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Sample records for one-quasiparticle strength functions

  1. Study on frugmentation of one-quasiparticle and one-phonon states in the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, V.G.

    1980-01-01

    The general assumptions of the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model are given. This model describes the few-quasiparticle components of the wave functions at low, intermediate and high excitation energies. The method of strength functions which plays a key role in describing complex nuclei is also presented. A further development of the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model is outlined. The fragmentation of one-quasiparticle and one-phonon states over nuclear levels is studied. The results on the fragmentation of deep hole states in spherical nuclei are presented, which describe well the experimental data. The neutron strength functions and their spin dependence are calculated. A good agreement with experiment is obtained. The energies and widths of the giant resonances are calculated in spherical and deformed nuclei. The information on the many-quasiparticle components of excited state wave functions is shown to be very scarce. The necessity of studying the few-quasiparticle configurations is pointed out

  2. Influence of the Pauli principle on the one-quasiparticle states in odd spherical nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Zuy Khuong

    1980-01-01

    The effect of the Pauli principle on the fragmentation of one-quasiparticle states in odd spherical nuclei is studied within the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model. It is shown that the Pauli principle influences considerably the position and structure of a few low-lying states. The fragmentation of one-quasiparticle states at intermediate and high excitation energies is slightly affected by the Pauli principle, and the calculations can be performed by taking the Pauli principle into account roughly. (author)

  3. Photon strength functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergqvist, I.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for extracting photon strength functions are briefly discussed. We follow the Brink-Axel approach to relate the strength functions to the giant resonances observed in photonuclear work and summarize the available data on the E1, E2 and M1 resonances. Some experimental and theoretical problems are outlined. (author)

  4. The effect of the Pauli principle on the fragmentation of one-quasiparticle states in spherical nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khuong, C.Z.; Soloviev, V.G.; Voronov, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of the Pauli principle on the fragmentation of one-quasiparticle states in spherical nuclei is studied within the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model. It is shown that the Pauli principle influences considerably the position and structure of a few low-lying states, the fragmentation of one-quasiparticle states at intermediate and high excitation energies is slightly affected by the Pauli principle, and the calculations can be performed by taking the Pauli principle roughly into account. (author)

  5. Nuclear threshold effects and neutron strength function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel; Comisel, Horia

    2003-01-01

    One proves that a Nuclear Threshold Effect is dependent, via Neutron Strength Function, on Spectroscopy of Ancestral Neutron Threshold State. The magnitude of the Nuclear Threshold Effect is proportional to the Neutron Strength Function. Evidence for relation of Nuclear Threshold Effects to Neutron Strength Functions is obtained from Isotopic Threshold Effect and Deuteron Stripping Threshold Anomaly. The empirical and computational analysis of the Isotopic Threshold Effect and of the Deuteron Stripping Threshold Anomaly demonstrate their close relationship to Neutron Strength Functions. It was established that the Nuclear Threshold Effects depend, in addition to genuine Nuclear Reaction Mechanisms, on Spectroscopy of (Ancestral) Neutron Threshold State. The magnitude of the effect is proportional to the Neutron Strength Function, in their dependence on mass number. This result constitutes also a proof that the origins of these threshold effects are Neutron Single Particle States at zero energy. (author)

  6. Testosterone Replacement, Muscle Strength, and Physical Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Seon Nam

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Muscle strength and physical function decrease in older men, as do testosterone levels. Nonetheless, the effects of testosterone replacement therapy on muscle strength and physical function remain inconclusive and equivocal. We conducted a rapid systematic review, the results of which showed that testosterone replacement does not affect muscle strength (measured by hand grip strength and leg muscle strength, although it may increase physical function (measured by the 6-minute walk test, Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly score, and other physical performance tests. However, most of the studies were conducted in the United States or Europe and did not include participants from Asian or other ethnic backgrounds; therefore, further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of testosterone replacement in a broader population.

  7. Partial restoration of spin-isospin SU(4) symmetry and the one-quasiparticle random-phase approximation method in double-β decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, V. dos S.; Krmpotić, F.; Barbero, C. A.; Samana, A. R.

    2017-10-01

    The one-quasiparticle random-phase approximation (one-QRPA) method is used to describe simultaneously both double-β -decay modes, giving special attention to the partial restoration of spin-isospin SU(4 ) symmetry. To implement this restoration and to fix the model parameters, we resort to the energetics of Gamow-Teller resonances and to the minima of the single-β+-decay strengths. This makes the theory predictive regarding the β β2 ν decay, producing the 2 ν moments in 48Ca, 76Ge, 82Se, 96Zr, 100Mo, Te,130128, and 150Nd, that are of the same order of magnitude as the experimental ones; however, the agreement with β β2 ν data is only modest. To include contributions coming from induced nuclear weak currents, we extend the β β0 ν -decay formalism employed previously in C. Barbero et al., Nucl. Phys. A 628, 170 (1998), 10.1016/S0375-9474(97)00614-3, which is based on the Fourier-Bessel expansion. The numerical results for the β β0 ν moments in the above mentioned nuclei are similar to those obtained in other theoretical studies although smaller on average by ˜40 % . We attribute this difference basically to the one-QRPA method, employed here for the first time, instead of the currently used two-QRPA method. The difference is partially due also to the way of carrying out the restoration of the spin-isospin symmetry. It is hard to say which is the best way to make this restoration, since the β β0 ν moments are not experimentally measurable. The recipe proposed here is based on physically robust arguments. The numerical uncertainties in the β β moments, related to (i) their strong dependence on the residual interaction in the particle-particle channel when evaluated within the QRPA, and (ii) lack of proper knowledge of single-particle energies, have been quantified. It is concluded that the partial restoration of the SU(4 ) symmetry, generated by the residual interaction, is crucial in the description of the β β decays, regardless of the nuclear

  8. Strength functions for fragmented doorway states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Coupling a strongly excited ''doorway state'' to weak ''hallway states'' distributes its strength into micro-resonances seen in differential cross sections taken with very good energy resolution. The distribution of strength is shown to be revealed by reduced widths of the K-matrix rather than by the imaginary part of poles of the S-matrix. Different strength functions (SF) constructed by averaging the K-matrix widths are then investigated to determine their dependences on energy and on parameters related to averages of microscopic matrix elements. A new sum rule on the integrated strength of these SF is derived and used to show that different averaging procedures actually distribute the strength differently. Finally, it is shown that the discontinuous summed strength defines spreading parameters for the doorway state only in strong coupling, where it approximates the idefinite integral of the continuous SF of MacDonald-Mekjian-Kerman-De Toledo Piza. A new method of ''parametric continuation'' is used to relate a discontinuous sliding box-average, or a finite sum, of discrete terms to a continous function

  9. Structure of β-decay strength functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, Y.V.; Bykov, A.A.; Izosimov, I.N.

    1983-01-01

    The experimental and theoretical studies on the structure of the Gamow--Teller β-decay strength functions are reviewed. Also considered are processes such as M1 γ decay of analog states, the emission of delayed protons, neutrons, and α particles, delayed fission, and the (p, n) reaction at proton energies 100--200 MeV. The results of measurements of the strength functions by γ-ray total absorption are analyzed. It is shown that the β + decay of nuclei far from the stability band exhibits a new type of collective charge-exchange excitation: Gamow--Teller resonance with μ/sub tau/ = +1

  10. Traditional versus functional strength training: Effects on muscle strength and power in the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Seiler, Hilde Lohne; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Anderssen, Sigmund A.

    2013-01-01

    Published versiom of an article in the journal:Journal of Aging and Physical Activity. Also available from Human Kinetics: http://http://journals.humankinetics.com/japa-back-issues/japa-volume-21-issue-1-january/traditional-versus-functional-strength-training-effects-on-muscle-strength-and-power-in-the-elderly The aim was to determine whether strength training with machines vs. functional strength training at 80% of one-repetition maximum improves muscle strength and power among the elderl...

  11. Predicting hand function in older adults: evaluations of grip strength, arm curl strength, and manual dexterity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-Ju; Marie, Deana; Fredrick, Aaron; Bertram, Jessica; Utley, Kristen; Fess, Elaine Ewing

    2017-08-01

    Hand function is critical for independence in activities of daily living for older adults. The purpose of this study was to examine how grip strength, arm curl strength, and manual dexterous coordination contributed to time-based versus self-report assessment of hand function in community-dwelling older adults. Adults aged ≥60 years without low vision or neurological disorders were recruited. Purdue Pegboard Test, Jamar hand dynamometer, 30-second arm curl test, Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test, and the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument were administered to assess manual dexterous coordination, grip strength, arm curl strength, time-based hand function, and self-report of hand function, respectively. Eighty-four adults (mean age = 72 years) completed the study. Hierarchical multiple regressions show that older adults with better arm curl strength (β = -.25, p function test. In comparison, older adults with better grip strength (β = .40, p function. The relationship between grip strength and hand function may be test-specific. Grip strength becomes a significant factor when the test requires grip strength to successfully complete the test tasks. Arm curl strength independently contributed to hand function in both time-based and self-report assessments, indicating that strength of extrinsic muscles of the hand are essential for hand function.

  12. Systematics of strength function sum rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin W. Johnson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sum rules provide useful insights into transition strength functions and are often expressed as expectation values of an operator. In this letter I demonstrate that non-energy-weighted transition sum rules have strong secular dependences on the energy of the initial state. Such non-trivial systematics have consequences: the simplification suggested by the generalized Brink–Axel hypothesis, for example, does not hold for most cases, though it weakly holds in at least some cases for electric dipole transitions. Furthermore, I show the systematics can be understood through spectral distribution theory, calculated via traces of operators and of products of operators. Seen through this lens, violation of the generalized Brink–Axel hypothesis is unsurprising: one expects sum rules to evolve with excitation energy. Furthermore, to lowest order the slope of the secular evolution can be traced to a component of the Hamiltonian being positive (repulsive or negative (attractive.

  13. Hand Strength, Handwriting, and Functional Skills in Children With Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaniz, Michele L; Galit, Eleanor; Necesito, Corina Isabel; Rosario, Emily R

    2015-01-01

    To establish hand strength development trends in children with autism and to investigate correlations between grip and pinch strength, components of handwriting, and functional activities in children with and without autism. Fifty-one children were divided into two groups: typically developing children and children on the autism spectrum. Each child completed testing for pinch and grip strength, handwriting legibility, pencil control, and independence in functional activities. The children with autism followed the same strength development trends as the typically developing children. Grip strength correlated with pencil control in both groups and with handwriting legibility in the typically developing children but not in the children with autism. Grip and pinch strength correlated with independence with functional activities in both groups. This study provides evidence that grip and pinch strength are important components in developing pencil control, handwriting legibility, and independence with functional fine motor tasks. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  14. Experimental data base for gamma-ray strength functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopecky, J.

    1999-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental knowledge of γ-ray strength functions is a very important ingredient for description and calculation of photon production data in all reaction channels. This study focusses on experimental γ-ray strength functions, collected over a period of about 40 years and based on measurements of partial radiative widths

  15. Updated Photonuclear Data Library and Database for Photon Strength Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitriou Paraskevi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Photonuclear cross sections and gamma-ray data used to extract Photon Strength Functions are important for a large range of applications including basic sciences. The recommendations of an IAEA Consultant’s Meeting to update the IAEA Photonuclear Data Library and create a Reference Database for Photon Strength Functions are presented.

  16. Strength Development: Using Functional Isometrics in an Isotonic Strength Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Allen; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A study was made to determine if a combination of functional isometrics and standard isotonic training would be superior to a standard isotonic program in an instructional setting. The results provide support for functional isometrics as an enhancement where achievement of maximum strength is the goal. (Author/MT)

  17. Dependence of the giant dipole strength function on excitation energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.E.; Newton, J.O.; Sobotka, L.G.; Lindenberger, H.; Wozniak, G.J.; Moretto, L.G.; Stephens, F.S.; Diamond, R.M.; McDonald, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Spectra of γ rays associated with deep-inelastic products from the 1150-MeV 136 Xe+ 181 Ta reaction have been measured. The yield of 10--20-MeV γ rays initially increases rapidly with the excitation energy of the products and then more slowly for excitation energies in excess of 120 MeV. Statistical-model calculations with ground-state values of the giant dipole strength function fail to reproduce the shape of the measured γ-ray spectra. This suggests a dependence of the giant dipole strength function on excitation energy

  18. Effects of hyperthyroidism on hand grip strength and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkol İnal, Esra; Çarlı, Alparslan Bayram; Çanak, Sultan; Aksu, Oğuzhan; Köroğlu, Banu Kale; Savaş, Serpil

    2015-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a pathologic condition in which the body is exposed to excessive amounts of circulating thyroid hormones. Skeletal muscle is one of the major target organs of thyroid hormones. We evaluated hand grip strength and function in patients with overt hyperthyroidism. Fifty-one patients newly diagnosed with hyperthyroidism and 44 healthy controls participated in this study. Age, height, weight, and dominant hand of all participants were recorded. The diagnosis of hyperthyroidism was confirmed by clinical examination and laboratory tests. Hand grip strength was tested at the dominant hand with a Jamar hand dynamometer. The grooved pegboard test (PGT) was used to evaluate hand dexterity. The Duruöz Hand Index (DHI) was used to assess hand function. No significant differences were found in terms of clinical and demographic findings between the patients with hyperthyroidism and healthy controls (p > 0.05). Significant differences were found between the patients with hyperthyroidism and healthy controls regarding PGT and DHI scores (p Hyperthyroidism seemed to affect hand dexterity and function more than hand grip strength and seemed to be associated with reduced physical function more than muscle strength. This may also indicate that patients with hyperthyroidism should be evaluated by multidisplinary modalities.

  19. El strength function at high spin and excitation energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrette, J.

    1983-04-01

    Recently giant dipole resonance-like concentration of the dipole strength function in nuclei was observed at both high excitation energies and high spins. This observation raises the possibility of obtaining new information on the shape of rapidly rotating heated nuclei. Recent experimental results on this subject are reviewed

  20. Quadriceps Strength and Executive Functions in Older Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherder, E. J. A.; Eggermont, L. H. P.; Geuze, R. H.; Vis, J.; Verkerke, G. J.

    Objective: The aim of this study is to answer the question whether the strength of the knee extensor musculus quadriceps (m. quadriceps), in particular, is related to specific executive functions and whether this relationship is independent of aerobic fitness. The clinical relevance of this question

  1. A NEW CLINICAL MUSCLE FUNCTION TEST FOR ASSESSMENT OF HIP EXTERNAL ROTATION STRENGTH: AUGUSTSSON STRENGTH TEST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustsson, Jesper

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic clinical tests of hip strength applicable on patients, non-athletes and athletes alike, are lacking. The aim of this study was therefore to develop and evaluate the reliability of a dynamic muscle function test of hip external rotation strength, using a novel device. A second aim was to determine if gender differences exist in absolute and relative hip strength using the new test. Fifty-three healthy sport science students (34 women and 19 men) were tested for hip external rotation strength using a device that consisted of a strap connected in series with an elastic resistance band loop, and a measuring tape connected in parallel with the elastic resistance band. The test was carried out with the subject side lying, positioned in 45 ° of hip flexion and the knees flexed to 90 ° with the device firmly fastened proximally across the knees. The subject then exerted maximal concentric hip external rotation force against the device thereby extending the elastic resistance band. The displacement achieved by the subject was documented by the tape measure and the corresponding force production was calculated. Both right and left hip strength was measured. Fifteen of the subjects were tested on repeated occasions to evaluate test-retest reliability. No significant test-retest differences were observed. Intra-class correlation coefficients ranged 0.93-0.94 and coefficients of variation 2.76-4.60%. In absolute values, men were significantly stronger in hip external rotation than women (right side 13.2 vs 11.0 kg, p = 0.001, left side 13.2 vs 11.5 kg, p = 0.002). There were no significant differences in hip external rotation strength normalized for body weight (BW) between men and women (right side 0.17 kg/BW vs 0.17 kg/BW, p = 0.675, left side 0.17 kg/BW vs 0.18 kg/BW, p = 0.156). The new muscle function test showed high reliability and thus could be useful for measuring dynamic hip external rotation strength in patients, non-athletes and athletes

  2. E1 and M1 strength functions at low energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwengner, Ronald; Massarczyk, Ralph; Bemmerer, Daniel; Beyer, Roland; Junghans, Arnd R.; Kögler, Toni; Rusev, Gencho; Tonchev, Anton P.; Tornow, Werner; Wagner, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    We report photon-scattering experiments using bremsstrahlung at the γELBE facility of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and using quasi-monoenergetic, polarized γ beams at the HIγS facility of the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory in Durham. To deduce the photoabsorption cross sections at high excitation energy and high level density, unresolved strength in the quasicontinuum of nuclear states has been taken into account. In the analysis of the spectra measured by using bremsstrahlung at γELBE, we perform simulations of statistical γ-ray cascades using the code γDEX to estimate intensities of inelastic transitions to low-lying excited states. Simulated average branching ratios are compared with model-independent branching ratios obtained from spectra measured by using monoenergetic γ beams at HIγS. E1 strength in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance is discussed in nuclei around mass 90 and in xenon isotopes. M1 strength in the region of the spin-flip resonance is also considered for xenon isotopes. The dipole strength function of 74Ge deduced from γELBE experiments is compared with the one obtained from experiments at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-energy upbend seen in the Oslo data is interpreted as M1 strength on the basis of shell-model calculations.

  3. E1 and M1 strength functions at low energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwengner Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report photon-scattering experiments using bremsstrahlung at the γELBE facility of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and using quasi-monoenergetic, polarized γ beams at the HIγS facility of the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory in Durham. To deduce the photoabsorption cross sections at high excitation energy and high level density, unresolved strength in the quasicontinuum of nuclear states has been taken into account. In the analysis of the spectra measured by using bremsstrahlung at γELBE, we perform simulations of statistical γ-ray cascades using the code γDEX to estimate intensities of inelastic transitions to low-lying excited states. Simulated average branching ratios are compared with model-independent branching ratios obtained from spectra measured by using monoenergetic γ beams at HIγS. E1 strength in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance is discussed in nuclei around mass 90 and in xenon isotopes. M1 strength in the region of the spin-flip resonance is also considered for xenon isotopes. The dipole strength function of 74Ge deduced from γELBE experiments is compared with the one obtained from experiments at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-energy upbend seen in the Oslo data is interpreted as M1 strength on the basis of shell-model calculations.

  4. Effects of hyperthyroidism on hand grip strength and function

    OpenAIRE

    Esra Erkol İnal, MD; Alparslan Bayram Çarlı, MD; Sultan Çanak, MD; Oğuzhan Aksu, MD; Banu Kale Köroğlu, MD; Serpil Savaş

    2015-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a pathologic condition in which the body is exposed to excessive amounts of circulating thyroid hormones. Skeletal muscle is one of the major target organs of thyroid hormones. We evaluated hand grip strength and function in patients with overt hyperthyroidism. Fifty-one patients newly diagnosed with hyperthyroidism and 44 healthy controls participated in this study. Age, height, weight, and dominant hand of all participants were recorded. The diagnosis of hyperthyroidism w...

  5. Measurements of proton strength functions and comparisons with theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, E.; Ozawa, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Using a high-resolution proton beam of the Tokyo Institute of Technology Van de Graaff, precise measurements of elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections have been performed in the past 15 years. By directly observing individual proton resonances, their spins, parities and proton decay widths were deduced. From these experiments we have evaluated (1) proton strength functions in terms of target mass number and of incident proton energy and (2) Coulomb matrix elements for split analogue resonances. (orig.)

  6. Pelvic floor muscle strength and sexual function in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinara Sacomori

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction : Pelvic floor (PF muscles react to sexual stimuli with increased local blood circulation and involuntary contractions during orgasm. The training of the PF musculature helps in the improvement of the female sexual function. Objective : To verify the association between PF muscle strength and sexual function in women, controlling age and parity. Method : Cross-sectional study based on associations. The study included women who attended a reference center in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, for a uterine cancer smear test. The Functional Evaluation of the Pelvic Floor and the Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire were used. Statistical procedures included Mann-Whitney U tests, Spearman correlation and Poisson Regression Analysis, with p < .05. Results : The mean age of the women (n = 177 was 39.05 years (SD = 13.3. Regarding PF function, 53.7% of participants presented weak or not palpable PF muscle function. Women with "good" muscle function (able to maintain contraction under examiner's resistance had significantly better indexes of sexual desire, excitement, lubrication and orgasm than women with weak/poor function. We identified that 52.5% of the women presented sexual dysfunction. Women with "poor" PF function and aged over 50 years had, respectively, 1.36 (CI95% 1.01 - 1.82 and 1.77 (CI95% 1.41 - 2.23 higher prevalence of sexual dysfunction than women with "good" PF function. Conclusions : Adult women with better PF muscle function also presented better sexual function.

  7. Effects of strength training, detraining and retraining in muscle strength, hypertrophy and functional tasks in older female adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Cleiton S; Cunha, Giovani; Marques, Nise; Oliveira-Reischak, Ãlvaro; Pinto, Ronei

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies presented different results regarding the maintenance time of muscular adaptations after strength training and the ability to resume the gains on muscular performance after resumption of the training programme. This study aimed to verify the effect of strength training on knee extensors and elbow flexor muscle strength, rectus femoris muscle volume and functional performance in older female adults after 12 weeks of strength training, 1 year of detraining and followed by 12 weeks of retraining. Twelve sedentary older women performed 12 weeks of strength training, 1 year of detraining and 12 weeks of retraining. The strength training was performed twice a week, and the assessment was made four times: at the baseline, after the strength training, after the detraining and after the retraining. The knee extensor and elbow flexor strength, rectus femoris muscle volume and functional task were assessed. Strength of knee extensor and elbow flexor muscles, rectus femoris muscle volume and 30-s sit-to-stand increased from baseline to post-training (respectively, 40%, 70%, 38% and 46%), decreased after detraining (respectively, -36%, -64%, -35% and -43%) and increased again these parameters after retraining (35%, 68%, 36% and 42%). Strength training induces gains on strength and hypertrophy, also increased the performance on functional tasks after the strength training. The stoppage of the strength caused strength loss and reduction of functional performance. The resumption of the strength training promoted the same gains of muscular performance in older female adults. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Relationship of Lower Extremity Muscle Strength with Balance and Lower Extremity Functions in Elderly Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdi Başkurt

    2018-03-01

    Conclusions: Functional score, mobility and balance are related to lower extremity muscle strength in elderly women. Increasing muscle strength will reduce the risk of falls and increase independence.

  9. Strength function for the giant isovector monopole resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, W.M.; Birse, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of the strength function for giant resonances is extended to exhibit the explicit energy dependence of the width and shift functions for the giant isovector monopole. An integral sum rule on the width GAMMA/sub M/(E) relates its normalization to the second moment M 2 of the strength function and leads to a relation GAMMA/sub M/(E/sub M/)GAMMA/sub s//4 = M 2 between M 2 and the width at the maximum, which involves the width GAMMA/sub s/ of the distribution in energy of the spreading matrix elements. An estimate of GAMMA/sub M/(E/sub M/)approx. =8 MeV based on the absorptive part of the optical potential together with random-phase approximation calculations of M 2 leads to the result GAMMA/sub s//2approx. =2hω, supporting the intermediate coupling model of Lane, Thomas, and Wigner. Using the sum rule expressions of Lane and Mekjian to evaluate the Coulomb matrix element M/sub A/M between an isobaric analog state and its corresponding isovector monopole, we test this strength function for the isovector monopole by calculating the spreading widths for the ground state analogs of nuclei from 38 Cl to 208 Pb. The good agreement with the systematic dependence upon mass number and isospin resolves the long-standing discrepancy between the estimate GAMMA/sub M/(E/sub M/)approx.8--10 MeV and the value GAMMA/sub M/(E/sub A/)< or =2 MeV needed to account for the spreading widths of the isobaric analog state

  10. Prediction of the residual strength of clay using functional networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Z. Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are common natural hazards occurring in most parts of the world and have considerable adverse economic effects. Residual shear strength of clay is one of the most important factors in the determination of stability of slopes or landslides. This effect is more pronounced in sensitive clays which show large changes in shear strength from peak to residual states. This study analyses the prediction of the residual strength of clay based on a new prediction model, functional networks (FN using data available in the literature. The performance of FN was compared with support vector machine (SVM and artificial neural network (ANN based on statistical parameters like correlation coefficient (R, Nash--Sutcliff coefficient of efficiency (E, absolute average error (AAE, maximum average error (MAE and root mean square error (RMSE. Based on R and E parameters, FN is found to be a better prediction tool than ANN for the given data. However, the R and E values for FN are less than SVM. A prediction equation is presented that can be used by practicing geotechnical engineers. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to ascertain the importance of various inputs in the prediction of the output.

  11. Nuclear level density and gamma strength function in 64Fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. K.; Spyrou, A.; Ahn, T.; Dombos, A. C.; Liddick, S. N.; Montes, F.; Naqvi, F.; Richman, D.; Schatz, H.; Brown, J.; Childers, K.; Crider, B. P.; Prokop, C. J.; Deleeuw, E.; Deyoung, P. A.; Langer, C.; Lewis, R.; Meisel, Z.; Pereira, J.; Quinn, S. J.; Schmidt, K.; Larsen, A. C.; Guttormsen, M.

    2017-09-01

    The Fe-Cd mass region exhibits enhanced collectivity and an unexpected increased in gamma-decay probability at low energies. These effects could be significant for r-process nucleosynthesis, where masses, beta-decay probabilities, and neutron capture cross sections are among the most important inputs. Neutron capture is notoriously difficult to measure; so the recent development of an indirect technique to constrain neutron-captures far from stability is especially valuable. This is the beta-Oslo method, which allows the extraction of the nuclear level density and gamma-ray strength function to compute neutron-capture cross sections. This work reports on 64Fe, populated via beta-decay of 64Mn at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and measured with the 4pi Summing NaI (SuN) total gamma-ray spectrometer.

  12. Study of the photon strength function in Te-128

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaak, Johann; Silva, Joel [EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany); FIAS, Frankfurt (Germany); Beck, Tobias; Gayer, Udo; Pietralla, Norbert; Romig, Christopher; Zweidinger, Markus [IKP, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Derya, Vera; Zilges, Andreas [IKP, University of Cologne (Germany); Loeher, Bastian; Savran, Deniz [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Tamkas, Makbule [EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany); Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey); Tornow, Werner; Weller, Henry R. [TUNL, Duke University, Durham (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The Photon Strength Function (PSF) is a crucial input parameter for statistical model calculations such as Hauser-Feshbach calculations to study the nucleosynthesis of the elements in the universe. In practice, it is a challenging task to determine the PSF experimentally. Therefore, photon-scattering experiments were performed at the High Intensity γ-ray Source (HIγS) at Duke University, Durham, USA. Due to the monochromatic photon beam that is provided at HIγS, the excitation energy is well known as well as the ensemble of states that are populated, i.e. mainly J=1 states. The emitted photons from the subsequent deexcitation are measured with the γ-γ coincidence setup γ{sup 3}. With this experimental approach it is possible to determine the PSF for dipole transitions on top of the ground state and the PSF build on low-lying excited states. Recent results on Te-128 are presented and discussed.

  13. Neutron strength functions: the link between resolved resonances and the optical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldauer, P.A.

    1980-01-01

    Neutron strength functions and scattering radii are useful as energy and channel radius independent parameters that characterize neutron scattering resonances and provide a connection between R-matrix resonance analysis and the optical model. The choice of R-matrix channel radii is discussed, as are limitations on the accuracies of strength functions. New definitions of the p-wave strength function and scattering radius are proposed. For light nuclei, where strength functions display optical model energy variations over the resolved resonances, a doubly reduced partial neutron width is introduced for more meaningful statistical analyses of widths. The systematic behavior of strength functions and scattering radii is discussed

  14. The Changes of Muscle Strength and Functional Activities During Aging in Male and Female Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Jung Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: We noted that the muscle strength and functional activities were decreased earlier in female than male individuals. The decrease of functional activities during the aging process seems to be earlier than the decrease of muscle strength. It is important to implement functional activities training in addition to strengthening exercise to maintain functional levels of the geriatric population.

  15. Effects of different strength training frequencies on maximum strength, body composition and functional capacity in healthy older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpela, Mari; Häkkinen, Keijo; Haff, Guy Gregory; Walker, Simon

    2017-11-01

    There is controversy in the literature regarding the dose-response relationship of strength training in healthy older participants. The present study determined training frequency effects on maximum strength, muscle mass and functional capacity over 6months following an initial 3-month preparatory strength training period. One-hundred and six 64-75year old volunteers were randomly assigned to one of four groups; performing strength training one (EX1), two (EX2), or three (EX3) times per week and a non-training control (CON) group. Whole-body strength training was performed using 2-5 sets and 4-12 repetitions per exercise and 7-9 exercises per session. Before and after the intervention, maximum dynamic leg press (1-RM) and isometric knee extensor and plantarflexor strength, body composition and quadriceps cross-sectional area, as well as functional capacity (maximum 7.5m forward and backward walking speed, timed-up-and-go test, loaded 10-stair climb test) were measured. All experimental groups increased leg press 1-RM more than CON (EX1: 3±8%, EX2: 6±6%, EX3: 10±8%, CON: -3±6%, Ptraining frequency would induce greater benefit to maximum walking speed (i.e. functional capacity) despite a clear dose-response in dynamic 1-RM strength, at least when predominantly using machine weight-training. It appears that beneficial functional capacity improvements can be achieved through low frequency training (i.e. 1-2 times per week) in previously untrained healthy older participants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Shoulder Strength Requirements for Upper Limb Functional Tasks: Do Age and Rotator Cuff Tear Status Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santago, Anthony C; Vidt, Meghan E; Li, Xiaotong; Tuohy, Christopher J; Poehling, Gary G; Freehill, Michael T; Saul, Katherine R

    2017-12-01

    Understanding upper limb strength requirements for daily tasks is imperative for early detection of strength loss that may progress to disability due to age or rotator cuff tear. We quantified shoulder strength requirements for 5 upper limb tasks performed by 3 groups: uninjured young adults and older adults, and older adults with a degenerative supraspinatus tear prior to repair. Musculoskeletal models were developed for each group representing age, sex, and tear-related strength losses. Percentage of available strength used was quantified for the subset of tasks requiring the largest amount of shoulder strength. Significant differences in strength requirements existed across tasks: upward reach 105° required the largest average strength; axilla wash required the largest peak strength. However, there were limited differences across participant groups. Older adults with and without a tear used a larger percentage of their shoulder elevation (p functional tasks to effectively detect early strength loss, which may lead to disability.

  17. Relationship between muscle strength and motor function in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene F. Nunes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Measuring muscle strength and motor function is part of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD assessment. However, the relationship between these variables is controversial. Objective To investigate the relationship between muscle strength and motor function and between these variables and age. Method Muscle strength was measured by Medical Research Council (MRC scale and motor function, by Motor Function Measure (MFM, in 40 non-ambulatory patients. Spearman tests investigated the relationships between muscle strength, motor function and age. Results Total MRC and MFM scores were strongly related to each other (r = 0.94; p 0.05. Strong and moderate relationships between partial muscle strength and motor function scores were found. Higher correlation coefficients were found between total scores and Dimensions 2 (axial/ proximal control and 3 (distal control of MFM. Conclusion Muscle strength and motor function are strongly correlated and seem to decrease proportionally in DMD.

  18. Gamow-Teller strength functions and neutrino problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    A quantitative understanding of spin strengths in nuclei is of vital importance in studies of nuclear double beta decay and in solar neutrino spectroscopy. The current status of these problems is outlined

  19. Effect of isokinetic training on strength, functionality and proprioception in athletes with functional ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekir, Ufuk; Yildiz, Yavuz; Hazneci, Bulent; Ors, Fatih; Aydin, Taner

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of isokinetic exercise on strength, joint position sense and functionality in recreational athletes with functional ankle instability (FAI). Strength, proprioception and balance of 24 recreational athletes with unilateral FAI were evaluated by using isokinetic muscle strength measurement, ankle joint position sense and one leg standing test. The functional ability was evaluated using five different tests. These were; single limb hopping course (SLHC), one legged and triple legged hop for distance (OLHD-TLHD), and six and cross six meter hop for time (SMHT-CSMHT). Isokinetic peak torque of the ankle invertor and evertor muscles were assessed eccentrically and concentrically at test speeds of 120 degrees /s. Isokinetic exercise protocol was carried out at an angular velocity of 120 degrees /s. The exercise session was repeated three times a week and lasted after 6 weeks. At baseline, concentric invertor strength was found to be significantly lower in the functionally unstable ankles compared to the opposite healthy ankles (p 0.05). Ankle joint position sense in the injured ankles declined significantly from 2.35 +/- 1.16 to 1.33 +/- 0.62 degrees for 10 degrees of inversion angle (p isokinetic exercise. One leg standing test score decreased significantly from 15.17 +/- 8.50 to 11.79 +/- 7.81 in the injured ankles (p isokinetic exercise protocol, all of the worsened functional test scores in the injured ankles as compared to the opposite healthy ankles displayed a significant improvement (p isokinetic exercise program used in this study had a positive effect on these parameters.

  20. Vascular Function and Handgrip Strength in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. Alomari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the relationship of handgrip strength with forearm blood flow (BF and vascular resistance (VR in rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients. Methods. Forearm BF at rest (RBF and after upper arm occlusion (RHBF, and handgrip strength were examined in 78 individuals (RA=42 and controls (CT=36. Subsequently, VR at rest (RVR and after occlusion (RHVR were calculated. Results. The patients’ RBF (P=0.02 and RHBF (P=0.0001 were less, whereas RVR (P=0.002 and RHVR (P=0.0001 were greater as compared to the CTs. Similarly, handgrip strength was lower in the RAs (P=0.0001. Finally, handgrip strength was directly associated with RBF (r=0.43; P=0.0001, and RHBF (r=0.5; P=0.0001, and inversely related to RVR (r=-0.3; P=0.009 and RHVR (r=-0.3; P=0.007. Conclusion. The present study uniquely identifies an association between regional measures of forearm blood flow and handgrip strength in patients and healthy control. In addition, this study confirms the presence of vascular and muscle dysfunction in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, as evidenced by lower forearm blood flow indices, at rest and following occlusion, and lower handgrip strength as compared to healthy individuals.

  1. Effects of core instability strength training on trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility, dynamic balance and functional mobility in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granacher, Urs; Lacroix, Andre; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Roettger, Katrin; Gollhofer, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Age-related postural misalignment, balance deficits and strength/power losses are associated with impaired functional mobility and an increased risk of falling in seniors. Core instability strength training (CIT) involves exercises that are challenging for both trunk muscles and postural control and may thus have the potential to induce benefits in trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility and balance performance. The objective was to investigate the effects of CIT on measures of trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility, dynamic balance and functional mobility in seniors. Thirty-two older adults were randomly assigned to an intervention group (INT; n = 16, aged 70.8 ± 4.1 years) that conducted a 9-week progressive CIT or to a control group (n = 16, aged 70.2 ± 4.5 years). Maximal isometric strength of the trunk flexors/extensors/lateral flexors (right, left)/rotators (right, left) as well as of spinal mobility in the sagittal and the coronal plane was measured before and after the intervention program. Dynamic balance (i.e. walking 10 m on an optoelectric walkway, the Functional Reach test) and functional mobility (Timed Up and Go test) were additionally tested. Program compliance was excellent with participants of the INT group completing 92% of the training sessions. Significant group × test interactions were found for the maximal isometric strength of the trunk flexors (34%, p training-related improvements were found for spinal mobility in the sagittal (11%, p velocity (9%, p velocity (31%, p training regimen could be used as an adjunct or even alternative to traditional balance and/or resistance training. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Is the relationship between increased knee muscle strength and improved physical function following exercise dependent on baseline physical function status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michelle; Hinman, Rana S; van der Esch, Martin; van der Leeden, Marike; Kasza, Jessica; Wrigley, Tim V; Metcalf, Ben R; Dobson, Fiona; Bennell, Kim L

    2017-12-08

    Clinical guidelines recommend knee muscle strengthening exercises to improve physical function. However, the amount of knee muscle strength increase needed for clinically relevant improvements in physical function is unclear. Understanding how much increase in knee muscle strength is associated with improved physical function could assist clinicians in providing appropriate strength gain targets for their patients in order to optimise outcomes from exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an increase in knee muscle strength is associated with improved self-reported physical function following exercise; and whether the relationship differs according to physical function status at baseline. Data from 100 participants with medial knee osteoarthritis enrolled in a 12-week randomised controlled trial comparing neuromuscular exercise to quadriceps strengthening exercise were pooled. Participants were categorised as having mild, moderate or severe physical dysfunction at baseline using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Associations between 12-week changes in physical function (dependent variable) and peak isometric knee extensor and flexor strength (independent variables) were evaluated with and without accounting for baseline physical function status and covariates using linear regression models. In covariate-adjusted models without accounting for baseline physical function, every 1-unit (Nm/kg) increase in knee extensor strength was associated with physical function improvement of 17 WOMAC units (95% confidence interval (CI) -29 to -5). When accounting for baseline severity of physical function, every 1-unit increase in knee extensor strength was associated with physical function improvement of 24 WOMAC units (95% CI -42 to -7) in participants with severe physical dysfunction. There were no associations between change in strength and change in physical function in participants with mild or moderate physical

  3. A statistical calculation of the β- strength function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvieu, R.; Haq, R.U.; Touchard, J.

    1976-01-01

    A microscopic calculation of the Gamow-Teller strength between the 0 + ground state of 208 Pb and the 1 + particle-hole states of 208 Bi assuming the particle-hole matrix elements as random numbers with some specified distribution, is described. Under certain conditions for the two-body matrix elements, a G.T. resonance occurs. The stability of this collective state along with the accompanying low energy β - -strength tail is studied for various samples of p-h matrix elements [fr

  4. Upper Extremity Muscle Volumes and Functional Strength After Resistance Training in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Melissa; Vidt, Meghan E.; Eggebeen, Joel D.; Simpson, W. Greg; Miller, Michael E.; Marsh, Anthony P.; Saul, Katherine R.

    2014-01-01

    Aging leads to a decline in strength and an associated loss of independence. The authors examined changes in muscle volume, maximum isometric joint moment, functional strength, and 1-repetition maximum (1RM) after resistance training (RT) in the upper extremity of older adults. They evaluated isometric joint moment and muscle volume as predictors of functional strength. Sixteen healthy older adults (average age 75 ± 4.3 yr) were randomized to a 6-wk upper extremity RT program or control group. The RT group increased 1RM significantly (p strength (p = .003), isometric shoulder-adduction moment (p = .041), elbow-flexor volume (p = .017), and shoulder-adductor volume (p = .009). Shoulder-muscle volumes and isometric moments were good predictors of functional strength. The authors conclude that shoulder strength is an important factor for performing functional reaching and pulling tasks and a key target for upper extremity RT interventions. PMID:22952203

  5. Soft structures of γ-ray strength functions studied with the Oslo method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voinov A.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We present experimental γ-ray strength functions up to Eγ ∼ Sn measured at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory for several Sc, V, Mo, and Sn isotopes. For the lighter nuclei, an unexpected enhancement of the strength function at low γ-ray energies has been revealed. This enhancement could potentially have an impact on neutron-capture cross sections for unstable, neutron-rich nuclei. For the Sn isotopes, we observe increased strength around the neutron separation energy Sn.

  6. Silicone elastomers with high dielectric permittivity and high dielectric breakdown strength based on tunable functionalized copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Yu, Liyun; Daugaard, Anders Egede

    2015-01-01

    system, with respect to functionalization, is achieved. It is investigated how the different functionalization variables affect essential DE properties, including dielectric permittivity, dielectric loss, elastic modulus and dielectric breakdown strength, and the optimal degree of chemical......%) was obtained without compromising other vital DE properties such as elastic modulus, gel fraction, dielectric and viscous loss and electrical breakdown strength....

  7. Investigation of the Photon Strength Function in 130 Te

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaak, J.; Beller, J.; Fiori, E.; Glorius, J.; Krtička, M.; Löher, B.; Pietralla, N.; Romig, C.; Rusev, G.; Savran, D.; Scheck, M.; Silva, J.; Sonnabend, K.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Weller, H. R.; Zweidinger, M.

    2016-01-01

    The dipole strength distribution of 130Te was investigated with the method of Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence using continuous-energy bremsstrahlung at the Darmstadt High Intensity Photon Setup and quasi-monoenergetic photons at the High Intensity γ-Ray Source. The average decay properties were determined between 5.50 and 8.15 MeV and compared to simulations within the statistical model.

  8. A discrete stress-strength interference model based on universal generating function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Zongwen; Huang Hongzhong; Liu Yu

    2008-01-01

    Continuous stress-strength interference (SSI) model regards stress and strength as continuous random variables with known probability density function. This, to some extent, results in a limitation of its application. In this paper, stress and strength are treated as discrete random variables, and a discrete SSI model is presented by using the universal generating function (UGF) method. Finally, case studies demonstrate the validity of the discrete model in a variety of circumstances, in which stress and strength can be represented by continuous random variables, discrete random variables, or two groups of experimental data

  9. Physical function and muscle strength in sporadic inclusion body myositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders N; Aagaard, Per; Nielsen, Jakob L

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In this study, self-reported physical function, functional capacity, and isolated muscle function were investigated in sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) patients. METHODS: The 36-item Short Form (SF-36) Health Survey and 2-min walk test (2MWT), timed up & go test (TUG), and 30-s...

  10. Alkyl chitosan film-high strength, functional biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li; Xing, Cao; Xin, Shen; Shitao, Yu; Feng, Su; Shiwei, Liu; Fusheng, Liu; Congxia, Xie

    2017-11-01

    Biofilm with strong tensile strength is a topic item in the area of tissue engineering, medicine engineering, and so forth. Here we introduced an alkyl chitosan film with strong tensile strength and its possibility for an absorbable anticoagulation material in vivo was tested in the series of blood test, such as dynamic coagulation time, plasma recalcification time and hemolysis. Alkyl chitosan film was a better biomaterial than traditional chitosan film in the anticoagulation, tissue compatibility and cell compatibility. The unique trait of alkyl chitosan film may be for its greater contact angle and hydrophobicity ability to reduce the adsorption capacity for the blood component and the activity of fibrinolytic enzymes, enhance the antibacterial capacity than chitosan film. Moreover, none of chitosan film or butyl chitosan film exhibited quick inflammation or other disadvantage and degraded quickly by implanted test. Therefore, Alkyl chitosan film is of prospective properties as an implantable, absorbable agent for tissue heals, and this material need further research. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 3034-3041, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Gluon field strength correlation functions within a constrained instanton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorokhov, A.E.; Esaibegyan, S.V.; Maximov, A.E.; Mikhailov, S.V.

    2000-01-01

    We suggest a constrained instanton (CI) solution in the physical QCD vacuum which is described by large-scale vacuum field fluctuations. This solution decays exponentially at large distances. It is stable only if the interaction of the instanton with the background vacuum field is small and additional constraints are introduced. The CI solution is explicitly constructed in the ansatz form, and the two-point vacuum correlator of the gluon field strengths is calculated in the framework of the effective instanton vacuum model. At small distances the results are qualitatively similar to the single instanton case; in particular, the D 1 invariant structure is small, which is in agreement with the lattice calculations. (orig.)

  12. Handgrip strength predicts functional decline at discharge in hospitalized male elderly: a hospital cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen García-Peña

    Full Text Available Functional decline after hospitalization is a common adverse outcome in elderly. An easy to use, reproducible and accurate tool to identify those at risk would aid focusing interventions in those at higher risk. Handgrip strength has been shown to predict adverse outcomes in other settings. The aim of this study was to determine if handgrip strength measured upon admission to an acute care facility would predict functional decline (either incident or worsening of preexisting at discharge among older Mexican, stratified by gender. In addition, cutoff points as a function of specificity would be determined. A cohort study was conducted in two hospitals in Mexico City. The primary endpoint was functional decline on discharge, defined as a 30-point reduction in the Barthel Index score from that of the baseline score. Handgrip strength along with other variables was measured at initial assessment, including: instrumental activities of daily living, cognition, depressive symptoms, delirium, hospitalization length and quality of life. All analyses were stratified by gender. Logistic regression to test independent association between handgrip strength and functional decline was performed, along with estimation of handgrip strength test values (specificity, sensitivity, area under the curve, etc.. A total of 223 patients admitted to an acute care facility between 2007 and 2009 were recruited. A total of 55 patients (24.7% had functional decline, 23.46% in male and 25.6% in women. Multivariate analysis showed that only males with low handgrip strength had an increased risk of functional decline at discharge (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79-0.98, p = 0.01, with a specificity of 91.3% and a cutoff point of 20.65 kg for handgrip strength. Females had not a significant association between handgrip strength and functional decline. Measurement of handgrip strength on admission to acute care facilities may identify male elderly patients at risk of having functional decline

  13. Handgrip Strength Predicts Functional Decline at Discharge in Hospitalized Male Elderly: A Hospital Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Peña, Carmen; García-Fabela, Luis C.; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis M.; García-González, Jose J.; Arango-Lopera, Victoria E.; Pérez-Zepeda, Mario U.

    2013-01-01

    Functional decline after hospitalization is a common adverse outcome in elderly. An easy to use, reproducible and accurate tool to identify those at risk would aid focusing interventions in those at higher risk. Handgrip strength has been shown to predict adverse outcomes in other settings. The aim of this study was to determine if handgrip strength measured upon admission to an acute care facility would predict functional decline (either incident or worsening of preexisting) at discharge among older Mexican, stratified by gender. In addition, cutoff points as a function of specificity would be determined. A cohort study was conducted in two hospitals in Mexico City. The primary endpoint was functional decline on discharge, defined as a 30-point reduction in the Barthel Index score from that of the baseline score. Handgrip strength along with other variables was measured at initial assessment, including: instrumental activities of daily living, cognition, depressive symptoms, delirium, hospitalization length and quality of life. All analyses were stratified by gender. Logistic regression to test independent association between handgrip strength and functional decline was performed, along with estimation of handgrip strength test values (specificity, sensitivity, area under the curve, etc.). A total of 223 patients admitted to an acute care facility between 2007 and 2009 were recruited. A total of 55 patients (24.7%) had functional decline, 23.46% in male and 25.6% in women. Multivariate analysis showed that only males with low handgrip strength had an increased risk of functional decline at discharge (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79–0.98, p = 0.01), with a specificity of 91.3% and a cutoff point of 20.65 kg for handgrip strength. Females had not a significant association between handgrip strength and functional decline. Measurement of handgrip strength on admission to acute care facilities may identify male elderly patients at risk of having functional decline, and

  14. Effects of a low-intensity strength-training program on knee-extensor strength and functional ability of frail older people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westhoff, M.H.; Stemmerik, L.; Boshuizen, H.C.

    2000-01-01

    This study's purpose was to investigate whether a 10-week low-intensity strength-training program could improve strength of the knee extensors and functional ability. Participants 65 years and older with low knee-extensor muscle strength were randomized into an exercise (n = 11) and a control group

  15. Level Densities and Radiative Strength Functions in 170,171Yb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agvaanluvsan, U.; Schiller, A.; Becker, J.A.; Berstein, L.A.; Guttormsen, M.; Mitchell, G.E.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.; Voinov, A.

    2003-01-01

    Level densities and radiative strength functions in 171 Yb and 170 Yb nuclei have been measured with the 171 Yb( 3 He, 3 He(prime) γ) 171 Yb and 171 Yb( 3 He, αγ) 170 Yb reactions. A simultaneous determination of the nuclear level density and the radiative strength function was made. The present data adds to and is consistent with previous results for several other rare earth nuclei. The method will be briefly reviewed and the result from the analysis will be presented. The radiative strength function for 171 Yb is compared to previously published work.

  16. Effect of strength training on muscle function in elderly hospitalized patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, C; Magnusson, S P; Beyer, N

    2007-01-01

    Immobilization due to hospitalization and major surgery leads to an increased risk of morbidity, disability and a decline in muscle function especially in frail elderly individuals. In fact, many elderly patients fail to regain their level of function and self-care before admission to hospital....... Given that reduced lower limb muscle strength and loss of skeletal muscle mass (i.e. sarcopenia) have been associated with functional impairments and disability with aging, attempts to counteract this process seem highly relevant. In recent years, strength training has emerged as an effective method...... to induce muscle hypertrophy and increase muscle strength and functional performance in frail elderly individuals. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that strength training is an effective method to restore muscle function in post-operative patients and in patients with chronic diseases. Despite this...

  17. Fragmentation of single-particle states and neutron strength functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, V.G.

    1975-01-01

    Fragmentation of one-particle states in odd deformed nuclei is studied in the framework of a model based on the interaction between quasiparticles and phonons. A principally new semi-microscopic method for calculation of force functions using the data on fragmentation of one-particle states is suggested. Calculated s- and p-wave neutron force functions in 239 U and 169 Er are in good agreement with experiment. The correct description of the s-wave neutron force function in the vicinity of is obtained in particular for Sn isotopes/ of its minimum is obtained in particular for Sn isotopes

  18. Adiposity, muscle mass and muscle strength in relation to functional decline in older persons.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, L.A.; Koster, A.; Visser, M.

    2013-01-01

    Aging is associated with changes in body composition and muscle strength. This review aimed to determine the relation between different body composition measures and muscle strength measures and functional decline in older men and women. By use of relevant databases (PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL) and

  19. Interfacial Strength and Physical Properties of Functionalized Graphene - Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Heimann, Paula; Scheiman, Daniel; Adamson, Douglas H.; Aksay, Iihan A.; Prud'homme, Robert K.

    2006-01-01

    The toughness and coefficient of thermal expansion of a series of functionalized graphene sheet - epoxy nanocomposites are investigated. Functionalized graphene sheets are produced by splitting graphite oxide into single graphene sheets through a rapid thermal expansion process. These graphene sheets contain approx. 10% oxygen due to the presence of hydroxide, epoxide, and carboxyl functional groups which assist in chemical bond formation with the epoxy matrix. Intrinsic surface functionality is used to graft alkyl amine chains on the graphene sheets, and the addition of excess hardener insures covalent bonding between the epoxide matrix and graphene sheets. Considerable improvement in the epoxy dimensional stability is obtained. An increase in nanocomposite toughness is observed in some cases.

  20. Changes in the Muscle strength and functional performance of healthy women with aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Mousavikhatir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Lower limbs antigravity muscles weakness and decreased functional ability have significant role in falling. The aim of this study was to find the effects of aging on muscle strength and functional ability, determining the range of decreasing strength and functional ability and relationship between them in healthy women. Methods: Across-section study was performed on 101 healthy women aged 21-80 years. The participants were divided into six age groups. The maximum isometric strength of four muscle groups was measured using a hand-held dynamometer bilaterally. The functional ability was measured with functional reach (FR, timed get up and go (TGUG, single leg stance (SLS, and stairs walking (SW tests. Results: Muscle strength changes were not significant between 21-40 years of age, but decreased significantly thereafter. Also, there was a significant relationship between muscle strength and functional ability in age groups. Conclusion: Both muscle strength and functional ability is reduced as a result of aging, but the decrease in functional ability can be detected earlier.

  1. A dependent stress-strength interference model based on mixed copula function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Jian Xiong; An, Zong Wen; Liu, Bo [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou (China)

    2016-10-15

    In the traditional Stress-strength interference (SSI) model, stress and strength must satisfy the basic assumption of mutual independence. However, a complex dependence between stress and strength exists in practical engineering. To evaluate structural reliability under the case that stress and strength are dependent, a mixed copula function is introduced to a new dependent SSI model. This model can fully characterize the dependence between stress and strength. The residual square sum method and genetic algorithm are also used to estimate the unknown parameters of the model. Finally, the validity of the proposed model is demonstrated via a practical case. Results show that traditional SSI model ignoring the dependence between stress and strength more easily overestimates product reliability than the new dependent SSI model.

  2. General trend and local variations of neutron resonance cascade gamma-decay radiative strength functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhovoj, A.M.; Furman, W.I.; Khitrov, V.A.; Jovancevic, N.

    2012-01-01

    A new hypothesis on the dependence of the form of the radiative strength functions of electric and magnetic dipole gamma transitions in a heated nucleus on the excited level density was suggested and tested experimentally. For this purpose, the region of possible values of random values of the level density and radiative strength functions which precisely reproduced experimental intensity of two-step cascades for 41 nuclei from 40K to 200Hg was determined. It was obtained that the suggested hypothesis can provide the maximal increase of radiative strength functions values by order of magnitude in comparison with existing notations as a result of collective effects enhancement. This result points to the necessity to take into account this possibility in existing and future models of radiative strength functions

  3. Consequences of fine structure of β-strength function in the nuclear physics and astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapdor, H.V.; Wene, C.O.

    1980-01-01

    The consequences of structural effects in the β-strength function Ssub(β) in different fields of nuclear physics and astrophysics are considered. The given structure is shown to affect essentially the lifetimes relative to β-decay, emission of delayed particles, delayed fission and, consequently, all the calculations of synthesis of heavy and superheavy elements in astrophysical and thermonuclear processes. A table of experimental procedures applied for studying the β-strength function in different reactions is given

  4. Fast neutron capture in 197Au and the gamma-ray strength function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, E.D.; Bergqvist, I.; Nilsson, L.

    1977-08-01

    Gamma-ray spectra from the reaction 197 Au(n,γ) 198 Au have been measured at several incident energies between 30 keV and 2.5 MeV. The γ-ray detector was a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector and time-of-flight techniques were utilized to suppress background. A γ-ray strength function was deduced from the spectra by a spectrum fitting method. The strength function indicates a resonance-like structure at E(γ) approximately 5.5 MeV. Comparison is made with the γ-ray strength derived from photonuclear work.(author)

  5. Sensory and Motor Peripheral Nerve Function and Longitudinal Changes in Quadriceps Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ward, R. E.; Boudreau, R. M.; Caserotti, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Poor peripheral nerve function is common in older adults and may be a risk factor for strength decline, although this has not been assessed longitudinally. Methods. We assessed whether sensorimotor peripheral nerve function predicts strength longitudinally in 1,830 participants (age...... was assessed with 10-g and 1.4-g monofilaments and average vibration detection threshold at the toe. Lower-extremity neuropathy symptoms were self-reported. Results. Worse vibration detection threshold predicted 2.4% lower strength in men and worse motor amplitude and two symptoms predicted 2.5% and 8.1% lower...

  6. Reliability of a functional test battery evaluating functionality, proprioception, and strength in recreational athletes with functional ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekir, U; Yildiz, Y; Hazneci, B; Ors, F; Saka, T; Aydin, T

    2008-12-01

    In contrast to the single evaluation methods used in the past, the combination of multiple tests allows one to obtain a global assessment of the ankle joint. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the different tests in a functional test battery. Twenty-four male recreational athletes with unilateral functional ankle instability (FAI) were recruited for this study. One component of the test battery included five different functional ability tests. These tests included a single limb hopping course, single-legged and triple-legged hop for distance, and six and cross six meter hop for time. The ankle joint position sense and one leg standing test were used for evaluation of proprioception and sensorimotor control. The isokinetic strengths of the ankle invertor and evertor muscles were evaluated at a velocity of 120 degrees /s. The reliability of the test battery was assessed by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Each subject was tested two times, with an interval of 3-5 days between the test sessions. The ICCs for ankle functional and proprioceptive ability showed high reliability (ICCs ranging from 0.94 to 0.98). Additionally, isokinetic ankle joint inversion and eversion strength measurements represented good to high reliability (ICCs between 0.82 and 0.98). The functional test battery investigated in this study proved to be a reliable tool for the assessment of athletes with functional ankle instability. Therefore, clinicians may obtain reliable information from the functional test battery during the assessment of ankle joint performance in patients with functional ankle instability.

  7. Effects of functional exercise training on performance and muscle strength after meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ericsson, Y B; Dahlberg, L E; Roos, E M

    2008-01-01

    Muscular deficits and functional limitations have been found years after meniscectomy of the knee. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effect of functional exercise training on functional performance and isokinetic thigh muscle strength in middle-aged patients...... subsequent to meniscectomy for a degenerative tear. Four years after meniscectomy, 45 patients (29 men, 16 women) were randomized to functional exercise training, supervised by a physical therapist, three times weekly for 4 months or to no intervention. The exercise program comprised of postural stability...... training and functional strength and endurance exercises for leg and trunk muscles. Outcomes were three functional performance tests and isokinetic muscle strength. Thirty patients (16 exercisers/14 controls) completed the study. Compared with control patients, the exercise group showed significant...

  8. [Correlations Between Joint Proprioception, Muscle Strength, and Functional Ability in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yoa; Yu, Yong; He, Cheng-qi

    2015-11-01

    To establish correlations between joint proprioception, muscle flexion and extension peak torque, and functional ability in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Fifty-six patients with symptomatic knee OA were recruited in this study. Both proprioceptive acuity and muscle strength were measured using the isomed-2000 isokinetic dynamometer. Proprioceptive acuity was evaluated by establishing the joint motion detection threshold (JMDT). Muscle strength was evaluated by Max torque (Nm) and Max torque/weight (Nm/ kg). Functional ability was assessed by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index physical function (WOMAC-PF) questionnaire. Correlational analyses were performed between proprioception, muscle strength, and functional ability. A multiple stepwise regression model was established, with WOMAC-PF as dependent variable and patient age, body mass index (BMI), visual analogue scale (VAS)-score, mean grade for Kellgren-Lawrance of both knees, mean strength for quadriceps and hamstring muscles of both knees, and mean JMDT of both knees as independent variables. Poor proprioception (high JMDT) was negatively correlated with muscle strength (Pcoefficient (B) = 0.385, P<0.50 and high VAS-scale score (B=0.347, P<0.05) were significant predictors of WOMAC-PF score. Patients with poor proprioception is associated with poor muscle strength and limitation in functional ability. Patients with symptomatic OA of knees commonly endure with moderate to considerable dysfunction, which is associated with poor proprioception (high JMDT) and high VAS-scale score.

  9. Associations of knee extensor strength and standing balance with physical function in knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pua, Yong-Hao; Liang, Zhiqi; Ong, Peck-Hoon; Bryant, Adam L; Lo, Ngai-Nung; Clark, Ross A

    2011-12-01

    Knee extensor strength is an important correlate of physical function in patients with knee osteoarthritis; however, it remains unclear whether standing balance is also a correlate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cross-sectional associations of knee extensor strength, standing balance, and their interaction with physical function. One hundred four older adults with end-stage knee osteoarthritis awaiting a total knee replacement (mean ± SD age 67 ± 8 years) participated. Isometric knee extensor strength was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Standing balance performance was measured by the center of pressure displacement during quiet standing on a balance board. Physical function was measured by the self-report Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire and by the 10-meter fast-pace gait speed test. After adjustment for demographic and knee pain variables, we detected significant knee strength by standing balance interaction terms for both SF-36 physical function and fast-pace gait speed. Interrogation of the interaction revealed that standing balance in the anteroposterior plane was positively related to physical function among patients with lower knee extensor strength. Conversely, among patients with higher knee extensor strength, the standing balance-physical function associations were, or tended to be, negative. These findings suggest that although standing balance was related to physical function in patients with knee osteoarthritis, this relationship was complex and dependent on knee extensor strength level. These results are of importance in developing intervention strategies and refining theoretical models, but they call for further study. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  10. Positive effects of 1-year football and strength training on mechanical muscle function and functional capacity in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Andersen, Lars L.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: A decline in physical capacity takes place with increasing age that negatively affects overall physical function including work ability and the ability to perform typical activities of daily living (ADL). The overall aim of the present study was to determine the neuromuscular adaptations...... to long-term (1 year) football and strength training in older untrained adults, and to assess the concurrent effect on functional ADL capacity. METHODS: Twenty-seven healthy elderly males (68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomly assigned to 12 months of either recreational football training (FT: n = 10), strength...... training (ST: n = 9) or served as inactive controls (CON: n = 8). Recreational football training consisted of small-sided training sessions whereas strength training consisted of high intensity exercises targeting the lower extremity and upper body. Maximal thigh muscle strength and rate of force...

  11. Knee extensor strength and risk of structural, symptomatic and functional decline in knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Culvenor, Adam G; Ruhdorfer, Anja; Juhl, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the association between knee extensor strength and the risk of structural, symptomatic, or functional deterioration in individuals with or at risk of knee osteoarthritis (KOA). METHODS: We systematically identified and methodologically...... appraised all longitudinal studies (≥1-year follow-up) reporting an association between knee extensor strength and structural (tibiofemoral, patellofemoral), symptomatic (self-reported, knee replacement), or functional (subjective, objective) decline in individuals with or at risk of radiographic......-analysis revealed that lower knee extensor strength was associated with an increased risk of symptomatic (WOMAC-Pain: odds ratio [OR] 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10, 1.67) and functional decline (WOMAC-Function: OR 1.38, 95%CI 1.00, 1.89; chair-stand task: OR 1.03, 95%CI 1.03, 1.04), but not increased risk...

  12. Spectral characterization of plastic scintillation detector response as a function of magnetic field strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simiele, E.; Kapsch, R.-P.; Ankerhold, U.; Culberson, W.; DeWerd, L.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize intensity and spectral response changes in a plastic scintillation detector (PSD) as a function of magnetic field strength. Spectra measurements as a function of magnetic field strength were performed using an optical spectrometer. The response of both a PSD and PMMA fiber were investigated to isolate the changes in response from the scintillator and the noise signal as a function of magnetic field strength. All irradiations were performed in water at a photon beam energy of 6 MV. Magnetic field strengths of (0, ±0.35, ±0.70, ±1.05, and  ±1.40) T were investigated. Four noise subtraction techniques were investigated to evaluate the impact on the resulting noise-subtracted scintillator response with magnetic field strength. The noise subtraction methods included direct spectral subtraction, the spectral method, and variants thereof. The PMMA fiber exhibited changes in response of up to 50% with magnetic field strength due to the directional light emission from \\breve{C} erenkov radiation. The PSD showed increases in response of up to 10% when not corrected for the noise signal, which agrees with previous investigations of scintillator response in magnetic fields. Decreases in the \\breve{C} erenkov light ratio with negative field strength were observed with a maximum change at  ‑1.40 T of 3.2% compared to 0 T. The change in the noise-subtracted PSD response as a function of magnetic field strength varied with the noise subtraction technique used. Even after noise subtraction, the PSD exhibited changes in response of up to 5.5% over the four noise subtraction methods investigated.

  13. Joint proprioception, muscle strength, and functional ability in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Esch, M; Steultjens, M; Harlaar, J; Knol, D; Lems, W; Dekker, J

    2007-06-15

    To test the hypotheses that poor knee joint proprioception is related to limitations in functional ability, and poor proprioception aggravates the impact of muscle weakness on limitations in functional ability in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Sixty-three patients with symptomatic OA of the knee were tested. Proprioceptive acuity was assessed by establishing the joint motion detection threshold (JMDT) in the anteroposterior direction. Muscle strength was measured using a computer-driven isokinetic dynamometer. Functional ability was assessed by the 100-meter walking test, the Get Up and Go (GUG) test, and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index physical function (WOMAC-PF) questionnaire. Correlation analyses were performed to assess the relationship between proprioception, muscle strength, and functional ability. Regression analyses were performed to assess the impact of proprioception on the relationship between muscle strength and functional ability. Poor proprioception (high JMDT) was related to more limitation in functional ability (walking time r = 0.30, P < 0.05; GUG time r = 0.30, P < 0.05; WOMAC-PF r = 0.26, P <0.05). In regression analyses, the interaction between proprioception and muscle strength was significantly related to functional ability (walking time, P < 0.001 and GUG time, P < 0.001) but not to WOMAC-PF score (P = 0.625). In patients with poor proprioception, reduction of muscle strength was associated with more severe deterioration of functional ability than in patients with accurate proprioception. Patients with poor proprioception show more limitation in functional ability, but this relationship is rather weak. In patients with poor proprioception, muscle weakness has a stronger impact on limitations in functional ability than in patients with accurate proprioception.

