der Peter; Khan, L.; Petrushin, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a real time automatic scene classifier within content-based video retrieval. In our envisioned approach end users like documentalists, not image processing experts, build classifiers interactively, by simply indicating positive examples of a scene. Classification consists of a

  11. The Effect of Scene Variation on the Redundant Use of Color in Definite Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolen, Ruud; Goudbeek, Martijn; Krahmer, Emiel

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates to what extent the amount of variation in a visual scene causes speakers to mention the attribute color in their definite target descriptions, focusing on scenes in which this attribute is not needed for identification of the target. The results of our three experiments show that speakers are more likely to redundantly…

  12. Real-time detection of moving objects in a dynamic scene from moving robotic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansar, A.; Talukder, S.; Goldberg, L.; Matthies, A.

    2003-01-01

    Dynamic scene perception is currently limited to detection of moving objects from a static platform or scenes with flat backgrounds. We discuss novel methods to segment moving objects in the motion field formed by a moving camera/robotic platform in real time.

  13. Scene statistics: neural representation of real-world structure in rapid visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, I.I.A.

    2014-01-01

    How does the brain represent our visual environment? Research has revealed brain areas that respond to specific information such as faces and objects, but how a representation of an entire visual scene is formed is still unclear. This thesis explores the idea that scene statistics play an important

  14. [Perception of objects and scenes in age-related macular degeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, T H C; Boucart, M

    2012-01-01

    Vision related quality of life questionnaires suggest that patients with AMD exhibit difficulties in finding objects and in mobility. In the natural environment, objects seldom appear in isolation. They appear in a spatial context which may obscure them in part or place obstacles in the patient's path. Furthermore, the luminance of a natural scene varies as a function of the hour of the day and the light source, which can alter perception. This study aims to evaluate recognition of objects and natural scenes by patients with AMD, by using photographs of such scenes. Studies demonstrate that AMD patients are able to categorize scenes as nature scenes or urban scenes and to discriminate indoor from outdoor scenes with a high degree of precision. They detect objects better in isolation, in color, or against a white background than in their natural contexts. These patients encounter more difficulties than normally sighted individuals in detecting objects in a low-contrast, black-and-white scene. These results may have implications for rehabilitation, for layout of texts and magazines for the reading-impaired and for the rearrangement of the spatial environment of older AMD patients in order to facilitate mobility, finding objects and reducing the risk of falls.

  15. Developmental changes in attention to faces and bodies in static and dynamic scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, Brenda M; Jakobson, Lorna S

    2014-01-01

    Typically developing individuals show a strong visual preference for faces and face-like stimuli; however, this may come at the expense of attending to bodies or to other aspects of a scene. The primary goal of the present study was to provide additional insight into the development of attentional mechanisms that underlie perception of real people in naturalistic scenes. We examined the looking behaviors of typical children, adolescents, and young adults as they viewed static and dynamic scenes depicting one or more people. Overall, participants showed a bias to attend to faces more than on other parts of the scenes. Adding motion cues led to a reduction in the number, but an increase in the average duration of face fixations in single-character scenes. When multiple characters appeared in a scene, motion-related effects were attenuated and participants shifted their gaze from faces to bodies, or made off-screen glances. Children showed the largest effects related to the introduction of motion cues or additional characters, suggesting that they find dynamic faces difficult to process, and are especially prone to look away from faces when viewing complex social scenes-a strategy that could reduce the cognitive and the affective load imposed by having to divide one's attention between multiple faces. Our findings provide new insights into the typical development of social attention during natural scene viewing, and lay the foundation for future work examining gaze behaviors in typical and atypical development.

  16. Emotional signals from faces, bodies and scenes influence observers' face expressions, fixations and pupil-size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kret, M.E.; Roelofs, K.; Stekelenburg, J.J.; de Gelder, B.

