Sample records for opah lampris guttatus

  1. Animal physiology. Whole-body endothermy in a mesopelagic fish, the opah, Lampris guttatus.

    Wegner, Nicholas C; Snodgrass, Owyn E; Dewar, Heidi; Hyde, John R


    Endothermy (the metabolic production and retention of heat to warm body temperature above ambient) enhances physiological function, and whole-body endothermy generally sets mammals and birds apart from other animals. Here, we describe a whole-body form of endothermy in a fish, the opah (Lampris guttatus), that produces heat through the constant "flapping" of wing-like pectoral fins and minimizes heat loss through a series of counter-current heat exchangers within its gills. Unlike other fish, opah distribute warmed blood throughout the body, including to the heart, enhancing physiological performance and buffering internal organ function while foraging in the cold, nutrient-rich waters below the ocean thermocline.

  2. Opah Tissue Samples Collected and Information Regarding Lampris spp. Obtained from Various Entities

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In order to determine variations in distribution of the newly discovered Lampris spp., numerous research institutions, observer programs, and museums were contacted...

  3. Longline Observer (HI & Am. Samoa) Opah Fin Clip Collection for Lampris spp. Distribution Study

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data set containing information collected from the 1000+ fin clips collected by Hawaii & American Samoa Longline Observers that will be used to analyze the...

  4. Air-water exchange of PAHs and OPAHs at a superfund mega-site.

    Tidwell, Lane G; Blair Paulik, L; Anderson, Kim A


    Chemical fate is a concern at environmentally contaminated sites, but characterizing that fate can be difficult. Identifying and quantifying the movement of chemicals at the air-water interface are important steps in characterizing chemical fate. Superfund sites are often suspected sources of air pollution due to legacy sediment and water contamination. A quantitative assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxygenated PAH (OPAHs) diffusive flux in a river system that contains a Superfund Mega-site, and passes through residential, urban and agricultural land, has not been reported before. Here, passive sampling devices (PSDs) were used to measure 60 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 22 oxygenated PAH (OPAHs) in air and water. From these concentrations the magnitude and direction of contaminant flux between these two compartments was calculated. The magnitude of PAH flux was greater at sites near or within the Superfund Mega-site than outside of the Superfund Mega-site. The largest net individual PAH deposition at a single site was naphthalene at a rate of -14,200 (±5780) (ng/m(2))/day. The estimated one-year total flux of phenanthrene was -7.9×10(5) (ng/m(2))/year. Human health risk associated with inhalation of vapor phase PAHs and dermal exposure to PAHs in water were assessed by calculating benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentrations. Excess lifetime cancer risk estimates show potential increased risk associated with exposure to PAHs at sites within and in close proximity to the Superfund Mega-site. Specifically, estimated excess lifetime cancer risk associated with dermal exposure and inhalation of PAHs was above 1 in 1 million within the Superfund Mega-site. The predominant depositional flux profile observed in this study suggests that the river water in this Superfund site is largely a sink for airborne PAHs, rather than a source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Samuel Lante


    Full Text Available Untuk menghasilkan benih ikan beronang Siganus guttatus yang baik, maka penanganan induk yang meliputi: pemeliharaan, pematangan gonad dengan implan pelet hormon LHRH-a, dan penambahan vitamin C dalam pakan serta pemeriksaan siap pijah sangat penting. Pengamatan perkembangan embrio dalam telur dan larva pada tahap awal, penyediaan pakan alami serta pemeliharaan larva merupakan tahap lanjutan dari pemeliharaan larva yang baik, maka benih-benih ikan Siganus guttatus yang dihasilkan juga akan baik.

  6. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and thermal behavior of metal complexes formed with N'-(1-(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethylidene)-2-oxo-2-(phenylamino) acetohydrazide (H3OPAH).

    Ahmed, Sara F; El-Gammal, Ola A; Abu El-Reash, Gaber


    Complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Mn(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Hg(II) and U(IV)O(2)(2+) with N'-(1-(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethylidene)-2-oxo-2-(phenylamino) acetohydrazide (H(3)OPAH) are reported and have been characterized by various spectroscopic techniques like IR, UV-visible, (1)H NMR and ESR as well as magnetic and thermal (TG and DTA) measurements. It is found that the ligand behaves as a neutral bidentate, monoanionic tridentate or tetradentate and dianionic tetradentate. An octahedral geometry for [Mn(H(3)OPAH)(2)Cl(2)], [Co(2)(H(2)OPAH)(2)Cl(2)(H(2)O)(4)] and [(UO(2))(2)(HOPAH)(OAc)(2)(H(2)O)(2)] complexes, a square planar geometry for [Cu(2)(H(2)OPAH)Cl(3)(H(2)O)]H(2)O complex, a tetrahedral structure for [Cd(H(3)OPAH)Cl(2)], [Zn(H(3)OPAH)(OAc)(2)] and [Hg(H(3)OPAH)Cl(2)]H(2)O complexes. The binuclear [Ni(2)(HOPAH)Cl(2)(H(2)O)(2)]H(2)O complex contains a mixed geometry of both tetrahedral and square planar structures. The protonation constants of ligand and stepwise stability constants of its complexes at 298, 308 and 318 K as well as the thermodynamic parameters are being calculated. The bond lengths, bond angles, HOMO, LUMO and dipole moments have been calculated to confirm the geometry of the ligand and the investigated complexes. Also, thermal properties and decomposition kinetics of all compounds are investigated. The interpretation, mathematical analysis and evaluation of kinetic parameters (E(a), A, ΔH, ΔS and ΔG) of all thermal decomposition stages have been evaluated using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger methods.

  7. Particle size distribution of nitrated and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs and OPAHs on traffic and suburban sites of a European megacity: Paris (France

    J. Ringuet


    Full Text Available The size distribution of particulate nitrated and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs and OPAHs was determined during two field campaigns at a traffic site in summer 2010 and at a suburban site during the MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation experiment in summer 2009. Both, OPAHs and NPAHs were strongly associated (>85% to fine particles (Dp< 2.5 μm increasing the interest of their study on a sanitary point of view. Results showed really different NPAH and OPAH particle size distributions between both sites. At traffic site, clearly bimodal (notably for NPAHs particle size distributions (Dp = 0.14 and 1.4 μm were observed, while the particle size distributions were more scattered at the suburban site, especially for OPAHs. Bimodal particle size distribution observed at traffic site for the NPAH could be assigned to the vehicle emissions and the particle resuspension. Broadest distribution observed at the suburban site could be attributed to the mass transfer of compounds by volatilization/sorption processes during the transport of particles in the atmosphere. Results also showed that the combination of the study of particle size distributions applied to marker compounds (primary: 1-nitropyrene; secondary: 2-nitrofluoranthene and to NPAH or OPAH chemical profiles bring some indications on their primary and/or secondary origin. Indeed, 1,4-anthraquinone seemed only primary emitted by vehicles while 7-nitrobenz[a]anthracene, benz[a]antracen7,12-dione and benzo[b]fluorenone seemed secondarily formed in the atmosphere.

  8. Inbreeding in Mimulus guttatus reduces visitation by bumble bee pollinators.

    David E Carr

    Full Text Available Inbreeding in plants typically reduces individual fitness but may also alter ecological interactions. This study examined the effect of inbreeding in the mixed-mating annual Mimulus guttatus on visitation by pollinators (Bombus impatiens in greenhouse experiments. Previous studies of M. guttatus have shown that inbreeding reduced corolla size, flower number, and pollen quantity and quality. Using controlled crosses, we produced inbred and outbred families from three different M. guttatus populations. We recorded the plant genotypes that bees visited and the number of flowers probed per visit. In our first experiment, bees were 31% more likely to visit outbred plants than those selfed for one generation and 43% more likely to visit outbred plants than those selfed for two generations. Inbreeding had only a small effect on the number of flowers probed once bees arrived at a genotype. These differences were explained partially by differences in mean floral display and mean flower size, but even when these variables were controlled statistically, the effect of inbreeding remained large and significant. In a second experiment we quantified pollen viability from inbred and self plants. Bees were 37-54% more likely to visit outbred plants, depending on the population, even when controlling for floral display size. Pollen viability proved to be as important as floral display in predicting pollinator visitation in one population, but the overall explanatory power of a multiple regression model was weak. Our data suggested that bees use cues in addition to display size, flower size, and pollen reward quality in their discrimination of inbred plants. Discrimination against inbred plants could have effects on plant fitness and thereby reinforce selection for outcrossing. Inbreeding in plant populations could also reduce resource quality for pollinators, potentially resulting in negative effects on pollinator populations.

  9. Admixture between native and invasive populations may increase invasiveness of Mimulus guttatus.

    van Kleunen, Mark; Röckle, Michael; Stift, Marc


    Self-fertilization and admixture of genotypes from different populations can have major fitness consequences in native species. However, few studies have addressed their potential roles in invasive species. Here, we used plants of Mimulus guttatus from seven native North American, three invasive Scottish and four invasive New Zealand populations to address this. We created seeds from self-fertilization, within-population outcrossing, between-population outcrossing within the same range, and outcrossing between the native and invasive ranges. A greenhouse experiment showed that native and invasive plants of M. guttatus suffered to similar degrees from inbreeding depression, in terms of asexual reproduction and biomass production. After outcrossing with plants from other populations, M. guttatus benefited from heterosis, in terms of asexual and sexual reproduction, and biomass production, particularly when plants from native and invasive populations were crossed. This suggests that, when novel genotypes of M. guttatus from the native North American range will be introduced to the invasive ranges, subsequent outcrossing with M. guttatus plants that are already there might further boost invasiveness of this species.

  10. Isolation and characterization of eight polymorphic microsatellites for the spotted spiny lobster, Panulirus guttatus

    Nathan Truelove


    Full Text Available Microsatellite sequences were isolated from enriched genomic libraries of the spotted spiny lobster, Panulirus guttatus using 454 pyrosequencing. Twenty-nine previously developed polymerase chain reaction primer pairs of Panulirus argus microsatellite loci were also tested for cross-species amplification in Panulirus guttatus. In total, eight consistently amplifying, and polymorphic loci were characterized for 57 individuals collected in the Florida Keys and Bermuda. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 8 to 20 and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.409 to 0.958. Significant deviations from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium were found in one locus from Florida and three loci from Bermuda. Quality control testing indicated that all loci were easy to score, highly polymorphic and showed no evidence of linkage disequilibrium. Null alleles were detected in three loci with moderate frequencies ranging from (20% to 22%. These eight microsatellites provide novel molecular markers for future conservation genetics research of P. guttatus.

  11. Helminth parasite communities of spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus from the Mexican Pacific

    Morales-Serna F. N.


    Full Text Available The helminth communities of L. guttatus from Mazatlan Bay (MB and Banderas Bay (BB, on the Pacific coast of Mexico, were studied during two consecutive years. A total of 536 fish were collected and 19 parasite taxa registered (six digeneans, two cestodes, nine nematodes, and two monogeneans. Infection levels of common helminth species (Helicometrina nimia, Siphodera vinaledwardsii, Tetraphyllidea gen. sp., Pseudoterranova sp., Ancyrocephalidae gen. sp. and Microcotyloides incisa as well as the infracommunity indices varied significantly between MB and BB, and among dry and rainy seasons; however, no clear seasonal patterns were observed. Pseudoterranova larvae appeared frequently in MB, possibly because of the presence of the California sea lion in this locality. Similarity analysis did not show a clear separation of parasite species composition between both localities, which suggest that fish samples came from a single population of L. guttatus.

  12. Leaf shape evolution has a similar genetic architecture in three edaphic specialists within the Mimulus guttatus species complex.

    Ferris, Kathleen G; Rushton, Tullia; Greenlee, Anna B; Toll, Katherine; Blackman, Benjamin K; Willis, John H


    The genetic basis of leaf shape has long interested botanists because leaf shape varies extensively across the plant kingdom and this variation is probably adaptive. However, knowledge of the genetic architecture of leaf shape variation in natural populations remains limited. This study examined the genetic architecture of leaf shape diversification among three edaphic specialists in the Mimulus guttatus species complex. Lobed and narrow leaves have evolved from the entire, round leaves of M. guttatus in M. laciniatus, M. nudatus and a polymorphic serpentine M. guttatus population (M2L). Bulk segregant analysis and next-generation sequencing were used to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that underlie leaf shape in an M. laciniatus × M. guttatus F2 population. To determine whether the same QTLs contribute to leaf shape variation in M. nudatus and M2L, F2s from M. guttatus × M. nudatus and lobed M2L × unlobed M. guttatus crosses were genotyped at QTLs from the bulk segregant analysis. Narrow and lobed leaf shapes in M. laciniatus, M. nudatus and M. guttatus are controlled by overlapping genetic regions. Several promising leaf shape candidate genes were found under each QTL. The evolution of divergent leaf shape has taken place multiple times in the M. guttatus species complex and is associated with the occupation of dry, rocky environments. The genetic architecture of elongated and lobed leaves is similar across three species in this group. This may indicate that parallel genetic evolution from standing variation or new mutations is responsible for the putatively adaptive leaf shape variation in Mimulus. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  13. Masculinization of female golden rabbitfish Siganus guttatus using an aromatase inhibitor treatment during sex differentiation.

    Komatsu, Toru; Nakamura, Shigeo; Nakamura, Masaru


    To elucidate the involvement of endogenous estrogen (estradiol-17beta; E2) and the decisive factor (somatic or germinal element) in the ovarian differentiation of tropical marine teleosts, the effect of the aromatase inhibitor (AI) fadrozole on gonadal sex differentiation in the golden rabbitfish Siganus guttatus (Bloch) was examined for different dosages and periods of treatment. Fadrozole interrupted ovarian cavity formation at a dose of 500 microg g(-1) diet, while there was little effect at 10 or 100 microg g(-1). The gonads from both the 30-day and 90-day administration (500 microg g(-1) diet) groups were significantly biased toward testes (P=0.002 and <0.0001, respectively), which suggests strongly that E2 is involved in early ovarian differentiation and that its suppression is an indispensable condition for testicular differentiation in S. guttatus. The results from the two different AI treatment periods imply that the initial feminization of somatic gonadal elements determines subsequent ovarian differentiation, including oogenesis: a conclusion supported by the considerable time lag between ovarian cavity formation and subsequent oogenesis during normal ovarian differentiation in S. guttatus.

  14. Cultivo del pargo de la mancha Lutjanus guttatus (pisces: Lutjanidae en jaulas flotantes.

    Ricardo Gutiérrez Vargas


    Full Text Available En dos ensayos paralelos realizados frente a Playa Pájaros, en el Golfo de Nicoya, se engordaron pargos manchados (Lutjanus guttatus obtenidos del medio hasta 275 y 485 g, respectivamente, usando fauna de descarte obtenida de barcos camaroneros. La tasa de crecimiento fue de 1,87 y 1,7 g/día, respectivamente, el factor de conversión fue de 7,88 (alimento húmedo o 1,77 (alimento seco. La mortalidad se estimó en un 6% en todo el experimento. Se calcularon los costos de alimentación usando la fauna de descarte.

  15. Comparative Transcriptomics Indicates a Role for SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP Genes in Mimulus guttatus Vernalization Response

    Jill C. Preston


    Full Text Available The timing of reproduction in response to variable environmental conditions is critical to plant fitness, and is a major driver of taxon differentiation. In the yellow monkey flower, Mimulus guttatus, geographically distinct North American populations vary in their photoperiod and chilling (vernalization requirements for flowering, suggesting strong local adaptation to their surroundings. Previous analyses revealed quantitative trait loci (QTL underlying short-day mediated vernalization responsiveness using two annual M. guttatus populations that differed in their vernalization response. To narrow down candidate genes responsible for this variation, and to reveal potential downstream genes, we conducted comparative transcriptomics and quantitative PCR (qPCR in shoot apices of parental vernalization responsive IM62, and unresponsive LMC24 inbred lines grown under different photoperiods and temperatures. Our study identified several metabolic, hormone signaling, photosynthetic, stress response, and flowering time genes that are differentially expressed between treatments, suggesting a role for their protein products in short-day-mediated vernalization responsiveness. Only a small subset of these genes intersected with candidate genes from the previous QTL study, and, of the main candidates tested with qPCR under nonpermissive conditions, only SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP gene expression met predictions for a population-specific short-day-repressor of flowering that is repressed by cold.

  16. [Reproductive biology of Lutjanus guttatus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in Utria National Park, Colombian Pacific].

    Correa-Herrera, Tatiana; Jiménez-Segura, Luz Fernanda


    Protected areas are important for natural population conservation since they work as refuge, feeding and breeding areas, where specimens should be exempt from human pressure. The generation of better criteria for management decisions and conservation of fishery resources, is based on the reproductive aspects of species that support fishing activities, since this information is related to the abundance, size and frequency of capture. With this aim, the reproductive biology of the spotted snapper Lutjanus guttatus was studied from April 2008 and February 2009 at the Utría National Park, Colombian Pacific. For this, we analyzed the volume of catch, size structure, sex ratio, fecundity, maturity size, breeding areas and seasons (n = 278), of daily landings of 21 units of artisanal fisheries in ten fishing grounds in the Park. Form all landings, we evaluated a total of 4319 individuals belonging to 84 species. Based on the number of individuals, Lutjanus guttatus ranked third in catches representing 6.4% (278 individuals), and 16th with 1.8% (95.79kg), based on catch biomass. The average weight was 0.34 kg +/- 0.25 kg, while 29 cm +/- 6.4 cm for total length. The total length-weight relationship had the best fit (Kruskal-Wallis, p fish and high condition factors suggested a spawning season in June, September and October in sandy and rocky shores. This species showed an asynchronical gonadal development, with a mean sexual maturity size estimated in 23.5cm total length, and an absolute fecundity of 156 253.11 oocytes (mode of 4 microm diameter). We concluded that L. guttatus medium sizes observed indicated a fishing pressure on small size specimens (the minimum size being 18cm); thus, we recommend the implementation of minimum catch sizes based on the criterion of size at maturity LT100 (25.5 cm) and to apply seasonal fishing closures during the highest reproductive activity (June-October). However, it is necessary to obtain additional biological information with multi

  17. Inducción al desove en hembras del pargo mancha, Lutjanus guttatus (Steindachner, 1869 (ING

    Silvia Valverde Chavarría


    Full Text Available The effect of carp pituitary extract (EPC was studied in six mature females of the spotted snapper, Lutjanus guttatus, caught by bottom long lines by artesanal fishermen in the Nicoya gulf. The female weights were between 1.7 and 2.0 kg. Three females were injected with 800 UI EPC/Kg body weight, the rest were used as a control group. The frequency distribution of oocyte diameters and their maturity status were assessed immediatedly before and 24 h and 48 h after the application of the hormonal treatment. Two of the injected females spawned once, 24 hours after the application of the hormonal stimulus, expelling 115,500-125,500 eggs, with a mean diameter of 0.724 mm.

  18. The potential for adaptive evolution of pollen grain size in Mimulus guttatus.

    Lamborn, Ellen; Cresswell, James E; Macnair, Mark R


    We tested whether pollen grain size (PGS) shows heritable variation in three independent populations of Mimulus guttatus by imposing artificial selection for this character. In addition, we looked for correlated responses to selection in a range of 15 other floral characters. Heritable variation in PGS was found in all three populations, with heritabilities of between 19 and 40% (average 30%). After three generations, upward and downward lines differed on average by 30% in pollen volume. No consistent patterns of correlated response were found in other characters, indicating that PGS can respond to selective forces acting on PGS alone. Possible selection mechanisms on PGS in this species could include intermale selection, if large pollen grains produce more competitive gametophytes; or optimization of patterns of resource allocation, if local mate competition varies.

  19. Crecimiento de juveniles de pargo mancha (Lutjanus guttatus utilizando alimento granulado en condiciones de laboratorio.

    Oscar Olivares Paulette


    Full Text Available El crecimiento de juveniles de pargo mancha (Lutjanus guttatus, peso inicial 42g, coeficiente de variación 13,8%, alimentados con alimento granulado, se evaluó en dependencia de la ración por un período de 14 días: Se aplicaron 5 tasas de alimentación entre 0 y 5% del peso corporal/día. La tasa de crecimiento específica aumentó desde valores negativos en ayunas (-0,32% PC/día hasta un máximo de 2,05% PC/día. La tasa óptima de crecimiento se estimó en 1,09% PC/día. El factor de conversión en condiciones de crecimiento óptimo y máximo fue de 0,94 y 1,86, respectivamente.

  20. Estado actual del cultivo de larvas del pargo flamenco (Lutjanus guttatus

    María Isabel Abdo-de la Parra


    Full Text Available El pargo flamenco (Lutjanus guttatus es un pez marino con alta demanda en los mercados de algunos países de Latinoamérica. Debido a su importancia se inició su cultivo en jaulas flotantes usando juveniles silvestres. A partir de la década pasada se iniciaron los primeros estudios para lograr su reproducción en cautiverio y la producción masiva de juveniles que puedan sustentar el cultivo completo. El presente trabajo presenta los resultados obtenidos hasta la fecha sobre desove, manejo e incubación de huevos y protocolos de larvicultura del pargo flamenco en Latinoamérica.

  1. Lunar synchronization of in vitro steroidogenesis in ovaries of the golden rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus (Bloch).

    Rahman, Md Saydur; Takemura, Akihiro; Takano, Kazunori


    To assess the relationship between lunar cycle and steroidogenesis in the ovaries of the golden rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus, the intact follicles of oocytes were incubated in vitro with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and seven steroid hormones, 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP), 17alpha,20beta,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (20beta-S), 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17alpha-OHP), progesterone (P), cortisol, estradiol-17beta (E2) and testosterone, during the two lunar phases, the new moon (1 week before spawning) and the first lunar quarter (just before spawning). Around the new moon, germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) could not be induced by addition of hCG or any steroid hormones. Around the first lunar quarter, GVBD was induced by addition of hCG, DHP, 20beta-S, 17alpha-OHP, P, and cortisol. DHP was the most potent steroid hormone. When the intact follicles of oocytes were incubated with hCG in both lunar phases, the production of E2 and DHP measured by enzyme immunoassay decreased and increased significantly from the new moon to the first lunar quarter, respectively. These results suggest that the ovarian follicles produce E2 around the new moon and DHP around the first lunar quarter and that the production/conversion of the steroid hormones is under the influence of gonadotropin(s). The synchronous increase in ovarian activity supports the hypothesis that lunar periodicity is a major factor for the ovarian development of S. guttatus.

  2. Expression of myostatin in the spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus during larval and juvenile development under cultured conditions.

    Torres-Velarde, J; Ibarra-Castro, L; Rodríguez-Ibarra, E; Sifuentes-Romero, I; Hernández-Cornejo, R; García-Gasca, A


    In this study, the developmental expression pattern of myostatin (mstn) in the spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus under culture conditions is presented. The full coding sequence of mstn from L. guttatus was isolated from muscle tissue, obtaining 1134 nucleotides which encode a peptide of 377 amino acids. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that this sequence corresponds to mstn-1. mstn expression was detected in embryonic stages, and maintained at low levels until 28 days post-hatch, when it showed a significant increase, coinciding with the onset of metamorphosis. After that, expression was fluctuating, coinciding probably with periods of rapid and slow muscle growth or individual growth rates. mstn expression was also analysed by body mass with higher levels detected in smaller animals, irrespective of age. mstn was also expressed in other tissues from L. guttatus, presenting higher levels in brain, eye and gill. In brain for instance, two variants of mstn were isolated, both coding sequences were identical to muscle, except that one of them contained a 75 nucleotide deletion in exon 1, maintaining the reading frame but deleting two conserved cysteine residues. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that this brain variant was also mstn-1. The function of this variant is not clear and needs further investigation. These results indicate that mstn-1 participates in different physiological processes other than muscle growth in fishes.

  3. Ontogeny changes and weaning effects in gene expression patterns of digestive enzymes and regulatory digestive factors in spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) larvae.

    Moguel-Hernández, I; Peña, R; Andree, K B; Tovar-Ramirez, D; Bonacic, K; Dumas, S; Gisbert, E


    The study of digestive physiology is an important issue in species that have been introduced in aquaculture like the spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus). The aims of this study were to describe the expression of digestive enzymes (trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, α-amylase, lipoprotein lipase, phospholipase A and pepsinogen) and their relation with orexigenic (neuropeptide Y, NPY) and anorexigenic (cholecystokinin, CCK) factors during the larval development and to evaluate the effect of weaning in their expression. The results showed that the transcripts of all the assayed digestive enzymes, with the exception of pepsinogen, and NPY and CCK were already present in L. guttatus from the hatching stage. The expression of all the enzymes was low during the yolk-sac stage (0-2 days after hatching, DAH), whereas after the onset of exogenous feeding at 2 DAH, their expression increased and fluctuated throughout larval development, which followed a similar pattern as in other marine fish species and reflected changes in different types of food items and the progressive maturation of the digestive system. On the other hand, weaning of L. guttatus larvae from live prey onto a microdiet between 25 and 35 DAH significantly affected the relative expression of most pancreatic digestive enzymes during the first weaning days, whereas chymotrypsinogen 2 and lipoprotein lipase remained stable during this period. At the end of co-feeding, larvae showed similar levels of gene expression regardless of the diet (live prey vs. microdiet), which indicated that larvae of L. guttatus were able to adapt their digestive capacities to the microdiet. In contrast, feeding L. guttatus larvae with live feed or microdiet did not affect the expression of CCK and NPY. The relevance of these findings with regard to current larval rearing procedures of L. guttatus is discussed.

  4. Morphological specializations of the yolk sac for yolk processing in embryonic corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus: Colubridae).

    Powers, Kathryn G; Blackburn, Daniel G


    Non-avian reptiles commonly are assumed to be like birds in their overall patterns of development. However, colubrid corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) have mechanisms of yolk cellularization and processing that are entirely different from the avian pattern. In birds, a vascular "yolk sac" surrounds and digests the liquid yolk. In contrast, in corn snakes, the yolk material is converted into vascularized cords of yolk-filled cells. In this study, we used stereomicroscopy, histology, and scanning electron microscopy to analyze this unusual developmental pattern in corn snakes. Our observations reveal that the yolk sac cavity is invaded by endodermal cells that proliferate, absorb yolk spheres, and form aggregates of interconnected cells within the liquid yolk mass. As development proceeds, small blood vessels arise from the yolk sac omphalopleure, penetrate into the yolk mass, and become tightly encased in the endodermal cells. The entire vitellus ultimately becomes converted into a mass of vascularized, "spaghetti-like" strands of yolk-laden cells. The resulting arrangement allows yolk to be digested intracellularly and yolk products to be transported to the developing embryo. Indirect evidence for this pattern in other species raises the possibility that it is ancestral for squamates and quite possibly Reptilia in general.

  5. Isolation, cDNA cloning, and growth promoting activity of rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus) growth hormone.

    Ayson, F G; de Jesus, E G; Amemiya, Y; Moriyama, S; Hirano, T; Kawauchi, H


    We report the isolation, cDNA cloning, and growth promoting activity of rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus; Teleostei; Perciformes; Siganidae) growth hormone (GH). Rabbitfish GH was extracted from pituitary glands under alkaline conditions, fractionated by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100, and purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The fractions containing GH were identified by immunoblotting with bonito GH antiserum. Under nonreducing conditions, the molecular weight of rabbitfish GH is about 19 kDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE. The purified hormone was potent in promoting growth in rabbitfish fry. Weekly intraperitoneal injections of the hormone significantly accelerated growth. This was evident 3 weeks after the start of the treatment, and its effect was still significant 2 weeks after the treatment was terminated. Rabbitfish GH cDNA was cloned to determine its nucleotide sequence. Excluding the poly (A) tail, rabbitfish GH cDNA is 860 base pairs (bp) long. It contained untranslated regions of 94 and 175 bp in the 5' and 3' ends, respectively. It has an open reading frame of 588 bp coding for a signal peptide of 18 amino acids and a mature protein of 178 amino acid residues. Rabbitfish GH has 4 cysteine residues. On the amino acid level, rabbitfish GH shows high identity (71-74%) with GHs of other perciforms, such as tuna, sea bass, yellow tail, bonito, and tilapia, and less (47-49%) identity with salmonid and carp GHs.

  6. Isolation and cDNA cloning of somatolactin in rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus).

    Ayson, F G; de Jesus, E G; Amemiya, Y; Moriyama, S; Hirano, T; Kawauchi, H


    We report the isolation and cDNA cloning of somatolactin (SL) from rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus. Rabbitfish SL was isolated from an alkaline extract of the pituitary glands by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100 and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. SL was monitored by immunoblotting with flounder SL antiserum. The preparation (yield: 0.86 mg/g wet tissues) contained two immunoreactive bands of 24 and 28 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Overlapping partial cDNA clones corresponding to teleost SLs were amplified by PCR from single-strand cDNA from pituitary glands. Excluding the poly(A) tail, rabbitfish SL cDNA is 1605 bp long. It contains a 693-bp open reading frame encoding a signal peptide of 24 amino acids (aa) and a mature protein of 207 aa. Rabbitfish SL has two possible N-glycosylation sites at positions 11 and 121 and seven half Cys residues. The deduced amino acid sequence shows over 80% identity with those of advanced teleosts like sea bream, red drum, and flounder, 76% with the salmonids, 57% with the eel, and 46% with the goldfish SL.

  7. Molecular cloning and daily variations of the Period gene in a reef fish Siganus guttatus.

    Park, Ji-Gweon; Park, Yong-Ju; Sugama, Nozomi; Kim, Se-Jae; Takemura, Akihiro


    As the first step in understanding the molecular oscillation of the circa rhythms in the golden rabbitfish Siganus guttatus--a reef fish with a definite lunar-related rhythmicity--we cloned and sequenced a Period gene (rfPer). The rfPer gene contained an open reading frame that encodes a protein consisting of 1,452 amino acids; this protein is highly homologous to PER proteins of vertebrates including zebrafish. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the rfPER protein is related to the zebrafish PER1 and PER4. The expression of rfPer mRNA in the whole brain, retina, and liver under light/dark (LD) conditions increased at 06:00 h and decreased at 18:00 h, suggesting that its robust circadian rhythm occurs in neural and peripheral tissues. When daily variation in the expression in rfPer mRNA in the whole brain and cultured pineal gland were examined under LD conditions, similar expression patterns of the gene were observed with an increase around dawn. Under constant light condition, the increased expression of rfPer mRNA in the whole brain disappeared around dawn. The present results demonstrate that rfPer is related to zPer4 and possibly zPer1. The present study is the first report on the Period gene from a marine fish.

  8. Development of digestive enzyme activity in spotted rose snapper, Lutjanus guttatus (Steindachner, 1869) larvae.

    Moguel-Hernández, I; Peña, R; Nolasco-Soria, H; Dumas, S; Zavala-Leal, I


    We describe digestive enzyme activity during the larval development of spotted rose snapper, Lutjanus guttatus. Trypsin, chymotrypsin, leucine aminopeptidase, pepsin, amylase, lipase, and acid and alkaline phosphatase activities were evaluated using spectrophotometric techniques from hatching through 30 days. The spotted rose snapper larvae present the same pattern of digestive enzyme activity previously reported for other species in which pancreatic (i.e., trypsin, chymotrypsin, amylase, and lipase) and intestinal (i.e., acid and alkaline phosphatases and leucine aminopeptidase) enzymatic activities are present from hatching allowing the larvae to digest and absorb nutrients in the yolk-sac and live prey by the time of first feeding. The digestive and absorption capacity of the spotted rose snapper increases during the larval development. A significant increase in individual activity of all enzymes occurs at 20 DAH, and around 25 DAH, the juvenile-type of digestion is observed with the appearance of pepsin secreted by the stomach, suggesting that maturation of the digestive function occurs around 20-25 DAH. Our results are in agreement with a previous suggestion that early weaning may be possible from 20 DAH. However, the patterns of enzymatic activities reported in our study should be considered during the formulation of an artificial diet for early weaning of the spotted rose snapper.