  14. The Relationship of Core Strength and Activation and Performance on Three Functional Movement Screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Caleb D; Whitehead, Paul N; Pletcher, Erin R; Faherty, Mallory S; Lovalekar, Mita T; Eagle, Shawn R; Keenan, Karen A

    2018-04-01

    Johnson, CD, Whitehead, PN, Pletcher, ER, Faherty, MS, Lovalekar, MT, Eagle, SR, and Keenan, KA. The relationship of core strength and activation and performance on three functional movement screens. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 1166-1173, 2018-Current measures of core stability used by clinicians and researchers suffer from several shortcomings. Three functional movement screens appear, at face-value, to be dependent on the ability to activate and control core musculature. These 3 screens may present a viable alternative to current measures of core stability. Thirty-nine subjects completed a deep squat, trunk stability push-up, and rotary stability screen. Scores on the 3 screens were summed to calculate a composite score (COMP). During the screens, muscle activity was collected to determine the length of time that the bilateral erector spinae, rectus abdominis, external oblique, and gluteus medius muscles were active. Strength was assessed for core muscles (trunk flexion and extension, trunk rotation, and hip abduction and adduction) and accessory muscles (knee flexion and extension and pectoralis major). Two ordinal logistic regression equations were calculated with COMP as the outcome variable, and: (a) core strength and accessory strength, (b) only core strength. The first model was significant in predicting COMP (p = 0.004) (Pearson's Chi-Square = 149.132, p = 0.435; Nagelkerke's R-Squared = 0.369). The second model was significant in predicting COMP (p = 0.001) (Pearson's Chi-Square = 148.837, p = 0.488; Nagelkerke's R-Squared = 0.362). The core muscles were found to be active for most screens, with percentages of "time active" for each muscle ranging from 54-86%. In conclusion, performance on the 3 screens is predicted by core strength, even when accounting for "accessory" strength variables. Furthermore, it seems the screens elicit wide-ranging activation of core muscles. Although more investigation is needed, these screens, collectively, seem to be a good

  15. Handgrip strength, functionality and plasma levels of IL-6 in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele S. Pereira

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction Aging is associated with a chronic low-grade inflammatory process characterized by an increased production of inflammatory mediators. These elevated levels are predictors for muscle function (sarcopenia and deterioration of physical performance in the elderly.Objective To investigate the correlation between sarcopenia, functional capacity, and interleukin-6 levels.Materials and methods This cross-sectional study assessed a convenience sample of elderly individuals (n = 130 using a handgrip dynamometer (JAMAR™, and the functional capacity test was performed by sitting and standing. Interleukin-6 levels were determined using high sensitivity ELISA kits. Spearman correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlation between these variables, at a significance level (α of 0.05.Results There was significant inverse correlation between strength and function (rS = -0.273, p = 0.002 such that elderly individuals with lower peak force took longer to perform the sit-to-stand test, in contrast with the relationship between plasma interleukin-6 levels and strength (rS = -0.043, p = 0.624 or functionality (rS = -0.060, p = 0.501.Conclusion The outcome measures analyzed could predict the decline in muscle strength and functional capacity, and may be indicative of sarcopenia in elderly individuals. There was no correlation between the interleukin-6 levels and the grip strength and functional capacity of the sample investigated.

  16. Grip strength in mice with joint inflammation: A rheumatology function test sensitive to pain and analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montilla-García, Ángeles; Tejada, Miguel Á; Perazzoli, Gloria; Entrena, José M; Portillo-Salido, Enrique; Fernández-Segura, Eduardo; Cañizares, Francisco J; Cobos, Enrique J

    2017-10-01

    Grip strength deficit is a measure of pain-induced functional disability in rheumatic disease. We tested whether this parameter and tactile allodynia, the standard pain measure in preclinical studies, show parallels in their response to analgesics and basic mechanisms. Mice with periarticular injections of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in the ankles showed periarticular immune infiltration and synovial membrane alterations, together with pronounced grip strength deficits and tactile allodynia measured with von Frey hairs. However, inflammation-induced tactile allodynia lasted longer than grip strength alterations, and therefore did not drive the functional deficits. Oral administration of the opioid drugs oxycodone (1-8 mg/kg) and tramadol (10-80 mg/kg) induced a better recovery of grip strength than acetaminophen (40-320 mg/kg) or the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs ibuprofen (10-80 mg/kg) or celecoxib (40-160 mg/kg); these results are consistent with their analgesic efficacy in humans. Functional impairment was generally a more sensitive indicator of drug-induced analgesia than tactile allodynia, as drug doses that attenuated grip strength deficits showed little or no effect on von Frey thresholds. Finally, ruthenium red (a nonselective TRP antagonist) or the in vivo ablation of TRPV1-expressing neurons with resiniferatoxin abolished tactile allodynia without altering grip strength deficits, indicating that the neurobiology of tactile allodynia and grip strength deficits differ. In conclusion, grip strength deficits are due to a distinct type of pain that reflects an important aspect of the human pain experience, and therefore merits further exploration in preclinical studies to improve the translation of new analgesics from bench to bedside. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. The beta strength function structure in β+ decay of lutetium, thulium and cesium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkhazov, G.D.; Bykov, A.A.; Vitman, V.D.; Naumov, Yu.V.; Orlov, S.Yu.

    1981-01-01

    The spectra of total γ-absorption in the decays of some Lutecium, Thulium and Cesium isotopes have been measured. The probabilities for level population in the decay of the isotopes have been determined. The deduced beta strength functions reveal pronounced structure. Calculations of the strength functions using the Saxon-Woods potential and the residual Gamow-Teller interaction are presented. It is shown that in β + decay of light Thulium and Cesium isotopes the strength function comprises more than 70% of the Gamow-Teller excitations with μsub(tau) = +1. This result is the first direct observation of the Gamow-Teller resonance in β + decay of nuclei with Tsub(z) > O. (orig.)

  18. Resistance training improves muscle strength and functional capacity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, U; Stenager, E; Jakobsen, J

    2009-01-01

    strength and functional capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis, the effects persisting after 12 weeks of self-guided physical activity. Level of evidence: The present study provides level III evidence supporting the hypothesis that lower extremity progressive resistance training can improve muscle......OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that lower extremity progressive resistance training (PRT) can improve muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to evaluate whether the improvements are maintained after the trial. METHODS: The present study was a 2-arm...... and was afterward encouraged to continue training. After the trial, the control group completed the PRT intervention. Both groups were tested before and after 12 weeks of the trial and at 24 weeks (follow-up), where isometric muscle strength of the knee extensors (KE MVC) and functional capacity (FS; combined score...

  19. Measures of static postural control moderate the association of strength and power with functional dynamic balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Roberta; Boreham, Colin A G; De Vito, Giuseppe; Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Pesce, Caterina

    2014-12-01

    Age-related reductions in strength and power are considered to negatively impact balance control, but the existence of a direct association is still an issue of debate. This is possibly due to the fact that balance assessment is complex, reflects different underlying physiologic mechanisms and involves quantitative measurements of postural sway or timing of performance during balance tasks. The present study evaluated the moderator effect of static postural control on the association of power and strength with dynamic balance tasks. Fifty-seven healthy 65-75 year old individuals performed tests of dynamic functional balance (walking speed under different conditions) and of strength, power and static postural control. Dynamic balance performance (walking speed) was associated with lower limb strength and power, as well as postural control under conditions requiring postural adjustments (narrow surface walking r(2) = 0.31, p balance tasks. Practical implications for assessment and training are discussed.

  20. Renormalization of the γ-ray strength functions of light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canbula, B.; Ersan, S.; Babacan, H.

    2015-01-01

    γ-ray strength function is the key input for the photonuclear reactions, which have a special astrophysical importance, and should be renormalized by using the nuclear level density for calculating the theoretical average radiative capture width, but performing such renormalization is challenging for light nuclei. With this motivation, recently introduced level density parameter formula including collective effects is used to calculate the average radiative capture width of light nuclei, and therefore to renormalize their γ-ray strength functions. Obtained normalization factors are tested in (n, γ) reactions for the necessity of renormalization for light nuclei. (author)

  1. Effect of football or strength training on functional ability and physical performance in untrained old men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard Andersen, Thomas; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Nielsen, Jens Jung

    2014-01-01

    The effects of 16 weeks of football or strength training on performance and functional ability were investigated in 26 (68.2 ± 3.2 years) untrained men randomized into a football (FG; n = 9), a strength training (ST; n = 9), or a control group (CO; n = 8). FG and ST trained 1.6 ± 0.1 and 1.5 ± 0......% lower (P training for old men improves functional ability and physiological response to submaximal exercise, while football...... additionally elevates maximal aerobic fitness and exhaustive exercise performance....

  2. Effects of strength and neuromuscular training on functional performance in athletes after partial medial meniscectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Hu, Min; Lou, Zhen; Liao, Bagen

    2017-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine an effective knee function rehabilitation program for athletes undergoing partial medial meniscectomy. Participants were randomly assigned to neuromuscular training (NT) or strength training (ST) group and subjected to functional assessments before surgery and again at 4, and 8 weeks post hoc . Functional knee assessment, such as Lysholm knee scoring, star excursion balance, and BTE PrimusRS isokinetic performance tests were evaluated in each group. All postoperational symptoms were significantly improved after 4 and 8 weeks of NT and ST. Both NT and ST programs showed effective knee function recovery seen as an increase in muscular strength and endurance. However, the NT program showed the most significant functional improvement of dynamic balance and coordination.

  3. Neck/shoulder function in tension-type headache patients and the effect of strength training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bjarne K; Søgaard, Karen; Andersen, Lars L.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Muscle pain has been associated with reduced maximal muscle strength, and reduced rate of force development (RFD). Strength training (ST) has shown an effect in not only normalizing muscle function but also reducing neck muscle pain. Aim: The aims of this study were to compare muscle...... function in terms of strength, force steadiness in neck flexion, as well as extension, and rate of RFD of the shoulder in tension-type headache (TTH) patients and healthy controls and to examine the correlation to tenderness. Furthermore, the aim of the study was to examine the effect of ST on neck...... steadiness (ST: p=0.011 and EP: pfunction, indicated by a lower force steadiness and RFD, compared to the healthy controls. The effect of ST was not larger than EP as both groups of TTH patients showed some improvement in neck and shoulder...

  4. Experimental nuclear level densities and γ-ray strength functions in Sc and V isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, A. C.; Guttormsen, M.; Ingebretsen, F.; Messelt, S.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.; Syed, N. U. H.; Chankova, R.; Loennroth, T.; Schiller, A.; Voinov, A.

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear physics group at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory has developed a method to extract nuclear level density and γ-ray strength function from first-generation γ-ray spectra. This method is applied on the nuclei 44,45 Sc and 50,51 V in this work. The experimental level densities of 44,45 Sc are compared to calculated level densities using a microscopic model based on BCS quasiparticles within the Nilsson level scheme. The γ-ray strength functions are also compared to theoretical expectations, showing an unexpected enhancement of the γ-ray strength for low γ energies (E γ ≤3 MeV) in all the isotopes studied here. The physical origin of this enhancement is not yet understood

  5. Positive effects of 1-year football and strength training on mechanical muscle function and functional capacity in elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Andersen, Lars Louis; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Suetta, Charlotte; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Bangsbo, Jens; Krustrup, Peter; Aagaard, Per

    2016-06-01

    A decline in physical capacity takes place with increasing age that negatively affects overall physical function including work ability and the ability to perform typical activities of daily living (ADL). The overall aim of the present study was to determine the neuromuscular adaptations to long-term (1 year) football and strength training in older untrained adults, and to assess the concurrent effect on functional ADL capacity. Twenty-seven healthy elderly males (68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomly assigned to 12 months of either recreational football training (FT: n = 10), strength training (ST: n = 9) or served as inactive controls (CON: n = 8). Recreational football training consisted of small-sided training sessions whereas strength training consisted of high intensity exercises targeting the lower extremity and upper body. Maximal thigh muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD) were assessed with isokinetic dynamometry, while postural balance and vertical jumping performance were evaluated using force plate analysis. Furthermore, functional ability was evaluated by stair-ascent and chair-rising testing. A total of nine, nine and seven participants from FT, ST and CON, respectively, were included in the analysis. Both exercise regimens led to substantial gains in functional ability, evidenced by 24 and 18 % reduced stair-ascent time, and 32 and 21 % increased chair-rising performance in FT and ST, respectively (all P football training mainly resulted in enhanced hamstring strength (18 %, P football training mainly included enhanced strength and rapid force capacity of the hamstring muscles. Gains in functional ability were observed in response to both training regimens, evidenced by reduced stair-ascent time and increased chair-rising performance. Long-term football exercise and strength training both appear to be effective interventional strategies to improve factors of importance for ADL by counteracting the age-related decline in lower

  6. The relationship between vickers microhardness and compressive strength of functional surface geopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subaer, Ekaputri, Januari Jaya; Fansuri, Hamzah; Abdullah, Mustafa Al Bakri

    2017-09-01

    An experimental study to investigate the relationship between Vickers microhardness and compressive strength of geopolymers made from metakaolin has been conducted. Samples were prepared by using metakaolin activated with a sodium silicate solution at a different ratio of Si to Al and Na to Al and cured at 70oC for one hour. The resulting geopolymers were stored in an open air for 28 days before conducting any measurement. Bulk density and apparent porosity of the samples were measured by using Archimedes's method. Vickers microhardness measurements were performed on a polished surface of geopolymers with a load ranging from 0.3 - 1.0 kg. The topographic of indented samples were examined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Compressive strength of the resulting geopolymers was measured on the cylindrical samples with a ratio of height to the diameter was 2:1. The results showed that the molar ratios of geopolymers compositions play important roles in the magnitude of bulk density, porosity, Vickers's microhardness as well as the compressive strength. The porosity reduced exponentially the magnitude of the strength of geopolymers. It was found that the relationship between Vickers microhardness and compressive strength was linear. At the request of all authors and with the approval of the proceedings editor, article 020188 titled, "The relationship between vickers microhardness and compressive strength of functional surface geopolymers," is being retracted from the public record due to the fact that it is a duplication of article 020170 published in the same volume.

  7. Strength and voluntary activation in relation to functioning in patients with osteoarthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. D.M. van Leeuwen

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by pain, and problems with activities of daily life, especially if the hip or knee joint is affected. The aim of this project was to study associations between strength, voluntary activation and physical functioning in elderly patients with OA. People with OA of

  8. Use of gamma ray strength functions for predicting the neutron capture cross section of 88Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, D.G.; Gardner, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    The present study indicates that the estimation of the gamma-ray strength function is the approach least subject to error when unmeasured capture cross sections are to be computed. An estimate is given for the 88 γ(n,γ) cross section

  9. Handgrip Strength, Positive Affect, and Perceived Health Are Prospectively Associated with Fewer Functional Limitations among Centenarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Warren D.; Margrett, Jennifer A.; Heinz, Melinda; Martin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the association between perceived health, fatigue, positive and negative affect, handgrip strength, objectively measured physical activity, body mass index, and self-reported functional limitations, assessed 6 months later, among 11 centenarians (age = 102 plus or minus 1). Activities of daily living, assessed 6 months prior to…

  10. Photon strength function in the Hf-181 nucleus by method of two-step cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Hong Khiem

    2003-01-01

    The applicability of sum-coincidence measurements of two-step cascade gamma ray spectra determining Photon Strength Function (PSF) of Hf-181 induced from Hf-180 (n,2γ) Hf-181 reaction is presented. Up to 80% intensity of the primary gamma ray transitions in a wide energy range have been deduced and compared to model calculation. (author)

  11. Extraction of level density and γ strength function from primary γ spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, A.; Bergholt, L.; Guttormsen, M.; Melby, E.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.

    2000-01-01

    We present a new iterative procedure to extract the level density and the γ strength function from primary γ spectra for energies close up to the neutron binding energy. The procedure is tested on simulated spectra and on data from the 173 Yb( 3 He,α) 172 Yb reaction

  12. [Effects of education and strength training on functional tests among older people with osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez S, Christian Edgardo; Fernández G, Rubén; Zurita O, Félix; Linares G, Daniel; Farías M, Ariel

    2014-04-01

    Hip and knee osteoarthritis are important causes of pain and disability among older people. Education and strength training can alleviate symptoms and avoid functional deterioration. To assess muscle strength, fall risk and quality of life of older people with osteoarthritis and the effects of physiotherapy education and strength training on these variables. Thirty participants aged 78 ± 5 years (63% women) were randomly assigned to receive physiotherapy (Controls), physiotherapy plus education (Group 1) and physiotherapy plus strength training (group 2). At baseline and after 16 weeks of intervention, patients were evaluated with the Senior Fitness Test, Timed Up and Go and Quality of Life score short form (SF-36). During the intervention period, Senior Fitness Test and Timed Up and Go scores improved in all groups and SF-36 did not change. The improvement in Senior Fitness Test and Timed Up and Go was more marked in Groups 1 and 2 than in the control group. Education and strength training improve functional tests among older people with osteoarthritis.

  13. Effects of functional training on pain, leg strength, and balance in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre Román, Pedro Ángel; Santos E Campos, María Aparecida; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of 18-week functional training (FT) program consisting in two sessions a week of in-water exercise and one of on-land exercise on pain, strength, and balance in women with fibromyalgia. A sample consisting of 36 fibromyalgia patients was included in the study. The patients were allocated randomly into the experimental group (EG, n = 20), and control group (CG, n = 16). Standardized field-based fitness tests were used to assess muscle strength (30-s chair stand and handgrip strength) and agility/dynamic balance and static balance. Fibromyalgia impact and pain were analyzed by Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), tender points (TPs), visual analog scale (VAS). We observed a significant reduction in the FIQ (p = 0.042), the algometer scale of TP (p = 0.008), TP (p < 0.001), and VAS (p < 0.001) in the EG. The EG shows better results in leg strength (p < 0.001), handgrip strength (p = 0.025), agility/dynamic balance (p = 0.032) and balance (p = 0.006). An 18-week intervention consisting in two sessions of in-water exercise and one session of on-land exercise of FT reduces pain and improves functional capacity in FM patients. These results suggested that FT could play an important role in maintaining an independent lifestyle in patients with FM.

  14. Functional Capacity in Adults With Cerebral Palsy: Lower Limb Muscle Strength Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Jarred G; Lichtwark, Glen A; Boyd, Roslyn N; Barber, Lee A

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the relation between lower limb muscle strength, passive muscle properties, and functional capacity outcomes in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Cross-sectional study. Tertiary institution biomechanics laboratory. Adults with spastic-type CP (N=33; mean age, 25y; range, 15-51y; mean body mass, 70.15±21.35kg) who were either Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level I (n=20) or level II (n=13). Not applicable. Six-minute walk test (6MWT) distance (m), lateral step-up (LSU) test performance (total repetitions), timed up-stairs (TUS) performance (s), maximum voluntary isometric strength of plantar flexors (PF) and dorsiflexors (DF) (Nm.kg -1 ), and passive ankle joint and muscle stiffness. Maximum isometric PF strength independently explained 61% of variance in 6MWT performance, 57% of variance in LSU test performance, and 50% of variance in TUS test performance. GMFCS level was significantly and independently related to all 3 functional capacity outcomes, and age was retained as a significant independent predictor of LSU and TUS test performance. Passive medial gastrocnemius muscle fascicle stiffness and ankle joint stiffness were not significantly related to functional capacity measures in any of the multiple regression models. Low isometric PF strength was the most important independent variable related to distance walked on the 6MWT, fewer repetitions on the LSU test, and slower TUS test performance. These findings suggest lower isometric muscle strength contributes to the decline in functional capacity in adults with CP. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Methodological aspects of functional neuroimaging at high field strength: a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheef, L.; Landsberg, M.W.; Boecker, H.

    2007-01-01

    The last few years have proven that high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is superior in nearly every way to conventional equipment up to 1.5 tesla (T). Following the global success of 3T-scanners in research institutes and medical practices, a new generation of MRI devices with field strengths of 7T and higher is now on the horizon. The introduction of ultra high fields has brought MRI technology closer to the physical limitations and increasingly greater costs are required to achieve this goal. This article provides a critical overview of the advantages and problems of functional neuroimaging using ultra high field strengths. This review is principally limited to T2*-based functional imaging techniques not dependent on contrast agents. The main issues include the significance of high field technology with respect to SNR, CNR, resolution, and sequences, as well as artifacts, noise exposure, and SAR. Of great relevance is the discussion of parallel imaging, which will presumably determine the further development of high and ultra high field strengths. Finally, the importance of high field strengths for functional neuroimaging is explained by selected publications. (orig.)

  16. Effects of Nintendo Wii Fit Plus training on ankle strength with functional ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Jong; Jun, Hyun-Ju; Heo, Myoung

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a training program using the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus on the ankle muscle strengths of subjects with functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted using subjects in their 20s who had functional ankle instability. They were randomized to a strengthening training group and a balance training group with 10 subjects in each, and they performed an exercise using Nintendo Wii Fit Plus for 20 minutes. In addition, every participant completed preparation and finishing exercises for 5 minutes, respectively. [Results] The muscle strengths after conducting plantar flexion and dorsiflexion significantly increased at the angular velocities of 60° and 120° in the strengthening training group. Furthermore, the muscle strengths after conducting plantar flexion, dorsiflexion, eversion, and inversion significantly increased at the angular velocities of 60° and 120° in the balance training group. [Conclusion] The balance training group using Nintendo Wii Fit Plus showed better results than the strengthening training group. Consequently, it is recommended to add the balance training program of the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus to conventional exercise programs to improve ankle muscle strength in functional ankle instability at a low cost.

  17. In-season monitoring of hip and groin strength, health and function in elite youth soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollin, Martin; Thorborg, Kristian; Welvaert, Marijke

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary purpose of this study was to describe an early detection and management strategy when monitoring in-season hip and groin strength, health and function in soccer. Secondly to compare pre-season to in-season test results. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. METHODS: Twenty......-seven elite male youth soccer players (age: 15.07±0.73years) volunteered to participate in the study. Monitoring tests included: adductor strength, adductor/abductor strength ratio and hip and groin outcome scores (HAGOS). Data were recorded at pre-season and at 22 monthly intervals in-season. Thresholds.......09, CI95%: 0.04, 0.13 respectively). HAGOS subscale scores were lowest at baseline with all, except Physical Activity, showing significant improvements at time-point one (ptime-loss were classified minimal or mild. CONCLUSIONS: In-season monitoring aimed at early detection...

  18. Functional trade-off between strength and thermal capacity of dermal armor: Insights from girdled lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckhoven, Chris; du Plessis, Anton; Hui, Cang

    2017-10-01

    The presence of dermal armor is often unambiguously considered the result of an evolutionary predator-prey arms-race. Recent studies focusing predominantly on osteoderms - mineralized elements embedded in the dermis layer of various extant and extinct vertebrates - have instead proposed that dermal armor might exhibit additional functionalities besides protection. Multiple divergent functionalities could impose conflicting demands on a phenotype, yet, functional trade-offs in dermal armor have rarely been investigated. Here, we use high-resolution micro-computed tomography and voxel-based simulations to test for a trade-off between the strength and thermal capacity of osteoderms using two armored cordylid lizards as model organisms. We demonstrate that high vascularization, associated with improved thermal capacity might limit the strength of osteoderms. These results call for a holistic, cautionary future approach to studies investigating dermal armor, especially those aiming to inspire artificial protective materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of smartphone overuse on hand function, pinch strength, and the median nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnal, Esra Erkol; Demİrcİ, kadİr; Çetİntürk, Azİze; Akgönül, Mehmet; Savaş, Serpİl

    2015-08-01

    In this study we investigated the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon and median nerve in smartphone users by ultrasonography to assess the effects of smartphone addiction on the clinical and functional status of the hands. One hundred two students were divided into 3 groups: non-users, and high or low smartphone users. Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS) scores and grip and pinch strengths were recorded. Pain in thumb movement and rest and hand function were evaluated on the visual analog scale (VAS) and the Duruöz Hand Index (DHI), respectively. The cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the median nerve and the FPL tendon were calculated bilaterally using ultrasonography. Significantly higher median nerve CSAs were observed in the dominant hands of the high smartphone users than in the non-dominant hands (PSmartphone overuse enlarges the median nerve, causes pain in the thumb, and decreases pinch strength and hand functions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Level densities and γ-strength functions in 148,149Sm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siem, S.; Guttormsen, M.; Ingeberg, K.; Melby, E.; Rekstad, J.; Schiller, A.; Voinov, A.

    2002-01-01

    The level densities and γ-strength functions of the weakly deformed 148 Sm and 149 Sm nuclei have been extracted. The temperature versus excitation energy curve, derived within the framework of the microcanonical ensemble, shows structures, which we associate with the breakup of Cooper pairs. The nuclear heat capacity is deduced within the framework of both the microcanonical and canonical ensembles. We observe negative heat capacity in the microcanonical ensemble whereas the canonical heat capacity exhibits an S shape as a function of temperature, both signals of a phase transition. The structures in the γ-strength functions are discussed in terms of the pygmy resonance and the scissors mode built on excited states. The samarium results are compared with data for the well-deformed 161,162 Dy, 166,167 Er, and 171,172 Yb isotopes and with data from (n,γ) experiments and giant dipole resonance studies

  1. Functional BOLD MRI: comparison of different field strengths in a motor task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meindl, T.; Born, C.; Britsch, S.; Reiser, M.; Schoenberg, S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the benefit of an increased field strength for functional magnetic resonance imaging in a motor task. Six right-handed volunteers were scanned at 1.5 T and 3.0 T using a motor task. Each experiment consisted of two runs with four activation blocks, each with right- and left-hand tapping. Analysis was done using BrainVoyagerQX registered . Differences between both field strengths concerning signal to noise (SNR), blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal change, functional sensitivity and BOLD contrast to noise (CNR) were tested using a paired t test. Delineation of activations and artifacts were graded by two independent readers. Results were further validated by means of a phantom study. The sensorimotor and premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area, subcortical and cerebellar structures were activated at each field strength. Additional activations of the right premotor cortex and right superior temporal gyrus were found at 3.0 T. Signal-to-noise, percentage of BOLD signal change, BOLD CNR and functional sensitivity improved at 3.0 T by a factor of up to 2.4. Functional imaging at 3.0 T results in detection of additional activated areas, increased SNR, BOLD signal change, functional sensitivity and BOLD CNR. (orig.)

  2. Photon strength functions in Gd isotopes studied from radiative capture of resonance neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroll J.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The experimental spectra of γ rays following radiative neutron capture on isolated resonances of stable 152,154–158Gd targets were measured by the DANCE calorimeter installed at the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center in New Mexico, USA. These spectra were analyzed within the extreme statistical model to get new information on the photon strength functions. Special emphasis was put on study of the scissors vibrational mode present in these isotopes. Our data show that the scissors-mode resonances are built not only on the ground states but also on the excited levels of all studied Gd isotopes. The scissors mode strength observed in 157,159Gd products is significantly higher than in neighboring even-even nuclei 156,158Gd. Such a difference indicates the existence of an odd-even effect in the scissors mode strength. Moreover, there exists no universal parameter-free model of the electric dipole photon strength function describing the experimental data in all of the Gd isotopes studied. The results for the scissors mode are compared with the (γ, γ′ data for the ground-state transitions and with the results from 3He-induced reactions.

  3. Analysis of pain, functional capacity, muscular strength and balance in young women with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camile Ludovico Zamboti

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS is associated with anterior knee pain, changes in functional capacity, balance and muscle strength disorders. Objective: To quantify pain, functional capacity, strength in quadriceps (Q, gluteus medium (GM, hip external rotator (ER muscles and balance in sedentary women with PFPS. Methods: Twenty sedentary women, aged 18 to 25 years, were divided into two groups: PFPS (N=10 and control group (N=10. All the volunteers answered the items of the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, the Lysholm Knee Score Scale, the Anterior Knee Pain Scale (AKPS, and the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS. The participants performed the following tests: maximal voluntary isometric contraction measured by dynamometry; postural balance using the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT and a force platform. Statistical analyses were performed using the Shapiro Wilk test, the Mann Whitney U test and Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Data were submitted to SPSS 20 software. Results: The PFPS group presented greater pain, balance impairment and higher average velocity of oscillation; however, no differences were observed in Q, GM and RE muscle strength and in balance analyzed by SEBT. Conclusion: Women with PFPS exhibited greater pain, worse functional capacity and body balance. Moderate correlation between both balance tests suggests the use of SEBT when the force platform is not available, which could facilitate and highlight the importance of clinical diagnosis with regard to postural balance.

  4. Quadriceps Strength in Patients With Isolated Cartilage Defects of the Knee: Results of Isokinetic Strength Measurements and Their Correlation With Clinical and Functional Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmüller, Anja; Andres, Tasja; Schoch, Wolfgang; Baur, Heiner; Konstantinidis, Lukas; Südkamp, Norbert P; Niemeyer, Philipp

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies have found a significant deficit of maximum quadriceps strength after autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) of the knee. However, it is unclear whether muscular strength deficits in patients with cartilage damage exist prior to operative treatment. To isokinetically test maximum quadriceps muscle strength and quantify the impact of possible strength deficits on functional and clinical test results. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. To identify clinically relevant muscular strength deficits, 24 patients (5 females, 19 males; mean age, 34.5 years; body mass index, 25.9 kg/m 2 ) with isolated cartilage defects (mean onset, 5.05 years; SD, 7.8 years) in the knee joint underwent isokinetic strength measurements. Maximal quadriceps strength was recorded in 3 different testing modes: pure concentric contraction (flexors and extensors alternating work; con1), concentric-eccentric (only the extensors work concentrically and eccentrically; con2), and eccentric contraction in the alternating mode (ecc). Results were compared for functional performance (single-leg hop test), pain scales (visual analog scale [VAS], numeric rating scale [NRS]), self-reported questionnaires (International Knee Documentation Committee [IKDC], Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scale [KOOS]), and defect size (cm 2 ). Compared with the uninjured leg, significantly lower quadriceps strength was detected in the injured leg in all isokinetic working modes (con1 difference, 27.76 N·m [SD 17.47; P = .003]; con2 difference, 21.45 N·m [SD, 18.45; P =.025]; ecc difference, 29.48 N·m [SD, 21.51; P = .001]), with the largest deficits found for eccentric muscle performance. Moderate negative correlations were observed for the subjective pain scales NRS and VAS. The results of the IKDC and KOOS questionnaires showed low, nonsignificant correlations with findings in the isokinetic measurement. Moreover, defect sizes (mean, 3.13 cm 2 ) were of no importance regarding the

  5. Relationship between lung function and grip strength in older hospitalized patients: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmes SJ

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sarah J Holmes,1 Stephen C Allen,2,3 Helen C Roberts4,5 1Medicine and Elderly Care, Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Winchester, 2Medicine and Geriatrics, The Royal Bournemouth Hospital and Christchurch Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Bournemouth, 3Centre of Postgraduate Medical Research and Education, Bournemouth University, Poole, 4Academic Geriatric Medicine, University of Southampton, 5University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton, UK Objective: Older people with reduced respiratory muscle strength may be misclassified as having COPD on the basis of spirometric results. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between lung function and grip strength in older hospitalized patients without known airways disease.Methods: Patients in acute medical wards were recruited who were aged ≥70 years; no history, symptoms, or signs of respiratory disease; Mini Mental State Examination ≥24; willing and able to consent to participate; and able to perform hand grip and forced spirometry. Data including lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], FEV1/FVC, peak expiratory flow rate [PEFR], and slow vital capacity [SVC], grip strength, age, weight, and height were recorded. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and linear regression unadjusted and adjusted (for age, height, and weight.Results: A total of 50 patients (20 men were recruited. Stronger grip strength in men was significantly associated with greater FEV1, but this was attenuated by adjustment for age, height, and weight. Significant positive associations were found in women between grip strength and both PEFR and SVC, both of which remained robust to adjustment.Conclusion: The association between grip strength and PEFR and SVC may reflect stronger patients generating higher intrathoracic pressure at the start of spirometry and pushing harder against thoracic cage recoil at end-expiration. Conversely, patients with

  6. Muscle activity during functional coordination training: implications for strength gain and rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Andersen, Lars Louis; Kirk, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if different types, body positions, and levels of progression of functional coordination exercises can provide sufficiently high levels of muscle activity to improve strength of the neck, shoulder, and trunk muscles. Nine untrained women were familiarized...... to the maximal EMG activity during maximal voluntary contractions, and a p value 60% of maximal EMG activity). Type of exercise played a significant role...

  7. p and d wave neutron strength functions for rare earth nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononov, V.N.; Yurlov, B.D.

    1978-01-01

    The authors obtained p and d wave neutron strength functions by analysis of average fast neutron radiative capture cross-sections for the isotopes sup(142, 144, 146, 148, 150)Nd, sup(144, 147, 148, 149, 150, 152, 154)Sm, sup(151, 153)Eu, sup(156, 158, 160)Gd and sup(166, 168, 170)Er. The data are compared with results obtained by other authors, with calculations based on the optical model and with computations based on the semi-microscopic approach. (author)

  8. The validity and reliability of the Functional Strength Measurement (FSM) in children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aertssen, W F M; Steenbergen, B; Smits-Engelsman, B C M

    2018-06-07

    There is lack of valid and reliable field-based tests for assessing functional strength in young children with mild intellectual disabilities (IDs). The aim of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliability and construct validity of the Functional Strength Measurement in children with ID (FSM-ID). Fifty-two children with mild ID (40 boys and 12 girls, mean age 8.48 years, SD = 1.48) were tested with the FSM. Test-retest reliability (n = 32) was examined by a two-way interclass correlation coefficient for agreement (ICC 2.1A). Standard error of measurement and smallest detectable change were calculated. Construct validity was determined by calculating correlations between the FSM-ID and handheld dynamometry (HHD) (convergent validity), FSM-ID, FSM-ID and subtest strength of the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency - second edition (BOT-2) (convergent validity) and the FSM-ID and balance subtest of the BOT-2 (discriminant validity). Test-retest reliability ICC ranged 0.89-0.98. Correlation between the items of the FSM-ID and HHD ranged 0.39-0.79 and between FSM-ID and BOT-2 (strength items) 0.41-0.80. Correlation between items of the FSM-ID and BOT-2 (balance items) ranged 0.41-0.70. The FSM-ID showed good test-retest reliability and good convergent validity with the HHD and BOT-2 subtest strength. The correlations assessing discriminant validity were higher than expected. Poor levels of postural control and core stability in children with mild IDs may be the underlying factor of those higher correlations. © 2018 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Carboxyl functionalized carbon fibers with preserved tensile strength and electrochemical performance used as anodes of structural lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Mengjie; Wang, Shubin; Yu, Yalin; Feng, Qihang; Yang, Jiping; Zhang, Boming

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Carboxyl functionalized CF is acquired by simple chemical oxidation method. • These CF have preserved the tensile strength, better electrochemical properties. • The presence of H_3PO_4 prevented the turbostratic carbon from over-oxidization. • There CF can be used as anodes of multifunctional structural battery. • The preservation and improvement is result from the hindered over-oxidization. - Abstract: Carboxyl functionalized carbon fibers with preserved tensile strength and electrochemical properties were acquired through a simple chemical oxidation method, and the proposed underlying mechanism was verified. The surface of carboxyl functionalizing carbon fibers is necessary in acquiring functional groups on the surface of carbon fibers to further improve the thermal, electrical or mechanical properties of the fibers. Functionalization should preserve the tensile strength and electrochemical properties of carbon fibers, because the anodes of structural batteries need to have high strength and electrochemical properties. Functionalized with mixed H_2SO_4/HNO_3 considerably reduced the tensile strength of carbon fibers. By contrast, the appearance of H_3PO_4 preserved the tensile strength of functionalized carbon fibers, reduced the dispersion level of tensile strength values, and effectively increased the concentration of functional acid groups on the surface of carbon fibers. The presence of phosphoric acid hindered the over-oxidation of turbostratic carbon, and consequently preserved the tensile strength of carbon fibers. The increased proportion of turbostratic carbon on the surface of carbon fibers concurrently enhanced the electrochemical properties of carbon fibers.

  10. An alternative approach for modeling strength differential effect in sheet metals with symmetric yield functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurukuri, Srihari; Worswick, Michael J.

    2013-12-01

    An alternative approach is proposed to utilize symmetric yield functions for modeling the tension-compression asymmetry commonly observed in hcp materials. In this work, the strength differential (SD) effect is modeled by choosing separate symmetric plane stress yield functions (for example, Barlat Yld 2000-2d) for the tension i.e., in the first quadrant of principal stress space, and compression i.e., third quadrant of principal stress space. In the second and fourth quadrants, the yield locus is constructed by adopting interpolating functions between uniaxial tensile and compressive stress states. In this work, different interpolating functions are chosen and the predictive capability of each approach is discussed. The main advantage of this proposed approach is that the yield locus parameters are deterministic and relatively easy to identify when compared to the Cazacu family of yield functions commonly used for modeling SD effect observed in hcp materials.

  11. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Pulmonary Function and Muscle Strength: The Chinese Twin Study of Aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Xiaocao; Xu, Chunsheng; Wu, Yili

    2017-01-01

    Genetic and environmental influences on predictors of decline in daily functioning, including forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), handgrip, and five-times-sit-to-stand test (FTSST), have not been addressed in the aging Chinese population. We performed classical twin...... was moderate for FEV1, handgrip, and FTSST (55-60%) but insignificant for FVC. Only FVC showed moderate control, with shared environmental factors accounting for about 50% of the total variance. In contrast, all measures of pulmonary function and muscle strength showed modest influences from the unique...

  12. Level densities of iron isotopes and lower-energy enhancement of y-strength function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voinov, A V; Grimes, S M; Agvaanluvsan, U; Algin, E; Belgya, T; Brune, C R; Guttormsen, M; Hornish, M J; Massey, T N; Mitchell, G; Rekstad, J; Schiller, A; Siem, S

    2005-01-01

    The neutron spectrum from the 55 Mn(d,n) 56 Fe reaction has been measured at E d = 7 MeV. The level density of 56 Fe obtained from neutron evaporation spectrum has been compared to the level density from Oslo-type 57 Fe( 3 He, aγ) 56 Fe experiment [1]. The good agreement supports the recent results [1, 8] including an availability of a low-energy enhancement in the γ-strength function for iron isotopes. The new level density function allowed us to investigate an excitation energy dependence of this enhancement, which is shown to increase with increasing excitation energy

  13. Measures of Functional Performance and Their Association With Hip and Thigh Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollock, Roger; Van Lunen, Bonnie L.; Ringleb, Stacie I.; Oñate, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Insufficient hip and thigh strength may increase an athlete's susceptibility to injury. However, screening for strength deficits using isometric and isokinetic instrumentation may not be practical in all clinical scenarios. Objective: To determine if functional performance tests are valid indicators of hip and thigh strength. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Sixty-two recreationally athletic men (n = 30, age = 21.07 years, height = 173.84 cm, mass = 81.47 kg) and women (n = 32, age = 21.03 years, height = 168.77 cm, mass = 68.22 kg) participants were recruited. Intervention(s): During session 1, we measured isometric peak force and rate of force development for 8 lower extremity muscle groups, followed by an isometric endurance test. During session 2, participants performed functional performance tests. Main Outcome Measure(s): Peak force, rate of force development, fatigue index, hop distance (or height), work (joules), and number of hops performed during the 30-second lateral-hop test were assessed. The r values were squared to calculate r 2. We used Pearson correlations to evaluate the associations between functional performance and strength. Results: In men, the strongest relationship was observed between triple-hop work and hip-adductor peak force (r2 = 50, P ≤ .001). Triple-hop work also was related to hip-adductor (r2 = 38, P ≤ .01) and hip-flexor (r2 = 37, P ≤ .01) rate of force development. For women, the strongest relationships were between single-legged vertical-jump work and knee-flexor peak force (r2 = 0.44, P ≤ .01) and single-legged vertical-jump height and knee-flexor peak force (r2 = 0.42, P ≤ .01). Single-legged vertical-jump height also was related to knee-flexor rate of force development (r2 = 0.49, P ≤ .001). The 30-second lateral-hop test did not account for a significant portion of the variance in strength endurance. Conclusions: Hop tests alone did not

  14. Application of ANFIS for analytical modeling of tensile strength of functionally graded steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nazari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the tensile strength of ferritic and austenitic functionally graded steels produced by electroslag remelting has been modeled. To produce functionally graded steels, two slices of plain carbon steel and austenitic stainless steels were spot welded and used as electroslag remelting electrode. Functionally graded steel containing graded layers of ferrite and austenite may be fabricated via diffusion of alloying elements during remelting stage. Vickers microhardness profile of the specimen has been obtained experimentally and modeled with adaptive network-based fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS. To build the model for graded ferritic and austenitic steels, training, testing and validation using respectively 174 and 120 experimental data were conducted. According to the input parameters, in the ANFIS model, the Vickers microhardness of each layer was predicted. A good fit equation which correlates the Vickers microhardness of each layer to its corresponding chemical composition was achieved by the optimized network for both ferritic and austenitic graded steels. Afterwards; the Vickers microhardness of each layer in functionally graded steels was related to the yield stress of the corresponding layer and by assuming Holloman relation for stress-strain curve of each layer, they were acquired. Finally, by applying the rule of mixtures, tensile strength of functionally graded steels configuration was found through a numerical method. The obtained results from the proposed model are in good agreement with those acquired from the experiments.

  15. Strength of Structural and Functional Frontostriatal Connectivity Predicts Self-Control in the Healthy Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänggi, Jürgen; Lohrey, Corinna; Drobetz, Reinhard; Baetschmann, Hansruedi; Forstmeier, Simon; Maercker, Andreas; Jäncke, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulation refers to the successful use of executive functions and initiation of top-down processes to control one's thoughts, behavior, and emotions, and it is crucial to perform self-control. Self-control is needed to overcome impulses and can be assessed by delay of gratification (DoG) and delay discounting (DD) paradigms. In children/adolescents, good DoG/DD ability depends on the maturity of frontostriatal connectivity, and its decline in strength with advancing age might adversely affect self-control because prefrontal brain regions are more prone to normal age-related atrophy than other regions. Here, we aimed at highlighting the relationship between frontostriatal connectivity strength and DoG performance in advanced age. We recruited 40 healthy elderly individuals (mean age 74.0 ± 7.7 years) and assessed the DoG ability using the German version of the DoG test for adults in addition to the delay discounting (DD) paradigm. Based on diffusion-weighted and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data, respectively, the structural and functional whole-brain connectome were reconstructed based on 90 different brain regions of interest in addition to a 12-node frontostriatal DoG-specific network and the resulting connectivity matrices were subjected to network-based statistics. The 90-nodes whole-brain connectome analyses revealed subnetworks significantly associated with DoG and DD with a preponderance of frontostriatal nodes involved suggesting a high specificity of the findings. Structural and functional connectivity strengths between the putamen, caudate nucleus, and nucleus accumbens on the one hand and orbitofrontal, dorsal, and ventral lateral prefrontal cortices on the other hand showed strong positive correlations with DoG and negative correlations with DD corrected for age, sex, intracranial volume, and head motion parameters. These associations cannot be explained by differences in impulsivity and executive functioning. This pattern

  16. Strength, body composition, and functional outcomes in the squat versus leg press exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Fabrício E; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Ocetnik, Skyler; Young, Jonathan; Vigotsky, Andrew; Contreras, Bret; Krieger, James W; Miller, Michael G; Cholewa, Jason

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare strength, body composition, and functional outcome measures following performance of the back squat, leg press, or a combination of the two exercises. Subjects were pair-matched based on initial strength levels and then randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: a squat-only group (SQ) that solely performed squats for the lower body; a leg press-only group (LP) that solely performed leg presses for the lower body, or a combined squat and leg press group (SQ-LP) that performed both squats and leg presses for the lower body. All other RT variables were held constant. The study period lasted 10 weeks with subjects performing 2 lower body workouts per week comprising 6 sets per session at loads corresponding to 8-12 RM with 90- to 120-second rest intervals. Results showed that SQ had greater transfer to maximal squat strength compared to the leg press. Effect sizes favored SQ and SQ-LP versus LP with respect to countermovement jump while greater effect sizes for dynamic balance were noted for SQ-LP and LP compared to SQ, although no statistical differences were noted between conditions. These findings suggest that both free weights and machines can improve functional outcomes, and that the extent of transfer may be specific to the given task.

  17. Assessment of neuromuscular function after different strength training protocols using tensiomyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Simola, Rauno Á; Harms, Nico; Raeder, Christian; Kellmann, Michael; Meyer, Tim; Pfeiffer, Mark; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze tensiomyography (TMG) sensitivity to changes in muscle force and neuromuscular function of the muscle rectus femoris (RF) using TMG muscle properties after 5 different lower-limb strength training protocols (multiple sets; DS = drop sets; eccentric overload; FW = flywheel; PL = plyometrics). After baseline measurements, 14 male strength trained athletes completed 1 squat training protocol per week over a 5-week period in a randomized controlled order. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), TMG measurements of maximal radial displacement of the muscle belly (Dm), contraction time between 10 and 90% of Dm (Tc), and mean muscle contraction velocities from the beginning until 10% (V10) and 90% of Dm (V90) were analyzed up to 0.5 (post-train), 24 (post-24), and 48 hours (post-48) after the training interventions. Significant analysis of variance main effects for measurement points were found for all TMG contractile properties and MVIC (p TMG muscle properties are sensitive to changes in muscle force, and different lower-limb strength training protocols lead to changes in neuromuscular function of RF. In addition, those protocols involving high and eccentric load and a high total time under tension may induce higher changes in TMG muscle properties.

  18. Chronic effects of strength training vs. Hydro aerobics on functional and cardiorespiratory ability in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Giovanni S; Novaes, Jefferson S; Vilaça-Alves, José; Silva, Gabriel Costa E; Garrido, Nuno D; Furtado, Hélio; Reis, Victor M

    2014-09-29

    The current study aimed to compare the effects of two exercise programs (Strength Training and Hydro Gymnastics) on the functional and cardiorespiratory abilities of Portuguese postmenopausal women. The study population consisted of 38 volunteers (age: 66.9 ± 6.1 years, body mass: 73.70 ± 10.38 kg, and body height: 1.55 ± 0.10 m). Subjects were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group: one group performed 24 weeks of strength training (GST; n = 14), another performed 24 weeks of hydro gymnastics (GH; n = 17) and a control group (CG; n = 7), where the subjects continued with their regular daily activities without involvement in any physical exercise program. Three assessments were performed: before the beginning of the program, 12 weeks after the start of the training program and 24 weeks after the start of the program. To assess the functional ability of the participants, several tests proposed by Jones and Rikli (2002) were performed. To evaluate the cardiorespiratory ability of the participants, a modified treadmill Bruce test was applied. Significant differences (ptraining methods in the tests, which primarily demanded muscular strength. Body mass and the body mass index showed significant differences during the three stages of assessment in the GST group (pfunctional and cardiorespiratory abilities of Portuguese postmenopausal women.

  19. Effects of resistance training, detraining, and retraining on strength and functional capacity in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakugawa, Raphael Luiz; Moura, Bruno Monteiro; Orssatto, Lucas Bet da Rosa; Bezerra, Ewertton de Souza; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Diefenthaeler, Fernando

    2018-05-17

    The interruption of training (detraining) results in loss of the gains acquired. Partial retention could occur after detraining, and variation in training stimuli may optimize retraining adaptations. To evaluate the effect of a resistance-retraining program on strength and functional capacity performance after a detraining period. Ten elderly men and women (63-68 years) completed 12 weeks of training, 16 weeks of detraining, and 8 weeks of retraining. One-repetition maximum (1-RM) at 45° leg press, maximum isometric knee extension torque, rate of torque development (RTD), 30-s sit-to-stand, timed up and go, and stair ascent and descent tests were assessed. The 1-RM increased after training (p training (p training period (p > 0.05). For RTD and 30-s sit-to-stand, there was an increase after retraining when compared to pre-training values (p training and post-training periods (p functional capacity at the same level obtained after a detraining period. The inclusion of an explosive strength session in retraining period improves RTD and 30-s sit-to-stand performance and can accelerate the recovery of strength after a detraining period.

  20. Joint laxity and the relationship between muscle strength and functional ability in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Esch, M; Steultjens, M; Knol, D L; Dinant, H; Dekker, J

    2006-12-15

    To establish the impact of knee joint laxity on the relationship between muscle strength and functional ability in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. A cross-sectional study of 86 patients with OA of the knee was conducted. Tests were performed to determine varus-valgus laxity, muscle strength, and functional ability. Laxity was assessed using a device that measures the angular deviation of the knee in the frontal plane. Muscle strength was measured using a computer-driven isokinetic dynamometer. Functional ability was assessed by observation (100-meter walking test) and self report (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index [WOMAC]). Regression analyses were performed to assess the impact of joint laxity on the relationship between muscle strength and functional ability. In regression analyses, the interaction between muscle strength and joint laxity contributed to the variance in both walking time (P = 0.002) and WOMAC score (P = 0.080). The slope of the regression lines indicated that the relationship between muscle strength and functional ability (walking time, WOMAC) was stronger in patients with high knee joint laxity. Patients with knee OA and high knee joint laxity show a stronger relationship between muscle strength and functional ability than patients with OA and low knee joint laxity. Patients with OA, high knee joint laxity, and low muscle strength are most at risk of being disabled.

  1. High-intensity strength training improves function of chronically painful muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Christoffer H; Skotte, Jørgen H

    2014-01-01

    AIM: This study investigates consequences of chronic neck pain on muscle function and the rehabilitating effects of contrasting interventions. METHODS: Women with trapezius myalgia (MYA, n = 42) and healthy controls (CON, n = 20) participated in a case-control study. Subsequently MYA were...... randomized to 10 weeks of specific strength training (SST, n = 18), general fitness training (GFT, n = 16), or a reference group without physical training (REF, n = 8). Participants performed tests of 100 consecutive cycles of 2 s isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of shoulder elevation followed...... MYA and CON. In the intervention study, SST improved all force parameters significantly more than the two other groups, to levels comparable to that of CON. This was seen along with muscle fiber hypertrophy and increased capillarization. CONCLUSION: Women with trapezius myalgia have lower strength...

  2. Use of triangular membership function for prediction of compressive strength of concrete containing nanosilica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakshi Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, application of fuzzy logic technique using triangular membership function for developing models for predicting compressive strength of concrete with partial replacement of cement with nanosilica has been carried out. For this, the data have been taken from various literatures and help in optimizing the constituents available and reducing cost and efforts in studying design to develop mixes by predefining suitable range for experimenting. The use of nanostructured materials in concrete can add many benefits that are directly related to the durability of various cementitious materials, besides the fact that it is possible to reduce the quantities of cement in the composite. Successful prediction by the model indicates that fuzzy logic could be a useful modelling tool for engineers and research scientists in the area of cement and concrete. Compressive strength values of concrete can be predicted in fuzzy logic models without attempting any experiments in a quite short period of time with tiny error rates.

  3. Balance, gait, functionality and strength: comparison between elderly fallers and non-fallers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine C. Cebolla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accidental falls are a major health problem related to aging and affect one in every three elderly individuals over the age of sixty. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the muscle strength, gait kinematics parameters, and performance in functional tests between elderly subjects with and without a prior history of falls. In addition, the association between the history of falls and the variables that demonstrated differences between groups were tested. METHOD: 62 elderly subjects participated in the study and were allocated to the group with falls history (FG; n=20; 68.0±6.9 years old or the group without falls history (CG; n=42; 65.5±4.1 years old. Maximal strength, gait kinematics parameters, and functional tests were tested. RESULTS: The FG showed lower muscle strength in the knee flexors (51.45±8.6 vs. 62.09±19 Kg, lower average toe clearance during the swing phase (0.04±0.006 vs. 0.043 ± 0.005 m, and lower performance in the "8-foot up-and-go" test (5.3±0.7 vs. 5.8±0.7 s (p<0.05. There were no associations between any variables and falls, but the increased time in the "8-foot up-and-go" test may double the likelihood of a fall occurring. CONCLUSION: Fallers have reduced lower limb strength, gait alterations, the worst performance in the dynamic balance test, and an increased risk of falls.

  4. Interaction of radionickel with diatomite as a function of pH, ionic strength and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Wang

    2013-01-01

    Sequestration of Ni(II) on diatomite as a function of reaction time, pH, ionic strength, foreign ions and temperature were investigated by batch sorption technique. The results indicated that the sorption of Ni(II) on diatomite was quickly in the first contact time of 2 h and then slowly with increasing contact time. The interaction of Ni(II) with diatomite was strongly pH- and ionic strength-dependent at low pH values (i.e., which was dominated by ion exchange or outer-sphere surface complexation), while the pH-dependent and ionic strength-independent sorption at high pH suggested that inner-sphere or multinuclear surface complexation was the main sorption mechanism. With increasing temperature, the sorption of Ni(II) on diatomite increased and the experimental data were well fitted by Langmuir model. The sorption samples at pH 6.8 and 10.0 were also characterized by XPS spectroscopy, and the results suggested that Si atoms also participated in Ni(II) sorption on diatomite. The results are important to evaluate the physicochemical behavior of Ni(II) and other similar radionuclides and heavy metal ions in the environment. (author)

  5. Carbonate adsorption onto goethite as a function of pH and ionic strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundberg, R.S.; Albinsson, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The adsorption of carbonate onto geothite was studied as a function of both pH and ionic strength (NaClO 4 electrolyte) using 14 C tracer. The pH ranged from 2.5 to 11.6. The ionic strength was controlled by varying the NaClO 4 concentration and ranged from 0.01 to 0.1 molar. The results indicate that carbonate is adsorbed on goethite as primarily an inner-sphere complex at pH values above the point of zero charge. This is inferred from the lack of dependence on ionic strength in the adsorption of carbonate. Below the point of zero charge carbonate is adsorbed by an additional outer-sphere mechanism. An adsorption isotherm was measured at pH 7.0 with an electrolyte concentration of 0.01M. Deconvolution of the isotherm proved that at least two sorption mechanisms exist. These mechanisms lead to large distribution coefficients at low pH. Thereby making the complete removal and exclusion of carbonate from an aqueous goethite system difficult, for the purpose of characterizing a ''clean'' goethite surface

  6. Immediate effect of manual therapy on respiratory functions and inspiratory muscle strength in patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Yelvar GD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gul Deniz Yilmaz Yelvar,1 Yasemin Çirak,2 Yasemin Parlak Demir,3 Murat Dalkilinç,1 Bülent Bozkurt4 1Department of Musculoskeletal Physiotherapy, 2Department of Cardiopulmonary Physiotherapy, 3Department of Neurological Rehabilitation, School of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, 4Department of Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Turgut Özal University, Ankara, Turkey Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the immediate effect of manual therapy (MT on respiratory functions and inspiratory muscle strength in patients with COPD.Participants and methods: Thirty patients with severe COPD (eight females and 22 males; mean age 62.4±6.8 years referred to pulmonary physiotherapy were included in this study. The patients participated in a single session of MT to measure the short-term effects. The lung function was measured using a portable spirometer. An electronic pressure transducer was used to measure respiratory muscle strength. Heart rate, breathing frequency, and oxygen saturation were measured with a pulse oximeter. For fatigue and dyspnea perception, the modified Borg rating of perceived exertion scale was used. All measurements were taken before and immediately after the first MT session. The ease-of-breathing visual analog scale was used for rating patients’ symptoms subjectively during the MT session.Results: There was a significant improvement in the forced expiratory volume in the first second, forced vital capacity, and vital capacity values (P<0.05. The maximal inspiratory pressure and maximal expiratory pressure values increased significantly after MT, compared to the pre-MT session (P<0.05. There was a significant decrease in heart rate, respiratory rate (P<0.05, and dyspnea and fatigue perception (P<0.05.Conclusion: A single MT session immediately improved pulmonary function, inspiratory muscle strength, and oxygen saturation and reduced dyspnea, fatigue, and heart and respiratory rates in patients with

  7. New parameterization of the E1 gamma-ray strength function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, D.G.; Dietrich, F.S.

    1979-01-01

    The giant dipole (GD) parameters of peak energy, width, and cross section were satisfactorily correlated for elements from V to Bi, assuming two overlapping peaks with a separation dependent on deformation. The energy dependence of the GD resonance is assumed to have a Breit-Wigner form, but with an energy-dependent width. The resulting gamma-ray strength function model is used to predict neutron capture cross sections and gamma-ray spectra for isotopes of Ta, Os, and Au. 23 references

  8. Constraining the electric dipole photon strength function in {sup 130}Te

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaak, J.; Loeher, B.; Savran, D.; Silva, J. [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI and Research Division, Darmstadt (Germany); FIAS, Frankfurt (Germany); Ahmed, M.W.; Kelley, J.H.; Tornow, W.; Weller, H.R. [Department of Physics, Duke University, TUNL (United States); Beller, J.; Pietralla, N.; Romig, C.; Zweidinger, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Glorius, J.; Sonnabend, K. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany); Krticka, M. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Rusev, G. [Chemistry Division, LANL (United States); Scheck, M. [School of Engineering, University of the West of Scotland (United Kingdom); Tonchev, A.P. [Physics Division, LLNL (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The decay properties of photo-excited states in {sup 130}Te have been investigated by means of Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence experiments at the Darmstadt High Intensity Photon Setup (DHIPS) and the High Intensity γ-ray Source (HIγS). The combination of continuous-energy bremsstrahlung on the one hand and the quasi-monoenergetic and linearly polarized photon beam on the other enables a detailed insight into the photoabsorption cross section and the decay behavior of spin-1 states. Comparing these results to simulations within the statistical model allow for constraining the electric dipole photon strength function (E1-PSF). Results are presented and discussed.

  9. Relationship between muscle strength parameters and functional capacity in persons with mild to moderate degree multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølhede, Tue; Vissing, Kristian; Langeskov-Christensen, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maximal muscle strength has been shown to be an important predictor of functional capacity for persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Another muscle strength parameter known to be important for functional capacity in other patient groups is rate of force development (RFD) in knee...... is the better predictor of walking performance in persons with mild to moderate multiple sclerosis. RFD, although also important for functional capacity, is a less strong predictor. Maximal strength of the knee extensors, rather than the knee flexors, predicted performance in the stairclimb and 5STS tests....

  10. Study of photon strength functions via (γ→, γ', γ″) reactions at the γ3-setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaak, Johann; Savran, Deniz; Beck, Tobias; Gayer, Udo; Krishichayan; Löher, Bastian; Pietralla, Norbert; Scheck, Marcus; Tornow, Werner; Werner, Volker; Zilges, Andreas

    2018-05-01

    One of the basic ingredients for the modelling of the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements are so-called photon strength functions and the assumption of the Brink-Axel hypothesis. This hypothesis has been studied for many years by numerous experiments using different and complementary reactions. The present manuscript aims to introduce a model-independent approach to study photon strength functions via γ-γ coincidence spectroscopy of photoexcited states in 128Te. The experimental results provide evidence that the photon strength function extracted from photoabsorption cross sections is not in an overall agreement with the one determined from direct transitions to low-lying excited states.

  11. The Effects of Music Intervention on Functional Connectivity Strength of the Brain in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mi; He, Hui; Duan, Mingjun; Chen, Xi; Chang, Xin; Lai, Yongxiu; Li, Jianfu; Liu, Tiejun; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2018-01-01

    Schizophrenia is often associated with behavior abnormality in the cognitive and affective domain. Music intervention is used as a complementary treatment for improving symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. However, the neurophysiological correlates of these remissions remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effects of music intervention in neural circuits through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in schizophrenic subjects. Under the standard care, patients were randomly assigned to music and non-music interventions (MTSZ, UMTSZ) for 1 month. Resting-state fMRI were acquired over three time points (baseline, 1 month, and 6 months later) in patients and analyzed using functional connectivity strength (FCS) and seed-based functional connection (FC) approaches. At baseline, compared with healthy controls, decreased FCS in the right middle temporal gyrus (MTG) was observed in patients. However, after music intervention, the functional circuitry of the right MTG, which was related with the function of emotion and sensorimotor, was improved in MTSZ. Furthermore, the FC increments were significantly correlated with the improvement of symptoms, while vanishing 6 months later. Together, these findings provided evidence that music intervention might positively modulate the functional connectivity of MTG in patients with schizophrenia; such changes might be associated with the observed therapeutic effects of music intervention on neurocognitive function. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-OPC-14005339.

  12. Complex Estimation of Strength Properties of Functional Materials on the Basis of the Analysis of Grain-Phase Structure Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Gitman, M.B.; Klyuev, A.V.; Stolbov, V.Y.; Gitman, I.M.

    2017-01-01

    The technique allows analysis using grain-phase structure of the functional material to evaluate its performance, particularly strength properties. The technique is based on the use of linguistic variable in the process of comprehensive evaluation. An example of estimating the strength properties of steel reinforcement, subject to special heat treatment to obtain the desired grain-phase structure.

  13. Body composition of 80-years old men and women and its relation to muscle strength, physical activity and functional ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann; Ovesen, L.; Schroll, M.

    2002-01-01

    , and physical activity and functional ability. BMI was related to body fat mass, and FFM was related to muscle strength. Muscle strength was related to mobility and PPT. Mobility and PPT were mutually related and were related to physical activity. CONCLUSION: Our cross sectional study did not support newly...

  14. The influence of lung function and muscular strength on the functional capacity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Leite Rodrigues

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine which variable (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2, nocturnal hypoxaemia and muscular strength of femoral quadriceps can predict the distance walked in the six-minute walk test (6MWT by COPD patients. Methods: A cross-sectional and observational study of thirty patients referred to a pulmonary rehabilita tion programme at a university hospital. Lung function was evaluated by spirometry, arterial blood gas analysis and nocturnal oximetry. Muscle function was evaluated by quadriceps strength and functional capacity by the 6MWT. Results: Bivariate regression analysis showed that quadriceps strength, was the only variable to correlate significantly with the distance walked in the 6MWT (p = 0.002, accounting for 38% of the 6MWT variance. The statistical relationship established for these variables was 1 kg of quadriceps strength equalled 5.9 metres walked in the 6MWT. Conclusions: Our results showed the importance of lower limb muscle strength in submaximal exercise testing. We conclude that femoral quadriceps muscle strength is the only one of the variables studied which can predict the distance COPD patients walk in the 6MWT. Resumo: Objectivo: Determinar que variável entre o volume expirado forçado no primeiro segundo (VEF1, a pressão parcial do oxigénio no sangue arterial (PaO2, a hipoxemia nocturna e a força muscular do quadricípite femoral pode predizer a distância percorrida no teste de caminhada de seis minutos (TC6 em doentes com DPOC. Doentes e métodos: Um estudo observacional do tipo transversal, envolvendo trinta doentes encaminhados a um programa de reabilitação pulmonar de um hospital universitário. A função pulmonar foi avaliada por espirometria, gasometria arterial e oximetria nocturna. A função muscular pela força muscular do quadricípite femoral e a avaliação da capacidade funcional pelo TC6

  15. Reliability of a Functional Test Battery Evaluating Functionality, Proprioception and Strength of the Ankle Joint

    OpenAIRE

    YILDIZ, Yavuz; ŞEKİR, Ufuk; HAZNECİ, Bülent

    2009-01-01

    Aim: In contrast to the one-sided evaluation methods used in the past, combining multiple tests allows one to obtain a global assessment of the ankle joint. Materials and Methods: Twenty healthy male volunteers participated in this study. One component of the test battery included five different functional ability tests, which included: single limb hopping course, one-legged and triple-legged hop for distance, and six-meter (6-m) and cross 6-m hop for time. Ankle joint position sense and on...