    2013-01-01

    We receive emotional signals from different sources, including the face, the whole body, and the natural scene. Previous research has shown the importance of context provided by the whole body and the scene on the recognition of facial expressions. This study measured physiological responses to

  17. How affective information from faces and scenes interacts in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Stock, Jan; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Sinke, Charlotte B A; Goebel, Rainer; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2014-10-01

    Facial expression perception can be influenced by the natural visual context in which the face is perceived. We performed an fMRI experiment presenting participants with fearful or neutral faces against threatening or neutral background scenes. Triangles and scrambled scenes served as control stimuli. The results showed that the valence of the background influences face selective activity in the right anterior parahippocampal place area (PPA) and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) with higher activation for neutral backgrounds compared to threatening backgrounds (controlled for isolated background effects) and that this effect correlated with trait empathy in the sgACC. In addition, the left fusiform gyrus (FG) responds to the affective congruence between face and background scene. The results show that valence of the background modulates face processing and support the hypothesis that empathic processing in sgACC is inhibited when affective information is present in the background. In addition, the findings reveal a pattern of complex scene perception showing a gradient of functional specialization along the posterior-anterior axis: from sensitivity to the affective content of scenes (extrastriate body area: EBA and posterior PPA), over scene emotion-face emotion interaction (left FG) via category-scene interaction (anterior PPA) to scene-category-personality interaction (sgACC). © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Valence-specific modulation in the accumulation of perceptual evidence prior to visual scene recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Schettino

    Full Text Available Visual scene recognition is a dynamic process through which incoming sensory information is iteratively compared with predictions regarding the most likely identity of the input stimulus. In this study, we used a novel progressive unfolding task to characterize the accumulation of perceptual evidence prior to scene recognition, and its potential modulation by the emotional valence of these scenes. Our results show that emotional (pleasant and unpleasant scenes led to slower accumulation of evidence compared to neutral scenes. In addition, when controlling for the potential contribution of non-emotional factors (i.e., familiarity and complexity of the pictures, our results confirm a reliable shift in the accumulation of evidence for pleasant relative to neutral and unpleasant scenes, suggesting a valence-specific effect. These findings indicate that proactive iterations between sensory processing and top-down predictions during scene recognition are reliably influenced by the rapidly extracted (positive emotional valence of the visual stimuli. We interpret these findings in accordance with the notion of a genuine positivity offset during emotional scene recognition.

  19. Between the Lines: Neutral Scenes Turn Lazy Actors into Master Sleuths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bruce

    1997-01-01

    Describes "neutral scenes," a dialog exchange for which actors must supply the meaning. Contends the exercise provides young actors the opportunity to use all the basic tools they will need when they progress to more conventional scene work, such as finding conflict, using given circumstances, playing relationships. Advises analyzing the…

  20. Valence-Specific Modulation in the Accumulation of Perceptual Evidence Prior to Visual Scene Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, Antonio; Loeys, Tom; Bossi, Manuela; Pourtois, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Visual scene recognition is a dynamic process through which incoming sensory information is iteratively compared with predictions regarding the most likely identity of the input stimulus. In this study, we used a novel progressive unfolding task to characterize the accumulation of perceptual evidence prior to scene recognition, and its potential modulation by the emotional valence of these scenes. Our results show that emotional (pleasant and unpleasant) scenes led to slower accumulation of evidence compared to neutral scenes. In addition, when controlling for the potential contribution of non-emotional factors (i.e., familiarity and complexity of the pictures), our results confirm a reliable shift in the accumulation of evidence for pleasant relative to neutral and unpleasant scenes, suggesting a valence-specific effect. These findings indicate that proactive iterations between sensory processing and top-down predictions during scene recognition are reliably influenced by the rapidly extracted (positive) emotional valence of the visual stimuli. We interpret these findings in accordance with the notion of a genuine positivity offset during emotional scene recognition. PMID:22675437

  1. How affective information from faces and scenes interacts in the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Stock, J.B.; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Sinke, C.B.A.; Goebel, Rainer; de Gelder, B.