  9. A Segregating Inversion Generates Fitness Variation in Yellow Monkeyflower (Mimulus guttatus).

    Lee, Young Wha; Fishman, Lila; Kelly, John K; Willis, John H


    Polymorphic chromosomal rearrangements can bind hundreds of genes into single genetic loci with diverse effects. Rearrangements are often associated with local adaptation and speciation and may also be an important component of genetic variation within populations. We genetically and phenotypically characterize a segregating inversion (inv6) in the Iron Mountain (IM) population of Mimulus guttatus (yellow monkeyflower). We initially mapped inv6 as a region of recombination suppression in three F2 populations resulting from crosses among IM plants. In each case, the F1 parent was heterozygous for a derived haplotype, homogenous across markers spanning over 5 Mb of chromsome 6. In the three F2 populations, inv6 reduced male and female fitness components. In addition,i nv6 carriers suffered an ∼30% loss of pollen viability in the field. Despite these costs, inv6 exists at moderate frequency (∼8%) in the natural population, suggesting counterbalancing fitness benefits that maintain the polymorphism. Across 4 years of monitoring in the field, inv6 had an overall significant positive effect on seed production (lifetime female fitness) of carriers. This benefit was particularly strong in harsh years and may be mediated (in part) by strong positive effects on flower production. These data suggest that opposing fitness effects maintain an intermediate frequency, and as a consequence, inv6 generates inbreeding depression and high genetic variance. We discuss these findings in relation to the theory of inbreeding depression and the maintenance of fitness variation.

  10. Hábitos alimentarios de los peces Lutjanus peru y Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces:Lutjanidaeen Guerrero,México

    Agustín A Rojas-Herrera


    Full Text Available Se analiza la composición de la dieta del huachinango (Lutjanus peru y del flamenco (Lutjanus guttatus en la costa de Guerrero,México.Los ejemplares se obtuvieron mensualmente de las capturas comerciales en tres regiones de pesca y presentaron intervalos de talla comprendidos entre 130 y 684 mm de longitud horquilla (LHpara el caso de L.peru ,y de 120 a 550 mm para L. guttatus .A partir del número y del peso de los distintos componentes alimentarios,identificados hasta el taxon más bajo posible,se calcularon los porcentajes numéricos (%N,gravimétricos (%Py de frecuencia de ocurrencia (%FOque fueron sintetizados como valores de importancia relativa.En los estómagos de L.peru se identificaron 68 ítems alimentarios dentro de los cuales predominan los peces (%P =50.9,los crustáceos (%P =35.6y los moluscos (%P =7.2mientras que el espectro alimentario de L.guttatus estuvo integrado por 88 componentes que incluyeron principalmente peces (%P =50.8y crustáceos (%P =43.4.Ambas especies son depredadoras generalistas,con un amplio espectro de presas.Los valores de los índices de traslape de las dietas de estas especies sugieren que no existe un alto grado de competencia intraespecífica por el alimento.Con el fin de encontrar similitudes en la dieta de estos lutjánidos en varias localidades de México y Costa Rica,se realizó un análisis de conglomerados con los valores de importancia relativa de las presas,publicados en varios trabajos.Se encontró más afinidad en la dieta de aquellas especies que habitan en una misma localidad, que entre organismos de la misma especie distribuidos en diferentes zonas.Se infiere que la disponibilidad de las presas,más que la selectividad por el alimento,determina la dieta de estas especies.Feeding habits of the fishes Lutjanus peru and Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces:Lutjanidaeof Guerrero, México.Diet composition of the Pacific snapper (Lutjanus peru 130-684 mm fork length (FLand the spotted snapper (Lutjanus

  11. Combination of glazing, nisin treatment and radiation processing for shelf-life extension of seer fish (Scomberomorous guttatus) steaks

    Kakatkar, Aarti S.; Gautam, Raj Kamal; Shashidhar, Ravindranath


    Fish and fishery products are most perishable. Combination of chilling with gamma irradiation, edible coatings, addition of antimicrobials etc has been applied to extend the shelf life. In the present study, a process to enhance the shelf life of seer fish (Scomberomorus guttatus) steaks using combination of coating prepared from gel dispersion of same fish; incorporated with nisin and gamma irradiation is described. A combination of glazing incorporated with nisin and irradiation at 2 kGy and 5 kGy increased the shelf life of the steaks from 7 days up to 34 and 42 days respectively on chilled storage.

  12. The standing pool of genomic structural variation in a natural population of Mimulus guttatus.

    Flagel, Lex E; Willis, John H; Vision, Todd J


    Major unresolved questions in evolutionary genetics include determining the contributions of different mutational sources to the total pool of genetic variation in a species, and understanding how these different forms of genetic variation interact with natural selection. Recent work has shown that structural variants (SVs) (insertions, deletions, inversions, and transpositions) are a major source of genetic variation, often outnumbering single nucleotide variants in terms of total bases affected. Despite the near ubiquity of SVs, major questions about their interaction with natural selection remain. For example, how does the allele frequency spectrum of SVs differ when compared with single nucleotide variants? How often do SVs affect genes, and what are the consequences? To begin to address these questions, we have systematically identified and characterized a large set of submicroscopic insertion and deletion (indel) variants (between 1 and 200 kb in length) among ten inbred lines from a single natural population of the plant species Mimulus guttatus. After extensive computational filtering, we focused on a set of 4,142 high-confidence indels that showed an experimental validation rate of 73%. All but one of these indels were less than 200 kb. Although the largest were generally at lower frequencies in the population, a surprising number of large indels are at intermediate frequencies. Although indels overlapping with genes were much rarer than expected by chance, approximately 600 genes were affected by an indel. Nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) defense response genes were the most enriched among the gene families affected. Most indels associated with genes were rare and appeared to be under purifying selection, though we do find four high-frequency derived insertion alleles that show signatures of recent positive selection.

  13. Immunologic responses in corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) after experimentally induced infection with ferlaviruses.

    Neul, Annkatrin; Schrödl, Wieland; Marschang, Rachel E; Bjick, Tina; Truyen, Uwe; von Buttlar, Heiner; Pees, Michael


    OBJECTIVE To measure immunologic responses of snakes after experimentally induced infection with ferlaviruses. ANIMALS 42 adult corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) of both sexes. PROCEDURES Snakes were inoculated intratracheally with genogroup A (n = 12), B (12), or C (12) ferlavirus (infected groups) or cell-culture supernatant (6; control group) on day 0. Three snakes from each infected group were euthanized on days 4, 16, 28, and 49, and 3 snakes from the control group were euthanized on day 49. Blood samples were collected from live snakes on days -6 (baseline), 4, 16, 28, and 49. Hematologic tests were performed and humoral responses assessed via hemagglutination-inhibition assays and ELISAs. Following euthanasia, gross pathological and histologic evaluations and virus detection were performed. RESULTS Severity of clinical signs of and immunologic responses to ferlavirus infection differed among snake groups. Hematologic values, particularly WBC and monocyte counts, increased between days 4 and 16 after infection. A humoral response was identified between days 16 and 28. Serum IgM concentrations increased from baseline earlier than IgY concentrations, but the IgY relative increase was higher at the end of the study. The hemagglutination-inhibition assay revealed that the strongest reactions in all infected groups were against the strain with which they had been infected. Snakes infected with genogroup A ferlavirus had the strongest immune response, whereas those infected with genogroup B had the weakest responses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this experimental study suggested that the ferlavirus strain with the highest virulence induced the weakest immune response in snakes.

  14. Diurnal and circadian regulation of a melatonin receptor, MT1, in the golden rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus.

    Park, Yong-Ju; Park, Ji-Gweon; Hiyakawa, Nanae; Lee, Young-Don; Kim, Se-Jae; Takemura, Akihiro


    The golden rabbitfish Siganus guttatus is a reef fish with a restricted lunar-synchronized spawning rhythmicity and releases gametes simultaneously around the first quarter moon period during the spawning season. In order to understand the molecular aspects of the "circa" rhythms in this species, the full-length melatonin receptor (MT1) cDNA was cloned, and its diurnal/circadian regulation was examined. The full-length MT1 cDNA (1257 bp) contained an open reading frame that encodes a protein of 350 amino acids; this protein is highly homologous to MT1 of nonmammalian species. A high expression of MT1 mRNA with a day-night difference was observed in the whole brain, retina, liver, and kidney. When diurnal variations in MT1 mRNA expression in the retina and whole brain were examined using real-time quantitative RT-PCR, an increase in the mRNA expression was observed during nighttime in both tissues under conditions of light/dark, constant darkness, and constant light. This suggests that MT1 mRNA expression is under circadian regulation. The expression of MT1 mRNA in the cultured pineal gland also showed diurnal variations with high expression levels during nighttime; this suggests that the increased expression level observed in the whole brain is partially of pineal origin. Alternation of light conditions in the pineal gland cultures resulted in the changes in melatonin release into the culture medium as well as MT1 mRNA expression in the pineal gland. The present results suggest that melatonin and its receptors play an important role in the exertion of daily and circadian variations in the neural tissues.

  15. Induced spawning and larval rearing of spotted rose snapper, Lutjanus guttatus (Steindachner, 1869), in Estación de Biología Marina, Puntarenas, Costa Rica

    Boza, J.A.; Calvo, E.; Solis, N.; Komen, J.


    Wild spotted rose snapper, Lutjanus guttatus (n = 400, 60-100 g), were captured and grown out in cages during one year (February 2001 to February 2002). When the mature stage was detected by cannula samples, females (n = 9) were induced to spawn with a total dose of 1600 IU of human chorionic

  16. Induced spawning and larval rearing of spotted rose snapper, Lutjanus guttatus (Steindachner, 1869), in Estación de Biología Marina, Puntarenas, Costa Rica

    Boza, J.A.; Calvo, E.; Solis, N.; Komen, J.


    Wild spotted rose snapper, Lutjanus guttatus (n = 400, 60-100 g), were captured and grown out in cages during one year (February 2001 to February 2002). When the mature stage was detected by cannula samples, females (n = 9) were induced to spawn with a total dose of 1600 IU of human chorionic gonado

  17. Scanning electron microscopy of the fetal membranes of an oviparous squamate, the corn snake Pituophis guttatus (Colubridae).

    Knight, Siobhan M; Blackburn, Daniel G


    Although the fetal membranes of viviparous squamates have received much study, morphology of their homologues among oviparous reptiles is poorly understood. The scarcity of information about these membranes in egg-laying reptiles hampers attempts to distinguish specializations for viviparity from ancestral oviparous features. We used scanning electron microscopy to examine fetal membranes of an oviparous snake (Pituophis guttatus) throughout the developmental period from oviposition to hatching. The external surface of the chorion contains broad, flattened cells that lack surface features; these cells form a continuous layer over the allantoic capillaries and offer a minimal barrier to respiratory exchange. In contrast, the surface epithelium of the omphalopleure bears elaborate surface ridges suggestive of absorptive capabilities. These ridges are prominent in the first few weeks after oviposition, but diminish thereafter. During development, the isolated yolk mass (IYM) of the omphalopleure becomes depleted, and the tissue becomes heavily vascularized by allantoic vessels. Surface features of the omphalopleure progressively take on the appearance of the chorioallantois, but the changes are not synchronous with loss of the IYM or membrane vascularization. Previous studies on viviparous snakes suggest that the chorioallantois and omphalopleure are respectively specialized for gas exchange and absorption in the intrauterine environment. Our studies of fetal membranes in P. guttatus offer evidence that cytological specializations for these functions originated under oviparous conditions, reflecting functional capacities that predate viviparity. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. [Reproduction and growth of the fish Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces: Lutjanidae) in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica].

    Rojas, Rosa L Soto; Mejía-Arana, Fernando; Palacios, J A; Hiramatsu, Kazuhito


    Reproduction and growth of the fish Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces: Lutjanidae) in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica. The fish Lutjanus guttatus is important in the fisheries of Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica where they are captured with varied gear mainly by the artisanal fleet. We measured specimens from the commercial catch of 2002-2006. Gonadal state was determined macroscopically and age with otoliths The total length-total weight relationship was y = 0.0236x(2.8153) and total length-eviscerated weight y = 0.0216x(2.8129). Simplified relationships were y = 0.0173x3 and y = 0.0162x3. There is year-round reproduction with peaks in March (dry season) and September (rainy season). Male-female sexual ratio was 1:1. The age-length key for the gulf shows availability until the 6 years of age. The von Bertalanffy growth curve is L(t) = 65,9 (1-e(-0.13(t+2,66))).

  19. Mapping of ionomic traits in Mimulus guttatus reveals Mo and Cd QTLs that colocalize with MOT1 homologues.

    David B Lowry

    Full Text Available Natural variation in the regulation of the accumulation of mineral nutrients and trace elements in plant tissues is crucial to plant metabolism, development, and survival across different habitats. Studies of the genetic basis of natural variation in nutrient metabolism have been facilitated by the development of ionomics. Ionomics is a functional genomic approach for the identification of the genes and gene networks that regulate the elemental composition, or ionome, of an organism. In this study, we evaluated the genetic basis of divergence in elemental composition between an inland annual and a coastal perennial accession of Mimulus guttatus using a recombinant inbred line (RIL mapping population. Out of 20 elements evaluated, Mo and Cd were the most divergent in accumulation between the two accessions and were highly genetically correlated in the RILs across two replicated experiments. We discovered two major quantitative trait loci (QTL for Mo accumulation, the largest of which consistently colocalized with a QTL for Cd accumulation. Interestingly, both Mo QTLs also colocalized with the two M. guttatus homologues of MOT1, the only known plant transporter to be involved in natural variation in molybdate uptake.

  20. Correlation between plasma steroid hormones and vitellogenin profiles and lunar periodicity in the female golden rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus (Bloch).

    Rahman, M D; Takemura, A; Takano, K


    Characteristics of the lunar reproductive cycle in the golden rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus, were determined by histological observations of ovarian development, and immunological measurements of plasma steroid hormones, estradiol-17beta (E2), testosterone (T), 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) and 17alpha,20beta,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (20beta-S), and vitellogenin (VTG). Ovarian and plasma samples were collected every week according to the lunar phases from May to July. Weekly change of gonadosomatic index (GSI) showed two peaks at the first lunar quarter in June and July. Yolky oocytes were also observed around this time. Histological observations revealed that the vitellogenic oocytes appeared again 1 week after spawning and developed synchronously. These results suggest that this species is a multiple spawner and the oocyte development is in a group-synchronous manner. Plasma steroid hormones (E2, T, DHP and 20beta-S) and VTG levels changed in parallel with changes in GSI. The peak of plasma VTG level occurred prior to spawning. These cyclic changes of plasma steroid hormones and VTG support the hypothesis that lunar periodicity is the major factor in stimulating reproductive activity of S. guttatus.

  1. [Osteological development of the vertebral column and caudal complex of Lujanus guttatus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) larvae under rearing conditions].

    Rodríguez-Ibarra, Luz Estela; Abdo-de la Parra, María Isabel; Aguilar-Zárate, Gabriela; Valasco-Blanco, Gabriela; Ibarra-Castro, Leonardo


    The spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) is an important commercial species in Mexico with good culture potential. The osteological study at early stages in this species is an important tool to confirm normal bone structure and for the detection of malformations that may occur during early development. This study was carried out in order to evaluate and describe the normal osteological development of the vertebral column and caudal complex of this species grown under controlled conditions. For this, a total of 540 larvae of L. guttatus, between 2.1 and 17.5 mm of total length (TL), were cultured during 36 days; culture conditions were 28 degrees C, 5.74 mg/L oxygen and 32.2 ups salinity with standard feeding rates. To detect growth changes, a sample of 15 organisms was daily taken from day one until day 36 of post-hatch (DPH). Samples were processed following standard techniques of clearing, and cartilage (alcian blue) and bone staining (alizarin red). Results showed that the vertebral column is composed of ten vertebrae in the abdominal region, and 14 vertebrae including the urostyle in the caudal region. The development of the axial skeleton starts with the neural arches and haemal arches at 3.8 mm TL. Caudal elements such as the hypurals and parahypural began to develop at 4.1 mm TL. Pre-flexion and flexion of the notochord and the formation of all hypurals were observed between 5.3 and 5.8 mm TL. Ossification of the vertebrae in the abdominal region and in some neural arches initiated at 9.5mm TL. In the caudal region, all the neural and haemal arches ossified at 10.2 mm TL. All the abdominal vertebrae and their respective neural arches and parapophyses ossified at 11.2 mm TL, while the elements of the caudal complex that ossified were the hypurals, parahypurals and modified haemal spines. All caudal fm rays, 12 neural spines and 3 haemal arches were ossified by 15.5 mm. The complete ossification process of this specie under laboratory culture conditions

  2. Biología reproductiva de Lutjanus guttatus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae en el Parque Nacional Natural Utría, Pacífico colombiano Reproductive biology of Lutjanus guttatus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae in Utría National Park, Colombian Pacific

    Tatiana Correa-Herrera


    Full Text Available Las áreas protegidas son importantes para la conservación de las poblaciones naturales ya que funcionan como zonas de refugio, alimentación y reproducción en la que los organismos deberían estar eximidos de la presión antrópica, pero en aquellas áreas donde se permite la pesca, es elemental conocer los aspectos reproductivos de las especies que soportan la presión pesquera, ya que ésta información relacionada con las abundancias, tallas y frecuencias de captura pueden ofrecer mejores criterios para tomar decisiones de manejo y conservación de los recursos pequeros. La biología reproductiva del pargo lunarejo Lutjanus guttatus se estudió entre abril 2008 y febrero 2009 en el Parque Nacional Utría, Pacífico colombiano. Se analizaron los volúmenes de captura, estructura por tallas, proporción de sexos, fecundidad, talla media de madurez, áreas y épocas de reproducción (n=278. La longitud total osciló entre 18 y 56cm con una media y desviación estándar de 29±6.4cm. La talla media de madurez fue estimada en 23.5cm de longitud total, la fecundidad absoluta fue 156 253.11 ovocitos, con una moda de 4μm de diámetro y un desarrollo gonadal asincrónico. La presencia de individuos maduros y de un alto factor de condición sugieren épocas de desove en junio, septiembre y octubre en litorales rocosos y arenosos.Protected areas are important for natural population conservation since they work as refuge, feeding and breeding areas, where specimens should be exempt from human pressure. The generation of better criteria for management decisions and conservation of fishery resources, is based on the reproductive aspects of species that support fishing activities, since this information is related to the abundance, size and frequency of capture. With this aim, the reproductive biology of the spotted snapper Lutjanus guttatus was studied from April 2008 and February 2009 at the Utría National Park, Colombian Pacific. For this, we

  3. Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing (OAWRS) of Marine Ecosystems


    other fauna native to the Patagonian ecosystem (Alonso et al. 2000). Argentine hake are known to feed on smaller fish such as anchovies, juvenile hake...migratory birds. USDA Forest Service Gen Tech Rep 191: 871–875 Gjosaeter H (1998) The population biology and exploitation of capelin (Mallotus...Diet of the southern opah Lampris immaculatus on the patagonian shelf; the significance of the squid Morotenthis ingens and anthropogenic plastic

  4. [Feeding habits of Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces: Lutjanidae) at Los Cóbanos and Puerto La Libertad, El Salvador].

    Rodrigo Rojas, José; Maravilla, Erick; Chicas, Francisco


    Abstract: A total of 175 spotted snapper Lutjanus guttatus were collected monthly in the Los Cobanos and Puerto La Libertad, El Salvador, from January to December 2000 to determine its feeding habits. The fishes studied ranged 9.8 - 58.0 cm in total length. Were collected using push-net and hook and line. This snapper is a bentonic opportunistic carnivorous predator. The total biomass of the stomach contents was 260.5 g. Crustaceans (Squillidae, Portunidae, Dynomenidae. Penaeidae, Sicyoniidae, Callianassidae), were the most abundant group: they accounted for 50.4% of the total biomass. Numerically, Portunus asper was the most abundant prey. Ontogenic differences were observed in the diet. In juveniles (16 cm TL). at any time of the year, the most frequent and abundant components were crustaceans and in adults were crustaceans, fishes and mollusks. The relative importance of different components of the diet was assessed with two indexes that combine. in different ways. percentage frequency of occurrence, percentage number and percentage weight of prey categories. The commercial use this resource and the absence of management strategies are discussed.

  5. Morphology and Morphometry of the Lung in Corn Snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) Infected with Three Different Strains of Ferlavirus.

    Starck, J M; Neul, A; Schmidt, V; Kolb, T; Franz-Guess, S; Balcecean, D; Pees, M


    Ophidian paramyxovirus (ferlavirus) is a global threat to reptilian sauropsids in herpetological collections, with occasional but fatal effects. This study characterizes the effects of three different genetic strains of ferlavirus on the dynamic changes of histology and morphometry of the lung of corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus). Lungs from 42 corn snakes were either sham-infected or infected experimentally under standardized conditions. From 4 to 49 days after intratracheal inoculation, the lungs were examined qualitatively and quantitatively. Progressive microscopical changes were seen in the lung. Initially, increased numbers of heterophils were observed in the interstitium followed by proliferation and vacuolation of epithelial cells lining faveoli. Electron microscopy revealed loss of type-I pneumocytes, hyperplasia of type-II pneumocytes, and interstitial infiltrates of heterophils and mononuclear cells. With progression of disease the respiratory epithelium was initially overgrown by transformed type-II pneumocytes and later became multilayered. The results of the study suggest that the respiratory capacity of the lungs declines with disease development. The dynamics of disease development and histopathology differed in snakes infected with different ferlavirus genogroups. Animals infected with virus genogroup B developed histopathological changes and morphometric changes more rapidly and of greater intensity than snakes infected with viruses from genogroups A or C.

  6. Virus distribution and detection in corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) after experimental infection with three different ferlavirus strains.

    Pees, Michael; Neul, Annkatrin; Müller, Kristin; Schmidt, Volker; Truyen, Uwe; Leinecker, Nadja; Marschang, Rachel E


    Ferlaviruses are important pathogens of snakes. However, factors influencing the pathogenicity of individual isolates as well as optimal protocols for virus detection in tissues of infected snakes have been insufficiently studied. The objectives of this study were to compare virus detection using previously described PCR and cell culture protocols following infection with three genetically distinct ferlaviruses in corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) as a model species. Groups of 12 corn snakes were each inoculated intratracheally with a genogroup A, B, or C ferlavirus. Tracheal washes and cloacal swabs were tested for virus shedding on days 16 and 28. Three animals were each euthanized on days 4, 16, 28, and 49. Beside immunohistochemistry of lung tissue, several organs (lung, intestine, pancreas, kidney, brain) were tested for the presence of ferlavirus. Distinct differences were noted in the pathogenicity of the three viruses, with a genotype B isolate causing the greatest pathology. PCR was more sensitive in comparison to cell culture, but results varied depending on the tissues. Ferlaviruses spread rapidly into the tissues, including the brain. Overall average detection rate was 72%, and was highest on day 16. There were differences between the groups, with the most virulent strain causing 100% positive samples at the end of the study. Some snakes were able to clear the infection. Shedding via cloaca was seen only on day 28. For ante-mortem sampling, a tracheal wash sample is recommended, for post mortem diagnosis, a pooled organ sample should be tested.

  7. Expression of the melatonin receptor Mel(1c) in neural tissues of the reef fish Siganus guttatus.

    Park, Yong-Ju; Park, Ji-Gweon; Jeong, Hyung-Bok; Takeuchi, Yuki; Kim, Se-Jae; Lee, Young-Don; Takemura, Akihiro


    The golden rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus, is a reef fish exhibiting a restricted lunar-related rhythm in behavior and reproduction. Here, to understand the circadian rhythm of this lunar-synchronized spawner, a melatonin receptor subtype-Mel(1c)-was cloned. The full-length Mel(1c) melatonin receptor cDNA comprised 1747 bp with a single open reading frame (1062 bp) that encodes a 353-amino acid protein, which included 7 presumed transmembrane domains. Real-time PCR revealed high Mel(1c) mRNA expression in the retina and brain but not in the peripheral tissues. When the fish were reared under light/dark (LD 12:12) conditions, Mel(1c) mRNA in the retina and brain was expressed with daily variations and increased during nighttime. Similar variations were noted under constant conditions, suggesting that Mel(1c) mRNA expression is regulated by the circadian clock system. Daily variations of Mel(1c) mRNA expression with a peak at zeitgeber time (ZT) 12 were observed in the cultured pineal gland under LD 12:12. Exposure of the cultured pineal gland to light at ZT17 resulted in a decrease in Mel(1c) mRNA expression. When light was obstructed at ZT5, the opposite effect was obtained. These results suggest that light exerts certain effects on Mel(1c) mRNA expression directly or indirectly through melatonin actions.

  8. The genetics of extreme microgeographic adaptation: an integrated approach identifies a major gene underlying leaf trichome divergence in Yellowstone Mimulus guttatus.

    Hendrick, Margaret F; Finseth, Findley R; Mathiasson, Minna E; Palmer, Kristen A; Broder, Emma M; Breigenzer, Peter; Fishman, Lila


    Microgeographic adaptation provides a particularly interesting context for understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic divergence and may also present unique empirical challenges. In particular, plant adaptation to extreme soil mosaics may generate barriers to gene flow or shifts in mating system that confound simple genomic scans for adaptive loci. Here, we combine three approaches - quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of candidate intervals in controlled crosses, population resequencing (PoolSeq) and analyses of wild recombinant individuals - to investigate one trait associated with Mimulus guttatus (yellow monkeyflower) adaptation to geothermal soils in Yellowstone National Park. We mapped a major QTL causing dense leaf trichomes in thermally adapted plants to a <50-kb region of linkage Group 14 (Tr14) previously implicated in trichome divergence between independent M. guttatus populations. A PoolSeq scan of Tr14 region revealed a cluster of six genes, coincident with the inferred QTL peak, with high allele frequency differences sufficient to explain observed phenotypic differentiation. One of these, the R2R3 MYB transcription factor Migut.N02661, is a plausible functional candidate and was also strongly associated (r(2)  = 0.27) with trichome phenotype in analyses of wild-collected admixed individuals. Although functional analyses will be necessary to definitively link molecular variants in Tr14 with trichome divergence, our analyses are a major step in that direction. They point to a simple, and parallel, genetic basis for one axis of Mimulus guttatus adaptation to an extreme habitat, suggest a broadly conserved genetic basis for trichome variation across flowering plants and pave the way for further investigations of this challenging case of microgeographic incipient speciation.

  9. Estimación de parámetros biológico-pesqueros para el pargo mancha Lutjanus guttatus en el Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica. (ING)

    Mauricio Vargas Barquero


    The spotted snapper Lutjanus guttatus is one of the most important demersal species of the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica. This demersal fish is caught mainly by the artesanal fleet with gill nets and bottom long lines in the external zone of the Nicoya Gulf, producing around 62 tonnes in 1996. Nevertheless not much attention have been paid to the study of this species. According to national statics the tendency in recent years for the spotted snapper is to decrease in landings as well as in siz...

  10. Estudios sobre el manejo e incubación de huevos del pargo flamenco Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces, Lutjanidae Studies in egg handling and incubation in the spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces Lutjanidae

    Leonardo Ibarra-Castro


    Full Text Available La manipulación y la incubación de huevos de peces son procedimientos simples pero importantes en las tecnologías de producción de juveniles. Para determinar prácticas apropiadas de manejo y de incubación de los huevos del pargo flamenco Lutjanus guttatus (Steindachner, 1869, se realizaron tres experimentos en tanques cilindro-cónicos de fibra de vidrio de 100 L. Los huevos fueron incubados con y sin flujo de agua (30%/h, a dos densidades (250 huevos/L y 1000 huevos/L y con o sin tratamiento profiláctico de formalina 10 ppm por una hora previo a la incubación. Los porcentajes de eclosión total y larvas vivas normales (larvas viables al momento de la eclosión no fueron diferentes significativamente entre los tratamientos con flujo y sin flujo. Mientras que los porcentajes de larvas viables al momento de la eclosión y a las 48 h post-eclosión mostraron significativamente mejores resultados en el tratamiento sin flujo de agua. En la incubación a dos densidades todos los índices analizados fueron significativamente mejores en la densidad de 250 huevos/L, excepto en larvas viables a las 48 h post-eclosión. Los huevos con y sin tratamiento profiláctico, no presentaron diferencias significativas para todas las variables de supervivencia al momento de la eclosión y a las 48 h post-eclosión. La longitud total de larvas fue diferente significativamente entre cada uno de los tratamientos al momento de la eclosión y a las 48 h, excepto en la incubación sin flujo de agua. Las larvas de mayor tamaño se obtuvieron en el experimento con sobre tratamiento profiláctico.Egg handling and incubation are short but important procedures in juvenile fish production technologies. To determine appropriate practices for egg handling and incubation in the spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus (Steindachner, 1969, three experiments were carried out in 100-L fiberglass conical cylinder tanks. Eggs were incubated with and without water flow (30% volume

  11. The genetic architecture of local adaptation and reproductive isolation in sympatry within the Mimulus guttatus species complex.

    Ferris, Kathleen G; Barnett, Laryssa L; Blackman, Benjamin K; Willis, John H


    The genetic architecture of local adaptation has been of central interest to evolutionary biologists since the modern synthesis. In addition to classic theory on the effect size of adaptive mutations by Fisher, Kimura and Orr, recent theory addresses the genetic architecture of local adaptation in the face of ongoing gene flow. This theory predicts that with substantial gene flow between populations local adaptation should proceed primarily through mutations of large effect or tightly linked clusters of smaller effect loci. In this study, we investigate the genetic architecture of divergence in flowering time, mating system-related traits, and leaf shape between Mimulus laciniatus and a sympatric population of its close relative M. guttatus. These three traits are probably involved in M. laciniatus' adaptation to a dry, exposed granite outcrop environment. Flowering time and mating system differences are also reproductive isolating barriers making them 'magic traits'. Phenotypic hybrids in this population provide evidence of recent gene flow. Using next-generation sequencing, we generate dense SNP markers across the genome and map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) involved in flowering time, flower size and leaf shape. We find that interspecific divergence in all three traits is due to few QTL of large effect including a highly pleiotropic QTL on chromosome 8. This QTL region contains the pleiotropic candidate gene TCP4 and is involved in ecologically important phenotypes in other Mimulus species. Our results are consistent with theory, indicating that local adaptation and reproductive isolation with gene flow should be due to few loci with large and pleiotropic effects.

  12. Moonlight affects nocturnal Period2 transcript levels in the pineal gland of the reef fish Siganus guttatus.

    Sugama, Nozomi; Park, Ji-Gweon; Park, Yong-Ju; Takeuchi, Yuki; Kim, Se-Jae; Takemura, Akihiro


    The golden rabbitfish Siganus guttatus is a reef fish with a restricted lunar-synchronized spawning cycle. It is not known how the fish recognizes cues from the moon and exerts moon-related activities. In order to evaluate the perception and utilization of moonlight by the fish, the present study aimed to clone and characterize Period2 (Per2), a light-inducible clock gene in lower vertebrates, and to examine daily variations in rabbitfish Per2 (rfPer2) expression as well as the effect of light and moonlight on its expression in the pineal gland. The partially-cloned rfPer2 cDNA (2933 bp) was highly homologous (72%) to zebrafish Per2. The rfPer2 levels increased at ZT6 and decreased at ZT18 in the whole brain and several peripheral organs. The rfPer2 expression in the pineal gland exhibited a daily variation with an increase during daytime. Exposing the fish to light during nighttime resulted in a rapid increase of its expression in the pineal gland, while the level was decreased by intercepting light during daytime. Two hours after exposing the fish to moonlight at the full moon period, the rfPer2 expression was upregulated. These results suggest that rfPer2 is a light-inducible clock gene and that its expression is affected not only by daylight but also by moonlight. Since the rfPer2 expression level during the full moon period was higher than that during the new moon period, the monthly variation in the rfPer2 expression is likely to occur with the change in amplitude between the full and new moon periods.

  13. Hábitos alimentarios del pargo mancha Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces: Lutjanidae en Los Cóbanos y Puerto La Libertad, El Salvador

    José Rodrigo Rojas M.