  16. Relation between isokinetic muscle strength and functional capacity in recreational athletes with chondromalacia patellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Y; Aydin, T; Sekir, U; Cetin, C; Ors, F; Alp Kalyon, T

    2003-12-01

    To investigate the effects of isokinetic exercise on pain and functional test scores of recreational athletes with chondromalacia patellae (CMP) and to examine the correlation between isokinetic parameters and functional tests or pain score. The functional ability of 30 recreational athletes with unilateral CMP was evaluated using six different tests. Pain scores were assessed during daily activities before and after the treatment protocol. Isokinetic exercise sessions were carried out at angular velocities of 60 degrees /s (25-90 degrees range of flexion) and 180 degrees /s (full range). These sessions were repeated three times a week for six weeks. Quadriceps and hamstring peak torque, total work, and endurance ratios had improved significantly after the treatment, as did the functional parameters and pain scores. There was a poor correlation between the extensor endurance ratio and one leg standing test. A moderate correlation between the visual analogue scale and the extensor endurance ratio or flexion endurance ratio was also found. The isokinetic exercise programme used in this study had a positive effect on muscle strength, pain score, and functional ability of knees with CMP. The improvement in the functional capacity did not correlate with the isokinetic parameters.

  17. Defining the role of sensation, strength, and prehension for upper limb function in cervical spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi-Ryan, Sukhvinder; Beaton, Dorcas; Curt, Armin; Duff, Susan; Jiang, Depeng; Popovic, Milos R; Rudhe, Claudia; Fehlings, Michael G; Verrier, Mary C

    2014-01-01

    Upper limb function plays a significant role in enhancing independence for individuals with tetraplegia. However, there is limited knowledge about the specific input of sensorimotor deficits on upper limb function. Thus the theoretical framework designed to develop the Graded Redefined Assessment of Strength Sensibility and Prehension (GRASSP) was used as a hypothetical model to analyze the impact of impairment on function. To define the association of impairment (sensation, strength, and prehension measured by the GRASSP) to upper limb function as defined by functional measures (Capabilities of Upper Extremity Questionnaire, Spinal Cord Independence Measure). A hypothetical model representing relationships by applying structural equation modeling was used to estimate the effect of the impairment domains in GRASSP on upper limb function. Data collected on 72 chronic individuals with tetraplegia was used to test the hypothetical model. Structural equation modeling confirmed strong associations between sensation, strength, and prehension with upper limb function, and determined 72% of the variance in "sensorimotor upper limb function" was explained by the model. Statistics of fit showed the data did fit the hypothesized model. Sensation and strength influence upper limb function directly and indirectly with prehension as the mediator. The GRASSP is a sensitive diagnostic tool in distinguishing the relative contribution of strength, sensation and prehension to function. Thus, the impact of interventions on specific domains of impairment and related contribution on clinical recovery of the upper limb can be detailed to optimize rehabilitation programs.

  18. Improved Strength and Toughness of Carbon Woven Fabric Composites with Functionalized MWCNTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslam Soliman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation examines the role of carboxyl functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (COOH-MWCNTs in the on- and off-axis flexure and the shear responses of thin carbon woven fabric composite plates. The chemically functionalized COOH-MWCNTs were used to fabricate epoxy nanocomposites and, subsequently, carbon woven fabric plates to be tested on flexure and shear. In addition to the neat epoxy, three loadings of COOH-MWCNTs were examined: 0.5 wt%, 1.0 wt% and 1.5 wt% of epoxy. While no significant statistical difference in the flexure response of the on-axis specimens was observed, significant increases in the flexure strength, modulus and toughness of the off-axis specimens were observed. The average increase in flexure strength and flexure modulus with the addition of 1.5 wt% COOH-MWCNTs improved by 28% and 19%, respectively. Finite element modeling is used to demonstrate fiber domination in on-axis flexure behavior and matrix domination in off-axis flexure behavior. Furthermore, the 1.5 wt% COOH-MWCNTs increased the toughness of carbon woven composites tested on shear by 33%. Microstructural investigation using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR proves the existence of chemical bonds between the COOH-MWCNTs and the epoxy matrix.

  19. Partition function as a Laplace transform of a positive measure in the strength parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessis, D.

    1980-01-01

    We shall consider the partition function Z(lambda), of an N-body system whose Hamiltonian reads: H = H/sub O/ + lambdaH/sub I/. H/sub O/ is an exactly solvable Hamiltonian, one for which, for example all thermodynamical quantities can be calculated. H/sub I/ is the perturbation. We are interested in the analytic properties in the strength parameter lambda of the partition function Z(lambda) = Tr e/sup -ν[H 0 + lambdaH/sub I/]/ where for convenience the volume V and inverse temperature ν dependence has been suppressed on the left hand side. The representation for Z(lambda) is given and discussed, and applications are described

  20. Does progressive resistance strength training as additional training have any measured effect on functional outcomes in older hospitalized patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Andersen, Christina W.; Pedersen, Sigrid F

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of progressive resistance strength training as additional training measured on functional outcomes in older hospitalized patients. DESIGN: A single-blinded randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Department of Geriatric Rehabilitation in university hospital...

  1. Regional impairment of intrinsic functional connectivity strength in patients with chronic primary insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang S

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Suhua Huang,1 Fuqing Zhou,2,3 Jian Jiang,2,3 Muhua Huang,2,3 Xianjun Zeng,2,3 Shan Ding,1 Honghan Gong2,3 1Department of Radiology, Jiangxi Province Children’s Hospital, 2Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanchang University, 3Jiangxi Province Medical Imaging Research Institute, Nanchang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Several neuroimaging studies have suggested that brain impairment and plasticity occur in patients with chronic primary insomnia (CPI; however, the effects of insomnia on the intrinsic organization of the brain remain largely unknown. In this study, a voxel-based functional connectivity strength (FCS assessment, a data-driven method based on a theoretical approach, was applied to investigate the effects of insomnia on the intrinsic organization of the whole brain in 27 treatment-naïve CPI patients and 26 well-matched healthy controls (HCs. Compared with HCs, CPI patients exhibited decreased FCS primarily in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the right medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC, the left basal ganglia/insula, and the right cerebellum anterior lobe (CAL due to decreased functional connectivity patterns. These results suggest that poor sleep quality could impair FCS within the brain, including the MPFC and the CAL, which are important for cognitive control and modulating motor and limbic functions. Additionally, a receiver operator characteristic analysis revealed that altered FCS has moderate sensitivity (76.9%–88.5% and specificity (59.3%–70.4% as a reference indicator to discriminate CPI patients from HCs. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for abnormal intrinsic brain activity in CPI patients and might improve our understanding of the pathophysiological processes that occur in insomnia patients. Keywords: functional connectivity strength, disconnection, chronic primary insomnia, sleep disorders, resting-state fMRI

  2. Carboxyl functionalized carbon fibers with preserved tensile strength and electrochemical performance used as anodes of structural lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Mengjie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Wang, Shubin, E-mail: shubinwang@buaa.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Yu, Yalin; Feng, Qihang; Yang, Jiping; Zhang, Boming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Carboxyl functionalized CF is acquired by simple chemical oxidation method. • These CF have preserved the tensile strength, better electrochemical properties. • The presence of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} prevented the turbostratic carbon from over-oxidization. • There CF can be used as anodes of multifunctional structural battery. • The preservation and improvement is result from the hindered over-oxidization. - Abstract: Carboxyl functionalized carbon fibers with preserved tensile strength and electrochemical properties were acquired through a simple chemical oxidation method, and the proposed underlying mechanism was verified. The surface of carboxyl functionalizing carbon fibers is necessary in acquiring functional groups on the surface of carbon fibers to further improve the thermal, electrical or mechanical properties of the fibers. Functionalization should preserve the tensile strength and electrochemical properties of carbon fibers, because the anodes of structural batteries need to have high strength and electrochemical properties. Functionalized with mixed H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/HNO{sub 3} considerably reduced the tensile strength of carbon fibers. By contrast, the appearance of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} preserved the tensile strength of functionalized carbon fibers, reduced the dispersion level of tensile strength values, and effectively increased the concentration of functional acid groups on the surface of carbon fibers. The presence of phosphoric acid hindered the over-oxidation of turbostratic carbon, and consequently preserved the tensile strength of carbon fibers. The increased proportion of turbostratic carbon on the surface of carbon fibers concurrently enhanced the electrochemical properties of carbon fibers.

  3. Effect of muscle strength and pain on hand function in patients with trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantero-Téllez, Raquel; Martín-Valero, Rocío; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    To assess the relationship between muscle strength (Jama), and pain (VAS) levels with hand function (DASH) in patients with trapeziometarcapal osteoarthritis. Cross-sectional study. Sample of 72 patients with osteoarthritis stage 2-3 (Eaton) and trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis. Patients were recruited when they came to the Hand Surgery Unit. Grip strength, pinch, pain and hand function were measured, and correlation and regression coefficients between them were obtained. For function, the most significant model (R(2)=0.83) included pain and strength. But it is tip to tip pinch force which has a stronger relationship with DASH (Standardized B: -57) questionnaire. Pain also influenced strength measured with the dynamometer but it was tip to tip pinch force that was the most affected. Findings confirm that there is a significant correlation between function referred by the patient and variables that can be measured in the clinic such as grip strength and pinch. The correlation between pain intensity and function was also significant, but tip to tip pinch strength had the greatest impact on the function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  4. Overview of experimental progress on understanding photon strength functions with an emphasis of the Oslo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krticka, Milan

    2015-10-01

    The so-called Photon Strength Functions (PSFs) for different multipolarities are, together with the Nuclear Level Density (NLD) the key entities describing the statistical γ-decay of nucleus. It is well known that PSFs at energies above the threshold for particle emission are well described by the Lorentzian shape of the Giant Electric Dipole Resonance (GEDR). On the other hand, shapes of RSFs at the low-energy tail of GEDR are known rather poorly. Information on the PSFs at the GEDR tail can be obtained from several different experimental techniques. They will be summarized and the most important ones briefly introduced in this contribution. Special emphasis will be put on the so-called Oslo method which allows simultaneous extraction of the NLD and the PSFs from particle- γ coincidence measurements. This method has been used for determining the NLD and the PSFs in many nuclei in A ~ 45- 240 range during past years. Examples of the most interesting results obtained with this method will be shown. The results will be compared to information on the PSFs available from other experimental techniques. The strengths and the weaknesses of the method will be thoroughly discussed.

  5. Associations between aging-related changes in grip strength and cognitive function in older adults: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammit, Andrea R; Robitaille, Annie; Piccinin, Andrea; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela; Hofer, Scott M

    2018-03-08

    Grip strength and cognitive function reflect upper body muscle strength and mental capacities. Cross-sectional research has suggested that in old age these two processes are moderately to highly associated, and that an underlying common cause drives this association. Our aim was to synthesize and evaluate longitudinal research addressing whether changes in grip strength are associated with changes in cognitive function in healthy older adults. We systematically reviewed English-language research investigating the longitudinal association between repeated measures of grip strength and of cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults to evaluate the extent to which the two indices decline concurrently. We used four search engines: Embase, PsychINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science. Of 459 unique citations, 6 met our full criteria: 4 studies reported a longitudinal association between rates of change in grip strength and cognitive function in older adults, 2 of which reported the magnitudes of these associations as ranging from low to moderate; 2 studies reported significant cross-sectional but not longitudinal associations among rates of change. All studies concluded that cognitive function and grip strength declined, on average, with increasing age, although with little to no evidence for longitudinal associations among rates of change. Future research is urged to expand the study of physical and cognitive associations in old age using a within-person and multi-study integrative approach to evaluate the reliability of longitudinal results with greater emphasis on the magnitude of this association.

  6. Constraining nuclear photon strength functions by the decay properties of photo-excited states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaak, J.; Savran, D.; Krtička, M.; Ahmed, M. W.; Beller, J.; Fiori, E.; Glorius, J.; Kelley, J. H.; Löher, B.; Pietralla, N.; Romig, C.; Rusev, G.; Scheck, M.; Schnorrenberger, L.; Silva, J.; Sonnabend, K.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Weller, H. R.; Zweidinger, M.

    2013-12-01

    A new approach for constraining the low-energy part of the electric dipole Photon Strength Function (E1-PSF) is presented. Experiments at the Darmstadt High-Intensity Photon Setup and the High Intensity γ→-Ray Source have been performed to investigate the decay properties of 130Te between 5.50 and 8.15 MeV excitation energy. In particular, the average γ-ray branching ratio to the ground state and the population intensity of low-lying excited states have been studied. A comparison to the statistical model shows that the latter is sensitive to the low-energy behavior of the E1-PSF, while the average ground state branching ratio cannot be described by the statistical model in the energy range between 5.5 and 6.5 MeV.

  7. A Monte Carlo method for calculating strength functions in many-fermion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, S.D.; Grimes, S.M.

    1980-01-01

    The calculation of moments is an essential first step in the calculation of strength functions for operators. A method for calculating approximate moments of a variety of operators in large vector spaces (dimension Nsub(e)) based on the use of sets of random multiparticle vectors (dimension Nsub(d) in two nuclear cases: 21 Ne(n = 1 to 10) and 28 Si(n = 1 to 3). The random vectors, which we call RRV's (random representative vectors), are constructed by statistically sampling a fraction f = Nsub(d)/Nsub(e) of the full space. Useful results are obtained with f -6 (case of 28 Si, Nsub(e) = 5.5 x 10 7 ). For Nsub(d) = Nsub(e) (case of 21 Ne, Nsub(e) = 1935) our results for the dispersions of the sets of the moments closely approximate the predictions of Porter. (orig.)

  8. Strength, functionality and beauty of university buildings in earthquake-prone countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    WADA, Akira

    2018-01-01

    Strength, functionality and beauty are the three qualities identifying well-designed architecture. For buildings in earthquake-prone countries such as Japan, emphasis on seismic safety frequently leads to the sacrifice of functionality and beauty. Therefore, it is important to develop new structural technologies that can ensure the seismic performance of a building without hampering the pursuit of functionality and beauty. The moment-resisting frame structures widely used for buildings in Japan are likely to experience weak-story collapse. Pin-supported walls, which can effectively enhance the structural story-by-story integrity of a building, were introduced to prevent such an unfavorable failure pattern in the seismic retrofit of an eleven-story building on a university campus in Tokyo, while also greatly aesthetically enhancing the façade of the building. The slight damage observed and monitoring records of the retrofitted building during the 2011 Tohoku earthquake in Japan demonstrate that the pin-supported walls worked as intended, protecting the building and guaranteeing the safety of its occupants during the earthquake. PMID:29434079

  9. Do light nuclei display a universal γ-ray strength function-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A.C.; Buerger, A.

    2012-01-01

    Particle-γ coincidences from the bombardment of 15 MeV and 32 MeV protons on a 46 Ti target are utilized to obtain γ-ray spectra as a function of excitation energy for 44,45,46 Ti. The Oslo method has been used to extract simultaneously level density and γ-ray strength functions (γ-SFs). The rich 46 Ti data set of 110 million events allows analysis of the coincidence data for many independent data sets. As expected, the results are consistent with one common level density. A method to study the evolution of the deduced γ-SFs as a function of excitation energy will be described. The γ-SFs are found to display strong variations for different initial and final excitation energies if transitions to the lowest states are involved. The differences in the γ-SFs can be explained as a consequence of Porter-Thomas fluctuations of individual intensities, and shows that this energy region cannot be used for determination of the universal γ-RSF. Even though, the deduced γ-SFs based on transitions within the quasi-continuum still indicate that the decay is governed by a universal γ-SF

  10. Gamow-Teller strength functions from (→p,→p') scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausser, O.

    1987-01-01

    We present here recent (→p, →'p) results from TRIUMF that are relevant to the determination of spin-flip isovector strength functions in nuclei. Distortion factors needed for the extraction of nuclear-structure information have been deduced from cross sections and analyzing powers in elastic scattering for several energies and targets. Nonrelativistic optical potentials obtained by folding effective nucleon (N)-nucleus interactions with nuclear densities are found to overpredict both elastic and reaction cross sections, whereas Dirac calculations that include Pauli blocking are in good agreement with the data. Spin observables (S nn and A y ) for the quasi-elastic region in 54 Fe(→p, →p) at 290 MeV provide some evidence for the reduction of the effective proton mass predicted in relativistic mean-field theories as a consequence of the attractive scalar field in the nuclear medium. The energy dependence of the effective N-nucleus interaction at small momentum transfers has been investigated using isoscalar and isovector 1 + states in 28 Si as probe states. We find that the cross sections for the isovector transitions are in good agreement with predictions for the dominant Vστ part of the Franey-Love interaction. Gamow-Teller (GT) strength functions have been obtained in 24 Mg and 54 Fe from measurements of both cross sections and spin-flip probabilities S nn . The spin-flip cross sections σS nn are particularly useful in heavier nuclei to discriminate against a continuous background of ΔS = 0 excitations. In the (s, d) shell where full shell-model wave functions are available, the GT quenching factors (g A eff / g A free ) 2 ≅ 0.7 are in good agreement with those from recent (p, n) and (n, p) experiments. We show that a state-by-state comparison of (p, p') and (e, e') results has the potential of identifying pionic current contributions in (e, e'). The GT quenching factors in 54 Fe are smaller than in the (s, d) shell probably because of severely

  11. Relationships between Isometric Muscle Strength, Gait Parameters, and Gross Motor Function Measure in Patients with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyung Ik; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Chung, Chin Youb; Lee, Kyoung Min; Lee, Seung Yeol; Lee, In Hyeok; Park, Moon Seok

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the correlation between isometric muscle strength, gross motor function, and gait parameters in patients with spastic cerebral palsy and to find which muscle groups play an important role for gait pattern in a flexed knee gait. Twenty-four ambulatory patients (mean age, 10.0 years) with spastic cerebral palsy who were scheduled for single event multilevel surgery, including distal hamstring lengthening, were included. Preoperatively, peak isometric muscle strength was measured for the hip flexor, hip extensor, knee flexor, and knee extensor muscle groups using a handheld dynamometer, and three-dimensional (3D) gait analysis and gross motor function measure (GMFM) scoring were also performed. Correlations between peak isometric strength and GMFM, gait kinematics, and gait kinetics were analyzed. Peak isometric muscle strength of all muscle groups was not related to the GMFM score and the gross motor function classification system level. Peak isometric strength of the hip extensor and knee extensor was significantly correlated with the mean pelvic tilt (r=-0.588, p=0.003 and r=-0.436, p=0.033) and maximum pelvic obliquity (r=-0.450, p=0.031 and r=-0.419, p=0.041). There were significant correlations between peak isometric strength of the knee extensor and peak knee extensor moment in early stance (r=0.467, p=0.021) and in terminal stance (r=0.416, p=0.043). There is no correlation between muscle strength and gross motor function. However, this study showed that muscle strength, especially of the extensor muscle group of the hip and knee joints, might play a critical role in gait by stabilizing pelvic motion and decreasing energy consumption in a flexed knee gait.

  12. Insulator function and topological domain border strength scale with architectural protein occupancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Chromosome conformation capture studies suggest that eukaryotic genomes are organized into structures called topologically associating domains. The borders of these domains are highly enriched for architectural proteins with characterized roles in insulator function. However, a majority of architectural protein binding sites localize within topological domains, suggesting sites associated with domain borders represent a functionally different subclass of these regulatory elements. How topologically associating domains are established and what differentiates border-associated from non-border architectural protein binding sites remain unanswered questions. Results By mapping the genome-wide target sites for several Drosophila architectural proteins, including previously uncharacterized profiles for TFIIIC and SMC-containing condensin complexes, we uncover an extensive pattern of colocalization in which architectural proteins establish dense clusters at the borders of topological domains. Reporter-based enhancer-blocking insulator activity as well as endogenous domain border strength scale with the occupancy level of architectural protein binding sites, suggesting co-binding by architectural proteins underlies the functional potential of these loci. Analyses in mouse and human stem cells suggest that clustering of architectural proteins is a general feature of genome organization, and conserved architectural protein binding sites may underlie the tissue-invariant nature of topologically associating domains observed in mammals. Conclusions We identify a spectrum of architectural protein occupancy that scales with the topological structure of chromosomes and the regulatory potential of these elements. Whereas high occupancy architectural protein binding sites associate with robust partitioning of topologically associating domains and robust insulator function, low occupancy sites appear reserved for gene-specific regulation within topological domains. PMID

  13. ESTIMA, Neutron Width Level Spacing, Neutron Strength Function of S- Wave, P-Wave Resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort, E.

    1982-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: ESTIMA calculates level spacing and neutron strength function of a mixed sequence of s- and p-wave resonances given a set of neutron widths as input parameters. Three algorithms are used, two of which calculate s-wave average parameters and assume that the reduced widths obey a Porter-Thomas distribution truncated by a minimum detection threshold. The third performs a maximum likelihood fit to a truncated chi-squared distribution of any specified number of degrees of freedom, i.e. it can be used for calculating s-wave or p-wave average parameters. Resonances of undeclared angular orbital momentum are divided into groups of probable s-wave and probable p-wave by a simple application of Bayes' Theorem. 2 - Method of solution: Three algorithms are used: i) GAMN method, based on simple moments properties of a Porter-Thomas distribution. ii) Missing Level Estimator, a simplified version of the algorithm used by the program BAYESZ. iii) ESTIMA, a maximum likelihood fit. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: A maximum of 400 resonances is allowed in the version available from NEADB, however this restriction can be relaxed by increasing array dimensions

  14. BAYESZ, S-Wave, P-Wave Resonance Level Spacing and Strength Functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    A - Description of problem or function: BAYESZ calculates average s- and p-wave level spacings, strength functions, and average radiation widths of a mixed sequence of s- and p-wave resonances whose parameters are supplied as input. The code is based on two physical assumptions: 1) The neutron reduced width distribution for each open channel is a chi-squared distribution with one degree of freedom, i.e. Porter-Thomas. 2) The spacing distribution follows the Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble. This property is used, however, only to fix the s- to p-wave level density ratio as proportional to (2J+1) with a spin cut-off correction. B - Method of solution: The method used is an extension of that described by Moore et al. in reference (1), and is based on the method of moments of a truncated Porter-Thomas distribution. C - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Parameters for a maximum of 500 individual resonances can be specified. This restriction can be relaxed by increasing array dimensions

  15. Relationship between lower limb muscle strength, self-reported pain and function, and frontal plane gait kinematics in knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Kyoon; Kobsar, Dylan; Ferber, Reed

    2016-10-01

    The relationship between muscle strength, gait biomechanics, and self-reported physical function and pain for patients with knee osteoarthritis is not well known. The objective of this study was to investigate these relationships in this population. Twenty-four patients with knee osteoarthritis and 24 healthy controls were recruited. Self-reported pain and function, lower-limb maximum isometric force, and frontal plane gait kinematics during treadmill walking were collected on all patients. Between-group differences were assessed for 1) muscle strength and 2) gait biomechanics. Linear regressions were computed within the knee osteoarthritis group to examine the effect of muscle strength on 1) self-reported pain and function, and 2) gait kinematics. Patients with knee osteoarthritis exhibited reduced hip external rotator, knee extensor, and ankle inversion muscle force output compared with healthy controls, as well as increased peak knee adduction angles (effect size=0.770; p=0.013). Hip abductor strength was a significant predictor of function, but not after controlling for covariates. Ankle inversion, hip abduction, and knee flexion strength were significant predictors of peak pelvic drop angle after controlling for covariates (34.4% unique variance explained). Patients with knee osteoarthritis exhibit deficits in muscle strength and while they play an important role in the self-reported function of patients with knee osteoarthritis, the effect of covariates such as sex, age, mass, and height was more important in this relationship. Similar relationships were observed from gait variables, except for peak pelvic drop, where hip, knee, and ankle strength remained important predictors of this variable after controlling for covariates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Electromyographic Biofeedback Training on Pain, Quadriceps Muscle Strength, and Functional Ability in Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mohamed Ahmed Mahmoud; Aly, Sobhy M; El-Shamy, Shamekh M

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effects of electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback training on pain, quadriceps strength, and functional ability in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). This is a randomized controlled study; 36 children (11 boys and 25 girls) with polyarticular JRA, with ages ranging from 8 to 13 years, were selected and assigned randomly, using computer-generated random numbers, into 2 groups. The control group (n = 18) received the conventional physical therapy program, whereas the study group (n = 18) received the same program as the control group in addition to EMG biofeedback-guided isometric exercises for 3 days a week for 12 weeks. Pain, peak torque of quadriceps strength, and functional ability were evaluated before, after 6 weeks, and at the end of 12 weeks of the treatment program. By 6 weeks, significant differences were observed in the study group (P biofeedback may be a useful intervention modality to reduce pain, improve quadriceps strength, and functional performance in JRA.

  17. Intra-rater reliability and agreement of muscle strength, power and functional performance measures in patients with hip osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieler, Theresa; Magnusson, S Peter; Kjær, Michael

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the reliability and agreement of measures of lower extremity muscle strength, power and functional performance in patients with hip osteoarthritis at different time intervals, and to compare these with the same measures in healthy peers. DESIGN: Intra-rater test...... extensor power, and functional performance (8-foot Up & Go, stair climbing, chair stand and 6-min walk) were measured in patients, and quadriceps strength, leg extensor power and functional performance were measured in healthy peers. Systematic error, reliability and agreement were calculated. RESULTS......-retest separated by 1, 2, or 2.5 weeks in patients, and 1 week in healthy peers. SUBJECTS: Patients with hip osteoarthritis (age range 61-83 years) with 1 (n = 37), 2 (n = 35), or 2.5 weeks (n = 15) between tests, and 35 healthy peers (age range 63-82 years). METHODS: Maximal isometric hip and thigh strength, leg...

  18. Effect of isometric quadriceps exercise on muscle strength, pain, and function in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of isometric quadriceps exercise on muscle strength, pain, and function in knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Outpatients (N=42, 21 per group; age range 40-65 years; 13 men and 29 women) with osteoarthritis of the knee participated in the study. The experimental group performed isometric exercises including isometric quadriceps, straight leg raising, and isometric hip adduction exercise 5 days a week for 5 weeks, whereas the control group did not performed any exercise program. The outcome measures or dependent variables selected for this study were pain intensity, isometric quadriceps strength, and knee function. These variables were measured using the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), strength gauge device, and reduced WOMAC index, respectively. All the measurements were taken at baseline (week 0) and at the end of the trial at week 5. [Results] In between-group comparisons, the maximum isometric quadriceps strength, reduction in pain intensity, and improvement in function in the isometric exercise group at the end of the 5th week were significantly greater than those of the control group (pisometric quadriceps exercise program showed beneficial effects on quadriceps muscle strength, pain, and functional disability in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

  19. Effect of traditional resistance and power training using rated perceived exertion for enhancement of muscle strength, power, and functional performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro; Dias, Caroline Pieta; Radaelli, Regis; Massa, Jéssica Cassales; Bortoluzzi, Rafael; Schoenell, Maira Cristina Wolf; Noll, Matias; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2016-04-01

    The present study compared the effects of 12 weeks of traditional resistance training and power training using rated perceived exertion (RPE) to determine training intensity on improvements in strength, muscle power, and ability to perform functional task in older women. Thirty healthy elderly women (60-75 years) were randomly assigned to traditional resistance training group (TRT; n = 15) or power training group (PT; n = 15). Participants trained twice a week for 12 weeks using six exercises. The training protocol was designed to ascertain that participants exercised at an RPE of 13-18 (on a 6-20 scale). Maximal dynamic strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limb muscles were assessed. Maximal dynamic strength muscle strength leg press (≈58 %) and knee extension (≈20 %) increased significantly (p training. Muscle power also increased with training (≈27 %; p functional performance after training period (≈13 %; p effective in improving maximal strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limbs in elderly women.

  20. Knee function and knee muscle strength in middle-aged patients with degenerative meniscal tears eligible for arthroscopic partial meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensrud, Silje; Risberg, May Arna; Roos, Ewa M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Functional limitations exist postmeniscectomy, but preoperative data are scarce. PURPOSE: To examine knee function, knee muscle strength and performance in middle-aged patients with degenerative meniscal tears, eligible for arthroscopic partial meniscectomy. STUDY DESIGN: Cross......-sectional study. METHODS: Eighty-two participants with MRI verified degenerative meniscal tear (35% women, mean age 49 years) answered the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and were tested for isokinetic knee muscle strength and lower extremity performance (one-leg hop for distance, 6 m timed...

  1. Mortality displacement as a function of heat event strength in 7 US cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Michael V; Davis, Robert E; Hondula, David M

    2014-02-15

    Mortality rates increase immediately after periods of high air temperature. In the days and weeks after heat events, time series may exhibit mortality displacement-periods of lower than expected mortality. We examined all-cause mortality and meteorological data from 1980 to 2009 in the cities of Atlanta, Georgia; Boston, Massachusetts; Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Phoenix, Arizona; Seattle, Washington; and St. Louis, Missouri. We modeled baseline mortality using a generalized additive model. Heat waves were defined as periods of 3 or more consecutive days in which the apparent temperature exceeded a variable percentile. For each heat wave, we calculated the sum of excess and deficit mortality. Mortality displacement, which is the ratio of grand sum deficit to grand sum excess mortality, decreased as a function of event strength in all cities. Displacement was close to 1.00 for the weakest events. At the highest temperatures, displacement varied from 0.35 (95% confidence interval: 0.21, 0.55) to 0.75 (95% confidence interval: 0.54, 0.97). We found strong evidence of acclimatization across cities. Without consideration of displacement effects, the net impacts of heat-wave mortality are likely to be significant overestimations. A statistically significant positive relationship between the onset temperature of nondisplaced heat mortality and mean warm-season temperature (R(2) = 0.78, P < 0.01) suggests that heat mortality thresholds may be predictable across cities.

  2. Experimental study on p-wave neutron strength functions for light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, L.; Waschkowski, W.; Meier, J.; Rau, G.; Salehi, M.

    1988-01-01

    Broad energy distributions in fast neutron beams have been achieved by appropriate filtering of the 236 U fission radiation provided from the RENT converter facility at the FRM research reactor. Transmission measurements in such beams result in average cross sections to which resonance reactions and shape elastic scattering contribute. We used a silicon (124.5 cm) filtered beam with a median energy of 143 keV (width 20 keV) and beams with 1.3 MeV (0.55 to 3 MeV) and 2.1 MeV (1 to 5.5 MeV) obtained through different filter combinations of lead and polyethylene. The relative high energies and the broad spectra made it possible to determine experimentally the contributions of s- and p-wave resonance reactions to the average cross section even for light nuclei. Using the three different beams we determined the average cross sections for the elements in the mass region A = 9 to 65. Analysing the measured cross sections by means of the R matrix formalism provided a complete set of p-wave strength functions and distant level parameters. Moreover, single particle shell effects in the cross sections were observed. In conclusion we obtained information on the 2P and the 3S size resonances and about the validity of the optical model for neutron reactions with light nuclei. (orig.)

  3. Do light nuclei display a universal γ-ray strength function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voinov A.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work we focus on properties in the quasi-continuum of light nuclei. Generally, both level density and γ-ray strength function (γ-SF differ from nucleus to nucleus. In order to investigate this closer, we have performed particle-γ coincidences using the reactions (p, p', (p, d and (p, t on a 46Ti target. In particular, the very rich data set of the 46Ti(p, p'46Ti inelastic scattering reaction allows analysis of the coincidence data for many independent data sets. Using the Oslo method, we find one common level density for all data sets. If transitions to well-separated low-energy levels are included, the deduced γ-SF may change by a factor of 2 – 3, due strong to Porter-Thomas fluctuations. However, a universal γ-SF with small fluctuations is found provided that only excitation energies above 3 MeV are taken into account. The nuclear structure of the titaniums is discussed within a combinatorial quasi-particle model, showing that only few Nilsson orbitals participate in building up the level density for these light nuclei.

  4. Carboxyl functionalization of carbon fibers via aryl diazonium reaction in molten urea to enhance interfacial shear strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuwei; Meng, Linghui; Fan, Liquan; Wu, Guangshun; Ma, Lichun; Zhao, Min; Huang, Yudong

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Carbon fibers are functionalized with benzoic acid groups via aryl diazonium reaction. • Interfacial shear strength of the carbon fibers increases by 66%. • Tensile strength of the carbon fibers is preserved after grafting reaction. • The treatment in molten urea can improve modification efficiency greatly. • Using molten urea as the reaction medium can avoid pollution from organic solvents. - Abstract: Using molten urea as the solvent, carbon fibers were functionalized with carboxylic acid groups via aryl diazonium reaction in 15 min to improve their interfacial bonding with epoxy resin. The surface functionalization was quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which showed that the relative surface coverage of carboxylic acid groups increased from an initial percentage of 3.17–10.41%. Mechanical property test results indicated that the aryl diazonium reaction in this paper could improve the interfacial shear strength by 66%. Meanwhile, the technique did not adopt any pre-oxidation step to produce functional groups prior to grafting and was shown to maintain the tensile strength of the fibers. This methodology provided a rapid, facile and economically viable route to produce covalently functionalized carbon fibers in large quantities with an eco-friendly method.

  5. Carboxyl functionalization of carbon fibers via aryl diazonium reaction in molten urea to enhance interfacial shear strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuwei [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qiqihar University, Qiqihar 161006 (China); Meng, Linghui [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Fan, Liquan [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qiqihar University, Qiqihar 161006 (China); Wu, Guangshun; Ma, Lichun; Zhao, Min [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Huang, Yudong, E-mail: ydhuang.hit1@yahoo.com.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-01-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Carbon fibers are functionalized with benzoic acid groups via aryl diazonium reaction. • Interfacial shear strength of the carbon fibers increases by 66%. • Tensile strength of the carbon fibers is preserved after grafting reaction. • The treatment in molten urea can improve modification efficiency greatly. • Using molten urea as the reaction medium can avoid pollution from organic solvents. - Abstract: Using molten urea as the solvent, carbon fibers were functionalized with carboxylic acid groups via aryl diazonium reaction in 15 min to improve their interfacial bonding with epoxy resin. The surface functionalization was quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which showed that the relative surface coverage of carboxylic acid groups increased from an initial percentage of 3.17–10.41%. Mechanical property test results indicated that the aryl diazonium reaction in this paper could improve the interfacial shear strength by 66%. Meanwhile, the technique did not adopt any pre-oxidation step to produce functional groups prior to grafting and was shown to maintain the tensile strength of the fibers. This methodology provided a rapid, facile and economically viable route to produce covalently functionalized carbon fibers in large quantities with an eco-friendly method.

  6. Assessment of a sixteen-week training program on strength, pain, and function in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint-Wagner, Hilary G; Lisse, Jeffrey; Lohman, Timothy G; Going, Scott B; Guido, Terri; Cussler, Ellen; Gates, Donald; Yocum, David E

    2009-06-01

    To assess the effects of a 16-week progressive, individualized, high-intensity strength training program on muscle strength, pain, and function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Twenty-four RA patients (men, n = 5; women, n = 19) receiving infliximab participated in a randomized controlled trial. The strength training (ST) group (n = 16) participated in a supervised program 3 times per week, and the control (C) group (n = 8) continued with standard of care as overseen by their rheumatologist. Assessments were completed at baseline and at weeks 8 and 16. Strength was measured by 3 repetition maximum (3RM), isometric hand dynamometer, and isokinetic dynamometer. A 100-mm visual analogue scale was used to assess pain. Functional performance was derived from a timed 50-foot walk and the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index. The mean percent increase in strength (3RM) for the ST group from baseline to week 16 was 46.1% +/- 31.6% (P < 0.01) (mean of all three 3RM exercises: hammer curl, leg press, and incline dumbbell press), with mean gains in strength up to 4 times that of baseline values reported in all strength training exercises (upper and lower body) performed during exercise sessions. On average, right-hand grip strength increased by 2.9 +/- 4.0 kg in the ST group, in comparison with a loss of 1.2 +/- 3.0 kg in the C group over 16 weeks. The ST group had a 53% reduction in pain, in comparison with almost no change in the C group. The ST group had a significant improvement in 50-foot walk time, with a mean reduction of -1.2 +/- 1.6 seconds, in comparison with the C group (mean increase of 0.8 +/- 1.0 seconds; P = 0.01) over the 16 weeks. There was a clinically important difference (predefined as mean change +/-0.25) in the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index in the ST group (-0.4 +/- 0.4) but not in the C group (-0.1 +/- 0.4). High-intensity strength training in RA patients with varying levels of disease activity and joint damage

  7. Modified forelimb grip strength test detects aging-associated physiological decline in skeletal muscle function in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Hikari; Yamamoto, Koichi; Nozato, Satoko; Inagaki, Tadakatsu; Tsuchimochi, Hirotsugu; Shirai, Mikiyasu; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Imaizumi, Yuki; Hongyo, Kazuhiro; Yokoyama, Serina; Takeda, Masao; Oguro, Ryosuke; Takami, Yoichi; Itoh, Norihisa; Takeya, Yasushi; Sugimoto, Ken; Fukada, So-Ichiro; Rakugi, Hiromi

    2017-02-08

    The conventional forelimb grip strength test is a widely used method to assess skeletal muscle function in rodents; in this study, we modified this method to improve its variability and consistency. The modified test had lower variability among trials and days than the conventional test in young C57BL6 mice, especially by improving the variabilities in male. The modified test was more sensitive than the conventional test to detect a difference in motor function between female and male mice, or between young and old male mice. When the modified test was performed on male mice during the aging process, reduction of grip strength manifested between 18 and 24 months of age at the group level and at the individual level. The modified test was similar to the conventional test in detecting skeletal muscle dysfunction in young male dystrophic mice. Thus, the modified forelimb grip strength test, with its improved validity and reliability may be an ideal substitute for the conventional method.

  8. Determining Criteria to Predict Repeatability of Performance in Older Adults: Using Coefficients of Variation for Strength and Functional Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Isaac Selva; Bird, Stephen R; Westfold, Ben A; Shield, Anthony J

    2017-01-01

    Reliable measures of muscle strength and functional capacity in older adults are essential. The aim of this study was to determine whether coefficients of variation (CVs) of individuals obtained at the first session can infer repeatability of performance in a subsequent session. Forty-eight healthy older adults (mean age 68.6 ± 6.1 years; age range 60-80 years) completed two assessment sessions, and on each occasion undertook: dynamometry for isometric and isokinetic quadriceps strength, 6 meter fast walk (6MFWT), timed up and go (TUG), stair climb and descent, and vertical jump. Significant linear relationships were observed between CVs in session 1 and the percentage difference between sessions 1 and 2 for torque at 60, 120, 240 and 360°/s, 6MFWT, TUG, stair climb, and stair descent. The results of this study could be used to establish criteria for determining an acceptably reliable performance in strength and functional tests.

  9. Functional relationship between dominant and non-dominant hand in motor task - hand grip strength endurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kljajić Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the functional relationship between dominant and non-dominant hand in the strength endurance motor task - hand grip, in the referent population of healthy and young persons. For the purpose of the research we have implemented the method of isometric dynamometry and standardized hand grip test. The study included 48 participants, 23 of them being of female and 25 of male gender. The analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to determine the difference between the sets of variables in the function of gender and functional dimorphism, while the Bonferroni criterion was applied to determine the differences between pairs of individual variables. The difference between the maximum hand grip of dominant and non-dominant hand in female participants amounted to 9.28%, and in male ones 7.39% in favor of the dominant hand. There is no statistically significant difference between nondominant and dominant hand regarding the force endurance time aspect at 30%, 50% and 80% out of the maximum hand grip level, as well as at the absolute and relative force impulse indicators as an endurance measure. The value of gender dimorphism in relation to the absolute indicators of force momentum at 30%, 50% and 80% out of the maximum hand grip level in female participants is 0.9714, 0.9145, 0.9301, and in male participants 0.9515, 0.8264 and 0.8606. The force momentum indicators value at 30%, 50% and 80% out of the maximum hand grip level in female participants is ImpF30%=21167.58±6923.67 Ns, ImpF50%=10846.94±3800.56 Ns and ImpF80%=5438.46±1993.12 Ns, and in male participants ImpF30%=17734.03±6881.92 Ns, ImpF50%=13903.61±3437.76 Ns and ImpF80%=5117.53±1894.78 Ns. The obtained results can be used as the criteria for further research in special education and rehabilitation, medical and professional rehabilitation.

  10. Level Densities and Radiative Strength Functions in 56FE and 57FE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavukcu, Emel [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2002-12-10

    Understanding nuclear level densities and radiative strength functions is important for pure and applied nuclear physics. Recently, the Oslo Cyclotron Group has developed an experimental method to extract level densities and radiative strength functions simultaneously from the primary γ rays after a light-ion reaction. A primary γ-ray spectrum represents the γ-decay probability distribution. The Oslo method is based on the Axel-Brink hypothesis, according to which the primary γ-ray spectrum is proportional to the product of the level density at the final energy and the radiative strength function. The level density and the radiative strength function are fit to the experimental primary γ-ray spectra, and then normalized to known data. The method works well for heavy nuclei. The present measurements extend the Oslo method to the lighter mass nuclei 56Fe and 57Fe. The experimental level densities in 56Fe and 57Fe reveal step structure. This step structure is a signature for nucleon pair breaking. The predicted pairing gap parameter is in good agreement with the step corresponding to the first pair breaking. Thermodynamic quantities for 56Fe and 57Fe are derived within the microcanonical and canonical ensembles using the experimental level densities. Energy-temperature relations are considered using caloric curves and probability density functions. The differences between the thermodynamics of small and large systems are emphasized. The experimental heat capacities are compared with the recent theoretical calculations obtained in the Shell Model Monte Carlo method. Radiative strength functions in 56Fe and 57Fe have surprisingly high values at low γ-ray energies. This behavior has not been observed for heavy nuclei, but has been observed in other light- and medium-mass nuclei. The origin of this low γ-ray energy effect remains unknown.

  11. The course of functional status and muscle strength in patients with late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk-Swüste, Janneke M.; Beelen, Anita; Lankhorst, Gustaaf J.; Nollet, Frans

    2005-01-01

    Stolwijk-SwUste JM, Beelen A, Lankhorst GJ, Nollet F, for the CARPA Study Group. The course of functional status and muscle strength in patients with late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis: a systematic review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005;86:1693-701. Objectives: To review systematically studies of

  12. To What Extent Is Mean EMG Frequency during Gait a Reflection of Functional Muscle Strength in Children with Cerebral Palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gestel, L.; Wambacq, H.; Aertbelien, E.; Meyns, P.; Bruyninckx, H.; Bar-On, L.; Molenaers, G.; De Cock, P.; Desloovere, K.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current paper was to analyze the potential of the mean EMG frequency, recorded during 3D gait analysis (3DGA), for the evaluation of functional muscle strength in children with cerebral palsy (CP). As walking velocity is known to also influence EMG frequency, it was investigated to which extent the mean EMG frequency is a reflection…

  13. The effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on muscle strength, functional capacity and body composition in haemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicent Esteve

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: (1 NMES improved muscle strength, functional capacity and quadriceps muscle composition in our patients. (2 Based on the results obtained, NMES could be a new therapeutic alternative to prevent muscle atrophy and progressive physical deterioration. (3 However, future studies are necessary to establish the potential beneficial effects of NMES in HD patients.

  14. The effect of the 238U neutron strength function uncertainty on resonance structure calculations in unresolved regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshcheev, V.N.; Manturov, G.N.; Sinitsa, V.V.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of the neutron strength function uncertainties on the calculated values of the self-shielding factors and energy dependence of the total and capture 238 U cross-sections in the unresolved resonance region are investigated. (author). 26 refs, 5 figs

  15. The Importance of Trunk Muscle Strength for Balance, Functional Performance, and Fall Prevention in Seniors : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granacher, Urs; Gollhofer, Albert; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Kressig, Reto W.; Muehlbauer, Thomas

    Background The aging process results in a number of functional (e.g., deficits in balance and strength/power performance), neural (e.g., loss of sensory/motor neurons), muscular (e.g., atrophy of type-II muscle fibers in particular), and bone-related (e.g., osteoporosis) deteriorations.

  16. Structure of the β-strength function in heavy nuclei and its influence on the β-delayed fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wene, C.O.; Isosimow, I.N.; Naumow, Y.W.; Klapdor, H.V.

    1978-01-01

    The shape of the beta strength function Ssub(β) for neutron-rich nuclei is discussed. The structure of Ssub(β) is calculated microscopically for the GT-β-decay of 236 , 238 Pa and is shown to be decisive for the probability for β-delayed fission. (orig.) [de

  17. Recovery of lower extremity muscle strength and functional performance in middle-aged patients undergoing arthroscopic partial meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganderup, Tina; Jensen, Carsten; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate lower extremity muscle strength and functional performance before and after arthroscopic partial meniscectomy in middle-aged patients with degenerative meniscal tears. We hypothesized that patients would experience deficiencies in the affected leg at 3 months post-surgery,...

  18. Physical function, grip strength and frailty in people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Charlotte; Dabis, François; de Rekeneire, Nathalie

    2017-05-01

    To present the current knowledge on physical function, grip strength and frailty in HIV-infected patients living in sub-Saharan Africa, where the phenomenon is largely underestimated. A systematic search was conducted on MEDLINE, Scopus and African Index Medicus. We reviewed articles on sub-Saharan African people living with HIV (PLHIV) >18 years old, published until November 2016. Of 537 articles, 12 were conducted in six African countries and included in this review. Five articles reported information on functional limitation and one on disability. Two of these five articles reported functional limitation (low gait speed) in PLHIV. Disability was observed in 27% and 3% of PLHIV living in rural and urban places, respectively. Two of three studies reporting grip strength reported lower grip strength (nearly 4 kg) in PLHIV in comparison with uninfected patients. One study reported that PLHIV were more likely to be frail than HIV-uninfected individuals (19.4% vs. 13.3%), whereas another reported no statistical difference. Decline in physical function, grip strength and frailty are now part of the burden of PLHIV living in SSA countries, but current data are insufficient to characterise the real public health dimension of these impairments. Further studies are needed to depict this major public health challenge. As this is likely to contribute to a significant burden on the African healthcare systems and human resources in the near future, a holistic care approach should be developed to inform guidelines. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The Influence of Age-related Changes in Tactile Sensibility and Muscular Strength on Hand Function in Older Adult Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Murata

    2010-12-01

    Conclusion: These results suggested that the manual dexterity in the hand function was attenuated with increasing age. We considered that this attenuating effect was associated with a decline in tactile sensibility rather than a change in the muscular strength of the hand.

  20. Effects of preoperative neuromuscular electrical stimulation on quadriceps strength and functional recovery in total knee arthroplasty. A pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walls, Raymond J

    2010-01-01

    Supervised preoperative muscle strengthening programmes (prehabilitation) can improve recovery after total joint arthroplasty but are considered resource intensive. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been shown to improve quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM) strength and clinical function in subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) however it has not been previously investigated as a prehabilitation modality.

  1. Knee Muscle Strength at Varying Angular Velocities and Associations with Gross Motor Function in Ambulatory Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Hseih-Ching; Shen, I-Hsuan; Chen, Chung-Yao; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chung, Chia-Ying

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of muscle strength at different angular velocities and gross motor functions in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study included 33 ambulatory children with spastic CP aged 6-15 years and 15 children with normal development. Children with CP were categorized into level I (n =…

  2. The Relationship between Intramuscular Adipose Tissue, Functional Mobility, and Strength in Postmenopausal Women with and without Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M. Pritchard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine (1 whether intramuscular adipose tissue (IntraMAT differs between women with and without type 2 diabetes and (2 the association between IntraMAT and mobility and strength. Methods. 59 women ≥ 65 years with and without type 2 diabetes were included. A 1-Tesla MRI was used to acquire images of the leg. Timed-up-and-go (TUG and grip strength were measured. Regression was used to determine associations between the following: (1 type 2 diabetes and IntraMAT (covariates: age, ethnicity, BMI, waist : hip ratio, and energy expenditure, (2 IntraMAT and TUG (covariates: diabetes, age, BMI, and energy expenditure, and (3 IntraMAT and grip strength (covariates: diabetes, age, height, and lean mass. Results. Women with diabetes had more IntraMAT. After adjustment, IntraMAT was similar between groups (diabetes mean [SD] = 13.2 [1.4]%, controls 11.8 [1.3]%, P=0.515. IntraMAT was related to TUG and grip strength, but the relationships became nonsignificant after adjustment for covariates (difference/percent IntraMAT [95% CI]: TUG = 0.041 seconds [−0.079–0.161], P=0.498, grip strength = −0.144 kg [−0.335–0.066], P=0.175. Conclusions. IntraMAT alone may not be a clinically important predictor of functional mobility and strength; however, whether losses in functional mobility and strength are promoted by IntraMAT accumulation should be explored.

  3. Strength and Functional Improvement Using Pneumatic Brace with Extension Assist for End-Stage Knee Osteoarthritis: A Prospective, Randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Jeffrey J; Bhave, Anil; Kapadia, Bhaveen H; Starr, Roland; McElroy, Mark J; Mont, Michael A

    2015-05-01

    Pneumatic unloader bracing with extension assists have been proposed as a non-operative modality that may delay the need for knee surgery by reducing pain and improving function. This prospective, randomized trial evaluated 52 patients who had knee osteoarthritis for changes in: (1) muscle strength; (2) objective functional improvements; (3); subjective functional improvements; (4) pain; (5) quality of life; and (6) conversion to total knee arthroplasty (TKA) compared to standard of care. Patient outcomes were evaluated at a minimum 3 months. Braced patient's demonstrated significant improvements in muscle strength, several functional tests, and patient reported outcomes when compared to the matched cohort. These results are encouraging and suggest that this device may represent a promising alternative to standard treatment methods for knee osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Carboxyl functionalization of carbon fibers via aryl diazonium reaction in molten urea to enhance interfacial shear strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuwei; Meng, Linghui; Fan, Liquan; Wu, Guangshun; Ma, Lichun; Zhao, Min; Huang, Yudong

    2016-01-01

    Using molten urea as the solvent, carbon fibers were functionalized with carboxylic acid groups via aryl diazonium reaction in 15 min to improve their interfacial bonding with epoxy resin. The surface functionalization was quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which showed that the relative surface coverage of carboxylic acid groups increased from an initial percentage of 3.17-10.41%. Mechanical property test results indicated that the aryl diazonium reaction in this paper could improve the interfacial shear strength by 66%. Meanwhile, the technique did not adopt any pre-oxidation step to produce functional groups prior to grafting and was shown to maintain the tensile strength of the fibers. This methodology provided a rapid, facile and economically viable route to produce covalently functionalized carbon fibers in large quantities with an eco-friendly method.

  5. Gamow-Teller strength function for 90Zr: Effects of spin and isospin exchange forces, and ground-state correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, G.J.; Bloom, S.D.; Hausman, R.F. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Shell-model calculations of the Gamow-Teller strength function for 90 Zr have been performed utilizing a realistic finite-range two-body interaction in a model space consisting of the 2p and 1g shells. The effects of admixtures of two-particle two-hole excitations in 90 Nb, mostly due to the spin and isospin exchange components of the nucleon-nucleon force, are discussed. Ground state correlations in 90 Zr are also added via seniority-zero two-proton excitations from the 2p shell into the 1g/sub 9/2/ shell. With the correlations the Gamow-Teller strength function is in good agreement with the experimental results and accounts for essentially all of the observed dispersion of strength. The inclusion of these correlations does not, however, produce either a displacement of Gamow-Teller strength to higher excitation energies, or a significant change in the total strength. Thus, they cannot account for the observed Gamow-Teller quenching. The quenching factor derived by a comparison of our calculated results with experiment is 0.52

  6. Solar cell contact pull strength as a function of pull-test temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, R. K.; Berman, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    Four types of solar cell contacts were given pull-strength tests at temperatures between -173 and +165 C. Contacts tested were: (1) solder-coated titanium-silver contacts on n-p cells, (2) palladium-containing titanium-silver contacts on n-p cells, (3) titanium-silver contacts on 0.2-mm-thick n-p cells, and (4) solder-coated electroless-nickel-plated contacts on p-n cells. Maximum pull strength was demonstrated at temperatures significantly below the air mass zero cell equilibrium temperature of +60 C. At the lowest temperatures, the chief failure mechanism was silicon fracture along crystallographic planes; at the highest temperatures, it was loss of solder strength. In the intermediate temperatures, many failure mechanisms operated. Pull-strength tests give a good indication of the suitability of solar cell contact systems for space use. Procedures used to maximize the validity of the results are described.

  7. Poor muscle strength and function in physically inactive childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus despite very mild disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Jéssica Pinto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare muscle strength (i.e. lower- and upper-body strength and function between physically inactive childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients (C-SLE and healthy controls (CTRL. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study and the sample consisted of 19 C-SLE (age between 9 and 18 years and 15 CTRL matched by age, sex, body mass index (BMI, and physical activity levels (assessed by accelerometry. Lower- and upper-body strength was assessed by the one-repetition-maximum (1-RM test. Isometric strength was assessed through a handgrip dynamometer. Muscle function was evaluated by the timed-stands test (TST and the timed-up-and-go test (TUG. Results: When compared with CTRL, C-SLE showed lower leg-press and bench-press 1-RM (p = 0.026 and p = 0.008, respectively, and a tendency toward lower handgrip strength (p = 0.052. C-SLE showed lower TST scores (p = 0.036 and a tendency toward higher TUG scores (p = 0.070 when compared with CTRL. Conclusion: Physically inactive C-SLE patients with very mild disease showed reduced muscle strength and functionality when compared with healthy controls matched by physical activity levels. These findings suggest C-SLE patients may greatly suffer from a physically inactive lifestyle than healthy controls do. Moreover, some sub-clinical “residual” effect of the disease or its pharmacological treatment seems to affect C-SLE patients even with a well-controlled disease.

  8. Strength and Power Training Effects on Lower Limb Force, Functional Capacity, and Static and Dynamic Balance in Older Female Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Paula Born; Pereira, Gleber; Lodovico, Angélica; Bento, Paulo C B; Rodacki, André L F

    2016-03-03

    It has been proposed that muscle power is more effective to prevent falls than muscle force production capacity, as rapid reactions are required to allow the postural control. This study aimed to compare the effects of strength and power training on lower limb force, functional capacity, and static and dynamic balance in older female adults. Thirty-seven volunteered healthy women had been allocated into the strength-training group (n = 14; 69 ± 7.3 years, 155 ± 5.6 cm, 72 ± 9.7 kg), the power-training group (n = 12; 67 ± 7.4 years, 153 ± 5.5 cm, 67.2 ± 7 kg), and control group (n = 11; 65 ± 3.1 years, 154 ± 5.6 cm, 70.9 ± 3 kg). After 12 weeks of training, the strength-training and power-training groups increased significantly maximum dynamic strength (29% and 27%), isometric strength (26% and 37%), and step total time (13% and 14%, dynamic balance), respectively. However, only the power-training group increased the rate of torque development (55%) and the functional capacity in 30-second chair stand (22%) and in time up and go tests (-10%). Empirically, power training may reduce the risk of injuries due to lower loads compared to strength training, and consequently, the physical effort demand during the training session is lower. Therefore, power training should be recommended as attractive training stimuli to improve lower limb force, functional capacity, and postural control of older female adults.

  9. Performance on Functional Strength Measurement and Muscle Power Sprint Test confirm poor anaerobic capacity in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aertssen, Wendy F M; Ferguson, Gillian D; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M

    2016-12-01

    There is little and conflicting information about anaerobic performance and functional strength in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). To investigate anaerobic capacity and functional strength in children with a clinical diagnosis of DCD (clin-DCD) and if differences were larger in older (age 7-10 years) compared to younger children (age 4-6 years). Furthermore to determine the percentage of children with clin-DCD that scored Strength Measurement. A clin-DCD group (36 boys, 11 girls, mean age: 7y 1mo, SD=2y 1mo) and a typically developing group (TD) (57 boys, 53 girls, mean age: 7y 5mo, SD=1y 10mo) were compared on Muscle Power Sprint Test (MPST) and Functional Strength Measurement (FSM). Children with clin-DCD performed poorer on the MPST and FSM, especially on the muscle endurance items of the FSM. The differences were larger in the older children compared to the younger on the cluster muscle endurance and the FSM total score. Over 50% of clin-DCD group scored tested on items requiring fast repetitive movements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Gogny-HFB+QRPA dipole strength function and its application to radiative neutron capture cross section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goriely Stephane

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Valuable theoretical predictions of nuclear dipole excitations in the whole chart are of great interest for different nuclear applications, including in particular nuclear astrophysics. Here we extend our large-scale calculations of the E1 and M1 absorption γ-ray strength function obtained in the framework of the axially-symmetric deformed quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA based on the finite-range D1M Gogny force to the determination of the de-excitation strength function. To do so, shell-model calculations of the de-excitation dipole strength function as well as experimental data are considered to provide insight in the low-energy limit and to complement the QRPA estimate phenomenologically. We compare our final prediction of the E1 and M1 strengths with available experimental data at low energies and show that a relatively good agreement can be obtained. Its impact on the average radiative width as well as radiative neutron capture cross section is discussed.

  11. Functional and muscular adaptations in an experimental model for isometric strength training in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Krüger

    Full Text Available Exercise training induces muscular adaptations that are highly specific to the type of exercise. For a systematic study of the differentiated exercise adaptations on a molecular level mouse models have been used successfully. The aim of the current study was to develop a suitable mouse model of isometric strength exercise training characterized by specific adaptations known from strength training. C57BL/6 mice performed an isometric strength training (ST for 10 weeks 5 days/week. Additionally, either a sedentary control group (CT or a regular endurance training group (ET groups were used as controls. Performance capacity was determined by maximum holding time (MHT and treadmill spirometry, respectively. Furthermore, muscle fiber types and diameter, muscular concentration of phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK, succinate dehydrogenase (SDHa, and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4 were determined. In a further approach, the effect of ST on glucose intolerance was tested in diabetic mice. In mice of the ST group we observed an increase of MHT in isometric strength tests, a type II fiber hypertrophy, and an increased GLUT4 protein content in the membrane fraction. In contrast, in mice of the ET group an increase of VO(2max, a shift to oxidative muscle fiber type and an increase of oxidative enzyme content was measured. Furthermore strength training was effective in reducing glucose intolerance in mice fed a high fat diet. An effective murine strength training model was developed and evaluated, which revealed marked differences in adaptations known from endurance training. This approach seems also suitable to test for therapeutical effects of strength training.

  12. Can repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation increase muscle strength in functional neurological paresis? A proof-of-principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broersma, M; Koops, E A; Vroomen, P C; Van der Hoeven, J H; Aleman, A; Leenders, K L; Maurits, N M; van Beilen, M

    2015-05-01

    Therapeutic options are limited in functional neurological paresis disorder. Earlier intervention studies did not control for a placebo effect, hampering assessment of effectivity. A proof-of-principle investigation was conducted into the therapeutic potential of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), using a single-blind two-period placebo-controlled cross-over design. Eleven patients received active 15 Hz rTMS over the contralateral motor cortex (hand area), in two periods of 5 days, for 30 min once a day at 80% of resting motor threshold, with a train length of 2 s and an intertrain interval of 4 s. Eight of these eleven patients were also included in the placebo treatment condition. Primary outcome measure was change in muscle strength as measured by dynamometry after treatment. Secondary outcome measure was the subjective change in muscle strength after treatment. In patients who received both treatments, active rTMS induced a significantly larger median increase in objectively measured muscle strength (24%) compared to placebo rTMS (6%; P difference due to treatment, i.e. patients did not perceive these objectively measured motor improvements (P = 0.40). Our findings suggest that rTMS by itself can potentially improve muscle weakness in functional neurological paresis disorder. Whereas patients' muscle strength increased as measured with dynamometry, patients did not report increased functioning of the affected hand, subjectively. The results may indicate that decreased muscle strength is not the core symptom and that rTMS should be added to behavioral approaches in functional neurological paresis. © 2015 EAN.

  13. Tongue-to-palate resistance training improves tongue strength and oropharyngeal swallowing function in subacute stroke survivors with dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H D; Choi, J B; Yoo, S J; Chang, M Y; Lee, S W; Park, J S

    2017-01-01

    Tongue function can affect both the oral and pharyngeal stages of the swallowing process, and proper tongue strength is vital for safe oropharyngeal swallowing. This trial investigated the effect of tongue-to-palate resistance training (TPRT) on tongue strength and oropharyngeal swallowing function in stroke with dysphagia patients. This trial was performed using a 4-week, two-group, pre-post-design. Participants were allocated to the experimental group (n = 18) or the control group (n = 17). The experimental group performed TPRT for 4 weeks (5 days per week) and traditional dysphagia therapy, whereas the control group performed traditional dysphagia therapy on the same schedule. Tongue strength was measured using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument. Swallowing function was measured using the videofluoroscopic dysphagia scale (VDS) and penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) based on a videofluoroscopic swallowing study. Experimental group showed more improved in the tongue strength (both anterior and posterior regions, P = 0·009, 0·015). In addition, the experimental group showed more improved scores on the oral and pharyngeal phase of VDS (P = 0·029, 0·007), but not on the PAS (P = 0·471), compared with the control group. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of TPRT in increasing tongue muscle strength and improving swallowing function in patients with post-stroke dysphagia. Therefore, we recommend TPRT as an easy and simple rehabilitation strategy for improving swallowing in patients with dysphagia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Ultimate Tensile Strength as a Function of Test Rate for Various Ceramic Matrix Composites at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung R.; Bansal, Narottam P.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2002-01-01

    Ultimate tensile strength of five different continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composites, including SiC/BSAS (2D 2 types), SiC/MAS-5 (2D), SiC/SiC (2D enhanced), and C/SiC(2D) was determined as a function of test rate at I 100 to 1200 'C in air. All five composite materials exhibited a significant dependency of ultimate strength on test rate such that the ultimate strength decreased with decreasing test rate, similar to the behavior observed in many advanced monolithic ceramics at elevated temperatures. The application of the preloading technique as well as the prediction of life from one loading configuration (constant stress rate) to another (constant stress loading) for SiC/BSAS suggested that the overall macroscopic failure mechanism of the composites would be the one governed by a power-law type of damage evolution/accumulation, analogous to slow crack growth commonly observed in advanced monolithic ceramics.

  15. Solubilization of myofibrillar proteins in water or low ionic strength media: Classical techniques, basic principles, and novel functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Tume, Ron K; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-10-13

    The qualitative characteristics of meat products are closely related to the functionality of muscle proteins. Myofibrillar proteins (MPs), comprising approximately 50% of total muscle proteins, are generally considered to be insoluble in solutions of low ionic strength ( 0.3 M) for solubilization. These soluble proteins are the ones which determine many functional properties of meat products, including emulsification and thermal gelation. In order to increase the utilization of meat and meat products, many studies have investigated the solubilization of MPs in water or low ionic strength media and determining their functionality. However, there still remains a lack of systematic information on the functional properties of MPs solubilized in this manner. Hence, this review will explore some typical techniques that have been used. The main procedures used for their solubilization, the fundamental principles and their functionalities in water (low ionic strength medium) are comprehensively discussed. In addition, advantages and disadvantages of each technique are summarized. Finally, future considerations are presented to facilitate progress in this new area and to enable water soluble muscle MPs to be utilized as novel meat ingredients in the food industry.