    2014-01-01

    Facial expression perception can be influenced by the natural visual context in which the face is perceived. We performed an fMRI experiment presenting participants with fearful or neutral faces against threatening or neutral background scenes. Triangles and scrambled scenes served as control

  2. Valence-specific modulation in the accumulation of perceptual evidence prior to visual scene recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, Antonio; Loeys, Tom; Bossi, Manuela; Pourtois, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Visual scene recognition is a dynamic process through which incoming sensory information is iteratively compared with predictions regarding the most likely identity of the input stimulus. In this study, we used a novel progressive unfolding task to characterize the accumulation of perceptual evidence prior to scene recognition, and its potential modulation by the emotional valence of these scenes. Our results show that emotional (pleasant and unpleasant) scenes led to slower accumulation of evidence compared to neutral scenes. In addition, when controlling for the potential contribution of non-emotional factors (i.e., familiarity and complexity of the pictures), our results confirm a reliable shift in the accumulation of evidence for pleasant relative to neutral and unpleasant scenes, suggesting a valence-specific effect. These findings indicate that proactive iterations between sensory processing and top-down predictions during scene recognition are reliably influenced by the rapidly extracted (positive) emotional valence of the visual stimuli. We interpret these findings in accordance with the notion of a genuine positivity offset during emotional scene recognition.

  3. Developmental Changes in Attention to Faces and Bodies in Static and Dynamic Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda M Stoesz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Typically developing individuals show a strong visual preference for faces and face-like stimuli; however, this may come at the expense of attending to bodies or to other aspects of a scene. The primary goal of the present study was to provide additional insight into the development of attentional mechanisms that underlie perception of real people in naturalistic scenes. We examined the looking behaviours of typical children, adolescents, and young adults as they viewed static and dynamic scenes depicting one or more people. Overall, participants showed a bias to attend to faces more than on other parts of the scenes. Adding motion cues led to a reduction in the number, but an increase in the average duration of face fixations in single-character scenes. When multiple characters appeared in a scene, motion-related effects were attenuated and participants shifted their gaze from faces to bodies, or made off-screen glances. Children showed the largest effects related to the introduction of motion cues or additional characters, suggesting that they find dynamic faces difficult to process, and are especially prone to look away from faces when viewing complex social scenes – a strategy that could reduce the cognitive and the affective load imposed by having to divide one’s attention between multiple faces. Our findings provide new insights into the typical development of social attention during natural scene viewing, and lay the foundation for future work examining gaze behaviours in typical and atypical development.

  4. Research and Technology Development for Construction of 3d Video Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlebnikova, Tatyana A.

    2016-06-01

    For the last two decades surface information in the form of conventional digital and analogue topographic maps has been being supplemented by new digital geospatial products, also known as 3D models of real objects. It is shown that currently there are no defined standards for 3D scenes construction technologies that could be used by Russian surveying and cartographic enterprises. The issues regarding source data requirements, their capture and transferring to create 3D scenes have not been defined yet. The accuracy issues for 3D video scenes used for measuring purposes can hardly ever be found in publications. Practicability of development, research and implementation of technology for construction of 3D video scenes is substantiated by 3D video scene capability to expand the field of data analysis application for environmental monitoring, urban planning, and managerial decision problems. The technology for construction of 3D video scenes with regard to the specified metric requirements is offered. Technique and methodological background are recommended for this technology used to construct 3D video scenes based on DTM, which were created by satellite and aerial survey data. The results of accuracy estimation of 3D video scenes are presented.

  5. Computer vision enhances mobile eye-tracking to expose expert cognition in natural-scene visual-search tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Tommy P.; Cahill, Nathan D.; Tarduno, John A.; Jacobs, Robert A.; Pelz, Jeff B.