    Full Text Available Se determinaron los hábitos alimentarios del pargo mancha Lutjanus guttatus a partir de 175 ejemplares (9.8 y 58.0 cm LT, recolectados entre enero y diciembre del 2000 en Los Cóbanos y Puerto La Libertad, El Salvador. L. guttatus es un depredador carnívoro oportunista bentónico. La biomasa total fue de 260.5g. Los crustáceos, representados por seis familias (Squillidae, Portunidae, Dynomenidae, Penaeidae, Sicyoniidae, Callianassidae, constituyeron el 50.4% de la biomasa total. Numéricamente, la especie que más consumió el pargo mancha fue Portunus asper. Especimenes menores de 16 cm LT consumen preferentemente crustáceos. Después de los 24 cm y hasta los 44 cm el espectro alimenticio se ve diversificado con la inclusión de peces y moluscos. El 59.5% de los estómagos contenían restos (escamas, exoesqueletos y rostros de camarones con una biomasa de 47.8 g. Se discute sobre la importancia comercial de este recurso y de la ausencia de una estrategia de manejoA total of 175 spotted snapper Lutjanus guttatus were collected monthly in the Los Cobanos and Puerto La Libertad, El Salvador, from January to December 2000 to determine its feeding habits. The fishes studied ranged 9.8 - 58.0 cm in total length. Were collected using pushnet and hook and line. This snapper is a bentonic opportunistic carnivorous predator. The total biomass of the stomach contents was 260.5 g. Crustaceans (Squillidae, Portunidae, Dynomenidae, Penaeidae, Sicyoniidae, Callianassidae, were the most abundant group; they accounted for 50.4% of the total biomass. Numerically, Portunus asper was the most abundant prey. Ontogenic differences were observed in the diet. In juveniles (16 cm TL, at any time of the year, the most frequent and abundant components were crustaceans and in adults were crustaceans, fishes and mollusks. The relative importance of different components of the diet was assessed with two indexes that combine, in different ways, percentage frequency of

  14. Isolation and identification of bacteria from marine market fish Scomberomorus guttatus (Bloch and Schneider, 1801) from Madurai district, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Karthiga Rani, M; Chelladurai, G; Jayanthi, G


    The present study was conducted to evaluate the hygienic quality and freshness of fish Indo-pacific King Mackerel "Scomberomorus guttatus" through the investigation of the occurrence of bacteria which is an indicator for fish quality. Fishes were collected every fortnight from Madurai fish market on monthly twice of January 2014 to March 2014. Skin surface of the fish was examined. Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were identified by Biochemical tests (IMViC Tests). Among the six bacterial species E. coli and K. pneumonia were found in all the collected samples where as other bacterial species were not found. The result of this study revealed that raw fish sold in Madurai fish market has high contamination so the presence of the bacterial species has strongly suggested the urgent need to improve the quality control systems in Madurai fish market.

  15. Crecimiento en jaulas del pargo lunarejo Lutjanus guttatus (Steindachner, 1869 con dos tipos de dieta en Bahía Málaga, municipio de Buenaventura, Colombia

    Edgardo Andrés Banguera Gil


    Full Text Available Para dar continuidad al “Programa de desarrollo de la maricultura en el Pacífico colombiano” adelantado por la Universidad del Pacífico, en un cerramiento natural ubicado en la vereda La Sierpe, Bahía Málaga, municipio de Buenaventura, se comparó la tasa de crecimiento de 204 ejemplares silvestres de pargo lunarejo Lutjanus guttatus , alimentados con pescado fresco y concentrado comercial al 35% en proteína, con peso y longitud total promedio de 13,79 cm y 32,21 g, respectivamente. El trabajo se realizó por espacio de 40 días en cuatro jaulas flotantes, de 3 x 1,5 x 0,75 m, dos para cada tratamiento, a densidades de 15 individuos/m 3 , utilizando el 12% de la biomasa corporal para el suministro de los alimentos a evaluar; el crecimiento se analizó mediante los siguientes índices: IPD = Incremento en Peso Diario; TCE = Tasa de Crecimiento Específico. Los peces alcanzaron un peso promedio final de 64,9±5,9 y 58,49±5,9 g para el alimento natural y balanceado comercial respectivamente, lo cual es equivalente a un IPD de 0.8 y 0.7 g/d y una TCE de 1,58 y 1,67 g/d, valores considerados buenos teniendo en cuenta su etapa de desarrollo y comparaciones con otros estudios realizados en Colombia. Los peces aceptaron los dos tipos de alimento de manera satisfactoria, durante el período de cultivo y mostraron gran tolerancia a la manipulación, resistencia a las enfermedades y a las fluctuaciones de la calidad del agua, en especial la salinidad. Los resultados señalan que existen diferencias significativas (P>0.05 entre los dos tratamientos a favor del alimento natural. Los índices de sobrevivencia fueron de 90,2% para peces alimentados con pescado fresco y 85,3% para los alimentados con concentrado. Se concluye que el pargo lunarejo Lutjanus guttatus presenta una importante ventaja para su cultivo como es la fácil aceptación de un concentrado comercial. pero el crecimiento de los peces alimentados con este producto fue

  16. Coexistencia de Lutjanus peru y Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces: Lutjanidae en la costa de Guerrero, México: relación con la variación temporal en el reclutamiento

    Xavier Chiappa-Carrara


    Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis de series de tiempo, de autocorrelación y de correlación cruzada, para el estudio de ocho ciclos anuales de variación en los volúmenes de captura de Lutjanus peru y L. guttatus, en la costa de Guerrero, México. Sobre la base de datos de distribución de frecuencias de tallas mensuales, se estimaron los patrones de reclutamiento, empleando el paquete de programas FiSAT. Las capturas de las poblaciones de L. peru y L. guttatus variaron sin presentar un patrón anual bien definido. Los resultados apoyan la hipótesis de que el desfase temporal de los eventos reproductivos y, por lo tanto, del reclutamiento, explica la coexistencia de estas especies. La resultante de este mecanismo se ve reflejada en términos de una sucesión temporal de la abundancia de los reclutas de L. peru y L. guttatus en el litoral de Guerrero, lo cual conduce también a una segregación de los reclutas, provocando que el consumo de un mismo tipo de presas ocurra en periodos alternosMonthly volumes of capture of Lutjanus peru and Lutjanus guttatus from the coast of Guerrero, Mexico, were analyzed considering eight annual cycles. Time-series, auto correlation, and cross-correlation analysis showed that monthly abundance of populations display unsystematic variations. The FiSAT software was used to obtain the recruitment patterns of both species, using length-frequency data. Our results support the hypothesis that temporal phase-shifts in reproductive events, hence recruitment, explain the coexistence of these species. The outcome of this mechanism is a temporal succession of specific recruit abundance off the coasts of Guerrero, Mexico. The uncoupling of the recruitment events between these species, induces a separation of recruits; therefore, the intake of a particular set of preys could take place at different times

  17. Estimación de parámetros biológico-pesqueros para el pargo mancha Lutjanus guttatus en el Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica. (ING

    Mauricio Vargas Barquero


    Full Text Available The spotted snapper Lutjanus guttatus is one of the most important demersal species of the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica. This demersal fish is caught mainly by the artesanal fleet with gill nets and bottom long lines in the external zone of the Nicoya Gulf, producing around 62 tonnes in 1996. Nevertheless not much attention have been paid to the study of this species. According to national statics the tendency in recent years for the spotted snapper is to decrease in landings as well as in size of capture. This could be a sign of overexploitation of this species which lead us to the development of the present study. The degree of exploitation exerted on this population was quantified through the estimation of the instantaneous rate of total, natural and fishing mortality: 1.2, 0.6 and 0.6/year, respectively. This means that this population is completely exploited and that no further fishing effort should be applied to this stock. As part of this study the sex ratio was estimated, which did not depart significantly from 1:1. The total length vs. total weight relationship was also estimated and no sex related differences were found, which supports the idea that this species presents no sexual dimorphism. Length at first maturity for the population was 33 ± 3 cm total length. The Von Bertalanffy growth parameters, L∞ and k, 67 cm and 0.30/years respectively, show that the spotted snapper is a slow growing species with a longevity of around 10 years.

  18. Replacement of fish meal by poultry by-product meal, food grade, in diets for juvenile spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus

    Crisantema Hernández


    Full Text Available The feasibility of replacing fish meal protein at different levels with poultry by product meal food grade (PBM-FG was assessed in diets for spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus. Four diets were formulated, the control diet fish meal was used as the main protein source (FM; the other three diets had increasing levels of PBM-FG replacing 25, 50 or 75% of the fish meal protein respectively. The diets were fed close to apparent satiation, three times a day to quadruplicate groups of juvenile snapper (average body weight 11.0 ± 0.04 g. The fish were randomly distributed into groups of 15 fish in a 120 L seawater tank. The response of snapper to diets containing graded levels of fish meal was evaluated by measuring weight gain, feed efficiency, body composition, hematological parameters and apparent nutrient digestibility during a 12-week period. The replacing of the 25% of fish meal protein by PBM-FG did show a similar trend for feed efficiency and growth performance than control diet. Feed efficiency and growth performance was reduced at 75% level of fish meal protein replacement by PBM-FG, due to deficiencies of lysine and methionine. The final whole-body proximate composition did not differ among treatments. The hematological characteristics were similar among the treatments control, 25 and 50%, but the fish fed PBM-FG 75% showed the lowest levels for total protein and glucose parameters. The dietary dry matter and protein apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs decreased with increasing dietary PBM-FG. High values for lipid ADCs were observed in all diets.

  19. mRNA expression patterns for GH, PRL, SL, IGF-I and IGF-II during altered feeding status in rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus.

    Ayson, Felix G; de Jesus-Ayson, Evelyn Grace T; Takemura, Akihiro


    Feeding time is a major synchronizer of many physiological rhythms in many organisms. Alteration in the nutritional status, specifically fasting, also affects the secretion rhythms of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). In this study, we investigated whether the expression patterns for the mRNAs of GH, prolactin (PRL) and somatolactin (SL) in the pituitary gland, and insulin-like growth factor I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) in the liver of juvenile rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus) follow a rhythm according to feeding time and whether these hormone rhythms changes with starvation. Hormone mRNA levels were determined by real time PCR. The daily expression pattern for the mRNAs of GH, PRL and SL was not altered whether food was given in the morning (10:00 h) or in the afternoon (15:00 h). The daily GH mRNA expression pattern, however, was affected when food was not available for 3 days. In contrast, the daily expression pattern for IGF-I mRNA reaches its peak at roughly 5-6h after feeding. This pattern, however, was not observed with IGF-II mRNA. During 15-day starvation, GH mRNA levels in starved fish were significantly higher than the control fish starting on the 9th day of starvation until day 15. The levels returned to normal after re-feeding. In contrast to GH, PRL mRNA levels in starved fish were significantly lower than the control group starting on the 6th day of starvation until 3 days after re-feeding. SL mRNA levels were not significantly different between the control and starved group at anytime during the experiment. Both IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA levels in starved group were significantly higher than the control fish on the 3rd and 6th day of starvation. mRNA levels of both IGF-I and II in the starved fish decreased starting on the 9th day of starvation. While IGF-I mRNA levels in the starved group continued to decrease as starvation progressed, IGF-II mRNA levels were not significantly different from the control during the rest of the


    邓国成; 江小燕; 陈昆慈; 刘礼辉


    Spotted longbarbel catfish Mystus guttatus is a precious species of fish in Pearl River. However,gill-rotted dis-ease caused very high mortality in cultured spotted longbarbel catfish in recent years and brought huge economic losses. To protect the fish, many researches have been carried out on pathogenic bacteria of the gill-rotted disease. In this study,a vir-ulent strain of bacteria Mg2 was isolated from the rotted gill of diseased spotted longbarbel catfish. Artificial infection test showed that Mg2 could lead to 100% mortality of fish in the experimental group with the same signs as the natural infected fish and was the causative pathogen associated with the disease. The bacterium grew very well in 0.5% peptone liquid me-dium at 25-28℃ under pH 6.5-7.5 ,and then there was no growth at 4℃ or more than 0.6% of NaCl content. The bac-terial colony has yellow,irregular shape with undulated margin in 0.5% peptone solid medium. Electron microscope obser-vation revealed that Mg2 was in the absence of flagella and capsule,gram negative, and exhibits rod-shaped morphology with a size of 0.5×6.5-11μm. Physiological and biochemical analysis showed that it had the characteristics of the oxi-dase, catalase and nitrate reduction positive ; hydrolyzation of casein and gelatin ; non-hydrolyzation of cellulos,chitin, tyro-sine,aesculin and starch;non-fermentation of indole and glucose. Drugs sensitivity tests showed that it was highly sensitive to baytril,norfloxacin,nalidixic acid, erythromycin, lincomycinum. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of 16S rRNA gene was carried out by using the primers specific for the Mg2 strain and sequences alignments displayed that Mg2 had the high-est homology in the 16S rRNA nucleotide level with Flavobacterium columnare strain Ga-6-93, Flavobacterium columnare strain and Flavobacterium columnare strain LV339-01 with the values 99.6% ,99.8% and 99.7% ,respectively,while had 97.5% homology with M165. Phylogenetic analysis was constructed

  1. Effects of dietary carbohydrate on growth performance of Siganus guttatus%饲料糖水平对点篮子鱼生长性能的影响

    李葳; 侯俊利; 章龙珍; 庄平; 刘鉴毅; 张涛


    A 56-day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the optimum dietary carbohydrate requirement for S. Guttatus with the initial weight (34. 45 ± 10. 61 ) g. The fishmeal and dextrin were used as protein and carbohydrate respectively. Six isonitrogenous (35% crude protein) and isoenergetic experimental diets containing 5% (Tl) , 10% (T2) , 15% (T3) , 20% (T4) , 25% (T5) and 30% (T6)of carbohydrate levels were used to feed triplicate groups of 20 fish. The specific growth rate (SGR) increased with carbohydrate at a low level (less than 15% ) and decreased at a higher level. And the SGR of 35% carbohydrate level was significantly lower than that of other levels (P<0.05). Feed conversion rate (FCR) had a correlation withthe increasing dietary carbohydrate levels. The feed intake of 25% carbohydrate level was significantly higher than that of other levels. Dietary carbohydrate concentration also had effects on body composition and biological indices. The whole body crude protein content accumulated slightly with the increase of dietary carbohydrate concentration except group T6. Liver crude fat and muscle crude fat increased significantly with the increase of dietary carbohydrate levels. Based on second-order polynomial regression model of SGR, y =0. 455 1 +0. 012 5x -0. 000 3x2 (R2 =0. 913 7) the optimum dietary carbohydrate requirement for juvenile S. Guttatus was 20. 83%. The results suggested that the optimal dietary carbohydrate level for growth of S. Guttatus may be set at between 15% and 25% , when the diets contained 35% protein.%以鱼粉为蛋白源,糊精为糖源,配制等蛋白质(含量为35%)、等能量糖水平分别为5%,10%,15%,20%,25%,35%(标号分别为T1、T2、T3、T4、T5、T6)的6组配合饲料,对点篮子鱼(Siganus guttatus)投喂56d,研究了饲料中糖水平变化对体重为34.45 ±10.61 g点篮子鱼生长、体成分和生物学指标的影响.结果显示,随着饲料糖水平的增加,点篮子鱼的摄食率和生

  2. 人工饲料和浒苔饲喂对点篮子鱼幼鱼生长性能和消化酶活性影响%On growth performance and digestive enzyme activity of juvenile Siganus guttatus fed with artificial feed and Enteromorpha prolifra

    宋超; 胡成硕; 章龙珍; 赵峰; 刘鉴毅


    以点篮子鱼(Siganus guttatus)幼鱼为研究对象,分别使用人工饲料和浒苔(Enteromorpha prolifra)饲喂点篮子幼鱼,实验周期90 d,对比两种饲料对点篮子鱼幼鱼的生长性能和消化酶活性影响。结果显示,人工饲料组幼鱼增重率、特定生长率、相对增长率及肌肉的粗蛋白、粗脂肪含量、比内脏重和比肝重均显著高于浒苔组(P<0.05),而粗灰分、比肠重、比肠长显著低于浒苔组(P<0.05);人工饲料组幼鱼胃中胃蛋白酶活性,前肠和中肠的胰蛋白酶活性,幽门盲囊、肠和肝脏的脂肪酶活性均显著高于浒苔组,而幽门盲囊和肠的淀粉酶活性则显著低于浒苔组(P<0.05)。饲喂浒苔的点篮子鱼幼鱼虽然生长性能低于人工饲料组,但其淀粉酶活性、比肠重和比肠长均高于人工饲料组,点篮子鱼对浒苔有良好的摄食和消化能力,浒苔能满足点篮子鱼的生长需求。%To provide reference for the technique that uses S.guttatus to control the overgrowth of E. prolifra,the growth performance and digestive enzyme activity of juvenile S.guttatus fed with artificial feed and E.prolifra were studied.The fish were cultivated for 90 days in six 2.5 m ×1 .5 m ×1 .5 m cages (30 fish per cage)with mesh size of 0.5 mm.The fish were divided into two diet groups (three cages of each group),and fed with artificial feed and E.prolifra,respectively.During the culture period,temperatures ranged from 23.0 ℃ to 26.5 ℃,pH was between 7.5 and 8.5,dissolved oxygen was more than 5.0 mg· L-1 .Results showed that the weight gain rate,specific growth rate,relative growth rate,crude protein and crude fat contents,ratio of viscera and hepatopancreas weight to body weight of juvenile S.guttatus fed with artificial feed were significantly higher than that fed with E.Prolifra (P<0.05),while the crude ash,ratio of intestine gut weight to body weight and ratio of intestine

  3. Daily expression patterns for mRNAs of GH, PRL, SL, IGF-I and IGF-II in juvenile rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus, during 24-h light and dark cycles.

    Ayson, Felix G; Takemura, Akihiro


    Most animals respond to changes in the external environment in a rhythmic fashion. In teleost fishes, daily rhythms are observed in plasma concentrations of some hormones but it is not clear whether these rhythms are exogenous or are entrained by predictable cues. We investigated whether the expression patterns for the mRNAs of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL) and somatolactin (SL) in the pituitary gland, and insulin-like growth factor-I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) in the liver, follow a daily rhythm when juvenile rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus) are reared under a normal 24-h light and dark cycle (LD), and when they are exposed to either continuous light (LL) or darkness (DD). Hormone mRNA levels were determined by real time PCR. Under LD conditions, GH mRNA expression in the pituitary was significantly lower during the light phase than during the dark phase suggesting a diurnal rhythm of expression. The rhythm disappeared when fish were exposed to LL or DD conditions. PRL mRNA expression pattern was irregular in all 3 conditions. Very low levels of SL mRNA were observed during the mid day under LD conditions. The expression pattern of SL mRNA became irregular under LL and DD conditions. No pattern could be observed in the expression profile of IGF-I and II mRNA in the liver during LD and LL conditions but a single peak in mRNA level was observed under DD conditions in both IGF-I and II. The results indicate that except for GH, the daily expression pattern for the mRNAs of the hormones examined do not seem to follow a rhythm according to light and dark cycles.

  4. Effects of salinity on survival, growth and antioxidant defense system of Siganus guttatus%盐度对点篮子鱼的存活、生长及抗氧化防御系统的影响

    王妤; 庄平; 章龙珍; 刘鉴毅; 赵峰


    Rabbit fish (Siganus guttatus) (67.76 ± 26.12 )g were reared under different salinities (fresh water, salinity 5,10,20 and control group (the local seawater) )to study the response of survival, growth and antioxidant defense system to salinity.The rabbit fish which were fed twice everyday were held in 500 L conical plastic tank with 95 cm in height and 95 cm in diameter for 40 days and three parallels each group.After 40 d, six fish each group were taken randomly to collect the samples of the gill, liver, kidney and muscle.The results showed that the abnormal phenomenon was not found.The survival rate of salinity 5,10,20 and the control group during the experimental period was 100%.However,the abnormal phenomenon of the rabbit fish in fresh water was found (the food consumption was reduced)on the sixth day.They fasted from the 7th day and began to die from 9thd.Feed was recovered from the 13th day.However, death continued.The fish in fresh water died out after 27 d.Specific growth rate(SGR) in different salinities did not show significant differences.The body weight in salinity 10 was significantly higher than that in salinity 5 and 20.However, no significant difference was observed between salinity 10 and the control group.The total length in salinity 5 was significantly lower than other groups.In order to study the response of antioxidant defense system to salinity, the activity of superoxide dismutase ( SOD), catalase ( CAT ), superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical of rabbit fish were measured.The activities of SOD, CAT, superoxide anion radical and hydroxyl radical in gill, liver, kidney, muscle of rabbit fish, reared under salinity 10,20, returned to normal levels ( the level of control group ) after 48 d.No significant differences were observed among each group of each index.However, the activities of SOD and superoxide anion radical in gill of rabbit fish under salinity 5 were significantly higher than that under salinity 10,20 and the control group

  5. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (December 2012



    Isl., Aegean Sea and the bryozoan Electra tenella (Livorno harbour and Messina Straits area. The alien fish Siganus luridus, Siganus rivulatus, Fistularia commersonii, Sphyraena chrysotaenia and Sargocentron rubrum are also reported from the islands of Karpathos and Chalki, and Pteragogus pelycus from Heraklion Bay, Crete. In addition, new localities for four rare Mediterranean inhabitants are given: the cephalopod Thysanoteuthis rhombus (NW Sardinia and the fish: Lampris guttatus (Calabria, S Italy, Petromyzon marinus (Gokova Bay and Remora australis (Saronikos Gulf, while the opisthobranch gastropod Cerberilla bernadettae is reported for the first time from the E Mediterranean (Cyprus. Finally, three species of the Aegean ascidiofauna are recorded for the first time: Lissoclinum perforatum, Ciona roulei and Ecteinascidia turbinata. Furthermore, it was established that Phallusia nigra has extended its distributional range to the north of the Aegean Sea.

  6. Over enkele teekininge, die eens Dodonaeus toebehoord hebben, waarbij de eerste Koningsvisch (Lampris luna) van de Europeesche Kusten

    Engel, H.


    Professor I. Q. van Regteren Altena was zoo vriendelijk mij een aantal teekeningen ter beschikking te stellen, die eens aan het huis Plantijn moeten toebehoord hebben. Immers, sommige daarvan hebben gediend als voorbeeld voor houtsneden in den Herbarius von Dodonaeus van 1618, gedrukt „t'Antwerpen i

  7. Experimental study on competitive interaction among reef-building coral Turbinaria peltata, Rhizoclonium sp.and rabbitfish Siganus guttatus%盾形陀螺珊瑚与根枝藻和点斑篮子鱼之间相互作用的实验研究

    郑新庆; 杨小舟; 林荣澄; 陈章群; 牛文涛; 黄丁勇


    本研究通过120 d的室内培养实验研究了盾形陀螺珊瑚(Turbinaria peltata)、根枝藻(Rhizoclonium sp.)和点斑篮子鱼(Siganus guttatus)之间的相互作用关系.结果显示,高质量浓度的NO3-(5.00 ~ 10.00 mg/dm3)刺激了丝状绿藻根枝藻在缸内的爆发式生长,在实验27 d时根枝藻在缸壁的面积覆盖率达到90.5%,藻丝长度为10 ~ 15 cm.在海藻的胁迫作用下,盾形陀螺珊瑚的PSⅡ最大光化学量子产量(Fv/Fm)均值逐渐从0.712降至0.626,降幅为10.7% ~ 13.5%.放入4尾4~6 cm长的点斑篮子鱼后,实验缸壁根枝藻的面积覆盖率在2d内从90.5%下降至l0.0%.但解除根枝藻胁迫后盾形陀螺珊瑚的Fv/Fm值并没有明显变化,与对照组的差异也不显著;随着海藻胁迫因子的消除,盾形陀螺珊瑚的Fv/Fm值逐渐升高,并在第120天时恢复至初始状态.本研究结果从珊瑚光合作用效率的角度验证了啃食者的存在确能缓解富营养化对造礁珊瑚的不利影响,为“下行控制假说”提供了新的证据.

  8. The influence of depth on mercury levels in pelagic fishes and their prey.

    Choy, C Anela; Popp, Brian N; Kaneko, J John; Drazen, Jeffrey C


    Mercury distribution in the oceans is controlled by complex biogeochemical cycles, resulting in retention of trace amounts of this metal in plants and animals. Inter- and intra-specific variations in mercury levels of predatory pelagic fish have been previously linked to size, age, trophic position, physical and chemical environmental parameters, and location of capture; however, considerable variation remains unexplained. In this paper, we focus on differences in ecology, depth of occurrence, and total mercury levels in 9 species of commercially important pelagic fish (Thunnus obesus, T. albacares, Katsuwonus pelamis, Xiphias gladius, Lampris guttatus, Coryphaena hippurus, Taractichthys steindachneri, Tetrapturus audax, and Lepidocybium flavobrunneum) and in numerous representatives (fishes, squids, and crustaceans) of their lower trophic level prey sampled from the central North Pacific Ocean. Results indicate that total mercury levels of predatory pelagic fishes and their prey increase with median depth of occurrence in the water column and mimic concentrations of dissolved organic mercury in seawater. Stomach content analysis results from this study and others indicate a greater occurrence of higher-mercury containing deeper-water prey organisms in the diets of the deeper-ranging predators, X. gladius, T. obesus, and L. guttatus. While present in trace amounts, dissolved organic mercury increases with depth in the water column suggesting that the mesopelagic habitat is a major entry point for mercury into marine food webs. These data suggest that a major determinant of mercury levels in oceanic predators is their depth of forage.

  9. The Effects of Ambient Salinity Decrement on Survival and the Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in Livers of Siganus Guttatus%盐度骤降对点篮子鱼存活率及肝脏抗氧化酶活性的影响

    庄平; 王好; 章龙珍; 赵峰


    水体盐度是影响鱼类生长的重要环境因素之一,为了解急性盐度胁迫对点篮子鱼(Siganusguttatus)存活率及肝脏超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-PX)活性的影响,设定盐度30(对照)、盐度20、盐度10、盐度5和淡水5个盐度梯度进行试验.结果表明:96 h内各组死亡率均为0%,182 h淡水组死亡率为100%,其余4组死亡率为0%.酶活性检测结果显示:将点篮子鱼直接放入盐度10和盐度20的水体中,SOD、CAT和GSH-PX活性虽有一定程度的升高,但与对照组无显著性差异(P>0.05).直接放入盐度5的水体中,SOD酶活性与对照组无显著性差异,而CAT和GSH-PX活性与对照组有显著性差异,但在24 h时均恢复到对照组水平.直接放入淡水中,3种酶活性均在3 h时达到最高,与对照组有显著性差异,SOD活性在12 h时恢复到对照组水平,CAT活性在48 h时恢复到对照组水平,GSH-PX活性在48 h时与对照组仍有显著性差异(P<0.05),96 h时仍高于对照组,但无显著性差异(P>0.05).结果表明:点篮子鱼对低盐的耐受力比较强,在盐度突然改变时能通过调节自身的抗氧化酶活力来清除体内多余的自由基,但对淡水环境耐受力比较差.%Effects of ambient salinity decrement on survival and the activity of three antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GSH-PX) in livers of Siganus guttatus were studied The rabbitfish((39. 41 ±12. 80 )g) were reared in different salinity of 30(the control group), 20,10, 5and the fresh water. The mortality of each group during 96 h was 0%. But the mortality of the rabbitfish reared in the fresh water was 100% after 186 h while the others were 0%. In group of salinity 10 and 20, the activity of the three antioxidant enzymes was higher than that in control group, but there was no significant difference( P>0. 05). In group of salinity 5, there was no significant difference

  10. The first description of oarfish Regalecus glesne (Regalecus russellii Cuvier 1816) ageing structures

    Midway, S.R.; Wagner, Tyler


    Despite being a large, conspicuous teleost with a worldwide tropical and temperate distribution, the giant oarfish Regalecus spp. remain very rare fish species in terms of scientific sampling. Subsequently, very little biological information is known about Regalecus spp. and almost nothing has been concluded in the field of age and growth (Roberts, 2012). No studies of otoliths or temporal (annual) markings on any hard structures have been reported, and to our knowledge otoliths have never been recovered from any specimens (Tyson Roberts, personal communication),although a few texts do provide illustrations of Regalecus sp. otoliths (Lin and Chang, 2012; Nolf, 2013). Further inferential difficulty comes from the fact that age and growth studies of any Lampridiforme species are rare. Lampris guttatus is perhaps the only Lampridiforme species for which any biological information has been reported(Francis et al., 2004), which stems from the species commercial value. In order to begin understanding any species (for later purposes of management, conservation, etc.), basic biological information is needed. In the present study, we examine not only the first Regalecus russellii otolith, but provide suggestions toward future work that should direct data collection that can be used to generate basic biological information for this species.

  11. Larval assemblages of large and medium-sized pelagic species in the Straits of Florida

    Richardson, David E.; Llopiz, Joel K.; Guigand, Cedric M.; Cowen, Robert K.


    Critical gaps in our understanding of the distributions, interactions, life histories and preferred habitats of large and medium-size pelagic fishes severely constrain the implementation of ecosystem-based, spatially structured fisheries management approaches. In particular, spawning distributions and the environmental characteristics associated with the early life stages are poorly documented. In this study, we consider the diversity, assemblages, and associated habitat of the larvae of large and medium-sized pelagic species collected during 2 years of monthly surveys across the Straits of Florida. In total, 36 taxa and 14,295 individuals were collected, with the highest diversity occurring during the summer and in the western, frontal region of the Florida Current. Only a few species (e.g. Thunnus obesus, T. alalunga, Tetrapturus pfluegeri) considered for this study were absent. Small scombrids (e.g. T. atlanticus, Katsuwonus pelamis, Auxis spp.) and gempylids dominated the catch and were orders of magnitude more abundant than many of the rare species (e.g. Thunnus thynnus,Kajikia albida). Both constrained (CCA) and unconstrained (NMDS) multivariate analyses revealed a number of species groupings including: (1) a summer Florida edge assemblage (e.g. Auxis spp., Euthynnus alleterattus, Istiophorus platypterus); (2) a summer offshore assemblage (e.g. Makaira nigricans, T. atlanticus, Ruvettus pretiosus, Lampris guttatus); (3) an ubiquitous assemblage (e.g. K. pelamis, Coryphaena hippurus, Xiphias gladius); and (4) a spring/winter assemblage that was widely dispersed in space (e.g. trachipterids). The primary environmental factors associated with these assemblages were sea-surface temperature (highest in summer-early fall), day length (highest in early summer), thermocline depth (shallowest on the Florida side) and fluorescence (highest on the Florida side). Overall, the results of this study provide insights into how a remarkable diversity of pelagic species

  12. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (December 2012



    Full Text Available This paper presents records extending or confirming the distribution of Mediterranean species. Three alien algae are included, namely Codium taylorii reported for the first time from the Aegean and Turkey (Izmir Gulf, Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Karpathos and Chalki Isl., Aegean Sea and Ganonema farinosum (Karpathos Isl., Aegean Sea. As far as animals are concerned, Litarachna divergens (Acari: Hydrachnidia was recorded (Side, Eastern Mediterranean and represents a new amendment at genus level for Turkish fauna. Other invertebrates include alien species such as the crabs Dyspanopeus sayi (Lago Fusaro, SW Italy, Percnon gibbesi (Larnaca, Cyprus; Karpathos and Chalki Isl., Aegean Sea and Callinectes sapidus (Voda estuary, NW Greece, the nudibranch Aplysia dactylomela (Boka Kotorska Bay, Montenegro, the gastropod Conomurex persicus (Karpathos and ChalkiIsl., Aegean Sea and the bryozoan Electra tenella (Livorno harbour and Messina Straits area. The alien fish Siganus luridus, Siganus rivulatus, Fistularia commersonii, Sphyraena chrysotaenia and Sargocentron rubrum are also reported from the islands of Karpathos and Chalki, and Pteragogus pelycus from Heraklion Bay, Crete. In addition, new localities for four rare Mediterranean inhabitants are given: the cephalopod Thysanoteuthis rhombus (NW Sardinia and the fish: Lampris guttatus (Calabria, S Italy, Petromyzon marinus (Gokova Bay and Remora australis (Saronikos Gulf, while the opisthobranch gastropod Cerberilla bernadettae is reported for the first time from the E Mediterranean (Cyprus. Finally, three species of the Aegean ascidiofauna are recorded for the first time: Lissoclinum perforatum, Ciona roulei and Ecteinascidia turbinata. Furthermore, it was established that Phallusia nigra has extended its distributional range to the north of the Aegean Sea.

  13. Comparative characterization of protease activity in cultured spotted rose snapper juveniles (Lutjanus guttatus

    Emyr Peña


    Full Text Available Partial characterizations of digestive proteases were studied in three life stages of spotted rose snapper: early (EJ, middle (MJ and late juvenile (LJ with corresponding average weights of 21.3 ± 2.6 g (3 months after hatching, MAH, 190 ± 4.4 g (7 MAH, and 400 ± 11.5 g (12 MAH. At sampling points, the digestive tract was dissected into the stomach (St, pyloric caeca (PC, and the intestine in three sections (proximal (PI, middle (MI and distal intestine (DI. The effect of pH and temperature and specific inhibitors were evaluated for acid and alkaline proteases. Total acid and alkaline protease activity showed a tendency to increase with juvenile life stage of fish while trypsin activity decreased. Differences were found in acid and alkaline protease activities at different pH and temperatures during juvenile stages. Pepstatin A inhibited total activity in the stomach extract in all juvenile stages. Activity in total alkaline protease inhibition was significantly higher in EJ using TLCK, PMSF, SBTI, Phen and Ovo than in MJ and LJ, while no significant differences were found with TPCK inhibition. Therefore increases in protease activities with fish growth through juvenile stages in which a substitution or diversification in the type of alkaline enzymes exist. These results lead a better comprehension of changes in digestive potential of Lutjanidae fish.