  16. Moderate-Load Muscular Endurance Strength Training Did Not Improve Peak Power or Functional Capacity in Older Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Walker

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study determined the effects of muscular endurance strength training on maximum strength and power, functional capacity, muscle activation and hypertrophy in older men and women. Eighty-one men and women acted as an intervention group while 22 acted as non-training controls (age range 64–75 y. Intervention training included super-sets (i.e., paired exercises, immediately performing the second exercises following completion of the first with short rest intervals (30–60 s between sets at an intensity of 50–60% one-repetition maximum (1-RM for 15–20 repetitions. Concentric leg press actions measured maximum strength (1-RM and concentric peak power. Functional capacity was assessed by maximum speed walking tests (i.e., forward walk, backward walk, timed-up-and-go, and stair climb tests. Quadriceps muscle activation was assessed by surface electromyogram and twitch interpolation technique. Vastus lateralis cross-sectional area was measured by panoramic ultrasound. Compared to control, the intervention groups increased maximum strength (1-RM; men: 10 ± 7% vs. 2 ± 3%, women: 14 ± 9% vs. 1 ± 6% both P < 0.01 and vastus lateralis cross-sectional area (men: 6 ± 7% vs. −3 ± 6%, women: 10 ± 10% vs. 0 ± 4% both P < 0.05. But there were no between-group differences in peak power, muscle activation or functional capacity (e.g., stair climb; men: −5 ± 7% vs. −4 ± 3%, women: −5 ± 6% vs. −2 ± 5% both P > 0.05. While benefits occurred during muscular endurance strength training, specific stimuli are probably needed to target all aspects of age-related health.

  17. Effects of endurance and endurance-strength exercise on biochemical parameters of liver function in women with abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrypnik, Damian; Ratajczak, Marzena; Karolkiewicz, Joanna; Mądry, Edyta; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Hansdorfer-Korzon, Rita; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Jakubowski, Hieronim; Bogdański, Paweł

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is a risk factor of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Although the standard therapy for obesity involves physical exercise, well-planned studies of the changes in liver function in response to different exercise intensities in obese subjects are scarce. The aim of the present study was to examine a question of how does exercise mode affect the liver function. 44 women with abdominal obesity were randomized into two exercise groups: endurance (group A) and endurance-strength (group B). Women in each group exercised for 60min 3 times/week for a 3-month period. Markers of liver function: serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and bilirubin levels were quantified. We found significant differences in ALT (pexercise. Blood ALT and AST tended to decrease in group B, increase in group A. Significant reduction in serum GGT level after exercise in both groups was observed (pexercise led to changes in serum ALP activity and total or direct bilirubin level. However, endurance-strength training resulted in significant decreases in serum indirect bilirubin (pexercise (group B). The mode of exercise does matter: endurance-strength exercise led to a greater improvement, compared to endurance exercise, in the liver function in women with abdominal obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Prediction of Rowing Ergometer Performance from Functional Anaerobic Power, Strength and Anthropometric Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akça Firat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to develop different regression models to predict 2000 m rowing ergometer performance with the use of anthropometric, anaerobic and strength variables and to determine how precisely the prediction models constituted by different variables predict performance, when conducted together in the same equation or individually. 38 male collegiate rowers (20.17 ± 1.22 years participated in this study. Anthropometric, strength, 2000 m maximal rowing ergometer and rowing anaerobic power tests were applied. Multiple linear regression procedures were employed in SPSS 16 to constitute five different regression formulas using a different group of variables. The reliability of the regression models was expressed by R2 and the standard error of estimate (SEE. Relationships of all parameters with performance were investigated through Pearson correlation coefficients. The prediction model using a combination of anaerobic, strength and anthropometric variables was found to be the most reliable equation to predict 2000 m rowing ergometer performance (R2 = 0.92, SEE= 3.11 s. Besides, the equation that used rowing anaerobic and strength test results also provided a reliable prediction (R2 = 0.85, SEE= 4.27 s. As a conclusion, it seems clear that physiological determinants which are affected by anaerobic energy pathways should also get involved in the processes and models used for performance prediction and talent identification in rowing.

  19. Strength Recovery Following Rhythmic or Sustained Exercise as a Function of Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Jay T.

    The relative rates of strength recovery subsequent to bouts of rhythmic or sustained isometric exercise were investigated. The 72 undergraduates who served as subjects were tested seven times within the framework of a repeated measures design. Each testing session involved two bouts of either rhythmic or sustained isometric exercise separated by a…

  20. Level densities and γ strength functions in light Sc and Ti isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, A.; Larsen, A.C.; Syed, N.U.H.; Guttormsen, M.; Nyhus, H.; Siem, S.; Harissopulos, S.; Konstantinopoulos, T.; Lagoyannis, A.; Perdidakis, G.; Spyrou, A.; Kmiecik, M.; Mazurek, K.; Krticka, M.; Loennroth, T.; Norby, M.; Voinov, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a measurement of nuclear level densities and the γ-ray strength of light Sc (Sc 43 , Sc 45 ) and Ti (Ti 44 , Ti 45 and Ti 46 ) isotopes using the Oslo Method. The article begins with a presentation of the experimental setup. (authors)

  1. Study of Photon Strength Functions of Actinides: the case of U-235, Np-238 and Pu-241

    CERN Document Server

    Guerrero, C; Cano-Ott, D; Martinez, T; Mendoza, E; Villamarin, D; Colonna, N; Meaze, M H; Marrone, S; Tagliente, G; Terlizzi, R; Belloni, F; Abbondanno, U; Fujii, K; Milazzo, P M; Moreau, C; Aerts, G; Berthoumieux, E; Dridi, W; Gunsing, F; Pancin, J; Perrot, L; Plukis, A; Alvarez, H; Duran, I; Paradela, C; Andriamonje, S; Calviani, M; Chiaveri, E; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Kadi, Y; Vicente, M C; Vlachoudis, V; Andrzejewski, J; Marganiec, J; Assimakopoulos, P; Karadimos, D; Karamanis, D; Papachristodoulou, C; Patronis, N; Audouin, L; David, S; Ferrant, L; Isaev, S; Stephan, C; Tassan-Got, L; Badurek, G; Jericha, E; Leeb, H; Oberhummer, H; Pigni, M T; Baumann, P; Kerveno, M; Lukic, S; Rudolf, G; Becvar, F; Krticka, M; Calvino, F; Capote, R; Carrillo De Albornoz, A; Marques, L; Salgado, J; Tavora, L; Vaz, P; Cennini, P; Dahlfors, M; Ferrari, A; Gramegna, F; Herrera-Martinez, A; Mastinu, P; Praena, J; Sarchiapone, L; Wendler, H; Chepel, V; Ferreira-Marques, R; Goncalves, I; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Neves, F; Cortes, G; Poch, A; Pretel, C; Couture, A; Cox, J; O'brien, S; Wiescher, M; Dillman, I; Kappeler, F; Mosconi, M; Plag, R; Voss, F; Walter, S; Wisshak, K; Dolfini, R; Rubbia, C; Domingo-Pardo, C; Tain, J L; Eleftheriadis, C; Savvidis, I; Frais-Koelbl, H; Griesmayer, E; Furman, W; Konovalov, V; Goverdovski, A; Ketlerov, V; Haas, B; Haight, R; Reifarth, R; Heil, M; Igashira, M; Koehler, P; Kossionides, E; Lampoudis, C; Lozano, M; Quesada, J; Massimi, C; Vannini, G; Mengoni, A; Oshima, M; Papadopoulos, C; Vlastou, R; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Plompen, A; Rullhusen, P; Rauscher, T; Rosetti, M; Ventura, A

    2011-01-01

    The decay from excited levels in medium and heavy nuclei can be described in a statistical approach by means of Photon Strength Functions and Level Density distributions combined with the theory of the compound. The study of electromagnetic cascades following neutron capture by means of high efficiency detectors has been shown to be well suited for probing the properties of the Photon Strength Function of heavy (high level density) and/or radioactive (high background) nuclei. In this work we have investigated for the first time the validity of the recommended PSF for actinides, in particular 235U, 238Np and 241Pu. Our study includes the search for resonance structures in the PSF below Sn and draws conclusions regarding their existence and their characteristics in terms of energy, width and electromagnetic nature.

  2. Test of E1-radiative strength function and level density models by 155 Gd (n,2γ) 156 Gd reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voinov, A.V.

    1996-01-01

    The information about the level density of 156 Gd nucleus and strength functions of γ transitions extracted from two γ-cascade spectra of the 155 Gd (n,2γ) 156 Gd reaction is analyzed. The method of statistical simulation of γ-cascade intensity is applied for calculation of the main parameters of experimental spectra. The method is used to extract the information on the E1-radiative strength function of γ transitions and level density in the 156 Gd nucleus. It is shown that at an excitation energy above 3 MeV the level density of 156 Gd nucleus must decrease in comparison with that calculated within the Fermi gas model. Its is concluded that possible explanation of the observed effect is connected with the influence of pairing correlations on the level density in nuclei

  3. Nuclear level densities and γ-ray strength functions of 180,181Ta and neutron capture cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatji, K. L.; Kheswa, B. V.; Wiedeking, M.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Brits, C. P.; Bleuel, D. L.; Giacoppo, F.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Hadynska-Klek, K.; Hagen, T. W.; Ingeberg, V. W.; Klintefjord, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Nyhus, H. T.; Renstrøm, T.; Rose, S.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Tveten, G. M.; Zeiser, F.

    2017-09-01

    The γ-ray strength functions and nuclear level densities in the quasi-continuum of 180,181Ta are extracted from particle-γ coincidence events with the Oslo Method, below the Sn. The data were used as input in the TALYS reaction code for calculations of the astrophysical Maxwellian-averaged (n,γ) cross-sections to investigate nucleosynthesis of nature's rarest stable isotope 180Ta.

  4. Managing Knee Osteoarthritis: The Effects of Body Weight Supported Physical Activity on Joint Pain, Function, and Thigh Muscle Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeler, Jason; Christian, Mathew; Cooper, Juliette; Leiter, Jeffrey; MacDonald, Peter

    2015-11-01

    To determine the effect of a 12-week lower body positive pressure (LBPP)-supported low-load treadmill walking program on knee joint pain, function, and thigh muscle strength in overweight patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Prospective, observational, repeated measures investigation. Community-based, multidisciplinary sports medicine clinic. Thirty-one patients aged between 55 and 75 years, with a body mass index ≥25 kg/m and mild-to-moderate knee OA. Twelve-week LBPP-supported low-load treadmill walking regimen. Acute knee joint pain (visual analog scale) during full weight bearing treadmill walking, chronic knee pain, and joint function [Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) questionnaire] during normal activities of daily living, and thigh muscle strength (isokinetic testing). Appropriate methods of statistical analysis were used to compare data from baseline and follow-up evaluation. Participants reported significant improvements in knee joint pain and function and demonstrated significant increases in thigh muscle strength about the degenerative knee. Participants also experienced significant reductions in acute knee pain during full weight bearing treadmill walking and required dramatically less LBPP support to walk pain free on the treadmill. Data suggest that an LBPP-supported low-load exercise regimen can be used to significantly diminish knee pain, enhance joint function, and increase thigh muscle strength, while safely promoting pain-free walking exercise in overweight patients with knee OA. These findings have important implications for the development of nonoperative treatment strategies that can be used in the management of joint symptoms associated with progressive knee OA in at-risk patient populations. This research suggests that LBPP-supported low-load walking is a safe user-friendly mode of exercise that can be successfully used in the management of day-to-day joint symptoms associated with knee OA, helping to improve the

  5. Nuclear level densities and γ-ray strength functions of 180,181Ta and neutron capture cross sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malatji K.L.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The γ-ray strength functions and nuclear level densities in the quasi-continuum of 180,181Ta are extracted from particle-γ coincidence events with the Oslo Method, below the Sn. The data were used as input in the TALYS reaction code for calculations of the astrophysical Maxwellian-averaged (n,γ cross-sections to investigate nucleosynthesis of nature's rarest stable isotope 180Ta.

  6. Rotator cuff injury in patients over the age of 65 years: evaluation of function, integrity and strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio de Castro Veado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively evaluate the results from patients who underwent arthroscopic treatment for rotator cuff injuries, among those aged over 65 years, observing integrity, function and strength.METHODS: Thirty-five shoulders were operated between July 2005 and July 2010, and 28 shoulders were re-evaluated regarding elevation strength and external rotation, using a digital dynamometer. Integrity was evaluated by means of ultrasound examinations. The patients, whose mean age was 70.54 years (ranging from 65 to 82 years, were followed up for a minimum of 26 months and mean of 51.18 months (ranging from 26 to 82 months. To evaluate function, the UCLA score, the Simple Shoulder Test (SST and a visual analog scale (VAS for pain were used.RESULTS: In analyzing the ultrasound scans, it was observed that the integrity of the rotator cuff was maintained in 75% of the cases at the end of the follow-up, along with the improvement in the UCLA score, which evolved from 17.46 to 32.39, i.e. excellent and good results in 89.28%. The mean SST and VAS indices were 9.86 and 1.5 respectively.CONCLUSION: Arthroscopic surgery to repair rotator cuff injuries in patients over the age of 65 years leads to improved function and pain relief, with maintenance of the integrity of the repair. The data on muscle strength were inconclusive.

  7. Effects of eccentric-focused and conventional resistance training on strength and functional capacity of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Caroline Pieta; Toscan, Rafael; de Camargo, Mainara; Pereira, Evelyn Possobom; Griebler, Nathália; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini; Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of eccentric training using a constant load with longer exposure time at the eccentric phase on knee extensor muscle strength and functional capacity of elderly subjects in comparison with a conventional resistance training program. Twenty-six healthy elderly women (age = 67 ± 6 years) were randomly assigned to an eccentric-focused training group (ETG; n = 13) or a conventional training group (CTG; n = 13). Subjects underwent 12 weeks of resistance training twice a week. For the ETG, concentric and eccentric phases were performed using 1.5 and 4.5 s, respectively, while for CTG, each phase lasted 1.5 s. Maximum dynamic strength was assessed by the one-repetition maximum (1RM) test in the leg press and knee extension exercises, and for functional capacity, subjects performed specific tests (6-m walk test, timed up-and-go test, stair-climbing test, and chair-rising test). Both groups improved knee extension 1RM (24-26 %; p = 0.021), timed up-and-go test (11-16 %; p training volume and intensity does not promote different adaptations in strength or functional capacity compared to conventional resistance training in elderly woman.

  8. Masked and unmasked priming effects as a function of semantic relatedness and associative strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Casas, Rosa; Ferré, Pilar; Demestre, Josep; García-Chico, Teófilo; García-Albea, José E

    2012-11-01

    The study presented in this paper aimed to investigate the pattern of semantic priming effects, under masked and unmasked conditions, in the lexical decision task, manipulating type of semantic relation and associative strength. Three different kinds of word relations were examined in two experiments: only-semantically related words [e.g., codo (elbow)-rodilla (knee)] and semantic/associative related words with strong [e.g., mesa (table)-silla (chair) and weak association strength [e.g., sapo (toad)-rana (frog)]. In Experiment 1 a masked priming procedure was used with a prime duration of 56 ms, and in Experiment 2, the prime was presented unmasked for 150 ms. The results showed that there were masked priming effects with strong associates, but no evidence of these effects was found with weak associates or only-semantic related word pairs. When the prime was presented unmasked, the three types of relations produced significant priming effects and they were not influenced by association strength.

  9. Highlights from the Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Human Muscle Size and Strength or FAMuSS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S. Pescatello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Human Muscle Size and Strength study or FAMuSS was to identify genetic factors that dictated the response of health-related fitness phenotypes to resistance exercise training (RT. The phenotypes examined were baseline muscle strength and muscle, fat, and bone volume and their response to RT. FAMuSS participants were 1300 young (24 years, healthy men (42% and women (58% that were primarily of European-American descent. They were genotyped for ~500 polymorphisms and completed the Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire to assess energy expenditure and time spent in light, moderate, and vigorous intensity habitual physical activity and sitting. Subjects then performed a 12-week progressive, unilateral RT program of the nondominant arm with the dominant arm used as a comparison. Before and after RT, muscle strength was measured with the maximum voluntary contraction and one repetition maximum, while MRI measured muscle, fat, and bone volume. We will discuss the history of how FAMuSS originated, provide a brief overview of the FAMuSS methods, and summarize our major findings regarding genotype associations with muscle strength and size, body composition, cardiometabolic biomarkers, and physical activity.

  10. Assessment of oscillator strengths with multiconfigurational short-range density functional theory for electronic excitations in organic molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegård, Erik Donovan

    2017-01-01

    considered the large collection of organic molecules whose excited states were investigated with a range of electronic structure methods by Thiel et al. As a by-product of our calculations of oscillator strengths, we also obtain electronic excitation energies, which enable us to compare the performance......We have in a series of recent papers investigated electronic excited states with a hybrid between a complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) wave function and density functional theory (DFT). This method has been dubbed the CAS short-range DFT method (CAS–srDFT). The previous papers...

  11. Dual task multimodal physical training in Alzheimer’s disease: effect on cognitive functions and muscle strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Naves Ferreira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dual task multimodal physical training (MPT on the cognitive functions and muscle strength in older adults with Alzheimer’s disease. Participants were 19 subjects with AD in the mild and moderate stages, divided into training group (TG and control group (CG. The TG performed dual task MPT for 12 weeks. Subjects were evaluated at the pre- and post-intervention moments. The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, Clock Drawing Test (CDT and Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB were used to assess cognition. For muscle strength, the Chair Lift and Sit Test (CLST and Manual Grasp Force (MGF were used. The Wilcoxon test was used to analyze pre and post intragroup moments. The TG showed a significant improvement in FAB and CLST (p≤0.05 and a tendency to improve the MMSE score (p≤0.08. The CG showed significant improvement in CLST (p≤0.05. Dual task MPT improves the frontal cognitive functions and lower limb muscle strength of older adults with AD.

  12. Thigh and knee circumference, knee-extension strength, and functional performance after fast-track total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kristensen, Morten Tange; Husted, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To (1) quantify changes in knee-extension strength and functional-performance at discharge after fast-track total hip arthroplasty (THA) and (2) investigate whether these changes correlate to changes in thigh and knee circumference (ie, swelling) or pain. DESIGN: A prospective, descrip......OBJECTIVE: To (1) quantify changes in knee-extension strength and functional-performance at discharge after fast-track total hip arthroplasty (THA) and (2) investigate whether these changes correlate to changes in thigh and knee circumference (ie, swelling) or pain. DESIGN: A prospective......, descriptive, hypothesis-generating study. SETTING: A special unit for fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty operations at a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-four patients (20 women and 4 men; ages 69 ± 6.1 years) scheduled for primary unilateral THA. METHODS: All patients were evaluated before surgery......, except for hip pain. The average loss in knee-extension strength after surgery (32%, P = .01) did not correlate with increased thigh circumference (6%, P

  13. Silver oxide-containing hydroxyapatite coating supports osteoblast function and enhances implant anchorage strength in rat femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Shuichi; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Shobuike, Takeo; Noda, Iwao; Akiyama, Takayuki; Tsukamoto, Masatsugu; Ueno, Masaya; Someya, Shinsuke; Kawano, Shunsuke; Sonohata, Motoki; Mawatari, Masaaki

    2015-09-01

    Antibacterial silver with hydroxyapatite (Ag-HA) is a promising coating material for imparting antibacterial properties to implants. We previously reported that 3% (w/w) silver with HA (3% Ag-HA) has both antibacterial activity and osteoconductivity. In this study, we investigated the effects of Ag-HA on the in vitro osteoblast function and the in vivo anchorage strength and osteoconductivity of implants. Production of the osteoblast marker alkaline phosphatase, but not cytotoxicity, was observed in cells of the osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1 cultured on the 3% Ag-HA-coated surface. These results were similar to those observed with silver-free HA coating. In contrast, a significant high level of cytotoxicity was observed when the cells were cultured on a 50% Ag-HA-coated surface. The anchorage strength of implants inserted into the femur of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was enhanced by coating the implants with 3% Ag-HA. On the 3% Ag-HA-coated surface, both metaphyseal and diaphyseal areas were largely covered with new bone and had adequate osteoconductivity. These results suggest that 3% Ag-HA, like conventional HA, promotes osteogenesis by supporting osteoblast viability and function and thereby contributes to sufficient anchorage strength of implants. Application of 3% Ag-HA, which combines the osteoconductivity of HA and the antibacterial activity of silver, to prosthetic joints will help prevent postoperative infections. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effects of isokinetic calf muscle exercise program on muscle strength and venous function in patients with chronic venous insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Sabriye; Çetin, Cem; Yavuz, Turhan; Demir, Hilmi M; Atalay, Yurdagül B

    2018-05-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to observe the change of the ankle joint range of motion, the muscle strength values measured with an isokinetic dynamometer, pain scores, quality of life scale, and venous return time in chronic venous insufficiency diagnosed patients by prospective follow-up after 12-week exercise program including isokinetic exercises. Methods The patient group of this study comprised 27 patients (23 female, 4 male) who were diagnosed with chronic venous insufficiency. An exercise program including isokinetic exercise for the calf muscle was given to patients three days per week for 12 weeks. At the end of 12 weeks, five of the patients left the study due to inadequate compliance with the exercise program. As a result, control data of 22 patients were included. Ankle joint range of active motion, isokinetic muscle strength, pain, quality of life, and photoplethysmography measurements were assessed before starting and after the exercise program. Results Evaluating changes of the starting and control data depending on time showed that all isokinetic muscle strength measurement parameters, range of motion, and overall quality of life values of patients improved. Venous return time values have also increased significantly ( p < 0.05). Conclusion In conclusion, increase in muscle strength has been provided with exercise therapy in patients with chronic venous insufficiency. It has been determined that the increase in muscle strength affected the venous pump and this ensured improvement in venous function and range of motion of the ankle. In addition, it has been detected that pain reduced and quality of life improved after the exercise program.

  15. Changes in Lower Limb Strength and Function Following Lumbar Spinal Mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Tsoi Sze; Lam, Pui Yu; Lau, Mei Yan; Siu, Wai Lam; Yu, Ka Man; Lo, Chi Ngai; Ng, Joseph

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether grade III passive lumbar rotational mobilization on L2-3 can improve hip flexor strength and performance in the single-leg triple-hop test in asymptomatic young adults. Twenty-four participants (12 men, 12 women) aged from 19 to 26 years who were positive in the hip flexor "break" test were recruited in this study. They were randomly allocated to the treatment group or sham group. Isometric hip flexor torque (N·m) and single-leg triple-hop distance (cm) were measured before and after a passive lumbar rotational mobilization or a sham intervention. After the intervention, both the treatment and sham groups exhibited a significant increase in longest hop distance (P = .040 and .044, respectively). The treatment group had a significantly higher (3.41 ± 5.44%) positive percentage change in torque than the sham group (-2.36 ± 5.81%) (P = .02). The study results indicated a potential effect of grade III passive lumbar rotational mobilization in improving hip flexor strength. However, whether the improvement in hopping performance was the result of a treatment effect or a learning effect could not be determined. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Strength functions of primary transitions following thermal neutron capture in strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, C.; Lieb, K.P.

    1989-01-01

    The primary E1, M1 and E2 γ-radiation in 87,88,89 Sr observed after thermal neutron capture was compared with the predictions of single particle and giant resonance models. The nuclei feature a wide range of neutron binding energies between 6.3 and 11.1 MeV, which makes a 5.5 MeV spectrum of primary transition energies available for investigation. The (n, γ) reaction was used to estimate the parameters of the spin-flip M1 giant resonance in strontium. The total energy weighted M1 strength of this resonance exceeds the results of shell model and random phase approximation calculations for 90 Zr by a factor of 3-4. The E1 strengths were found to agree with the established giant dipole resonance model. The few data on primary E2 transitions do not allow to differentiate between the giant quadrupole resonance and the single particle models. (orig.)

  17. Korean consumers' perceptions of health/functional food claims according to the strength of scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Yeon; Kang, Eun Jin; Kwon, Oran; Kim, Gun-Hee

    2010-10-01

    In this study, we investigated that consumers could differentiate between levels of claims and clarify how a visual aid influences consumer understanding of the different claim levels. We interviewed 2,000 consumers in 13 shopping malls on their perception of and confidence in different levels of health claims using seven point scales. The average confidence scores given by participants were 4.17 for the probable level and 4.07 for the possible level; the score for the probable level was significantly higher than that for the possible level (P consumers understand the strength of scientific evidence behind those claims. Moreover, when a visual aid was included, consumers perceived the scientific levels more clearly and had greater confidence in their meanings than when a visual aid was not included. Although this result suggests that consumers react differently to different claim levels, it is not yet clear whether consumers understand the variations in the degree of scientific support.

  18. Relationship between isometric thigh muscle strength and minimum clinically important differences in knee function in osteoarthritis: data from the osteoarthritis initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhdorfer, Anja; Wirth, Wolfgang; Eckstein, Felix

    2015-04-01

    To determine the relationship between thigh muscle strength and clinically relevant differences in self-assessed lower leg function. Isometric knee extensor and flexor strength of 4,553 Osteoarthritis Initiative participants (2,651 women and 1,902 men) was related to the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) physical function scores by linear regression. Further, groups of male and female participant strata with minimum clinically important differences (MCIDs) in WOMAC function scores (6 of 68 units) were compared across the full range of observed values and to participants without functional deficits (WOMAC score 0). The effect of WOMAC knee pain and body mass index on the above relationships was explored using stepwise regression. Per regression equations, a 3.7% reduction in extensor strength and a 4.0% reduction in flexor strength were associated with an MCID in WOMAC function in women, and, respectively, a 3.6% and 4.8% reduction in men. For strength divided by body weight, reductions were 5.2% and 6.7%, respectively, in women and 5.8% and 6.7%, respectively, in men. Comparing MCID strata across the full observed range of WOMAC function confirmed the above estimates and did not suggest nonlinear relationships across the spectrum of observed values. WOMAC pain correlated strongly with WOMAC function, but extensor (and flexor) muscle strength contributed significant independent information. Reductions of approximately 4% in isometric muscle strength and of 6% in strength per body weight were related to a clinically relevant difference in WOMAC functional disability. Longitudinal studies will need to confirm these relationships within persons. Muscle extensor (and flexor) strength (per body weight) provided significant independent information in addition to pain in explaining variability in lower leg function. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  19. In hip osteoarthritis, Nordic Walking is superior to strength training and home based exercise for improving function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieler, T.; Siersma, Volkert; Magnusson, S. P.

    2017-01-01

    in 60+-year-old persons (n = 152) with hip osteoarthritis (OA) not awaiting hip replacement. Functional performance [i.e., 30-s chair stand test (primary outcome), timed stair climbing, and 6-min walk test] and self-reported outcomes (i.e., physical function, pain, physical activity level, self-efficacy......This observer-blinded, randomized controlled trial compared the short- and long-term effects of 4 months of supervised strength training (ST) in a local fitness center, supervised Nordic Walking (NW) in a local park, and unsupervised home-based exercise (HBE, control) on functional performance...... activity and to both ST and HBE for improving (P exercise modality compared with ST and HBE....

  20. Screen-based sedentary behavior and associations with functional strength in 6-15 year-old children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelson, Lisa R; Mathias, Kevin C; Fulgoni, Victor L; Karagounis, Leonidas G

    2016-02-04

    Physical strength is associated with improved health outcomes in children. Heavier children tend to have lower functional strength and mobility. Physical activity can increase children's strength, but it is unknown how different types of electronic media use impact physical strength. Data from the NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS) from children ages 6-15 were analyzed in this study. Regression models were conducted to determine if screen-based sedentary behaviors (television viewing time, computer/video game time) were associated with strength measures (grip, leg extensions, modified pull-ups, plank) while controlling for potential confounders including child age, sex, BMI z-score, and days per week with 60+ minutes of physical activity. Grip strength and leg extensions divided by body weight were analyzed to provide measures of relative strength together with pull-ups and plank, which require lifting the body. The results from the regression models showed the hypothesized inverse association between TV time and all strength measures. Computer time was only significantly inversely associated with the ability to do one or more pull-ups. This study shows that television viewing, but not computer/videogames, is inversely associated with measures of child strength while controlling for child characteristics and physical activity. These findings suggest that "screen time" may not be a unified construct with respect to strength outcomes and that further exploration of the potential benefits of reducing television time on children's strength and related mobility is needed.

  1. Improved Walking Capacity and Muscle Strength After Functional Power-Training in Young Children With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vulpen, Liesbeth F; de Groot, Sonja; Rameckers, Eugene; Becher, Jules G; Dallmeijer, Annet J

    Background. Strength training programs for children with cerebral palsy (CP) showed inconclusive evidence for improving walking, despite improvements in strength. Recent studies have suggested that strength training with high movement velocity is more effective for improving walking than traditional

  2. Influence of Porous Spherical-Shaped Hydroxyapatite on Mechanical Strength and Bioactive Function of Conventional Glass Ionomer Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Yu Chiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Glass-ionomer-cement (GIC is helpful in Minimal Intervention Dentistry because it releases fluoride ions and is highly biocompatible. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms by which hydroxyapatite (HAp improves the mechanical strength and bioactive functioning of GIC when these materials are combined to make apatite ionomer cement (AIC. A conventional GIC powder was mixed with porous, spherical-HAp particles (HApS, crystalline HAp (HAp200 or one of two types of cellulose. The micro-compressive strengths of the additive particles were measured, and various specimens were evaluated with regard to their compressive strengths (CS, fluoride release concentrations (fluoride electrode and multi-element release concentrations. The AIC was found to release higher concentrations of fluoride (1.2 times and strontium ions (1.5 times compared to the control GIC. It was detected the more release of calcium originated from HApS than HAp200 in AIC. The CS of the AIC incorporating an optimum level of HAp was also significantly higher than that of the GIC. These results suggest that adding HAp can increase the release concentration of ions required for remineralization while maintaining the CS of the GIC. This effect does not result from a physical phenomenon, but rather from chemical reactions between the HAp and polyacrylic acid of GIC.

  3. Effects of a whole body vibration training program on strength, power, and functional tests in the physically active elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Gonçalves da Silva

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a whole body vibration training program on knee extensor isokinetic peak torque, average power, and functional tests in the physically active elderly. Forty-seven subjects, who participated in a training program for the elderly, were recruited. The subjects were divided into two groups: whole body vibration group (WBV (n=24, 70.7±5.8 years, 62.7±12.3 kg and 155.9±8.0 cm and control group (n=23. 70.0±5.7 years, 65.3±10.7 kg and 157.9±6.6 cm. The WBS group underwent whole body vibration exercise and their regular training program for 13 weeks, 2 times per week, whereas the control group performed the regular training program only. Whole body vibration training was not effective in increasing isokinetic peak torque, average power, or performance in the functional tests. On the other hand, the regular training program was effective in increasing elbow flexor strength endurance, distance covered in the 6-min walk test, and speed in the timed up and go test. The results suggest that vibration training is not effective in modifying functionality or muscle strength and power in the physically active elderly.

  4. Effectiveness of water-based Liuzijue exercise on respiratory muscle strength and peripheral skeletal muscle function in patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu W

    2018-05-01

    beneficial effects on COPD patients’ respiratory muscle strength and peripheral skeletal muscle function, and additional benefits may exist in endurance of upper limbs and strength and endurance of lower limbs when compared with land-based Liuzijue exercise. Keywords: COPD, Liuzijue exercise, water-based exercise, respiratory muscle strength, isokinetic muscle strength, quantitative assessment

  5. First results on photon strength functions of 78Se from the two-step γ Cascades measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, Stanislav; Bečvář, František; Krtička, Milan; Tomandl, Ivo

    2017-09-01

    Two-step gamma cascades (TSCs) following the radiative capture of thermal neutrons in 77Se were measured at the research reactor at Řež near Prague. Results on photon strength functions (PSFs) of 78Se, obtained from comparison of experimental TSC spectra with outcomes of simulations under different assumptions about level density and PSFs using the DICEBOX algorithm, are presented. The main attention is paid to possible manifestation of the pygmy resonance observed recently in this nucleus in the nuclear resonance fluorescence measurement and low-energy PSF enhancement observed in Oslo-type experiments for all A ≲ 100 nuclei.

  6. Effect of floorball training on blood lipids, body composition, muscle strength, and functional capacity of elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorup Petersen, Jacob; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Melcher, Pia Grethe Sandfeld

    2017-01-01

    Floorball training consists of intense repeated exercise and may offer a motivating and social stimulating team activity in elderly individuals. However, the effect of floorball training in elderly adults on physiological adaptations important for health is not known. Thus, this study examined...... the effect of floorball training on blood lipids, muscle strength, body composition, and functional capacity of men aged 65-76 years. Thirty-nine recreational active men were randomized into a floorball group (FG; n = 22) or petanque group (PG; n = 17), in which training was performed 1 h twice a week for 12......-IR) was reduced (P performance in four different...

  7. Level density, radiative strength functions from the (nth, 2 γ) reaction and main properties of the 96Mo nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhovoj, A.M.; Khitrov, V.A.

    2008-01-01

    The data published on two-step cascade intensities to 12 final levels of 96 Mo were approximated for different energies of excitations and dipole primary E1- and M1-transitions by a set of different random dependencies of the level density and strength functions. The averaged values of these parameters of gamma-decay well correspond to main dependencies revealed by now from analogous experiments for 42 nuclei from the mass region 40 ≤ A ≤ 200. They do not correspond to the existing ideas of the cascade gamma-decay parameters of compound nuclei with high level density

  8. Average Nuclear Level Densities and Radiative Strength Functions in 56,57FE from Primary (Gamma)-Ray Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavukcu, E.; Becker, J.A.; Bernstein, L.A.; Garrett, P.E.; Guttormsen, M.; Mitchell, G.E.; Rekstad, J.; Schiller, A.; Siem, S.; Voinov, A.; Younes, W.

    2002-01-01

    An experimental primary γ-ray spectrum vs. excitation-energy bin (P(E x , E γ ) matrix) in a light-ion reaction is obtained for 56,57 Fe isotopes using a subtraction method. By factorizing the P(E x , E γ ) matrix according to the Axel-Brink hypothesis the nuclear level density and the radiative strength function (RSF) in 56,57 Fe are extracted simultaneously. A step structure is observed in the level density for both isotopes, and is interpreted as the breaking of Cooper pairs. The RSFs for 56,57 Fe reveal an anomalous enhancement at low γ-ray energies

  9. Updating Photonuclear Data Library and Generating a Reference Database for Photon Strength Functions. 1st Research Coordination Meeting. Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goriely, S.; Dimitriou, P.

    2016-07-01

    A summary is given of the 1 st Research Coordination Meeting of the new IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Updating the Photonuclear Data Library and Generating a Reference Database for Photon Strength Functions. Participants presented their work, reviewed the current status of the field with regards to measurements, theoretical models and evaluations, discussed the scope of the work to be undertaken and agreed on a list of priorities and task assignments necessary to achieve the goals of the CRP. A summary of the presentations and discussions is presented in this report. (author)

  10. Study of photon strength functions via (γ→, γ′, γ″ reactions at the γ3-setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaak Johann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic ingredients for the modelling of the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements are so-called photon strength functions and the assumption of the Brink-Axel hypothesis. This hypothesis has been studied for many years by numerous experiments using different and complementary reactions. The present manuscript aims to introduce a model-independent approach to study photon strength functions via γ-γ coincidence spectroscopy of photoexcited states in 128Te. The experimental results provide evidence that the photon strength function extracted from photoabsorption cross sections is not in an overall agreement with the one determined from direct transitions to low-lying excited states.

  11. Increased functional connectivity strength of right inferior temporal gyrus in first-episode, drug-naive somatization disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qinji; Yao, Dapeng; Jiang, Muliang; Liu, Feng; Jiang, Jiajing; Xu, Chunxing; Dai, Yi; Yu, Miaoyu; Long, Liling; Li, Hongzheng; Liu, Jianrong; Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Jian; Xiao, Changqing; Guo, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of brain structural and functional alterations have been implicated in patients with somatization disorder (SD). However, little is known about brain functional connectivity in SD. In the present study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and graph theory were used to obtain a comprehensive view of whole-brain functional connectivity and to investigate the changes of voxel-wise functional networks in patients with SD. Twenty-five first-episode, medication-naive patients with SD and 28 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) underwent resting-state fMRI. The graph theory approach was employed to analyze the data. Compared to the HCs, patients with SD showed significantly increased functional connectivity strength in the right inferior temporal gyrus (ITG). There is a significant positive correlation between the z-values of the cluster in the right ITG and Hamilton Anxiety Scale scores. Our findings indicate that there is a disruption of the functional connectivity pattern in the right ITG in first-episode, treatment-naive patients with SD, which bears clinical significance. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  12. Abnormal Resting-State Functional Connectivity Strength in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Its Conversion to Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxia Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI are at high risk of transition to Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, little is known about functional characteristics of the conversion from MCI to AD. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 25 AD patients, 31 MCI patients, and 42 well-matched normal controls at baseline. Twenty-one of the 31 MCI patients converted to AD at approximately 24 months of follow-up. Functional connectivity strength (FCS and seed-based functional connectivity analyses were used to assess the functional differences among the groups. Compared to controls, subjects with MCI and AD showed decreased FCS in the default-mode network and the occipital cortex. Importantly, the FCS of the left angular gyrus and middle occipital gyrus was significantly lower in MCI-converters as compared with MCI-nonconverters. Significantly decreased functional connectivity was found in MCI-converters compared to nonconverters between the left angular gyrus and bilateral inferior parietal lobules, dorsolateral prefrontal and lateral temporal cortices, and the left middle occipital gyrus and right middle occipital gyri. We demonstrated gradual but progressive functional changes during a median 2-year interval in patients converting from MCI to AD, which might serve as early indicators for the dysfunction and progression in the early stage of AD.

  13. The beetle elytron plate: a lightweight, high-strength and buffering functional-structural bionic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Xie, Juan; Chen, Jinxiang; Okabe, Yoji; Pan, Longcheng; Xu, Mengye

    2017-06-30

    To investigate the characteristics of compression, buffering and energy dissipation in beetle elytron plates (BEPs), compression experiments were performed on BEPs and honeycomb plates (HPs) with the same wall thickness in different core structures and using different molding methods. The results are as follows: 1) The compressive strength and energy dissipation capacity in the BEP are 2.44 and 5.0 times those in the HP, respectively, when the plates are prepared using the full integrated method (FIM). 2) The buckling stress is directly proportional to the square of the wall thickness (t). Thus, for core structures with equal wall thicknesses, although the core volume of the BEP is 42 percent greater than that of the HP, the mechanical properties of the BEP are several times higher than those of the HP. 3) It is also proven that even when the single integrated method (SIM) is used to prepare BEPs, the properties discussed above remain superior to those of HPs by a factor of several; this finding lays the foundation for accelerating the commercialization of BEPs based on modern manufacturing processes.

  14. [Case-control study on the effect of core strength training on the function of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Zheng, Song; Cai, Zhen-Hai; Wang, Yue-Li; Zeng, Ming

    2017-08-25

    To observe the effect of core strength training on knee joint function and postural stability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). A total of 80 ACLR patients were randomly allocated into conventional rehabilitation training group and core strength training group from May 2013 to May 2015 with 40 patients in each group. The patients in conventional rehabilitation training group underwent conventional ACLR rehabilitation training, in which 28 males and 12 females. The mean age was(30.5±5.2) years old(ranged, 22 to 42 years old). The mean BMI was(23.8±2.4) kg/m²(ranged, 18.2 to 25.9 kg/m²). Thirty patients had injuries on the dominant side and 10 patients had injuries on the non-dominant side. The core strength training group received conventional ACLR rehabilitation training and core strength training, in which 31 males and 9 females. The mean age was(31.1±4.8) years old(ranged, 21 to 45 years old). The mean BMI was(24.1±2.7) kg/m²(ranged, 18.5 to 26.1 kg/m²) . Twenty-seven patients had injuries on the dominant side and 13 patients had injuries on the non-dominant side. The Lysholm score, tibial anterior transition measured by KT-1000 before and after treatment, and the Star Excursion Balance Test results after treatment were compared between the two groups. Six months after rehabilitation training, the tibial anterior transition of the conventional rehabilitation training group and the core strength training group were(3.4±1.0) mm and(3.3±1.2) mm respectively, which were less than(12.1±1.8) mm and(12.5±2.0) mm before treatment. But there was no significant difference in anterior tibial translation between two groups( P >0.05). The Lysholm score of the conventional rehabilitation training group and the core strength training group were 91.8±4.3 and 92.1±3.9 individually, which were higher than 69.2±5.8 and 70.2±5.1 before treatment. But there was no significant difference in Lysholm score between two groups( P >0.05). Six months

  15. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ISOMETRIC THIGH MUSCLE STRENGTH AND MINIMAL CLINICALLY IMPORTANT DIFFERENCES (MCIDS) IN KNEE FUNCTION IN OSTEOARTHRITIS – DATA FROM THE OSTEOARTHRITIS INITIATIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhdorfer, Anja; Wirth, Wolfgang; Eckstein, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between thigh muscle strength and clinically relevant differences in self-assessed lower limb function. Methods Isometric knee extensor and flexor strength of 4553 Osteoarthritis Initiative participants (2651 women/1902 men) was related to Western Ontario McMasters Universities (WOMAC) physical function scores by linear regression. Further, groups of Male and female participant strata with minimal clinically important differences (MCIDs) in WOMAC function scores (6/68) were compared across the full range of observed values, and to participants without functional deficits (WOMAC=0). The effect of WOMAC knee pain and body mass index on the above relationships was explored using stepwise regression. Results Per regression equations, a 3.7% reduction in extensor and a 4.0% reduction in flexor strength were associated with an MCID in WOMAC function in women, and a 3.6%/4.8% reduction in men. For strength divided by body weight, reductions were 5.2%/6.7% in women and 5.8%/6.7% in men. Comparing MCID strata across the full observed range of WOMAC function confirmed the above estimates and did not suggest non-linear relationships across the spectrum of observed values. WOMAC pain correlated strongly with WOMAC function, but extensor (and flexor) muscle strength contributed significant independent information. Conclusion Reductions of approximately 4% in isometric muscle strength and of 6% in strength/weight were related to a clinically relevant difference in WOMAC functional disability. Longitudinal studies will need to confirm these relationships within persons. Muscle extensor (and flexor) strength (per body weight) provided significant independent information in addition to pain in explaining variability in lower limb function. PMID:25303012

  16. Using Anisotropic 3D Minkowski Functionals for Trabecular Bone Characterization and Biomechanical Strength Prediction in Proximal Femur Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; De, Titas; Lochmüller, Eva-Maria; Eckstein, Felix; Wismüller, Axel

    2017-01-01

    The ability of Anisotropic Minkowski Functionals (AMFs) to capture local anisotropy while evaluating topological properties of the underlying gray-level structures has been previously demonstrated. We evaluate the ability of this approach to characterize local structure properties of trabecular bone micro-architecture in ex vivo proximal femur specimens, as visualized on multi-detector CT, for purposes of biomechanical bone strength prediction. To this end, volumetric AMFs were computed locally for each voxel of volumes of interest (VOI) extracted from the femoral head of 146 specimens. The local anisotropy captured by such AMFs was quantified using a fractional anisotropy measure; the magnitude and direction of anisotropy at every pixel was stored in histograms that served as a feature vectors that characterized the VOIs. A linear multi-regression analysis algorithm was used to predict the failure load (FL) from the feature sets; the predicted FL was compared to the true FL determined through biomechanical testing. The prediction performance was measured by the root mean square error (RMSE) for each feature set. The best prediction performance was obtained from the fractional anisotropy histogram of AMF Euler Characteristic (RMSE = 1.01 ± 0.13), which was significantly better than MDCT-derived mean BMD (RMSE = 1.12 ± 0.16, p<0.05). We conclude that such anisotropic Minkowski Functionals can capture valuable information regarding regional trabecular bone quality and contribute to improved bone strength prediction, which is important for improving the clinical assessment of osteoporotic fracture risk. PMID:29170581

  17. Hydrogen bonding strength of diblock copolymers affects the self-assembled structures with octa-functionalized phenol POSS nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi-Syuan; Yu, Chia-Yu; Lin, Yung-Chih; Kuo, Shiao-Wei

    2016-02-28

    In this study, the influence of the functional groups by the diblock copolymers of poly(styrene-b-4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP), poly(styrene-b-2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP), and poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) on their blends with octa-functionalized phenol polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (OP-POSS) nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated. The relative hydrogen bonding strengths in these blends follow the order PS-b-P4VP/OP-POSS > PS-b-P2VP/OP-POSS > PS-b-PMMA/OP-POSS based on the Kwei equation from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analyses. Small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopic analyses show that the morphologies of the self-assembly structures are strongly dependent on the hydrogen bonding strength at relatively higher OP-POSS content. The PS-b-P4VP/OP-POSS hybrid complex system with the strongest hydrogen bonds shows the order-order transition from lamellae to cylinders and finally to body-centered cubic spheres upon increasing OP-POSS content. However, PS-b-P2VP/OP-POSS and PS-b-PMMA/OP-POSS hybrid complex systems, having relatively weaker hydrogen bonds, transformed from lamellae to cylinder structures at lower OP-POSS content (50 wt%).

  18. Adolescents with a history of specific language impairment (SLI): strengths and difficulties in social, emotional and behavioral functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Mok, Pearl L H; Pickles, Andrew; Durkin, Kevin

    2013-11-01

    Adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI) are at a greater risk of emotional and behavioral problems compared to their typically developing (TD) peers, but little is known about their self-perceived strengths and difficulties. In this study, the self-reported social, emotional and behavioral functioning of 139 adolescents with a history of SLI and 124 TD individuals at age 16 was examined. The self-report version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to assess their prosocial behavior and levels of peer, emotional and behavioral difficulties. Associations of these areas of functioning with gender, verbal and non-verbal skills were also investigated. Adolescents with a history of SLI were more likely than their TD peers to report higher levels of peer problems, emotional symptoms, hyperactivity and conduct problems. The majority of adolescents in both groups (87% SLI and 96% TD), however, reported prosocial behavior within the typical range. Difficulty with peer relations was the strongest differentiator between the groups, with the odds of reporting borderline or abnormally high levels of peer problems being 12 times higher for individuals with a history of SLI. Adolescents with poorer receptive language skills were also more likely to report higher levels of emotional and behavioral difficulties. The findings of this study identify likely traits that may lead to referral to services. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Towards industry strength mapping of AUTOSAR automotive functionality on multicore architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avasalcai, Cosmin Florin; Budhrani, Dhanesh; Pop, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The automotive electronic architectures have moved from federated architectures, where one function is implemented in one ECU (Electronic Control Unit), to distributed architectures, consisting of several multicore ECUs. In addition, multicore ECUs are being adopted because of better performance,...... engineer in the mapping task. We have successfully evaluated AUTOMAP on several realistic use cases from Volvo Trucks....

  20. Strengths and Weaknesses in Executive Functioning in Children with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Henrik; Henry, Lucy; Messer, David; Ronnberg, Jerker

    2012-01-01

    Children with intellectual disability (ID) were given a comprehensive range of executive functioning measures, which systematically varied in terms of verbal and non-verbal demands. Their performance was compared to the performance of groups matched on mental age (MA) and chronological age (CA), respectively. Twenty-two children were included in…

  1. Role of executive functions in prospective memory in multiple sclerosis: Impact of the strength of cue-action association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagenais, Emmanuelle; Rouleau, Isabelle; Tremblay, Alexandra; Demers, Mélanie; Roger, Élaine; Jobin, Céline; Duquette, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) often report prospective memory (PM) deficits. Although PM is important for daily functioning, it is not formally assessed in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to examine the role of executive functions in MS patients' PM revealed by the effect of strength of cue-action association on PM performance. Thirty-nine MS patients were compared to 18 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and education on a PM task modulating the strength of association between the cue and the intended action. Deficits in MS patients affecting both prospective and retrospective components of PM were confirmed using 2 × 2 × 2 mixed analyses of variance (ANOVAs). Among patients, multiple regression analyses revealed that the impairment was modulated by the efficiency of executive functions, whereas retrospective memory seemed to have little impact on PM performance, contrary to expectation. More specifically, results of 2 × 2 × 2 mixed-model analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) showed that low-executive patients had more difficulty detecting and, especially, retrieving the appropriate action when the cue and the action were unrelated, whereas high-executive patients' performance seemed to be virtually unaffected by the cue-action association. Using an objective measure, these findings confirm the presence of PM deficits in MS. They also suggest that such deficits depend on executive functioning and can be reduced when automatic PM processes are engaged through semantic cue-action association. They underscore the importance of assessing PM in clinical settings through a cognitive evaluation and offer an interesting avenue for rehabilitation.

  2. Surgery-induced changes and early recovery of hip-muscle strength, leg-press power, and functional performance after fast-track total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Thorborg, Kristian; Husted, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    By measuring very early changes in muscle strength and functional performance after fast-track total hip arthroplasty (THA), post-operative rehabilitation, introduced soon after surgery, can be designed to specifically target identified deficits.......By measuring very early changes in muscle strength and functional performance after fast-track total hip arthroplasty (THA), post-operative rehabilitation, introduced soon after surgery, can be designed to specifically target identified deficits....

  3. Mechanical muscle function and lean body mass during supervised strength training and testosterone therapy in aging men with low-normal testosterone levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvorning, Thue; Christensen, Louise L; Madsen, Klavs

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effect of strength training and testosterone therapy on mechanical muscle function and lean body mass (LBM) in aging men with low-normal testosterone levels in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 24-week study.......To examine the effect of strength training and testosterone therapy on mechanical muscle function and lean body mass (LBM) in aging men with low-normal testosterone levels in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 24-week study....

  4. Diaphragmatic mobility: relationship with lung function, respiratory muscle strength, dyspnea, and physical activity in daily life in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Flávia Roberta; Brüggemann, Ana Karla Vieira; Francisco, Davi de Souza; Medeiros, Caroline Semprebom de; Rosal, Danielle; Paulin, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate diaphragmatic mobility in relation to lung function, respiratory muscle strength, dyspnea, and physical activity in daily life (PADL) in patients with COPD. We included 25 patients with COPD, classified according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria, and 25 healthy individuals. For all of the participants, the following were evaluated: anthropometric variables, spirometric parameters, respiratory muscle strength, diaphragmatic mobility (by X-ray), PADL, and the perception of dyspnea. In the COPD group, diaphragmatic mobility was found to correlate with lung function variables, inspiratory muscle strength, and the perception of dyspnea, whereas it did not correlate with expiratory muscle strength or PADL. In patients with COPD, diaphragmatic mobility seems to be associated with airway obstruction and lung hyperinflation, as well as with ventilatory capacity and the perception of dyspnea, although not with PADL. Avaliar a relação da mobilidade diafragmática com a função pulmonar, força muscular respiratória, dispneia e atividade física de vida diária (AFVD) em pacientes com DPOC. Foram avaliados 25 pacientes com diagnóstico de DPOC, classificados de acordo com critérios da Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, e 25 indivíduos saudáveis. Todos foram submetidos às seguintes avaliações: mensuração antropométrica, espirometria, força muscular respiratória, mobilidade diafragmática (por radiografia), AFVD e percepção de dispneia. No grupo DPOC, houve correlações da mobilidade diafragmática com variáveis de função pulmonar, força muscular inspiratória e percepção de dispneia. Não houve correlações da mobilidade diafragmática com força muscular expiratória e AFVD. A mobilidade diafragmática parece estar associada tanto com a obstrução das vias aéreas quanto com a hiperinsuflação pulmonar em pacientes com DPOC, assim como com a capacidade ventilatória e percep

  5. Strengths and weaknesses in executive functioning in children with intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Danielsson, H.; Henry, L.; Messer, D. J.; Ronnberg, J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with intellectual disability (ID) were given a comprehensive range of executive functioning measures, which systematically varied in terms of verbal and non-verbal demands. Their performance was compared to the performance of groups matched on mental age (MA) and chronological age (CA), respectively. Twenty-two children were included in each group. Children with ID performed on par with the MA group on switching, verbal executive-loaded working memory and most fluency tasks, but belo...

  6. Concurrent assessments of lower limb loading patterns, mechanical muscle strength and functional performance in ACL-patients - A cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders; Jensen, C; Mortensen, N H M

    2014-01-01

    Full recovery in muscle strength and functional performance may not be achieved after ACL-injury. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate loading patterns during jumping, muscle function and functional performance in ACL-reconstructed patients and to investigate the origin of between...

  7. A 9-Week Aerobic and Strength Training Program Improves Cognitive and Motor Function in Patients with Dementia : A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossers, Willem J. R.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Boersma, Froukje; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Scherder, Erik J. A.; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.

    Objective: To compare training and follow-up effects of combined aerobic and strength training versus aerobic-only training on cognitive and motor function in institutionalized patients with dementia and to explore whether improved motor function mediates improved cognitive function. Methods: Using

  8. Knee joint laxity does not moderate the relationship between quadriceps strength and physical function in knee osteoarthritis patients: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altubasi, Ibrahim M

    2018-06-07

    Knee osteoarthritis is a common and a disabling musculoskeletal disorder. Patients with knee osteoarthritis have activity limitations which are linked to the strength of the quadriceps muscle. Previous research reported that the relationship between quadriceps muscle strength and physical function is moderated by the level of knee joint frontal plane laxity. The purpose of the current study is to reexamine the moderation effect of the knee joint laxity as measured by stress radiographs on the relationship between quadriceps muscle strength and physical function. One-hundred and sixty osteoarthritis patients participated in this cross-sectional study. Isometric quadriceps muscle strength was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Self-rated and performance-based physical function were measured using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) physical function subscale and Get Up and Go test, respectively. Stress radiographs which were taken while applying varus and valgus loads to knee using the TELOS device. Knee joint laxity was determined by measuring the distance between joint surfaces on the medial and lateral sides. Hierarchical multiple regression models were constructed to study the moderation effect of laxity on the strength function relationship. Two regression models were constructed for self-rated and performance-based function. After controlling for demographics, strength contributed significantly in the models. The addition of laxity and laxity-strength interaction did not add significant contributions in the regression models. Frontal plane knee joint laxity measured by stress radiographs does not moderate the relationship between quadriceps muscle strength and physical function in patients with osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Short-term effects of upper extremity circuit resistance training on muscle strength and functional independence in patients with paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Adem; Sürücü, Gülseren Dost; Karamercan, Ayşe; Gedik, Dilay Eken; Atci, Nermin; Dülgeroǧlu, Deniz; Özgirgin, Neşe

    2016-11-21

    A number of exercises to strengthen the upper extremities are recommended to increase functional independence and quality of life (QoL) in patients with paraplegia. Circuit resistance training (CRT) is a type of progressive resistive exercise performed repeatedly at fixed mechanical exercise stations. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential benefits of CRT for upper extremity muscle strength, functional independence, and QoL in patients with paraplegia. Twenty-six patients with paraplegia who were participating in a conventional rehabilitation program at a tertiary education and research hospital were enrolled in this study. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups. The exercise group participated in the CRT program, which consisted of repetitive exercises for the upper extremities performed at fixed mechanical stations 5 sessions per week for 6 weeks, in addition to conventional rehabilitation. Participants in the control group received only conventional rehabilitation over the same period. We compared the groups with respect to QoL, as well as isokinetic muscle test outcomes in the upper extremities, using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and Borg's scale. We observed significant increases in scores on the physical component of the FIM, Borg's scale, and QoL in both the exercise and control groups. Furthermore, the large majority of isokinetic values were significantly more improved in the exercise group compared to the control group. When post-treatment outcomes were compared between the groups, improvements in scores on the physical component of the FIM and in most isokinetic values were significantly greater in the exercise group. This study showed that CRT has positive effects on muscle strength in the upper extremities and the physical disability components of the FIM when added to conventional rehabilitation programs for paraplegic patients. However, we observed no significant improvement in QoL scores after adding CRT

  10. Prostaglandin E2 is essential for efficacious skeletal muscle stem-cell function, augmenting regeneration and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Andrew T V; Palla, Adelaida R; Blake, Matthew R; Yucel, Nora D; Wang, Yu Xin; Magnusson, Klas E G; Holbrook, Colin A; Kraft, Peggy E; Delp, Scott L; Blau, Helen M

    2017-06-27

    Skeletal muscles harbor quiescent muscle-specific stem cells (MuSCs) capable of tissue regeneration throughout life. Muscle injury precipitates a complex inflammatory response in which a multiplicity of cell types, cytokines, and growth factors participate. Here we show that Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an inflammatory cytokine that directly targets MuSCs via the EP4 receptor, leading to MuSC expansion. An acute treatment with PGE2 suffices to robustly augment muscle regeneration by either endogenous or transplanted MuSCs. Loss of PGE2 signaling by specific genetic ablation of the EP4 receptor in MuSCs impairs regeneration, leading to decreased muscle force. Inhibition of PGE2 production through nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) administration just after injury similarly hinders regeneration and compromises muscle strength. Mechanistically, the PGE2 EP4 interaction causes MuSC expansion by triggering a cAMP/phosphoCREB pathway that activates the proliferation-inducing transcription factor, Nurr1 Our findings reveal that loss of PGE2 signaling to MuSCs during recovery from injury impedes muscle repair and strength. Through such gain- or loss-of-function experiments, we found that PGE2 signaling acts as a rheostat for muscle stem-cell function. Decreased PGE2 signaling due to NSAIDs or increased PGE2 due to exogenous delivery dictates MuSC function, which determines the outcome of regeneration. The markedly enhanced and accelerated repair of damaged muscles following intramuscular delivery of PGE2 suggests a previously unrecognized indication for this therapeutic agent.

  11. Microstructural strength of tidal soils – a rheometric approach to develop pedotransfer functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoppe Nina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Differences in soil stability, especially in visually comparable soils can occur due to microstructural processes and interactions. By investigating these microstructural processes with rheological investigations, it is possible to achieve a better understanding of soil behaviour from the mesoscale (soil aggregates to macroscale (bulk soil. In this paper, a rheological investigation of the factors influencing microstructural stability of riparian soils was conducted. Homogenized samples of Marshland soils from the riparian zone of the Elbe River (North Germany were analyzed with amplitude sweeps (AS under controlled shear deformation in a modular compact rheometer MCR 300 (Anton Paar, Germany at different matric potentials. A range physicochemical parameters were determined (texture, pH, organic matter, CaCO3 etc. and these factors were used to parameterize pedotransfer functions. The results indicate a clear dependence of microstructural elasticity on texture and water content. Although the influence of individual physicochemical factors varies depending on texture, the relevant features were identified taking combined effects into account. Thus, stabilizing factors are: organic matter, calcium ions, CaCO3 and pedogenic iron oxides; whereas sodium ions and water content represent structurally unfavorable factors. Based on the determined statistical relationships between rheological and physicochemical parameters, pedotransfer functions (PTF have been developed.

  12. Effect of simultaneous application of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training on the enhancement of the swallowing function of patients with dysphagia caused by parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Haewon

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of simultaneous application of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training on the enhancement of the swallowing function of patients with dysphagia caused by Parkinson's disease. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 18 patients who received simultaneous application of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training and 15 patients who received expiratory muscle strength training only. Postural techniques were conducted in the order of chin tucking, head rotation, head tilting, bending head back, and lying down, while expiratory muscle strength training was conducted at a resistance level of about 70% of the maximal expiratory pressure. Swallowing recovery was assessed by using the Functional Dysphagia Scale based on videofluoroscopic studies. [Results] The mean value obtained in the videofluoroscopic studies for both groups decreased after the treatment. In the postural techniques plus expiratory muscle strength training group, the decrease was significantly greater than that in the expiratory muscle strength training-only group. [Conclusion] The results imply that simultaneous performance of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training is more effective than expiratory muscle strength training alone when applied in the swallowing rehabilitation for patients with dysphagia caused by Parkinson's disease.

  13. Performance on the Functional Movement Screen Is Related to Hop Performance But Not to Hip and Knee Strength in Collegiate Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willigenburg, Nienke; Hewett, Timothy E

    2017-03-01

    To define the relationship between Functional Movement Screen (FMS) scores and hop performance, hip strength, and knee strength in collegiate football players. Cross-sectional cohort. Freshmen of a Division I collegiate American football team (n = 59). The athletes performed the FMS, and also a variety of hop tests, isokinetic knee strength, and isometric hip strength tasks. We recorded total FMS score, peak strength, and hop performance, and we calculated asymmetries between legs on the different tasks. Spearman correlation coefficients quantified the relationships between these measures, and χ analyses compared the number of athletes with asymmetries on the different tasks. We observed significant correlations (r = 0.38-0.56, P ≤ 0.02) between FMS scores and hop distance but not between FMS scores and hip or knee strength (all P ≥ 0.21). The amount of asymmetry on the FMS test was significantly correlated to the amount of asymmetry on the timed 6-m hop (r = 0.44, P hip or knee strength asymmetries between limbs (all P ≥ 0.34). Functional Movement Screen score was positively correlated to hop distance, and limb asymmetry in FMS tasks was correlated to limb asymmetry in 6-m hop time in football players. No significant correlations were observed between FMS score and hip and knee strength or between FMS asymmetry and asymmetries in hip and knee strength between limbs. These results indicate that a simple hop for distance test may be a time-efficient and cost-efficient alternative to FMS testing in athletes and that functional asymmetries between limbs do not coincide with strength asymmetries.

  14. Poor physical function in elderly women in low-level aged care is related to muscle strength rather than to measures of sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Julie L; Iuliano-Burns, Sandra; King, Susannah J; Strauss, Boyd J; Walker, Karen Z

    2011-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and investigate relationships among body composition, muscle strength, and physical function in elderly women in low-level aged care. Sixty-three ambulatory women (mean age 86 years) participated in this cross-sectional study where body composition was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); ankle, knee, and hip strength by the Nicholas Manual Muscle Tester; and physical function by 'timed up and go' (TUG) and walking speed (WS) over 6 meters. Body composition data from a female reference group (n = 62, mean age 29 years) provided cut-off values for defining sarcopenia. Elderly women had higher body mass index (P sarcopenia (defined by appendicular skeletal muscle mass/height squared) whereas 37% had relative sarcopenia class II (defined by percentage skeletal muscle mass). Scores for TUG and WS indicated relatively poor physical function, yet these measures were not associated with muscle mass or indices of sarcopenia. In multivariate analysis, only hip abductor strength predicted both TUG and WS (both P = 0.01). Hip strength is a more important indicator of physical functioning than lean mass. Measurement of hip strength may therefore be a useful screening tool to detect those at risk of functional decline and requirement for additional care. Further longitudinal studies with a range of other strength measures are warranted.

  15. In-season monitoring of hip and groin strength, health and function in elite youth soccer: Implementing an early detection and management strategy over two consecutive seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollin, Martin; Thorborg, Kristian; Welvaert, Marijke; Pizzari, Tania

    2018-03-14

    The primary purpose of this study was to describe an early detection and management strategy when monitoring in-season hip and groin strength, health and function in soccer. Secondly to compare pre-season to in-season test results. Longitudinal cohort study. Twenty-seven elite male youth soccer players (age: 15.07±0.73years) volunteered to participate in the study. Monitoring tests included: adductor strength, adductor/abductor strength ratio and hip and groin outcome scores (HAGOS). Data were recorded at pre-season and at 22 monthly intervals in-season. Thresholds for alerts to initiate further investigations were defined as any of the following: adductor strength reductions >15%, adductor/abductor strength ratio time-point one (ptime-loss were classified minimal or mild. In-season monitoring aimed at early detection and management of hip and groin strength, health and function appears promising. Hip and groin strength, health and function improved quickly from pre-season to in-season in a high-risk population for ongoing hip and groin problems. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploring the Associations Between Intrinsic Brain Connectivity and Creative Ability Using Functional Connectivity Strength and Connectome Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhenni; Zhang, Delong; Liang, Aiying; Liang, Bishan; Wang, Zengjian; Cai, Yuxuan; Li, Junchao; Gao, Mengxia; Liu, Xiaojin; Chang, Song; Jiao, Bingqing; Huang, Ruiwang; Liu, Ming

    2017-11-01

    The present study aimed to explore the association between resting-state functional connectivity and creativity ability. Toward this end, the figural Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) scores were collected from 180 participants. Based on the figural TTCT measures, we collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data for participants with two different levels of creativity ability (a high-creativity group [HG, n = 22] and a low-creativity group [LG, n = 20]). For the aspect of group difference, this study combined voxel-wise functional connectivity strength (FCS) and seed-based functional connectivity to identify brain regions with group-change functional connectivity. Furthermore, the connectome properties of the identified regions and their associations with creativity were investigated using the permutation test, discriminative analysis, and brain-behavior correlation analysis. The results indicated that there were 4 regions with group differences in FCS, and these regions were linked to 30 other regions, demonstrating different functional connectivity between the groups. Together, these regions form a creativity-related network, and we observed higher network efficiency in the HG compared with the LG. The regions involved in the creativity network were widely distributed across the modality-specific/supramodality cerebral cortex, subcortex, and cerebellum. Notably, properties of regions in the supramodality networks (i.e., the default mode network and attention network) carried creativity-level discriminative information and were significantly correlated with the creativity performance. Together, these findings demonstrate a link between intrinsic brain connectivity and creative ability, which should provide new insights into the neural basis of creativity.