    2014-02-01

    Mobile eye-tracking provides the fairly unique opportunity to record and elucidate cognition in action. In our research, we are searching for patterns in, and distinctions between, the visual-search performance of experts and novices in the geo-sciences. Traveling to regions resultant from various geological processes as part of an introductory field studies course in geology, we record the prima facie gaze patterns of experts and novices when they are asked to determine the modes of geological activity that have formed the scene-view presented to them. Recording eye video and scene video in natural settings generates complex imagery that requires advanced applications of computer vision research to generate registrations and mappings between the views of separate observers. By developing such mappings, we could then place many observers into a single mathematical space where we can spatio-temporally analyze inter- and intra-subject fixations, saccades, and head motions. While working towards perfecting these mappings, we developed an updated experiment setup that allowed us to statistically analyze intra-subject eye-movement events without the need for a common domain. Through such analyses we are finding statistical differences between novices and experts in these visual-search tasks. In the course of this research we have developed a unified, open-source, software framework for processing, visualization, and interaction of mobile eye-tracking and high-resolution panoramic imagery.

  6. Guidance of Visual Attention by Semantic Information in Real-World Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chien eWu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on attentional guidance in real-world scenes has focused on object recognition within the context of a scene. This approach has been valuable for determining some factors that drive the allocation of visual attention and determine visual selection. This article provides a review of experimental work on how different components of context, especially semantic information, affect attentional deployment. We review work from the areas of object recognition, scene perception, and visual search, highlighting recent studies examining semantic structure in real-world scenes. A better understanding on how humans parse scene representations will not only improve current models of visual attention but also advance next-generation computer vision systems and human-computer interfaces.

  7. Geovisualization Approaches for Spatio-temporal Crime Scene Analysis - Towards 4D Crime Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Markus; Asche, Hartmut

    This paper presents a set of methods and techniques for analysis and multidimensional visualisation of crime scenes in a German city. As a first step the approach implies spatio-temporal analysis of crime scenes. Against this background a GIS-based application is developed that facilitates discovering initial trends in spatio-temporal crime scene distributions even for a GIS untrained user. Based on these results further spatio-temporal analysis is conducted to detect variations of certain hotspots in space and time. In a next step these findings of crime scene analysis are integrated into a geovirtual environment. Behind this background the concept of the space-time cube is adopted to allow for visual analysis of repeat burglary victimisation. Since these procedures require incorporating temporal elements into virtual 3D environments, basic methods for 4D crime scene visualisation are outlined in this paper.

  8. Sexual sadism in the context of rape and sexual homicide: an examination of crime scene indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Jay; Lussier, Patrick; Beauregard, Eric

    2013-04-01

    This study investigates the convergent and predictive validity of behavioral crime scene indicators of sexual sadism in the context of rape and sexual homicide. The study is based on a sample of 268 adult males sentenced to a federal penitentiary in Canada. Information regarding crime scene behaviors was gathered from police records, a clinical interview with a psychologist, and a semistructured interview with the offender. A series of logistic regressions were performed to determine whether behavioral crime scene indicators of sexual sadism were associated with an official diagnosis of sexual sadism and were able to distinguish between sexual aggressors against women and sexual murderers. Findings suggest that several crime scene behaviors overlap with an official diagnosis of sexual sadism as well as being able to distinguish between sexual aggressors of women and sexual murderers. Importantly, the majority of crime scene behaviors associated with a clinical diagnosis of sexual sadism are not the same as those associated with sexual homicide.

  9. Faces in Context: Does Face Perception Depend on the Orientation of the Visual Scene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubert, Jessica; van Golde, Celine; Verstraten, Frans A J

    2016-10-01

    The mechanisms held responsible for familiar face recognition are thought to be orientation dependent; inverted faces are more difficult to recognize than their upright counterparts. Although this effect of inversion has been investigated extensively, researchers have typically sliced faces from photographs and presented them in isolation. As such, it is not known whether the perceived orientation of a face is inherited from the visual scene in which it appears. Here, we address this question by measuring performance in a simultaneous same-different task while manipulating both the orientation of the faces and the scene. We found that the face inversion effect survived scene inversion. Nonetheless, an improvement in performance when the scene was upside down suggests that sensitivity to identity increased when the faces were more easily segmented from the scene. Thus, while these data identify congruency with the visual environment as a contributing factor in recognition performance, they imply different mechanisms operate on upright and inverted faces.