  14. Sticking under wet conditions: the remarkable attachment abilities of the torrent frog, Staurois guttatus.

    Thomas Endlein

    Full Text Available Tree frogs climb smooth surfaces utilising capillary forces arising from an air-fluid interface around their toe pads, whereas torrent frogs are able to climb in wet environments near waterfalls where the integrity of the meniscus is at risk. This study compares the adhesive capabilities of a torrent frog to a tree frog, investigating possible adaptations for adhesion under wet conditions. We challenged both frog species to cling to a platform which could be tilted from the horizontal to an upside-down orientation, testing the frogs on different levels of roughness and water flow. On dry, smooth surfaces, both frog species stayed attached to overhanging slopes equally well. In contrast, under both low and high flow rate conditions, the torrent frogs performed significantly better, even adhering under conditions where their toe pads were submerged in water, abolishing the meniscus that underlies capillarity. Using a transparent platform where areas of contact are illuminated, we measured the contact area of frogs during platform rotation under dry conditions. Both frog species not only used the contact area of their pads to adhere, but also large parts of their belly and thigh skin. In the tree frogs, the belly and thighs often detached on steeper slopes, whereas the torrent frogs increased the use of these areas as the slope angle increased. Probing small areas of the different skin parts with a force transducer revealed that forces declined significantly in wet conditions, with only minor differences between the frog species. The superior abilities of the torrent frogs were thus due to the large contact area they used on steep, overhanging surfaces. SEM images revealed slightly elongated cells in the periphery of the toe pads in the torrent frogs, with straightened channels in between them which could facilitate drainage of excess fluid underneath the pad.

  15. Trace metals in primary feathers of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba guttatus) in The Netherlands.

    Denneman, W D; Douben, P E


    The number of Barn Owls in The Netherlands has been reduced substantially over the last few decades. Death as a result of poisoning seems unlikely, but the pathology of all bird species found dead in The Netherlands between 1975 and 1988 (n = 15 422) shows that 21% of all the birds were contaminated. However, the most important factor responsible for the decline in Barn Owl numbers in The Netherlands has not yet been established. As a part of a new national protection plan for the Barn Owl, the role of heavy metals has been investigated. Concentrations of heavy metals in the primary feathers of the Barn Owl varied according to their position in the wing; especially As, Sb, Fe and Zn whose concentrations depended on the place of the primary feather in the wing and the part of the vane which is used for the monitoring. The HS7 feather vane appears to provide a good estimate, even though the metal concentrations of this feather are always slightly lower than the concentrations in mixed samples of all ten primaries. It is recommended that they are used as a standard. Many factors affect metal concentrations. Increasing levels with age are found, presumably because metals are stored during growth at the end of the feathers as a method of reducing possible harmful effects. No significant correlations were found between the metal concentrations in the organs and those in the feather. Kidney and liver concentrations are always lower than the generally accepted levels for pathological damage of these organs. Even though metal concentrations in Barn Owl feathers are high compared with those reported for other birds in the Netherlands, it is concluded that Barn Owls are not adversely affected by current levels of heavy metal contamination in The Netherlands.


    Angel Herrera-Ulloa


    Full Text Available La sobreexplotación pesquera y la búsqueda de alternativas ante la pobreza crónica han llevado a explorar el campo de la maricultura por medio de un enfoque ecosistémico se abrieron dos procesos paralelos: una estrategia e; investigación en laboratorio para el levantamiento larval de peces marinos tropicales y una estrategia de comanejo para desarrollar el cultivo de peces marinos tropicales. El pargo la mancha muestra gran potencial de producción de larvas y posterior cultivo en el mar. No mostró respuestas positivas a la inducción por medio de hormonas, el desarrollo de un ambiente adecuado para su reproducción espontánea, permitió tener desoves frecuentes y de calidad. La fase de levantamiento larval mostró contratiempos por el tamaño reducido de las larvas de pargo la mancha el manejo en tanques apropiados y el uso de enriquecedores permitieran mejorar los procesos y llegar a incrementar la producción de alevines. El enfoque ecosistémico permitió abrir los espacios necesarios que permitieron la operación de un proyecto piloto. La granja se creó con un enfoque productivo, pero también para turismo rural. Overfishing and the search for alternatives to it, led us to the explore mariculture as an option using an ecosystem-based approach through two parallel processes: an in-laboratory research strategy for larval rearing of tropical marine fish, and a strategy of co-management to develop tropical marine fish aquaculture. The spotted rose snapper shows great potential for larvae production and cage culture. This species showed no responses to hormone induction; however, the set up of a suitable environment allowed frequent, high-quality spontaneous spawnings. The larval rearing phase presented problems due to the small size of the larvae; although, management in appropriate tanks and the use of enrichments improved the processes, increasing the production of juveniles. This ecosystem approach allowed the operation of a profitable farm pilot project with a productive approach, but with rural tourism in mind as well.

  17. Differential expression of insulin-like growth factor I and II mRNAs during embryogenesis and early larval development in rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus.

    Ayson, Felix G; de Jesus, Evelyn Grace T; Moriyama, Shunsuke; Hyodo, Susumu; Funkenstein, Bruria; Gertler, Arieh; Kawauchi, Hiroshi


    In rodents, the expression of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) is higher than that of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) during fetal life while the reverse is true after birth. We wanted to examine whether this is also true in fish and whether IGF-I and IGF-II are differentially regulated during different stages of embryogenesis and early larval development in rabbitfish. We first cloned the cDNAs of rabbitfish IGF-I and IGF-II from the liver. Rabbitfish IGF-I has an open reading frame of 558 bp that codes for a signal peptide of 44 amino acids (aa), a mature protein of 68 aa, and a single form of E domain of 74 aa. Rabbitfish IGF-II, on the other hand, has an open reading frame of 645 bp that codes for a signal peptide of 47 aa, a mature protein of 70 aa, and an E domain of 98 aa. On the amino acid level, rabbitfish IGF-I shares 68% similarity with IGF-II. We then examined the relative expression of the two IGFs in unfertilized eggs, during different stages of embryogenesis, and in early larval stages of rabbitfish by a semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Primers that amplify the mature peptide region of both IGFs were used and PCR for both peptides was done simultaneously, with identical PCR conditions for both. The identity of the PCR products was confirmed by direct sequencing. Contrary to published reports for seabream and rainbow trout, IGF-I mRNA was not detected in rabbitfish unfertilized eggs; it was first expressed in larvae soon after hatching. IGF-II mRNA, however, was expressed in unfertilized eggs, albeit weakly, and was already strongly expressed during the cleavage stage. mRNAs for both peptides were strongly expressed in the larvae, although IGF-II mRNA expression was higher than IGF-I expression.

  18. A direct influence of moonlight intensity on changes in melatonin production by cultured pineal glands of the golden rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus.

    Takemura, Akihiro; Ueda, Satomi; Hiyakawa, Nanae; Nikaido, Yoshiaki


    Rabbitfish are a restricted lunar-synchronized spawner that spawns around a species-specific lunar phase. It is not known how the fish perceive changes in cues from the moon. One possible explanation is that rabbitfish utilize changes in moonlight intensity to establish synchrony. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether or not the pineal gland of the golden rabbitfish can directly perceive changes in moonlight intensity. Isolated pineal glands were statically cultured under natural or artificial light conditions and melatonin secreted into the culture medium was measured using a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. Under an artificial light/dark cycle, melatonin secretion significantly increased during the dark phase. Under continuous light conditions, melatonin secretion was suppressed, while culture under continuous dark conditions seemed to duplicate melatonin secretion corresponding to the light/dark cycle in which the fish were acclimated. When cultured pineal glands were kept under natural light conditions on the dates of the full and the new moon, small amounts of melatonin were secreted at night. Moreover, exposure of cultured pineal glands to artificial and natural light conditions resulted in a significant decrease of melatonin secretion within 2 hr. These results suggest that the isolated pineal gland of golden rabbitfish responds to environmental light cycles and that 'brightness' of the night moon has an influence on melatonin secretion from the isolated pineal gland.

  19. Comparative developmental toxicity of environmentally relevant oxygenated PAHs

    Knecht, Andrea L., E-mail: [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Goodale, Britton C., E-mail: [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Truong, Lisa, E-mail: [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Simonich, Michael T., E-mail: [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Swanson, Annika J., E-mail: [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Matzke, Melissa M., E-mail: [Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, Kim A., E-mail: [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Waters, Katrina M., E-mail: [Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Tanguay, Robert L., E-mail: [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States)


    Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs) are byproducts of combustion and photo-oxidation of parent PAHs. OPAHs are widely present in the environment and pose an unknown hazard to human health. The developing zebrafish was used to evaluate a structurally diverse set of 38 OPAHs for malformation induction, gene expression changes and mitochondrial function. Zebrafish embryos were exposed from 6 to 120 h post fertilization (hpf) to a dilution series of 38 different OPAHs and evaluated for 22 developmental endpoints. AHR activation was determined via CYP1A immunohistochemistry. Phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PHEQ), 1,9-benz-10-anthrone (BEZO), xanthone (XAN), benz(a)anthracene-7,12-dione (7,12-B[a]AQ), and 9,10-anthraquinone (9,10-ANTQ) were evaluated for transcriptional responses at 48 hpf, prior to the onset of malformations. qRT-PCR was conducted for a number of oxidative stress genes, including the glutathione transferase(gst), glutathione peroxidase(gpx), and superoxide dismutase(sod) families. Bioenergetics was assayed to measure in vivo oxidative stress and mitochondrial function in 26 hpf embryos exposed to OPAHs. Hierarchical clustering of the structure-activity outcomes indicated that the most toxic of the OPAHs contained adjacent diones on 6-carbon moieties or terminal, para-diones on multi-ring structures. 5-carbon moieties with adjacent diones were among the least toxic OPAHs while the toxicity of multi-ring structures with more centralized para-diones varied considerably. 9,10-PHEQ, BEZO, 7,12-B[a]AQ, and XAN exposures increased expression of several oxidative stress related genes and decreased oxygen consumption rate (OCR), a measurement of mitochondrial respiration. Comprehensive in vivo characterization of 38 structurally diverse OPAHs indicated differential AHR dependency and a prominent role for oxidative stress in the toxicity mechanisms. - Highlights: • OPAHs are byproducts of combustion present in the environment. • OPAHs pose a largely

  20. 中西太平洋金枪鱼延绳钓主要渔获物垂直结构的初步研究%Vertical distribution of main species captured by tuna longline fishery in the Western and Central Pacific

    栾松鹤; 戴小杰; 田思泉; 张艳波


    line,length of branch line,main line length between branch lines and so on.The data of fishing gear were used to calculate caught depth by catenary equation.The actual average depth of each hook was measured based on the depth data recoreded by TDR.Based on depth data of longline hook recorded by TDR and capture hook position of pelagic species,shoaling rate of longline hook and vertical distribution were analyzed.The results were as follows:the absolute shoaling rate range of longline hook was 0.49 -44.73 m,and the average absolute shoaling rate was 23.29 m.The relative shoaling rate rang of longline hook was 0.65%-16.69%, and the average relative shoaling rate was 8.87%.The depth ranges of 12 main species were different.The species with the deepest depth was blue marlin (Makaira nigricans),and the species with the shallowest depth was Great barracuda (Lampris guttatus ).Cluster analysis showed that there were three vertical distribution structures among 12 main species;the first class with the shallowest depth was common dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus),great barracuda(Sphyraena barracuda),wahoo(Acanthocybium solandri);the second class with deeper depth was escolar (Lepidocybium flavobrunneum ),pelagic stingray (Dasyatis violacea ), albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga ),yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares ),slender mola (Ranzania laevis ), skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis );the third class with the deepest depth was bigeye tuna (Thunnus abesus),longnose lancetfish(Alepisaurus ferox),blue marlin(Makaira nigricans);the mean depth and depth distributions of bycatch species were significantly different from that of the targeted albacore tuna.Those results show that the theoretical depth of the catenary equation has a certain reference value in the Western and Central Pacific.Deploying longline hooks at appropriate depths can greatly improve catch of target species,and reduce bycatch of protected species and untargeted species.

  1. PARR LEGACY - EOP Pop-up Archival Transmission data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data contain vertical dive depth and temperature data from numerous pelagic species including bigeye tuna, opah, swordfish and whale sharks

  2. Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and azaarenes in urban soils: a comparison of a tropical city (Bangkok) with two temperate cities (Bratislava and Gothenburg).

    Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Lueso, María Gómez; Wilcke, Wolfgang


    Environmental conditions in the tropics favor the formation of polar polycyclic aromatic compound (polar PACs, such as oxygenated PAHs [OPAHs] and azaarenes [AZAs]), but little is known about these hazardous compounds in tropical soils. The objectives of this work were to determine (i) the level of contamination of soils (0-5 and 5-10 cm layers) from the tropical metropolis of Bangkok (Thailand) with OPAHs and AZAs and (ii) the influence of urban emission sources and soil properties on the distribution of PACs. We hypothesized that the higher solar insolation and microbial activity in the tropics than in the temperate zone will lead to enhanced secondary formation of OPAHs. Hence, OPAH to related parent-PAH ratios will be higher in the tropical soils of Bangkok than in temperate soils of Bratislava and Gothenburg. The concentrations of ∑15OPAHs (range: 12-269 ng g(-1)) and ∑4AZAs (0.1-31 ng g(-1)) measured in soils of Bangkok were lower than those in several cities of the industrialized temperate zone. The ∑15OPAHs (r=0.86, pBangkok were mostly higher than those of Bratislava and Gothenburg (e.g. 9-fluorenone/fluorene concentration ratio was 12.2 ± 6.7, 5.6 ± 2.4, and 0.7 ± 02 in Bangkok, Bratislava and Gothenburg soils, respectively) supporting the view that tropical environmental conditions and higher microbial activity likely lead to higher OPAH to parent-PAH ratios in tropical than in temperate soils.

  3. Characterization of parent and oxygenated-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Xi'an, China during heating period: An investigation of spatial distribution and transformation.

    Wang, Jingzhi; Hang Ho, Steven Sai; Huang, Rujin; Gao, Meiling; Liu, Suixin; Zhao, Shuyu; Cao, Junji; Wang, Gehui; Shen, Zhenxing; Han, Yongming


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and its oxygenated derivatives (OPAHs) are toxins in PM2.5. Little information has been known for their transformation in the ambient airs. In this study, PM2.5 samples were collected at 19 sampling sites in Xi'an, China during the heating period, which is classified into: urban residential, university, commercial area, suburban region, and industry. Organic compounds including PAHs, OPAHs, hopanes and cholestanes were quantified. The average of total quantified PAHs and OPAHs concentrations were 196.5 ng/m(3) and 29.4 ng/m(3), respectively, which were consistent with other northern cities in China. Statistical analyses showed that there were significant differences on the distributions of PAHs between urban and suburban regions. The industry also had distinguishable profiles compared with urban residential and commercial area for OPAHs. The greater diversity of OPAHs than PAHs might be due to different primary emission sources and transformation and degradation pathways. The ratios of OPAHs to the corresponding parent PAHs, including 9-fluorenone/fluorene, anthraquinone/anthracene, benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione/benzo[a]anthracene were 6.2, 12.7, and 1.4, respectively, which were much higher than those for the fresh emissions from coal combustion and biomass burning. These prove the importance of secondary formation and transformation of OPAHs in the ambient airs. Biomarkers such as retene, cyclopenta[CD]pyrene and αα-homohopane were characterized for the source apportionment. With Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model analysis, biomass burning was recognized as the most dominant pollution sources for PAHs during the heading period, which accounted for a contribution of 37.1%. Vehicle emission (22.8%) and coal combustion (22.6%) were also contributors in Xi'an.

  4. Composition and size distribution of airborne particulate PAHs and oxygenated PAHs in two Chinese megacities

    Ren, Yanqin; Zhou, Bianhong; Tao, Jun; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Zhisheng; Wu, Can; Wang, Jiayuan; Li, Jianjun; Zhang, Lu; Han, Yanni; Liu, Lang; Cao, Cong; Wang, Gehui


    Concentrations and compositions of PAHs and oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) in four size ranges of ambient particles ( 9.0 μm) collected in Xi'an and Guangzhou, two megacities of China, during the winter and summer of 2013 were measured and compared with those in 2003. The TSP-equivalent concentrations of Σ14PAHs in Xi'an and Guangzhou are 57 ± 20 and 18 ± 23 ng m- 3 in winter, 5-10 times higher than those in summer. PAHs in both cities are dominated by 5- and 6-ring congeners in summer. In contrast, they are dominated by 4- and 5-ring congeners in winter, probably due to enhanced gas-to-particle phase partitioning of the semi-volatile PAHs. TSP-equivalent Σ7OPAHs during winter are 54 ± 15 and 23 ± 32 ng m- 3 in Xi'an and Guangzhou and dominated by 5-ring OPAHs. Size distribution results showed that the fine modes (PAHs and OPAHs in both cities are dominated by 4- and 5-ring congeners in winter and 5- and 6-ring congeners in summer. Relative abundances of 3-ring PAHs and OPAHs increased along with an increase in particle sizes, accounting for from about 1% of the total PAHs or OPAHs in the smallest particles ( 90% of the total in the largest particles (> 9.0 μm). The toxicity of PAH assessment indicated that atmospheric particles in Xi'an and Guangzhou during winter are much more toxic than those during summer and fine particles are more toxic than coarse particles. Compared to those in 2003, fine particulate PAHs and OPAHs in both cities during winter decreased by 50-90%, most likely due to the replacement of coal by natural gas in the country.

  5. Amino acid composition and nutritional value assessment in the muscle of wild Mystus Guttatus%野生芝麻剑肌肉氨基酸组成及营养价值评定




  6. Influence of different types of coals and stoves on the emissions of parent and oxygenated PAHs from residential coal combustion in China.

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Yue; Chen, Yingjun; Tian, Chongguo; Feng, Yanli; Chen, Tian; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan


    To evaluate the influence of coal property and stove efficiency on the emissions of parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) and oxygenated PAHs (oPAHs) during the combustion, fifteen coal/stove combinations were tested in this study, including five coals of different geological maturities in briquette and chunk forms burned in two residential stoves. The emission factors (EFs) of pPAHs and oPAHs were in the range of 0.129-16.7 mg/kg and 0.059-0.882 mg/kg, respectively. The geological maturity of coal significantly affected the emissions of pPAHs and oPAHs with the lower maturity coals yielding the higher emissions. The chunk-to-briquette transformation of coal dramatically increased the emissions of pPAHs and oPAHs during the combustion of anthracite, whereas this transformation only elevated the emissions of high molecular weight PAHs for bituminous coals. The influence of stove type on the emissions of pPAHs and oPAHs was also geological-maturity-dependent. High efficiency stove significantly reduced the emissions of PAHs from those relatively high-maturity coals, but its influences on low-maturity coals were inconstant.

  7. Characterization of chemical components and bioreactivity of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during incense burning.

    Lui, K H; Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Cao, Jun-Ji; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Lee, S C; Hu, Di; Ho, K F


    The chemical and bioreactivity properties of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emitted during controlled burning of different brands of incense were characterized. Incenses marketed as being environmentally friendly emitted lower mass of PM2.5 particulates than did traditional incenses. However, the environmentally friendly incenses produced higher total concentrations of non-volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs). Human alveolar epithelial A549 cells were exposed to the collected PM2.5, followed by determining oxidative stress and inflammation. There was moderate to strong positive correlation (R > 0.60, p incenses contained higher concentrations of several PAH and OPAH compounds than did traditional incense. Moreover, these PAHs and OPAHs were strongly correlated with inflammatory responses. The findings suggest a need to revise existing regulation of such products.

  8. Occurrence and Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and their Derivatives in a Rural Chinese Home through Biomass Fuelled Cooking

    Ding, Junnan; Zhong, Junjun; Yang, Yifeng; Li, Bengang; SHEN, Guofeng; Su, Yuhong; Wang, Chen; Shen, Huizhong; Wang, Bin; Wang, Rong; HUANG, YE; ZHANG, Yanyan; Cao, Hongying; Zhu, Ying; Simonich, Staci L. M.


    The concentration and composition of PAHs emitted from biomass cooking fuel were characterized in a rural non-smoking household in northern China. Twenty-two parent PAHs (pPAHs), 12 nitro-PAHs (nPAHs), and 4 oxy-PAHs (oPAHs) were measured in the kitchen, bedroom, and outdoors during both summer and winter. The most severe contamination occurred in the kitchen in the winter, where the daily mean concentrations of pPAHs, nPAHs, and oPAHs were 7500±4100, 38±29, and 8400±9200 ng/m3, respectively....

  9. Fish species and quantity in the South China Sea surveyed by deep longline%南海深水延绳钓探捕渔获组成与数量分布

    冯波; 李忠炉; 侯刚


    Deep longline surveys were conducted in the South China Sea from June 2010 to February 2013. The composition, quantity and seasonal variation of fish species were reported using hooking rate and catch per unit effort as index. A total of 33 species were identified, of which six species including Thunnus obesus, Lampris guttatus, Alepisaurus ferox, Scoliodon Palasorrah, Taractichthys steindachneri, and Xiphias gladius were the most abundant ones taking 75.56%of the total weight, and of which five species such as Alepisaurus ferox, Gempylus serpens, Taractichthys steindachneri, Dasyatis atratus, and Thunnus obesus were the most abundant ones taking 82.59%of the total number. The species compositions of the catches did not change with season, but more Thunnus alalunga, Xiphias gladius and Lepidocybium flavobrunneum were caught in winter. The average hooking rate was higher in central western Nansha waters than in other sea areas in all four seasons. The average CPUE was higher in central western Nansha waters in spring and summer, in western Xisha waters in fall and in southeastern waters off Hainan Island in winter. Fish species could be classified into shallow-water group and deep-water group according to catching depth, and 87.33%of the catches came from 80 to 280 m water depths. There are two reasons for low hooking rate with comparison to previous surveys and productions. One is that survey area coverage was not large enough to make us find better fishing ground; the other is that we could not adjust fishing gear and method effectively without knowledge of fish behavior in deep South China Sea . We suggest paying more attention to fishing ground and fishing technology in future surveys.%根据2010~2013年8个航次南海深水延绳钓探捕调查结果,用渔获率和单位捕捞努力量渔获量(catch per unit effort, CPUE)作为鱼类资源数量分布的指标,对渔获种类、数量分布、季节变化作了定量分析。结果表明,南海深海区

  10. Occurrence, distribution and health risk from polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs, oxygenated-PAHs and azaarenes) in street dust from a major West African Metropolis.

    Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Nkansah, Marian Asantewah


    Scientific evidence suggests that the burden of disease on urban residents of sub-Saharan African Countries is increasing, partly as a result of exposure to elevated concentrations of toxic environmental chemicals. However, characterization of the levels, composition pattern and sources of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in environmental samples from African cities is still lacking. This study measured the PAHs, oxygenated-PAHs (OPAHs) and azaarene (AZAs) content of street dusts collected from Kumasi, Ghana (a major metropolis located in the tropical forest zone of West Africa). The ∑Alkyl+parent-PAHs, ∑OPAHs and ∑AZAs concentration in street dust averaged 2570 ng g(-1) (range: 181-7600 ng g(-1)), 833 ng g(-1) (57-4200 ng g(-1)) and 73 ng g(-1) (3.3-240 ng g(-1)), respectively. The concentrations of ∑Alkyl+parent-PAHs were strongly correlated (n=25) with ∑OPAHs (r=0.96, p10(-6) indicating high risk of contracting cancer from exposure to street dust from Kumasi. The contribution of OPAHs, AZAs, and alkyl-PAHs in street dust to cancer risk could not be quantified because of lack of toxicity equivalency factors for these compounds; however this could be significant because of their high concentration and known higher toxicity of some polar PACs and alkyl-PAHs than their related parent-PAHs.

  11. Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the Disposal and Reuse of Mare Island Naval Shipyard Vallejo, California. Volume 2.


    croakers Embiotocidae - surfperches Gobiidae - gobies Cottidae - sculpins Percichtyidae - bass Pleuronectidae - flounders Herpetofauna - Amphibians...Regulus calendula Sialia mexicana Catharus guttatus Turdus migratorius Ixoreus naevius Mimus polyglottus Anthus spinoletta Bombycilla cedrorum

  12. Determination of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur-containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban stream sediments.

    Witter, Amy E; Nguyen, Minh H


    Recent studies indicate that PAH transformation products such as ketone or quinone-substituted PAHs (OPAHs) are potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activators that elicit toxicological effects independent of those observed for PAHs. Here, we measured eight OPAHs, two sulfur-containing (SPAH), one oxygen-containing (DBF), and one nitrogen-containing (CARB) heterocyclic PAHs (i.e. ΣONS-PAHs = OPAH8 + SPAH + DBF + CARB) in 35 stream sediments collected from a small (∼1303 km(2)) urban watershed located in south-central Pennsylvania, USA. Combined ΣONS-PAH concentrations ranged from 59 to 1897 μg kg(-1) (mean = 568 μg kg(-1); median = 425 μg kg(-1)) and were 2.4 times higher in urban versus rural areas, suggesting that activities taking place on urban land serve as a source of ΣONS-PAHs to sediments. To evaluate urban land use metrics that might explain these data, Spearman rank correlation analyses was used to evaluate the degree of association between ΣONS-PAH concentrations and urban land-use/land-cover metrics along an urban-rural transect at two spatial scales (500-m and 1000-m upstream). Combined ΣONS-PAH concentrations showed highly significant (p PAHs originate from similar sources as PAHs. To evaluate OPAH sources, a subset of ΣONS-PAHs for which reference assemblages exist, an average OPAH fractional assemblage for urban sediments was derived using agglomerative hierarchal cluster (AHC) analysis, and compared to published OPAH source profiles. Urban sediments from the Condoguinet Creek (n = 21) showed highly significant correlations with urban particulate matter (X(2) = 0.05, r = 0.91, p = 0.0047), suggesting that urban particulate matter is an important OPAH source to sediments in this watershed. Results suggest the inclusion of ΣONS-PAH measurements adds value to traditional PAH analyses, and may help elucidate and refine pollutant source identification in urban watersheds.

  13. Field evaluation and calibration of a small axial passive air sampler for gaseous and particle bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxygenated PAHs.

    Magnusson, Roger; Arnoldsson, Kristina; Lejon, Christian; Hägglund, Lars; Wingfors, Håkan


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their oxygenated analogues (OPAHs) are ubiquitous air pollutants known to cause adverse health effects. PAH air levels are commonly monitored by active sampling but passive sampling has become popular because of its lower cost and simplicity, which facilitate long-term sampling and increased spatial coverage. However, passive samplers are less suitable for short-term sampling and are in general less accurate than active samplers because they require reliable sampling rate (Rs) measurements for individual analytes under diverse environmental conditions. In this study a small passive sampler designed to sample both particle-bound and gaseous compounds was evaluated and calibrated for PAHs and OPAHs in a traffic environment by co-deployment with active samplers for two weeks. Despite the relatively low average air concentrations of PM10 (20 μg/m(3)), PM2.5 (5 μg/m(3)), total PAHs (4.2 ng/m(3)), and OPAHs (2.3 ng/m(3)) at the site, detectable quantities (on average 24 times above blank values) of the full range of PAHs and OPAHs were captured, with low variability (average RSD of 16%). This was accomplished by using a Tenax(®) TA-modified glass fiber substrate that is compatible with highly sensitive thermal desorption GC-MS analysis, which made it possible to achieve detection limits per sample in the pg range. Experiments with inverted samplers revealed that the relative contribution of gravitational settling to the sampling of particles carrying PAHs and OPAHs was around 3.5 times larger than other deposition mechanisms. Average Rs values for individual OPAHs and PAHs were 0.046 ± 0.03 m(3)/day and 0.12 ± 0.07 m(3)/day, respectively, with no appreciable difference between the values for particle-associated and gaseous compounds. Furthermore, the Rs values were competitive with other currently used passive samplers if normalized for substrate area. Overall, the new sampler's performance, simplicity and

  14. Oxygenated, nitrated, methyl and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rivers of Haihe River System, China: occurrence, possible formation, and source and fate in a water-shortage area.

    Qiao, Meng; Qi, Weixiao; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui


    Substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (SPAHs) occur ubiquitously in the whole global environment as a result of their persistence and widely-spread sources. Some SPAHs show higher toxicities and levels than the corresponding PAHs. Three types of most frequently existing SPAHs, oxygenated-PAHs (OPAHs), nitrated-PAHs (NPAHs), and methyl-PAHs (MPAHs), as well as the 16 priority PAHs were investigated in this study. The purpose was to identify the occurrence, possible transformation, and source and fate of these target compounds in a water shortage area of North China. We took a river system in the water-shortage area in China, the Haihe River System (HRS), as a typical case. The rivers are used for irrigating the farmland in the North of China, which probably introduce these pollutants to the farmland of this area. The MPAHs (0.02-0.40 μg/L in dissolved phase; 0.32-16.54 μg/g in particulate phase), OPAHs (0.06-0.19 μg/L; 0.41-17.98 μg/g), and PAHs (0.16-1.20 μg/L; 1.56-79.38 μg/g) were found in the water samples, but no NPAHs were detected. The concentrations of OPAHs were higher than that of the corresponding PAHs. Seasonal comparison results indicated that the OPAHs, such as anthraquinone and 2-methylanthraquinone, were possibly transformed from the PAHs, particularly at higher temperature. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent was deemed to be the major source for the MPAHs (contributing 62.3% and 87.6% to the receiving river in the two seasons), PAHs (68.5% and 89.4%), and especially OPAHs (80.3% and 93.2%) in the rivers. Additionally, the majority of MPAHs (12.4 kg, 80.0% of the total input), OPAHs (16.2 kg, 83.5%), and PAHs (65.9 kg, 93.3%) in the studied months entered the farmland through irrigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives (oxygenated-PAHs, nitrated-PAHs and azaarenes) in size-fractionated particles emitted in an urban road tunnel

    Alves, C. A.; Vicente, A. M. P.; Gomes, J.; Nunes, T.; Duarte, M.; Bandowe, B. A. M.


    A sampling campaign of size segregated particulate matter (PM0.5, PM0.5-1, PM1-2.5 and PM2.5-10) was carried out at two sites, one in a road tunnel (Braga, Portugal) and another at an urban background location in the neighbourhood. Particle-bound polycyclic aromatic compounds were extracted with organic solvents and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Twenty six parent and alkyl-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 4 azaarenes (AZAs), 15 nitrated and 15 oxygenated derivatives (NPAHs and OPAHs) were analysed. On average, submicron particles (PM1) in the tunnel comprised 93, 91, 96 and 71% of the total PAHs, OPAHs, NPAHs and AZAs mass in PM10, respectively. Tunnel to outdoor PAH concentration ratios between 10 and 14 reveal the strong contribution of fresh exhaust emissions to the PM loads. The dominant PAHs in the tunnel were pyrene, retene and benzo[ghi]perylene, accounting for 20, 17 and 8% of the total PAH levels in PM10, respectively. Isomer ratios indicated the importance of unburnt fuel as a significant PAH source. The only NPAH consistently present in all samples was 5-nitroacenaphthene. Indanone and 1,8-naphthalic anhydride were the most abundant OPAHs, accounting for 25 and 17% of the total concentrations of this organic class, respectively. Other abundant OPAHs were 1,4-naphthoquinone, 9-fluorenone, 1,2-acenaphthylenequinone and 7H-benz[de]anthracene-7-one. Individual emission factors (μg veh- 1 km- 1) were estimated and compared with those obtained in other tunnel studies.

  16. Emissions of Parent, Nitro, and Oxygenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Residential Wood Combustion in Rural China

    SHEN, Guofeng; TAO, SHU; WEI, Siye; ZHANG, Yanyan; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Li, Wei; Shen, Huizhong; HUANG, YE; Chen, Yuanchen; Chen, Han; Yang, Yifeng; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin


    Residential wood combustion is one of the important sources of air pollution in developing countries. Among the pollutants emitted, parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) and their derivatives, including nitrated and oxygenated PAHs (nPAHs and oPAHs), are of concern because of their mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. In order to evaluate their impacts on regional air quality and human health, emission inventories, based on realistic emission factors (EFs), are needed. In this study,...

  17. Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs and oxygenated PAHs) and trace metals in fish species from Ghana (West Africa): bioaccumulation and health risk assessment.

    Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Bigalke, Moritz; Boamah, Linda; Nyarko, Elvis; Saalia, Firibu Kwesi; Wilcke, Wolfgang


    We report the concentrations of 28 PAHs, 15 oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) and 11 trace metals/metalloids (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn) in muscle and gut+gill tissues of demersal fishes (Drapane africana, Cynoglossus senegalensis and Pomadasys peroteti) from three locations along the coast of the Gulf of Guinea (Ghana). The concentrations of ∑28PAHs in muscle tissues averaged 192ngg(-1) dw (range: 71-481ngg(-1) dw) and were not statistically different between locations. The concentrations of ∑28 PAHs were higher in guts+gills than in muscles. The PAH composition pattern was dominated by low molecular weight compounds (naphthalene, alkyl-naphthalenes and phenanthrene). All fish tissues had benzo[a]pyrene concentrations lower than the EU limit for food safety. Excess cancer risk from consumption of some fish was higher than the guideline value of 1×10(-6). The concentrations of ∑15 OPAHs in fish muscles averaged 422ngg(-1) dw (range: 28-1715ngg(-1)dw). The ∑15 OPAHs/∑16 US-EPA PAHs concentration ratio was >1 in 68% of the fish muscles and 100% of guts+gills. The log-transformed concentrations of PAHs and OPAHs in muscles, guts+gills were significantly (ptrace metal concentrations in the fish tissues were in the medium range when compared to fish from other parts of the world. The concentrations of some trace metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) were higher in guts+gills than in muscle tissues. The target hazard quotients for metals weretrace metals content) is minimal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. On-road traffic emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their oxy- and nitro- derivative compounds measured in road tunnel environments.

    Keyte, Ian J; Albinet, Alexandre; Harrison, Roy M


    Vehicular emissions are a key source of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their oxygenated (OPAH) and nitrated (NPAH) derivatives, in the urban environment. Road tunnels are a useful environment for the characterisation of on-road vehicular emissions, providing a realistic traffic fleet and a lack of direct sunlight, chemical reactivity and non-traffic sources. In the present investigation the concentrations of selected PAHs, OPAHs and NPAHs have been measured in the Parc des Princes Tunnel in Paris (PdPT, France), and at the Queensway Road Tunnel and an urban background site in Birmingham (QT, U.K). A higher proportion of semi-volatile (3-4 ring) PAH, OPAH and NPAH compounds are associated with the particulate phase compared with samples from the ambient environment. A large (~85%) decline in total PAH concentrations is observed between 1992 and 2012 measurements in QT. This is attributed primarily to the introduction of catalytic converters in the U.K as well as increasingly stringent EU vehicle emissions legislation. In contrast, NPAH concentrations measured in 2012 are similar to those measured in 1996. This observation, in addition to an increased proportion of (Phe+Flt+Pyr) in the observed PAH burden in the tunnel, is attributed to the increased number of diesel passenger vehicles in the U.K during this period. Except for OPAHs, comparable PAH and NPAH concentrations are observed in both investigated tunnels (QT and PdP). Significant differences are shown for specific substances between PAC chemical profiles in relation with the national traffic fleet differences (33% diesel passenger cars in U.K. vs 69% in France and up to 80% taking into account all vehicle categories). The dominating and sole contribution of 1-Nitropyrene observed in the PdPT NPAH profile strengthens the promising use of this compound as a diesel exhaust marker for PM source apportionment studies.

  19. Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the California Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate Project and its associated Marine Mammal Research Program. Volume 2


    pers. comm., 1995). In addition to the above, both swordfish (Xiphias gladis spp.) and opah (Lampsis guttastus spp.) are taken in gill nets set near...individuals of a relatively rare species (due to unpredicted clumping, age/ sex class groupings, etc.), this could be construed as a significant impact...and startup, the ATOC project included a major Marine Mammal Research Program. The linkage between these aspects of the overall effort has been openly

  20. Cancer risk from polycyclic aromatic compounds in fine particulate matter generated from household coal combustion in Xuanwei, China.

    Lui, K H; Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Tian, Linwei; Chan, Chi-Sing; Cao, Jun-Ji; Ning, Zhi; Lee, S C; Ho, K F


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their polar derivatives (oxygenated PAHs: OPAHs and azaarenes: AZAs) were characterized in fine particulates (PM2.5) emitted from indoor coal combustion. Samples were collected in Xuanwei (Yunnan Province), a region in China with a high rate of lung cancer. A sample from the community with the highest mortality contained the highest total concentration of PAHs, OPAHs and AZAs and posed the highest excess cancer risk from a lifetime of inhaling fine particulates. Positive correlations between total carbonyl-OPAHs, total AZAs and total PAHs implied that the emissions were dependent on similar factors, regardless of sample location and type. The calculated cancer risk ranged from 5.23-10.7 × 10(-3), which is higher than the national average. The risk in each sample was ∼1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that deemed high risk, suggesting that the safety of these households is in jeopardy. The lack of potency equivalency factors for the PAH derivatives could possibly have underestimated the overall cancer risk.

  1. Concentrations, sources and health effects of parent, oxygenated- and nitrated- polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in middle-school air in Xi'an, China

    Wang, Jingzhi; Xu, Hongmei; Guinot, Benjamin; Li, Lijuan; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Liu, Suixin; Li, Xiaoping; Cao, Junji


    Indoor and outdoor concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxygenated-PAHs (OPAHs), and nitro-PAHs (NPAHs) associated with PM2.5 particles were monitored in a middle-school classroom from 8 to 22 March 2012 in Xi'an, China. The total PAHs ranged from 49.6 to 140.0 ng/m3 in outdoors and 50.3 to 111.6 ng/m3 in indoors, while OPAHs and NPAHs showed averages of 19.1 and 16.4 ng/m3, 0.1039 and 0.0785 ng/m3 for outdoor and indoor air, respectively. Strong correlations were found between indoor (I) and outdoor (O), and the I/O ratios were coal combustion, and motor vehicle emissions were the main sources for PAHs (which accounted for 30%, 27.4% and 26%, respectively, by PMF), but, secondary particle formation was important for the OPAHs and NPAHs. Inhalation cancer risks associated with outdoor and indoor particles were 6.05 × 10- 5 and 5.44 × 10- 5, respectively, and so higher than the cancer risk guideline of 10- 6. Although the cancer risk of NPAHs is negligible for its lower concentrations, their potential for direct mutagenic effects should not be ignored.

  2. A first test of elemental allelopathy via heterospecific pollen receipt.

    Wipf, Heidi M-L; Meindl, George A; Ashman, Tia-Lynn


    Coflowering plants often share pollinators and may receive mixed species pollen loads. Although detrimental effects of heterospecific pollen receipt have been documented, trait-based modifiers of interactions on the stigma remain largely unknown. Chemicals that mediate interactions between sporophytes could also influence pollen-pollen or pollen-style interactions. We test for the first time whether nickel (Ni) accumulation in pollen can lead to "elemental allelopathy" and intensify the fitness consequences of heterospecific pollen receipt. We grew Ni-hyperaccumulator Streptanthus polygaloides in soils augmented with three concentrations of Ni, measured pollen Ni concentration, and hand-pollinated non-Ni hyperaccumulator Mimulus guttatus. We assayed pollen germination, tube growth and seeds of M. guttatus after pure and mixed species pollinations. Streptanthus polygaloides pollen accumulated Ni in proportion to soil availability and at levels significantly greater than M. guttatus pollen. Although receipt of S. polygaloides pollen increased M. guttatus pollen germination, it decreased the proportion of pollen tubes reaching the ovary and seed number. Increased Ni in pollen, however, did not significantly intensify the effect of S. polygaloides pollen receipt on M. guttatus seed production. Different levels of Ni in the pollen of S. polygaloides achieved in the greenhouse did not significantly reduce the fitness of M. guttatus. Stigma tolerance to Ni may also have contributed to the lack of response to increased Ni in heterospecific pollen. This study paves the way for additional tests in other metal hyperaccumulators and recipients, and to identify mechanisms of interactions on the stigma. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  3. On The Identity Of Some Toads Of The Genus Bufo From Ecuador, With Additional Remarks On Andinophryne Colomai Hoogmoed, 1985 (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae).

    Hoogmoed, M.S.


    Study of the type specimens of B. caeruleostictus Günther, 1859 and B. chanchanensis Fowler, 1913, and of fresh material showed that B. chanchanensis is a junior subjective synonym of B. caeruleostictus. Probably it is a member of the B. guttatus group. B. caeruleocellatus Fowler, 1913 is a junior s

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04911-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available 47793 ) Zebrafish DNA sequence from clone CH211-59D13. 44 1.1 2 ( EI021878 ) bb23f01.f Dekkera bruxellensis ...WORKING DRAF... 44 1.4 2 ( AC182560 ) Mimulus guttatus clone MGBa-24L12, complete seque... 44 1.5 4 ( EI024818 ) bb36f02.f Dekkera

  5. Changes in concentration, composition and source contribution of atmospheric organic aerosols by shifting coal to natural gas in Urumqi

    Ren, Yanqin; Wang, Gehui; Wu, Can; Wang, Jiayuan; Li, Jianjun; Zhang, Lu; Han, Yanni; Liu, Lang; Cao, Cong; Cao, Junji; He, Qing; Liu, Xinchun


    Size-segregated aerosols were collected in Urumqi, a megacity in northwest China, during two heating seasons, i.e., before (heating season І: January-March 2012) and after (heating season II: January-March 2014) the project "shifting coal to natural gas", and determined for n-alkanes, PAHs and oxygenated PAHs to investigate the impact of replacement of coal by natural gas on organic aerosols in the urban atmosphere. Our results showed that compared to those in heating season I concentrations of n-alkanes, PAHs and OPAHs decreased by 74%, 74% and 82% in heating season II, respectively. Source apportionment analysis suggested that coal combustion, traffic emission and biomass burning are the major sources of the determined organics during the heating seasons in Urumqi. Traffic emission is the main source for n-alkanes in the city. Coal combustion is the dominant source of PAHs and OPAHs in heating season І, but traffic emission becomes their major source in heating season ІI. Relative contributions of coal combustion to n-alkanes, PAHs and OPAHs in Urumqi decreased from 21 to 75% in heating season I to 4.0-21% in heating season II due to the replacement of coal with natural gas for house heating. Health risk assessment further indicated that compared with that in heating season I the number of lung cancer related to PAHs exposure in Urumqi decreased by 73% during heating season II due to the project implementation. Our results suggest that replacing coal by clean energy sources for house heating will significantly mitigate air pollution and improve human health in China.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives (alkyl-PAHs, oxygenated-PAHs, nitrated-PAHs and azaarenes) in urban road dusts from Xi'an, Central China.

    Wei, Chong; Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Han, Yongming; Cao, Junji; Zhan, Changlin; Wilcke, Wolfgang


    Urban road dusts are carriers of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) and are therefore considered to be a major source of contamination of other environmental compartments and a source of exposure to PACs for urban populations. We determined the occurrence, composition pattern and sources of several PACs (29 alkyl- and parent-PAHs, 15 oxygenated-PAHs (OPAHs), 4 azaarenes (AZAs), and 11 nitrated-PAHs (NPAHs)) in twenty urban road dusts and six suburban surface soils (0-5cm) from Xi'an, central China. The average concentrations of ∑29PAHs, ∑4AZAs, ∑15OPAHs, and ∑11NPAHs were 15767, 673, 4754, and 885 n gg(-1) in road dusts and 2067, 784, 854, and 118 ng g(-1) in surface soils, respectively. The concentrations of most individual PACs were higher in street dusts than suburban soils, particularly for PACs with molecular weight>192 g mol(-1). The enrichment factors of individual PACs were significantly positively correlated with log KOA and log KOW, indicating an increasing deposition and co-sorption of the PACs in urban dusts with decreasing volatility and increasing hydrophobicity. Significant correlations between the concentrations of individual and sum of PACs, carbon fractions (soot and char), and source-characteristic PACs (combustion-derived PAHs and retene, etc.), indicated that PAHs, OPAHs and AZAs were mostly directly emitted from combustion activities and had similar post-emission fates, but NPAHs were possibly more intensely photolyzed after deposition as well as being emitted from vehicle exhaust sources. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) resulting from exposure to urban dust bound-PACs was higher than 10(-6), indicating a non-negligible cancer risk to residents of Xi'an.

  7. Occurrence, behavior and removal of typical substituted and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a biological wastewater treatment plant.

    Qiao, Meng; Qi, Weixiao; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui


    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent is the major source for substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (SPAHs) to the receiving rivers, as well as the parent PAHs. Some of the SPAHs showed higher toxicities and levels than their parent PAHs. The occurrence and behavior of typical SPAHs were investigated in a representative biological WWTP in Beijing, China. Methyl PAHs (MPAHs) (149-221 ng/L in the influent; 29.6-56.3 ng/L in the effluent; 202-375 ng/g in the activated sludge), oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) (139-155 ng/L; 69.9-109 ng/L; 695-1533 ng/g) and PAHs (372-749 ng/L; 182-241 ng/L; 2402-3321 ng/g) existed, but nitrated PAHs (NPAHs) were not detected. 2-Methylnaphthalene, anthraquinone, 9-fluorenone and 2-methylanthraquinone were the predominant SPAHs. OPAHs were deduced to be formed from PAHs especially during summer, based on the ratios variation and removal efficiencies of the two seasons, and the surplus mass in the outflows. Low molecular weight compounds (2-3 rings) might be mainly removed by mineralization/transformation and adsorption in the anaerobic unit, and by volatilization in the aerobic unit. High molecular weight compounds (4-6 rings) might be mainly removed by adsorption in the anaerobic unit. The total outflows of SPAHs and PAHs were 66 g/d in summer and 148 g/d in winter from the WWTP to the receiving river. The percentage of OPAHs was higher in summer than in winter.

  8. TOF SIMS Study on PAHs in Individual Particle from a Power Station

    梁汉东; 于春海; 周强; 李艳芳


    The individual particles collected from a power station were analyzed by time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF SIMS). The result indicates the presence of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) as well as the oxygenated one. They might be derived from the incomplete combustion of coals. SIMS has proved to be a rapid method for the qualitative analysis of PAHs and OPAHs absorbed on the aerosol particles. New perspectives for better understanding the SIMS spectra obtained from complex mixture such as environmental samples have been opened.

  9. Effects of polycyclic aromatic compounds in fine particulate matter generated from household coal combustion on response to EGFR mutations in vitro.

    Ho, Kin-Fai; Chang, Chih-Cheng; Tian, Linwei; Chan, Chi-Sing; Musa Bandowe, Benjamin A; Lui, Ka-Hei; Lee, Kang-Yun; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Liu, Chien-Ying; Ning, Zhi; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi


    Induction of PM2.5-associated lung cancer in response to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI) remains unclear. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their polar derivatives (oxygenated PAHs: OPAHs and azaarenes: AZAs) were characterized in fine particulates (PM2.5) emitted from indoor coal combustion. Samples were collected in Xuanwei (Yunnan Province), a region in China with a high rate of lung cancer. Human lung adenocarcinoma cells A549 (with wild-type EGFR) and HCC827 (with EGFR mutation) were exposed to the PM2.5, followed by treatment with EGFR-TKI. Two samples showed significant and dose-dependent reduction in the cell viability in A549. EGFR-TKI further demonstrated significantly decreased in cell viability in A549 after exposure to the coal emissions. Chrysene and triphenylene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, benzo[ghi]perylene, azaarenes and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (carbonyl-OPAHs) were all associated with EGFR-TKI-dependent reduced cell viability after 72-h exposure to the PM2.5. The findings suggest the coal emissions could influence the response of EGFR-TKI in lung cancer cells in Xuanwei.

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U08272-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available RAF... 46 1.4 1 ( ED800523 ) MG__Ba0083F10f MG__Ba Mimulus guttatus genomic, g... 46 1.4 1 ( DW249216 ) Cm_mx1_19h05_SP6 Green Shore... Crab Multiple Tissue... 46 1.4 1 ( DV642991 ) Cm_mx1_01c04_SP6 Green Shore

  11. Spawning aggregations of three protogynous groupers in the southern Gulf of Mexico.

    Tuz-Sulub, A; Brulé, T


    Spawning aggregations of red hind Epinephelus guttatus, tiger grouper Mycteroperca tigris and yellowfin grouper Mycteroperca venenosa were identified at two coral-reef systems: Arrecife Alacranes (emergent bank reef) and Bajos del Norte (submerged bank reef) on the continental shelf of the Yucatan Peninsula (Campeche Bank), Mexico. At both reefs, E. guttatus forms large spawning aggregations between February and March. At Bajos del Norte, M. tigris reproduces in a small, low-density aggregation in May, while M. venenosa aggregates at high densities for spawning between March and May. Multi-species use of an aggregation site by E. guttatus and M. venenosa was observed at Bajos del Norte. The identified spawning aggregations are apparently stable in location over time, and all three species were commonly observed to spawn within 1 week following the full moon. Development and survival of the larvae spawned in these aggregations are probably aided by a seasonal (spring-summer) upwelling in the north-east Campeche Bank. A permanent area closure at Bajos del Norte, currently outside any specific fisheries management area or regulations, would provide protection needed for the spawning aggregations of these three species.

  12. Mimulus peregrinus (Phrymaceae: A new British allopolyploid species

    Mario Vallejo-Marin


    Full Text Available Polyploidization plays an important role in species formation as chromosome doubling results in strong reproductive isolation between derivative and parental taxa. In this note I describe a new species, Mimulus peregrinus (Phrymaceae, which represents the first recorded instance of a new British polyploid species of Mimulus (2n = 6x = 92 that has arisen since the introduction of this genus into the United Kingdom in the 1800’s. M. peregrinus presents floral and vegetative characteristics intermediate between M. guttatus and M. luteus, but can be distinguished from all naturalized British Mimulus species and hybrids based on a combination of reproductive and vegetative traits. M. peregrinus displays high pollen and seed fertility as well as traits usually associated with genome doubling such as increased pollen and stomata size. The intermediate characteristics of M. peregrinus between M. guttatus (2n = 2x = 28 and M. luteus (2n = 4x = 60-62, and its close affinity with the highly sterile, triploid (2n = 3x = 44-45 hybrid taxon M. × robertsii (M. guttatus × M. luteus, suggests that M. peregrinus may constitute an example of recent allopolyploid speciation.

  13. Hybrid male sterility in Mimulus (Phrymaceae) is associated with a geographically restricted mitochondrial rearrangement.

    Case, Andrea L; Willis, John H


    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and nuclear fertility restoration (Rf) involves intergenomic coevolution. Although male-sterile phenotypes are rarely expressed in natural populations of angiosperms, CMS genes are thought to be common. The evolutionary dynamics of CMS/Rf systems are poorly understood, leaving gaps in our understanding of mechanisms and consequences of cytonuclear interactions. We characterized the molecular basis and geographic distribution of a CMS gene in Mimulus guttatus. We used outcrossing M. guttatus (with CMS and Rf) to self-fertilizing M. nasutus (lacking CMS and Rf) to generate hybrids segregating for CMS. Mitochondrial transcripts containing an essential gene (nad6) were perfectly associated with male sterility. The CMS mitotype was completely absent in M. nasutus, present in all genotypes collected from the original collection site, but in only two individuals from 34 other M. guttatus populations. This pattern suggests that the CMS likely originated at a single locality, spread to fixation within the population, but has not spread to other populations, indicating possible ecological or genetic constraints on dispersal of this CMS mitotype between populations. Extreme localization may be characteristic of CMS in hermaphroditic species, in contrast to geographically widespread mitotypes commonly found in gynodioecious species, and could directly contribute to hybrid incompatibilities in nature.

  14. Chemical profiling of oil and PAH polluted soil and drainage water

    Boll, Esther Sørensen

    Hydrocarbons are some of the most common pollutants in soil. Groups of hydrocarbons have been classified as toxic, carcinogenic, and/or mutagenic and they pose an existing threat to human health and the environment. However, prohibition of hydrocarbons is not an option as the pollution sources...... concentrations and of varying compounds, depending on the pollution sources and the extent to which contaminants are weathered and degraded. In our work with the complex chemical composition and source identification of hydrocarbon contamination in soil, we have asked the same questions over and over again......-substituted PAHs and as petrogenic sources predominantly contains alkyl-substituted PAHs, derived O-PAHs from alkyl-substituted PAHs are more likely to be found. It is important to know the fate of hydrocarbons and PAHs in soil in order to make a proper risk assessment. The PAHs generally have low water solubility...

  15. Concentrations and source contributions of particulate organic matter before and after implementation of a low emission zone in Munich, Germany.

    Qadir, R M; Abbaszade, G; Schnelle-Kreis, J; Chow, J C; Zimmermann, R


    Within the Munich low emission zone (LEZ), samples of PM(2.5) were collected before (2006/2007) and after (2009/2010) the implementation of the LEZ. The samples were analyzed for carbon fraction (EC/OC) and particulate organic compounds (POC). Significant lower concentrations were noticed for elemental carbon (EC) and some of the POC like vanillic acid, acetosyringone, syringylacetone and syringic acid after the implementation of the LEZ. Higher concentrations of levoglucosan, retene and O-PAH were detected in the second sampling period. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used to identify the main sources of POC. Emissions from traffic, solid fuels combustion, cooking and mixed source were separated. The contribution of traffic source factor was decreased about 60% after the implementation of the LEZ. Thus the average concentration of EC from traffic factor decreased from 1.1 to 0.5 μg/m(3) after the implementation of the LEZ.

  16. Phenotypic and genetic differentiation among yellow monkeyflower populations from thermal and non-thermal soils in Yellowstone National Park.

    Lekberg, Ylva; Roskilly, Beth; Hendrick, Margaret F; Zabinski, Catherine A; Barr, Camille M; Fishman, Lila


    In flowering plants, soil heterogeneity can generate divergent natural selection over fine spatial scales, and thus promote local adaptation in the absence of geographic barriers to gene flow. Here, we investigate phenotypic and genetic differentiation in one of the few flowering plants that thrives in both geothermal and non-thermal soils in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Yellow monkeyflowers (Mimulus guttatus) growing at two geothermal ("thermal") sites in YNP were distinct in growth form and phenology from paired populations growing nearby ( 0.34), which were only weakly differentiated from each other (all F (ST) Yellowstone.

  17. Speciation on a local geographic scale: the evolution of a rare rock outcrop specialist in Mimulus.

    Ferris, Kathleen G; Sexton, Jason P; Willis, John H


    Speciation can occur on both large and small geographical scales. In plants, local speciation, where small populations split off from a large-ranged progenitor species, is thought to be the dominant mode, yet there are still few examples to verify speciation has occurred in this manner. A recently described morphological species in the yellow monkey flowers, Mimulus filicifolius, is an excellent candidate for local speciation because of its highly restricted geographical range. Mimulus filicifolius was formerly identified as a population of M. laciniatus due to similar lobed leaf morphology and rocky outcrop habitat. To investigate whether M. filicifolius is genetically divergent and reproductively isolated from M. laciniatus, we examined patterns of genetic diversity in ten nuclear and eight microsatellite loci, and hybrid fertility in M. filicifolius and its purported close relatives: M. laciniatus, M. guttatus and M. nasutus. We found that M. filicifolius is genetically divergent from the other species and strongly reproductively isolated from M. laciniatus. We conclude that M. filicifolius is an independent rock outcrop specialist despite being morphologically and ecologically similar to M. laciniatus, and that its small geographical range nested within other wide-ranging members of the M. guttatus species complex is consistent with local speciation.

  18. Description of a new species of rabbitfish (Perciformes: Siganidae) from southern India, Sri Lanka and the Maldives.

    Woodland, David J; Anderson, R Charles


    Siganus insomnis sp. nov. is described from the Maldives, Sri Lanka and southern India. It most closely resembles S. lineatus (Valenciennes) from the Western Pacific but differs in coloration, principally in that most if not all of the bronze bands on its mid and upper sides continue horizontally and unbroken through to the nape and opercular slit. By contrast, in S. lineatus, typically the anterior area below the spinous dorsal fin down to the mid-sides is irregularly marked with golden bronze spots, commas, or a maze of contorted lines. S. guttatus (Bloch) is the third member of this group of sibling species; its sides are covered with orange to bronze-gold spots. It is distributed throughout S.E. Asia, i.e., it occupies a geographic position between the areas inhabited by S. lineatus and S. insomnis. Thus the gene pools of S. lineatus and S. insomnis are quarantined from one another by distance and the intervening presence of S. guttatus in S.E. Asia. The geographical separation of the populations of S. lineatus and S. insomnis from one another is reinforced by the absence of suitable, coralline habitats for these species in the western half of the Bay of Bengal. 

  19. A simple genetic incompatibility causes hybrid male sterility in mimulus.

    Sweigart, Andrea L; Fishman, Lila; Willis, John H


    Much evidence has shown that postzygotic reproductive isolation (hybrid inviability or sterility) evolves by the accumulation of interlocus incompatibilities between diverging populations. Although in theory only a single pair of incompatible loci is needed to isolate species, empirical work in Drosophila has revealed that hybrid fertility problems often are highly polygenic and complex. In this article we investigate the genetic basis of hybrid sterility between two closely related species of monkeyflower, Mimulus guttatus and M. nasutus. In striking contrast to Drosophila systems, we demonstrate that nearly complete hybrid male sterility in Mimulus results from a simple genetic incompatibility between a single pair of heterospecific loci. We have genetically mapped this sterility effect: the M. guttatus allele at the hybrid male sterility 1 (hms1) locus acts dominantly in combination with recessive M. nasutus alleles at the hybrid male sterility 2 (hms2) locus to cause nearly complete hybrid male sterility. In a preliminary screen to find additional small-effect male sterility factors, we identified one additional locus that also contributes to some of the variation in hybrid male fertility. Interestingly, hms1 and hms2 also cause a significant reduction in hybrid female fertility, suggesting that sex-specific hybrid defects might share a common genetic basis. This possibility is supported by our discovery that recombination is reduced dramatically in a cross involving a parent with the hms1-hms2 incompatibility.

  20. Taxonomic corrections to species of Rhyparochromidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) described by Carl Peter Thunberg.

    Kondorosy, Előd; Rédei, Dávid; Mejlon, Hans


    Types of Rhyparochromidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea) species described by Carl Peter Thunberg, deposited in the Museum of Evolution (formerly Zoologiska Institut), Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden, were reexamined and the taxonomic and nomenclatural problems that existed among those species discussed and resolved as required. Lectotypes are designated for Cimex caffer Thunberg, 1784, Lygaeus ater Thunberg, 1822, Lygaeus biguttatus Thunberg, 1822, and Pendulinus guttatus Thunberg, 1825. The lectotype of Pendulinus (now Metochus) guttatus is designated as neotype of Pendulinus (now Metochus) uniguttatus Thunberg, 1822; as a result the former name becomes junior objective synonym of the latter. The following taxonomic changes are proposed: Lethaeus ater (Thunberg, 1822), new combination (from Lygaeus); Migdilybs biguttatus (Thunberg, 1822), new combination (from Lygaeus) = Migdilybs furcifer Hesse, 1925, new subjective synonym; Metochus uniguttatus (Thunberg, 1822) = Metochus bengalensis (Dallas, 1852), confirmed subjective synonym = Metochus yeh (Dohrn, 1860), confirmed subjective synonym; Raglius alboacuminatus (Goeze, 1778) = Cimex caffer Thunberg, 1874, confirmed subjective synonym. Lethaeus barberi Slater, 1964 does not belong to Lethaeus Dallas, 1852 but currently it cannot be placed with confidence in any existing genus. 

  1. Novos táxons de Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae da Região Neotropical New taxa of Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae from the Neotropical Region

    Maria Helena M. Galileo


    Full Text Available Novos táxons descritos da Costa Rica: Erana cretaria sp. nov., Itumbiara denudata sp. nov., Hilaroleopsis coloratus sp. nov., Alampyris flavicollis sp. nov., Cotycuara viridis sp. nov., Adesmus stellatus sp. nov., A. pilatus sp. nov. (também do Panamá; do Panamá: Eulachnesia amoena sp. nov., Cotycuara crinita sp. nov.; da Venezuela: Abanycha fasciata sp. nov.; do Equador: Mariliana hovorei sp. nov., Adesmus ocellatus sp. nov.; do Peru: Susuanycha gen. nov., espécie-tipo, S. susua sp. nov., Malacoscylus elegantulus sp. nov., Adesmus guttatus sp. nov., A. calca sp. nov.; do Brasil (Minas Gerais: Sybaguasu cornutum sp. nov. Acrescenta-se chave para as espécies de Cotycuara.New taxa described from Costa Rica: Erana cretaria sp. nov., Itumbiara denudata sp. nov., Hilaroleopsis coloratus sp. nov., Alampyris flavicollis sp. nov., Cotycuara viridis sp. nov., Adesmus stellatus sp. nov., A. pilatus sp. nov. (also from Panama; from Panama: Eulachnesia amoena sp. nov., Cotycuara crinita sp. nov.; from Venezuela: Abanycha fasciata sp. nov.; from Ecuador: Mariliana hovorei sp. nov., Adesmus ocellatus sp. nov.; from Peru: Susuanycha gen. nov., type species, S. susua sp. nov., Malacoscylus elegantulus sp. nov., Adesmus guttatus sp. nov., A. calca sp. nov.; from Brazil (Minas Gerais: Sybaguasu cornutum sp. nov. A key to the species of Cotycuara is added.

  2. 多环芳烃及其衍生物在北京典型污水处理厂中的存在及去除%Occurrence and Removal of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Their Derivatives in Typical Wastewater Treatment Plants in Beijing

    乔梦; 齐维晓; 赵旭; 刘会娟; 曲久辉


    Substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ( SPAHs) can be emitted to the environment not only through the incomplete combustion, but also through the transformation from parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ( PAHs) by photo chemical and biological processes. The toxicities of some SPAHs are higher than their corresponding PAHs. Samples were collected from the wastewater treatment plants in Beijing. Three types of SPAHs, including oxy-PAHs ( OPAHs ) , methyl-PAHs ( MPAHs ) and nitro-PAHs ( NPAHs) , as well as 16 PAHs were analyzed, in order to study the occurrence and behavior of these compounds during the wastewater biological treatment process. MPAHs, OPAHs and PAHs were detected in the influent and effluent, but no NPAHs. The concentrations of PAHs in the influent in both the aquatic and particulate phases ranged from 1. 94 to 4. 34 μg•L-1 , and SPAHs from 1. 16 to 2. 20μg•L-1 . The concentrations of PAHs in the effluent were between 0. 77 and 0. 98 μg•L -1 , and SPAHs from 0. 39 to 0. 45 μg•L-1 . The concentrations of the MPAHs were lower than their corresponding PAHs, while OPAHs were higher. The removal efficiencies of all the compounds ranged from 53% to 83%. PAHs and SPAHs were mainly removed by adsorption and biodegradation during the activated sludge treatment processes. Some OPAHs could be transformed from PAHs, and could be accumulated. The PAHs were mainly originated from incomplete combustion of wood and coal, and some from combustion of petroleum, while only a little from the discharge of petroleum. The concentrations of PAHs and SPAHs in the effluent were higher in autumn than summer and winter. Most of the SPAHs and PAHs were discharged to the agriculture area through the river-water irrigation, which might pose potential risk to the humans. As a result, it is necessary to upgrade the wastewater treatment process to improve the removal efficiency of PAHs and SPAHs.%多环芳烃衍生物( SPAH)除可以通过燃料不完全燃烧

  3. Daytime resolved analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban aerosol samples - impact of sources and meteorological conditions.

    Sklorz, Martin; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Liu, Yongbo; Orasche, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Ralf


    Urban aerosol was collected in a summer and a winter campaign for 7 and 3 days, respectively. Low volume samples were taken with a time resolution of 160 min using a filter/sorption cartridge system extended by an ozone scrubber. Concentrations of mainly particle associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and oxidised PAH (O-PAH) were determined by gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry. The sampling site was located in the city centre of Augsburg, Germany, near major roads with high traffic volume. The daily concentrations and profiles were mainly governed by local emissions from traffic and domestic heating, as well as by the meteorological conditions. During the winter campaign, concentrations were more than 10 fold higher than during the summer campaign. Highest concentrations were found concurrent with low boundary layer heights and low wind speeds. Significant diurnal variation of the PAH profiles was observed. Enhanced influences of traffic related PAH on the PAH profiles were evident during daytime in summer, whereas emissions from hot water generation and domestic heating were obvious during the night time of both seasons. A general idea about the global meteorological situation was acquired using back trajectory calculations (NOAA ARL HYSPLIT4). Due to high local emissions in combination with low air exchange during the two sampling campaigns, effects of mesoscale transport were not clearly observable.