  17. Nature and strength of bonding in a crystal of semiconducting nanotubes: van der Waals density functional calculations and analytical results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleis, Jesper; Schröder, Elsebeth; Hyldgaard, Per

    2008-01-01

    calculations, the vdW-DF study predicts an intertube vdW bonding with a strength that is consistent with recent observations for the interlayer binding in graphitics. It also produces a nanotube wall-to-wall separation, which is in very good agreement with experiments. Moreover, we find that the vdW-DF result...... for the nanotube-crystal binding energy can be approximated by a sum of nanotube-pair interactions when these are calculated in vdW-DR This observation suggests a framework for an efficient implementation of quantum-physical modeling of the carbon nanotube bundling in more general nanotube bundles, including......The dispersive interaction between nanotubes is investigated through ab initio theory calculations and in an analytical approximation. A van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) [M. Dion et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 246401 (2004)] is used to determine and compare the binding of a pair of nanotubes...

  18. Bending energy penalty enhances the adhesive strength of functional amyloid curli to surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Wang, Ao; DeBenedictis, Elizabeth P.; Keten, Sinan

    2017-11-01

    The functional amyloid curli fiber, a major proteinaceous component of biofilm extracellular matrices, plays an important role in biofilm formation and enterobacteriaceae adhesion. Curli nanofibers exhibit exceptional underwater adhesion to various surfaces, have high rigidity and strong tensile mechanical properties, and thus hold great promise in biomaterials. The mechanisms of how curli fibers strongly attach to surfaces and detach under force remain elusive. To investigate curli fiber adhesion to surfaces, we developed a coarse-grained curli fiber model, in which the protein subunit CsgA (curli specific gene A) self-assembles into the fiber. The coarse-grained model yields physiologically relevant and tunable bending rigidity and persistence length. The force-induced desorption of a single curli fiber is examined using coarse-grained modeling and theoretical analysis. We find that the bending energy penalty arising from high persistence length enhances the resistance of the curli fiber against desorption and thus strengthens the adhesion of the curli fiber to surfaces. The CsgA-surface adhesion energy and the curli fiber bending rigidity both play crucial roles in the resistance of curli fiber against desorption from surfaces. To enable the desorption process, the applied peeling force must overcome both the interfacial adhesion energy and the energy barrier for bending the curli fiber at the peeling front. We show that the energy barrier to desorption increases with the interfacial adhesion energy, however, the bending induced failure of a single curli fiber limits the work of adhesion if the proportion of the CsgA-surface adhesion energy to the CsgA-CsgA cohesive energy becomes large. These results illustrate that the optimal adhesion performance of nanofibers is dictated by the interplay between bending, surface energy and cohesive energy. Our model provides timely insight into enterobacteriaceae adhesion mechanisms as well as future designs of engineered

  19. Threshold energy dependence as a function of potential strength and the nonexistence of bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronson, I.; Kleinman, C.J.; Spruch, L.

    1975-01-01

    The difficulty in attempting to prove that a given set of particles cannot form a bound state is the absence of a margin of error; the possibility of a bound state of arbitrarily small binding energy must be ruled out. At the sacrifice of rigor, one can hope to bypass the difficulty by studying the ground-state energy E(lambda) associated with H(lambda) identical with H/sub true/ + lambda/sub ν/, where H/sub true/ is the true Hamiltonian, ν is an artificial attractive potential, and lambda greater than 0. E(lambda) can be estimated via a Rayleigh-Ritz calculation. If H/sub true/ falls just short of being able to support a bound state, H(lambda) for lambda ''not too small'' will support a bound state of some significant binding. A margin of error is thereby created; the inability to find a bound state for lambda ''not too small'' suggests not only that H(lambda) can support at best a weakly bound state but that H/sub true/ cannot support a bound state at all. To give the argument real substance, one studies E(lambda) in the neighborhood of lambda = lambda 0 , the (unknown) smallest value for lambda for which H(lambda) can support a bound state. A comparison of E(lambda) determined numerically with the form of E(lambda) obtained with the use of a crude bound-state wave function in the Feynman theorem gives a rough self-consistency check. One thereby obtains a believable lower bound on the energy of a possible bound state of H/sub true/ or a believable argument that no such bound state exists. The method is applied to the triplet state of H -

  20. Effects of inspiratory muscle training on pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with atrial fibrillation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeren, Melih; Demir, Rengin; Yigit, Zerrin; Gurses, Hulya N

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effects of inspiratory muscle training on pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with atrial fibrillation. Prospective randomized controlled single-blind study. Cardiology department of a university hospital. A total of 38 patients with permanent atrial fibrillation were randomly allocated to either a treatment group (n = 19; age 66.2 years (8.8)) or a control group (n = 19; age 67.1 years (6.4)). The training group received inspiratory muscle training at 30% of maximal inspiratory pressure for 15 minutes twice a day, 7 days a week, for 12 weeks alongside the standard medical treatment. The control group received standard medical treatment only. Spirometry, maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures and 6-minute walking distance was measured at the beginning and end of the study. There was a significant increase in maximal inspiratory pressure (27.94 cmH 2 O (8.90)), maximal expiratory pressure (24.53 cmH 2 O (10.34)), forced vital capacity (10.29% (8.18) predicted), forced expiratory volume in one second (13.88% (13.42) predicted), forced expiratory flow 25%-75% (14.82% (12.44) predicted), peak expiratory flow (19.82% (15.62) predicted) and 6-minute walking distance (55.53 m (14.13)) in the training group (p  0.05). Inspiratory muscle training can improve pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with atrial fibrillation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Effect of floorball training on blood lipids, body composition, muscle strength, and functional capacity of elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorup, J; Pedersen, M T; Melcher, P S; Dreier, R; Bangsbo, J

    2017-11-01

    Floorball training consists of intense repeated exercise and may offer a motivating and social stimulating team activity in elderly individuals. However, the effect of floorball training in elderly adults on physiological adaptations important for health is not known. Thus, this study examined the effect of floorball training on blood lipids, muscle strength, body composition, and functional capacity of men aged 65-76 years. Thirty-nine recreational active men were randomized into a floorball group (FG; n = 22) or petanque group (PG; n = 17), in which training was performed 1 h twice a week for 12 weeks. In FG and PG, average heart rate (HR) during training was 80% and 57%, respectively, of maximal HR. In FG, plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides were 11% and 8% lower (P functional capacity tests were better (P training period. No changes were observed in PG. In conclusion, 12 weeks of floorball training resulted in a number of favorable effects important for health and functional capacity, suggesting that floorball training can be used as a health-promoting activity in elderly men. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Deficits of entropy modulation in schizophrenia are predicted by functional connectivity strength in the theta band and structural clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Pilar, Javier; de Luis-García, Rodrigo; Lubeiro, Alba; de Uribe, Nieves; Poza, Jesús; Núñez, Pablo; Ayuso, Marta; Hornero, Roberto; Molina, Vicente

    2018-01-01

    Spectral entropy (SE) allows comparing task-related modulation of electroencephalogram (EEG) between patients and controls, i.e. spectral changes of the EEG associated to task performance. A SE modulation deficit has been replicated in different schizophrenia samples. To investigate the underpinnings of SE modulation deficits in schizophrenia, we applied graph-theory to EEG recordings during a P300 task and fractional anisotropy (FA) data from diffusion tensor imaging in 48 patients (23 first episodes) and 87 healthy controls. Functional connectivity was assessed from phase-locking values among sensors in the theta band, and structural connectivity was based on FA values for the tracts connecting pairs of regions. From those data, averaged clustering coefficient (CLC), characteristic path-length (PL) and connectivity strength (CS, also known as density) were calculated for both functional and structural networks. The corresponding functional modulation values were calculated as the difference in SE and CLC, PL and CS between the pre-stimulus and response windows during the task. The results revealed a higher functional CS in the pre-stimulus window in patients, predictive of smaller modulation of SE in this group. The amount of increase in theta CS from pre-stimulus to response related to SE modulation in patients and controls. Structural CLC was associated with SE modulation in the patients. SE modulation was predictive of negative symptoms, whereas CLC and PL modulation was associated with cognitive performance in the patients. These results support that a hyperactive functional connectivity and/or structural connective deficits in the patients hamper the dynamical modulation of connectivity underlying cognition.

  3. The efficacy of modified direct lateral versus posterior approach on gait function and hip muscle strength after primary total hip arthroplasty at 12months follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenlund, Signe; Broeng, Leif; Overgaard, Søren

    2016-01-01

    -spatial parameters and range of motion. Isometric maximal hip muscle strength in abduction, flexion and extension was also tested. FINDINGS: Post-operatively, no between-group difference in gait function was observed. However, both hip abductor and flexor muscle strength improved more in the posterior approach group......BACKGROUND: The lateral and the posterior approach are the most commonly used procedures for total hip arthroplasty. Due to the detachment of the hip abductors, lateral approach is claimed to cause reduced hip muscle strength and altered gait pattern. However, this has not been investigated...... in a randomised controlled trial. The aim was to compare the efficacy of total hip arthroplasty performed by lateral or posterior approach on gait function and hip muscle strength up to 12months post-operatively. We hypothesised that posterior approach would be superior to lateral approach. METHODS: Forty...

  4. Sex Differences in the Level and Rate of Change of Physical Function and Grip Strength in the Danish 1905-Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oksuzyan, Anna; Maier, Heiner; McGue, Matt

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The study was conducted to examine sex differences in the initial level and rate of change in physical function and grip strength. METHOD: The baseline survey included 2,262 Danes born in 1905 and alive in 1998 and followed-up in 2000, 2003, and 2005. Hence, the authors fully used...... the power of having a cohort with multiple assessments in late life and virtually complete follow-up of lifespan (through December 2008). Latent growth curve modeling was used. RESULTS: Men had higher initial levels and rates of decline in strength score and grip strength. Lifespan was positively correlated...

  5. Muscle strength and functional performance in patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury treated with training and surgical reconstruction or training only: a two to five-year followup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ageberg, Eva; Thomeé, Roland; Neeter, Camille

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study muscle strength and functional performance in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury with or without surgical reconstruction 2 to 5 years after injury. Good muscle function is important in preventing early-onset osteoarthritis (OA), but the role of reconstructiv...

  6. Effects of Elastic Resistance Exercise on Muscle Strength and Functional Performance in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Poliana Alves; Blasczyk, Juscelino Castro; Souza Junior, Gerson; Lagoa, Karina Ferreira; Soares, Milene; de Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó; Filho, Paulo José Barbosa Gutierres; Carregaro, Rodrigo Luiz; Martins, Wagner Rodrigues

    2017-04-01

    Elastic Resistance Exercise (ERE) has already demonstrated its effectiveness in older adults and, when combined with the resistance generated by fixed loads, in adults. This review summarizes the effectiveness of ERE performed as isolated method on muscle strength and functional performance in healthy adults. A database search was performed (MEDLine, Cochrane Library, PEDro and Web of Knowledge) to identify controlled clinical trials in English language. The mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and overall effect size were calculated for all comparisons. The PEDro scale was used assess the methodological quality. From the 93 articles identified by the search strategy, 5 met the inclusion criteria, in which 3 presented high quality (PEDro > 6). Meta-analyses demonstrated that the effects of ERE were superior when compared with passive control on functional performance and muscle strength. When compared with active controls, the effect of ERE was inferior on function performance and with similar effect on muscle strength. ERE are effective to improve functional performance and muscle strength when compared with no intervention, in healthy adults. ERE are not superior to other methods of resistance training to improve functional performance and muscle strength in health adults.

  7. Resting-state functional connectivity predicts the strength of hemispheric lateralization for language processing in temporal lobe epilepsy and normals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Gaëlle E; Pustina, Dorian; Skidmore, Christopher; Sharan, Ashwini; Sperling, Michael R; Tracy, Joseph I

    2015-01-01

    In temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), determining the hemispheric specialization for language before surgery is critical to preserving a patient's cognitive abilities post-surgery. To date, the major techniques utilized are limited by the capacity of patients to efficiently realize the task. We determined whether resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) is a reliable predictor of language hemispheric dominance in right and left TLE patients, relative to controls. We chose three subregions of the inferior frontal cortex (pars orbitalis, pars triangularis, and pars opercularis) as the seed regions. All participants performed both a verb generation task and a resting-state fMRI procedure. Based on the language task, we computed a laterality index (LI) for the resulting network. This revealed that 96% of the participants were left-hemisphere dominant, although there remained a large degree of variability in the strength of left lateralization. We tested whether LI correlated with rsFC values emerging from each seed. We revealed a set of regions that was specific to each group. Unique correlations involving the epileptic mesial temporal lobe were revealed for the right and left TLE patients, but not for the controls. Importantly, for both TLE groups, the rsFC emerging from a contralateral seed was the most predictive of LI. Overall, our data depict the broad patterns of rsFC that support strong versus weak left hemisphere language laterality. This project provides the first evidence that rsFC data may potentially be used on its own to verify the strength of hemispheric dominance for language in impaired or pathologic populations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Poor physical function in elderly women in low-level aged care is related to muscle strength rather than to measures of sarcopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie L Woods

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Julie L Woods1, Sandra Iuliano-Burns2, Susannah J King1, Boyd J Strauss1, Karen Z Walker11Nutrition and Dietetics Department, Monash University, Victoria, Australia; 2Endocrine Centre of Excellence, Department of Medicine, Austin Health, University of Melbourne, West Heidelberg, AustraliaPurpose: To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and investigate relationships among body composition, muscle strength, and physical function in elderly women in low-level aged care.Subjects and methods: Sixty-three ambulatory women (mean age 86 years participated in this cross-sectional study where body composition was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; ankle, knee, and hip strength by the Nicholas Manual Muscle Tester; and physical function by ‘timed up and go’ (TUG and walking speed (WS over 6 meters. Body composition data from a female reference group (n = 62, mean age 29 years provided cut-off values for defining sarcopenia.Results: Elderly women had higher body mass index (P < 0.001, lower lean mass (P < 0.001, and higher fat mass (P < 0.01 than the young reference group. Only a small proportion (3.2% had absolute sarcopenia (defined by appendicular skeletal muscle mass/height squared whereas 37% had relative sarcopenia class II (defined by percentage skeletal muscle mass. Scores for TUG and WS indicated relatively poor physical function, yet these measures were not associated with muscle mass or indices of sarcopenia. In multivariate analysis, only hip abductor strength predicted both TUG and WS (both P = 0.01.Conclusion: Hip strength is a more important indicator of physical functioning than lean mass. Measurement of hip strength may therefore be a useful screening tool to detect those at risk of functional decline and requirement for additional care. Further longitudinal studies with a range of other strength measures are warranted.Keywords: aged care, body composition, muscle strength, sarcopenia 

  9. Performance on the Functional Movement Screen™ is related to hop performance, but not to hip and knee strength in collegiate football players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willigenburg, Nienke; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To define the relationship between FMS™ scores and hop performance, hip strength, and knee strength in collegiate football players. Design Cross-sectional cohort. Participants Freshmen of a division I collegiate American football team (n=59). Main Outcome Measures The athletes performed the FMS™, as well as a variety of hop tests, isokinetic knee strength and isometric hip strength tasks. We recorded total FMS™ score, peak strength and hop performance, and we calculated asymmetries between legs on the different tasks. Spearman’s correlation coefficients quantified the relationships these measures, and chi-square analyses compared the number of athletes with asymmetries on the different tasks. Results We observed significant correlations (r=0.38–0.56, p≤0.02) between FMS™ scores and hop distance, but not between FMS™ scores and hip or knee strength (all p≥0.21). The amount of asymmetry on the FMS™ test was significantly correlated to the amount of asymmetry on the timed 6m hop (r=0.44, phip or knee strength asymmetries between limbs (all p≥0.34). Conclusions FMS™ score was positively correlated to hop distance, and limb asymmetry in FMS™ tasks was correlated to limb asymmetry in 6m hop time in football players. No significant correlations were observed between FMS™ score and hip and knee strength, or between FMS™ asymmetry and asymmetries in hip and knee strength between limbs. These results indicate that a simple hop for distance test may be a time and cost efficient alternative to FMS™ testing in athletes and that functional asymmetries between limbs do not coincide with strength asymmetries. PMID:26886801

  10. Quantification of hand function by power grip and pinch strength force measurements in ulnar nerve lesion simulated by ulnar nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Nikolaus Johannes; Mentzel, Martin; Krischak, Gert D; Gülke, Joachim

    2017-06-24

    In the assessment of hand and upper limb function, grip strength is of the major importance. The measurement by dynamometers has been established. In this study, the effect of a simulated ulnar nerve lesion on different grip force measurements was evaluated. In 25 healthy volunteers, grip force measurement was done by the JAMAR dynamometer (Fabrication Enterprises Inc, Irvington, NY) for power grip and by a pinch strength dynamometer for tip pinch strength, tripod grip, and key pinch strength. A within-subject research design was used in this prospective study. Each subject served as the control by preinjection measurements of grip and pinch strength. Subsequent measurements after ulnar nerve block were used to examine within-subject change. In power grip, there was a significant reduction of maximum grip force of 26.9% with ulnar nerve block compared with grip force without block (P force could be confirmed. However, the assessment of other dimensions of hand strength as tip pinch, tripod pinch and key pinch had more relevance in demonstrating hand strength changes resulting from an distal ulnar nerve lesion. The measurement of tip pinch, tripod grip and key pinch can improve the follow-up in hand rehabilitation. II. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Trajectory of self-reported pain and function and knee extensor muscle strength in young patients undergoing arthroscopic surgery for meniscal tears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Østengaard, Lasse; Cardy, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    . PATIENTS AND INTERVENTION: People aged 30 years or younger undergoing surgery for a meniscal tear. OUTCOMES: and comparator: (1) Self-reported pain and function in patients undergoing meniscal surgery compared to a non-operative control group (2). Knee extensor strength in the leg undergoing surgery...... the trajectory of self-reported pain and function in patients undergoing arthroscopic surgery compared with non-operative treatments for young patients with meniscal tears. Knee extensor strength seemed to be impaired up to 12 months after surgery in young patients undergoing surgery for meniscal tears...

  12. Functional electrical stimulation cycling does not improve mobility in people with acquired brain injury and its effects on strength are unclear: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide G de Sousa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Question: Does 4 weeks of active functional electrical stimulation (FES cycling in addition to usual care improve mobility and strength more than usual care alone in people with a sub-acute acquired brain injury caused by stroke or trauma? Design: Multi centre, randomised, controlled trial. Participants: Forty patients from three Sydney hospitals with recently acquired brain injury and a mean composite strength score in the affected lower limb of 7 (SD 5 out of 20 points. Intervention: Participants in the experimental group received an incremental, progressive, FES cycling program five times a week over a 4-week period. All participants received usual care. Outcome measures: Outcome measures were taken at baseline and at 4 weeks. Primary outcomes were mobility and strength of the knee extensors of the affected lower limb. Mobility was measured with three mobility items of the Functional Independence Measure and strength was measured with a hand-held dynamometer. Secondary outcomes were strength of the knee extensors of the unaffected lower limb, strength of key muscles of the affected lower limb and spasticity of the affected plantar flexors. Results: All but one participant completed the study. The mean between-group differences for mobility and strength of the knee extensors of the affected lower limb were –0.3/21 points (95% CI –3.2 to 2.7 and 7.5 Nm (95% CI –5.1 to 20.2, where positive values favoured the experimental group. The only secondary outcome that suggested a possible treatment effect was strength of key muscles of the affected lower limb with a mean between-group difference of 3.0/20 points (95% CI 1.3 to 4.8. Conclusion: Functional electrical stimulation cycling does not improve mobility in people with acquired brain injury and its effects on strength are unclear. Trial registration: ACTRN12612001163897. [de Sousa DG, Harvey LA, Dorsch S, Leung J, Harris W (2016 Functional electrical stimulation cycling does not improve

  13. Gamma strength functions and level densities from high-resolution inelastic proton scattering at very forward angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassauer, Sergej; Neumann-Cosel, Peter von; Tamii, Atsushi

    2017-09-01

    Inelastic proton scattering at energies of a few 100 MeV and forward angles including 0∘ provides a novel method to measure gamma strength functions (GSF) in nuclei in an energy range of about 5-23 MeV. The experiments provide not only the E1 but also the M1 part of the GSF. The latter is poorly known in heavy nuclei. A case study of 208Pb indicates that the systematics proposed for the M1-GSF in RIPL-3 needs to be substantially revised. Comparison with gamma decay data (e.g. from the Oslo method) allows to test the generalised Brink-Axel (BA) hypothesis in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) crucial for the modelling of (n,γ) and (γ,n) reactions in astrophysical reaction networks. A fluctuation analysis of the high-resolution data also provides a direct measure of level densities in the energy region well above the neutron threshold, where hardly any experimental information is available.

  14. Gamma strength functions and level densities from high-resolution inelastic proton scattering at very forward angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassauer Sergej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inelastic proton scattering at energies of a few 100 MeV and forward angles including 0∘ provides a novel method to measure gamma strength functions (GSF in nuclei in an energy range of about 5–23 MeV. The experiments provide not only the E1 but also the M1 part of the GSF. The latter is poorly known in heavy nuclei. A case study of 208Pb indicates that the systematics proposed for the M1-GSF in RIPL-3 needs to be substantially revised. Comparison with gamma decay data (e.g. from the Oslo method allows to test the generalised Brink-Axel (BA hypothesis in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance (PDR crucial for the modelling of (n,γ and (γ,n reactions in astrophysical reaction networks. A fluctuation analysis of the high-resolution data also provides a direct measure of level densities in the energy region well above the neutron threshold, where hardly any experimental information is available.

  15. Knee Extensor Strength and Risk of Structural, Symptomatic, and Functional Decline in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culvenor, Adam G; Ruhdorfer, Anja; Juhl, Carsten; Eckstein, Felix; Øiestad, Britt Elin

    2017-05-01

    To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the association between knee extensor strength and the risk of structural, symptomatic, or functional deterioration in individuals with or at risk of knee osteoarthritis (KOA). We systematically identified and methodologically appraised all longitudinal studies (≥1-year followup) reporting an association between knee extensor strength and structural (tibiofemoral, patellofemoral), symptomatic (self-reported, knee replacement), or functional (subjective, objective) decline in individuals with or at risk of radiographic or symptomatic KOA. Results were pooled for each of the above associations using meta-analysis, or if necessary, summarized according to a best-evidence synthesis. Fifteen studies were included, evaluating >8,000 participants (51% female), with a followup time between 1.5 and 8 years. Meta-analysis revealed that lower knee extensor strength was associated with an increased risk of symptomatic (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index [WOMAC] pain: odds ratio [OR] 1.35, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.10-1.67) and functional decline (WOMAC function: OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.00-1.89, and chair-stand task: OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.03-1.04), but not increased risk of radiographic tibiofemoral joint space narrowing (JSN) (OR 1.15, 95% CI 0.84-1.56). No trend in risk was observed for KOA status (present versus absent). Best-evidence synthesis showed inconclusive evidence for lower knee extensor strength being associated with increased risk of patellofemoral deterioration. Meta-analysis showed that lower knee extensor strength is associated with an increased risk of symptomatic and functional deterioration, but not tibiofemoral JSN. The risk of patellofemoral deterioration in the presence of knee extensor strength deficits is inconclusive. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  16. Comparisons in fluctuation of muscle strength and function in patients with immune mediated neuropathy treated with intravenous versus subcutaneous immunoglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ingelise; Markvardsen, Lars; Jakobsen, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    : In a prospective, open-label study, patients were changed from monthly IVIg to weekly SCIg. The primary endpoint was variation in isokinetic muscle strength (cIKS). Secondary endpoints were variations in Medical Research Council (MRC) score, grip strength (GS), 9-hole-peg test (9-HPT), and 40-meter-walk test (40...

  17. The Effects of a Motorized Aquatic Treadmill Exercise Program on Muscle Strength, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and clinical function in Subacute Stroke Patients -- a Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So Young; Han, Eun Young; Kim, Bo Ryun; Im, Sang Hee

    2018-03-12

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a motorized aquatic treadmill exercise program improve the isometric strength of the knee muscles, cardiorespiratory fitness, arterial stiffness, motor function, balance, functional outcomes and quality of life in subacute stroke patients. Thirty-two patients were randomly assigned to 4-week training sessions of either aquatic therapy(n=19) or land-based aerobic exercise(n=18). Isometric strength was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Cardiopulmonary fitness was evaluated using a symptom-limited exercise tolerance test and by measuring brachial ankle pulse wave velocity. Moreover, motor function(Fugl-Meyer Assessment[FMA] and FMA-lower limb[FMA-LL]), balance(Berg Balance Scale[BBS]), Activities of daily living(Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index [K-MBI]), and Quality of life(EQ-5D index) were examined. There were no inter-group differences between demographic and clinical characteristics at baseline(p>0.05). The results shows significant improvements in peak oxygen consumption (p=0.02), maximal isometric strength of the bilateral knee extensors (paquatic therapy group. However, only significant improvements in maximal isometric strength in the knee extensors (p=0.03) and flexors (p=0.04) were found within the aquatic therapy group and control group. Water-based aerobic exercise performed on a motorized aquatic treadmill had beneficial effect on isometric muscle strength in the lower limb.

  18. Respiratory muscle strength and pulmonary function in children with rhinitis and asthma after a six-minute walk test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Ana Alice de Almeida; Barros, Camila Moraes; Santos, Cássia Giulliane Costa; Dos Santos, Maria Renata Aragão; Silva, José Rodrigo Santos; Silva Junior, Walderi Monteiro da; Simões, Silvia de Magalhães

    2018-03-01

    Rhinitis and asthma decrease quality of life. Few studies have assessed the performance of children with asthma or rhinitis under submaximal exercise. We evaluated maximal respiratory pressures, spirometric parameters, and ability to sustain submaximal exercise in these children before and after the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), compared to healthy children. This cross-sectional, analytical study included 89 children aged 6-12 years in outpatient follow-up: 27 healthy (H), 31 with rhinitis (R), and 31 with mild asthma under control (A). Pulmonary function parameters and maximal respiratory pressures were measured before and 5, 10, and 30 minutes after the 6MWT. Wilcoxon test was used to compare numerical numerical variables between two groups and analysis of variance or Kruskal-Wallis test for comparison among three groups. Total distance traveled in the 6MWT was similar among the three groups. Compared to pre-test values, VEF1 (Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second), VEF0.75 (Forced Expiratory Volume in 0.75 second), and FEF25-75 (Forced Expiratory Flow 25-75% of the Forced Vital Capacity - CVF - curve) decreased significantly after the 6MWT in group A, and VEF0.75, FEF25-75, and VEF1/CVF decreased significantly in group R. Groups A and R had lower Maximum Inspiratory Pressure values than group H before and after the 6MWT at all time points assessed. The findings suggest that children with rhinitis and mild asthma present with alterations in respiratory muscle strength and pulmonary function not associated with clinical complaints, reinforcing the concept of the united airways.

  19. The effect of protein supplementation on quality of life, physical function, and muscle strength in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahnfeldt-Mollerup, Peder; Hey, Henrik; Johansen, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    of protein supplementation for non--sarcopenic patients with COPD has yet not previously been examined. AIM: The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of protein supplementation on quality of life, physical function, muscle strength and biochemical blood markers in patients diagnosed with COPD......, mental state was measured by means of St George Respiratory Questionnaire, physical performance was evaluated by shuttle walking test and maximal muscle strength test, and fasting blood samples were analysed. RESULTS: Supplementing exercise with protein had no additional effect on any of the outcome...... measures. However, shuttle walk time, St George total score and subscore for impact improved as effect of time. CONCLUSION: This trial was unable to provide evidence for the effect of protein supplementation on quality of life, physical function, and muscle strength in non--sarcopenic patients...

  20. High-Intensity Progressive Resistance Training Increases Strength With No Change in Cardiovascular Function and Autonomic Neural Regulation in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanegusuku, Hélcio; Queiroz, Andréia C; Silva, Valdo J; de Mello, Marco T; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Forjaz, Cláudia L

    2015-07-01

    The effects of high-intensity progressive resistance training (HIPRT) on cardiovascular function and autonomic neural regulation in older adults are unclear. To investigate this issue, 25 older adults were randomly divided into two groups: control (CON, N = 13, 63 ± 4 years; no training) and HIPRT (N = 12, 64 ± 4 years; 2 sessions/week, 7 exercises, 2–4 sets, 10–4 RM). Before and after four months, maximal strength, quadriceps cross-sectional area (QCSA), clinic and ambulatory blood pressures (BP), systemic hemodynamics, and cardiovascular autonomic modulation were measured. Maximal strength and QCSA increased in the HIPRT group and did not change in the CON group. Clinic and ambulatory BP, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, stroke volume, heart rate, and cardiac sympathovagal balance did not change in the HIPRT group or the CON group. In conclusion, HIPRT was effective at increasing muscle mass and strength without promoting changes in cardiovascular function or autonomic neural regulation.

  1. Low- and High-Volume Water-Based Resistance Training Induces Similar Strength and Functional Capacity Improvements in Older Women: A Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Thaís; Delevatti, Rodrigo Sudatti; Prado, Alexandre Konig Garcia; Bagatini, Natália Carvalho; Simmer, Nicole Monticelli; Meinerz, Andressa Pellegrini; Barroso, Bruna Machado; Costa, Rochelle Rocha; Kanitz, Ana Carolina; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2018-03-27

    Water-based resistance training (WRT) has been indicated to promote strength gains in elderly population. However, no study has compared different training strategies to identify the most efficient one. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 3 WRT strategies on the strength and functional capacity of older women. In total, 36 women were randomly allocated to training groups: simple set of 30 seconds [1 × 30s; 66.41 (1.36) y; n = 12], multiple sets of 10 seconds [3 × 10s; 66.50 (1.43) y; n = 11], and simple set of 10 seconds [1 × 10s; 65.23 (1.09) y; n = 13]. Training lasted for 12 weeks. The maximal dynamic strength (in kilograms) and muscular endurance (number of repetitions) of knee extension, knee flexion, elbow flexion, and bench press, as well as functional capacity (number of repetitions), were evaluated. All types of training promoted similar gains in maximal dynamic strength of knee extension and flexion as well as elbow flexion. Only the 1 × 30s and 1 × 10s groups presented increments in bench press maximal strength. All 3 groups showed increases in muscular endurance in all exercises and functional capacity. WRT using long- or short-duration simple sets promotes the same gains in strength and functional capacity in older women as does WRT using multiple sets.

  2. TCR stimulation strength is inversely associated with establishment of functional brain-resident memory CD8 T cells during persistent viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maru, Saumya; Jin, Ge; Schell, Todd D; Lukacher, Aron E

    2017-04-01

    Establishing functional tissue-resident memory (TRM) cells at sites of infection is a newfound objective of T cell vaccine design. To directly assess the impact of antigen stimulation strength on memory CD8 T cell formation and function during a persistent viral infection, we created a library of mouse polyomavirus (MuPyV) variants with substitutions in a subdominant CD8 T cell epitope that exhibit a broad range of efficiency in stimulating TCR transgenic CD8 T cells. By altering a subdominant epitope in a nonstructural viral protein and monitoring memory differentiation of donor monoclonal CD8 T cells in immunocompetent mice, we circumvented potentially confounding changes in viral infection levels, virus-associated inflammation, size of the immunodominant virus-specific CD8 T cell response, and shifts in TCR affinity that may accompany temporal recruitment of endogenous polyclonal cells. Using this strategy, we found that antigen stimulation strength was inversely associated with the function of memory CD8 T cells during a persistent viral infection. We further show that CD8 TRM cells recruited to the brain following systemic infection with viruses expressing epitopes with suboptimal stimulation strength respond more efficiently to challenge CNS infection with virus expressing cognate antigen. These data demonstrate that the strength of antigenic stimulation during recruitment of CD8 T cells influences the functional integrity of TRM cells in a persistent viral infection.

  3. TCR stimulation strength is inversely associated with establishment of functional brain-resident memory CD8 T cells during persistent viral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saumya Maru

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Establishing functional tissue-resident memory (TRM cells at sites of infection is a newfound objective of T cell vaccine design. To directly assess the impact of antigen stimulation strength on memory CD8 T cell formation and function during a persistent viral infection, we created a library of mouse polyomavirus (MuPyV variants with substitutions in a subdominant CD8 T cell epitope that exhibit a broad range of efficiency in stimulating TCR transgenic CD8 T cells. By altering a subdominant epitope in a nonstructural viral protein and monitoring memory differentiation of donor monoclonal CD8 T cells in immunocompetent mice, we circumvented potentially confounding changes in viral infection levels, virus-associated inflammation, size of the immunodominant virus-specific CD8 T cell response, and shifts in TCR affinity that may accompany temporal recruitment of endogenous polyclonal cells. Using this strategy, we found that antigen stimulation strength was inversely associated with the function of memory CD8 T cells during a persistent viral infection. We further show that CD8 TRM cells recruited to the brain following systemic infection with viruses expressing epitopes with suboptimal stimulation strength respond more efficiently to challenge CNS infection with virus expressing cognate antigen. These data demonstrate that the strength of antigenic stimulation during recruitment of CD8 T cells influences the functional integrity of TRM cells in a persistent viral infection.

  4. Efficacy of whey protein supplementation on resistance exercise-induced changes in muscle strength, lean mass, and function in mobility-limited older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whey protein supplementation may augment resistance exercise-induced increases in muscle strength and mass. Further studies are required to determine whether this effect extends to functionally compromised older adults. The objectives of the study were to compare the effects of whey protein concent...

  5. Feasibility of a combined aerobic and strength training program and its effects on cognitive and physical function in institutionalized dementia patients. A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossers, Willem J R; Scherder, Erik J A; Boersma, Froukje; Hortobágyi, Tibor; van der Woude, Lucas H V; van Heuvelen, Marieke J G

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We examined the feasibility of a combined aerobic and strength training program in institutionalized dementia patients and studied the effects on cognitive and physical function. Methods: Thirty-three patients with dementia, recruited from one nursing home, participated in this

  6. Feasibility of a Combined Aerobic and Strength Training Program and Its Effects on Cognitive and Physical Function in Institutionalized Dementia Patients. A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossers, W.J.R; Scherder, E.J.A.; Boersma, F.; Hortobágyi, T.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; van Heuvelen, M.J.G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We examined the feasibility of a combined aerobic and strength training program in institutionalized dementia patients and studied the effects on cognitive and physical function. Methods: Thirty-three patients with dementia, recruited from one nursing home, participated in this

  7. Effects of Elastic Resistance Exercise on Muscle Strength and Functional Performance in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Oliveira, Poliana Alves; Blasczyk, Juscelino Castro; Junior, Gerson Souza; Lagoa, Karina Ferreira; Soares, Milene; de Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó; Filho, Paulo José Barbosa Gutierres; Carregaro, Rodrigo Luiz; Martins, Wagner Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    Background: Elastic Resistance Exercise (ERE) has already demonstrated its effectiveness in older adults and, when combined with the resistance generated by fixed loads, in adults. This review summarizes the effectiveness of ERE performed as isolated method on muscle strength and functional

  8. Effect of an herbal/botanical supplement on strength, balance, and muscle function following 12-weeks of resistance training: a placebo controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Jonathan; Rynders, Corey A; Sutherlin, Mark; Patrie, James; Katch, Frank I; Hertel, Jay; Weltman, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    StemSport (SS; StemTech International, Inc. San Clemente, CA) contains a proprietary blend of the botanical Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and several herbal antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substances. SS has been purported to accelerate tissue repair and restore muscle function following resistance exercise. Here, we examine the effects of SS supplementation on strength adaptations resulting from a 12-week resistance training program in healthy young adults. Twenty-four young adults (16 males, 8 females, mean age = 20.5 ± 1.9 years, mass = 70.9 ± 11.9 kg, stature = 176.6 ± 9.9 cm) completed the twelve week training program. The study design was a double-blind, placebo controlled parallel group trial. Subjects either received placebo or StemSport supplement (SS; mg/day) during the training. 1-RM bench press, 1-RM leg press, vertical jump height, balance (star excursion and center of mass excursion), isokinetic strength (elbow and knee flexion/extension) and perception of recovery were measured at baseline and following the 12-week training intervention. Resistance training increased 1-RM strength (p 0.10). These data suggest that compared to placebo, the SS herbal/botanical supplement did not enhance training induced adaptations to strength, balance, and muscle function above strength training alone.

  9. Effects of bioDensity Training and Power Plate Whole-Body Vibration on Strength, Balance, and Functional Independence in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derek T; Judge, Stacey; Malone, Ashley; Moynes, Rebecca C; Conviser, Jason; Skinner, James S

    2016-01-01

    Reduced strength, balance, and functional independence diminish quality of life and increase health care costs. Sixty adults (82.2 ± 4.9 years) were randomized to a control or three 12-week intervention groups: bioDensity (bD); Power Plate (PP) whole-body vibration (WBV); or bD+PP. bD involved one weekly 5-s maximal contraction of four muscle groups. PP involved two 5-min WBV sessions. Primary outcomes were strength, balance, and Functional Independence Measure (FIM). No groups differed initially. Strength significantly increased 22-51% for three muscle groups in bD and bD+PP (P Balance significantly improved in PP and bD+PP but not in control or bD. bD, PP, and bD+PP differentially improved FIM self-care and mobility. Strength improvements from weekly 5-min sessions of bD may impart health/clinical benefits. Balance and leg strength improvements suggest WBV beneficially impacts fall risk and incidence. Improved FIM scores are encouraging and justify larger controlled trials on bD and bD+PP efficacy.

  10. Strengths-based Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    -being. The Ph.D.-project in Strength-based learning took place in a Danish school with 750 pupils age 6-16 and a similar school was functioning as a control group. The presentation will focus on both the aware-explore-apply processes and the practical implications for the schools involved, and on measurable......Strength-based learning - Children͛s Character Strengths as Means to their Learning Potential͛ is a Ph.D.-project aiming to create a strength-based mindset in school settings and at the same time introducing strength-based interventions as specific tools to improve both learning and well...

  11. Translational recognition of the 5'-terminal 7-methylguanosine of globin messenger RNA as a function of ionic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, L Y; Rhoads, R E

    1978-06-13

    The translation of rabbit globin mRNA in cell-free systems derived from either wheat germ or rabbit reticulocyte was studied in the presence of various analogues of the methylated 5' terminus (cap) as a function of ionic strength. Inhibition by these analogues was strongly enhanced by increasing concentrations of KCl, K(OAc), Na(OAc), or NH4(OAc). At appropriate concentrations of K(OAc), both cell-free systems were equally sensitive to inhibition by m7GTP. At 50 mM K(OAc), the reticulocyte system was not sensitive to m7GMP or m7GTP, but at higher concentrations up to 200 mM K(OAc), both nucleotides caused strong inhibition. The compound in m7G5'ppp5'Am was inhibitory at all concentrations of K(OAc) ranging from 50 to 200 mM, although more strongly so at the higher concentrations. Over the same range of nucleotide concentrations, the compounds GMP, GTP, and G5'ppp5'Am were not inhibitors. The mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis of the translation product was that of globin at all K(OAc) concentrations in the presence of m7GTP. Globin mRNA from which the terminal m7GTP group had been removed by chemical treatment (periodate-cyclohexylamine-alkaline phosphatase) or enzymatic treatment (tobacco acid pyrophosphatase-alkaline phosphatase) was translated less efficiently than untreated globin mRNA at higher K(OAc) concentrations, but retained appreciable activity at low K(OAc) concentrations.

  12. Effect of elastic band-based high-speed power training on cognitive function, physical performance and muscle strength in older women with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Dong Hyun; Kang, Dongheon; Kim, Hee-Jae; Kim, Jin-Soo; Song, Han Sol; Song, Wook

    2017-05-01

    The effectiveness of resistance training in improving cognitive function in older adults is well demonstrated. In particular, unconventional high-speed resistance training can improve muscle power development. In the present study, the effectiveness of 12 weeks of elastic band-based high-speed power training (HSPT) was examined. Participants were randomly assigned into a HSPT group (n = 14, age 75.0 ± 0.9 years), a low-speed strength training (LSST) group (n = 9, age 76.0 ± 1.3 years) and a control group (CON; n = 7, age 78.0 ± 1.0 years). A 1-h exercise program was provided twice a week for 12 weeks for the HSPT and LSST groups, and balance and tone exercises were carried out by the CON group. Significant increases in levels of cognitive function, physical function, and muscle strength were observed in both the HSPT and LSST groups. In cognitive function, significant improvements in the Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment were seen in both the HSPT and LSST groups compared with the CON group. In physical functions, Short Physical Performance Battery scores were increased significantly in the HSPT and LSST groups compared with the CON group. In the 12 weeks of elastic band-based training, the HSPT group showed greater improvements in older women with mild cognitive impairment than the LSST group, although both regimens were effective in improving cognitive function, physical function and muscle strength. We conclude that elastic band-based HSPT, as compared with LSST, is more efficient in helping older women with mild cognitive impairment to improve cognitive function, physical performance and muscle strength. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 765-772. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  13. Comparisons of low-intensity versus moderate-intensity combined aerobic and resistance training on body composition, muscle strength, and functional performance in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiotsu, Yoko; Yanagita, Masahiko

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of exercise order of combined aerobic and low- or moderate-intensity resistance training into the same session on body composition, functional performance, and muscle strength in healthy older women. Furthermore, this study compared the effects of different (low- vs moderate-) intensity combined training. A total of 60 healthy older women (age 61-81 y) were randomly assigned to five groups that performed aerobic exercise before low-intensity resistance training (AR-L, n = 12) or after resistance training (RA-L, n = 12), performed aerobic exercise before moderate-intensity resistance training (AR-M, n = 12) or after resistance training (RA-M, n = 12), or nonintervention control conditions (CON, n = 12). Body composition, functional performance, and muscle strength were evaluated before and after the 10-week training. No effects of exercise order of combined aerobic and low- or moderate-intensity resistance training (AR-L vs RA-L, AR-M vs RA-M) were observed in body composition, functional performance, or muscle strength, whereas the effects of training intensity of combined training (AR-L vs AR-M, RA-L vs RA-M) were observed on functional performance. All combined trainings significantly increased muscle strength and gait ability (P Functional reach test significantly increased in the AR-M and RA-M groups (P training increases muscle strength and improves gait ability, regardless of the exercise order. Also, greater improvement in dynamic balance capacity, a risk factor associated with falling, is observed in moderate-intensity combined training.

  14. Effect of Exercise Therapy Compared with Arthroscopic Surgery on Knee Muscle Strength and Functional Performance in Middle-Aged Patients with Degenerative Meniscus Tears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensrud, Silje; Risberg, May Arna; Roos, Ewa M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a 12-wk exercise therapy program and arthroscopic partial meniscectomy on knee strength and functional performance in middle-aged patients with degenerative meniscus tears. DESIGN: A total of 82 patients (mean age, 49 yrs; 35% women......) with a symptomatic, unilateral, magnetic resonance imaging-verified degenerative meniscus tear and no or mild radiographic osteoarthritis were randomly assigned to a supervised neuromuscular and strength exercise program or arthroscopic partial meniscectomy. Outcomes assessed 3 mos after intervention initiation were...

  15. Attitude Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Lauren C; Krosnick, Jon A

    2017-01-03

    Attitude strength has been the focus of a huge volume of research in psychology and related sciences for decades. The insights offered by this literature have tremendous value for understanding attitude functioning and structure and for the effective application of the attitude concept in applied settings. This is the first Annual Review of Psychology article on the topic, and it offers a review of theory and evidence regarding one of the most researched strength-related attitude features: attitude importance. Personal importance is attached to an attitude when the attitude is perceived to be relevant to self-interest, social identification with reference groups or reference individuals, and values. Attaching personal importance to an attitude causes crystallizing of attitudes (via enhanced resistance to change), effortful gathering and processing of relevant information, accumulation of a large store of well-organized relevant information in long-term memory, enhanced attitude extremity and accessibility, enhanced attitude impact on the regulation of interpersonal attraction, energizing of emotional reactions, and enhanced impact of attitudes on behavioral intentions and action. Thus, important attitudes are real and consequential psychological forces, and their study offers opportunities for addressing behavioral change.

  16. The effects of water-based exercise in combination with blood flow restriction on strength and functional capacity in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Joamira P; Neto, Gabriel R; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Bemben, Michael G; Laurentino, Gilberto C; Batista, Gilmário; Silva, Júlio C G; Freitas, Eduardo D S; Sousa, Maria S C

    2015-12-01

    Water-based exercise and low-intensity exercise in combination with blood flow restriction (BFR) are two methods that have independently been shown to improve muscle strength in those of advancing age. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term effect of water-based exercise in combination with BFR on maximum dynamic strength and functional capacity in post-menopausal women. Twenty-eight women underwent an 8-week water-based exercise program. The participants were randomly allocated to one of the three groups: (a) water exercise only, (b) water exercise + BFR, or (c) a non-exercise control group. Functional capacity (chair stand test, timed up and go test, gait speed, and dynamic balance) and strength testing were tested before and after the 8-week aquatic exercise program. The main findings were as follows: (1) water-based exercise in combination with BFR significantly increased the lower limb maximum strength which was not observed with water-based exercise alone and (2) water-based exercise, regardless of the application of BFR, increased functional performance measured by the timed up and go test over a control group. Although we used a healthy population in the current study, these findings may have important implications for those who may be contraindicated to using traditional resistance exercise. Future research should explore this promising modality in these clinical populations.

  17. Effect of physical exercise training on muscle strength and body composition, and their association with functional capacity and quality of life in patients with atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osbak, Philip Samuel; Mourier, Malene; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Atrial fibrillation diminishes cardiac function, exercise tolerance and quality of life. The objective of this study was to determine whether exercise training in atrial fibrillation affects muscle strength, body composition, maximal exercise capacity and walking capacity positively......, thus improving quality of life. Design: Randomized clinical trial. Twelve weeks of physical exercise training or control. Patients: Forty-nine patients in permanent atrial fibrillation were randomized to training or control. Methods: Intervention consisted of aerobic training for 1 h 3 times per week...... at 70% of maximal exercise capacity vs control. Muscle strength, exercise capacity, 6-minute walk test, lean body mass, fat percentage, and quality of life were assessed. Results: Muscle strength increased in the training group (p = 0.01), but no change was observed in controls. Lean body mass...

  18. Comparison of isokinetic and isometric strength training effects on hamstring and quadriceps torques and physical function in knee pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masood, T.; Khan, H.M.M.H.

    2017-01-01

    To compare the effects of isokinetic and isometric strength trainings on hamstring and quadriceps average-peak-torques, physical performance, and pain. Methodology: Twenty athletes with knee pain were randomly assigned to two equal groups: Isokinetic training and isometric training. Both groups were trained on Biodex System 3 Pro for 10 sessions. Isokinetic-group received isokinetic training on 5 different velocities while isometric-group performed isometric contractions at 3 knee joint angles. Results: Hamstring isokinetic average-peak-torque was significantly higher at all velocities without significant improvement in quadriceps average-peak-torque except for at the slowest velocity. Isometric training did not cause significant change in isometric average-peak-torque at any knee angle for either hamstring or quadriceps. Agility, elastic leg strength, and pain improved significantly in both groups with no significant between-group differences. No significant statistical correlation was observed between pain and any other parameter after either type of training. Conclusions: Athletes participating in sports requiring dynamic hamstring strength should prefer isokinetic strength training for physical rehabilitation of knee pain. However, physical performance and pain can be improved with both isometric and isokinetic strength training. (author)

  19. Effects of Moderate-Volume, High-Load Lower-Body Resistance Training on Strength and Function in Persons with Parkinson's Disease: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K. Schilling

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Resistance training research has demonstrated positive effects for persons with Parkinson's disease (PD, but the number of acute training variables that can be manipulated makes it difficult to determine the optimal resistance training program. Objective. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of an 8-week resistance training intervention on strength and function in persons with PD. Methods. Eighteen men and women were randomized to training or standard care for the 8-week intervention. The training group performed 3 sets of 5–8 repetitions of the leg press, leg curl, and calf press twice weekly. Tests included leg press strength relative to body mass, timed up-and-go, six-minute walk, and Activities-specific Balance Confidence questionnaire. Results. There was a significant group-by-time effect for maximum leg press strength relative to body mass, with the training group significantly increasing their maximum relative strength (P.05. Conclusions. Moderate volume, high-load weight training is effective for increasing lower-body strength in persons with PD.

  20. Protein fouling in carbon nanotubes enhanced ultrafiltration membrane: Fouling mechanism as a function of pH and ionic strength

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jieun; Jeong, Sanghyun; Ye, Yun; Chen, Vicki; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu; Leiknes, TorOve; Liu, Zongwen

    2016-01-01

    The protein fouling behavior was investigated in the filtration of the multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite membrane and commercial polyethersulfone ultrafiltration (PES-UF) membrane. The effect of solution chemistry such as pH and ionic strength on the protein fouling mechanism was systematically examined using filtration model such as complete pore blocking, intermediate pore blocking and cake layer formation. The results showed that the initial permeate flux pattern and fouling behavior of the MWCNT composite membrane were significantly influenced by pH and ionic strength while the effect of PES-UF membrane on flux was minimal. In a lysozyme (Lys) filtration, the severe pore blocking in the MWCNT membrane was made by the combined effect of intra-foulant interaction (Lys-Lys) and electrostatic repulsion between the membrane surface and the foulant at pH 4.7 and 10.4, and increasing ionic strength where the foulant-foulant interaction and membrane-fouling interaction were weak. In a bovine serum albumin (BSA) filtration, severe pore blocking was reduced by less deposition via the electrostatic interaction between the membrane and foulant at pH 4.7 and 10.4 and increasing ionic strength, at which the interaction between the membrane and BSA became weak. For binary mixture filtration, the protein fouling mechanism was more dominantly affected by foulant-foulant interaction (Lys-BSA, Lys-Lys, and BSA-BSA) at pH 7.0 and increase in ionic strength. This research demonstrates that MWCNT membrane fouling can be alleviated by changing pH condition and ionic strength based on the foulant-foulant interaction and the electrostatic interaction between the membrane and foulant.

  1. Protein fouling in carbon nanotubes enhanced ultrafiltration membrane: Fouling mechanism as a function of pH and ionic strength

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jieun

    2016-11-04

    The protein fouling behavior was investigated in the filtration of the multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite membrane and commercial polyethersulfone ultrafiltration (PES-UF) membrane. The effect of solution chemistry such as pH and ionic strength on the protein fouling mechanism was systematically examined using filtration model such as complete pore blocking, intermediate pore blocking and cake layer formation. The results showed that the initial permeate flux pattern and fouling behavior of the MWCNT composite membrane were significantly influenced by pH and ionic strength while the effect of PES-UF membrane on flux was minimal. In a lysozyme (Lys) filtration, the severe pore blocking in the MWCNT membrane was made by the combined effect of intra-foulant interaction (Lys-Lys) and electrostatic repulsion between the membrane surface and the foulant at pH 4.7 and 10.4, and increasing ionic strength where the foulant-foulant interaction and membrane-fouling interaction were weak. In a bovine serum albumin (BSA) filtration, severe pore blocking was reduced by less deposition via the electrostatic interaction between the membrane and foulant at pH 4.7 and 10.4 and increasing ionic strength, at which the interaction between the membrane and BSA became weak. For binary mixture filtration, the protein fouling mechanism was more dominantly affected by foulant-foulant interaction (Lys-BSA, Lys-Lys, and BSA-BSA) at pH 7.0 and increase in ionic strength. This research demonstrates that MWCNT membrane fouling can be alleviated by changing pH condition and ionic strength based on the foulant-foulant interaction and the electrostatic interaction between the membrane and foulant.

  2. Is handgrip strength normalized to body weight a useful tool to identify dynapenia and functional incapacity in post-menopausal women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulac, Maude; Boutros, Guy El Hajj; Pion, Charlotte; Barbat-Artigas, Sébastien; Gouspillou, Gilles; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether handgrip strength normalized to body weight could be a useful clinical tool to identify dynapenia and assess functional capacity in post-menopausal women. A total of 136 postmenopausal women were recruited. Body composition (Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry [DEXA], Bio-electrical Impedence Analysis [BIA]), grip strength (dynamometer) and functional capacity (senior fitness tests) were evaluated. Dynapenia was established according to a handgrip strength index (handgrip strength divided by body weight (BW) in Kg/KgBW) obtained from a reference population of young women: Type I dynapenic (<0.44 kg/KgBW) and type II dynapenic (<0.35 kg/KgBW). The results show a positive correlation between handgrip strength index (in kg/KgBW) and alternate-step test (r=0.30, p<0.001), chair-stand test (r=0.25, p<0.005) and one-leg stance test (r=0.335, p<0.001). The results also showed a significant difference in non-dynapenic compared to type I dynapenic and type II dynapenic for the chair-stand test (Non-dynapenic: 12.0±3.0; Type I: 11.7±2.5; Type II: 10.3±3.0) (p=0.037 and p=0.005, respectively) and the one-leg stance test (Non-dynapenic: 54.2±14.2; Type I: 43.8±21.4; Type II: 35.0±21.8) (p=0.030 and p=0.004, respectively). Finally, a significant difference was observed between type II dynapenic and non-dynapenic for the chair-stand test (p=0.032), but not with type I dynapenic. The results showed that handgrip strength was positively correlated with functional capacity. In addition, non-dynapenic women displayed a better functional status when compared to type I and type II dynapenic women. Thus, the determination of the handgrip strength thresholds could be an accessible and affordable clinical tool to identify people at risk of autonomy loss.

  3. Is handgrip strength normalized to body weight a useful tool to identify dynapenia and functional incapacity in post-menopausal women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maude Dulac

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To investigate whether handgrip strength normalized to body weight could be a useful clinical tool to identify dynapenia and assess functional capacity in post-menopausal women. Method A total of 136 postmenopausal women were recruited. Body composition (Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry [DEXA], Bio-electrical Impedence Analysis [BIA], grip strength (dynamometer and functional capacity (senior fitness tests were evaluated. Dynapenia was established according to a handgrip strength index (handgrip strength divided by body weight (BW in Kg/KgBW obtained from a reference population of young women: Type I dynapenic (<0.44 kg/KgBW and type II dynapenic (<0.35 kg/KgBW. Results The results show a positive correlation between handgrip strength index (in kg/KgBW and alternate-step test (r=0.30, p<0.001, chair-stand test (r=0.25, p<0.005 and one-leg stance test (r=0.335, p<0.001. The results also showed a significant difference in non-dynapenic compared to type I dynapenic and type II dynapenic for the chair-stand test (Non-dynapenic: 12.0±3.0; Type I: 11.7±2.5; Type II: 10.3±3.0 (p=0.037 and p=0.005, respectively and the one-leg stance test (Non-dynapenic: 54.2±14.2; Type I: 43.8±21.4; Type II: 35.0±21.8 (p=0.030 and p=0.004, respectively. Finally, a significant difference was observed between type II dynapenic and non-dynapenic for the chair-stand test (p=0.032, but not with type I dynapenic. Conclusion The results showed that handgrip strength was positively correlated with functional capacity. In addition, non-dynapenic women displayed a better functional status when compared to type I and type II dynapenic women. Thus, the determination of the handgrip strength thresholds could be an accessible and affordable clinical tool to identify people at risk of autonomy loss.

  4. Impact of Weight Loss on Physical Function with Changes in Strength, Muscle Mass, and Muscle Fat Infiltration in Overweight to Moderately Obese Older Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Santanasto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Evaluate the effects of weight loss on muscle mass and area, muscle fat infiltration, strength, and their association with physical function. Methods. Thirty-six overweight to moderately obese, sedentary older adults were randomized into either a physical activity plus weight loss (PA+WL or physical activity plus successful aging health education (PA+SA program. Measurements included body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computerized tomography, knee extensor strength, and short physical performance battery (SPPB. Results. At 6 months, PA+WL lost greater thigh fat and muscle area compared to PA+SA. PA+WL lost 12.4% strength; PA+SA lost 1.0%. Muscle fat infiltration decreased significantly in PA+WL and PA+SA. Thigh fat area decreased 6-fold in comparison to lean area in PA+WL. Change in total SPPB score was strongly inversely correlated with change in fat but not with change in lean or strength. Conclusion. Weight loss resulted in additional improvements in function over exercise alone, primarily due to loss of body fat.

  5. Polyelectrolyte multilayer assembly as a function of pH and ionic strength using the polysaccharides chitosan and heparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddohi, Soheil; Killingsworth, Christopher E; Kipper, Matt J

    2008-07-01

    The goal of this work is to explore the effects of solution ionic strength and pH on polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) assembly, using biologically derived polysaccharides as the polyelectrolytes. We used the layer-by-layer (LBL) technique to assemble PEM of the polysaccharides heparin (a strong polyanion) and chitosan (a weak polycation) and characterized the sensitivity of the PEM composition and layer thickness to changes in processing parameters. Fourier-transform surface plasmon resonance (FT-SPR) and spectroscopic ellipsometry provided in situ and ex situ measurements of the PEM thickness, respectively. Vibrational spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) provided details of the chemistry (i.e., composition, electrostatic interactions) of the PEM. We found that when PEM were assembled from 0.2 M buffer, the PEM thickness could be increased from less than 2 nm per bilayer to greater than 4 nm per bilayer by changing the solution pH; higher and lower ionic strength buffer solutions resulted in narrower ranges of accessible thickness. Molar composition of the PEM was not very sensitive to solution pH or ionic strength, but pH did affect the interactions between the sulfonates in heparin and amines in chitosan when PEM were assembled from 0.2 M buffer. Changes in the PEM thickness with pH and ionic strength can be interpreted through descriptions of the charge density and conformation of the polyelectrolyte chains in solution.

  6. Strength and muscle quality in a well-functioning cohort of older adults : the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newman, Anne B; Haggerty, Catherine L; Goodpaster, Bret H; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Steve; Nevitt, Michael; Miles, Toni P; Visser, Marjolein

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether lower lean mass and higher fat mass have independent effects on the loss of strength and muscle quality in older adults and might explain part of the effect of age. DESIGN: Single-episode, cross-sectional analyses of a cohort of subjects in the Health, Aging and Body

  7. Microstructure, characterizations, functionality and compressive strength of cement-based materials using zinc oxide nanoparticles as an additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nochaiya, Thanongsak [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000 (Thailand); Sekine, Yoshika [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Choopun, Supab [Applied Physics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Chaipanich, Arnon, E-mail: arnon.chaipanich@cmu.ac.th [Advanced Cement-Based Materials Research Unit, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2015-05-05

    Highlights: • Nano zinc oxide was used as an additive material. • Microstructure and phase characterization of pastes were characterized using SEM and XRD. • TGA and FTIR were also used to determine the hydration reaction. • Compressive strength of ZnO mixes was found to increase at 28 days. - Abstract: Zinc oxide nanoparticles as a nanophotocatalyst has great potential for self-cleaning applications in concrete structures, its effects on the cement hydration, setting time and compressive strength are also important when using it in practice. This paper reports the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles, as an additive material, on properties of cement-based materials. Setting time, compressive strength and porosity of mortars were investigated. Microstructure and morphology of pastes were characterized using scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. Moreover, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) were also used to determine the hydration reaction. The results show that Portland cement paste with additional ZnO was found to slightly increase the water requirement while the setting time presented prolongation period than the control mix. However, compressive strength of ZnO mixes was found to be higher than that of PC mix up to 15% (at 28 days) via filler effect. Microstructure, XRD and TGA results of ZnO pastes show less hydration products before 28 days but similar at 28 days. In addition, FTIR results confirmed the retardation when ZnO was partially added in Portland cement pastes.

  8. Microstructure, characterizations, functionality and compressive strength of cement-based materials using zinc oxide nanoparticles as an additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nochaiya, Thanongsak; Sekine, Yoshika; Choopun, Supab; Chaipanich, Arnon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nano zinc oxide was used as an additive material. • Microstructure and phase characterization of pastes were characterized using SEM and XRD. • TGA and FTIR were also used to determine the hydration reaction. • Compressive strength of ZnO mixes was found to increase at 28 days. - Abstract: Zinc oxide nanoparticles as a nanophotocatalyst has great potential for self-cleaning applications in concrete structures, its effects on the cement hydration, setting time and compressive strength are also important when using it in practice. This paper reports the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles, as an additive material, on properties of cement-based materials. Setting time, compressive strength and porosity of mortars were investigated. Microstructure and morphology of pastes were characterized using scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. Moreover, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) were also used to determine the hydration reaction. The results show that Portland cement paste with additional ZnO was found to slightly increase the water requirement while the setting time presented prolongation period than the control mix. However, compressive strength of ZnO mixes was found to be higher than that of PC mix up to 15% (at 28 days) via filler effect. Microstructure, XRD and TGA results of ZnO pastes show less hydration products before 28 days but similar at 28 days. In addition, FTIR results confirmed the retardation when ZnO was partially added in Portland cement pastes

  9. Inpatient rehabilitation improves functional capacity, peripheral muscle strength and quality of life in patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson José

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Question: Among people who are hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia, does an inpatient exercise-based rehabilitation program improve functional outcomes, symptoms, quality of life and length of hospital stay more than a respiratory physiotherapy regimen? Design: Randomised trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis and blinding of some outcomes. Participants: Forty-nine adults hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia. Intervention: The experimental group (n = 32 underwent a physical training program that included warm-up, stretching, peripheral muscle strength training and walking at a controlled speed for 15 minutes. The control group (n = 17 underwent a respiratory physiotherapy regimen that included percussion, vibrocompression, respiratory exercises and free walking. The intervention regimens lasted 8 days. Outcome measures: The primary outcome was the Glittre Activities of Daily Living test, which assesses the time taken to complete a series of functional tasks (eg, rising from a chair, walking, stairs, lifting and bending. Secondary outcomes were distance walked in the incremental shuttle walk test, peripheral muscle strength, quality of life, dyspnoea, lung function, C-reactive protein and length of hospital stay. Measures were taken 1 day before and 1 day after the intervention period. Results: There was greater improvement in the experimental group than in the control group on the Glittre Activities of Daily Living test (mean between-group difference 39 seconds, 95% CI 20 to 59 and the incremental shuttle walk test (mean between-group difference 130 m, 95% CI 77 to 182. There were also significantly greater improvements in quality of life, dyspnoea and peripheral muscle strength in the experimental group than in the control group. There were no between-group differences in lung function, C-reactive protein or length of hospital stay. Conclusion: The improvement in functional outcomes after an

  10. Combined study of the gamma-ray strength function of 114Cd with (n,γ and (γ,γ’ reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belgya T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Collaboration on strength function measurements and level density determinations is ongoing between the Budapest Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis and the ELBE Nuclear Physics groups within the framework of EU FP6 EFNUDAT project. The idea is to prove that good theoretical fits to the measured gamma-ray spectra collected in the (n,γ and (γ,γ’ reactions can be carried out using common photon strength and level density functions over a wide spectral energy range from 1 to 10 MeV for the same residual nucleus. Here, preliminary results on the isotope pair of 113,114Cd are presented for which the neutron capture state in 114Cd has 1+ or 0+ spin and parity.