  10. Implementation of Natural Scene Modeling Method Based onPhysical Properties and a Particle System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽琨; 陈定方

    2004-01-01

    In virtual environment construction of natural scenes, high realism of the scenes and real time control to the objects in the scene are needed. With a modeling method based on physical properties and a particle system, together with a mipmapping texture technique,good integration between realism and real time control of the natural scenes such as clouds and smoke can be obtained. This paper briefly introduces the basic theory of particle system first, and then describes the construction method of a cloud and smoke particle system. By changing the values of physical properties in the particle system, different shapes and motion status of cloud and smoke result. With a mipmapping technique, real time control and variety of the scenes are improved. Finally an example showing implementation of this method is presented.

  11. The forensic holodeck: an immersive display for forensic crime scene reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Lars C; Nguyen, Tuan T; Breitbeck, Robert; Braun, Marcel; Thali, Michael J; Ross, Steffen

    2014-12-01

    In forensic investigations, crime scene reconstructions are created based on a variety of three-dimensional image modalities. Although the data gathered are three-dimensional, their presentation on computer screens and paper is two-dimensional, which incurs a loss of information. By applying immersive virtual reality (VR) techniques, we propose a system that allows a crime scene to be viewed as if the investigator were present at the scene. We used a low-cost VR headset originally developed for computer gaming in our system. The headset offers a large viewing volume and tracks the user's head orientation in real-time, and an optical tracker is used for positional information. In addition, we created a crime scene reconstruction to demonstrate the system. In this article, we present a low-cost system that allows immersive, three-dimensional and interactive visualization of forensic incident scene reconstructions.

  12. Open Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderhoff, Merete

    2013-01-01

    Museums around the world hold enormous troves of public domain artworks. In digitized form, they can be powerful tools for research and learning, as well as building blocks, in the hands of students, teachers, scholars, developers, and creative people. By opening up their digitized assets for reuse......, museums have a unique opportunity to broaden the scope of their public mission to serve and educate the public on 21st century media terms. What could be controversial about that? Art museums have a long legacy of restricting access to high quality images of artworks in order to protect them from improper...

  13. Open University

    CERN Document Server

    Pentz,M

    1975-01-01

    Michel Pentz est née en Afrique du Sud et venu au Cern en 1957 comme physicien et président de l'associaion du personnel. Il est également fondateur du mouvement Antiapartheid de Genève et a participé à la fondation de l'Open University en Grande-Bretagne. Il nous parle des contextes pédagogiques, culturels et nationaux dans lesquels la méthode peut s'appliquer.

  14. Optical Properties of Drug Metabolites in Latent Fingermarks

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Yao

    2015-01-01

    Drug metabolites usually have structures of split-ring resonators (SRRs), which might lead to negative permittivity and permeability in electromagnetic field. As a result, in the UV-vis region, the latent fingermarks images of drug addicts and non drug users are inverse. The optical properties of latent fingermarks are quite different between drug addicts and non-drug users. This is a technic superiority for crime scene investigation to distinguish them. In this paper, we calculate the permittivity and permeability of drug metabolites using tight-binding model. The latent fingermarks of smokers and non-smokers are given as an example.