  4. Mutagenicity assessment of aerosols in emissions from domestic combustion processes.

    Canha, Nuno; Lopes, Isabel; Vicente, Estela Domingos; Vicente, Ana M; Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Almeida, Susana Marta; Alves, Célia A


    Domestic biofuel combustion is one of the major sources of regional and local air pollution, mainly regarding particulate matter and organic compounds, during winter periods. Mutagenic and carcinogenic activity potentials of the ambient particulate matter have been associated with the fraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their oxygenated (OPAH) and nitrogenated (NPAH) derivatives. This study aimed at assessing the mutagenicity potential of the fraction of this polycyclic aromatic compound in particles (PM10) from domestic combustion by using the Ames assays with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100. Seven biofuels, including four types of pellets and three agro-fuels (olive pit, almond shell and shell of pine nuts), were tested in an automatic pellet stove, and two types of wood (Pinus pinaster, maritime pine, and Eucalyptus globulus, eucalypt) were burned in a traditional wood stove. For this latter appliance, two combustion phases-devolatilisation and flaming/smouldering-were characterised separately. A direct-acting mutagenic effect for the devolatilisation phase of pine combustion and for both phases of eucalypt combustion was found. Almond shell revealed a weak direct-acting mutagenic effect, while one type of pellets, made of recycled wastes, and pine (devolatilisation) presented a cytotoxic effect towards strain TA100. Compared to the manually fired appliance, the automatic pellet stove promoted lower polyaromatic mutagenic emissions. For this device, only two of the studied biofuels presented a weak mutagenic or cytotoxic potential.

  5. Fine-scale variation in meiotic recombination in Mimulus inferred from population shotgun sequencing

    Hellsten, Uffe [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Wright, Kevin M. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Jenkins, Jerry [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); HudsonAlpha Inst. of Biotechnology, Huntsville, AL (United States); Shu, Shengqiang [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Yuan, Yao-Wu [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Wessler, Susan R. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Schmutz, Jeremy [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); HudsonAlpha Inst. of Biotechnology, Huntsville, AL (United States); Willis, John H. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Rokhsar, Daniel S. [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Meiotic recombination rates can vary widely across genomes, with hotspots of intense activity interspersed among cold regions. In yeast, hotspots tend to occur in promoter regions of genes, whereas in humans and mice hotspots are largely defined by binding sites of the PRDM9 protein. To investigate the detailed recombination pattern in a flowering plant we use shotgun resequencing of a wild population of the monkeyflower Mimulus guttatus to precisely locate over 400,000 boundaries of historic crossovers or gene conversion tracts. Their distribution defines some 13,000 hotspots of varying strengths, interspersed with cold regions of undetectably low recombination. Average recombination rates peak near starts of genes and fall off sharply, exhibiting polarity. Within genes, recombination tracts are more likely to terminate in exons than in introns. The general pattern is similar to that observed in yeast, as well as in PRDM9-knockout mice, suggesting that recombination initiation described here in Mimulus may reflect ancient and conserved eukaryotic mechanisms

  6. Dicty_cDB: VHA593 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available metagenome genomic clone 1061005572620 3', genomic survey sequence. 52 0.009 1 ED...805676 |ED805676.1 MG__Bb0092D06r MG__Bb Mimulus guttatus genomic, genomic survey sequence. 52 0.009 1 AG579...058 |AG579058.1 Mus musculus molossinus DNA, clone:MSMg01-504B13.TJ, genomic survey sequence. 52 0.009 1 CL1...41561 |CL141561.1 ISB1-119B2_Sp6.1 ISB1 Xenopus tropicalis genomic clone ISB1-119B2, genomic survey...amiliaris genomic, genomic survey sequence. 52 0.009 1 AM477006 |AM477006.1 Vitis vinifera, whole genome sho

  7. The corn snake yolk sac becomes a solid tissue filled with blood vessels and yolk-rich endodermal cells

    Elinson, Richard P.; Stewart, James R.


    The amniote egg was a key innovation in vertebrate evolution because it supports an independent existence in terrestrial environments. The egg is provisioned with yolk, and development depends on the yolk sac for the mobilization of nutrients. We have examined the yolk sac of the corn snake Pantherophis guttatus by the dissection of living eggs. In contrast to the familiar fluid-filled sac of birds, the corn snake yolk sac invades the yolk mass to become a solid tissue. There is extensive proliferation of yolk-filled endodermal cells, which associate with a meshwork of blood vessels. These novel attributes of the yolk sac of corn snakes compared with birds suggest new pathways for the evolution of the amniote egg. PMID:24402715

  8. Edge detection of red hind grouper vocalizations in the littorals

    Matthews, Cameron A.; Beaujean, Pierre-Philippe


    Littoral regions typically present to passive sensors as a high noise acoustic environment, particularly with respect to port and harbor regions where tidal variation, often characterized as pink, mixes with reverberation from on-shore business and commercial shipping, often characterized as white. Some fish in these regions, in particular epiphenalius Guttatus or more commonly the red hind grouper, emit relatively narrowband tones in low frequencies to communicate with other fish in such regions. The impact of anthropogenic noise sources on the red Hind and other fish is a topical area of interest for wildlife fisheries, private sportsmen and military offices that is not considered here; the fact that fish species continue to populate and communicate in these regions in the presence of high noise content lends some study to the signal content and modeling of a potential biologically inspired receiver structure.

  9. Acoustic Tonal and Vector Properties of Red Hind Grouper Vocalizations

    Matthews, Cameron Anthony

    Vertebrates are the most prodigious vocalizing animals in existence, and the most diverse methods of acoustic communication among vertebrates can be found in the ocean. Relatively many teleost fish are gifted with the ability to communicate acoustically, and the family of serranidae often performs this as a function of the swim bladder. Epinephelus Guttatus (E. guttatus), or more commonly the red hind grouper, is equipped with a drum shaped swim bladder acting as a monopole under typical ocean conditions. This configuration allows for what is understood to be omnidirectional projection of tones approximately centered between 40 and 440 Hz and spanning anywhere from 40 to 200 Hz of bandwidth and modulation effects based on observed data provided by researchers. Prior studies on many other fish show correlation in acoustic communication profile with length, size and sexual identity. In the red hind, sexual dimorphism leads to an inherent female identity in all juvenile fish which converts to male according to environmental factors, recommending at least consistent organs across both sexes be assumed even if not in use. Much research has been performed on male fish vocalization in terms of spectral content. Communication in fish is a complex multi-modal process, with acoustic communication being important for many of the species, particularly those in the littoral regions of the worlds' oceans. If identifying characteristics of the red hind vocalization can be isolated based on detection, classification, tracking and localizing methodologies, then these identifying characteristics may indeed lead to passive feature identification that allows for estimation of individual fish mass. Hypotheses based on vector, cyclostationary and classical tonal mechanics are presented for consideration. A battery of test data collection events, applying pre-recorded fish vocalizations to a geolocated undersea sound source were conducted. The results are supplied with the intent of

  10. A widespread chromosomal inversion polymorphism contributes to a major life-history transition, local adaptation, and reproductive isolation.

    David B Lowry

    Full Text Available The role of chromosomal inversions in adaptation and speciation is controversial. Historically, inversions were thought to contribute to these processes either by directly causing hybrid sterility or by facilitating the maintenance of co-adapted gene complexes. Because inversions suppress recombination when heterozygous, a recently proposed local adaptation mechanism predicts that they will spread if they capture alleles at multiple loci involved in divergent adaptation to contrasting environments. Many empirical studies have found inversion polymorphisms linked to putatively adaptive phenotypes or distributed along environmental clines. However, direct involvement of an inversion in local adaptation and consequent ecological reproductive isolation has not to our knowledge been demonstrated in nature. In this study, we discovered that a chromosomal inversion polymorphism is geographically widespread, and we test the extent to which it contributes to adaptation and reproductive isolation under natural field conditions. Replicated crosses between the prezygotically reproductively isolated annual and perennial ecotypes of the yellow monkeyflower, Mimulus guttatus, revealed that alternative chromosomal inversion arrangements are associated with life-history divergence over thousands of kilometers across North America. The inversion polymorphism affected adaptive flowering time divergence and other morphological traits in all replicated crosses between four pairs of annual and perennial populations. To determine if the inversion contributes to adaptation and reproductive isolation in natural populations, we conducted a novel reciprocal transplant experiment involving outbred lines, where alternative arrangements of the inversion were reciprocally introgressed into the genetic backgrounds of each ecotype. Our results demonstrate for the first time in nature the contribution of an inversion to adaptation, an annual/perennial life-history shift, and

  11. Phylogenetic relationships and natural hybridization in rabbitfishes (Teleostei: Siganidae) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses.

    Kuriiwa, Kaoru; Hanzawa, Naoto; Yoshino, Tetsuo; Kimura, Seishi; Nishida, Mutsumi


    Phylogenetic relationships of rabbitfishes (the family Siganidae), ecologically important components as primary consumers in coral reef communities, were studied using mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and nuclear ITS1 (internal transcribed spacer 1) sequence analyses. The analyses of 19 out of 22 species known in the Western Pacific region revealed that siganids are genetically clustered into three major clades, which are characterized by some morphological and ecological traits. Between closely related species, such as Siganus guttatus-S. lineatus and S. virgatus-S. doliatus, and also between two morphs recognized in S. corallinus, small but discernible genetic differentiation was found, implying that the components of each pair are incipient species. On the other hand, between some species, such as S. fuscescens-S. canaliculatus and S. unimaculatus-S.vulpinus, individuals of the components of each pair were found to construct a genetic mosaic, suggesting that the components are genetic color morphs within a single biological species, respectively. Moreover, evidence from morphological characters, mtDNA, and nuclear DNA gave an inconsistent picture of identity and relationships for several individuals. They were regarded as hybrids or individuals with hybrid origin. Such instances were observed not only between closely related species, such as S. guttatus-S. lineatus, S. virgatus-S. doliatus, and two morphs (incipient species) in S. corallinus, respectively, but also between distantly related ones, such as S. corallinus-S. puellus. In fact, more than half of the species examined (11/20, when treating the two morphs in S. corallinus as independent species) were involved in hybridization. These suggest that hybridization is much more prevalent in marine fishes than previously assumed, and may have some relevance to their diversification.

  12. Two new species of Coryogalops (Perciformes: Gobiidae) from the Red Sea .

    Kovačić, Marcelo; Bogorodsky, Sergey V; Mal, Ahmad O


    Two new species of the gobiid genus Coryogalops, C. guttatus sp. nov. and C. pseudomonospilus sp. nov., are described from the Red Sea. Coryogalops guttatus sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by having dorsal-fin rays VI + I,12; anal-fin rays I,10-11; pectoral-fin rays 17, three upper rays with free tips; pelvic fins I,5, joined to form a disc, weakly emarginate, with pelvic frenum reduced; longitudinal scale series 33-35; transverse scale rows 9-10; circumpeduncular scales 10-11; seven transverse suborbital rows of sensory papillae on cheek; no tentacle above upper eye margin; anterior nostril tubular, with triangular lappet extending from posterior rim, posterior nostril slightly raised; dark orange spots on many of the scales below body midline form a longitudinal pattern, each spot covering one scale; two distinct dark spots behind edge of preopercle, and similar pair of spots at pectoral-fin base. Coryogalops pseudomonospilus sp. nov. is distinguished from congeners by having dorsal-fin rays VI + I,11; anal-fin rays I,10; pectoral-fin rays 16-17, two upper rays with free tips; pelvic fins I,5, joined to form a disc, moderately emarginate, with pelvic frenum well-developed; longitudinal scale series 33-35; transverse scales rows 9; circumpeduncular scales 12; seven transverse suborbital rows of sensory papillae on cheek; no tentacle above upper eye margin; anterior nostril tubular, without lappet from posterior rim, posterior nostril slightly raised; and irregular dark maroon mark covering lower part of the first three membranes between spines of first dorsal fin. The distribution of species restricted to the western Indian Ocean is discussed, and a key to the species of the genus is provided.

  13. Selection on plant male function genes identifies candidates for reproductive isolation of yellow monkeyflowers.

    Jan E Aagaard

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetic basis of reproductive isolation promises insight into speciation and the origins of biological diversity. While progress has been made in identifying genes underlying barriers to reproduction that function after fertilization (post-zygotic isolation, we know much less about earlier acting pre-zygotic barriers. Of particular interest are barriers involved in mating and fertilization that can evolve extremely rapidly under sexual selection, suggesting they may play a prominent role in the initial stages of reproductive isolation. A significant challenge to the field of speciation genetics is developing new approaches for identification of candidate genes underlying these barriers, particularly among non-traditional model systems. We employ powerful proteomic and genomic strategies to study the genetic basis of conspecific pollen precedence, an important component of pre-zygotic reproductive isolation among yellow monkeyflowers (Mimulus spp. resulting from male pollen competition. We use isotopic labeling in combination with shotgun proteomics to identify more than 2,000 male function (pollen tube proteins within maternal reproductive structures (styles of M. guttatus flowers where pollen competition occurs. We then sequence array-captured pollen tube exomes from a large outcrossing population of M. guttatus, and identify those genes with evidence of selective sweeps or balancing selection consistent with their role in pollen competition. We also test for evidence of positive selection on these genes more broadly across yellow monkeyflowers, because a signal of adaptive divergence is a common feature of genes causing reproductive isolation. Together the molecular evolution studies identify 159 pollen tube proteins that are candidate genes for conspecific pollen precedence. Our work demonstrates how powerful proteomic and genomic tools can be readily adapted to non-traditional model systems, allowing for genome-wide screens

  14. Lunar synchronization of testicular development and steroidogenesis in rabbitfish.

    Rahman, M S; Takemura, A; Takano, K


    Lunar synchronization of testicular development in the golden rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus, was assessed by measuring changes in sperm motility and conditions in the seminal plasma, and by in vitro production of steroid hormones in testicular fragments and sperm preparations. The duration and percentage of sperm motility was low 1 week before spawning (the new moon), but increased significantly on the day of spawning (the first lunar quarter). During the first lunar quarter, the osmolality decreased, but Ca(2+) concentration increased in the seminal plasma. These results suggest that spermiation occurs rapidly towards the specific lunar phase. Testicular fragments and sperm preparations were incubated with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and two precursor steroid hormones, 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17alpha-OHP) and testosterone (T), during the two lunar phases. The production of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) increased significantly when the testicular fragments were incubated with hCG at the first lunar quarter, while incubation of sperm preparations with 17alpha-OHP during the same moon phase resulted in a significant increase in 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) production in the medium. These results suggest that 11-KT is produced in the somatic cells of the testis under the influence of gonadotropin, and that sperm can convert 17alpha-OHP to DHP. Additionally, steroidogenic activity was considered to increase toward the specific lunar phase. The synchronous increase in testicular activity supports the hypothesis that lunar periodicity is a major factor for the testicular development of S. guttatus.

  15. The role of otolith size in hearing – Insights from cichlid fishes

    Tanja Schulz-Mirbach


    Full Text Available Otolithic end organs in fishes function as accelerometers and are involved in the senses of balance and hearing (e.g. Popper et al. 2005. Otolith mass and shape are likely decisive factors influencing otolith motion, but while it is largely unknown how different shapes affect otolith movement relative to the sensory epithelium (Popper et al. 2005, greater otolith mass is predicted to result in enhanced stimulation of sensory hair cells and improved hearing (Lychakov and Rebane 2005. What few studies exist on this topic, however, yielded contradicting results in that they did or did not find a correlation between increased otolith mass and enhanced hearing (see Kéver et al. 2014. We investigated the relationship between otolith morphology (including 3D-models of otoliths based on high-resolution microCT imaging and otolith weight and hearing abilities in cichlids while comparing three species (Etroplus maculatus, Hemichromis guttatus, Steatocranus tinanti with different swimbladder morphology and hearing abilities (Schulz-Mirbach et al. 2014. We predicted Etroplus maculatus—the species that displays the best hearing sensitivities—to possess larger/heavier otoliths. As swimbladder extensions in this species are connected to the lagena, we further predicted to find heavier lagenar otoliths. Compared to H. guttatus and S. tinanti, E. maculatus showed the heaviest saccular otoliths, while lagenar otoliths were significantly thinner and lighter than in the former two species, apparently contradicting the hypothesis that the lagena and its otolith are primarily involved in improved hearing abilities. Our results support the idea that there is no ‘simple’ relationship between otolith weight, ancilliary auditory structures and hearing abilities. 3D-models of inner ears and otoliths may be ideally suited for future studies modeling complex otolith motion and thus, may provide a better understanding of how otolith morphology contributes to inner

  16. Chemical composition and speciation of particulate organic matter from modern residential small-scale wood combustion appliances.

    Czech, Hendryk; Miersch, Toni; Orasche, Jürgen; Abbaszade, Gülcin; Sippula, Olli; Tissari, Jarkko; Michalke, Bernhard; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Streibel, Thorsten; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Zimmermann, Ralf


    Combustion technologies of small-scale wood combustion appliances are continuously developed decrease emissions of various pollutants and increase energy conversion. One strategy to reduce emissions is the implementation of air staging technology in secondary air supply, which became an established technique for modern wood combustion appliances. On that account, emissions from a modern masonry heater fuelled with three types of common logwood (beech, birch and spruce) and a modern pellet boiler fuelled with commercial softwood pellets were investigated, which refer to representative combustion appliances in northern Europe In particular, emphasis was put on the organic constituents of PM2.5, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) and phenolic species, by targeted and non-targeted mass spectrometric analysis techniques. Compared to conventional wood stoves and pellet boilers, organic emissions from the modern appliances were reduced by at least one order of magnitude, but to a different extent for single species. Hence, characteristic ratios of emission constituents and emission profiles for wood combustion identification and speciation do not hold for this type of advanced combustion technology. Additionally, an overall substantial reduction of typical wood combustion markers, such as phenolic species and anhydrous sugars, were observed. Finally, it was found that slow ignition of log woods changes the distribution of characteristic resin acids and phytosterols as well as their thermal alteration products, which are used as markers for specific wood types. Our results should be considered for wood combustion identification in positive matrix factorisation or chemical mass balance in northern Europe. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Patterns of lineage diversification in rabbitfishes.

    Borsa, Philippe; Lemer, Sarah; Aurelle, Didier


    Fishes of the tropical Indo-Pacific family Siganidae comprise 28 species, characterized by their body proportions and their colour patterns. A mitochondrial phylogeny of 20 Siganidae species was produced to infer their evolutionary history. Three distinct, major clades were found, that also correspond to the early radiation of the family into three major ecological types: fusiform species that also live in schools on the inshore reef flats (S. canaliculatus, S. fuscescens, S. luridus, S. rivulatus, S. spinus, S. sutor); deep-bodied species including brightly coloured ones whose adults live in pairs on the reef front (S. corallinus, S. doliatus, S. puellus, S. punctatus, S. unimaculatus, S. virgatus, S. vulpinus), and species that live in small schools in mangroves, estuaries and estuarine lakes (S. guttatus, S. javus, S. lineatus, S. randalli, S. vermiculatus); and a third clade including a cosmopolitan species, S. argenteus, the only species of the family known to possess a pelagic, prejuvenile stage and S. woodlandi, a recently described species from New Caledonia and morphologically close to S. argenteus. The partition of the genus into two sub-genera, Lo (erected for S. unimaculatus, S. vulpinus and three related species possessing a tubular snout) and Siganus (all the other species), had no phylogenetic rationale. The present results indicate that the tubular snout, which apparently results from ecological specialization, is a recent acquisition within the deep-body clade. The Western Indian Ocean endemic S. sutor appeared as the sister-species of the Red Sea endemic S. rivulatus within a well-supported subclade that also included S. canaliculatus and S. fuscescens. S. spinus did not appear as sister-species to S. luridus. S. lineatus haplotypes formed a paraphyletic group with S. guttatus, and an early isolation of Maldives S. lineatus was suggested. Unexpectedly, S. randalli did not appear as the sister-species of S. vermiculatus, but its haplotypes instead

  18. Pseudorhabdosynochus species (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae parasitizing groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Epinephelini in the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters, with descriptions of 13 new species

    Kritsky Delane C.


    cruentata; Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae (Oliver, 1984 Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 from dusky grouper Mycteroperca marginata; Pseudorhabdosynochus mizellei n. sp. from red hind Epinephelus guttatus; Pseudorhabdosynochus williamsi n. sp. from rock hind Epinephelus adscensionis; Pseudorhabdosynochus bunkleywilliamsae n. sp. from Nassau grouper Epinephelus striatus; Pseudorhabdosynochus mycteropercae n. sp. from tiger grouper Mycteroperca tigris; and Pseudorhabdosynochus tumeovagina n. sp. from speckled hind Epinephelus drummondhayi. Pseudorhabdosynochus woodi n. sp. from red hind Epinephelus guttatus is described based on specimens from the US National Parasite Collection (USNPC. Drawings of the haptoral and copulatory sclerites of the type specimens in the USNPC of Pseudorhabdosynochus monaensis Dyer, Williams & Bunkley-Williams, 1994 from rock hind Epinephelus adscensionis are presented. Finally, a note confirming Pseudorhabdosynochus epinepheli Yamaguti, 1958 rather than its senior synonym Pseudorhabdosynochus epinepheli (Yamaguti, 1938 Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 as the type species of Pseudorhabdosynochus is provided.

  19. Does improved hearing result in altered inner ear morphology?

    Tanja Schulz-Mirbach


    Full Text Available The sense of hearing plays an important role for fishes to obtain information about their (acoustic environment (e.g. Popper 2011, Fay 2011. In numerous taxa, ancillary auditory structures like swimbladder modifications evolved, leading to an improved audition (Braun and Grande 2008. Despite a profound knowledge of inner ear diversity and ancillary auditory structures (for an overview see Schulz-Mirbach and Ladich 2015, Ladich 2015, the relationship between the morphology of these structures and hearing abilities remains to be elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that swimbladder modifications coincide with differences in inner ear morphology, using cichlids as a model because they show considerable intrafamilial diversity in swimbladder morphology and hearing capabilities (Schulz-Mirbach et al. 2012, 2014. We compared Steatocranus tinanti (vestigial swimbladder, Hemichromis guttatus (large swimbladder without extensions, and Etroplus maculatus (intimate connection between swimbladder and inner ears by applying immunostaining together with confocal imaging for the investigation of sensory epithelia, and high-resolution, contrast enhanced microCT imaging for characterizing inner ears in 3D. Compared to S. tinanti and H. guttatus, inner ears of E. maculatus showed an enlargement of all three maculae, and a particularly large lacinia of the macula utriculi. While our analysis of orientation patterns of ciliary bundles on the three macula types using artificially flattened maculae uncovered rather similar orientation patterns of ciliary bundles, interspecific differences became apparent when illustrating the orientation patterns on the 3D models of the maculae: differences in the shape and curvature of the lacinia of the macula utriculi, and the anterior arm of the macula lagenae resulted in an altered arrangement of ciliary bundles. Our results imply that improved hearing in E. maculatus is associated not only with swimbladder modifications but

  20. The habitats exploited and the species trapped in a Caribbean island trap fishery

    Garrison, V.H.; Rogers, C.S.; Beets, J.; Friedlander, A.M.


    We visually observed fish traps in situ to identify the habitats exploited by the U.S. Virgin Islands fishery and to document species composition and abundance in traps by habitat. Fishers set more traps in algal plains than in any other habitat around St. John. Coral reefs, traditionally targeted by fishers, accounted for only 16% of traps. Traps in algal plain contained the highest number of fishes per trap and the greatest numbers of preferred food species. Traps on coral reefs contained the most species, 41 of the 59 taxa observed in the study. Acanthurus coeruleus was the most abundant species and Acanthuridae the most abundant family observed in traps. Piscivore numbers were low and few serranids were observed. Traps in algal plain contained the most fishes as a result of: ecological changes such as shifts in habitat use, mobility of species and degradation of nearshore habitat (fishery independent); and, catchability of fishes and long-term heavy fishing pressure (fishery dependent). The low number of serranids per trap, dominance of the piscivore guild by a small benthic predator, Epinephelus guttatus, and dominance of trap contents overall by a small, fast-growing species of a lower trophic guild, Acanthurus coeruleus, all point to years of intense fishing pressure.

  1. Novel parvoviruses in reptiles and genome sequence of a lizard parvovirus shed light on Dependoparvovirus genus evolution.

    Pénzes, Judit J; Pham, Hanh T; Benkö, Mária; Tijssen, Peter


    Here, we report the detection and partial genome characterization of two novel reptilian parvoviruses derived from a short-tailed pygmy chameleon (Rampholeon brevicaudatus) and a corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus) along with the complete genome analysis of the first lizard parvovirus, obtained from four bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). Both homology searches and phylogenetic tree reconstructions demonstrated that all are members of the genus Dependoparvovirus. Even though most dependoparvoviruses replicate efficiently only in co-infections with large DNA viruses, no such agents could be detected in one of the bearded dragon samples, hence the possibility of autonomous replication was explored. The alternative ORF encoding the full assembly activating protein (AAP), typical for the genus, could be obtained from reptilian parvoviruses for the first time, with a structure that appears to be more ancient than that of avian and mammalian parvoviruses. All three viruses were found to harbour short introns as previously observed for snake adeno-associated virus, shorter than that of any non-reptilian dependoparvovirus. According to the phylogenetic calculations based on full non-structural protein (Rep) and AAP sequences, the monophyletic cluster of reptilian parvoviruses seems to be the most basal out of all lineages of genus Dependoparvovirus. The suspected ability for autonomous replication, results of phylogenetic tree reconstruction, intron lengths and the structure of the AAP suggested that a single Squamata origin instead of the earlier assumed diapsid (common avian-reptilian) origin is more likely for the genus Dependoparvovirus of the family Parvoviridae.

  2. Influence of moonlight on mRNA expression patterns of melatonin receptor subtypes in the pineal organ of a tropical fish.

    Park, Yong-Ju; Park, Ji-Gweon; Takeuchi, Yuki; Hur, Sung-Pyo; Lee, Young-Don; Kim, Se-Jae; Takemura, Akihiro


    The goldlined spinefoot, Siganus guttatus, is a lunar-synchronized spawner, which repeatedly releases gametes around the first quarter moon during the reproductive season. A previous study reported that manipulating moonlight brightness at night disrupted synchronized spawning, suggesting involvement of this natural light source in lunar synchronization. The present study examined whether the mRNA expression pattern of melatonin receptor subtypes MT1 and Mel1c in the pineal organ of the goldlined spinefoot is related to moonlight. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the abundance of MT1 and Mel1c mRNA at midnight increased during the new moon phase and decreased during the full moon phase. Exposing fish to moonlight intensity during the full moon period resulted in a decrease in Mel1c mRNA abundance within 1h. Fluctuations in the melatonin receptor genes according to changes in the moon phase agreed with those of melatonin levels in the blood. These results indicate that periodic changes in cues from the moon influence melatonin receptor mRNA expression levels. The melatonin-melatonin receptor system may play a role in predicting the moon phase through changes in night brightness.

  3. Development of the hearts of lizards and snakes and perspectives to cardiac evolution.

    Jensen, Bjarke; van den Berg, Gert; van den Doel, Rick; Oostra, Roelof-Jan; Wang, Tobias; Moorman, Antoon F M


    Birds and mammals both developed high performance hearts from a heart that must have been reptile-like and the hearts of extant reptiles have an unmatched variability in design. Yet, studies on cardiac development in reptiles are largely old and further studies are much needed as reptiles are starting to become used in molecular studies. We studied the growth of cardiac compartments and changes in morphology principally in the model organism corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus), but also in the genotyped anole (Anolis carolinenis and A. sagrei) and the Philippine sailfin lizard (Hydrosaurus pustulatus). Structures and chambers of the formed heart were traced back in development and annotated in interactive 3D pdfs. In the corn snake, we found that the ventricle and atria grow exponentially, whereas the myocardial volumes of the atrioventricular canal and the muscular outflow tract are stable. Ventricular development occurs, as in other amniotes, by an early growth at the outer curvature and later, and in parallel, by incorporation of the muscular outflow tract. With the exception of the late completion of the atrial septum, the adult design of the squamate heart is essentially reached halfway through development. This design strongly resembles the developing hearts of human, mouse and chicken around the time of initial ventricular septation. Subsequent to this stage, and in contrast to the squamates, hearts of endothermic vertebrates completely septate their ventricles, develop an insulating atrioventricular plane, shift and expand their atrioventricular canal toward the right and incorporate the systemic and pulmonary venous myocardium into the atria.

  4. The king of snakes: performance and morphology of intraguild predators (Lampropeltis) and their prey (Pantherophis).

    Penning, David A; Moon, Brad R


    Across ecosystems and trophic levels, predators are usually larger than their prey, and when trophic morphology converges, predators typically avoid predation on intraguild competitors unless the prey is notably smaller in size. However, a currently unexplained exception occurs in kingsnakes in the genus Lampropeltis Kingsnakes are able to capture, constrict and consume other snakes that are not only larger than themselves but that are also powerful constrictors (such as ratsnakes in the genus Pantherophis). Their mechanisms of success as intraguild predators on other constrictors remain unknown. To begin addressing these mechanisms, we studied the scaling of muscle cross-sectional area, pulling force and constriction pressure across the ontogeny of six species of snakes (Lampropeltiscaliforniae, L.getula, L.holbrooki, Pantherophisalleghaniensis, P.guttatus and P.obsoletus). Muscle cross-sectional area is an indicator of potential force production, pulling force is an indicator of escape performance, and constriction pressure is a measure of prey-handling performance. Muscle cross-sectional area scaled similarly for all snakes, and there was no significant difference in maximum pulling force among species. However, kingsnakes exerted significantly higher pressures on their prey than ratsnakes. The similar escape performance among species indicates that kingsnakes win in predatory encounters because of their superior constriction performance, not because ratsnakes have inferior escape performance. The superior constriction performance by kingsnakes results from their consistent and distinctive coil posture and perhaps from additional aspects of muscle structure and function that need to be tested in future research.

  5. Aquatic beetles of the alpine lakes: diversity, ecology and small-scale population genetics

    Čiamporová-Zaovičová Z.


    Full Text Available In this study, we summarize water beetle fauna of the alpine lakes and ponds of the Tatra Mountains. The literature and recent data were used to assess species diversity. Out of around 95 studied alpine water bodies, beetles were found in 61. Altogether, 54 taxa from six families were identified. The different altitudinal zones and lake areas were compared with species richness and species incidence concerning the sites sampled. Besides faunistics, some ecological notes on Agabus bipustulatus are provided. The seasonal dynamics of this species is influenced by its life cycle. The larvae and adults comprised a regular part of the samples during the whole period of the study with a decrease in density from June to the late fall. During the summer and the early fall, fast growth of the larvae was observed. The adults reached their abundance peak in September–October. For the first time, analysis is provided of the genetic diversity of the macroinvertebrate species of the alpine lakes. We used a 345bp fragment of cytochrome b in two dytiscids, Agabus bipustulatus and A. guttatus. Seven and eight haplotypes were identified, respectively, with slightly different distribution patterns of genetic diversity across the study area in both species. A high proportion of the lakes was characterized by a single haplotype and the majority of the haplotypes were restricted to only one of the sampled valleys.

  6. Overtone-based pitch selection in hermit thrush song: unexpected convergence with scale construction in human music.

    Doolittle, Emily L; Gingras, Bruno; Endres, Dominik M; Fitch, W Tecumseh


    Many human musical scales, including the diatonic major scale prevalent in Western music, are built partially or entirely from intervals (ratios between adjacent frequencies) corresponding to small-integer proportions drawn from the harmonic series. Scientists have long debated the extent to which principles of scale generation in human music are biologically or culturally determined. Data from animal "song" may provide new insights into this discussion. Here, by examining pitch relationships using both a simple linear regression model and a Bayesian generative model, we show that most songs of the hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus) favor simple frequency ratios derived from the harmonic (or overtone) series. Furthermore, we show that this frequency selection results not from physical constraints governing peripheral production mechanisms but from active selection at a central level. These data provide the most rigorous empirical evidence to date of a bird song that makes use of the same mathematical principles that underlie Western and many non-Western musical scales, demonstrating surprising convergence between human and animal "song cultures." Although there is no evidence that the songs of most bird species follow the overtone series, our findings add to a small but growing body of research showing that a preference for small-integer frequency ratios is not unique to humans. These findings thus have important implications for current debates about the origins of human musical systems and may call for a reevaluation of existing theories of musical consonance based on specific human vocal characteristics.