  11. 2004 Progress Report for Grant No. DE-FG03-03NA00076 Nuclear Level Densities and γ-ray Strength Functions: Stewardship Sciences Academic Alliances Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. E. Mitchell

    2004-01-01

    To verify the apparent large enhancement of the radiative strength function in light and medium nuclei, the 56Fe(n,2gamma)57Fe reaction was measured. The two-step cascade intensities with soft primary intensities confirm the enhancement. The combined results have been published in Physical Review Letters and featured in the Physics News Update. Data for the Yb isotopes have been combined to examine the systematics of level densities and strength function in three Yb isotopes. A paper on these results have been accepted for publication in Physical Review C. Analysis of the gamma rays from neutron induced reactions on 48Ti have been measured and analyzed for neutron energies from 1 to 250 MeV

  12. Poor physical function in elderly women in low-level aged care is related to muscle strength rather than to measures of sarcopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Karen; Woods,; Iuliano-Burns,Sandra; King,Susannah; Strauss,Boyd

    2011-01-01

    Julie L Woods1, Sandra Iuliano-Burns2, Susannah J King1, Boyd J Strauss1, Karen Z Walker11Nutrition and Dietetics Department, Monash University, Victoria, Australia; 2Endocrine Centre of Excellence, Department of Medicine, Austin Health, University of Melbourne, West Heidelberg, AustraliaPurpose: To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and investigate relationships among body composition, muscle strength, and physical function in elderly women in low-level aged care.Subjects and methods: Si...

  13. Does hydrotherapy improve strength and physical function in patients with osteoarthritis—a randomised controlled trial comparing a gym based and a hydrotherapy based strengthening programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, A; Halbert, J; Hewitt, T; Crotty, M

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of a hydrotherapy resistance exercise programme with a gym based resistance exercise programme on strength and function in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Design: Single blind, three arm, randomised controlled trial. Subjects: 105 community living participants aged 50 years and over with clinical OA of the hip or knee. Methods: Participants were randomised into one of three groups: hydrotherapy (n = 35), gym (n = 35), or control (n = 35). The two exercising groups had three exercise sessions a week for six weeks. At six weeks an independent physiotherapist unaware of the treatment allocation performed all outcome assessments (muscle strength dynamometry, six minute walk test, WOMAC OA Index, total drugs, SF-12 quality of life, Adelaide Activities Profile, and the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale). Results: In the gym group both left and right quadriceps significantly increased in strength compared with the control group, and right quadriceps strength was also significantly better than in the hydrotherapy group. The hydrotherapy group increased left quadriceps strength only at follow up, and this was significantly different from the control group. The hydrotherapy group was significantly different from the control group for distance walked and the physical component of the SF-12. The gym group was significantly different from the control group for walk speed and self efficacy satisfaction. Compliance rates were similar for both exercise groups, with 84% of hydrotherapy and 75% of gym sessions attended. There were no differences in drug use between groups over the study period. Conclusion: Functional gains were achieved with both exercise programmes compared with the control group. PMID:14644853

  14. Does hydrotherapy improve strength and physical function in patients with osteoarthritis--a randomised controlled trial comparing a gym based and a hydrotherapy based strengthening programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, A; Halbert, J; Hewitt, T; Crotty, M

    2003-12-01

    To compare the effects of a hydrotherapy resistance exercise programme with a gym based resistance exercise programme on strength and function in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Single blind, three arm, randomised controlled trial. 105 community living participants aged 50 years and over with clinical OA of the hip or knee. Participants were randomised into one of three groups: hydrotherapy (n = 35), gym (n = 35), or control (n = 35). The two exercising groups had three exercise sessions a week for six weeks. At six weeks an independent physiotherapist unaware of the treatment allocation performed all outcome assessments (muscle strength dynamometry, six minute walk test, WOMAC OA Index, total drugs, SF-12 quality of life, Adelaide Activities Profile, and the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale). In the gym group both left and right quadriceps significantly increased in strength compared with the control group, and right quadriceps strength was also significantly better than in the hydrotherapy group. The hydrotherapy group increased left quadriceps strength only at follow up, and this was significantly different from the control group. The hydrotherapy group was significantly different from the control group for distance walked and the physical component of the SF-12. The gym group was significantly different from the control group for walk speed and self efficacy satisfaction. Compliance rates were similar for both exercise groups, with 84% of hydrotherapy and 75% of gym sessions attended. There were no differences in drug use between groups over the study period. Functional gains were achieved with both exercise programmes compared with the control group.

  15. Statistical properties of warm nuclei: Investigating the low-energy enhancement in the $\\gamma$- strength function of neutron-rich nuclei

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to start a program to study the $\\gamma$-ray strength function of neutron rich nuclei in inverse kinematics with radioactive beams at HIE-ISOLDE. An unexpected increase in the $\\gamma$-strength function at low energy has been observed in several stable nuclei using the Oslo method. This year these results were confirmed with a different experimental technique and model independent analysis developed by iThemba/Livermore. If this enhancement of the $\\gamma$-strength function is also present in neutron-rich nuclei, it will strongly affect the neutron capture cross sections, which are important input in stellar models of synthesis of heavier elements in stars. We propose to start with an experiment using a $^{66}$Ni beam of 5.5 MeV /u, where the data will be analyzed using both methods independently, and we are sure to get enough statistics, before moving to more neutron-rich nuclei. When/if neutron-rich Ti, Fe or Mo beams will be available at ISOLDE, we will submit additional proposals.

  16. Statistical flaw strength distributions for glass fibres: Correlation between bundle test and AFM-derived flaw size density functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foray, G.; Descamps-Mandine, A.; R’Mili, M.; Lamon, J.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper investigates glass fibre flaw size distributions. Two commercial fibre grades (HP and HD) mainly used in cement-based composite reinforcement were studied. Glass fibre fractography is a difficult and time consuming exercise, and thus is seldom carried out. An approach based on tensile tests on multifilament bundles and examination of the fibre surface by atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used. Bundles of more than 500 single filaments each were tested. Thus a statistically significant database of failure data was built up for the HP and HD glass fibres. Gaussian flaw distributions were derived from the filament tensile strength data or extracted from the AFM images. The two distributions were compared. Defect sizes computed from raw AFM images agreed reasonably well with those derived from tensile strength data. Finally, the pertinence of a Gaussian distribution was discussed. The alternative Pareto distribution provided a fair approximation when dealing with AFM flaw size.

  17. Silicone Foul Release Coatings: Effect of the Interaction of Oil and Coating Functionalities on the Magnitude of Macrofouling Attachment Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Hawaii) is described. The response of tubeworms (Hydroides elegans, Hydroides dianthus ), oysters (Ostrea sp., Crassostrea sp.) and barnacles (Balanus...8 and Hydroides dianthus ) and oysters (Ostrea sp. and Crassostrea sp.) to the silicone coatings were measured using ASTM D 5618-94 (1994), in which...Oyster (Crassostrea sp.) and tubeworm (H. dianthus ) attachment strengths at the Indian River Lagoon site Linear regression analyses of the adhesion

  18. The effects of isolated ankle strengthening and functional balance training on strength, running mechanics, postural control and injury prevention in novice runners: design of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltich, Jennifer; Emery, Carolyn A; Stefanyshyn, Darren; Nigg, Benno M

    2014-12-04

    Risk factors have been proposed for running injuries including (a) reduced muscular strength, (b) excessive joint movements and (c) excessive joint moments in the frontal and transverse planes. To date, many running injury prevention programs have focused on a "top down" approach to strengthen the hip musculature in the attempt to reduce movements and moments at the hip, knee, and/or ankle joints. However, running mechanics did not change when hip muscle strength increased. It could be speculated that emphasis should be placed on increasing the strength of the ankle joint for a "ground up" approach. Strengthening of the large and small muscles crossing the ankle joint is assumed to change the force distribution for these muscles and to increase the use of smaller muscles. This would be associated with a reduction of joint and insertion forces, which could have a beneficial effect on injury prevention. However, training of the ankle joint as an injury prevention strategy has not been studied. Ankle strengthening techniques include isolated strengthening or movement-related strengthening such as functional balance training. There is little knowledge about the efficacy of such training programs on strength alteration, gait or injury reduction. Novice runners will be randomly assigned to one of three groups: an isolated ankle strengthening group (strength, n = 40), a functional balance training group (balance, n = 40) or an activity-matched control group (control, n = 40). Isokinetic strength will be measured using a Biodex System 3 dynamometer. Running kinematics and kinetics will be assessed using 3D motion analysis and a force platform. Postural control will be assessed by quantifying the magnitude and temporal structure of the center of pressure trace during single leg stance on a force platform. The change pre- and post-training in isokinetic strength, running mechanics, and postural control variables will be compared following the interventions

  19. Comparisons in fluctuation of muscle strength and function in patients with immune-mediated neuropathy treated with intravenous versus subcutaneous immunoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Ingelise; Markvardsen, Lars H; Jakobsen, Johannes

    2018-04-01

    Variations in muscle strength and function have not been studied in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and multifocal motor neuropathy whose treatment regimen has been changed from intravenous to subcutaneous immunoglobulin (IVIg to SCIg). In a prospective, open-label study, patients were changed from monthly IVIg to weekly SCIg. The primary endpoint was variation in isokinetic muscle strength (cIKS). Secondary endpoints were variations in Medical Research Council (MRC) score, grip strength (GS), 9-hole-peg test (9-HPT), and 40-meter-walk test (40-MWT). The coefficient of variance of cIKS during the IVIg and SCIg treatment periods was unchanged (mean ± SD: 6.97 ± 4.83% vs. 5.50 ± 3.13%, P = 0.21). The variations in the 9-HPT and 40-MWT were significantly lower in the SCIg group (P = 0.01 and P = 0.005, respectively). When therapy was changed from IVIg to SCIg, fluctuation of muscle strength was unchanged, but performance fluctuations were diminished. Muscle Nerve 57: 610-614, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Functional High-Intensity Circuit Training Improves Body Composition, Peak Oxygen Uptake, Strength, and Alters Certain Dimensions of Quality of Life in Overweight Women

    OpenAIRE

    Sperlich, Billy; Wallmann-Sperlich, Birgit; Zinner, Christoph; Von Stauffenberg, Valerie; Losert, Helena; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2017-01-01

    Source at https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2017.00172 The effects of circuit-like functional high-intensity training (CircuitHIIT) alone or in combination with high-volume low-intensity exercise (Circuitcombined) on selected cardio-respiratory and metabolic parameters, body composition, functional strength and the quality of life of overweight women were compared. In this single-center, two-armed randomized, controlled study, overweight women performed 9-weeks (3 sessions·wk−1) of either Ci...

  1. Feasibility of a combined aerobic and strength training program and its effects on cognitive and physical function in institutionalized dementia patients. A pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem J R Bossers

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We examined the feasibility of a combined aerobic and strength training program in institutionalized dementia patients and studied the effects on cognitive and physical function. METHODS: Thirty-three patients with dementia, recruited from one nursing home, participated in this non-randomized pilot study (25 women; age = 85.2±4.9 years; Mini Mental State Examination = 16.8±4.0. In phase 1 of the study, seventeen patients in the Exercise group (EG received a combined aerobic and strength training program for six weeks, five times per week, 30 minutes per session, in an individually supervised format and successfully concluded the pre and posttests. In phase 2 of the study, sixteen patients in the Social group (SG received social visits at the same frequency, duration, and format and successfully concluded the pre and posttests. RESULTS: Indices of feasibility showed that the recruitment and adherence rate, respectively were 46.2% and 86.3%. All EG patients completed the exercise program according to protocol without adverse events. After the six-week program, no significant differences on cognitive function tests were found between the EG and SG. There was a moderate effect size in favor for the EG for the Visual Memory Span Forward; a visual attention test. There were significant differences between groups in favor for the EG with moderate to large effects for the physical tests Walking Speed (p = .003, Six-Minute Walk Test (p = .031, and isometric quadriceps strength (p = .012. CONCLUSIONS: The present pilot study showed that it is feasible to conduct a combined aerobic and strength training program in institutionalized patients with dementia. The selective cognitive visual attention improvements and more robust changes in motor function in favor of EG vs. SG could serve as a basis for large randomized clinical trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION: trialregister.nl 1230.

  2. Feasibility of a combined aerobic and strength training program and its effects on cognitive and physical function in institutionalized dementia patients. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossers, Willem J R; Scherder, Erik J A; Boersma, Froukje; Hortobágyi, Tibor; van der Woude, Lucas H V; van Heuvelen, Marieke J G

    2014-01-01

    We examined the feasibility of a combined aerobic and strength training program in institutionalized dementia patients and studied the effects on cognitive and physical function. Thirty-three patients with dementia, recruited from one nursing home, participated in this non-randomized pilot study (25 women; age = 85.2±4.9 years; Mini Mental State Examination = 16.8±4.0). In phase 1 of the study, seventeen patients in the Exercise group (EG) received a combined aerobic and strength training program for six weeks, five times per week, 30 minutes per session, in an individually supervised format and successfully concluded the pre and posttests. In phase 2 of the study, sixteen patients in the Social group (SG) received social visits at the same frequency, duration, and format and successfully concluded the pre and posttests. Indices of feasibility showed that the recruitment and adherence rate, respectively were 46.2% and 86.3%. All EG patients completed the exercise program according to protocol without adverse events. After the six-week program, no significant differences on cognitive function tests were found between the EG and SG. There was a moderate effect size in favor for the EG for the Visual Memory Span Forward; a visual attention test. There were significant differences between groups in favor for the EG with moderate to large effects for the physical tests Walking Speed (p = .003), Six-Minute Walk Test (p = .031), and isometric quadriceps strength (p = .012). The present pilot study showed that it is feasible to conduct a combined aerobic and strength training program in institutionalized patients with dementia. The selective cognitive visual attention improvements and more robust changes in motor function in favor of EG vs. SG could serve as a basis for large randomized clinical trials. trialregister.nl 1230.

  3. POSTOPERATIVE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL THERAPY RELATED TO FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY AND RESPIRATORY MUSCLE STRENGTH IN PATIENTS SUBMITTED TO BARIATRIC SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Josélia Jucirema Jarschel de; Freitas, Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira de; Almeida, Andréa Adriana de

    Respiratory physiotherapy plays an important role preventing complications in bariatric surgery. To assess the effects of out-patient physiotherapy during post-operative period through respiratory pressures and functional capacity in individuals submitted to bariatric surgery. A prospective longitudinal and controlled study was done in adults with body mass index (BMI) equal or greater than 40 kg/m², who have been submitted to bariatric surgery. They were divided into two groups: intervention-group, who performed out-patient physiotherapy twice a week, from thirty to sixty days after surgery; and the control-group, who only followed home instructions. Both groups were evaluated before surgery and sixty days after surgery through manovacuometry, six-minute walk test and the Borg Scale of perceived exertion. Twenty participants were included the intervention-group and twenty-three in the control-group. Both groups had significant and similar weight loss after surgery. The manovacuometry presented no differences comparing pre- and post-surgery and in the comparison between the groups. The result of the six-minute walk test for the intervention-group increased by 10.1% in the post-operative period in relation to pre-. The Borg scale of perceived exertion in the intervention-group in pre-surgery decreased by 13.5% in the post-surgery compared to pre-surgery. In the control-group there was no difference comparing pre- and post-operative values, as in the comparison with the intervention-group. The low-intensity exercise program, carried out between the 30th and the 60th day after bariatric surgery provided better functional capacity; did not change respiratory muscle strength; and improved the perceived exertion rate. A fisioterapia respiratória tem papel importante na prevenção das complicações da cirurgia bariátrica. Avaliar os efeitos da fisioterapia ambulatorial no pós-operatório através das pressões respiratórias e da capacidade funcional dos indiv

  4. Nickel adsorption and desorption in an acric oxisol as a function of pH, ionic strength and incubation time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estêvão Vicari Mellis

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Although nickel (Ni has both important potential benefits and toxic effects in the environment, its behavior in tropical soils has not been well studied. Nickel adsorption-desorption in topsoil and subsoil samples of an acric Oxisol was studied at three pH values (from 3.0 to 8.0. Adsorption-desorption isotherms were elaborated from experiments with increasing Ni concentration (5 to 100 mg L-1, during 0, 4, and 12 weeks, using CaCl2 0.01 and 0.1 M as electrolytic support in order to also verify the effect of Ni-soil time contact and of ionic strength on the reaction. Experimental results of Ni adsorption fitted Langmuir model, which indicated that maximum Ni adsorption (71,440 mg kg-1 occurred at subsoil, after 12 weeks. Nickel affinity (KL was also greater at subsoil (1.0 L kg-1. The Ni adsorption in the topsoil samples was higher, due to its lower point of zero salt effect (PZSE and higher organic matter content. The increase in soil pH resulted in the increase of Ni adsorption. Nickel desorbed less from soil samples incubated for 4 or 12 weeks, suggesting that Ni interactions with colloidal particles increase over time. The amount of Ni desorbed increased with increasing ionic strength in both the topsoil and subsoil soil samples. Finally, adsorption-desorption hysteresis was clearly observed. Soil pH, ionic strength of soil solution and the Ni-soil contact time should be considered as criteria for selecting the areas for disposal of residues containing Ni or to compose remediation strategies for acric soils contaminated with Ni.

  5. The effects of resistance training on muscle strength, joint pain, and hand function in individuals with hand osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Nicoló Edoardo; McNair, Peter John; Rice, David Andrew

    2017-06-13

    Hand osteoarthritis is a common condition characterised by joint pain and muscle weakness. These factors are thought to contribute to ongoing disability. Some evidence exists that resistance training decreases pain, improves muscle strength, and enhances function in people with knee and hip osteoarthritis. However, there is currently a lack of consensus regarding its effectiveness in people with hand osteoarthritis. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to establish whether resistance training in people with hand osteoarthritis increases grip strength, decreases joint pain, and improves hand function. Seven databases were searched from 1975 until July 1, 2016. Randomised controlled trials were included. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was used to assess studies' methodological quality. The Grade of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system was adopted to rate overall quality of evidence. Suitable studies were pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis. Five studies were included with a total of 350 participants. The majority of the training programs did not meet recommended intensity, frequency, or progression criteria for muscle strengthening. There was moderate-quality evidence that resistance training does not improve grip strength (mean difference = 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.84, 3.54; I 2  = 50%; p = 0.23 ). Low-quality evidence showed significant improvements in joint pain (standardised mean difference (SMD) = -0.23; 95% CI = -0.42, -0.04; I 2  = 0%; p = 0.02) which were not clinically relevant. Low-quality evidence demonstrated no improvements in hand function following resistance training (SMD = -0.1; 95% CI = -0.33, 0.13; I 2  = 28%; p = 0.39). There is no evidence that resistance training has a significant effect on grip strength or hand function in people with hand osteoarthritis. Low-quality evidence suggests it has a small, clinically

  6. The Effectiveness of Limited Dynamic Wrist Splints on the Symptoms, Function, and Strength of Women with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Controlled Trial Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Marjan Jaladat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Splinting is the most common conservative method of treating patients with mild and moderate Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the limited dynamic wrist splint on the symptoms, function, and strength of women with CTS. In this controlled trial study, the subjects wore a splint of a new design called the “limited dynamic wrist splint”, which allowed the wrist motion in the range (between 15-degree flexion and 15-degree extension that exerts minimum pressure on the median nerve and prevents extra pressure on the nerve by limiting the range of motions out of the allowed range. Methods: In this study, 24 women diagnosed with mild to moderate CTS were initially evaluated on the basis of the Boston questionnaire, the dexterity test of the Purdue pegboard, grip and pinch strength, distal sensory latency, and sensory nerve conduction velocity. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups, control and treatment. Both groups received routine rehabilitation treatment for six weeks. The treatment group received the limited dynamic wrist splint for about six to eight hours a day. After six weeks, the initial examinations were repeated. The SPSS-16, independent t, and paired t-tests were used for data analysis. Results: All the variables in the treatment and the control groups showed improvement. The function test of the Boston questionnaire, the Purdue pegboard test, and the pinch strength were significantly improved in the treatment group. The “severity of the symptoms” test of the Boston questionnaire and the pinch strength in the control group showed a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05. In a comparison of the two groups, the function test of the Boston questionnaire showed a significant difference. Conclusion: This study showed that the use of the limited dynamic wrist splint for about six weeks for six to eight hours a day could have a significant effect on the

  7. Inpatient rehabilitation improves functional capacity, peripheral muscle strength and quality of life in patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José, Anderson; Dal Corso, Simone

    2016-04-01

    Among people who are hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia, does an inpatient exercise-based rehabilitation program improve functional outcomes, symptoms, quality of life and length of hospital stay more than a respiratory physiotherapy regimen? Randomised trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis and blinding of some outcomes. Forty-nine adults hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia. The experimental group (n=32) underwent a physical training program that included warm-up, stretching, peripheral muscle strength training and walking at a controlled speed for 15 minutes. The control group (n=17) underwent a respiratory physiotherapy regimen that included percussion, vibrocompression, respiratory exercises and free walking. The intervention regimens lasted 8 days. The primary outcome was the Glittre Activities of Daily Living test, which assesses the time taken to complete a series of functional tasks (eg, rising from a chair, walking, stairs, lifting and bending). Secondary outcomes were distance walked in the incremental shuttle walk test, peripheral muscle strength, quality of life, dyspnoea, lung function, C-reactive protein and length of hospital stay. Measures were taken 1 day before and 1 day after the intervention period. There was greater improvement in the experimental group than in the control group on the Glittre Activities of Daily Living test (mean between-group difference 39 seconds, 95% CI 20 to 59) and the incremental shuttle walk test (mean between-group difference 130 m, 95% CI 77 to 182). There were also significantly greater improvements in quality of life, dyspnoea and peripheral muscle strength in the experimental group than in the control group. There were no between-group differences in lung function, C-reactive protein or length of hospital stay. The improvement in functional outcomes after an inpatient rehabilitation program was greater than the improvement after standard respiratory physiotherapy. The

  8. Gamow-Teller strength functions from N-nucleus scattering experiments at 200-400 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeusser, O.; British Columbia Univ., Vancouver; Vetterli, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    Recent measurements of (n,p), (p vector, p vector') and (p,n) reactions at TRIUMF have made possible a detailed examination of the spin-isospin structure of nuclear excitations up to 50 MeV. Cross sections for 54 Fe(n,p) 54 Mn and spin-flip cross sections for 54 Fe (p vector, p vector') near 300 MeV have been used to estimate the nuclear response for different multipoles L, spin transfers (ΔS = 0,1), and isospins of the residual nucleus (T f = 1,2). Qualitative features of the spin-flip probabilities in (p vector, p vector') are in good agreement with recent surface-RPA calculations. Between 200 and 400 MeV the ΔL=0 spin-flip isovector component is well described by the central part V στ of the Franey-Love interaction. The Gamow-Teller strength S + in 54 Fe, which is of significance in models of pre-collapse supernovae, is found to be smaller by a factor of two than the best available shell model calculations. In (sd)-shell nuclei ( 24,26 Mg, 28 Si) about (70±15)% of the Gamow-Teller strength predicted by untruncated shell-model calculations is found at low excitation. (orig.)

  9. Effects of Plyometric and Resistance Training on Muscle Strength, Explosiveness and Neuromuscular Function in Young Adolescent Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, Brandon John; Wallace, Phillip; Dotan, Raffy; Long, Devon; Tokuno, Craig; Gabriel, David; Falk, Bareket

    2018-01-04

    This study examined the effect of 8-weeks of free-weight-resistance (RT) and plyometric (PLYO) training on maximal strength, explosiveness and jump performance compared with no added training (CON), in young male soccer players. Forty-one 11[FIGURE DASH]13-year-old soccer players were divided into three groups (RT, PLYO, CON). All participants completed isometric and dynamic (240°/s) knee extensions pre- and post-training. Peak torque (pT), peak rate of torque development (pRTD), electromechanical-delay (EMD), rate of muscle activation (Q50), m. vastus-lateralis thickness (VLT), and jump performance were examined. pT, pRTD and jump performance significantly improved in both training groups. Training resulted in significant (pplyometric training resulted in significant improvements in muscle strength and jump performance. Training resulted in similar muscle hypertrophy in the two training modes, with no clear differences in muscle performance. Plyometric training was more effective in improving jump performance, while free-weight resistance training was more advantageous in improving peak torque, where the stretch reflex was not involved.

  10. Effects of Pilates mat exercises on muscle strength and on pulmonary function in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Buarque Franco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of Pilates mat exercises in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. METHODS: This was a clinical trial involving 19 CF patients recruited from either the CF Outpatient Clinic of the State University at Campinas Hospital de Clínicas or the Children's Institute of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas. All of the patients performed Pilates mat exercises for four months (one 60-min session per week. The variables studied (before and after the intervention were respiratory muscle strength, MIP, MEP, FVC, and FEV1. RESULTS: After the intervention, MIP was significantly higher in the male patients (p = 0.017, as were MIP and MEP in the female patients (p = 0.005 and p = 0.007, respectively. There were no significant differences between the pre- and post-intervention values of FVC or FEV1, neither in the sample as a whole nor among the patients of either gender. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that Pilates mat exercises have beneficial effects on respiratory muscle strength in CF patients.

  11. Effects of Pilates mat exercises on muscle strength and on pulmonary function in patients with cystic fibrosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Caroline Buarque; Ribeiro, Antonio Fernando; Morcillo, André Moreno; Zambon, Mariana Porto; Almeida, Marina Buarque; Rozov, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of Pilates mat exercises in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: This was a clinical trial involving 19 CF patients recruited from either the CF Outpatient Clinic of the State University at Campinas Hospital de Clínicas or the Children's Institute of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas. All of the patients performed Pilates mat exercises for four months (one 60-min session per week). The variables studied (before and after the intervention) were respiratory muscle strength, MIP, MEP, FVC, and FEV1. RESULTS: After the intervention, MIP was significantly higher in the male patients (p = 0.017), as were MIP and MEP in the female patients (p = 0.005 and p = 0.007, respectively). There were no significant differences between the pre- and post-intervention values of FVC or FEV1, neither in the sample as a whole nor among the patients of either gender. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that Pilates mat exercises have beneficial effects on respiratory muscle strength in CF patients. PMID:25410840

  12. Functional High-Intensity Circuit Training Improves Body Composition, Peak Oxygen Uptake, Strength, and Alters Certain Dimensions of Quality of Life in Overweight Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, Billy; Wallmann-Sperlich, Birgit; Zinner, Christoph; Von Stauffenberg, Valerie; Losert, Helena; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2017-01-01

    The effects of circuit-like functional high-intensity training (Circuit HIIT ) alone or in combination with high-volume low-intensity exercise (Circuit combined ) on selected cardio-respiratory and metabolic parameters, body composition, functional strength and the quality of life of overweight women were compared. In this single-center, two-armed randomized, controlled study, overweight women performed 9-weeks (3 sessions·wk -1 ) of either Circuit HIIT ( n = 11), or Circuit combined ( n = 8). Peak oxygen uptake and perception of physical pain were increased to a greater extent ( p body mass, body-mass-index, waist-to-hip ratio, fat mass, and enhanced fat-free mass; decreased ratings of perceived exertion during submaximal treadmill running; improved the numbers of push-ups, burpees, one-legged squats, and 30-s skipping performed, as well as the height of counter-movement jumps; and improved physical and social functioning, role of physical limitations, vitality, role of emotional limitations, and mental health to a similar extent (all p training can be employed to improve body composition, selected variables of functional strength, and certain dimensions of quality of life in overweight women. However, Circuit HIIT improves peak oxygen uptake to a greater extent, but with more perception of pain, whereas Circuit combined results in better perception of general health.

  13. Old women with a recent fall history show improved muscle strength and function sustained for six months after finishing training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Nina; Simonsen, Lene; Bülow, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Restricted physical activity as a consequence of chronic disease or injury is a predictor of functional decline. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a 6- month multidimensional training program would have sustained beneficial effects upon the physiological, functional and psycho...... and psychological condition of old women with a recent history of falls.......Restricted physical activity as a consequence of chronic disease or injury is a predictor of functional decline. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a 6- month multidimensional training program would have sustained beneficial effects upon the physiological, functional...

  14. Effect of simultaneous application of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training on the enhancement of the swallowing function of patients with dysphagia caused by parkinson?s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Byeon, Haewon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of simultaneous application of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training on the enhancement of the swallowing function of patients with dysphagia caused by Parkinson?s disease. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 18 patients who received simultaneous application of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training and 15 patients who received expiratory muscle strength training only. Postural t...

  15. Associations of the stair climb power test with muscle strength and functional performance in people with COPD: A cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roig, Marc; Eng, Janice J.; MacIntyre, Donna L.

    2010-01-01

    associations of the SCPT with muscle strength (force-generating capacity) and functional performance. DESIGN: The study was a cross-sectional investigation. METHODS: Twenty-one people with COPD and a predicted mean (SD) percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 47.2 (12.9) and 21 people who were......: The observational design of the study and the use of a relatively small convenience sample limit the generalizability of the findings. CONCLUSIONS: The SCPT is a simple and safe test associated with measures of functional performance in people with COPD. People with COPD show deficits on the SCPT. However, the SCPT......BACKGROUND: The Stair Climb Power Test (SCPT) is a functional test associated with leg muscle power in older people. OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were to compare the results of the SCPT in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and people who were healthy and to explore...

  16. Muscle strength and functional performance in patients at high risk of knee osteoarthritis: a follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Aagaard, Per; Roos, Ewa M.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether changes from 2 to 4 years post arthroscopic partial meniscectomy (APM) in mechanical muscle function and objectively measured function differ between the operated and contra-lateral leg of APM patients or compared with controls. METHODS: Twenty-two patients (age 46...

  17. Augmenting static and dynamic mechanical strength of carbon nanotube/epoxy soft nanocomposites via modulation of purification and functionalization routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billing, Beant Kaur; Dhar, Purbarun; Singh, Narinder; Agnihotri, Prabhat K

    2018-01-03

    A detailed experimental investigation was carried out to establish the relationship between CNT purification and functionalization routes and the average response of CNT/epoxy nanocomposites under static and dynamic loading. It was shown that the relative improvement in the mechanical properties of the epoxy matrix due to the addition of CNTs depends on the choice of purification and functionalization steps. A better dispersion of CNTs was recorded for the functionalized CNTs as compared to the oxidized and CVD grown CNTs. Moreover, tensile, 3-point bending and nanoDMA testing performed on nanocomposites processed with CVD-grown, oxidized and functionalized CNTs revealed that COOH functionalization after the oxidation of CNTs at 350 °C is the optimized processing route to harness the excellent properties of CNTs in CNT/epoxy nanocomposites.

  18. Executive functioning, concern about falling and quadriceps strength mediate the relationship between impaired gait adaptability and fall risk in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Maria Joana D; Lord, Stephen R; Brodie, Matthew A; Schoene, Daniel; Pelicioni, Paulo H S; Sturnieks, Daina L; Menant, Jasmine C

    2018-01-01

    Reduced ability to adapt gait, particularly under challenging conditions, may be an important reason why older adults have an increased risk of falling. This study aimed to identify cognitive, psychological and physical mediators of the relationship between impaired gait adaptability and fall risk in older adults. Fifty healthy older adults (mean±SD: 74±7years) were categorised as high or low fall risk, based on past falls and their performance in the Physiological Profile Assessment. High and low-risk groups were then compared in the gait adaptability test, i.e. an assessment of the ability to adapt gait in response to obstacles and stepping targets under single and dual task conditions. Quadriceps strength, concern about falling and executive function were also measured. The older adults who made errors on the gait adaptability test were 4.76 (95%CI=1.08-20.91) times more likely to be at high risk of falling. Furthermore, each standard deviation reduction in gait speed while approaching the targets/obstacle increased the odds of being at high risk of falling approximately three fold: single task - OR=3.10,95%CI=1.43-6.73; dual task - 3.42,95%CI=1.56-7.52. Executive functioning, concern about falling and quadriceps strength substantially mediated the relationship between the gait adaptability measures and fall risk status. Impaired gait adaptability is associated with high risk of falls in older adults. Reduced executive function, increased concern about falling and weaker quadriceps strength contribute significantly to this relationship. Training gait adaptability directly, as well as addressing the above mediators through cognitive, behavioural and physical training may maximise fall prevention efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Grip strength, postural control, and functional leg power in a representative cohort of British men and women: associations with physical activity, health status, and socioeconomic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuh, Diana; Bassey, E Joan; Butterworth, Suzanne; Hardy, Rebecca; Wadsworth, Michael E J

    2005-02-01

    Understanding the health, behavioral, and social factors that influence physical performance in midlife may provide clues to the origins of frailty in old age and the future health of elderly populations. The authors evaluated muscle strength, postural control, and chair rise performance in a large representative prospective cohort of 53-year-old British men and women in relation to functional limitations, body size, health and activity, and socioeconomic conditions. Nurses interviewed 2984 men and women in their own homes in England, Scotland, and Wales and conducted physical examinations in 2956 of them. Objective measures were height, weight, and three physical performance tests: handgrip strength, one-legged standing balance time, and time to complete 10 chair rises. Functional limitations (difficulties walking, stair climbing, gripping, and falls), health status, physical activity, and social class were obtained using a structured questionnaire. Those with the worst scores on the physical performance tests had higher rates of functional limitations for both upper and lower limbs. Women had much weaker handgrip strength, somewhat poorer balance time, and only slightly poorer chair rise time compared with men. In women, health problems and low levels of physical activity contributed to poor physical performance on all three measures. In men, physical activity was the predominant influence. Heavier weight and poorer socioeconomic conditions contributed to poorer balance and chair rise times. In this representative middle-aged group, physical performance levels varied widely, and women were seriously disadvantaged compared with men. In general, physical performance was worse for men and women living in poorer socioeconomic conditions with greater body weight, poorer health status, and inactive lifestyles. These findings support recommendations for controlling excess body weight, effective health interventions, and the maintenance of active lifestyles during aging.

  20. Hindlimb Skeletal Muscle Function and Skeletal Quality and Strength in +/G610C Mice With and Without Weight-Bearing Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Youngjae; Carleton, Stephanie M; Gentry, Bettina A; Yao, Xiaomei; Ferreira, J Andries; Salamango, Daniel J; Weis, MaryAnn; Oestreich, Arin K; Williams, Ashlee M; McCray, Marcus G; Eyre, David R; Brown, Marybeth; Wang, Yong; Phillips, Charlotte L

    2015-10-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous heritable connective tissue disorder associated with reduced bone mineral density and skeletal fragility. Bone is inherently mechanosensitive, with bone strength being proportional to muscle mass and strength. Physically active healthy children accrue more bone than inactive children. Children with type I OI exhibit decreased exercise capacity and muscle strength compared with healthy peers. It is unknown whether this muscle weakness reflects decreased physical activity or a muscle pathology. In this study, we used heterozygous G610C OI model mice (+/G610C), which model both the genotype and phenotype of a large Amish OI kindred, to evaluate hindlimb muscle function and physical activity levels before evaluating the ability of +/G610C mice to undergo a treadmill exercise regimen. We found +/G610C mice hindlimb muscles do not exhibit compromised muscle function, and their activity levels were not reduced relative to wild-type mice. The +/G610C mice were also able to complete an 8-week treadmill regimen. Biomechanical integrity of control and exercised wild-type and +/G610C femora were analyzed by torsional loading to failure. The greatest skeletal gains in response to exercise were observed in stiffness and the shear modulus of elasticity with alterations in collagen content. Analysis of tibial cortical bone by Raman spectroscopy demonstrated similar crystallinity and mineral/matrix ratios regardless of sex, exercise, and genotype. Together, these findings demonstrate +/G610C OI mice have equivalent muscle function, activity levels, and ability to complete a weight-bearing exercise regimen as wild-type mice. The +/G610C mice exhibited increased femoral stiffness and decreased hydroxyproline with exercise, whereas other biomechanical parameters remain unaffected, suggesting a more rigorous exercise regimen or another exercise modality may be required to improve bone quality of OI mice. © 2015 American Society for Bone

  1. Effects of repeated vibratory stimulation of wrist and elbow flexors on hand dexterity, strength, and sensory function in patients with chronic stroke: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Ho

    2017-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of repeated vibratory stimulation to muscles related to hand functions on dexterity, strength, and sensory function in patients with chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 10 stroke patients with hemiplegia participated in this study. They were divided into two groups: a) Experimental and b) Control, with five randomly selected subjects for each group. The experimental group received vibratory stimulation, while the control group received the traditional physical therapy. Both interventions were performed for 30 minutes each session, three times a week for four weeks. [Results] There was a significant within-group improvement in the box and block test results in both groups for dexterity. Grip strength improved in both groups but the improvement was not statistically significant. [Conclusion] The vibratory stimulation activated the biceps brachii and flexor carpi radialis, which increased dexterity to grasp and lift the box and block from the surface. Therefore, repeated vibratory stimulation to muscles related to hand functions improved hand dexterity equality to the traditional physical therapy in patients with chronic stroke.

  2. Effect of low appendicular lean mass, grip strength, and gait speed on the functional outcome after surgery for distal radius fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Young Hak; Noh, Jung Ho; Gong, Hyun Sik; Baek, Goo Hyun

    2017-12-01

    Patients with low appendicular lean mass plus slow gait speed or weak grip strength are at risk for poor functional recovery after surgery for distal radius fracture, even when they have similar radiologic outcomes. Loss of skeletal muscle mass and consequent loss in muscle function associate with aging, and this condition negatively impacts the activities of daily living and increases elderly individuals' frailty to falls. Thus, patients with low appendicular lean mass would show different functional recovery compared to those without this condition after surgery for distal radius fracture (DRF). This study compares the functional outcomes after surgery for DRF in patients with or without low appendicular lean mass plus slowness or weakness. A total of 157 patients older than 50 years of age with a DRF treated via volar plate fixation were enrolled in this prospective study. A definition of low appendicular lean mass with slowness or weakness was based on the consensus of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. The researchers compared functional assessments (wrist range of motion and Michigan Hand Questionnaire [MHQ]) and radiographic assessments (radial inclination, volar tilt, ulnar variance, and articular congruity) 12 months after surgery between patients with and without low appendicular lean mass plus slowness or weakness. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to determine whether appendicular lean mass, grip strength, gait speed, patient demographic, or injury characteristics accounted for the functional outcomes. Patients with low appendicular lean mass plus slowness or weakness showed a significantly lower recovery of MHQ score than those in the control group throughout 12 months. There was no significant difference in the range of motion between the groups. The radiologic outcomes showed no significant difference between groups in terms of volar tilt, radial inclination, or ulnar variance. According to multivariable regression analysis

  3. Frequency-Specific Abnormalities of Intrinsic Functional Connectivity Strength among Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Fangjun; Zhou, Fuqing; Huang, Muhua; Gong, Honghan; Xu, Renshi

    2017-01-01

    The classical concept that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative disorder characterized by the loss of upper and lower motor neurons is agreed. However, more and more studies have suggested the involvement of some extra-motor regions. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency-related alteration pattern of intrinsic functional connectivity strength (FCS) at the voxel-wise level in the relatively early-stage of ALS on a whole brain scale. In this study, 21 patients w...

  4. Determination of S- and P-strength functions using fast neutrons - having energy from 30 -360 keV; Odredjivanje S- i P-funkcije 'jacine veze' brzim neutronima - energija od 60 - 360 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boreli, F M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1958-07-01

    Reaction Li{sup 7}(p,n)Be{sup 7} was used as a neutron source to determine the strength functions on a number of intermediate and heavy nuclei at average neutron energies from 60 - 360 keV. The strength functions were obtained by measuring the deviation from exponential attenuation of neutrons passing through the sample. Values obtained at lower energies showed dependence on the atomic weight predicted by the optical model and were in agreement with previous measurements. For the elements in the region A=90 the fast increase of strength function obtained by assuming only S-wave interactions suggests that P-wave interactions are taking place.

  5. Hip abduction-adduction strength and one-leg hop tests: test-retest reliability and relationship to function in elite ice hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kea, J; Kramer, J; Forwell, L; Birmingham, T

    2001-08-01

    Single group, test-retest. To determine: (1) hip abduction and adduction torques during concentric and eccentric muscle actions, (2) medial and lateral one-leg hop distances, (3) the test-retest reliability of these measurements, and (4) the relationship between isokinetic measures of hip muscle strength and hop distances in elite ice hockey players. The skating motion used in ice hockey requires strong contractions of the hip and knee musculature. However, baseline scores for hip strength and hop distances, their test-retest reliability, and measures of the extent to which these tests are related for this population are not available. The dominant leg of 27 men (mean age 20 +/- 3 yrs) was tested on 2 occasions. Hip abduction and adduction movements were completed at 60 degrees.s(-1) angular velocity, with the subject lying on the non-test side and the test leg moving vertically in the subject's coronal plane. One-leg hops requiring jumping from and landing on the same leg without losing balance were completed in the medial and lateral directions. Hip adduction torques were significantly greater than abduction torques during both concentric and eccentric muscle actions, while no significant difference was observed between medial and lateral hop distances. Although hop test scores produced excellent ICCs (> 0.75) when determined using scores on 1 occasion, torques needed to be averaged over 2 test occasions to reach this level. Correlations between the strength and hop tests ranged from slight to low (r = -0.26 to 0.27) and were characterized by wide 95% confidence intervals (-0.54 to 0.61). Isokinetic tests of hip abduction and adduction did not provide a strong indication of performance during sideways hop tests. Although isokinetic tests can provide a measure of muscular strength under specific test conditions, they should not be relied upon as a primary indicator of functional abilities or readiness to return to activity.

  6. Gamma delta T-cell differentiation and effector function programming, TCR signal strength, when and how much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarin, Payam; Chen, Edward L Y; In, Tracy S H; Anderson, Michele K; Zúñiga-Pflücker, Juan Carlos

    2015-07-01

    γδ T-cells boast an impressive functional repertoire that can paint them as either champions or villains depending on the environmental and immunological cues. Understanding the function of the various effector γδ subsets necessitates tracing the developmental program of these subsets, including the point of lineage bifurcation from αβ T-cells. Here, we review the importance of signals from the T-cell receptor (TCR) in determining αβ versus γδ lineage fate, and further discuss how the molecular components of this pathway may influence the developmental programming of γδ T-cells functional subsets. Additionally, we discuss the role of temporal windows in restricting the development of IL-17 producing γδ T-cell subtypes, and explore whether fetal and adult hematopoietic progenitors maintain the same potential for giving rise to this important subset. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Medium-Chain Triglycerides in Combination with Leucine and Vitamin D Increase Muscle Strength and Function in Frail Elderly Adults in a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Sakiko; Ezaki, Osamu; Suzuki, Motohisa

    2016-05-01

    Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength, and function, is common in elderly individuals but difficult to treat. A combination of nutrients was investigated to treat sarcopenia in very frail elderly adults. We enrolled 38 elderly nursing home residents (11 men and 27 women with a mean ± SD age of 86.6 ± 4.8 y) in a 3-mo randomized, controlled, single-blind, parallel group trial. The participants were randomly allocated to 3 groups. The first group received a daily l-leucine (1.2 g) and cholecalciferol (20 μg)-enriched supplement with 6 g medium-chain triglycerides (TGs) (MCTs) (LD + MCT); the second group received the same leucine and cholecalciferol-enriched supplement with 6 g long-chain TGs (LD + LCT); and the third group did not receive any supplements (control). The supplement and oils were taken at dinner, and changes in muscle mass, strength, and function were monitored. The increase in body weight in the LD + MCT (1.1 ± 1.0 kg) and LD + LCT (0.8 ± 1.1 kg) groups was greater than that in the control group (-0.5 ± 0.9 kg) (P elderly individuals. This trial was registered at the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN000017567. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Independent and Combined Association of Muscle Strength and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Youth With Insulin Resistance and β-Cell Function in Young Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Ekelund, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    ergometer test. Insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) and β-cell function (homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function [HOMA-B]) were estimated from fasting serum insulin and glucose that were obtained in youth and at follow-up in young adulthood.......RESULTSFor each 1-SD difference in isometric muscle strength (0.16 N/kg) in youth, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-B in young adulthood changed with -11.3% (95% CI, -17.0 to -5.2), -12.2% (-18.2 to -5.7), and -8.9% (-14.4 to -3.0), respectively, in young adulthood after adjustment for CRF and personal...... lifestyle and demographic factors. Results for CRF were very similar in magnitude, and the magnitude of associations for both exposures was unchanged with additional adjustment for general or abdominal adiposity in youth. Combined associations of muscle strength and CRF with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR...

  9. Determination of the nuclear level densities and radiative strength function for 43 nuclei in the mass interval 28≤A≤200

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezevic, David; Jovancevic, Nikola; Sukhovoj, Anatoly M.; Mitsyna, Ludmila V.; Krmar, Miodrag; Cong, Vu D.; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Oberstedt, Stephan; Revay, Zsolt; Stieghorst, Christian; Dragic, Aleksandar

    2018-03-01

    The determination of nuclear level densities and radiative strength functions is one of the most important tasks in low-energy nuclear physics. Accurate experimental values of these parameters are critical for the study of the fundamental properties of nuclear structure. The step-like structure in the dependence of the level densities p on the excitation energy of nuclei Eex is observed in the two-step gamma cascade measurements for nuclei in the 28 ≤ A ≤ 200 mass region. This characteristic structure can be explained only if a co-existence of quasi-particles and phonons, as well as their interaction in a nucleus, are taken into account in the process of gamma-decay. Here we present a new improvement to the Dubna practical model for the determination of nuclear level densities and radiative strength functions. The new practical model guarantees a good description of the available intensities of the two step gamma cascades, comparable to the experimental data accuracy.

  10. Effect of retro and forward walking on quadriceps muscle strength, pain, function, and mobility in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-04-12

    Walking, a closed kinetic chain (CKC) activity, is widely used in knee rehabilitation as it allows early weight bearing and movement. It has been suggested that retro-walking may provide additional benefits beyond those experienced by forward-walking. The present study will investigate the effect of retro- and forward-walking on quadriceps muscle strength, pain, function, balance and mobility in knee Osteoarthritis (OA) subjects. Sixty-nine participants with knee OA will be recruited from the outpatient department in this randomized controlled trial. The participants will be randomly assigned to one of three groups; retro walking, forward walking or control group. The training program will be 3 days/week for 6 weeks. In addition, all the participants will receive a standard physiotherapy training program. An independent assessor blinded to group assignment will measure quadriceps muscle strength, knee pain intensity, functional disability, and mobility at baseline and 6 weeks after training. The results of this study will enhance our understanding on the therapeutic effects of walking (retro- or forward-walking) in knee OA. The findings from this study will help determine whether retro- or forward-walking or both are effective in the rehabilitation of subjects with knee OA. Controlled Trials ISRCTN12850845, Registered 26 January 2015.

  11. Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for improving activities of daily living, arm function, and arm muscle strength after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrholz, Jan; Pohl, Marcus; Platz, Thomas; Kugler, Joachim; Elsner, Bernhard

    2015-11-07

    Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training devices are used in rehabilitation, and may help to improve arm function after stroke. To assess the effectiveness of electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for improving activities of daily living, arm function, and arm muscle strength in people after stroke. We also assessed the acceptability and safety of the therapy. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group's Trials Register (last searched February 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1950 to March 2015), EMBASE (1980 to March 2015), CINAHL (1982 to March 2015), AMED (1985 to March 2015), SPORTDiscus (1949 to March 2015), PEDro (searched April 2015), Compendex (1972 to March 2015), and Inspec (1969 to March 2015). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings, searched trials and research registers, checked reference lists, and contacted trialists, experts, and researchers in our field, as well as manufacturers of commercial devices. Randomised controlled trials comparing electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for recovery of arm function with other rehabilitation or placebo interventions, or no treatment, for people after stroke. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed trial quality and risk of bias, and extracted data. We contacted trialists for additional information. We analysed the results as standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous variables and risk differences (RDs) for dichotomous variables. We included 34 trials (involving 1160 participants) in this update of our review. Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training improved activities of daily living scores (SMD 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11 to 0.64, P = 0.005, I² = 62%), arm function (SMD 0.35, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.51, P arm muscle strength (SMD 0.36, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.70, P = 0.04, I² = 72%), but the quality of the evidence was low to very low

  12. Excitation function for the population of the 4.51 MeV state of 27Al inelastic proton scattering. Evidence for 6- strength?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, B.M.; Koutsoliotas, S.

    1995-01-01

    The excitation function for emission of 2.30 MeV gamma rays from the 4.51 MeV state of 27 Al formed in inelastic proton scattering has been measured for proton energies from 5.6 to 7.3 MeV. A resonance previously seen in both inelastic electron and proton scattering from 28 Si at 17.35 MeV has been observed as a resonance in the excitation function, as well as seven other resonances, all of which are narrow (i.e., less than 100 keV wide). It is suggested that these may represent fragments of 6 - strength in 28 Si. 6 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  13. Association of serum uric acid level with muscle strength and cognitive function among Chinese aged 50-74 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yili; Zhang, Dongfeng; Pang, Zengchang

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Previous studies have shown that uric acid (UA) has strong anti-oxidant properties, and that high circulating levels of UA are prospectively associated with improved muscle function and cognitive performances in elderly Caucasians. We carried out a replication study in elderly Chinese using...

  14. Effect of slow release-Fampridine on muscle strength, rate of force development, functional capacity and cognitive function in an enriched population of MS patients. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H B; Nielsen, J L; Ravnborg, M.

    2016-01-01

    contraction (MVC) and rate of force development (RFD) of the lower extremities and 2) to replicate previously published data on the effect of slow release-Fampridine (SR-Fampridine) on the functional capacity of the lower limbs, the upper limb and cognitive function, in persons with multiple sclerosis (pw....... Furthermore, a significant effect of SR-Fampridine on T25FW, SSST and 5-STS was demonstrated. CONCLUSION: Gold standard dynamometry assessment of muscle strength showed improved MVC and RFD in persons with MS treated with SR-Fampridine compared to placebo. Furthermore, previous findings on the effects of SR...

  15. Strength function of xenon 127 and cross section of 127I(νe, e-)127Xe reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutostanskij, Yu.S.; Shul'gina, N.B.

    1989-01-01

    The strenght functions S β (E) and the cross section of the reaction ν e + 127 I → e - + 127 Xe were calculated in the framework of the theory of finite Fermi-systems. The results obtained are used to estimate the possibility of using an iodine-xenon detector in the experiments with solar neutrinos and reactor antineutrinos. The advantages of the iodine-xenon detector over the chlorine-argon one are shown. 13 refs.; 6 figs.; 3 tabs

  16. Association of sitting time and breaks in sitting with muscle mass, strength, function, and inflammation in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, N; Healy, G N; Gianoudis, J; Formica, M; Gardiner, P A; Eakin, E E; Nowson, C A; Daly, R M

    2018-02-26

    The mechanisms through which excessive sitting time impacts health are important to understand. This study found that each hour of sitting per day was not associated with physical function, although associations with poor body composition were observed. Reducing sitting time for improved weight management in older adults needs further exploration. To examine the association of sitting time and breaks in sitting time with muscle mass, strength, function, and inflammation in older Australians. Data from the thigh-worn activPAL3™ monitor (7-day continuous wear) was used to derive time spent sitting (hours) and total number of sit-stand transitions per day. Body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), lower-body muscle strength, function (timed up-and-go [TUG], 4-m gait speed, four square step test, 30-second sit-to-stand), and serum inflammatory markers (interleukin-[IL-6], IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-α], and adiponectin) were measured. Multiple regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, education, employment status, marital status, number of prescription medications, smoking status, vitamin D, and stepping time, were used to assess the associations. Data from 123 community-dwelling older adults (aged 65-84 years, 63% female) were used. Total daily sitting time was associated with lower percentage lean mass (β [95%CI], - 1.70% [- 2.30, - 1.10]) and higher total body fat mass (2.92 kg [1.94, 3.30]). More frequent breaks in sitting time were associated with a 45% reduced risk of having pre-sarcopenia (OR = 0.55; 95% CI 0.34, 0.91; model 1), defined as appendicular lean mass divided by BMI. No significant associations were observed for sitting time or breaks in sitting with measures of muscle strength, function, or inflammation. In older community-dwelling adults, greater sitting time was associated with a lower percentage lean mass, while more frequent breaks in sitting time were associated with lower odds of having

  17. Can Quantitative Muscle Strength and Functional Motor Ability Differentiate the Influence of Age and Corticosteroids in Ambulatory Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckon, Cathleen; Sienko, Susan; Bagley, Anita; Sison-Williamson, Mitell; Fowler, Eileen; Staudt, Loretta; Heberer, Kent; McDonald, Craig M; Sussman, Michael

    2016-07-08

    In the absence of a curative treatment for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), corticosteroid therapy (prednisone, deflazacort) has been adopted as the standard of care, as it slows the progression of muscle weakness and enables longer retention of functional mobility. The ongoing development of novel pharmacological agents that target the genetic defect underlying DMD offer hope for a significant alteration in disease progression; however, substantiation of therapeutic efficacy has proved challenging. Identifying functional outcomes sensitive to the early, subtle changes in muscle function has confounded clinical trials. Additionally, the alterations in disease progression secondary to corticosteroid therapy are not well described making it difficult to ascertain the benefits of novel agents, often taken concurrently with corticosteroids. The purpose of this study was to examine outcome responsiveness to corticosteroid therapy and age at the onset of a natural history study of ambulatory boys with DMD. Eighty-five ambulatory boys with DMD (mean age 93 mo, range 49 to 180 mo) were recruited into this study. Fifty participants were on corticosteroid therapy, while 33 were corticosteroid naïve at the baseline assessment. Within each treatment group boys were divided in two age groups, 4 to 7 years and 8 and greater years of age. The Biodex System 3 Pro isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess muscle strength. Motor skills were assessed using the upper two dimensions (standing/walking, running & jumping) of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM 88) and Timed Motor Tests (TMTs) (10-meter run, sit to stand, supine to stand, climb 4-stairs). Two way analysis of variance and Pearson correlations were used for analysis. A main effect for age was seen in select lower extremity muscle groups (hip flexors, knee extensors and ankle dorsiflexors), standing dimension skills, and all TMTs with significantly greater weakness and loss of motor skill ability seen in the older age

  18. THE RELATION OF FAT FREE MASS TO LUNG FUNCTION, MUSCLE STRENGTH AND EXERCISE PERFORMANCE IN PATIENTS WITH EMPHYSEMA

    OpenAIRE

    竹中, 英昭

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes of body composition in patients with pulmonary emphysema (PE) and their influence on physiological function. Body composition analysis by means of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was performed in 36 patients with stable PE and 19 age-matched healthy controls. I compared fat free mass (FFM) and body fat (BF), as a percentage of ideal body weight (FFM/IBW, BF/IBW), between patients with PE and healthy controls. FFM/IBW and BF /IBW were...

  19. Health condition and physical function as predictors of adherence in long-term strength and balance training among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartolahti, Eeva; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija; Lönnroos, Eija; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Häkkinen, Arja

    2015-01-01

    Strength and balance training (SBT) has remarkable health benefits, but little is known regarding exercise adherence in older adults. We examined the adherence to strength and balance training and determinants of adherence among ≥75 year old adults. 182 community-dwelling individuals (aged 75-98 years, 71% female) began group-based SBT as part of a population-based Geriatric Multidisciplinary Strategy for the Good Care of the Elderly study. Training was offered once a week for 2.3 years. Adherence was defined as the proportion of attended sessions relative to offered sessions. Participants were classified based on their adherence level into low (≤33.3%), moderate (33.4-66.5%) and high (≥66.6%) adherers. The mean length of training was 19 ± 9 months, and 68% continued participation for at least two years. The mean training adherence was 55 ± 29% for all participants and 18%, 53% and 82% for low, moderate and high adherers, respectively. High adherence was predicted by female sex; younger age; better cognition; independence in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living; higher knee extension strength; faster walking speed; and better performance on the Berg Balance Scale and Timed Up and Go tests. Poorer self-perceived health and the use of a walking aid were related to low adherence. Long-term continuation of training is possible for older community-dwelling adults, although poorer health and functional limitations affect training adherence. Our findings have implications for tailoring interventions and support for older adults to optimize their exercise adherence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Robotics and gaming to improve ankle strength, motor control, and function in children with cerebral palsy--a case study series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdea, Grigore C; Cioi, Daniel; Kale, Angad; Janes, William E; Ross, Sandy A; Engsberg, Jack R

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of game-based robotic training of the ankle in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The design was a case study, 12 weeks intervention, with no follow-up. The setting was a university research laboratory. The participants were a referred sample of three children with cerebral palsy, age 7-12, all male. All completed the intervention. Participants trained on the Rutgers Ankle CP system for 36 rehabilitation sessions (12 weeks, three times/week), playing two custom virtual reality games. The games were played while participants were seated, and trained one ankle at-a-time for strength, motor control, and coordination. The primary study outcome measures were for impairment (DF/PF torques, DF initial contact angle and gait speed), function (GMFM), and quality of life (Peds QL). Secondary outcome measures relate to game performance (game scores as reflective of ankle motor control and endurance). Gait function improved substantially in ankle kinematics, speed and endurance. Overall function (GMFM) indicated improvements that were typical of other ankle strength training programs. Quality of life increased beyond what would be considered a minimal clinical important difference. Game performance improved in both games during the intervention. This feasibility study supports the assumption that game-based robotic training of the ankle benefits gait in children with CP. Game technology is appropriate for the age group and was well accepted by the participants. Additional studies are needed however, to quantify the level of benefit and compare the approach presented here to traditional methods of therapy.

  1. Effects of gastrocnemius recession on ankle motion, strength, and functional outcomes: a systematic review and national healthcare database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianakos, Arianna; Yasui, Youichi; Murawski, Christopher D; Kennedy, John G

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to report the effects of gastrocnemius recession on ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, function, and push-off power. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were reviewed with terms "gastrocnemius recession". The inclusion criteria were: (1) clinical studies, (2) published in a peer-reviewed journal within the past 10 years, and (3) published in English. Excluded were: (1) review articles, (2) cadaveric studies, (3) studies including patients under the age of 18 years, (4) studies evaluating a neurologic condition, (5) level of evidence 5, and (6) Quality of Evidence Score fashion with variable results, but of these, no study reported a return to normal power. The mean complication rate was 14%. The available evidence supports that GR improves functional outcomes and increases dorsiflexion range of motion. Furthermore, GR affects gait kinematics, which may cause compensatory effects at the knee, ankle, and subtalar joints. Evidence has shown that power does not return to normal levels. Clinicians may utilize these data clinically to determine whether patients may benefit from GR or not. IV.

  2. Hand grip strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Henrik; Gaist, David; Petersen, Hans Christian

    2002-01-01

    in life is a major problem in terms of prevalence, morbidity, functional limitations, and quality of life. It is therefore of interest to find a phenotype reflecting physical functioning which has a relatively high heritability and which can be measured in large samples. Hand grip strength is known......-55%). A powerful design to detect genes associated with a phenotype is obtained using the extreme discordant and concordant sib pairs, of whom 28 and 77 dizygotic twin pairs, respectively, were found in this study. Hence grip strength is a suitable phenotype for identifying genetic variants of importance to mid...

  3. Resistance training-induced gains in muscle strength, body composition, and functional capacity are attenuated in elderly women with sarcopenic obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Silva A

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Alessandro de Oliveira Silva,1,2 Maurílio Tiradentes Dutra,3 Wilson Max Almeida Monteiro de Moraes,4 Silvana Schwerz Funghetto,3 Darlan Lopes de Farias,1 Paulo Henrique Fernandes dos Santos,3 Denis Cesar Leite Vieira,5 Dahan da Cunha Nascimento,4,5 Vânia Silva Macedo Orsano,4 Brad J Schoenfeld,6 Jonato Prestes4 1University Center of Brasilia (UniCEUB, Brasília, Brazil; 2Integrated Colleges of the Central Plateau Educational Union (FACIPLAC, Brasília, Brazil; 3University of Brasilia (UnB, Brasília, Brazil; 4Catholic University of Brasilia (UCB, Brasília, Brazil; 5University Center of the Federal District (UDF, Brasília, Brazil; 6Department of Health Sciences, CUNY Lehman College, Bronx, NY, United States Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of resistance training (RT on body composition, muscle strength, and functional capacity in elderly women with and without sarcopenic obesity (SO.Methods: A total of 49 women (aged ≥60 years were divided in two groups: without SO (non-SO, n=41 and with SO (n=8. Both groups performed a periodized RT program consisting of two weekly sessions for 16 weeks. All measures were assessed at baseline and postintervention, including anthropometry and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, muscle strength (one repetition maximum for chest press and 45° leg press, and functional capacity (stand up, elbow flexion, timed “up and go”.Results: After the intervention, only the non-SO group presented significant reductions in percentage body fat (-2.2%; P=0.006, waist circumference (-2.7%; P=0.01, waist-to-hip ratio (-2.3; P=0.02, and neck circumference (-1.8%; P=0.03 as compared with baseline. Muscle strength in the chest press and biceps curl increased in non-SO only (12.9% and 11.3%, respectively, while 45° leg press strength increased in non-SO (50.3% and SO (40.5% as compared with baseline. Performance in the chair stand up and timed “up and go” improved in non

  4. Patients who are candidates for subacromial decompression have more pronounced range of motion deficits, but do not differ in self-reported shoulder function, strength or pain compared to non-candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witten, Adam; Clausen, Mikkel B; Thorborg, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    -reported shoulder function, shoulder strength, ROM, and pain in patients with SIS considered candidates and non-candidates for subacromial decompression (SAD). METHOD: Self-reported shoulder function (Q-DASH and SPADI), maximum isometric muscle strength in shoulder abduction (Abd-strength) and external rotation (ER...... or non-candidates for SAD based on their consultation with an orthopedic specialist blinded to test results and self-reported shoulder function. All outcomes and age, gender, weight and duration of symptoms were compared using the unpaired t test or Mann-Whitney's U test as appropriate. RESULTS: One.......3 vs. 3.7, p = 0.02, effect size = 0.21). No other differences were found between the groups. CONCLUSION: A decrease in abduction and internal rotation range of motion, and increased pain during maximal abduction strength effort are associated with being considered a candidate for subacromial...