  15. Optical properties of drug metabolites in latent fingermarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yao; Ai, Qing

    2016-02-01

    Drug metabolites usually have structures of split-ring resonators (SRRs), which might lead to negative permittivity and permeability in electromagnetic field. As a result, in the UV-vis region, the latent fingermarks images of drug addicts and non drug users are inverse. The optical properties of latent fingermarks are quite different between drug addicts and non-drug users. This is a technic superiority for crime scene investigation to distinguish them. In this paper, we calculate the permittivity and permeability of drug metabolites using tight-binding model. The latent fingermarks of smokers and non-smokers are given as an example.

  16. SCEGRAM: An image database for semantic and syntactic inconsistencies in scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öhlschläger, Sabine; Võ, Melissa Le-Hoa

    2016-10-31

    Our visual environment is not random, but follows compositional rules according to what objects are usually found where. Despite the growing interest in how such semantic and syntactic rules - a scene grammar - enable effective attentional guidance and object perception, no common image database containing highly-controlled object-scene modifications has been publically available. Such a database is essential in minimizing the risk that low-level features drive high-level effects of interest, which is being discussed as possible source of controversial study results. To generate the first database of this kind - SCEGRAM - we took photographs of 62 real-world indoor scenes in six consistency conditions that contain semantic and syntactic (both mild and extreme) violations as well as their combinations. Importantly, always two scenes were paired, so that an object was semantically consistent in one scene (e.g., ketchup in kitchen) and inconsistent in the other (e.g., ketchup in bathroom). Low-level salience did not differ between object-scene conditions and was generally moderate. Additionally, SCEGRAM contains consistency ratings for every object-scene condition, as well as object-absent scenes and object-only images. Finally, a cross-validation using eye-movements replicated previous results of longer dwell times for both semantic and syntactic inconsistencies compared to consistent controls. In sum, the SCEGRAM image database is the first to contain well-controlled semantic and syntactic object-scene inconsistencies that can be used in a broad range of cognitive paradigms (e.g., verbal and pictorial priming, change detection, object identification, etc.) including paradigms addressing developmental aspects of scene grammar. SCEGRAM can be retrieved for research purposes from http://www.scenegrammarlab.com/research/scegram-database/ .

  17. Residual abilities in age-related macular degeneration to process spatial frequencies during natural scene categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musel, Benoit; Hera, Ruxandra; Chokron, Sylvie; Alleysson, David; Chiquet, Christophe; Romanet, Jean-Paul; Guyader, Nathalie; Peyrin, Carole

    2011-11-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is characterized by a central vision loss. We explored the relationship between the retinal lesions in AMD patients and the processing of spatial frequencies in natural scene categorization. Since the lesion on the retina is central, we expected preservation of low spatial frequency (LSF) processing and the impairment of high spatial frequency (HSF) processing. We conducted two experiments that differed in the set of scene stimuli used and their exposure duration. Twelve AMD patients and 12 healthy age-matched participants in Experiment 1 and 10 different AMD patients and 10 healthy age-matched participants in Experiment 2 performed categorization tasks of natural scenes (Indoors vs. Outdoors) filtered in LSF and HSF. Experiment 1 revealed that AMD patients made more no-responses to categorize HSF than LSF scenes, irrespective of the scene category. In addition, AMD patients had longer reaction times to categorize HSF than LSF scenes only for indoors. Healthy participants' performance was not differentially affected by spatial frequency content of the scenes. In Experiment 2, AMD patients demonstrated the same pattern of errors as in Experiment 1. Furthermore, AMD patients had longer reaction times to categorize HSF than LSF scenes, irrespective of the scene category. Again, spatial frequency processing was equivalent for healthy participants. The present findings point to a specific deficit in the processing of HSF information contained in photographs of natural scenes in AMD patients. The processing of LSF information is relatively preserved. Moreover, the fact that the deficit is more important when categorizing HSF indoors, may lead to new perspectives for rehabilitation procedures in AMD.