  7. Cytochrome b barcoding, molecular systematics and geographic differentiation in rabbitfishes (Siganidae).

    Lemer, Sarah; Aurelle, Didier; Vigliola, Laurent; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Borsa, Philippe


    The fish genus Siganus (Siganidae) is widely distributed in the coastal habitats of all the tropical Indo-Pacific, with 28 nominal species recognized so far, based on general morphology and coloration patterns. A mitochondrial phylogeny of 16 Siganidae species, based on the partial nucleotide sequences of the cytochome b gene, was produced. Individual haplotypes of given nominal species generally clustered at the extremity of long branches, thus validating the current taxonomy. However, S. lineatus haplotypes formed a paraphyletic group including S. guttatus, while S. fuscescens haplotypes were apparently splitted in two groups, calling for further investigation. S. woodlandi and S. argenteus formed a monophyletic group, as expected from their close morphological relatedness, although they were separated by a substantial, 14.5-16.3% nucleotide distance. Among eight species sampled from different locations across the Indo-West Pacific, S. argenteus and S. spinus showed the lowest degree of geographic differentiation, a result that correlated well with their extended pelagic larval stage. Fixation index estimates were high in all six other species tested (S. doliatus, S. fuscescens, S. lineatus, S. puellus, S. punctatus, S. vulpinus). The cytochrome b gene fragment chosen here proved useful as a barcode in Siganidae.

  8. Detection of Cryptosporidium species in feces or gastric contents from snakes and lizards as determined by polymerase chain reaction analysis and partial sequencing of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene.

    Richter, Barbara; Nedorost, Nora; Maderner, Anton; Weissenböck, Herbert


    Cryptosporidiosis is a well-known gastrointestinal disease of snakes and lizards. In the current study, 672 samples (feces and/or gastric contents or regurgitated food items) of various snakes and lizards were examined for the presence of cryptosporidia by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting a part of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene. A consecutive sequencing reaction was used to identify the cryptosporidian species present in PCR-positive samples. Cryptosporidium varanii (saurophilum) was detected in 17 out of 106 (16%) samples from corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) and in 32 out of 462 (7%) samples from leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius). Cryptosporidium serpentis was found in 8 out of 462 (2%) leopard gecko samples, but in no other reptile. The Cryptosporidium sp. "lizard genotype" was present in 1 leopard gecko sample, and 1 sample from a corn snake showed a single nucleotide mismatch to this genotype. Pseudoparasitic cryptosporidian species were identified in 5 out of 174 (3%) ophidian samples, but not in lizards. Other sequences did not show complete similarity to previously published Cryptosporidium sequences. The results stress the importance for diagnostic methods to be specific for Cryptosporidium species especially in snakes and show a relatively high prevalence of C. varanii in leopard geckos and corn snakes.

  9. Additions and corrections to the systematics of mayfly species assigned to the genus Callibaetis Eaton 1881 (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) from South America.

    Cruz, Paulo Vilela; Salles, Frederico Falcão; Hamada, Neusa


    Due to historical taxonomic impediments, species of Callibaetis Eaton are difficult to identify. Recent studies have attempted to resolve this problem, although many species still lack complete descriptions; nymphs of several species remain undetermined; and type specimens are lost or poorly known. Given these hindrances, the aim of this study is to review some of the type specimens of Callibaetis from South America. This review provides a series of taxonomic additions and corrections supported by improved morphological evaluations, illustrations and photographs of Callibaetis camposi Navás, C. (Abaetetuba) capixaba Cruz, Salles & Hamada, C. gregarius Navás, C. (C.) guttatus Navás, C. jaffueli Navás, C. (C.) jocosus Navás, C. nigrivenosus Banks, C. (A.) pollens Needham & Murphy, C. (C.) radiatus Navás, C. (A.) sellacki (Weyenbergh), C. stictogaster Navás, C. (C.) viviparus Needham & Murphy, C. (C.) willineri Navás, and C. (C.) zonalis Navás. From among these species, C. stictogaster and C. jaffueli are revalidated; C. nigrivenosus and C. gregarius are designated as nomina dubia; C. (C.) fluminensis Cruz, Salles & Hamada is proposed as a junior subjective synonym of C. (C.) zonalis; and C. gloriosus Navás is proposed as a junior subjective synonym of C. (A.) sellacki (Weyenbergh). Lectotypes are designated for C. camposi, C. jaffueli, C. (C.) radiatus and C. stictogaster.

  10. Activity evaluation from different native or irradiated with {sup 60} Co gamma rays snake venoms and their inhibitory effect on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis; Avaliacao da atividade de diferentes venenos de serpentes, nativos ou irradiados, com radiacao gama de {sup 60} Co, quanto ao poder inibitorio do crescimento de Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis

    Lourenco, Cecilia de Oliveira


    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease, caused by Leishmania parasites, that occurs frequently in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Skin lesions that could results in disfiguring aspect characterize it. The treatment is based on few drugs as antimony salts or pentamidine that are toxic with increasing resistance by the parasite. Alternative forms of disease treatment are in constant search, including natural components as snake venoms. Previous studies demonstrate that some components of snake venoms have an inhibitory effect against those parasites, including Leishmania species. Although snake venoms presented high toxicity, several methods have been described to detoxify most or some of their toxic components, with favorable results by the use of gamma irradiation. In this report we tested several native and irradiated snake venoms for inhibitory effect against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis parasite and LLCMK{sub 2} mammalian cells, with enzymatic tests and electrophoresis. There are significant activity in Acanthophis antarcticus, Agkistrodon bilineatus, Bothrops moojeni, Bothrops jararaca, Hoplocephalus stephensi, Naja melanoleuca, Naja mossambica, Pseudechis australis, Pseudechis colletti, Pseudechis guttatus and Pseudechis porphyriacus, venom being inactive Pseudonaja textilis, Notechis ater niger, Notechis scutatus. Oxyuranus microlepidotus and Oxyuranus scutellatus venoms. After 2 KGy of {sup 60}Co irradiation most venom loses significantly their activity. Venoms with antileishmanial activity presented L-amino acid oxidase (L-AO) activity and showed common protein with a molecular weight about 60kDa in SDS-PAGE. These results indicate that L-AO activity in those venoms are probably related with antileishmanial effect. (author)

  11. The Role and Mechanism of Erythrocyte Invasion by Francisella tularensis

    Deanna M. Schmitt


    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is an extremely virulent bacterium that can be transmitted naturally by blood sucking arthropods. During mammalian infection, F. tularensis infects numerous types of host cells, including erythrocytes. As erythrocytes do not undergo phagocytosis or endocytosis, it remains unknown how F. tularensis invades these cells. Furthermore, the consequence of inhabiting the intracellular space of red blood cells (RBCs has not been determined. Here, we provide evidence indicating that residing within an erythrocyte enhances the ability of F. tularensis to colonize ticks following a blood meal. Erythrocyte residence protected F. tularensis from a low pH environment similar to that of gut cells of a feeding tick. Mechanistic studies revealed that the F. tularensis type VI secretion system (T6SS was required for erythrocyte invasion as mutation of mglA (a transcriptional regulator of T6SS genes, dotU, or iglC (two genes encoding T6SS machinery severely diminished bacterial entry into RBCs. Invasion was also inhibited upon treatment of erythrocytes with venom from the Blue-bellied black snake (Pseudechis guttatus, which aggregates spectrin in the cytoskeleton, but not inhibitors of actin polymerization and depolymerization. These data suggest that erythrocyte invasion by F. tularensis is dependent on spectrin utilization which is likely mediated by effectors delivered through the T6SS. Our results begin to elucidate the mechanism of a unique biological process facilitated by F. tularensis to invade erythrocytes, allowing for enhanced colonization of ticks.

  12. Lunar phase-dependent expression of cryptochrome and a photoperiodic mechanism for lunar phase-recognition in a reef fish, goldlined spinefoot.

    Masato Fukushiro

    Full Text Available Lunar cycle-associated physiology has been found in a wide variety of organisms. Recent study has revealed that mRNA levels of Cryptochrome (Cry, one of the circadian clock genes, were significantly higher on a full moon night than on a new moon night in coral, implying the involvement of a photoreception system in the lunar-synchronized spawning. To better establish the generalities surrounding such a mechanism and explore the underlying molecular mechanism, we focused on the relationship between lunar phase, Cry gene expression, and the spawning behavior in a lunar-synchronized spawner, the goldlined spinefoot (Siganus guttatus, and we identified two kinds of Cry genes in this animal. Their mRNA levels showed lunar cycle-dependent expression in the medial part of the brain (mesencephalon and diencephalon peaking at the first quarter moon. Since this lunar phase coincided with the reproductive phase of the goldlined spinefoot, Cry gene expression was considered a state variable in the lunar phase recognition system. Based on the expression profiles of SgCrys together with the moonlight's pattern of timing and duration during its nightly lunar cycle, we have further speculated on a model of lunar phase recognition for reproductive control in the goldlined spinefoot, which integrates both moonlight and circadian signals in a manner similar to photoperiodic response.

  13. Diversity and Abundance of a Tropical Fishery on the Pacific Shelf of Michoacán, México

    Madrid, J.; Sánchez, P.; Ruiz, A.


    This study was undertaken on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Some 22 523 individual fish were sampled, representing two classes, 154 genera, 64 families and 257 species in a total area of 50 km 2. The species Lutjanus guttatus, Scomberomorus sierra, Cynoscion reticulatus, Sphyrna lewini, Arius platypogonand Caranx caninuswere the most numerically abundant, amounting to 53·2% of the whole sample. Two models for sample size analysis and richness prediction were used. From these, the forecast for a theoretical doubling of the level of sampling effort (90 days) was 297 and 331. The Shannon diversity indexes in summer (June-August) and winter (December-February) were significantly different (paired t-test, P<0·0005). Of four families compared, three gave significant differences in the summer and winter periods (the Carangidae, the Haemulidae and the Sciaenidae). The classification (Euclidean Distance and UPGMA) indicated two climatic periods and three species assemblages. In addition, the nodal fidelity analysis agreed with the importance of the winter season in the study area. Two El Niño/southern oscillation incidences from 1986-87 and 1991-93 occurred during the sampling period.

  14. Phylogenetic position of Sphaerospora testicularis and Latyspora scomberomori n. gen. n. sp. (Myxozoa) within the marine urinary clade.

    Bartošová, Pavla; Freeman, Mark A; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Caffara, Monica; Fiala, Ivan


    An amendment of the family Sinuolineidae (Myxosporea) is proposed in order to include a newly described genus Latyspora n. gen. The type species Latyspora scomberomori n. gen. n. sp. is a coelozoic parasite in the kidney tubules of Scomberomorus guttatus. In addition to the morphological and molecular characterization of L. scomberomori n. gen. n. sp., we also present novel SSU rDNA data on Sphaerospora testicularis, a serious parasite of Dicentrarchus labrax. Performed phylogenetic analyses revealed that both species cluster within the marine urinary clade encompassing the representatives with a shared insertion within their V4 SSU rRNA region and grouping according to the shape of their spores' sutural line and their similar tissue tropism in the host. Sphaerospora testicularis is the closest relative to Parvicapsula minibicornis within the Parvicapsula subclade and L. scomberomori n. gen. n. sp. is the basal species of the Zschokkella subclade. The phylogenetic position of S. testicularis, outwith the basal Sphaerospora sensu stricto clade, and its morphology suggest it being a non-typical Sphaerospora. The sequence data provided on S. testicularis can help in future revisions of the strongly polyphyletic genus Sphaerospora. We recommend re-sequencing of several sphaerosporids as an essential step before such taxonomic changes are accomplished.


    Khairul Amri


    Full Text Available Tongkol komo/kawakawa (Euthynnus affinis and tenggiri (Scomberomerus guttatus are commonly caught by mini purseiners operated in Sunda Straits and landed in Labuan, West Java. This species inhabits coastal water and has preference staying in relatively warm water. Oceanography parameters commonly influencing the distribution of Euthynnus affinis are temperature, current, and salinity. The oceanography of Sunda Strait is influenced by water masses coming from the north that mainly originated from the Java Sea and water masses from the south mainly originated from Indian Ocean. The internal oceanography of Sunda Strait is also influenced by upwelling and monsoon as regional climate anomaly (ENSO and Indian Ocean Dipole Mode. This paper describes the influence of Dipole Mode (positive and negative event and ENSO (El- Nino/La-Nina to the catch dynamics of neritic tuna particularly in Sunda Straits waters. The results shown that regional climate anomaly influenced neritic tuna catch and its composition. The catches Euthynnus affinis in phase negative dipole mode or La-Nina were higher and dominated the catch composition of pelagic fishes of Sunda Strait. Similar situation also is showen by Scomberomorus commerson.

  16. Chemosensory responses to chemical and visual stimuli in five species of colubrid snakes

    Anthony J. Saviola


    Full Text Available Snakes utilize chemical and visual stimuli during predation, however the emphasis on these cues and which cues are used to initiate predation varies among species. For example, rattlesnakes using the ambush strategy rely on chemical cues to locate an ambush station, then visual and thermal cues to initiate envenomating strikes, then chemical cues again to track prey. By contrast, many natricine snakes use chemical cues to initiate predation, increasing the rate of tongue flicking regardless of whether visual cues are present. The present study examined the individual and interactive effects of chemical and visual stimuli of prey on the predatory behavior of five snake taxa representing three feeding guilds. Bull snakes (Pituophis catenifer, Eastern Corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus, and Midland Rat snakes (Scotophis spiloides have a diet primarily consisting of mammals; Western Fox snakes (Mintonius vulpina prey primarily on bird eggs; and Common Kingsnakes (Lampropeltis getula prey equally on mammals and reptiles. Three patterns of response to chemical and visual stimuli of the test prey (Mus musculus were observed. Mammal specialists responded to chemical cues. Fox snakes responded to visual cues, but not to chemical cues. Kingsnakes exhibited increased rates of tongue flicking in response to both chemical and visual stimuli. This study suggests correlations between the evolution of prey preference, foraging ecology and the utilization of chemical or visual stimuli by snakes.

  17. New records of sea lice (Copepoda: Caligidae) from marine fishes in Jaramijó, an area with potential for sea-cage aquaculture in Ecuador.

    Morales-Serna, Francisco Neptali; Caña-Bozada, Víctor; Mera-Loor, Geormery; Loor-Andrade, Peggy; Fajer-Ávila, Emma J; Ho, Ju-Shey


    Farming of finfish in sea cages is gaining popularity worldwide. These systems are a suitable environment for the emergence, establishment and transmission of parasites or pathogens, such as sea lice (Copepoda: Caligidae), known to cause serious diseases and economic losses in finfish aquaculture worldwide. In coastal waters of Jaramijó, Ecuador, there are plans to culture spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) and longfin yellowtail (Seriola rivoliana); however, the information about the occurrence of sea lice on fish from this country is scarce. To address this problem, a parasitological survey of economically important fish caught by artisanal fishermen was conducted between June 2013 and May 2014. A total of 608 fish belonging to 66 species were examined. Sea lice were found on 23 fish species. The diversity of these parasites consisted of 22 species of Caligus and 5 species of Lepeophtheirus. Most sea lice species (66%) occurred in a single fish species only, with low infection levels. The most frequently encountered species were Caligus asperimanus Pearse, 1951, Caligus mutabilis Wilson, 1905 and Caligus rufimaculatus Wilson, 1905. Taxonomic remarks are presented for some of the species recorded during this survey. All but two sea lice records are new to Ecuador, considerably expanding the geographical range of some species.

  18. Antiplasmodial and Cytotoxic Activities of Toad Venoms from Southern Amazon, Brazil

    Banfi, Felipe Finger; Guedes, Karla de Sena; Andrighetti, Carla Regina; Aguiar, Ana Carolina; Debiasi, Bryan Wender; Noronha, Janaina da Costa; Rodrigues, Domingos de Jesus; Júnior, Gerardo Magela Vieira; Sanchez, Bruno Antonio Marinho


    The drug-resistance of malaria parasites is the main problem in the disease control. The huge Brazilian biodiversity promotes the search for new compounds, where the animal kingdom is proving to be a promising source of bioactive compounds. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activity of the compounds obtained from the toad venoms of Brazilian Amazon. Toad venoms were collected from the secretion of Rhinella marina and Rhaebo guttatus in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The powder was extracted at room temperature, yielding 2 extracts (RG and RM) and a substance (‘1’) identified as a bufadienolide, named telocinobufagin. Growth inhibition, intraerythrocytic development, and parasite morphology were evaluated in culture by microscopic observations of Giemsa-stained thin blood films. Cytotoxicity was determined against HepG2 and BGM cells by MTT and neutral red assays. The 2 extracts and the pure substance (‘1’) tested were active against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strain, demonstrating lower IC50 values. In cytotoxic tests, the 2 extracts and substance ‘1’ showed pronounced lethal effects on chloroquine-resistant P. faciparum strain and low cytotoxic effect, highlighting toad parotoid gland secretions as a promising source of novel lead antiplasmodial compounds. PMID:27658592

  19. Morphology, development, and evolution of fetal membranes and placentation in squamate reptiles.

    Blackburn, Daniel G; Flemming, Alexander F


    Current studies on fetal membranes of reptiles are providing insight into three major historical transformations: evolution of the amniote egg, evolution of viviparity, and evolution of placentotrophy. Squamates (lizards and snakes) are ideal for such studies because their fetal membranes sustain embryos in oviparous species and contribute to placentas in viviparous species. Ultrastructure of the fetal membranes in oviparous corn snakes (Pituophis guttatus) shows that the chorioallantois is specialized for gas exchange and the omphalopleure, for water absorption. Transmission and scanning electron microscopic studies of viviparous thamnophine snakes (Thamnophis, Storeria) have revealed morphological specializations for gas exchange and absorption in the intra-uterine environment that represent modifications of features found in oviparous species. Thus, fetal membranes in oviparous species show morphological differentiation for distinct functions that have been recruited and enhanced under viviparous conditions. The ultimate in specialization of fetal membranes is found in viviparous skinks of South America (Mabuya) and Africa (Trachylepis, Eumecia), in which placentotrophy accounts for nearly all of the nutrients for development. Ongoing research on these lizards has revealed morphological specializations of the chorioallantoic placenta through which nutrient transfer is accomplished. In addition, African Trachylepis show an invasive form of implantation, in which uterine epithelium is replaced by invading chorionic cells. Ongoing analysis of these lizards shows how integration of multiple lines of evidence can provide insight into the evolution of developmental and reproductive specializations once thought to be confined to eutherian mammals.

  20. Source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosols in a megacity of northwest China: insights from radiocarbon measurement

    Ni, Haiyan; Huang, Rujin; Dusek, Ulrike


    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected from 5 July 2008 to 27 June 2009 at Xi'an, a very polluted megacity in Northwest China. The 24 h averaged PM2.5concentrations (ranged from 32 μg m-3 to 339 μg m-3) were 1-14 times higher than the WHO guideline for 24 h PM2.5(25 μg m-3). In this work, we unambiguously quantify fossil (e.g., vehicle emissions, coal burning etc.) and non-fossil (e.g., biomass burning, cooking, biogenic emissions etc.) contributions to organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) of PM2.5using radiocarbon (14C) measurement. In addition, we measured PM2.5 major components and source markers, including OC and EC, ions, trace elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxygenated PAHs (o-PAHs), anhydrous sugars and hopanes. The preliminary results of radiocarbon measurements in OC and EC show that the annual mean contributions from fossil-fuel combustion to EC was 76 ± 8% (6 ± 2 μg m-3). The remaining 24 ± 8% (2 ± 1 μg m-3) was attributed to biomass burning, with higher contribution in the cold period (˜33%) compared to the warm period (˜21%), due to enhanced emissions from local biomass burning activities in winter. In contrast with EC, OC was dominated by non-fossil sources, with an annual average of 54 ± 8 % (13 ± 10 μg m-3). Clear seasonal variations were seen in OC concentrations both from fossil fuel (OCff), and from non-fossil sources (OCnf), with maxima in the cold period and minima in the warm period, because of enhanced fossil and non-fossil activities in winter, mainly biomass burning and domestic coal burning. Further source apportionment of OC, including primary/secondary fossil OC, primary/secondary non-fossil OC, will be conducted by combining 14C results with positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of organic matter (OM).

  1. Interacciones tróficas de las seis especies de peces más abundantes en la pesquería artesanal en dos bahías del Pacífico Central Mexicano

    J.R Flores Ortega


    Full Text Available Se analizaron los componentes tróficos de las seis especies de peces más importantes en la captura de la pesquería artesanal en las Bahía de Navidad y Chamela, ubicadas en la costa de Jalisco, México. Las especies estudiadas fueron Microlepidotus brevipinnis, Caranx caballus, Haemulon flaviguttatum, Lutjanus guttatus, Lutjanus argentiventris y Mulloidichthys dentatus. Se consideraron dos periodos de estudio de acuerdo a las pautas hidroclimáticas y los patrones de producción biológica en la zona: periodo de influencia de la Contracorriente Norecuatorial (T1, y periodo de influencia de la Corriente de California (T2. En Bahía de Navidad se identificaron 78 presas en total para las seis especies. En el periodo comprendido entre julio y diciembre (T1 se identificaron 64 presas y 45 de enero a junio (T2. En Bahía de Chamela se identificaron 93 presas, encontrando 74 presas en el periodo T1 y 60 presas para el periodo T2. El mayor número de presas se encontró en M. dentatus con 34 presas en el periodo T1 de Bahía de Chamela y el menor número fue en H. flaviguttatum en T1 de Bahía de Navidad con solo 7 presas. Los crustáceos fueron las presas de mayor presencia en la dieta, seguidos por peces, moluscos, poliquetos y equinodermos, en ambos periodos y sitios de muestreo. Las seis especies analizadas se consideran como especialistas, dados los bajos valores del índice de amplitud de nicho en ambos periodos y sitios de muestreo.Trophic interactions of the six most abundant fish species in the artisanal fishery in two bays, central Mexican Pacific. We surveyed the trophic components in six species of Bahía de Navidad and Bahía de Chamela: Microlepidotus brevipinnis, Caranx caballus, Haemulon flaviguttatum, Lutjanus guttatus, L. argentiventris and Mulloidichthys dentatus. Two main seasonal periods were considered: 1 North Equatorial Counter Current NECC period influence (T1 and 2 California Current CC period influence (T2. In Bahía de

  2. Composición y análisis taxonómico de la íctiofauna del golfo de Tribugá, Pacífico norte de Colombia Composition and taxonomic analysis of the fish fauna in the Gulf of Tribugá, northern Colombian Pacific

    Alexander Tobón-López


    Full Text Available Se realizó el análisis taxonómico y estructural de la comunidad íctica del golfo Tribugá zona norte del Pacífico colombiano, a partir de información recopilada mediante diferentes artes de pesca (volantín, espinel, trasmallo, barco arrastrero, arpón, atarraya e identificación visual con equipo de buceo autónomo. Se registraron 191 especies agrupadas en 21 órdenes y 68 familias. Los artes de pesca utilizados de manera sistemática y consecutiva durante el período de muestreo fueron la línea de mano y el espinel, capturando 71 y 47 especies respectivamente. Los análisis de las capturas se basaron solamente en los registros con estos dos artes de pesca. Se estableció que la familia Carangidae fue la mejor representada con el 8,9% del total de especies, seguida por Serranidae con 6,3% y Lutjanidae con el 4,2%. Estas familias junto con la Scombridae y Ophidiidae son las de mayor aporte numérico, biomasa, importancia comercial, y valor alimentario para las comunidades humanas asentadas en la zona de estudio. Las diez especies más capturadas durante el muestreo fueron la patiseca (Euthynnus lineatus, sierra (Scomberomorus sierra, chema (Epinephelus acanthistius, merluza (Brotula clarkae, pargo lunarejo (Lutjanus guttatus, pargo amarillo (Lutjanus argentiventris, bravo (Serióla rivoliana, jurel (Caranx caninus, burique (Caranx caballus, y ojote (Selar crumenophthalmus. Se reporta por primera vez para el Pacífico norte colombiano Schedophilus haedrichi (familia Centrolophidae.A taxonomical and structural analysis of the fish community in the Gulf of Tribugá, northern Colombian Pacific, was done based on information from different artisanal fishing techniques (hand lines, long lines, gillnets, trawl nets, harpoons, throw nets and visual identification by scuba diving. As many as 191 species were registered, belonging to 21 orders and 68 families. Hand lines (71 species and long lines (41 species were used systematically and

  3. The fish species composition and variation of catch from the small-scale gillnet fishery before, during and after the 1997-1998 ENSO event, central Mexican Pacific

    J.A Rojo-Vázquez


    Full Text Available In the tropical and subtropical coastal zone, were highly diverse fish communities occur, it is important to study the small scale fisheries exploiting these communities. For this study, 219 fishing days were carried out in Bahia de Navidad, Jalisco, Mexico. Four gillnets with different mesh sizes (76.2, 88.9, 101.6 and 114.3 mm were used for the fishing operations, from April 1994 to March 1995 and from January 1998 to December 2000. A total of 26126 organisms weighting 11680 kg were caught. One hundred and eighty three species belonging to 57 families and 19 orders were identified. Ten species accumulated more than 60% of the total abundance and biomass, the remaining species (173 individually contributed with less than 2% of the total abundance and biomass. The most important species in the catch were Microlepidotus brevipinnis, Caranx caballus, Haemulon flaviguttatum, Scomberomorus sierra, C. caninus, C. sexfasciatus, Lutjanus guttatus and L. argentiventris. The catch per unit of effort showed a large variation during the study, both in number and biomass. On average, 110 fishes and 48.5 kg fishing day-1 were caught. The maximum values were recorded during January and October 1998 (250 fishes and 100 kg fishing day-1, and the minimum values were recorded during September and November 1994 (25 org. and 10 kg fishing day-1. The total abundance and biomass was lower during the 1994-95 period (F=6.16, 8.32, PSe llevaron a cabo 219 días de pesca experimental en la Bahía de Navidad, Jalisco, México. Se utilizaron cuatro redes de enmalle de diferente luz de malla (76.2, 88.9, 101.6 and 114.3 mm de luz de malla, de abril de 1994 a marzo de 1995 y de enero de 1998 a diciembre de 2000. En total se capturaron 26126 organismos que pesaron 11680 kg. Fueron identificadas 183 especies pertenecientes a 57 familias y 19 órdenes. Diez especies acumularon más del 60% de la abundancia y biomasa total, el resto de las especies (173 individualmente aportaron

  4. How migratory thrushes conquered northern North America: a comparative phylogeography approach

    Carrie M. Topp


    Full Text Available Five species of migratory thrushes (Turdidae occupy a transcontinental distribution across northern North America. They have largely overlapping breeding ranges, relatively similar ecological niches, and mutualistic relationships with northern woodland communities as insectivores and seed-dispersing frugivores. As an assemblage of ecologically similar species, and given other vertebrate studies, we predicted a shared pattern of genetic divergence among these species between their eastern and western populations, and also that the timing of the coalescent events might be similar and coincident with historical glacial events. To determine how these five lineages effectively established transcontinental distributions, we used mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences to assess genetic structure and lineage coalescence from populations on each side of the continent. Two general patterns occur. Hermit and Swainson’s thrushes (Catharus guttatus and C. ustulatus have relatively deep divergences between eastern and western phylogroups, probably reflecting shared historic vicariance. The Veery (C. fuscescens, Gray-cheeked Thrush (C. minimus, and American Robin (Turdus migratorius have relatively shallow divergences between eastern and western populations. However, coalescent and approximate Bayesian computational analyses indicated that among all species as many as five transcontinental divergence events occurred. Divergence within both Hermit and Swainson’s thrushes resembled the divergence between Gray-cheeked Thrushes and Veeries and probably occurred during a similar time period. Despite these species’ ecological similarities, the assemblage exhibits heterogeneity at the species level in how they came to occupy transcontinental northern North America but two general continental patterns at an among-species organizational level, likely related to lineage age.

  5. Phytoaccumulation of trace elements by wetland plants: 3. Uptake and accumulation of ten trace elements by twelve plant species

    Qian, J.H.; Zayed, A.; Zhu, Y.L.; Yu, M.; Terry, N.


    Interest is increasing in using wetland plants in constructed wetlands to remove toxic elements from polluted wastewater. To identify those wetland plants that hyperaccumulate trace elements, 12 plant species were tested for their efficiency to bioconcentrate 10 potentially toxic trace elements including As, b, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Se. Individual plants were grown under carefully controlled conditions and supplied with 1 mg L{sup {minus}1} of each trace element individually for 10 d. Except B, all elements accumulated to much higher concentrations in roots than in shoots. Highest shoot tissue concentrations (mg kg{sup {minus}1} DW) of the various trace elements were attained by the following species: umbrella plant (Cyperus alternifolius L.) for Mn (198) and Cr (44); water zinnia (Wedelia trilobata Hitchc.) for Cd (148) and Ni (80); smartweed (Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx.) for Cu (95) and Pb (64); water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) for Hg (92), As (34), and Se (39); and mare's tail (hippuris vulgaris L.) for B (1132). Whereas, the following species attained the highest root tissue concentrations (mg kg{sup {minus}1} DW); stripped rush (Baumia rubiginosa) for Mn (1683); parrot's feather (Myriophyllum brasiliense Camb.) for Cd (1426) and Ni (1077); water lettuce for Cu (1038), Hg (1217), and As (177); smartweed for Cr (2980) and Pb (1882); mare's tail for B (1277); and monkey flower (Mimulus guttatus Fisch.) for Se (384). From a phytoremediation perspective, smartweed was probably the best plant species for trace element removal from wastewater due to its faster growth and higher plant density.

  6. Impacts of moonlight on fish reproduction.

    Ikegami, Taro; Takeuchi, Yuki; Hur, Sung-Pyo; Takemura, Akihiro


    The waxing and waning cycle of the moon is repeated at approximately 1-month intervals, and concomitant changes occur in the levels of moonlight and cueing signals detected by organisms on the earth. In the goldlined spinefoot Siganus guttatus, a spawner lunar-synchronized around the first quarter moon, periodic changes in moonlight are used to cue gonadal development and gamete release. Rearing of mature fish under artificial constant full moon and new moon conditions during the spawning season leads to disruption or delay of synchronous spawning around the predicted moon phase. Melatonin, an endogenous transducer of the environmental light/dark cycle, increases in the blood and in the pineal gland around the new moon period and decreases around the full moon period. In synchrony with melatonin fluctuation, melatonin receptor(s) mRNA abundance is higher during the new moon period than during the full moon. The melatonin/melatonin receptor system is likely affected by moonlight. Measurements of the expression patterns of clock genes in neural tissues demonstrate that Cryptochrome (Cry1 and Cry3) and Period (Per2) fluctuate with lunar periodicity, the former peaking in the medial part of the brain around the first quarter moon period, and the latter peaking in the pineal gland around the full moon. Some clock genes may respond to periodic changes in moon phase and appear to be involved in the generation of lunar-related rhythmicity in lunar spawners. Thus, some fish use moonlight-related periodicities as reliable information for synchronizing the timing of reproductive events.

  7. Relationship between swim bladder morphology and hearing abilities--a case study on Asian and African cichlids.

    Tanja Schulz-Mirbach

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several teleost species have evolved anterior extensions of the swim bladder which come close to or directly contact the inner ears. A few comparative studies have shown that these morphological specializations may enhance hearing abilities. This study investigates the diversity of swim bladder morphology in four Asian and African cichlid species and analyzes how this diversity affects their hearing sensitivity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied swim bladder morphology by dissections and by making 3D reconstructions from high-resolution microCT scans. The auditory sensitivity was determined in terms of sound pressure levels (SPL and particle acceleration levels (PAL using the auditory evoked potential (AEP recording technique. The swim bladders in Hemichromis guttatus and Steatocranus tinanti lacked anterior extensions and the swim bladder was considerably small in the latter species. In contrast, Paratilapia polleni and especially Etroplus maculatus possessed anterior extensions bringing the swim bladder close to the inner ears. All species were able to detect frequencies up to 3 kHz (SPL except S. tinanti which only responded to frequencies up to 0.7 kHz. P. polleni and E. maculatus showed significantly higher auditory sensitivities at 0.5 and 1 kHz than the two species lacking anterior swim bladder extensions. The highest auditory sensitivities were found in E. maculatus, which possessed the most intimate swim bladder-inner ear relationship (maximum sensitivity 66 dB re 1 µPa at 0.5 kHz. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that anterior swim bladder extensions seem to improve mean absolute auditory sensitivities by 21-42 dB (SPLs and 21-36 dB (PALs between 0.5 and 1 kHz. Besides anterior extensions, the size of the swim bladder appears to be an important factor for extending the detectable frequency range (up to 3 kHz.