  5. Association between MRI-defined osteoarthritis, pain, function and strength 3-10 years following knee joint injury in youth sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Jackie L; Toomey, Clodagh M; Woodhouse, Linda J; Jaremko, Jacob L; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Emery, Carolyn A

    2017-10-10

    Youth and young adults who participate in sport have an increased risk of knee injury and subsequent osteoarthritis. Improved understanding of the relationship between structural and clinical outcomes postinjury could inform targeted osteoarthritis prevention interventions. This secondary analysis examines the association between MRI-defined osteoarthritis and self-reported and functional outcomes, 3-10 years following youth sport-related knee injury in comparison to healthy controls. Participants included a subsample (n=146) of the Alberta Youth Prevention of Early Osteoarthritis cohort: specifically, 73 individuals with 3-10 years history of sport-related intra-articular knee injury and 73 age-matched, sex-matched and sport-matched controls with completed MRI studies. Outcomes included: MRI-defined osteoarthritis, radiographic osteoarthritis, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Intermittent and Constant Osteoarthritis Pain, knee extensor/flexor strength, triple-hop and Y-balance test. Descriptive statistics and univariate logistic regression were used to compare those with and without MRI-defined osteoarthritis. Associations between MRI-defined osteoarthritis and each outcome were assessed using multivariable linear regression considering the influence of injury history, sex, body mass index and time since injury. Participant median age was 23 years (range 15-27), and 63% were female. MRI-defined osteoarthritis varied by injury history, injury type and surgical history and was not isolated to participants with ACL and/or meniscal injuries. Those with a previous knee injury had 10-fold (95% CI 2.3 to 42.8) greater odds of MRI-defined osteoarthritis than uninjured participants. MRI-defined osteoarthritis was independently significantly associated with quality of life, but not symptoms, strength or function. MRI-detected structural changes 3-10 years following youth sport-related knee injury may not dictate clinical symptomatology, strength or function

  6. Home-Based Virtual Reality-Augmented Training Improves Lower Limb Muscle Strength, Balance, and Functional Mobility following Chronic Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villiger, Michael; Liviero, Jasmin; Awai, Lea; Stoop, Rahel; Pyk, Pawel; Clijsen, Ron; Curt, Armin; Eng, Kynan; Bolliger, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Key factors positively influencing rehabilitation and functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) include training variety, intensive movement repetition, and motivating training tasks. Systems supporting these aspects may provide profound gains in rehabilitation, independent of the subject's treatment location. In the present study, we test the hypotheses that virtual reality (VR)-augmented training at home (i.e., unsupervised) is feasible with subjects with an incomplete SCI (iSCI) and that it improves motor functions such as lower limb muscle strength, balance, and functional mobility. In the study, 12 chronic iSCI subjects used a home-based, mobile version of a lower limb VR training system. The system included motivating training scenarios and combined action observation and execution. Virtual representations of the legs and feet were controlled via movement sensors. The subjects performed home-based training over 4 weeks, with 16-20 sessions of 30-45 min each. The outcome measures assessed were the Lower Extremity Motor Score (LEMS), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go (TUG), Spinal Cord Independence Measure mobility, Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury II, and 10 m and 6 min walking tests. Two pre-treatment assessment time points were chosen for outcome stability: 4 weeks before treatment and immediately before treatment. At post-assessment (i.e., immediately after treatment), high motivation and positive changes were reported by the subjects (adapted Patients' Global Impression of Change). Significant improvements were shown in lower limb muscle strength (LEMS, P  = 0.008), balance (BBS, P  = 0.008), and functional mobility (TUG, P  = 0.007). At follow-up assessment (i.e., 2-3 months after treatment), functional mobility (TUG) remained significantly improved ( P  = 0.005) in contrast to the other outcome measures. In summary, unsupervised exercises at home with the VR training system led to beneficial functional

  7. Home-Based Virtual Reality-Augmented Training Improves Lower Limb Muscle Strength, Balance, and Functional Mobility following Chronic Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Villiger

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Key factors positively influencing rehabilitation and functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI include training variety, intensive movement repetition, and motivating training tasks. Systems supporting these aspects may provide profound gains in rehabilitation, independent of the subject’s treatment location. In the present study, we test the hypotheses that virtual reality (VR-augmented training at home (i.e., unsupervised is feasible with subjects with an incomplete SCI (iSCI and that it improves motor functions such as lower limb muscle strength, balance, and functional mobility. In the study, 12 chronic iSCI subjects used a home-based, mobile version of a lower limb VR training system. The system included motivating training scenarios and combined action observation and execution. Virtual representations of the legs and feet were controlled via movement sensors. The subjects performed home-based training over 4 weeks, with 16–20 sessions of 30–45 min each. The outcome measures assessed were the Lower Extremity Motor Score (LEMS, Berg Balance Scale (BBS, Timed Up and Go (TUG, Spinal Cord Independence Measure mobility, Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury II, and 10 m and 6 min walking tests. Two pre-treatment assessment time points were chosen for outcome stability: 4 weeks before treatment and immediately before treatment. At post-assessment (i.e., immediately after treatment, high motivation and positive changes were reported by the subjects (adapted Patients’ Global Impression of Change. Significant improvements were shown in lower limb muscle strength (LEMS, P = 0.008, balance (BBS, P = 0.008, and functional mobility (TUG, P = 0.007. At follow-up assessment (i.e., 2–3 months after treatment, functional mobility (TUG remained significantly improved (P = 0.005 in contrast to the other outcome measures. In summary, unsupervised exercises at home with the VR training system led to beneficial

  8. Functional strength training and movement performance therapy produce analogous improvement in sit-to-stand early after stroke: early-phase randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, A; Clark, A; Cooke, E V; Rowe, P; Pomeroy, V M

    2017-09-01

    Restoring independence in the sit-to-stand (STS) task is an important objective for stroke rehabilitation. It is not known if a particular intervention, strength training or therapy focused on movement performance is more likely to improve STS recovery. This study aimed to compare STS outcomes from functional strength training, movement performance therapy and conventional therapy. Randomised controlled trial. Acute stroke units. Medically well patients (n=93) with recent (movement performance therapy. Subjects were allocated to groups on a random basis. STS ability, timing, symmetry, co-ordination, smoothness and knee velocity were measured at baseline, outcome (after 6 weeks of intervention) and follow-up (3 months after outcome). No significant differences were found between the groups. All three groups improved their STS ability, with 88% able to STS at follow-up compared with 56% at baseline. Few differences were noted in quality of movement, with only symmetry when rising showing significantly greater improvement in the movement performance therapy group; this benefit was not evident at follow-up. Recovery of the STS movement is consistently good during stroke rehabilitation, irrespective of the type of therapy experienced. Changes in quality of movement did not differ according to group allocation, indicating that the type of therapy is less important. Clinical trial registration number NCT00322192. Copyright © 2016 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Acupuncture for Functional Dyspepsia: What Strength Does It Have? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Li, Bo; Hu, Ya-Cai; Cai, Qiu-Han

    2016-01-01

    Background. Although the effectiveness of acupuncture therapy on functional dyspepsia (FD) has been systematically reviewed, the available reports are still contradictive and no robust evidence has been provided to date. Objective. To assess the current evidence of high quality on the effects of acupuncture for patients with FD. Methods. A comprehensive literature database search was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing acupuncture therapies (including manual acupuncture and electroacupuncture) to sham acupuncture and medication use. A meta-analysis was performed following a strict methodology. Results. 16 RCTs involving 1436 participants were included. The majority of the trials were determined to be of low quality. Positive results were found for acupuncture in improving the Nepean Dyspepsia Index (NDI) and scores of the MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), as well as in alleviating relevant symptoms (especially postprandial fullness and early satiation) of FD patients. Conclusion. Based on current available evidence, acupuncture therapy achieves statistically significant effect for FD in comparison with sham acupuncture and is superior to medication (prokinetic agents) in improving the symptoms and quality of life of FD patients. Nonetheless, despite stringent methodological analyses, the conclusion of our review still needs to be strengthened by additional RCTs of higher quality. PMID:28119758

  10. Is Using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in a Community Sample the Optimal Way to Assess Mental Health Functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Sharmila; Cordier, Reinie; Boyes, Mark; Parsons, Richard; Joosten, Annette; Ciccarelli, Marina; Falkmer, Marita; Falkmer, Torbjorn

    2016-01-01

    An important characteristic of a screening tool is its discriminant ability or the measure's accuracy to distinguish between those with and without mental health problems. The current study examined the inter-rater agreement and screening concordance of the parent and teacher versions of SDQ at scale, subscale and item-levels, with the view of identifying the items that have the most informant discrepancies; and determining whether the concordance between parent and teacher reports on some items has the potential to influence decision making. Cross-sectional data from parent and teacher reports of the mental health functioning of a community sample of 299 students with and without disabilities from 75 different primary schools in Perth, Western Australia were analysed. The study found that: a) Intraclass correlations between parent and teacher ratings of children's mental health using the SDQ at person level was fair on individual child level; b) The SDQ only demonstrated clinical utility when there was agreement between teacher and parent reports using the possible or 90% dichotomisation system; and c) Three individual items had positive likelihood ratio scores indicating clinical utility. Of note was the finding that the negative likelihood ratio or likelihood of disregarding the absence of a condition when both parents and teachers rate the item as absent was not significant. Taken together, these findings suggest that the SDQ is not optimised for use in community samples and that further psychometric evaluation of the SDQ in this context is clearly warranted.

  11. Is Using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in a Community Sample the Optimal Way to Assess Mental Health Functioning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Vaz

    Full Text Available An important characteristic of a screening tool is its discriminant ability or the measure's accuracy to distinguish between those with and without mental health problems. The current study examined the inter-rater agreement and screening concordance of the parent and teacher versions of SDQ at scale, subscale and item-levels, with the view of identifying the items that have the most informant discrepancies; and determining whether the concordance between parent and teacher reports on some items has the potential to influence decision making. Cross-sectional data from parent and teacher reports of the mental health functioning of a community sample of 299 students with and without disabilities from 75 different primary schools in Perth, Western Australia were analysed. The study found that: a Intraclass correlations between parent and teacher ratings of children's mental health using the SDQ at person level was fair on individual child level; b The SDQ only demonstrated clinical utility when there was agreement between teacher and parent reports using the possible or 90% dichotomisation system; and c Three individual items had positive likelihood ratio scores indicating clinical utility. Of note was the finding that the negative likelihood ratio or likelihood of disregarding the absence of a condition when both parents and teachers rate the item as absent was not significant. Taken together, these findings suggest that the SDQ is not optimised for use in community samples and that further psychometric evaluation of the SDQ in this context is clearly warranted.

  12. Hand grips strength effect on motor function in human brain using fMRI: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, S S; Mohamad, M; Syazarina, S O; Nafisah, W Y

    2014-01-01

    Several methods of motor tasks for fMRI scanning have been evolving from simple to more complex tasks. Motor tasks on upper extremity were applied in order to excite the increscent of motor activation on contralesional and ipsilateral hemispheres in brain. The main objective of this study is to study the different conditions for motor tasks on upper extremity that affected the brain activation. Ten healthy right handed with normal vision (3 male and 7 female, age range=20-30 years, mean=24.6 years, SD=2.21) participated in this study. Prior to the scanning, participants were trained on hand grip tasks using rubber ball and pressure gauge tool outside the scanner. During fMRI session, a block design with 30-s task blocks and alternating 30-s rest periods was employed while participants viewed a computer screen via a back projection-mirror system and instructed to follow the instruction by gripping their hand with normal and strong grips using a rubber ball. Statistical Parametric mapping (SPM8) software was used to determine the brain activation. Both tasks activated the primary motor (M1), supplementary motor area (SMA), dorsal and ventral of premotor cortex area (PMA) in left hemisphere while in right hemisphere the area of primary motor (M1) somatosensory was activated. However, the comparison between both tasks revealed that the strong hand grip showed the higher activation at M1, PMA and SMA on left hemisphere and also the area of SMA on right hemisphere. Both conditions of motor tasks could provide insights the functional organization on human brain

  13. Hand grips strength effect on motor function in human brain using fMRI: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, S. S.; Mohamad, M.; Syazarina, S. O.; Nafisah, W. Y.

    2014-11-01

    Several methods of motor tasks for fMRI scanning have been evolving from simple to more complex tasks. Motor tasks on upper extremity were applied in order to excite the increscent of motor activation on contralesional and ipsilateral hemispheres in brain. The main objective of this study is to study the different conditions for motor tasks on upper extremity that affected the brain activation. Ten healthy right handed with normal vision (3 male and 7 female, age range=20-30 years, mean=24.6 years, SD=2.21) participated in this study. Prior to the scanning, participants were trained on hand grip tasks using rubber ball and pressure gauge tool outside the scanner. During fMRI session, a block design with 30-s task blocks and alternating 30-s rest periods was employed while participants viewed a computer screen via a back projection-mirror system and instructed to follow the instruction by gripping their hand with normal and strong grips using a rubber ball. Statistical Parametric mapping (SPM8) software was used to determine the brain activation. Both tasks activated the primary motor (M1), supplementary motor area (SMA), dorsal and ventral of premotor cortex area (PMA) in left hemisphere while in right hemisphere the area of primary motor (M1) somatosensory was activated. However, the comparison between both tasks revealed that the strong hand grip showed the higher activation at M1, PMA and SMA on left hemisphere and also the area of SMA on right hemisphere. Both conditions of motor tasks could provide insights the functional organization on human brain.

  14. Impact of resistance exercise program on functional capacity and muscular strength of knee extensor in pre-frail community-dwelling older women: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustosa, Lygia P; Silva, Juscélio P; Coelho, Fernanda M; Pereira, Daniele S; Parentoni, Adriana N; Pereira, Leani S M

    2011-01-01

    Frailty syndrome in elderly people is characterized by a reduction of energy reserves and also by a decreased of resistance to stressors, resulting in an increase of vulnerability. The aim of this study was to verify the effect of a muscle-strengthening program with load in pre-frail elder women with regards to the functional capacity, knee extensor muscle strength and their correlation. Thrity-two pre-frail community-dwelling women participated in this study. Potential participants with cognitive impairment (MEEM), lower extremities orthopedic surgery, fractures, inability to walk unaided, neurological diseases, acute inflammatory disease, tumor growth, regular physical activity and current use of immunomodulators were excluded. All partcipants were evaluated by a blinded assessor using: Timed up and go (TUG), 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT) and knee extensor muscle strength (Byodex System 3 Pro® isokinetic dynamometer at angular speeds of 60 and 180(0)/s). The intervention consisted of strengthening exercises of the lower extremities at 70% of 1RM, three times/ week for ten weeks. The statistical analysis was performed using the ANOVA and Spearman tests After the intervention, it was observed statistical significance on the work at 180(0)/s (F=12.71, p=0.02), on the power at 180(0)/s (F=15.40, p=0.02) and on the functional capacity (TUG, F=9.54, p=0.01; TC10, F=3.80, p=0.01). There was a good negative and statistically significant correlation between the TUG and work at 60(0)/s, such as the TUG and work at 180(0)/s (r=-0.65, p=0.01; r=-0.72, p=0.01). The intervention improved the muscular power and the functional capacity. The increase of the power correlated with function, which is an important variable of the quality of life in the pre-frail elders. Article registered in the ISRCT register under number ISRCTN62824599.

  15. New technique for a simultaneous estimation of the level density and radiative strength functions of dipole transitions at E sub e sub x<=B sub n -0.5 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khitrov, V A

    2001-01-01

    The new, model-independent method to estimate simultaneously the level densities excited in the (n,gamma) reaction and the radiative strength functions of dipole transitions is developed. The method can be applied for any nucleus and reaction followed by cascade gamma-emission. It is just necessary to measure the intensities of two-step gamma-cascades depopulating one or several high-excited states and determine the quanta ordering in the main portion of the observed cascades. The method provides a sufficiently narrow interval of most probable densities of levels with given J suppi and radiative strength functions of dipole transitions populating them.

  16. The astrophysical r-process and its dependence on properties of nuclei far from stability beta strength functions and neutron capture rates

    CERN Document Server

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H V; Metzinger, J; Oda, T; Thielemann, F K

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that the astrophysical r-process and the question of its site are very sensitive to 'standard' nuclear physics parameters like the beta decay properties and neutron capture rates. Since for these quantities in almost all r-process calculations up to now, and also in all estimates of the production rates of chronometric pairs, only very rough assumptions have been made, it is attempted to present procedures which put the calculation of these quantities for nuclei far from stability on a reliable physical basis. This is done by a microscopic description of the beta strength function and by using a statistical model based on a 'next to first principles' optical potential including effects of deformation for the neutron capture rates. The beta -decay rates for approximately 6000 nuclei between the beta -stability line and the neutron drip line are calculated. The heavy element synthesis by explosive He burning then is calculated using these beta -rates and using realistic star models treating the supe...

  17. Functionalized Magnetic Resonance Contrast Agent Selectively Binds to Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa on Activated Human Platelets under Flow Conditions and Is Detectable at Clinically Relevant Field Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin von zur Mühlen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress in molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI provides the opportunity to image cells and cellular receptors using microparticles of iron oxide (MPIOs. However, imaging targets on vessel walls remains challenging owing to the quantity of contrast agents delivered to areas of interest under shear stress conditions. We evaluated ex vivo binding characteristics of a functional MRI contrast agent to ligand-induced binding sites (LIBSs on activated glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptors of human platelets, which were lining rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques and could therefore facilitate detection of platelet-mediated pathology in atherothrombotic disease. MPIOs were conjugated to anti-LIBS single-chain antibodies (LIBS-MPIO or control antibodies (control MPIO. Ex vivo binding to human platelet-rich clots in a dose-dependent manner was confirmed on a 3 T clinical MRI scanner and by histology (p < .05 for LIBS-MPIO vs control MPIO. By using a flow chamber setup, significant binding of LIBS-MPIO to a platelet matrix was observed under venous and arterial flow conditions, but not for control MPIO (p < .001. A newly generated MRI contrast agent detects activated human platelets at clinically relevant magnetic field strengths and binds to platelets under venous and arterial flow conditions, conveying high payloads of contrast to specific molecular targets. This may provide the opportunity to identify vulnerable, rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques via noninvasive MRI.

  18. Teacher Ratings of Children's Behavior Problems and Functional Impairment Across Gender and Ethnicity : Construct Equivalence of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwirs, Barbara; Burger, Huibert; Schulpen, Tom; Vermulst, A. A.; HiraSing, R. A.; Buitelaar, Jan

    The present study examined construct equivalence of the teacher Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and compared mean scores in an ethnically diverse sample of children living in the Netherlands. Elementary schoolteachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for 2,185 children

  19. Teacher ratings of children's behavior problems and functional impairment across gender and ethnicity: construct equivalence of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwirs, B.; Burger, H.; Schulpen, T.; Vermulst, A.A.; Hira Sing, R.A.; Buitelaar, J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined construct equivalence of the teacher Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and compared mean scores in an ethnically diverse sample of children living in the Netherlands. Elementary schoolteachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for 2,185 children

  20. Short-Term Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Combined with Task-Related Training on Upper Extremity Function, Spasticity, and Grip Strength in Subjects with Poststroke Hemiplegia: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Sun; Kim, Chang-Yong; Kim, Hyeong-Dong

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of whole-body vibration training combined with task-related training on arm function, spasticity, and grip strength in subjects with poststroke hemiplegia. Forty-five subjects with poststroke were randomly allocated to 3 groups, each with 15 subjects as follows: control group, whole-body vibration group, and whole-body vibration plus task-related training group. Outcome was evaluated by clinical evaluation and measurements of the grip strength before and 4 weeks after intervention. Our results show that there was a significantly greater increase in the Fugl-Meyer scale, maximal grip strength of the affected hand, and grip strength normalized to the less affected hand in subjects undergoing the whole-body vibration training compared with the control group after the test. Furthermore, there was a significantly greater increase in the Wolf motor function test and a decrease in the modified Ashworth spasticity total scores in subjects who underwent whole-body vibration plus task-related training compared with those in the other 2 groups after the test. The findings indicate that the use of whole-body vibration training combined with task-related training has more benefits on the improvement of arm function, spasticity, and maximal grip strength than conventional upper limb training alone or with whole-body vibration in people with poststroke hemiplegia.

  1. Characterizing the Long-Term PM2.5 Concentration-Response Function: Comparing the Strengths and Weaknesses of Research Synthesis Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fann, Neal; Gilmore, Elisabeth A; Walker, Katherine

    2016-09-01

    The magnitude, shape, and degree of certainty in the association between long-term population exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) and the risk of premature death is one of the most intensely studied issues in environmental health. For regulatory risk analysis, this relationship is described quantitatively by a concentration-response (C-R) function that relates exposure to ambient concentrations with the risk of premature mortality. Four data synthesis techniques develop the basis for, and derive, this function: systematic review, expert judgment elicitation, quantitative meta-analysis, and integrated exposure-response (IER) assessment. As part of an academic workshop aiming to guide the use of research synthesis approaches, we developed criteria with which to evaluate and select among the approaches for their ability to inform policy choices. These criteria include the quality and extent of scientific support for the method, its transparency and verifiability, its suitability to the policy problem, and the time and resources required for its application. We find that these research methods are both complementary and interdependent. A systematic review of the multidisciplinary evidence is a starting point for all methods, providing the broad conceptual basis for the nature, plausibility, and strength of the associations between PM exposure and adverse health effects. Further, for a data-rich application like PM2.5 and premature mortality, all three quantitative approaches can produce estimates that are suitable for regulatory and benefit analysis. However, when fewer data are available, more resource-intensive approaches such as expert elicitation may be more important for understanding what scientists know, where they agree or disagree, and what they believe to be the most important areas of uncertainty. Whether implicitly or explicitly, all require considerable judgment by scientists. Finding ways for all these methods to acknowledge

  2. Opposite phenotypes of muscle strength and locomotor function in mouse models of partial trisomy and monosomy 21 for the proximal Hspa13-App region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Brault

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The trisomy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21, which causes Down syndrome (DS, is the most common viable human aneuploidy. In contrast to trisomy, the complete monosomy (M21 of Hsa21 is lethal, and only partial monosomy or mosaic monosomy of Hsa21 is seen. Both conditions lead to variable physiological abnormalities with constant intellectual disability, locomotor deficits, and altered muscle tone. To search for dosage-sensitive genes involved in DS and M21 phenotypes, we created two new mouse models: the Ts3Yah carrying a tandem duplication and the Ms3Yah carrying a deletion of the Hspa13-App interval syntenic with 21q11.2-q21.3. Here we report that the trisomy and the monosomy of this region alter locomotion, muscle strength, mass, and energetic balance. The expression profiling of skeletal muscles revealed global changes in the regulation of genes implicated in energetic metabolism, mitochondrial activity, and biogenesis. These genes are downregulated in Ts3Yah mice and upregulated in Ms3Yah mice. The shift in skeletal muscle metabolism correlates with a change in mitochondrial proliferation without an alteration in the respiratory function. However, the reactive oxygen species (ROS production from mitochondrial complex I decreased in Ms3Yah mice, while the membrane permeability of Ts3Yah mitochondria slightly increased. Thus, we demonstrated how the Hspa13-App interval controls metabolic and mitochondrial phenotypes in muscles certainly as a consequence of change in dose of Gabpa, Nrip1, and Atp5j. Our results indicate that the copy number variation in the Hspa13-App region has a peripheral impact on locomotor activity by altering muscle function.

  3. Opposite phenotypes of muscle strength and locomotor function in mouse models of partial trisomy and monosomy 21 for the proximal Hspa13-App region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, Véronique; Duchon, Arnaud; Romestaing, Caroline; Sahun, Ignasi; Pothion, Stéphanie; Karout, Mona; Borel, Christelle; Dembele, Doulaye; Bizot, Jean-Charles; Messaddeq, Nadia; Sharp, Andrew J; Roussel, Damien; Antonarakis, Stylianos E; Dierssen, Mara; Hérault, Yann

    2015-03-01

    The trisomy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21), which causes Down syndrome (DS), is the most common viable human aneuploidy. In contrast to trisomy, the complete monosomy (M21) of Hsa21 is lethal, and only partial monosomy or mosaic monosomy of Hsa21 is seen. Both conditions lead to variable physiological abnormalities with constant intellectual disability, locomotor deficits, and altered muscle tone. To search for dosage-sensitive genes involved in DS and M21 phenotypes, we created two new mouse models: the Ts3Yah carrying a tandem duplication and the Ms3Yah carrying a deletion of the Hspa13-App interval syntenic with 21q11.2-q21.3. Here we report that the trisomy and the monosomy of this region alter locomotion, muscle strength, mass, and energetic balance. The expression profiling of skeletal muscles revealed global changes in the regulation of genes implicated in energetic metabolism, mitochondrial activity, and biogenesis. These genes are downregulated in Ts3Yah mice and upregulated in Ms3Yah mice. The shift in skeletal muscle metabolism correlates with a change in mitochondrial proliferation without an alteration in the respiratory function. However, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from mitochondrial complex I decreased in Ms3Yah mice, while the membrane permeability of Ts3Yah mitochondria slightly increased. Thus, we demonstrated how the Hspa13-App interval controls metabolic and mitochondrial phenotypes in muscles certainly as a consequence of change in dose of Gabpa, Nrip1, and Atp5j. Our results indicate that the copy number variation in the Hspa13-App region has a peripheral impact on locomotor activity by altering muscle function.

  4. Surgery-induced changes and early recovery of hip-muscle strength, leg-press power, and functional performance after fast-track total hip arthroplasty: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Holm

    Full Text Available By measuring very early changes in muscle strength and functional performance after fast-track total hip arthroplasty (THA, post-operative rehabilitation, introduced soon after surgery, can be designed to specifically target identified deficits.Firstly, to quantify changes (compared to pre-operative values in hip muscle strength, leg-press power, and functional performance in the first week after THA, and secondly, to explore relationships between the muscle strength changes, and changes in hip pain, systemic inflammation, and thigh swelling.Prospective, cohort study.Convenience sample of patients receiving a THA at Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark, between March and December 2011.Thirty-five patients (65.9 ± 7.2 years undergoing THA.Hip muscle strength, leg-press power, performance-based function, and self-reported disability were determined prior to, and 2 and 8 days after, THA (Day 2 and 8, respectively. Hip pain, thigh swelling, and C-Reactive Protein were also determined.Five patients were lost to follow-up. Hip muscle strength and leg press power were substantially reduced at Day 2 (range of reductions: 41-58%, P<0.001, but less pronounced at Day 8 (range of reductions: 23-31%, P<0.017. Self-reported symptoms and function (HOOS: Pain, Symptoms, and ADL improved at Day 8 (P<0.014. Changes in hip pain, C-Reactive Protein, and thigh swelling were not related to the muscle strength and power losses.Hip muscle strength and leg-press power decreased substantially in the first week after THA - especially at Day 2 - with some recovery at Day 8. The muscle strength loss and power loss were not related to changes in hip pain, systemic inflammation, or thigh swelling. In contrast, self-reported symptoms and function improved. These data on surgery-induced changes in muscle strength may help design impairment-directed, post-operative rehabilitation to be introduced soon after surgery.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01246674.

  5. Bond strength of masonry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluijm, van der R.; Vermeltfoort, A.Th.

    1992-01-01

    Bond strength is not a well defined property of masonry. Normally three types of bond strength can be distinguished: - tensile bond strength, - shear (and torsional) bond strength, - flexural bond strength. In this contribution the behaviour and strength of masonry in deformation controlled uniaxial

  6. Frequency-Specific Abnormalities of Intrinsic Functional Connectivity Strength among Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangjun; Zhou, Fuqing; Huang, Muhua; Gong, Honghan; Xu, Renshi

    2017-01-01

    The classical concept that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative disorder characterized by the loss of upper and lower motor neurons is agreed. However, more and more studies have suggested the involvement of some extra-motor regions. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency-related alteration pattern of intrinsic functional connectivity strength (FCS) at the voxel-wise level in the relatively early-stage of ALS on a whole brain scale. In this study, 21 patients with ALS and 21 well-matched healthy control subjects were enrolled to examine the intrinsic FCS in the different frequencies (slow-4: 0.027-0.073 Hz; slow-5: 0.01-0.027 Hz, and typical band: 0.01-0.1 Hz). Compared with the control subjects, the ALS patients showed a significantly decreased FCS in the left prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the bilateral superior frontal gyrus. In the slow-5 band, the patients with ALS showed decreased FCS in the left lingual gyrus, as well as increased FCS in the left postcentral gyrus/paracentral lobule (PoCG/PARC). In the slow-4 band, the ALS patients presented decreased FCS in the left and right ventrolateral PFC. Moreover, the increased FCS in the left PoCG/PARC in the slow-5 band was positively correlated with the ALSFRS-r score ( P = 0.015). Our results demonstrated that the FCS changes in ALS were wide spread and frequency dependent. These findings may provide some evidences that ALS patients have the consistent impairment in some extra-motor regions at a relatively early-stage.

  7. Frequency-Specific Abnormalities of Intrinsic Functional Connectivity Strength among Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangjun Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The classical concept that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a degenerative disorder characterized by the loss of upper and lower motor neurons is agreed. However, more and more studies have suggested the involvement of some extra-motor regions. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency-related alteration pattern of intrinsic functional connectivity strength (FCS at the voxel-wise level in the relatively early-stage of ALS on a whole brain scale. In this study, 21 patients with ALS and 21 well-matched healthy control subjects were enrolled to examine the intrinsic FCS in the different frequencies (slow-4: 0.027–0.073 Hz; slow-5: 0.01–0.027 Hz, and typical band: 0.01–0.1 Hz. Compared with the control subjects, the ALS patients showed a significantly decreased FCS in the left prefrontal cortex (PFC and the bilateral superior frontal gyrus. In the slow-5 band, the patients with ALS showed decreased FCS in the left lingual gyrus, as well as increased FCS in the left postcentral gyrus/paracentral lobule (PoCG/PARC. In the slow-4 band, the ALS patients presented decreased FCS in the left and right ventrolateral PFC. Moreover, the increased FCS in the left PoCG/PARC in the slow-5 band was positively correlated with the ALSFRS-r score (P = 0.015. Our results demonstrated that the FCS changes in ALS were wide spread and frequency dependent. These findings may provide some evidences that ALS patients have the consistent impairment in some extra-motor regions at a relatively early-stage.

  8. The astrophysical r-process and its dependence on properties of nuclei far from stability: Beta strength functions and neutron capture rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapdor, H.V.; Metzinger, J.; Oda, T.; Thielemann, F.K.; Hillebrandt, W.

    1981-01-01

    The question of the astrophysical site of the rapid neutron capture (r-) process which is believed to be responsible for the production of the heavy elements in the universe has been a problem in astrophysics for more than two decades. The solution of this problem is not only dependent on the development of realistic astrophysical supernova models, i.e. correct treatment of the hydrodynamics of gravitational collapse and supernova explosion and the equation of state of hot and dense matter, but is shown in this paper to be very sensitive also to 'standard' nuclear physics properties of nuclei far from stability such as beta decay properties and neutron capture rates. For both of the latter, strongly oversimplifying assumptions, not applying the development in nuclear physics during the last decade, have been made in almost all r-process calculations performed up to now. A critical discussion of the state of the art of such calculations seems therefore to be indicated. In this paper procedures are described which allow one to obtain: 1) β-decay properties (decay rates, β-delayed neutron emissions and fission rates); 2) neutron capture rates for neutron-rich nuclei considerably improved over what has been used up to now. The beta strength functions are calculated for approx. equal to6000 nuclei between beta stability line and neutron drip line. By hydrodynamical supernova explosion calculations using realistic stellar models it is shown that as a consequence of the improved β-rates explosive He burning is a convincing alternative site to the 'classical' r-process whose existence still is questionable. The new β-rates will be important also for the investigation of further astrophysical sites producing heavy elements such as the r(n)-processes in explosive C or Ne burning. (orig.)

  9. Redox Buffer Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Levie, Robert

    1999-04-01

    The proper functioning of enzymes in bodily fluids requires that the pH be maintained within rather narrow limits. The first line of defense against large pH fluctuations in such fluids is the passive control provided by the presence of pH buffers. The ability of pH buffers to stabilize the pH is indicated by the buffer value b introduced in 1922 by van Slyke. It is equally important for many enzymes that the redox potential is kept within a narrow range. In that case, stability of the potential is most readily achieved with a redox buffer. In this communication we define the redox buffer strength by analogy with acid-base buffer strength.

  10. Trajectory of self-reported pain and function and knee extensor muscle strength in young patients undergoing arthroscopic surgery for meniscal tears: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Østengaard, Lasse; Cardy, Nathan; Wilson, Fiona; Jørgensen, Claus; Juhl, Carsten Bogh

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the trajectory of patient reported pain and function and knee extensor muscle strength over time in young individuals undergoing arthroscopic meniscal surgery. Systematic review and meta-analysis METHODS: Six databases were searched up to October 13th, 2016. People aged 30 years or younger undergoing surgery for a meniscal tear. and comparator: (1) Self-reported pain and function in patients undergoing meniscal surgery compared to a non-operative control group (2). Knee extensor strength in the leg undergoing surgery compared to a healthy control group or the contra-lateral leg. Methodological quality was assessed using the SIGN 50 guidelines. No studies were found on patient reported pain and function. Six studies, including 137 patients were included in the analysis on knee extensor muscle strength. Knee extensor muscle strength was impaired in the injured leg prior to surgery and was still reduced compared with control data up to 12 months after surgery (SMD: -1.16) (95% CI: -1.83; -0.49). All included studies were assessed to have a high risk of bias. No studies were found comparing the trajectory of self-reported pain and function in patients undergoing arthroscopic surgery compared with non-operative treatments for young patients with meniscal tears. Knee extensor strength seemed to be impaired up to 12 months after surgery in young patients undergoing surgery for meniscal tears. The results of the present study should be interpreted with caution due to a limited number of available studies with high risk of bias including relatively few patients. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Strength of PLA Components Fabricated with Fused Deposition Technology Using a Desktop 3D Printer as a Function of Geometrical Parameters of the Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir E. Kuznetsov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The current paper studies the influence of geometrical parameters of the fused deposition modeling (FDM—fused filament fabrication (FFF 3D printing process on printed part strength for open source desktop 3D printers and the most popular material used for that purpose—i.e., polylactic acid (PLA. The study was conducted using a set of different nozzles (0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 mm and a range of layer heights from the minimum to maximum physical limits of the machine. To assess print strength, a novel assessment method is proposed. A tubular sample is loaded in the weakest direction (across layers in a three-point bending fixture. Mesostructure evaluation through scanning electronic microscopy (SEM scans of the samples was used to explain the obtained results. We detected a significant influence of geometric process parameters on sample mesostructure, and consequently, on sample strength.

  12. Knee-extension strength, postural control and function are related to fracture type and thigh edema in patients with hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten T; Bandholm, Thomas; Bencke, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Post-surgery thigh edema, loss of knee-extension strength, and reduced physical performance are common following a hip fracture. It is not known if knee-extension strength and physical performance are related to the edema and fracture type. The aim of this study was to examine...... the influence of fracture type and post-surgery edema on physical performances in patients with hip fracture. METHODS: Fifteen women and five men admitted from their own home to an acute orthopedic hip fracture unit were examined. Ten had cervical and ten had intertrochanteric fractures. Correlations between...... fracture type and thigh edema in the fractured limb (% non-fractured) to physical performances of basic mobility, postural control (sway), and isometric knee-extension strength were examined. All measures, except those of basic mobility, were conducted at the time of discharge, 8.5 days post...

  13. Functional Strength Training and Movement Performance Therapy for Upper Limb Recovery Early Poststroke—Efficacy, Neural Correlates, Predictive Markers, and Cost-Effectiveness: FAST-INdiCATE Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Hunter

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundVariation in physiological deficits underlying upper limb paresis after stroke could influence how people recover and to which physical therapy they best respond.ObjectivesTo determine whether functional strength training (FST improves upper limb recovery more than movement performance therapy (MPT. To identify: (a neural correlates of response and (b whether pre-intervention neural characteristics predict response.DesignExplanatory investigations within a randomised, controlled, observer-blind, and multicentre trial. Randomisation was computer-generated and concealed by an independent facility until baseline measures were completed. Primary time point was outcome, after the 6-week intervention phase. Follow-up was at 6 months after stroke.ParticipantsWith some voluntary muscle contraction in the paretic upper limb, not full dexterity, when recruited up to 60 days after an anterior cerebral circulation territory stroke.InterventionsConventional physical therapy (CPT plus either MPT or FST for up to 90 min-a-day, 5 days-a-week for 6 weeks. FST was “hands-off” progressive resistive exercise cemented into functional task training. MPT was “hands-on” sensory/facilitation techniques for smooth and accurate movement.OutcomesThe primary efficacy measure was the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT. Neural measures: fractional anisotropy (FA corpus callosum midline; asymmetry of corticospinal tracts FA; and resting motor threshold (RMT of motor-evoked potentials.AnalysisCovariance models tested ARAT change from baseline. At outcome: correlation coefficients assessed relationship between change in ARAT and neural measures; an interaction term assessed whether baseline neural characteristics predicted response.Results288 Participants had: mean age of 72.2 (SD 12.5 years and mean ARAT 25.5 (18.2. For 240 participants with ARAT at baseline and outcome the mean change was 9.70 (11.72 for FST + CPT and 7.90 (9.18 for MPT

  14. Experimental knee joint pain during strength training and muscle strength gain in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, T J; Langberg, Henning; Hodges, P W

    2012-01-01

    Knee joint pain and reduced quadriceps strength are cardinal symptoms in many knee pathologies. In people with painful knee pathologies, quadriceps exercise reduces pain, improves physical function, and increases muscle strength. A general assumption is that pain compromises muscle function...... and thus may prevent effective rehabilitation. This study evaluated the effects of experimental knee joint pain during quadriceps strength training on muscle strength gain in healthy individuals....

  15. Effects of Whey Protein Supplementation Pre- or Post-Resistance Training on Muscle Mass, Muscular Strength, and Functional Capacity in Pre-Conditioned Older Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen C. G. Nabuco

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with sarcopenia and dynapenia, with both processes contributing to functional dependence and mortality in older adults. Resistance training (RT and increased protein intake are strategies that may contribute to health improvements in older adults. Therefore, the aim was to investigate the effects of whey protein (WP supplementation consumed either immediately pre- or post-RT on skeletal muscle mass (SMM, muscular strength, and functional capacity in pre-conditioned older women. Seventy older women participated in this investigation and were randomly assigned to one of three groups: whey protein pre-RT and placebo post-RT (WP-PLA, n = 24, placebo pre-RT and whey protein post-RT (PLA-WP, n = 23, and placebo pre- and post-RT (PLA-PLA, n = 23. Each group ingested 35 g of WP or PLA. The RT program was carried out over 12 weeks (three times per week; 3 × 8–12 repetition maximum. Body composition, muscular strength, functional capacity, and dietary intake were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA for repeated measures, with baseline scores as covariates were used for data analysis. A time vs. group interaction (p < 0.05 was observed with WP-PLA and PLA-WP presenting greater increases compared with PLA-PLA for SMM (WP-PLA = 3.4%; PLA-WP = 4.2%; PLA-PLA = 2.0%, strength (WP-PLA = 8.1%; PLA-WP = 8.3%; PLA-PLA = 7.0%, and the 10-m walk test (WP-PLA = −10.8%; PLA-WP = −11.8%; PLA-PLA = −4.3%. Whey protein supplementation was effective in promoting increases in SMM, muscular strength, and functional capacity in pre-conditioned older women, regardless of supplementation timing. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03247192.

  16. Splitting strength and abrasion resistance of concrete paving blocks as a function of dry bulk specific gravity and ultrasonic pulse velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haktanir, T.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Portland cement concrete paving blocks are widely used in many countries. These paving blocks come in a variety of designs with names such as "Interlocking" and "Italian Flower", and are manufactured with special machinery using rather high quality concrete having a compressive strength of about 50 MPa. Concrete blocks are employed instead of natural cobble stones for essentially economic reasons. The laboratoiy equipment required to measure paving block splitting strength and abrasion resistance, two of the chief properties to be tested in quality checks, is costly and the tests are time-consuming and labour-intensive. The present paper reports on a detailed experimental study performed to relate the splitting strength and abrasion resistance of concrete paving blocks to "dry bulk specific gravity" (DBSG and "ultrasonic pulse velocity" (UPV, respectively. Statistically significant regression equations describing the dependence of splitting strength on DBSG and abrasion resistance on UPV were obtained with data from random samples of material provided by seven different manufacturers.

    RESUMEN Los bloques para pavimentos (adoquines elaborados con hormigón se utilizan habitualmente en numerosos países. Estos bloques de pavimentación se diseñan de diversas formas, como por ejemplo "Entrelazado " ("Interlocking " o "Flor Italiana " ("Italian Flower"; se fabrican con maquinaria especial y con frecuencia se utiliza hormigón de la más alta calidad, con resistencia a la compresión de alrededor de 50 MPa. La razón de utilizar bloques de hormigón en lugar de bloques de piedra natural es básicamente económica. Los equipos de laboratorio necesarios para medir la resistencia a la compresión y a la abrasión -dos de las propiedades más importantes para determinar la calidad de los bloques en estudio- son costosos y los ensayos requieren tiempo y mano de obra considerables. En el presente trabajo se exponen ensayos experimentales

  17. The Strength Compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    In the Ph.D-project ͚Strengths-based Learning - Children͛s character strengths as a means to their learning potential͛ 750 Danish children have assessed ͚The Strength Compass͛ in order to identify their strengths and to create awareness of strengths. This was followed by a strengths......-based intervention program in order to explore the strengths. Finally different methods to apply the strength in everyday life at school were applied. The paper presentation will show the results for strengths display for children aged 6-16 in different categories: Different age groups: Are the same strengths...... present in both small children and youths? Gender: Do the results show differences between the two genders? Danish as a mother- tongue language: Do the results show any differences in the strengths display when considering different language and cultural backgrounds? Children with Special Needs: Do...

  18. Study of the neutron strength function and of the diffusion radius as a function of mass number; Etude de la fonction densite de neutron et du rayon de diffusion en fonction du nombre de masse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgenstern, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-09-01

    The strength functions S{sub 0} and S{sub 1}, and the scattering length R' are studied. The values of S{sub 0}, S{sub 1} and R' are obtained by shape analysis of the individual resonances observed in total neutron cross-section measurements. These measurements were performed at the Saclay 45 MeV linac by the time of flight method. The best resolution achieved was equal to 0.19 ns/m. We have particularly studied the nuclei around number of mass A = 50, 90, 140 and 200. The experimental values of S{sub 0}, S{sub 1} and R' are compared with optical model calculations. A fairly good agreement is obtained using an optical potential with surface absorption. (author) [French] Nous etudions les fonctions densite S{sub 0} et S{sub 1} ainsi que le rayon de diffusion R'. Les valeurs de S{sub 0}, S{sub 1} et R' sont determinees a partir de l'analyse de forme des resonances individuelles observees lors de la mesure de la section efficace neutronique totale. Cette mesure a ete faite aupres de l'accelerateur lineaire d'electrons de 45 MeV de Saclay par la methode du temps de vol. La meilleure resolution atteinte etait egale a 0.19 ns/m. Nous avons particulierement etudie les noyaux situes vers les nombres de masse A 50, 90, 140 et 200. Nous comparons ensuite les valeurs experimentales de S{sub 0}, S{sub 1} et R' a differents calculs de modele optique. Un bon accord est obtenu avec un potentiel optique a absorption de surface. (auteur)

  19. Study of the neutron strength function and of the diffusion radius as a function of mass number; Etude de la fonction densite de neutron et du rayon de diffusion en fonction du nombre de masse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgenstern, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-09-01

    The strength functions S{sub 0} and S{sub 1}, and the scattering length R' are studied. The values of S{sub 0}, S{sub 1} and R' are obtained by shape analysis of the individual resonances observed in total neutron cross-section measurements. These measurements were performed at the Saclay 45 MeV linac by the time of flight method. The best resolution achieved was equal to 0.19 ns/m. We have particularly studied the nuclei around number of mass A = 50, 90, 140 and 200. The experimental values of S{sub 0}, S{sub 1} and R' are compared with optical model calculations. A fairly good agreement is obtained using an optical potential with surface absorption. (author) [French] Nous etudions les fonctions densite S{sub 0} et S{sub 1} ainsi que le rayon de diffusion R'. Les valeurs de S{sub 0}, S{sub 1} et R' sont determinees a partir de l'analyse de forme des resonances individuelles observees lors de la mesure de la section efficace neutronique totale. Cette mesure a ete faite aupres de l'accelerateur lineaire d'electrons de 45 MeV de Saclay par la methode du temps de vol. La meilleure resolution atteinte etait egale a 0.19 ns/m. Nous avons particulierement etudie les noyaux situes vers les nombres de masse A 50, 90, 140 et 200. Nous comparons ensuite les valeurs experimentales de S{sub 0}, S{sub 1} et R' a differents calculs de modele optique. Un bon accord est obtenu avec un potentiel optique a absorption de surface. (auteur)

  20. Força dos músculos do assoalho pélvico e função sexual em gestantes Strength of pelvic floor muscles and sexual function during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseli Franceschet

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: O bem-estar sexual depende de músculos do assoalho pélvico (MAP fortes o suficiente para manter a sua função. Durante a gestação, tanto a função sexual como a força dos MAP podem modificar-se. OBJETIVOS: Comparar o grau de força dos MAP e a função sexual em gestantes do segundo e terceiro trimestres. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa descritiva causal comparativa realizada com 37 gestantes de Florianópolis (18 do segundo e 19 do terceiro trimestre, com média de idade de 25,22 anos (±5,7 anos. Os instrumentos utilizados foram o Questionário Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI e o Teste Manual da Musculatura do Assoalho Pélvico, utilizando a escala de Oxford modificada para graduação da força. Os dados foram analisados por meio de estatística descritiva e inferencial (teste t independente, teste U de Mann Whitney, correlação de Spearman, nível de significância de 0,05. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença significativa entre a média dos valores dos postos do grau de contração dos MAP de gestantes do segundo e do terceiro trimestre (U=150,5; p=0,512. Todavia, a função sexual das gestantes do segundo trimestre de gestação foi melhor que as do terceiro (U=104; p=0,042, e o grau de contração dos MAP apresentou correlações estatisticamente significativas com a idade (ρ=0,320, p=0,041 e com o escore do FSFI (ρ=0,540, pBACKGROUND: Sexual well-being depends on pelvic floor muscles (PFMs that are strong enough to maintain their function. During pregnancy, both the sexual function and the strength of the PFMs may be altered. OBJECTIVES: to compare the degree of PFM strength and the sexual function of pregnant women in the second and the third trimesters. METHODS: a descriptive, causal-comparative study was carried out with 37 pregnant women in Florianópolis (18 in the second trimester and 19 in the third trimester with a mean age of 25.22 years (±5.7 years. The instruments used were the Female Sexual Function Index

  1. The strength compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    of agreement/disagreement. Also the child/teacher is asked whether the actual strength is important and if he or she has the possibilities to apply the strength in the school. In a PhDproject ‘Strengths-based Learning - Children’s Character Strengths as Means to their Learning Potential’ 750 Danish children......Individual paper presentation: The ‘Strength Compass’. The results of a PhDresearch project among schoolchildren (age 6-16) identifying VIAstrengths concerning age, gender, mother-tongue-langue and possible child psychiatric diagnosis. Strengths-based interventions in schools have a theoretical...... Psychological Publishing Company. ‘The Strength Compass’ is a computer/Ipad based qualitative tool to identify the strengths of a child by a self-survey or a teacher’s survey. It is designed as a visual analogue scale with a statement of the strength in which the child/teacher may declare the degree...

  2. Density Profiles, Energy, and Oscillation Strength of a Quantum Dot in Two Dimensions with a Harmonic Oscillator External Potential using an Orbital-free Energy Functional Based on Thomas–Fermi Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhufa Alfarisa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims i to determine the density profile and calculate the ground state energy of a quantum dot in two dimensions (2D with a harmonic oscillator potential using orbital-free density functional theory, and ii to understand the effect of the harmonic oscillator potential strength on the electron density profiles in the quantum dot. This study determines the total energy functional of the quantum dot that is a functional of the density that depends only on spatial variables. The total energy functional consists of three terms. The first term is the kinetic energy functional, which is the Thomas–Fermi approximation in this case. The second term is the external potential. The harmonic oscillator potential is used in this study. The last term is the electron–electron interactions described by the Coulomb interaction. The functional is formally solved to obtain the electron density as a function of spatial variables. This equation cannot be solved analytically, and thus a numerical method is used to determine the profile of the electron density. Using the electron density profiles, the ground state energy of the quantum dot in 2D can be calculated. The ground state energies obtained are 2.464, 22.26, 90.1957, 252.437, and 496.658 au for 2, 6, 12, 20, and 56 electrons, respectively. The highest electron density is localized close to the middle of the quantum dot. The density profiles decrease with the increasing distance, and the lowest density is at the edge of the quantum dot. Generally, increasing the harmonic oscillator potential strength reduces the density profiles around the center of the quantum dot.

  3. The effect of tensile and compressive loading on the hierarchical strength of idealized tropocollagen-hydroxyapatite biomaterials as a function of the chemical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, Devendra K; Tomar, Vikas

    2009-01-01

    Hard biomaterials such as bone, dentin and nacre have primarily a polypeptide phase (e.g. tropocollagen (TC)) and a mineral phase (e.g. hydroxyapatite (HAP) or aragonite) arranged in a staggered manner. It has been observed that the mechanical behaviour of such materials changes with the chemical environment and the direction of applied loading. In the presented investigation, explicit three-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations based analyses are performed on idealized TC-HAP composite biomaterial systems to understand the effects of tensile and compressive loadings in three different chemical environments: (1) unsolvated, (2) solvated with water and (3) calcinated and solvated with water. The MD analyses are performed on two interfacial supercells corresponding to the lowest structural level (level n) of TC-HAP interactions and on two other supercells with HAP supercells arranged in a staggered manner (level n+1) in a TC matrix. The supercells at level n+1 are formed by arranging level n interfacial supercells in a staggered manner. Analyses show that at level n, the presence of water molecules results in greater stability of TC molecules and TC-HAP interfaces during mechanical deformation. In addition, water also acts as a lubricant between adjacent TC molecules. Under the application of shear stress dominated loading, water molecules act to strengthen the TC-HAP interfacial strength in a manner similar to the action of glue. An overall effect of the observed mechanisms is that, in a staggered arrangement, tensile strength increases in the presence of water and calcinated water environments. On the other hand, corresponding compressive strength decreases under similar circumstances. Fundamentally, supercells with primarily normal load transfer at the TC-HAP interfaces are stronger in tensile shear loading. On the other hand, supercells with primarily tangential or shear load transfer at the TC-HAP interfaces are stronger in compressive shear loading. A

  4. Whey protein, amino acids, and vitamin D supplementation with physical activity increases fat-free mass and strength, functionality, and quality of life and decreases inflammation in sarcopenic elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Klersy, Catherine; Terracol, Gilles; Talluri, Jacopo; Maugeri, Roberto; Guido, Davide; Faliva, Milena A; Solerte, Bruno S; Fioravanti, Marisa; Lukaski, Henry; Perna, Simone

    2016-03-01

    Interventions to attenuate the adverse effects of age-related loss of skeletal muscle and function include increased physical activity and nutritional supplementation. This study tested the hypothesis that nutritional supplementation with whey protein (22 g), essential amino acids (10.9 g, including 4 g leucine), and vitamin D [2.5 μg (100 IU)] concurrent with regular, controlled physical activity would increase fat-free mass, strength, physical function, and quality of life, and reduce the risk of malnutrition in sarcopenic elderly persons. A total of 130 sarcopenic elderly people (53 men and 77 women; mean age: 80.3 y) participated in a 12-wk randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled supplementation trial. All participants concurrently took part in a controlled physical activity program. We examined body composition with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, muscle strength with a handgrip dynamometer, and blood biochemical indexes of nutritional and health status, and evaluated global nutritional status, physical function, and quality of life before and after the 12 wk of intervention. Compared with physical activity and placebo, supplementation plus physical activity increased fat-free mass (1.7-kg gain, P nutritional assessment (P = 0.003), and insulin-like growth factor I (P = 0.002), and lowered C-reactive protein (P = 0.038). Supplementation with whey protein, essential amino acids, and vitamin D, in conjunction with age-appropriate exercise, not only boosts fat-free mass and strength but also enhances other aspects that contribute to well-being in sarcopenic elderly. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02402608. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Multiple roads lead to Rome: combined high-intensity aerobic and strength training vs. gross motor activities leads to equivalent improvement in executive functions in a cohort of healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Nicolas; Bherer, Louis; Nadeau, Sylvie; Lauzière, Séléna; Lehr, Lora; Bobeuf, Florian; Lussier, Maxime; Kergoat, Marie Jeanne; Vu, Thien Tuong Minh; Bosquet, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The effects of physical activity on cognition in older adults have been extensively investigated in the last decade. Different interventions such as aerobic, strength, and gross motor training programs have resulted in improvements in cognitive functions. However, the mechanisms underlying the relationship between physical activity and cognition are still poorly understood. Recently, it was shown that acute bouts of exercise resulted in reduced executive control at higher relative exercise intensities. Considering that aging is characterized by a reduction in potential energy ([Formula: see text] max - energy cost of walking), which leads to higher relative walking intensity for the same absolute speed, it could be argued that any intervention aimed at reducing the relative intensity of the locomotive task would improve executive control while walking. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of a short-term (8 weeks) high-intensity strength and aerobic training program on executive functions (single and dual task) in a cohort of healthy older adults. Fifty-one participants were included and 47 (age, 70.7 ± 5.6) completed the study which compared the effects of three interventions: lower body strength + aerobic training (LBS-A), upper body strength + aerobic training (UBS-A), and gross motor activities (GMA). Training sessions were held 3 times every week. Both physical fitness (aerobic, neuromuscular, and body composition) and cognitive functions (RNG) during a dual task were assessed before and after the intervention. Even though the LBS-A and UBS-A interventions increased potential energy to a higher level (Effect size: LBS-A-moderate, UBS-A-small, GMA-trivial), all groups showed equivalent improvement in cognitive function, with inhibition being more sensitive to the intervention. These findings suggest that different exercise programs targeting physical fitness and/or gross motor skills may lead to equivalent improvement in

  6. Formation of CaSO4(aq) and CaSeO4(aq) studied as a function of ionic strength and temperature by CE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippini, V.; Aupiais, J.; Moulin, Ch.; Vercouter, Th.

    2009-01-01

    Ca 2+ complexation by both sulfate and selenate ligands was studied by CE. The species were observed to give a unique retention peak as a result of a fast equilibrium between the free ions and the complexes. The change in the corresponding retention time was interpreted with respect to the equilibrium constant of the complexation reaction. The results confirmed the formation of CaSO 4 (aq) and CaSeO 4 (aq) under our experimental conditions. The formation data were derived from the series of measurements carried out at about 15, 25, 35, 45 and 55 degrees C in 0.1 mol/L NaNO 3 ionic strength solutions, and in 0.5 and 1.0 mol/L NaNO 3 ionic strength solutions at 25 degrees C. Using a constant enthalpy of reaction enabled to fit all the experimental data in a 0.1 mol/L medium, leading to the thermodynamic parameters: Δ r G 0.1M (25 degrees C) = -(7.59±0.23) kJ/mol, Δ r H 0.1M = 5.57±0.80 kJ/mol, and Δ r S 0.1M (25 degrees C) = 44.0±3.0 J mol -1 K -1 for CaSO 4 (aq) and Δ r G 0.1M )(25 degrees C) = - (6.66±0.23) kJ/mol, Δ r H 0.1M = 6.45±0.73 kJ/mol, and Δ r S 0.1M (25 degrees C) = 44.0±3.0 J mol -1 K -1 for CaSeO 4 (aq). Both formation reactions were found to be endothermic and entropy driven. CaSO 4 (aq) appears to be more stable than CaSe O 4(aq) by 0.93 kJ/mol under these experimental conditions, which correlates with the difference of acidity of the anions as expected for interactions between hard acids and hard bases according to the hard and soft acids and bases theory. The effect of the ionic medium on the formation constants was successfully treated using the Specific ion Interaction Theory, leading to significantly different binary coefficients ε Na + ,SO 4 2- (0.15±0.06) mol/kg -1 and ε Na + ,SeO 4 2- -(0.26±0.10)mol/kg -1 . (authors)

  7. Early postoperative repair status after rotator cuff repair cannot be accurately classified using questionnaires of patient function and isokinetic strength evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliver, Jessica; Wang, Allan; Joss, Brendan; Ebert, Jay; Koh, Eamon; Breidahl, William; Ackland, Timothy

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated if patients with an intact tendon repair or partial-thickness retear early after rotator cuff repair display differences in clinical evaluations and whether early tendon healing can be predicted using these assessments. We prospectively evaluated 60 patients at 16 weeks after arthroscopic supraspinatus repair. Evaluation included the Oxford Shoulder Score, 11-item version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand, visual analog scale for pain, 12-item Short Form Health Survey, isokinetic strength, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Independent t tests investigated clinical differences in patients based on the Sugaya MRI rotator cuff classification system (grades 1, 2, or 3). Discriminant analysis determined whether intact repairs (Sugaya grade 1) and partial-thickness retears (Sugaya grades 2 and 3) could be predicted. No differences (P repair was intact. The ability to discriminate between groups was enhanced with up to 5 variables entered; however, only 87% of the partial-retear group and 36% of the intact-repair group were correctly classified. No differences in clinical scores existed between patients stratified by the Sugaya MRI classification system at 16 weeks. An intact repair or partial-thickness retear could not be accurately predicted. Our results suggest that correct classification of healing in the early postoperative stages should involve imaging. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficacy of a novel formulation of L-Carnitine, creatine, and leucine on lean body mass and functional muscle strength in healthy older adults: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Malkanthi; Guthrie, Najla; Pezzullo, John; Sanli, Toran; Fielding, Roger A; Bellamine, Aouatef

    2017-01-01

    Progressive decline in skeletal muscle mass and function are growing concerns in an aging population. Diet and physical activity are important for muscle maintenance but these requirements are not always met. This highlights the potential for nutritional supplementation. As a primary objective, we sought to assess the effect of a novel combination of L-Carnitine, creatine and leucine on muscle mass and performance in older subjects. Forty-two healthy older adults aged 55-70 years were randomized to receive either a novel L-Carnitine (1500 mg), L-leucine (2000 mg), creatine (3000 mg), Vitamin D3 (10 μg) (L-Carnitine-combination) product ( n  = 14), L-Carnitine (1500 mg) ( n  = 14), or a placebo ( n  = 14) for eight weeks. We evaluated body mass by DXA, upper and lower strength by dynamometry, and walking distance by a 6-min walk test at baseline and after eight weeks of intervention. These measures, reflecting muscle mass, functional strength and mobility have been combined to generate a primary composite score. Quality of life, blood safety markers, and muscle biopsies for protein biomarker analysis were also conducted at baseline and the end of the study. The primary composite outcome improved by 63.5 percentage points in the L-Carnitine-combination group vs. placebo ( P  = 0.013). However, this composite score did not change significantly in the L-Carnitine group ( P =  0.232), and decreased slightly in the placebo group ( P =  0.534). Participants supplemented with the L-Carnitine-combination showed a 1.0 kg increase in total lean muscle mass ( P  = 0.013), leg lean muscle mass (0.35 kg, P =  0.005), and a 1.0 kg increase in lower leg strength ( P  = 0.029) at week 8. In addition, these increases were significant when compared to the placebo group (P =  0.034, P =  0.026, and P =  0.002, respectively). Total mTOR protein expression was increased in participants in the L-Carnitine-combination group at the end of

  9. The Effect Of Pelvic Floor Physical Therapy On Sexual Function And Pelvic Floor Muscle Strength And Endurance In Women Complaining Dyspareunia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Bastani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Total pelvic organ prolapse is one of causes of disability in women with slack in the pelvic floor is mainly due to the damage caused by delivery. In colpoclisis mthod, vaginal mucosa in the anterior - posterior side was sutured and actually kind of blocking is done that is preventing the removal of prolapsed organs. The only problem with this method is the lack of vaginal canal and limitations in sexual function. In the present study, in addition to the prolapse treatment, in order to preserve sexual function, the improving the situation was evaluated in elderly patients with medical problems by changes in the mentioned operation method to the modified partial colpoclisis.

  10. The effects of a muscle resistance program on the functional capacity, knee extensor muscle strength and plasma levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha in pre-frail elderly women: a randomized crossover clinical trial--a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustosa, Lygia P; Coelho, Fernanda M; Silva, Juscelio P; Pereira, Daniele S; Parentoni, Adriana N; Dias, João M D; Dias, Rosangela C; Pereira, Leani S M

    2010-07-28

    With the increase in the elderly population, a growing number of chronic degenerative diseases and a greater dependency on caregivers have been observed. Elderly persons in states of frailty remain more susceptible to significant health complications. There is evidence of an inverse relationship between plasma levels of inflammatory mediators and levels of functionality and muscle strength, suggesting that muscle-strengthening measures can aid in inflammatory conditions. The purpose of this study will be verified the effect of a muscle-strengthening program with load during a ten-week period in pre-frail elderly women with attention to the following outcomes: (1) plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), (2) functional capacity and (3) knee extensor muscle strength. The study design is a randomized crossover clinical trial evaluating 26 elderly women (regardless of their race and/or social condition) who are community residents, older than 65, and classified as pre-frail according to the criteria previously described by Fried et al. (2004). All subjects will be assessed using the Timed up and go and 10-Meter Walk Test functional tests. The plasma levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha will be assessed by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) with high sensitivity kits (QuantikineHS, R&D Systems Minneapolis, MN, U.S.). Knee extensor muscle strength will be assessed using the Byodex System 3 Pro(R) isokinetic dynamometer at angular speeds of 60 and 180 degrees/s. The intervention will consist of strengthening exercises of the lower extremities at 50 to 70% of 1RM (maximal resistance) three times per week for ten weeks. The volunteers will be randomized into two groups: group E, the intervention group, and group C, the control group that did not initiate any new activities during the initial study period (ten weeks). After the initial period, group C will begin the intervention and group E will maintain everyday activities without

  11. The effects of a muscle resistance program on the functional capacity, knee extensor muscle strength and plasma levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in pre-frail elderly women: a randomized crossover clinical trial - a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias João MD

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increase in the elderly population, a growing number of chronic degenerative diseases and a greater dependency on caregivers have been observed. Elderly persons in states of frailty remain more susceptible to significant health complications. There is evidence of an inverse relationship between plasma levels of inflammatory mediators and levels of functionality and muscle strength, suggesting that muscle-strengthening measures can aid in inflammatory conditions. The purpose of this study will be verified the effect of a muscle-strengthening program with load during a ten-week period in pre-frail elderly women with attention to the following outcomes: (1 plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, (2 functional capacity and (3 knee extensor muscle strength. Methods/Design The study design is a randomized crossover clinical trial evaluating 26 elderly women (regardless of their race and/or social condition who are community residents, older than 65, and classified as pre-frail according to the criteria previously described by Fried et al. (2004. All subjects will be assessed using the Timed up and go and 10-Meter Walk Test functional tests. The plasma levels of IL-6 and TNF-α will be assessed by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with high sensitivity kits (Quantikine®HS, R&D Systems Minneapolis, MN, U.S.. Knee extensor muscle strength will be assessed using the Byodex System 3 Pro® isokinetic dynamometer at angular speeds of 60 and 180°/s. The intervention will consist of strengthening exercises of the lower extremities at 50 to 70% of 1RM (maximal resistance three times per week for ten weeks. The volunteers will be randomized into two groups: group E, the intervention group, and group C, the control group that did not initiate any new activities during the initial study period (ten weeks. After the initial period, group C will begin the intervention and group E will

  12. Give Me Strength.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    维拉

    1996-01-01

    Mort had an absolutely terrible day at the office.Everythingthat could go wrong did go wrong.As he walked home he could beheard muttering strange words to himself:“Oh,give me strength,give me strength.”Mort isn’t asking for the kind of strength thatbuilds strong muscles:he’s asking for the courage or ability to

  13. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and efficacy of strength training and aerobic exercise

  14. Anisotropic Concrete Compressive Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2017-01-01

    When the load carrying capacity of existing concrete structures is (re-)assessed it is often based on compressive strength of cores drilled out from the structure. Existing studies show that the core compressive strength is anisotropic; i.e. it depends on whether the cores are drilled parallel...

  15. High strength ferritic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A high strength ferritic steel is specified in which the major alloying elements are chromium and molybdenum, with smaller quantities of niobium, vanadium, silicon, manganese and carbon. The maximum swelling is specified for various irradiation conditions. Rupture strength is also specified. (U.K.)