  18. Application of multi-resolution 3D techniques in crime scene documentation with bloodstain pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hołowko, Elwira; Januszkiewicz, Kamil; Bolewicki, Paweł; Sitnik, Robert; Michoński, Jakub

    2016-10-01

    In forensic documentation with bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) it is highly desirable to obtain non-invasively overall documentation of a crime scene, but also register in high resolution single evidence objects, like bloodstains. In this study, we propose a hierarchical 3D scanning platform designed according to the top-down approach known from the traditional forensic photography. The overall 3D model of a scene is obtained via integration of laser scans registered from different positions. Some parts of a scene being particularly interesting are documented using midrange scanner, and the smallest details are added in the highest resolution as close-up scans. The scanning devices are controlled using developed software equipped with advanced algorithms for point cloud processing. To verify the feasibility and effectiveness of multi-resolution 3D scanning in crime scene documentation, our platform was applied to document a murder scene simulated by the BPA experts from the Central Forensic Laboratory of the Police R&D, Warsaw, Poland. Applying the 3D scanning platform proved beneficial in the documentation of a crime scene combined with BPA. The multi-resolution 3D model enables virtual exploration of a scene in a three-dimensional environment, distance measurement, and gives a more realistic preservation of the evidences together with their surroundings. Moreover, high-resolution close-up scans aligned in a 3D model can be used to analyze bloodstains revealed at the crime scene. The result of BPA such as trajectories, and the area of origin are visualized and analyzed in an accurate model of a scene. At this stage, a simplified approach considering the trajectory of blood drop as a straight line is applied. Although the 3D scanning platform offers a new quality of crime scene documentation with BPA, some of the limitations of the technique are also mentioned.

  19. A hierarchical probabilistic model for rapid object categorization in natural scenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofu He

    Full Text Available Humans can categorize objects in complex natural scenes within 100-150 ms. This amazing ability of rapid categorization has motivated many computational models. Most of these models require extensive training to obtain a decision boundary in a very high dimensional (e.g., ∼6,000 in a leading model feature space and often categorize objects in natural scenes by categorizing the context that co-occurs with objects when objects do not occupy large portions of the scenes. It is thus unclear how humans achieve rapid scene categorization.To address this issue, we developed a hierarchical probabilistic model for rapid object categorization in natural scenes. In this model, a natural object category is represented by a coarse hierarchical probability distribution (PD, which includes PDs of object geometry and spatial configuration of object parts. Object parts are encoded by PDs of a set of natural object structures, each of which is a concatenation of local object features. Rapid categorization is performed as statistical inference. Since the model uses a very small number (∼100 of structures for even complex object categories such as animals and cars, it requires little training and is robust in the presence of large variations within object categories and in their occurrences in natural scenes. Remarkably, we found that the model categorized animals in natural scenes and cars in street scenes with a near human-level performance. We also found that the model located animals and cars in natural scenes, thus overcoming a flaw in many other models which is to categorize objects in natural context by categorizing contextual features. These results suggest that coarse PDs of object categories based on natural object structures and statistical operations on these PDs may underlie the human ability to rapidly categorize scenes.

  20. Falling out of time: enhanced memory for scenes presented at behaviorally irrelevant points in time in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat Levy-Gigi

    Full Text Available Spontaneous encoding of the visual environment depends on the behavioral relevance of the task performed simultaneously. If participants identify target letters or auditory tones while viewing a series of briefly presented natural and urban scenes, they demonstrate effective scene recognition only when a target, but not a behaviorally irrelevant distractor, appears together with the scene. Here, we show that individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, who witnessed the red sludge disaster in Hungary, show the opposite pattern of performance: enhanced recognition of scenes presented together with distractors and deficient recognition of scenes presented with targets. The recognition of trauma-related and neutral scenes was not different in individuals with PTSD. We found a positive correlation between memory for scenes presented with auditory distractors and re-experiencing symptoms (memory intrusions and flashbacks. These results suggest that abnormal encoding of visual scenes at behaviorally irrelevant events might be associated with intrusive experiences by disrupting the flow of time.