  8. Cutaneous and Subcutaneous Soft Tissue Tumours in Snakes: A Retrospective Study of 33 Cases.

    Dietz, J; Heckers, K O; Aupperle, H; Pees, M


    Cutaneous and subcutaneous soft tissue tumours have been rarely described in detail in snakes. Several malignant entities show strikingly similar histological patterns and therefore the term soft tissue sarcoma (STS) has become a standard histopathological diagnosis. The present study characterizes soft tissue tumours in 33 snakes. Samples included 29 surgically excised masses and four carcasses. Additionally, six animals were humanely destroyed and submitted for necropsy examination following tumour recurrence. Benign neoplasms (n = 8) were described as lipomas of varying differentiation. Recurrence was observed in two of five snakes in which the clinical course was recorded. Malignant neoplasms (n = 25) were diagnosed as STS and graded according to a three-point system previously applied to canine STS. Five (20%) of the primary tumours were classified as grade 1, eleven (44%) as grade 2 and nine (36%) as grade 3 sarcomas. Clinically, recurrence of STS was observed in 11 of 17 cases with available follow-up information. Pathologically, multiple cutaneous metastases were found in one grass snake (Natrix natrix), while visceral metastases were observed in one carpet python (Morelia spilota) and two corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus). Metastatic risk appears to increase with histological grade. Surgical excision generally represents the current therapy of choice for STS. This study includes the first reports of conventional lipomas in a ribbon snake (Thamnophis radix), angiolipomas in a black-headed python (Aspidites melanocephalus) and a corn snake as well as of STS in a Jamaican boa (Epicrates subflavus), emerald tree boa (Corallus caninus), grass snake (N. natrix), African house snake (Lamprophis fuliginosus), California kingsnake (Lampropeltis getula californiae) and common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis).

  9. Organized Emergence of Multiple-Generations of Teeth in Snakes Is Dysregulated by Activation of Wnt/Beta-Catenin Signalling

    Gaete, Marcia; Tucker, Abigail S.


    In contrast to mammals, most reptiles constantly regenerate their teeth. In the snake, the epithelial dental lamina ends in a successional lamina, which proliferates and elongates forming multiple tooth generations, all linked by a permanent dental lamina. To investigate the mechanisms used to control the initiation of new tooth germs in an ordered sequential pattern we utilized the polyphodont (multiple-generation) corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus). We observed that the dental lamina expressed the transcription factor Sox2, a multipotent stem cell marker, whereas the successional lamina cells expressed the transcription factor Lef1, a Wnt/β-catenin pathway target gene. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in culture increased the number of developing tooth germs, in comparison to control untreated cultures. These additional tooth germs budded off from ectopic positions along the dental lamina, rather than in an ordered sequence from the successional lamina. Wnt/β-catenin activation enhanced cell proliferation, particularly in normally non-odontogenic regions of the dental lamina, which widely expressed Lef1, restricting the Sox2 domain. This suggests an expansion of the successional lamina at the expense of the dental lamina. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in cultured snake dental organs, therefore, led to changes in proliferation and to the molecular pattern of the dental lamina, resulting in loss of the organised emergence of tooth germs. These results suggest that epithelial compartments are critical for the arrangement of organs that develop in sequence, and highlight the role of Wnt/β-catenin signalling in such processes. PMID:24019968

  10. Organized emergence of multiple-generations of teeth in snakes is dysregulated by activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling.

    Gaete, Marcia; Tucker, Abigail S


    In contrast to mammals, most reptiles constantly regenerate their teeth. In the snake, the epithelial dental lamina ends in a successional lamina, which proliferates and elongates forming multiple tooth generations, all linked by a permanent dental lamina. To investigate the mechanisms used to control the initiation of new tooth germs in an ordered sequential pattern we utilized the polyphodont (multiple-generation) corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus). We observed that the dental lamina expressed the transcription factor Sox2, a multipotent stem cell marker, whereas the successional lamina cells expressed the transcription factor Lef1, a Wnt/β-catenin pathway target gene. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in culture increased the number of developing tooth germs, in comparison to control untreated cultures. These additional tooth germs budded off from ectopic positions along the dental lamina, rather than in an ordered sequence from the successional lamina. Wnt/β-catenin activation enhanced cell proliferation, particularly in normally non-odontogenic regions of the dental lamina, which widely expressed Lef1, restricting the Sox2 domain. This suggests an expansion of the successional lamina at the expense of the dental lamina. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in cultured snake dental organs, therefore, led to changes in proliferation and to the molecular pattern of the dental lamina, resulting in loss of the organised emergence of tooth germs. These results suggest that epithelial compartments are critical for the arrangement of organs that develop in sequence, and highlight the role of Wnt/β-catenin signalling in such processes.

  11. Organized emergence of multiple-generations of teeth in snakes is dysregulated by activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling.

    Marcia Gaete

    Full Text Available In contrast to mammals, most reptiles constantly regenerate their teeth. In the snake, the epithelial dental lamina ends in a successional lamina, which proliferates and elongates forming multiple tooth generations, all linked by a permanent dental lamina. To investigate the mechanisms used to control the initiation of new tooth germs in an ordered sequential pattern we utilized the polyphodont (multiple-generation corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus. We observed that the dental lamina expressed the transcription factor Sox2, a multipotent stem cell marker, whereas the successional lamina cells expressed the transcription factor Lef1, a Wnt/β-catenin pathway target gene. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in culture increased the number of developing tooth germs, in comparison to control untreated cultures. These additional tooth germs budded off from ectopic positions along the dental lamina, rather than in an ordered sequence from the successional lamina. Wnt/β-catenin activation enhanced cell proliferation, particularly in normally non-odontogenic regions of the dental lamina, which widely expressed Lef1, restricting the Sox2 domain. This suggests an expansion of the successional lamina at the expense of the dental lamina. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in cultured snake dental organs, therefore, led to changes in proliferation and to the molecular pattern of the dental lamina, resulting in loss of the organised emergence of tooth germs. These results suggest that epithelial compartments are critical for the arrangement of organs that develop in sequence, and highlight the role of Wnt/β-catenin signalling in such processes.

  12. Melatonin receptor of a reef fish with lunar-related rhythmicity: cloning and daily variations.

    Park, Yong-Ju; Park, Ji-Gweon; Kim, Se-Jae; Lee, Young-Don; Saydur Rahman, Md; Takemura, Akihiro


    Melatonin receptors are expressed in neural and peripheral tissues and mediate melatonin actions on the regulation of circadian rhythms in various species. For overall understanding of 'circa' rhythms in the golden rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus, which exhibits restricted lunar-related rhythms and spawns synchronously around the first quarter moon, the aim of the present study was to clone a melatonin receptor (Mel(lb)) cDNA and examine daily variations of Mel(lb) mRNA expression in certain tissues of the rabbitfish. The full-length Mel(lb) cDNA (1808 bp) contained an open reading frame to encode a protein with a length of 354 amino acids, which was highly homologous to a protein of nonmammalian species. Northern blot analysis showed transcripts of Mel(lb) in the brain and retina. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis also revealed expression of Mel(lb) in all tissues tested. Significantly high expression of the gene during daytime was evident in the liver and kidney. When the expression of Mel(lb) was examined in the brain and retina under conditions of light/dark cycles or constant darkness, daily and circadian variations of gene expression with two increases during daytime and nighttime for the brain and a single increase during nighttime for the retina were recognized. Moreover, daily variations in the expression of Mel(lb) were observed in the cultured pineal gland. These results suggest that the melatonin receptor plays a role in integration of melatonin actions in various tissues and that daily variations of Mel(lb) in the neural tissues may be related to regulation of circadian clock.

  13. Perception and possible utilization of moonlight intensity for reproductive activities in a lunar-synchronized spawner, the golden rabbitfish.

    Takemura, Akihiro; Susilo, Endang Sri; Rahman, M D Saydur; Morita, Masaya


    Rabbitfishes are known to spawn synchronously around the species-specific lunar phase. It is considered that they perceive and utilize cues from the moon in order to be synchronized gonadal development and spawning with the lunar cycle. Using the golden rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus, which spawns synchronously around the first quarter moon during the reproductive season, we measured the fluctuation of melatonin levels and examined the response of the fish to moonlight intensity. Daily fluctuation of melatonin concentration in the blood of golden rabbitfish showed low levels during daytime and high levels during night-time, suggesting that melatonin functions in the perception and utilization of photoperiod. Plasma melatonin concentration at the new moon was higher than that at the full moon. When the fish were exposed to moonlight at midnight of the both moon phases, the melatonin concentrations decreased to the control levels. These results show that the fish possibly perceive moonlight intensity and plasma melatonin fluctuates according to 'lightness' at a point of night. At the first spawning period (experiment was started one month before the spawning), the fish reared under natural conditions spawned at the expected spawning dates, whereas the fish reared under the constant darkness and lightness of night did not spawn. At the second spawning period (experiment was started 2 weeks before the spawning), the fish reared under the conditions of natural and constant darkness of night spawned but not that of constant lightness of night. It is possible that night conditions are related to synchronous gonadal development and spawning in the golden rabbitfish.

  14. Moonlight affects mRNA abundance of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase in the retina of a lunar-synchronized spawner, the goldlined spinefoot.

    Kashiwagi, Tomomi; Park, Yong-Ju; Park, Ji-Gweon; Imamura, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Yuki; Hur, Sung-Pyo; Takemura, Akihiro


    Melatonin synthesis in the pineal gland and retina shows a rhythmic fashion with high levels at night and is controlled by a rate-limiting enzyme, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT). A previous study revealed that moonlight suppresses the plasma melatonin levels of the goldlined spinefoot (Siganus guttatus), which exhibits a lunar cycle in its reproductive activity and repeats gonadal development toward and spawning around the first quarter moon. Whether the retina of this species responds to moonlight is unknown. To clarify the photoperceptive ability of this species, we aimed to clone the full-length cDNA of Aanat1 (sgAanat1) from the retina and examine its transcriptional pattern under several daylight and moonlight regimes. The full-length sgAanat1 cDNA (1,038 bp) contained a reading frame encoding a protein of 225 amino acids, which was highly homologous to AANAT1 of other teleosts. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed that among the tissues tested, sgAanat1 fragments were expressed exclusively in the retina. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that sgAanat1 fluctuated with high abundance at night under light-dark cycle and at subjective night under constant darkness, but not under constant light. These results suggest that sgAanat1 is regulated by both the external light signal and internal clock system. The abundance of sgAanat1 in the retina was higher at the culmination time around new moon than full moon phase. Additionally, exposing fish to brightness around the full moon period suppressed sgAanat1 mRNA abundance. Thus, moonlight is perceived by fish and has an impact on melatonin fluctuation in the retina. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Quantitative magnetic resonance analysis and a morphometric predictive model reveal lean body mass changes in migrating Nearctic-Neotropical passerines.

    Seewagen, Chad L; Guglielmo, Christopher G


    Most studies of lean mass dynamics in free-living passerine birds have focused on Old World species at geographical barriers where they are challenged to make the longest non-stop flight of their migration. We examined lean mass variation in New World passerines in an area where the distribution of stopover habitat does not require flights to exceed more than a few hours and most migrants stop flying well before fat stores near exhaustion. We used either quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) analysis or a morphometric model to measure or estimate, respectively, the fat and lean body mass of migrants during stopovers in New York, USA. With these data, we examined (1) variance in total body mass explained by lean body mass, (2) hourly rates of fat and lean body mass change in single-capture birds, and (3) net changes in fat and lean mass in recaptured birds. Lean mass contributed to 50% of the variation in total body mass among white-throated sparrows Zonotrichia albicollis and hermit thrushes Catharus guttatus. Lean mass of refueling gray catbirds Dumetella carolinensis and white-throated sparrows, respectively, increased 1.123 and 0.320 g h(-1). Lean mass of ovenbirds Seiurus aurocapillus accounted for an estimated 33-40% of hourly gains in total body mass. On average 35% of the total mass gained among recaptured birds was lean mass. Substantial changes in passerine lean mass are not limited to times when birds are forced to make long, non-stop flights across barriers. Protein usage during migration is common across broad taxonomic groups, migration systems, and migration strategies.

  16. Snake co-occurrence patterns are best explained by habitat and hypothesized effects of interspecific interactions.

    Steen, David A; McClure, Christopher J W; Brock, Jean C; Craig Rudolph, D; Pierce, Josh B; Lee, James R; Jeffrey Humphries, W; Gregory, Beau B; Sutton, William B; Smith, Lora L; Baxley, Danna L; Stevenson, Dirk J; Guyer, Craig


    Snakes often occur in species-rich assemblages, and sympatry is thought to be facilitated primarily by low diet overlap, not interspecific interactions. We selected, a priori, three species pairs consisting of species that are morphologically and taxonomically similar and may therefore be likely to engage in interspecific, consumptive competition. We then examined a large-scale database of snake detection/nondetection data and used occupancy modelling to determine whether these species occur together more or less frequently than expected by chance while accounting for variation in detection probability among species and incorporating important habitat categories in the models. For some snakes, we obtained evidence that the probabilities that habitat patches are used are influenced by the presence of potentially competing congeneric species. Specifically, timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) were less likely than expected by chance to use areas that also contained eastern diamond-backed rattlesnakes (Crotalus adamanteus) when the proportion of evergreen forest was relatively high. Otherwise, they occurred together more often than expected by chance. Complex relationships were revealed between habitat use, detection probabilities and occupancy probabilities of North American racers (Coluber constrictor) and coachwhips (Coluber flagellum) that indicated the probability of competitive exclusion increased with increasing area of grassland habitat, although there was some model uncertainty. Cornsnakes (Pantherophis guttatus or Pantherophis slowinskii) and ratsnakes (Pantherophis alleghaniensis, Pantherophis spiloides, or Pantherophis obsoletus) exhibited differences in habitat selection, but we obtained no evidence that patterns of use for this species pair were influenced by current interspecific interactions. Overall, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that competitive interactions influence snake assemblage composition; the strength of these effects was

  17. Parvalbumin--the major tropical fish allergen.

    Lim, Dawn Li-Chern; Neo, Keng Hwee; Yi, Fong Cheng; Chua, Kaw Yan; Goh, Denise Li-Meng; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Giam, Yoke Chin; Van Bever, Hugo P S; Lee, Bee Wah


    Fish allergy is common in countries where consumption is high. Asian nations are amongst the world's largest consumers of fish but the allergen profiles of tropical fish are unknown. This study sought to evaluate the allergenicity of four commonly consumed tropical fish, the threadfin (Polynemus indicus), Indian anchovy (Stolephorus indicus), pomfret (Pampus chinensis) and tengirri (Scomberomorus guttatus). Immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactivity with parvalbumin of cod fish (Gad c 1), the major fish allergen, was also studied. Detection of tropical fish and cod specific-IgE was performed by UniCap assay, and skin prick tests were also carried out. The IgE-binding components of tropical fish were identified using IgE immunoblot techniques, and cross-reactivity with Gad c 1 was assessed by ELISA inhibition and IgE immunoblot inhibition. Clinically, nine of 10 patients studied were allergic to multiple fish. All patients exhibited detectable specific-IgE to cod fish (10 of 10 skin prick test positive, eight of 10 UniCap assay positive) despite lack of previous exposure. The major allergen of the four tropical fish was the 12-kDa parvalbumin. IgE cross-reactivity of these allergens to Gad c 1 was observed to be moderate to high in the tropical fish studied. Parvalbumins are the major allergens in commonly consumed tropical fish. They are cross-reactive with each other as well as with Gad c 1. Commercial tests for cod fish appear to be sufficient for the detection of tropical fish specific-IgE.

  18. Experimental infection of snakes with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola causes pathological changes that typify snake fungal disease

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Lankton, Julia S.; Werner, Katrien; Falendysz, Elizabeth A.; McCurley, Kevin; Blehert, David S.


    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging skin infection of wild snakes in eastern North America. The fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola is frequently associated with the skin lesions that are characteristic of SFD, but a causal relationship between the fungus and the disease has not been established. We experimentally infected captive-bred corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) in the laboratory with pure cultures of O. ophiodiicola. All snakes in the infected group (n = 8) developed gross and microscopic lesions identical to those observed in wild snakes with SFD; snakes in the control group (n = 7) did not develop skin infections. Furthermore, the same strain of O. ophiodiicola used to inoculate snakes was recovered from lesions of all animals in the infected group, but no fungi were isolated from individuals in the control group. Monitoring progression of lesions throughout the experiment captured a range of presentations of SFD that have been described in wild snakes. The host response to the infection included marked recruitment of granulocytes to sites of fungal invasion, increased frequency of molting, and abnormal behaviors, such as anorexia and resting in conspicuous areas of enclosures. While these responses may help snakes to fight infection, they could also impact host fitness and may contribute to mortality in wild snakes with chronic O. ophiodiicola infection. This work provides a basis for understanding the pathogenicity of O. ophiodiicola and the ecology of SFD by using a model system that incorporates a host species that is easy to procure and maintain in the laboratory.

  19. Effects of salinity, temperature and pH on spermatozoa motility in two kinds of rabbitfish%盐度、温度和pH对2种篮子鱼精子活性的影响

    刘鉴毅; 黄晓荣; 章龙珍; 庄平; 赵峰; 张涛; 冯广朋


    选取健康成熟的雄性长鳍篮子鱼(Siganus canaliculatus)和点篮子鱼(Siganus guttatus)亲鱼进行人工采精,设定不同的盐度、温度和pH梯度,观察其对精子活力及激烈运动时间的影响.结果表明:随盐度、温度和pH的升高,2种篮子鱼精子的活力都先增强后减弱;随盐度和pH的升高精子激烈运动时间均先延长后缩短,但随温度的升高,2种篮子鱼精子激烈运动时间都呈现下降的趋势.2种篮子鱼精子的最适盐度范围均为30 ~ 35,精子活力和激烈运动都较高.长鳍篮子鱼精子最适温度范围为20 ~ 25℃,点篮子鱼精子最适温度范围为25 ~ 30℃,在25℃时,2种篮子鱼精子的活力都最高,分别为(90±2.67)%和(95±1.5)%.在pH为7~8范围内,2种篮子鱼精子活力较高,激烈运动时间也相对较长;pH为8时,长鳍篮子鱼和点篮子鱼精子活力都最高,分别为(95±4.67)%和(95±3.67)%,精子激烈运动时间也最长,分别为(44 ±3.89)s和(34±3.67)s.比较而言,长鳍篮子鱼精子对盐度、温度和pH的耐受性均高于点篮子鱼精子.

  20. G. J. Billberg's (1833) 'On the ichthyology, and description of some new fish species of the pipefish genus Syngnathus'.

    Kullander, Sven O


    Gustaf Johan Billberg's review of ichthyology, published in Swedish in 1833 in the Linnéska samfundets handlingar, mentions 92 fish taxa at genus and species level, 41 of which represent new taxa, unnecessary replacement names, or unjustified emendations. Billberg presents his own classification of fishes, in which five new family names are introduced: Ballistidae, Diodontidae, Ooididae, Chironectidae, and Macrorhyncidae. Diodontidae has priority over Diodontidae Bonaparte, 1835. Macrorhyncidae was published earlier than Gempylidae Gill, 1862, but the latter has priority by prevailing usage.        Billberg mentions 61 genera of fishes, 41 of them listed only by name. Six generic names proposed by Billberg are available as unjustified emendations: Myxinus, Petromyzus, Scylia, Mustellus, Zyganna, and Ballistes. Brachionus is an unnecessary replacement name. Aphrus, Capriscus, Exormizus, Enneophthalmus, and Oedaus are nomina nuda. Eight new genera of fishes are proposed: Anodon, Posthias, Orbis, Sphaeroides, and Ooides are junior synonyms; Cotilla is a nomen oblitum in relation to Sufflamen Jordan, 1916; Tropigaster a nomen oblitum in relation to Aracana Gray, 1835; and Tetragonizus a nomen oblitum in relation to Lactoria Jordan & Fowler, 1902.        Billberg lists 31 species of fishes. Three represent new combinations; two are nomina nuda. The following 14 new species are described based on literature: Raja forskohlii, Cephaloptera dumerillii, Myliobatis lacepedei, Scylia russelii, Anodon macropterus, Cotilla frenata, Monacanthus blochii, M. sebae, M. cuvieri, M. marcgravii, Tetraodon striatus, Orbis psittacinus, Orbis punctulatus, and Orbis guttatus. All of those are invalid, except Scylia russelii, which is a species inquirenda. The following nine species group names are unnecessary replacement names and consequently invalid: Raja arabica, Myliobatis rissoi, Scylia isabellina, Anodon cirrhosus, Anodon cornutus, Zyganna voracissima, Centrina

  1. Experimental Infection of Snakes with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola Causes Pathological Changes That Typify Snake Fungal Disease.

    Lorch, Jeffrey M; Lankton, Julia; Werner, Katrien; Falendysz, Elizabeth A; McCurley, Kevin; Blehert, David S


    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging skin infection of wild snakes in eastern North America. The fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola is frequently associated with the skin lesions that are characteristic of SFD, but a causal relationship between the fungus and the disease has not been established. We experimentally infected captive-bred corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) in the laboratory with pure cultures of O. ophiodiicola. All snakes in the infected group (n = 8) developed gross and microscopic lesions identical to those observed in wild snakes with SFD; snakes in the control group (n = 7) did not develop skin infections. Furthermore, the same strain of O. ophiodiicola used to inoculate snakes was recovered from lesions of all animals in the infected group, but no fungi were isolated from individuals in the control group. Monitoring progression of lesions throughout the experiment captured a range of presentations of SFD that have been described in wild snakes. The host response to the infection included marked recruitment of granulocytes to sites of fungal invasion, increased frequency of molting, and abnormal behaviors, such as anorexia and resting in conspicuous areas of enclosures. While these responses may help snakes to fight infection, they could also impact host fitness and may contribute to mortality in wild snakes with chronic O. ophiodiicola infection. This work provides a basis for understanding the pathogenicity of O. ophiodiicola and the ecology of SFD by using a model system that incorporates a host species that is easy to procure and maintain in the laboratory. Skin infections in snakes, referred to as snake fungal disease (SFD), have been reported with increasing frequency in wild snakes in the eastern United States. While most of these infections are associated with the fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, there has been no conclusive evidence to implicate this fungus as a primary pathogen. Furthermore, it is not understood why the

  2. Removal of Parent and Substituted Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Typical Wastewater Treatment Plants and Health Risk Assessment of Re ̄claimed Water%典型污水处理厂对多环芳烃及其衍生物的去除及再生水健康风险研究

    曹巍; 乔梦; 张一心; 刘博川


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ( PAHs ) in aqueous environment can be transformed to substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (SPAHs) by chemical or microbial process, which are more toxic and carcinogen ̄ic, thus endangering human health. In order to investigate the removal efficiency of PAHs and SPAHs during differ ̄ent biological treatment process and water reuse process, target compounds from 4 wastewater treatment plants in Beijing and Guangdong Province were investigated, and health risk assessment were made for reused water. Results indicated that low ̄ring aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations were significantly higher (191.8 ̄394.2 ng•L ̄1 ) than that of high ̄ring aromatics (89.3 ̄108.2 ng•L ̄1) in the influent from the four wastewater treatment plants. The total concentration of oxygen substituted PAHs (OPAHs) (253.8 ̄322.2 ng•L ̄1) was higher than that of methyl substitu ̄ted PAHs (MPAHs, 44.3 ̄220.4 ng•L ̄1 ). The removal efficiencies of PAHs during different biological treatment processes were 43.7% ̄58.2%, while the removal efficiencies for SPAHs were 45.8% ̄52.1%. The removal effi ̄ciencies of PAHs and SPAHs in different water reclaimed processes were different, with PAHs in the range of 1.8% ̄41.1% and SPAHs in the range of 2.35% ̄25.9%. The results showed that the removal of the targets mainly depends on biodegradation, and adsorption on solid particles and removing with the particle deposition was also one of the major pathways. The results of risk assessment for reused water indicated that the toxic equivalent quan ̄tity (TEQ) of two carcinogens, benzo [a] pyrene (BaP) and dibenzo [a, h] anthracene (DBA), were both higher than 1, which meant that the carcinogenic risk of reclaimed water was relatively high. From this aspect, the safety of the reclaimed water should be taken more consideration.%多环芳烃(PAHs)在水环境中可以通过化学或微生物作用转化成其衍生物(SPAHs),而SPAHs可能具有更

  3. New systematic assignments in Gonyleptoidea (Arachnida, Opiliones, Laniatores

    Ricardo Pinto-da-Rocha


    Roewer, 1913, syn. n. and Paragonyleptes simoni Roewer, 1930, syn. n.; Gonyleptes pustulatus Sørensen, 1884 = Gonyleptes guttatus Roewer, 1917, syn. n.; Haversia defensa (Butler, 1876 = Sadocus vallentini Hogg, 1913, syn. n.; Liogonyleptoides minensis (Piza, 1946 = Currala bahiensis Soares, 1972, syn. n.; Megapachylus grandis Roewer, 1913 = Metapachyloides almeidai Soares & Soares, 1946, syn. n.; Mischonyx cuspidatus (Roewer, 1913 = Gonazula gibbosa Roewer, 1930 syn. n.; Mischonyx scaber (Kirby, 1819 = Xundarava holacantha Mello-Leitão, 1927, syn. n.; Parampheres tibialis Roewer, 1917 = Metapachyloides rugosus Roewer, 1917, syn. n.; Parapachyloides uncinatus (Sørensen, 1879 = Goyazella armata Mello-Leitão, 1931, syn. n.; Pseudopucrolia mutica (Perty, 1833 = Meteusarcus armatus Roewer, 1913, syn. n.The following new combinations are proposed: Acrographinotus ornatus (Roewer, 1929, comb. n. (ex Unduavius; Gonyleptellus bimaculatus (Sørensen, 1884, comb. n. (ex Gonyleptes; Gonyleptes perlatus (Mello-Leitão, 1935, comb. n. (ex Moojenia; Mischonyx scaber (Kirby, 1819, comb. n. (ex Gonyleptes; and Neopachyloides peruvianus (Roewer, 1956, comb. n. (ex Ceropachylus.The following species of Gonyleptidae, Gonyleptinae are revalidated: Gonyleptes atrus Mello-Leitão, 1923 and Gonyleptes curvicornis (Roewer, 1913.

  4. On the identity of some weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius (1745–1808 in the Museum of Zoology of Copenhagen (Coleoptera, Cucujoidea, Curculionoidea, Tenebrionoidea

    Miguel Alonso-Zarazaga


    atrirostre (Fabricius, 1802 (from Attelabus, Nerthops sticticus (Fabricius, 1777 (from Curculio, Piezotrachelus crotalariae (Fabricius, 1802 (from Attelabus, and Poropterus granulatus (Fabricius, 1802 (from Curculio. The junior homonym Brachycerus uva Fabricius, 1792 (non Sparrman, 1785 is replaced by Brachycerus fabricii nom. n. The following new synonymies are established: Brachycerus obesus (Fabricius, 1775 = Curculio scalaris Fabricius, 1777, syn. n., Brachyderes lusitanicus (Fabricius, 1781 = Curculio moratus Fabricius, 1798, syn. n., Brachypera (Brachypera crinita (Boheman, 1834 = Curculio striatus Fabricius, 1787, syn. n., Brachysomus erinaceus (Fabricius, 1802 = Brachysomus villosulus (Germar, 1824, syn. n., Bronchus abruptecostatus (Gyllenhal, 1833 = Curculio spectrum Fabricius, 1802, syn. n., Bronchus nivosus (Sparrman, 1785 = Curculio recurvus Fabricius, 1802, syn. n., Camptorhinus tibialis (Sparrman, 1785 = Rhynchaenus alienatus Fabricius, 1802, syn. n., Coelocephalapion atrirostre (Fabricius, 1802 = Coelocephalapion luteirostre (Gerstäcker, 1854, syn. n., Cyrtoderes cristatus (DeGeer, 1778 (Tenebrionidae = Brachycerus cristatus Fabricius, 1798, syn. n., Desmidophorus hebes (Fabricius, 1781 = Curculio tuberculatus Fabricius, 1792, syn. n., Donus salviae (Schrank, 1789 = Curculio denticornis Fabricius, 1798, syn. n., Exomias holosericeus (Fabricius, 1802 = Exomias chevrolati (Boheman, 1842, syn. n., Nerthops sticticus (Fabricius, 1777 = Nerthops guttatus (Olivier, 1807, syn. n., Phyllobius oblongus (Linnaeus, 1758 = Curculio mali Fabricius, 1782, syn. n., and Rhinocyllus conicus (Froelich, 1792 = Bruchus punctatus Fabricius, 1798, syn. n. Bronchus synthesys sp. n. is described to represent the concept of Hipporhinus spectrum sensu Marshall, 1904, a misidentification.

  5. 利用18S和ITS序列揭示8种鲇形目鱼类的系统发育%Phylogenetic Relationship among 8 Common Species of Catfish Based on Ribosome 18S and ITS Sequences

    杨光; 俞菊华; 徐跑; 唐永凯; 李建林; 李红霞; 卢中华; 阮瑞霞


    为了探讨鲇形目(Siluriformes)鱼类系统发育关系,本研究克隆了黄颡鱼(Pelteobagrus fulvidraco)、长吻(鱼危)(Leiocassis longirostris)、斑鳠(Mystus guttatus)、革胡子鲇(Clarias gariepinus)、鲇鱼(Silurus asotus)和斑点叉尾鮰(Ictalurus punctatus)6种鱼类的18S和两个内转录间隔区(包括全长ITS1-5.8S-ITS2)基因,结合GenBank中双须缺鳍鲇(Kryptopterus bicirrhis)和脂鳍胡鲇(Dinotopterus cunningtoni)的同源序列进行比较分析,结果表明,(1)8种鱼18S的长度为1814~1842 bp,同源性达97%以上,5.8S均为157bp,同源性也高达99.36%~100%;(2)8种鱼ITS1长度为335~620bp,其中,黄颡鱼的最长,为618~620bp,斑点叉尾鮰的最短,为335~336bp;ITS2长度为265~459 bp,其中,脂鳍胡鲇最长,为459bp,斑点叉尾鮰的最短,约为270bp.ITS1序列的同源性为29.45%~88.21%,其中,革胡子鲇和脂鳍胡鲇同源性最高,鲇鱼和革胡子鲇同源性最低.ITS2序列的同源性为41.59%~94.07%,其中,革胡子鲇和脂鳍胡鲇间源性最高,鲇鱼和革胡子鲇同源性最低;(3)分别以鲤鱼(Cyprinus carpio)18S和ITS为外群,采用NJ法构建18S、ITS系统发育树,结果显示,鲇科与胡鲇科的关系最近,鲿科与这两科关系较远,鮰科与另外3科关系最远.鲿科中(鱼危)属和黄颡鱼属的关系较鳠属更近;胡鲇科的胡鲇属和脂鳍胡鲇属是关系很近的两个属;鲇科的鲇属和缺鳍鲇属是关系较远的两属.

  6. Formation and toxicological effect of secondary organic aerosols%二次有机气溶胶的形成及其毒理效应

    曹军骥; 李建军


    photo-oxidation or nitration reaction with gas oxidants in the air to form oxygenated-PAHs (OPAHs) or nitrated-PAHs (NPAHs), and thus the toxicity and health hazard are enhanced. Parent PAHs and their derivatives can absorb light energy to reach the photo-excited states, and then react with molecular oxygen, medium, and coexisting chemicals to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other reactive intermediates, which can induce lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. (2) Amine: Organic amines are derivatives of ammonia in which one or more of the hydrogen atoms replaced by an alkyl or aryl group. They are strong alkaline compounds and play a very important role on secondary aerosols formation. The gaseous aliphatic amines can undergo rapid acid-base reactions to form salt particles in the presence of atmospheric acids (such as HCl, HNO3, H2SO4). Other multiphase reactions of amines include carbonyl-amine interaction and particle-phase oxidation reactions. Particulate alkyl amine can also react with nitrite to form carcinogenic nitrosamine. All these secondary products have signiifcantly adverse effects on human health, such as skin allergy, respiratory diseases, and cancers etc., and thus would alter the biological effect of aerosols in the atmosphere in return. (3) Terpenes: Terpenes is one of the most important biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in the atmosphere. In indoor environment, terpenes can be easily emitted from many consumer products such as furnitures or clothes. On the other hand, some gaseous oxidants like ozone and NOx can also present in the indoor air because of the inifltration from outdoor environment or emission by some ofifce and consumer equipment. Thus, the indoor health effect of secondary organic aerosol formation of terpenes with other gaseous oxidants is a popular issue in recent researches. Some of the gaseous products formed are irritating to biological tissues, while the condensed-phase products have received attention due to their