  16. Interviewing to Understand Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Michael R.

    2018-01-01

    Interviewing clients about their strengths is an important part of developing a complete understanding of their lives and has several advantages over simply focusing on problems and pathology. Prerequisites for skillfully interviewing for strengths include the communication skills that emerge from a stance of not knowing, developing a vocabulary…

  17. The effects of a strength and neuromuscular exercise programme for the lower extremity on knee load, pain and function in obese children and adolescents: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsak, Brian; Artner, David; Baca, Arnold; Pobatschnig, Barbara; Greber-Platzer, Susanne; Nehrer, Stefan; Wondrasch, Barbara

    2015-12-23

    Childhood obesity is one of the most critical and accelerating health challenges throughout the world. It is a major risk factor for developing varus/valgus misalignments of the knee joint. The combination of misalignment at the knee and excess body mass may result in increased joint stresses and damage to articular cartilage. A training programme, which aims at developing a more neutral alignment of the trunk and lower limbs during movement tasks may be able to reduce knee loading during locomotion. Despite the large number of guidelines for muscle strength training and neuromuscular exercises that exist, most are not specifically designed to target the obese children and adolescent demographic. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate a training programme which combines strength and neuromuscular exercises specifically designed to the needs and limitations of obese children and adolescents and analyse the effects of the training programme from a biomechanical and clinical point of view. A single assessor-blinded, pre-test and post-test randomised controlled trial, with one control and one intervention group will be conducted with 48 boys and girls aged between 10 and 18 years. Intervention group participants will receive a 12-week neuromuscular and quadriceps/hip strength training programme. Three-dimensional (3D) gait analyses during level walking and stair climbing will be performed at baseline and follow-up sessions. The primary outcome parameters for this study will be the overall peak external frontal knee moment and impulse during walking. Secondary outcomes include the subscales of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), frontal and sagittal kinematics and kinetics for the lower extremities during walking and stair climbing, ratings of change in knee-related well-being, pain and function and adherence to the training programme. In addition, the training programme will be evaulated from a clinical and health status perspective by

  18. Strength training for the warfighter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, William J; Szivak, Tunde K

    2012-07-01

    Optimizing strength training for the warfighter is challenged by past training philosophies that no longer serve the modern warfighter facing the "anaerobic battlefield." Training approaches for integration of strength with other needed physical capabilities have been shown to require a periodization model that has the flexibility for changes and is able to adapt to ever-changing circumstances affecting the quality of workouts. Additionally, sequencing of workouts to limit over-reaching and development of overtraining syndromes that end in loss of duty time and injury are paramount to long-term success. Allowing adequate time for rest and recovery and recognizing the negative influences of extreme exercise programs and excessive endurance training will be vital in moving physical training programs into a more modern perspective as used by elite strength-power anaerobic athletes in sports today. Because the warfighter is an elite athlete, it is time that training approaches that are scientifically based are updated within the military to match the functional demands of modern warfare and are given greater credence and value at the command levels. A needs analysis, development of periodized training modules, and individualization of programs are needed to optimize the strength of the modern warfighter. We now have the knowledge, professional coaches and nonprofit organization certifications with continuing education units, and modern training technology to allow this to happen. Ultimately, it only takes command decisions and implementation to make this possible.

  19. Ultrasonic and hydrothermal mediated synthesis routes for functionalized Mg-Al LDH: Comparison study on surface morphology, basic site strength, cyclic sorption efficiency and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeh, Collins I; Tomatis, Marco; Yang, Xiaogang; He, Jun; Sun, Chenggong

    2018-01-01

    Amine functionalized layered double hydroxide (LDHs) adsorbents prepared using three different routes: co-precipitation, sono-chemical and ultrasonic-assisted high pressure hydrothermal. The prepared adsorbent samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning electron microscope-Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The performance of the prepared adsorbents was tested in a controlled thermal-swing adsorption process to measure its adsorption capacity, regeneration and cyclic efficiencies subsequently. The characterisation results were compared with those obtained using the conventional preparation routes but taking into account of the impact of sonochemical and hydrothermal pre-treatment on textural properties, adsorption capacity, regeneration and cyclic efficiencies. Textural results depicts a surge in surface area of the adsorbent synthesised by hydrothermal route (311m 2 /g) from 25 to 171m 2 /g for conventional and ultrasonic routes respectively. Additionally, it has been revealed from the present study that adsorbents prepared using ultrasonic-assisted hydrothermal route exhibit a better CO 2 uptake capacity than that prepared using sonochemical and conventional routes. Thus, the ultrasonic-assisted hydrothermal treatment can effectively promote the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent. This is probably due to the decrease of moderate (M-O) and weak (OH - groups) basic sites with subsequent surge in the number of strong basic sites (O 2- ) resulting from the hydrothermal process. Moreover, the cyclic adsorption efficiency of the ultrasonic mediated process was found to be 76% compared with 60% for conventional and 53% for hydrothermal routes, respectively. According to the kinetic model analysis, adsorption mechanism is mostly dominated by physisorption before amine

  20. Strength and power of knee extensor muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Olivera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the studies of human neuromuscular function, the function of leg muscles has been most often measured, particularly the function of the knee extensors. Therefore, this review will be focused on knee extensors, methods for assessment of its function, the interdependence of strength and power, relations that describe these two abilities and the influence of various factors on their production (resistance training, stretching, movement tasks, age, etc.. Given that it consists of four separate muscles, the variability of their anatomical characteristics affects their participation in strength and power production, depending on the type of movement and motion that is performed. Since KE is active in a variety of activities it must be able to generate great strength in a large and diverse range of muscle lengths and high shortening velocities, in respect to different patterns of strength production, and thus different generation capacities within the muscle (Blazevich et al., 2006. It has been speculated that KE exerts its Pmax at workloads close to subject's own body weight or lower (Rahmani et al., 2001, which is very close to the maximum dynamic output hypothesis (MDI of Jaric and Markovic (2009. Changes under the influence of resistance training or biological age are variously manifested in muscle's morphological, physiological and neural characteristics, and thus in strength and power. Understanding the issues related to strength and power as abilities of great importance for daily activities, is also important for sports and rehabilitation. Performances improvement in sports in which leg muscles strength and power are crucial, as well as recovery after the injuries, are largely dependent on the research results regarding KE function. Also, the appropriate strength balance between knee flexors and extensors is important for the knee joint stability, so that the presence of imbalance between these two muscle groups might be a risk factor for

  1. Avaliação da força de preensão e funcionalidade após fratura distal de rádio/Evaluation of strength and functionality after distal radius fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Goto Kimura

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo teve objetivo avaliar se existe diferença em relação a força de preensão e funcionalidade de pacientes com fratura distal de rádio em relação ao gênero e ao tipo de tratamento (conservador e cirúrgico. Os pacientes recrutados para este estudo foram divididos em dois grupos, grupo de homens (G1 e grupo de mulheres (G2. Todos os voluntários realizaram uma única avaliação da força de preensão palmar e a avaliação funcional pelos questionários Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH e Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE.Os valores de força de preensão foram significativamente (p<0,000 menores no grupo de mulheres 5,42 (±3,42 e no tratamento conservador 5,20 (±4,91 quando comparados aos homens 16,01 (±6,86 e ao tratamento cirúrgico 12,28 (±7,56. Enquanto que os valores de incapacidade, avaliados pelos questionários DASH e PRWE, foram maiores no grupo de mulheres e pacientes que realizaram tratamento conservador, porém não foram encontradas diferenças significativas. As fraturas distais de rádio se não reabilitadas precocemente podem comprometer a amplitude de movimento, a força muscular, a precisão, a destreza e controle dos movimentos. Neste caso, os questionários de funcionalidade são um parâmetro importante que refletem o desempenho do indivíduo durante a realização de atividades de vida diária, sendo que quanto pior os escores, pior o desempenho e autonomia desses pacientes. Nesse estudo, podemos concluir que o gênero e o tipo de tratamento influenciaram na diminuição da força de preensão e na maior incapacidade funcional na avaliação inicial após 45 dias da fratura. AbstractThis study had the objective of evaluating whether there is a difference in the grip strength and functionality of patients with distal radius fracture in relation to gender and type of treatment (conservative and surgical. The patients recruited for this study were divided into two groups, group of men (G1

  2. Relação entre força de tosse e nível funcional em um grupo de idosos Relationship between cough strength and functional level in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábia S. Freitas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A força muscular respiratória é influenciada pelo envelhecimento. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar, em uma população de idosos saudáveis, a influência da atividade física e do nível funcional sobre parâmetros da função pulmonar, sobre a força da musculatura respiratória e sobre a tosse. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional em que foram incluídos 61 idosos com idade igual ou superior a 60 anos (72,3±7,2 anos, com espirometria normal. Foram avaliados: pressão inspiratória máxima (PImax, pressão expiratória máxima (PEmax, pico de fluxo expiratório (PFE, pico de fluxo da tosse (PFT e perfil de atividade humana (PAH. Os idosos foram divididos em dois grupos (ativo e moderadamente ativo classificados conforme o PAH. Utilizou-se o teste t de Student nas análises univariadas e foram desenvolvidos modelos de regressão linear nas análises multivariadas. RESULTADOS: Os idosos ativos apresentaram, em média, 13,5 cmH2O a mais no valor da PEmax (88±21,4 cmH2O e 16,2 cmH2O na PImax (76±17,7 cmH2O, ocorrendo queda, em média, de 1 cmH2O a cada ano nessas variáveis. O PFE e o PFT foram maiores nos idosos do sexo masculino (pBACKGROUND: Respiratory muscle strength is influenced by aging. OBJECTIVES: To assess, in a healthy elderly population, the influence of physical activity and functional performance on the pulmonary function parameters, on respiratory muscle strength and on coughing. METHODS: Observation study that sixty one elderly with age equal or more than 60 years (72.3±7.2 years, with normal spirometry were included. Maximal Inspiratory Pressure (MIP, Maximal Expiratory Pressure (MEP, Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF, Peak Cough Flow (PCF and Human Activity Profile (HAP were evaluated. The elderly were separated in two groups (active and moderately active according to HAP. Student`s test was used for univariate analysis and regression analysis models was used for multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Elderly participants who were

  3. Handgrip strength, quadriceps muscle power, and optimal shortening velocity roles in maintaining functional abilities in older adults living in a long-term care home: a 1-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozicka I

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Izabela Kozicka, Tomasz Kostka Department of Geriatrics, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland Purpose: To assess the relative role of handgrip strength (HGS, quadriceps muscle power (Pmax, and optimal shortening velocity (υopt in maintaining functional abilities (FAs in older adults living in a long-term care home over a 1-year follow-up. Subjects and methods: Forty-one inactive older institutionalized adults aged 69.8±9.0 years participated in this study. HGS, Pmax, υopt, cognitive function using the Mini-Mental State Examination, depressive symptoms using the Geriatric Depression Scale, nutritional status using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA, and physical activity (PA using the Seven-Day Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire were assessed at baseline and at 1-year follow-up. FAs were assessed with activities of daily living (ADL, instrumental ADL, and Timed Up & Go test. Results: Both at baseline and at follow-up, FAs were related to age, HGS, Pmax/kg, υopt, MNA, and PA. These associations were generally similar in both sexes. As revealed in multiple regression analysis, υopt was the strongest predictor of FA, followed by Pmax/kg, PA, and MNA. FA deteriorated after 1 year as measured by ADL and Timed Up & Go test. Pmax and υopt, but not HGS, also decreased significantly after 1 year. Nevertheless, 1-year changes in FAs were not related to changes in HGS, Pmax, υopt, or PA. Conclusion: The 1-year period of physical inactivity among older institutionalized adults was found to have a negative effect on their FAs, Pmax, and υopt. The present study demonstrates that Pmax and, especially, υopt correlated with FAs of older adults more than HGS, both at baseline and at follow-up. Despite this, 1-year natural fluctuations of PA, Pmax, and υopt are not significant enough to influence FAs in inactive institutionalized older adults. Keywords: aging, handgrip strength, institutionalization, functional status, physical activity

  4. Burrowing as a novel voluntary strength training method for mice : A comparison of various voluntary strength or resistance exercise methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roemers, P; Mazzola, P N; De Deyn, P P; Bossers, W J; van Heuvelen, M J G; van der Zee, E A

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voluntary strength training methods for rodents are necessary to investigate the effects of strength training on cognition and the brain. However, few voluntary methods are available. NEW METHOD: The current study tested functional and muscular effects of two novel voluntary strength

  5. Strength of Fibrous Composites

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Zheng-Ming

    2012-01-01

    "Strength of Fibrous Composites" addresses evaluation of the strength of a fibrous composite by using its constituent material properties and its fiber architecture parameters. Having gone through the book, a reader is able to predict the progressive failure behavior and ultimate strength of a fibrous laminate subjected to an arbitrary load condition in terms of the constituent fiber and matrix properties, as well as fiber geometric parameters. The book is useful to researchers and engineers working on design and analysis for composite materials. Dr. Zheng-Ming Huang is a professor at the School of Aerospace Engineering & Applied Mechanics, Tongji University, China. Mr. Ye-Xin Zhou is a PhD candidate at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, the University of Hong Kong, China.

  6. High strength alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  7. Probe tests microweld strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Probe is developed to test strength of soldered, brazed or microwelded joints. It consists of a spring which may be adjusted to the desired test pressure by means of a threaded probe head, and an indicator lamp. Device may be used for electronic equipment testing.

  8. Strength Testing in Motor Neuron Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefner, Jeremy M

    2017-01-01

    Loss of muscle strength is a cardinal feature of all motor neuron diseases. Functional loss over time, including respiratory dysfunction, inability to ambulate, loss of ability to perform activities of daily living, and others are due, in large part, to decline in strength. Thus, the accurate measurement of limb muscle strength is essential in therapeutic trials to best understand the impact of therapy on vital function. While qualitative strength measurements show declines over time, the lack of reproducibility and linearity of measurement make qualitative techniques inadequate. A variety of quantitative measures have been developed; all have both positive attributes and limitations. However, with careful training and reliability testing, quantitative measures have proven to be reliable and sensitive indicators of both disease progression and the impact of experimental therapy. Quantitative strength measurements have demonstrated potentially important therapeutic effects in both amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinobulbar muscular atrophy, and have been shown feasible in children with spinal muscular atrophy. The spectrum of both qualitative and quantitative strength measurements are reviewed and their utility examined in this review.

  9. Pinch Strengths in Healthy Iranian Children and Young Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Dianat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the physical strength capabilities are essential for design-ing safe and usable products and are useful in a wide range of clinical settings especially during treatment of disease affecting the function of the hand. The purpose of this study was to determine peak lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions in a healthy Iranian children and young adult population.Methods: The study was conducted among 511 participants (242 males and 269 females aged 7-30 years. Measurements were carried out with both dominant and non-dominant hands in standard sitting posture using a B&L pinch gauge. Two repetitions of each strength measurement were recorded for each condition and the average value of the two trials was used in the subsequent analysis.Results: The results showed significant differences in the pinch strength data in terms of the age, gender and hand dominance. The lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions by females were 68.4%, 68.8%, 78.8% and 81.8% of those exerted by males, respectively. Strength exertions with the non-dominant hand were 6.4%, 5.2%, 6.6% and 5.1% lower than strength exertions of the dominant hand for the lat-eral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions, respectively.Conclusion: These findings can be used to fill the gaps in strength data for Iranian population.

  10. Nutritional Supplements for Strength Power Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilborn, Colin

    Over the last decade research involving nutritional supplementation and sport performance has increased substantially. Strength and power athletes have specific needs to optimize their performance. Nutritional supplementation cannot be viewed as a replacement for a balanced diet but as an important addition to it. However, diet and supplementation are not mutually exclusive, nor does one depend on the other. Strength and power athletes have four general areas of supplementation needs. First, strength athletes need supplements that have a direct effect on performance. The second group of supplements includes those that promote recovery. The third group comprises the supplements that enhance immune function. The last group of supplements includes those that provide energy or have a direct effect on the workout. This chapter reviews the key supplements needed to optimize the performance and training of the strength athlete.

  11. Slippage of steel in high and normal strength concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.; Siddiqi, Z.A.; Yousaf, M.

    2007-01-01

    Composite action of any reinforced concrete member is only possible if sufficient bond strength exists between steel reinforcing bars and concrete, which can adequately transfer shear stress between them. Bond strength is a function of compressive strength of concrete and hence high strength concrete has higher bond strength (1-2). Therefore required development length can be reduced. In order to investigate the effect of development length on bond stress and slip relationships, experimental investigation was carried out. In this experimentation 24 pull-out samples of high strength concrete and normal strength concrete were casted and tested. The results of this investigation revealed that by increasing the development length from 5db to 10db bond strength increases for both high and normal strength concrete as shown in Figure 11, 12 and 13. However in case of normal strength concrete increase in bond strength is more compared to that in high strength concrete as it is clear from Figure 11 and Figure 13. The increase in bond strength is observed even at 10db development length but the extent is less for 19 mm than 16 mm bars as shown in Figure 12 and Figure 13. This is in agreement with the earlier findings of Chen et al (3) and Harajli et al (1). However in case of HSC the total slippage at 10db is 50% greater than at 5db. This may be due to the fact that more no of concrete keys participate in resisting the slippage. (author)

  12. Does change in isolated lumbar extensor muscle function correlate with good clinical outcome? A secondary analysis of data on change in isolated lumbar extension strength, pain, and disability in chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, James; Fisher, James; Perrin, Craig; Conway, Rebecca; Bruce-Low, Stewart; Smith, Dave

    2018-01-12

    Secondary analysis of data from studies utilising isolated lumbar extension exercise interventions for correlations among changes in isolated lumbar extension strength, pain, and disability. Studies reporting isolated lumbar extension strength changes were examined for inclusion criteria including: (1) participants with chronic low back pain, (2) intervention ≥ four weeks including isolated lumbar extension exercise, (3) outcome measures including isolated lumbar extension strength, pain (Visual Analogue Scale), and disability (Oswestry Disability Index). Six studies encompassing 281 participants were included. Correlations among change in isolated lumbar extension strength, pain, and disability. Participants were grouped as "met" or "not met" based on minimal clinically important changes and between groups comparisons conducted. Isolated lumbar extension strength and Visual Analogue Scale pooled analysis showed significant weak to moderate correlations (r = -0.391 to -0.539, all p Disability Index pooled analysis showed significant weak correlations (r = -0.349 to -0.470, all p disability, isolated lumbar extension strength changes were greater for those "met" compared with those "not met" (p disability. This study shows significant correlations between increases in isolated lumbar extension strength and reductions in pain and disability. Strengthening of the lumbar extensor musculature could be considered an important target for exercise interventions.

  13. Strength of precast concrete shear joints reinforced with high-strength wire ropes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Henrik B.; Hoang, Linh Cao; Hagsten, Lars German

    2017-01-01

    This paper concerns the in-plane shear strength of connections between precast concrete wall elements reinforced with looped high-strength wire ropes. The looped wire ropes are pre-installed in so-called ‘wire boxes’ which function as shear keys. Although only a small amount of research...... on the shear strength of such connections can be found in the literature, this type of connection is increasingly being used because wire ropes are much more construction-friendly than traditional U-bars. A rigid plastic upper bound model for the shear strength of wall connections reinforced with looped wire...... ropes that are pre-installed in wire boxes is presented along with test results on the shear strength of connections with double-wire boxes. It is shown that the plastic solution agrees well with both the obtained test results and results from previously conducted tests....

  14. Corium crust strength measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomperski, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4840 (United States)], E-mail: lomperski@anl.gov; Farmer, M.T. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4840 (United States)], E-mail: farmer@anl.gov

    2009-11-15

    Corium strength is of interest in the context of a severe reactor accident in which molten core material melts through the reactor vessel and collects on the containment basemat. Some accident management strategies involve pouring water over the melt to solidify it and halt corium/concrete interactions. The effectiveness of this method could be influenced by the strength of the corium crust at the interface between the melt and coolant. A strong, coherent crust anchored to the containment walls could allow the yet-molten corium to fall away from the crust as it erodes the basemat, thereby thermally decoupling the melt from the coolant and sharply reducing the cooling rate. This paper presents a diverse collection of measurements of the mechanical strength of corium. The data is based on load tests of corium samples in three different contexts: (1) small blocks cut from the debris of the large-scale MACE experiments, (2) 30 cm-diameter, 75 kg ingots produced by SSWICS quench tests, and (3) high temperature crusts loaded during large-scale corium/concrete interaction (CCI) tests. In every case the corium consisted of varying proportions of UO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, and the constituents of concrete to represent a LWR melt at different stages of a molten core/concrete interaction. The collection of data was used to assess the strength and stability of an anchored, plant-scale crust. The results indicate that such a crust is likely to be too weak to support itself above the melt. It is therefore improbable that an anchored crust configuration could persist and the melt become thermally decoupled from the water layer to restrict cooling and prolong an attack of the reactor cavity concrete.

  15. Strength capability while kneeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslegrave, C M; Tracy, M F; Corlett, E N

    1997-12-01

    Work sometimes has to be carried out kneeling, particularly where jobs are performed in confined spaces as is common for miners, aircraft baggage handlers and maintenance workers. In order to assess the risks in performing forceful tasks under such conditions, data is needed on strength capabilities of kneeling subjects. A study was undertaken to measure isometric strength in single-handed exertions for male subjects and to investigate the effects on this of task layout factors (direction of force exertion, reach distance, height of the workpiece and orientation relative to the subject's sagittal plane). The data has been tabulated to show the degree to which strength may be reduced in different situations and analysis of the task factors showed their influence to be complex with direction of exertion and reach distance having the greatest effect. The results also suggest that exertions are weaker when subjects are kneeling on two knees than when kneeling on one knee, although this needs to be confirmed by direct experimental comparison.

  16. A 4-Week Intervention Involving Mobile-Based Daily 6-Minute Micro-Sessions of Functional High-Intensity Circuit Training Improves Strength and Quality of Life, but Not Cardio-Respiratory Fitness of Young Untrained Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy Sperlich

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the psycho-physiological responses of physically untrained individuals to mobile-based multi-stimulating, circuit-like, multiple-joint conditioning (CircuitHIIT performed either once (1xCircuitHIIT or twice (2xCircuitHIIT daily for 4 weeks. In this single-center, two-arm randomized, controlled study, 24 men and women (age: 25 ± 5 years first received no training instructions for 4 weeks and then performed 4 weeks of either 1xCircuitHIIT or 2xCircuitHIIT (5 men and 7 women in each group daily. The 1xCircuitHIIT and 2xCircuitHIIT participants carried out 90.7 and 85.7% of all planned training sessions, respectively, with average heart rates during the 6-min sessions of 74.3 and 70.8% of maximal heart rate. Body, fat and fat-free mass, and metabolic rate at rest did not differ between the groups or between time-points of measurement. Heart rate while running at 6 km⋅h-1 declined after the intervention in both groups. Submaximal and peak oxygen uptake, the respiratory exchange ratio and heart rate recovery were not altered by either intervention. The maximal numbers of push-ups, leg-levers, burpees, 45°-one-legged squats and 30-s skipping, as well as perception of general health improved in both groups. Our 1xCircuitHIIT or 2xCircuitHIIT interventions improved certain parameters of functional strength and certain dimensions of quality of life in young untrained individuals. However, they were not sufficient to enhance cardio-respiratory fitness, in particular peak oxygen uptake.

  17. Determination of giant resonance strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serr, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    Using theoretical strength functions to describe the different giant resonances expected at excitation energies of the order of (60-85)/Asup(1/3) MeV, we calculate the double differential cross sections d 2 sigma/dΩ dE associated with the reactions 208 Pb(α, α') and 90 Zr(α, α') (Esub(α) = 152 MeV). The angular distributions for the giant quadrupole and giant monopole resonances obtained from fits to these spectra, making simple, commonly used assumptions for the peak shapes and background, are compared to the original angular distributions. The differences between them are an indication of some of the uncertainties affecting the giant resonance strengths extracted from hadron inelastic scattering data. Fits to limited angular regions lead to errors of up to 50% in the value of the energy-weighted sum rule, depending on the angles examined. While it seems possible to extract the correct EWSR for the GMR by carrying out the analyses at 0 0 , no single privileged angle seems to exist in the case of the GQR. (orig.)

  18. Strengths only or strengths and relative weaknesses? A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Teri; Diessner, Rhett; Reade, Lindsay

    2009-10-01

    Does working on developing character strengths and relative character weaknesses cause lower life satisfaction than working on developing character strengths only? The present study provides a preliminary answer. After 76 college students completed the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (C. Peterson & M. E. P. Seligman, 2004), the authors randomly assigned them to work on 2 character strengths or on 1 character strength and 1 relative weakness. Combined, these groups showed significant gains on the Satisfaction With Life Scale (E. Diener, R. A. Emmons, R. J. Larsen, & S. Griffin, 1985), compared with a 32-student no-treatment group. However, there was no significant difference in gain scores between the 2-strengths group and the 1-character-strength-and-1-relative-character-weakness group. The authors discuss how focusing on relative character weaknesses (along with strengths) does not diminish-and may assist in increasing-life satisfaction.

  19. Understanding the Strengths of African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn-Blake, Sheila M.; Darling, Carol Anderson

    1993-01-01

    Focuses on strengths of African-American families and how they function, relevant conceptual approaches, and trends and issues in studying African-American families that can facilitate understanding. A shift from studying dysfunctional families to more positive aspects can help African-American families meet societal challenges. (SLD)

  20. Enhanced radiative strength in the quasicontinuum of 117Sn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agvaanluvsan, U; Larsen, A C; Chankova, R; Guttormsen, M; Mitchell, G E; Schiller, A; Siem, S; Voinov, A

    2009-04-24

    The radiative strength function of 117Sn has been measured up to the neutron separation energy using the (3He, 3He' gamma) reaction. An increase in the slope of the strength function around E gamma=4.5 MeV indicates the onset of a resonancelike structure, giving a significant enhancement of the radiative strength function compared to standard models in the energy region 4.5functional form of this resonancelike structure has been measured in an odd tin nucleus below neutron threshold in the quasicontinuum region.

  1. Total Analysis System for Ship Structural Strength

    OpenAIRE

    Takuya, Yoneya; Hiroyuki, Kobayashi; Abdul M., Rahim; Yoshimichi, Sasaki; Masaki, Irisawa; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center; Singapore Office; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines a total analysis system for ship hull structures, which integrates a wide variety of analysis functions to realise practical applications of rational methods for assessing ship structural strength. It is based on direct calculation of wave-induced loads as well as three-dimensional structural analysis of an entire-ship or hold structure. Three major analysis functions of the total system are ship motion and wave load analysis, ship structural analysis and statistical analy...

  2. A synchronous surround increases the motion strength gain of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Daniel; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2013-11-12

    Coherent motion detection is greatly enhanced by the synchronous presentation of a static surround (Linares, Motoyoshi, & Nishida, 2012). To further understand this contextual enhancement, here we measured the sensitivity to discriminate motion strength for several pedestal strengths with and without a surround. We found that the surround improved discrimination of low and medium motion strengths, but did not improve or even impaired discrimination of high motion strengths. We used motion strength discriminability to estimate the perceptual response function assuming additive noise and found that the surround increased the motion strength gain, rather than the response gain. Given that eye and body movements continuously introduce transients in the retinal image, it is possible that this strength gain occurs in natural vision.

  3. Strength Training: For Overall Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Strength training is an important part of an overall fitness program. Here's what strength training can do for ... is a key component of overall health and fitness for everyone. Lean muscle mass naturally diminishes with ...

  4. Feasibility of protein-sparing modified fast by tube (ProMoFasT) in obesity treatment: a phase II pilot trial on clinical safety and efficacy (appetite control, body composition, muscular strength, metabolic pattern, pulmonary function test).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukkar, S G; Signori, A; Borrini, C; Barisione, G; Ivaldi, C; Romeo, C; Gradaschi, R; Machello, N; Nanetti, E; Vaccaro, A L

    2013-01-01

    Anecdotal data in the last few years suggest that protein-sparing modified diet (PSMF) delivered by naso-gastric tube enteral (with continuous feeding) could attain an significant weight loss and control of appetite oral feeding, but no phase II studies on safety and efficacy have been done up to now. To verify the safety and efficacy of a protein-sparing modified fast administered by naso-gastric tube (ProMoFasT) for 10 days followed by 20 days of a low-calorie diet, in patients with morbid obesity (appetite control, fat free mass maintenance, pulmonary function tests and metabolic pattern, side effects), 26 patients with a BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 have been selected. The patients had to follow a protein-sparing fast by enteral nutrition (ProMoFasT) for 24 h/day, for 10 days followed by 20 days of low-calorie diet (LCD). The endpoint was represented by body weight, BMI, abdominal circumference, Haber's appetite test, body composition by body impedance assessment (BIA), handgrip strength test, metabolic pattern, pulmonary function test. Safety was assessed by evaluation of complications and side effects of PSMF and/or enteral nutrition. In this report the results on safety and efficacy are described after 10 and 30 days of treatment. After the recruiting phase, a total of 22 patients out of 26 enrolled [14 (63.6 %) females] were evaluated in this study. Globally almost all clinical parameters changed significantly during first 10 days. Total body weight significantly decreased after 10 days (∆-6.1 ± 2; p  < 0.001) and this decrease is maintained in the following 20 days of LCD (∆ = -5.88 ± 1.79; p  < 0.001). Also the abdominal circumference significantly decreased after 10 days [median (range): -4.5 (-30 to 0); p  < 0.001] maintained then in the following 20 days of LCD [median (range) = -7 (-23.5 to -2); p  < 0.001]. All BIA parameters significantly changed after 10 and 30 days from baseline. All parameters except BF had a significant

  5. Compressive Strength of Compacted Clay-Sand Mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faseel Suleman Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of sand to improve the strength of natural clays provides a viable alternative for civil infrastructure construction involving earthwork. The main objective of this note was to investigate the compressive strength of compacted clay-sand mixes. A natural clay of high plasticity was mixed with 20% and 40% sand (SP and their compaction and strength properties were determined. Results indicated that the investigated materials exhibited a brittle behaviour on the dry side of optimum and a ductile behaviour on the wet side of optimum. For each material, the compressive strength increased with an increase in density following a power law function. Conversely, the compressive strength increased with decreasing water content of the material following a similar function. Finally, the compressive strength decreased with an increase in sand content because of increased material heterogeneity and loss of sand grains from the sides during shearing.

  6. Ultimate strength analysis of thin plated structures using eigen-functions. 3rd Report. Application to reliability analysis; Koyu kansu wo mochiita usuita kozobutsu no dansosei kaisekiho. 3. Shinraisei kaiseki eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Y. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Welding Research Institute; Masaoka, K.; Okada, H. [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A reliability analysis was performed on ultimate strength of a hull by introducing reliability engineerings into the idealized structural unit method. Elements developed under the present study were applied to a model of an actual structure to indicate that even an analysis requiring much time under the finite element method can be performed in a short time and at high accuracy when this method is used. Analysis acted with bending moment and shear force simultaneously was performed on a model used as a structure in experiments carried out by Nishihara, assuming pure bending moment and longitudinal strength during slamming. Then, a reliability analysis was conducted on the same model based on this analysis method to investigate the ultimate strength. In an analysis of an ultimate strength when bending and shearing that assume slamming act upon simultaneously, axial force in the hull side decreases as loading increases, wherein how the shearing force increases can be identified clearly. Although existence of initial bends reduces the strength, the effect of variance in the vicinity of the average value on the reliability is rather small, while the effect due to variance in yield stress is greater. 27 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Ultimate strength analysis of thin plated structures using eigen-functions. 3rd Report. Application to reliability analysis; Koyu kansu wo mochiita usuita kozobutsu no dansosei kaisekiho. 3. Shinraisei kaiseki eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Y [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Welding Research Institute; Masaoka, K; Okada, H [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-12-31

    A reliability analysis was performed on ultimate strength of a hull by introducing reliability engineerings into the idealized structural unit method. Elements developed under the present study were applied to a model of an actual structure to indicate that even an analysis requiring much time under the finite element method can be performed in a short time and at high accuracy when this method is used. Analysis acted with bending moment and shear force simultaneously was performed on a model used as a structure in experiments carried out by Nishihara, assuming pure bending moment and longitudinal strength during slamming. Then, a reliability analysis was conducted on the same model based on this analysis method to investigate the ultimate strength. In an analysis of an ultimate strength when bending and shearing that assume slamming act upon simultaneously, axial force in the hull side decreases as loading increases, wherein how the shearing force increases can be identified clearly. Although existence of initial bends reduces the strength, the effect of variance in the vicinity of the average value on the reliability is rather small, while the effect due to variance in yield stress is greater. 27 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Gaussian discriminating strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigovacca, L.; Farace, A.; De Pasquale, A.; Giovannetti, V.

    2015-10-01

    We present a quantifier of nonclassical correlations for bipartite, multimode Gaussian states. It is derived from the Discriminating Strength measure, introduced for finite dimensional systems in Farace et al., [New J. Phys. 16, 073010 (2014), 10.1088/1367-2630/16/7/073010]. As the latter the new measure exploits the quantum Chernoff bound to gauge the susceptibility of the composite system with respect to local perturbations induced by unitary gates extracted from a suitable set of allowed transformations (the latter being identified by posing some general requirements). Closed expressions are provided for the case of two-mode Gaussian states obtained by squeezing or by linearly mixing via a beam splitter a factorized two-mode thermal state. For these density matrices, we study how nonclassical correlations are related with the entanglement present in the system and with its total photon number.

  9. Strength Training: A Natural Prescription for Staying Healthy and Fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Raymond, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This newsletter highlights the importance of strength training in keeping older adults healthy and fit, explaining how it can forestall declines in strength and muscle mass, along with their attendant negative impact upon other metabolic functions and activities of daily living. Physical inactivity is common throughout the nation. Approximately 11…

  10. Celebrate Strengths, Nurture Affinities: A Conversation with Mel Levine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Marge

    2006-01-01

    In this interview with "Educational Leadership," pediatrician Dr. Mel Levine, cofounder of "All Kinds of Minds," explains why students and educators should learn about eight neurodevelopmental functions that undergird our strengths and weaknesses. For the most part, he notes, adults who lead successful lives mobilize their strengths and compensate…

  11. Interseason variability in isokinetic strength and poor correlation with Nordic hamstring eccentric strength in football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dyk, N; Witvrouw, E; Bahr, R

    2018-04-25

    In elite sport, the use of strength testing to establish muscle function and performance is common. Traditionally, isokinetic strength tests have been used, measuring torque during concentric and eccentric muscle action. A device that measures eccentric hamstring muscle strength while performing the Nordic hamstring exercise is now also frequently used. The study aimed to investigate the variability of isokinetic muscle strength over time, for example, between seasons, and the relationship between isokinetic testing and the new Nordic hamstring exercise device. All teams (n = 18) eligible to compete in the premier football league in Qatar underwent a comprehensive strength assessment during their periodic health evaluation at Aspetar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital in Qatar. Isokinetic strength was investigated for measurement error, and correlated to Nordic hamstring exercise strength. Of the 529 players included, 288 players had repeated tests with 1/2 seasons between test occasions. Variability (measurement error) between test occasions was substantial, as demonstrated by the measurement error (approximately 25 Nm, 15%), whether separated by 1 or 2 seasons. Considering hamstring injuries, the same pattern was observed among injured (n = 60) and uninjured (n = 228) players. A poor correlation (r = .35) was observed between peak isokinetic hamstring eccentric torque and Nordic hamstring exercise peak force. The strength imbalance between limbs calculated for both test modes was not correlated (r = .037). There is substantial intraindividual variability in all isokinetic test measures, whether separated by 1 or 2 seasons, irrespective of injury. Also, eccentric hamstring strength and limb-to-limb imbalance were poorly correlated between the isokinetic and Nordic hamstring exercise tests. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Compressive and flexural strength of high strength phase change mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Qingyao; Fang, Changle

    2018-04-01

    High-strength cement produces a lot of hydration heat when hydrated, it will usually lead to thermal cracks. Phase change materials (PCM) are very potential thermal storage materials. Utilize PCM can help reduce the hydration heat. Research shows that apply suitable amount of PCM has a significant effect on improving the compressive strength of cement mortar, and can also improve the flexural strength to some extent.

  13. Institutional Strength in Depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weightman, M.

    2016-01-01

    Much work has been undertaken in order to identify, learn and implement the lessons from the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. These have mainly targeted on engineering or operational lessons. Less attention has been paid to the institutional lessons, although there have been some measures to improve individual peer reviews, particularly by the World Association of Nuclear Operators, and the authoritative IAEA report published in 2015 brought forward several important lessons for regulators and advocated a system approach. The report noted that one of the contributing factors the accident was the tendency of stakeholders not to challenge. Additionally, it reported deficiencies in the regulatory authority and system. Earlier, the root cause of the accident was identified by a Japanese independent parliamentary report as being cultural and institutional. The sum total of the institutions, the safety system, was ineffective. While it is important to address the many technical and operational lessons these may not necessary address this more fundamental lesson, and may not serve to provide robust defences against human or institutional failings over a wide variety of possible events and combinations. The overall lesson is that we can have rigorous and comprehensive safety standards and other tools in place to deliver high levels of safety, but ultimately what is important is the ability of the nuclear safety system to ensure that the relevant institutions diligently and effectively apply those standards and tools — to be robust and resilient. This has led to the consideration of applying the principles of the strength in depth philosophy to a nuclear safety system as a way of providing a framework for developing, assessing, reviewing and improving the system. At an IAEA conference in October 2013, a model was presented for a robust national nuclear safety system based on strength in depth philosophy. The model highlighted three main layers: industry, the

  14. Statistical considerations of graphite strength for assessing design allowable stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, M.; Mogi, H.; Ioka, I.; Arai, T.; Oku, T.

    1987-01-01

    Several aspects of statistics need to be considered to determine design allowable stresses for graphite structures. These include: 1) Statistical variation of graphite material strength. 2) Uncertainty of calculated stress. 3) Reliability (survival probability) required from operational and safety performance of graphite structures. This paper deals with some statistical considerations of structural graphite for assessing design allowable stress. Firstly, probability distribution functions of tensile and compressive strengths are investigated on experimental Very High Temperature candidated graphites. Normal, logarithmic normal and Weibull distribution functions are compared in terms of coefficient of correlation to measured strength data. This leads to the adaptation of normal distribution function. Then, the relation between factor of safety and fracture probability is discussed on the following items: 1) As the graphite strength is more variable than metalic material's strength, the effect of strength variation to the fracture probability is evaluated. 2) Fracture probability depending on survival probability of 99 ∼ 99.9 (%) with confidence level of 90 ∼ 95 (%) is discussed. 3) As the material properties used in the design analysis are usually the mean values of their variation, the additional effect of these variations on the fracture probability is discussed. Finally, the way to assure the minimum ultimate strength with required survival probability with confidence level is discussed in view of statistical treatment of the strength data from varying sample numbers in a material acceptance test. (author)

  15. Experimental knee joint pain during strength training and muscle strength gain in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, T J; Langberg, H; Hodges, P W; Bliddal, H; Henriksen, M

    2012-01-01

    Knee joint pain and reduced quadriceps strength are cardinal symptoms in many knee pathologies. In people with painful knee pathologies, quadriceps exercise reduces pain, improves physical function, and increases muscle strength. A general assumption is that pain compromises muscle function and thus may prevent effective rehabilitation. This study evaluated the effects of experimental knee joint pain during quadriceps strength training on muscle strength gain in healthy individuals. Twenty-seven healthy untrained volunteers participated in a randomized controlled trial of quadriceps strengthening (3 times per week for 8 weeks). Participants were randomized to perform resistance training either during pain induced by injections of painful hypertonic saline (pain group, n = 13) or during a nonpainful control condition with injection of isotonic saline (control group, n = 14) into the infrapatellar fat pad. The primary outcome measure was change in maximal isokinetic muscle strength in knee extension/flexion (60, 120, and 180 degrees/second). The group who exercised with pain had a significantly larger improvement in isokinetic muscle strength at all angular velocities of knee extension compared to the control group. In knee flexion there were improvements in isokinetic muscle strength in both groups with no between-group differences. Experimental knee joint pain improved the training-induced gain in muscle strength following 8 weeks of quadriceps training. It remains to be studied whether knee joint pain has a positive effect on strength gain in patients with knee pathology. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  16. Strength training for a child with suspected developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Stacy M; Hatten, Kristin; Grant-Beuttler, Marybeth

    2013-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) demonstrate difficulty with feedforward motor control and use varied compensatory strategies. To examine gross motor function changes following strength training in a child with motor control difficulties. A girl aged 6 years 11 months, with apraxia and hypotonia, and demonstrating motor delays consistent with DCD. Twenty-four strength training sessions were completed using a universal exercise unit. Postintervention scores significantly improved on the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency, second edition, and the Canadian occupational performance measure scores and raised the developmental coordination disorder questionnaire, revised 2007, scores above the range where DCD is suspected. Nonsignificant changes in strength were observed. Improved function and significant gains in manual coordination were observed following blocked practice of isolated, simple joint movements during strength training. Improved motor skills may be because of effective use of feedforward control and improved stabilization. Strength training does not rehearse skills using momentum, explaining nonsignificant changes in locomotor or locomotion areas.

  17. Soft radiative strength in warm nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Garrett, P E; Nelson, R O; Schiller, A; Voinov, A; Agvaanluvsan, U; Algin, E; Belgya, T; Chankova, R; Guttormsen, M; Mitchell, G E; Rekstad, J; Siem, S

    2004-01-01

    Unresolved transitions in the nuclear γ-ray cascade produced in the decay of excited nuclei are best described by statistical concepts: a continuous radiative strength function (RSF) and level density yield mean values of transition matrix elements. Data on the soft (E γ < 3-4 MeV) RSF for transitions between warm states (i.e. states several MeV above the yrast line) have, however, remained elusive

  18. Effect of Curing Temperature Histories on the Compressive Strength Development of High-Strength Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-Hyeok Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relative strength-maturity relationship of high-strength concrete (HSC specifically developed for nuclear facility structures while considering the economic efficiency and durability of the concrete. Two types of mixture proportions with water-to-binder ratios of 0.4 and 0.28 were tested under different temperature histories including (1 isothermal curing conditions of 5°C, 20°C, and 40°C and (2 terraced temperature histories of 20°C for an initial age of individual 1, 3, or 7 days and a constant temperature of 5°C for the subsequent ages. On the basis of the test results, the traditional maturity function of an equivalent age was modified to consider the offset maturity and the insignificance of subsequent curing temperature after an age of 3 days on later strength of concrete. To determine the key parameters in the maturity function, the setting behavior, apparent activation energy, and rate constant of the prepared mixtures were also measured. This study reveals that the compressive strength development of HSC cured at the reference temperature for an early age of 3 days is insignificantly affected by the subsequent curing temperature histories. The proposed maturity approach with the modified equivalent age accurately predicts the strength development of HSC.

  19. Loading Conditions and Longitudinal Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1995-01-01

    Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength.......Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength....

  20. Oscillator strengths for neutral technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garstang, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Oscillator strengths have been calculated for most of the spectral lines of TcI which are of interest in the study of stars of spectral type S. Oscillator strengths have been computed for the corresponding transitions in MnI as a partial check of the technetium calculations

  1. STRENGTH OF NANOMODIFIED HIGH-STRENGTH LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOZEMTСEV Alexandr Sergeevich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research aimed at development of nanomodified high-strength lightweight concrete for construction. The developed concretes are of low average density and high ultimate compressive strength. It is shown that to produce this type of concrete one need to use hollow glass and aluminosilicate microspheres. To increase the durability of adhesion between cement stone and fine filler the authors offer to use complex nanodimensinal modifier based on iron hydroxide sol and silica sol as a surface nanomodifier for hollow microspheres. It is hypothesized that the proposed modifier has complex effect on the activity of the cement hydration and, at the same time increases bond strength between filler and cement-mineral matrix. The compositions for energy-efficient nanomodified high-strength lightweight concrete which density is 1300…1500 kg/m³ and compressive strength is 40…65 MPa have been developed. The approaches to the design of high-strength lightweight concrete with density of less than 2000 kg/m³ are formulated. It is noted that the proposed concretes possess dense homogeneous structure and moderate mobility. Thus, they allow processing by vibration during production. The economic and practical implications for realization of high-strength lightweight concrete in industrial production have been justified.

  2. Strength asymmetry of the shoulders in elite volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzic, Vedran; Sattler, Tine; Veselko, Matjaž; Markovic, Goran; Dervisevic, Edvin

    2014-01-01

    Volleyball players are reported to have shoulder strength imbalances. Previous authors have primarily investigated small samples of male players at a single skill level, without considering playing position, and with inconsistent findings. To evaluate shoulder strength asymmetry and a history of shoulder injury in a large sample of professional volleyball players of both sexes across different playing positions and skill levels. Descriptive laboratory study. A sample of 183 volleyball players (99 men, 84 women). We assessed shoulder internal-rotator and external-rotator concentric strength at 60°/s using an isokinetic dynamometer and dominant-nondominant differences in shoulder strength and strength ratios using repeated-measures analyses of variance. Peak torque was normalized for body mass and external-rotation/internal-rotation concentric strength. Internal-rotation strength was asymmetric in favor of the dominant side in both sexes, regardless of previous shoulder injury status. Male volleyball players had a lower shoulder strength ratio on the dominant side, regardless of previous shoulder injury status. However, this finding was valid only when hand dominance was taken into account. Female volleyball players playing at a higher level (ie, first versus second division) were 3.43 times more likely to have an abnormal strength ratio. Playing position was not associated with an abnormal shoulder strength ratio or strength asymmetry. In male volleyball players, the external-rotation/internal-rotation strength ratio of the dominant shoulder was lower, regardless of playing position, skill level, or a previous shoulder injury. In female players, the ratio was less only in those at a higher skill level. Although speculative, these findings generally suggest that female volleyball players could have a lower risk of developing shoulder-related problems than male volleyball players. Isokinetic shoulder testing may reveal important information about the possible risk

  3. Reliability and relationships among handgrip strength, leg extensor strength and power, and balance in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Buckner, Samuel L; Bergstrom, Haley C; Cochrane, Kristen C; Goldsmith, Jacob A; Housh, Terry J; Johnson, Glen O; Schmidt, Richard J; Cramer, Joel T

    2014-10-01

    To quantify the reliability of isometric leg extension torque (LEMVC), rate of torque development (LERTD), isometric handgrip force (HGMVC) and RFD (HGRFD), isokinetic leg extension torque and power at 1.05rad·s(-1) and 3.14rad·s(-1); and explore relationships among strength, power, and balance in older men. Sixteen older men completed 3 isometric handgrips, 3 isometric leg extensions, and 3 isokinetic leg extensions at 1.05rad·s(-1) and 3.14rad·s(-1) during two visits. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), ICC confidence intervals (95% CI), coefficients of variation (CVs), and Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated. LERTD demonstrated no reliability. The CVs for LERTD and HGRFD were ≤23.26%. HGMVC wasn't related to leg extension torque or power, or balance (r=0.14-0.47; p>0.05). However, moderate to strong relationships were found among isokinetic leg extension torque at 1.05rad·s(-1) and 3.14rad·s(-1), leg extension mean power at 1.05rad·s(-1), and functional reach (r=0.51-0.95; p≤0.05). LERTD and HGRFD weren't reliable and shouldn't be used as outcome variables in older men. Handgrip strength may not be an appropriate surrogate for lower body strength, power, or balance. Instead, perhaps handgrip strength should only be used to describe upper body strength or functionality, which may compliment isokinetic assessments of lower body strength, which were reliable and related to balance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Calculating Outsourcing Strategies and Trials of Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark; Skærbæk, Peter; Tryggestad, Kjell

    . The alternative option was an immediate outsourcing strategy with facility services being the object of large cross-functional contracts for all Danish military establishments. By succeeding in presenting ‘internal optimization’ as an outsourcing option (as opposed to the usual ‘make’ option) this case...... outsourcing strategies during a series of trials of strength, 2. develops the concept of ‘trial of strength’ for accounting and organization research by showing how ‘the rules of the game’ for the trials of strength can become challenged and controversial, 3. shows that, in addition to the pervasive role......Public sector outsourcing is a program within a suite of contemporary reforms mobilizing private enterprises in the belief of a more efficient public sector. Danish Armed Forces outsourcing of its facility services and management emerged as an option in 1991. Two strategic options developed: one...

  5. Heliospheric Modulation Strength During The Neutron Monitor Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usoskin, I. G.; Alanko, K.; Mursula, K.; Kovaltsov, G. A.

    Using a stochastic simulation of a one-dimensional heliosphere we calculate galactic cosmic ray spectra at the Earth's orbit for different values of the heliospheric mod- ulation strength. Convoluting these spectra with the specific yield function of a neu- tron monitor, we obtain the expected neutron monitor count rates for different values of the modulation strength. Finally, inverting this relation, we calculate the modula- tion strength using the actually recorded neutron monitor count rates. We present the reconstructed annual heliospheric modulation strengths for the neutron monitor era (1953­2000) using several neutron monitors from different latitudes, covering a large range of geomagnetic rigidity cutoffs from polar to equatorial regions. The estimated modulation strengths are shown to be in good agreement with the corresponding esti- mates reported earlier for some years.

  6. Rock strength under explosive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimer, N.; Proffer, W.

    1993-01-01

    This presentation emphasizes the importance of a detailed description of the nonlinear deviatoric (strength) response of the surrounding rock in the numerical simulation of underground nuclear explosion phenomenology to the late times needed for test ban monitoring applications. We will show how numerical simulations which match ground motion measurements in volcanic tuffs and in granite use the strength values obtained from laboratory measurements on small core samples of these rocks but also require much lower strength values after the ground motion has interacted with the rock. The underlying physical mechanisms for the implied strength reduction are not yet well understood, and in fact may depend on the particular rock type. However, constitutive models for shock damage and/or effective stress have been used successfully at S-Cubed in both the Geophysics Program (primarily for DARPA) and the Containment Support Program (for DNA) to simulate late time ground motions measured at NTS in many different rock types

  7. Strength Training and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in organized sports or activities such as baseball, soccer, or gymnastics usually can safely to start strength ... as biking and running, adequate hydration, and healthy nutrition. Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD Date reviewed: ...

  8. Characteristics of structural loess strength and preliminary framework for joint strength formula

    OpenAIRE

    Rong-jian Li; Jun-ding Liu; Rui Yan; Wen Zheng; Sheng-jun Shao

    2014-01-01

    The strength of structural loess consists of the shear strength and tensile strength. In this study, the stress path, the failure envelope of principal stress (Kf line), and the strength failure envelope of structurally intact loess and remolded loess were analyzed through three kinds of tests: the tensile strength test, the uniaxial compressive strength test, and the conventional triaxial shear strength test. Then, in order to describe the tensile strength and shear strength of structural lo...

  9. Interfacial Shear Strength and Adhesive Behavior of Silk Ionomer Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghan; Geryak, Ren D; Zhang, Shuaidi; Ma, Ruilong; Calabrese, Rossella; Kaplan, David L; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2017-09-11

    The interfacial shear strength between different layers in multilayered structures of layer-by-layer (LbL) microcapsules is a crucial mechanical property to ensure their robustness. In this work, we investigated the interfacial shear strength of modified silk fibroin ionomers utilized in LbL shells, an ionic-cationic pair with complementary ionic pairing, (SF)-poly-l-glutamic acid (Glu) and SF-poly-l-lysine (Lys), and a complementary pair with partially screened Coulombic interactions due to the presence of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) segments and SF-Glu/SF-Lys[PEG] pair. Shearing and adhesive behavior between these silk ionomer surfaces in the swollen state were probed at different spatial scales and pressure ranges by using functionalized atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips as well as functionalized colloidal probes. The results show that both approaches were consistent in analyzing the interfacial shear strength of LbL silk ionomers at different spatial scales from a nanoscale to a fraction of a micron. Surprisingly, the interfacial shear strength between SF-Glu and SF-Lys[PEG] pair with partially screened ionic pairing was greater than the interfacial shear strength of the SF-Glu and SF-Lys pair with a high density of complementary ionic groups. The difference in interfacial shear strength and adhesive strength is suggested to be predominantly facilitated by the interlayer hydrogen bonding of complementary amino acids and overlap of highly swollen PEG segments.

  10. Burrowing as a novel voluntary strength training method for mice: A comparison of various voluntary strength or resistance exercise methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemers, P; Mazzola, P N; De Deyn, P P; Bossers, W J; van Heuvelen, M J G; van der Zee, E A

    2018-04-15

    Voluntary strength training methods for rodents are necessary to investigate the effects of strength training on cognition and the brain. However, few voluntary methods are available. The current study tested functional and muscular effects of two novel voluntary strength training methods, burrowing (digging a substrate out of a tube) and unloaded tower climbing, in male C57Bl6 mice. To compare these two novel methods with existing exercise methods, resistance running and (non-resistance) running were included. Motor coordination, grip strength and muscle fatigue were measured at baseline, halfway through and near the end of a fourteen week exercise intervention. Endurance was measured by an incremental treadmill test after twelve weeks. Both burrowing and resistance running improved forelimb grip strength as compared to controls. Running and resistance running increased endurance in the treadmill test and improved motor skills as measured by the balance beam test. Post-mortem tissue analyses revealed that running and resistance running induced Soleus muscle hypertrophy and reduced epididymal fat mass. Tower climbing elicited no functional or muscular changes. As a voluntary strength exercise method, burrowing avoids the confounding effects of stress and positive reinforcers elicited in forced strength exercise methods. Compared to voluntary resistance running, burrowing likely reduces the contribution of aerobic exercise components. Burrowing qualifies as a suitable voluntary strength training method in mice. Furthermore, resistance running shares features of strength training and endurance (aerobic) exercise and should be considered a multi-modal aerobic-strength exercise method in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Multi-material topology design of laminates with strength criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a novel approach for multi-material topology optimization of laminated composite structures where strength constraints are taken into account together with other global structural performance measures. The topology design problem considered contains very...... many design variables, and when strength criteria are included in the problem, a very large number of criteria functions must be considered in the optimization problem to be solved. Thus, block aggregation methods are introduced, such that global strength measures are obtained. These formulations...... are illustrated for multi-material laminated design problems where the maximum failure index is minimized while compliance and mass constraints are taken into account....

  12. Strength curves for shales and sandstones under hydrostatic confining pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.C.; Sikka, S.K.

    1978-01-01

    The experimental data for the effect of confining pressures on the fracture stress have been analysed for shales and sandstones. The normalized compressive strengths are found to lie in a narrow region so that Ohnaka's equation for crystalline rocks, can be fitted to the data. The fitted parameters are physically reasonable and indicate that the functional dependence of strength on porosity, strain rate and temperature is independent of the confining pressures. (author)

  13. Tensile strength/yield strength (TS/YS) ratios of high-strength steel (HSS) reinforcing bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavio, Anggraini, Retno; Raka, I. Gede Putu; Agustiar

    2018-05-01

    The building codes such as American Concrete Institute (ACI) 318M-14 and Standard National Indonesia (SNI) 2847:2013 require that the ratio of tensile strength (TS) and yield strength (YS) should not less than 1.25. The requirement is based on the assumption that a capability of a structural member to develop inelastic rotation capacity is a function of the length of the yield region. This paper reports an investigation on various steel grades, namely Grades 420, 550, 650, and 700 MPa, to examine the impact of different TS/YS ratios if it is less or greater than the required value. Grades 550, 650, and 700 MPa were purposely selected with the intention to examine if these higher grades are still promising to be implemented in special structural systems since they are prohibited by the building codes for longitudinal reinforcement, whereas Grade 420 MPa bars are the maximum limit of yield strength of reinforcing bars that is allowable for longitudinal reinforcement of special structural systems. Tensile tests of these steel samples were conducted under displacement controlled mode to capture the complete stress-strain curves and particularly the post-yield response of the steel bars. From the study, it can be concluded that Grade 420 performed higher TS/YS ratios and they were able to reach up to more than 1.25. However, the High Strength Still (HSS) bars (Grades 550, 600, and 700 MPa) resulted in lower TS/YS ratios (less than 1.25) compared with those of Grade 420 MPa.

  14. Reactive Strength Index: A Poor Indicator of Reactive Strength?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Robin; Kenny, Ian; Harrison, Drew

    2017-11-28

    The primary aim was to assess the relationships between reactive strength measures and associated kinematic and kinetic performance variables achieved during drop jumps. A secondary aim was to highlight issues with the use of reactive strength measures as performance indicators. Twenty eight national and international level sprinters, consisting of fourteen men and women, participated in this cross-sectional analysis. Athletes performed drop jumps from a 0.3 m box onto a force platform with dependent variables contact time (CT), landing time (TLand), push-off time (TPush), flight time (FT), jump height (JH), reactive strength index (RSI, calculated as JH / CT), reactive strength ratio (RSR, calculated as FT / CT) and vertical leg spring stiffness (Kvert) recorded. Pearson's correlation test found very high to near perfect relationships between RSI and RSR (r = 0.91 to 0.97), with mixed relationships found between RSI, RSR and the key performance variables, (Men: r = -0.86 to -0.71 between RSI/RSR and CT, r = 0.80 to 0.92 between RSI/RSR and JH; Women: r = -0.85 to -0.56 between RSR and CT, r = 0.71 between RSI and JH). This study demonstrates that the method of assessing reactive strength (RSI versus RSR) may be influenced by the performance strategies adopted i.e. whether an athlete achieves their best reactive strength scores via low CTs, high JHs or a combination. Coaches are advised to limit the variability in performance strategies by implementing upper and / or lower CT thresholds to accurately compare performances between individuals.

  15. Improved skeletal muscle mass and strength after heavy strength training in very old individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechshøft, Rasmus Leidesdorff; Malmgaard-Clausen, Nikolaj Mølkjær; Gliese, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    , muscle fiber type distribution and size did not differ significantly between groups. We conclude that in protein supplemented very old individuals, heavy resistance training can increase muscle mass and strength, and that the relative improvement in mass is more pronounced when initial muscle mass is low.......Age-related loss of muscle mass and function represents personal and socioeconomic challenges. The purpose of this study was to determine the adaptation of skeletal musculature in very old individuals (83 + years) performing 12 weeks of heavy resistance training (3 ×/week) (HRT) compared to a non....... The increase in CSA is correlated inversely with the baseline level of CSA (R2 = 0.43, P muscle isometric strength, isokinetic peak torque and power increased significantly only in HRT by 10–15%, whereas knee extension one-repetition maximum (1 RM) improved by 91%. Physical functional tests...

  16. Lifting strength in two-person teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of lifting range, hand-to-toe distance, and lifting direction on single-person lifting strengths and two-person teamwork lifting strengths. Six healthy males and seven healthy females participated in this study. Two-person teamwork lifting strengths were examined in both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. Our results showed that lifting strength significantly decreased with increasing lifting range or hand-to-toe distance. However, lifting strengths were not affected by lifting direction. Teamwork lifting strength did not conform to the law of additivity for both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. In general, teamwork lifting strength was dictated by the weaker of the two members, implying that weaker members might be exposed to a higher potential danger in teamwork exertions. To avoid such overexertion in teamwork, members with significantly different strength ability should not be assigned to the same team.

  17. Strength of Gamma Rhythm Depends on Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Supratim; Ni, Amy M.; Maunsell, John H. R.

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal assemblies often exhibit stimulus-induced rhythmic activity in the gamma range (30–80 Hz), whose magnitude depends on the attentional load. This has led to the suggestion that gamma rhythms form dynamic communication channels across cortical areas processing the features of behaviorally relevant stimuli. Recently, attention has been linked to a normalization mechanism, in which the response of a neuron is suppressed (normalized) by the overall activity of a large pool of neighboring neurons. In this model, attention increases the excitatory drive received by the neuron, which in turn also increases the strength of normalization, thereby changing the balance of excitation and inhibition. Recent studies have shown that gamma power also depends on such excitatory–inhibitory interactions. Could modulation in gamma power during an attention task be a reflection of the changes in the underlying excitation–inhibition interactions? By manipulating the normalization strength independent of attentional load in macaque monkeys, we show that gamma power increases with increasing normalization, even when the attentional load is fixed. Further, manipulations of attention that increase normalization increase gamma power, even when they decrease the firing rate. Thus, gamma rhythms could be a reflection of changes in the relative strengths of excitation and normalization rather than playing a functional role in communication or control. PMID:23393427

  18. Dipole strength distributions from HIGS Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, V.; Cooper, N.; Goddard, P. M.; Humby, P.; Ilieva, R. S.; Rusev, G.; Beller, J.; Bernards, C.; Crider, B. P.; Isaak, J.; Kelley, J. H.; Kwan, E.; Löher, B.; Peters, E. E.; Pietralla, N.; Romig, C.; Savran, D.; Scheck, M.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Yates, S. W.; Zweidinger, M.

    2015-05-01

    A series of photon scattering experiments has been performed on the double-beta decay partners 76Ge and 76Se, in order to investigate their dipole response up to the neutron separation threshold. Gamma-ray beams from bremsstrahlung at the S-DALINAC and from Compton-backscattering at HIGS have been used to measure absolute cross sections and parities of dipole excited states, respectively. The HIGS data allows for indirect measurement of averaged branching ratios, which leads to significant corrections in the observed excitation cross sections. Results are compared to statistical calculations, to test photon strength functions and the Axel-Brink hypothesis

  19. Dipole strength distributions from HIGS Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner V.

    2015-01-01

    76Ge and 76Se, in order to investigate their dipole response up to the neutron separation threshold. Gamma-ray beams from bremsstrahlung at the S-DALINAC and from Compton-backscattering at HIGS have been used to measure absolute cross sections and parities of dipole excited states, respectively. The HIGS data allows for indirect measurement of averaged branching ratios, which leads to significant corrections in the observed excitation cross sections. Results are compared to statistical calculations, to test photon strength functions and the Axel-Brink hypothesis

  20. Strength and life under creeping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospishil, B.

    1982-01-01

    Certain examples of the application of the Lepin modified creep model, which are of interest from technical viewpoint, are presented. Mathematical solution of the dependence of strength limit at elevated temperatures on creep characteristics is obtained. Tensile test at elevated temperatures is a particular case of creep or relaxation and both strength limit and conventional yield strength at elevated temperatures are completely determined by parameters of state equations during creep. The equation of fracture summing during creep is confirmed not only by the experiment data when stresses change sporadically, but also by good reflection of durability curve using the system of equations. The system presented on the basis of parameters of the equations obtained on any part of durability curve, permits to forecast the following parameters of creep: strain, strain rate, life time, strain in the process of fracture. Tensile test at elevated temperature is advisable as an addition when determining creep curves (time-strain curves) [ru

  1. [A Structural Equation Model on Family Strength of Married Working Women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yeong Seon; Han, Kuem Sun

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of predictive factors related to family strength and develop a structural equation model that explains family strength among married working women. A hypothesized model was developed based on literature reviews and predictors of family strength by Yoo. This constructed model was built of an eight pathway form. Two exogenous variables included in this model were ego-resilience and family support. Three endogenous variables included in this model were functional couple communication, family stress and family strength. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire from 319 married working women who were 30~40 of age and lived in cities of Chungnam province in Korea. Data were analyzed with PASW/WIN 18.0 and AMOS 18.0 programs. Family support had a positive direct, indirect and total effect on family strength. Family stress had a negative direct, indirect and total effect on family strength. Functional couple communication had a positive direct and total effect on family strength. These predictive variables of family strength explained 61.8% of model. The results of the study show a structural equation model for family strength of married working women and that predicting factors for family strength are family support, family stress, and functional couple communication. To improve family strength of married working women, the results of this study suggest nursing access and mediative programs to improve family support and functional couple communication, and reduce family stress.

  2. Respiratory muscle strength in children with mild bronchial asthma disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Neumannová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Respiratory muscle strength can be decreased in patients with asthma; however, it is not well-documented whether a mild bronchial asthma disease can affect respiratory muscle strength in children and can be associated with higher presence of breathing difficulties. Objective: The main aim of the present study was to compare respiratory muscle strength between children with asthma and age-matched healthy children. The next aim of this study was to assess the incidence of decreased respiratory muscle strength in children with asthma and healthy children and assess the effect of decreased respiratory muscle strength on the incidence of breathing difficulties. Methods: Children with mild bronchial asthma (n = 167 and age-matched, healthy children (n = 100 were recruited into this study. Pulmonary function tests, maximal inspiratory (PImax and expiratory (PEmax mouth pressures and the incidence of breathing difficulty were evaluated in children with asthma and healthy controls. Results: The inspiratory muscle strength was similar between children with asthma and healthy children. Conversely, the expiratory muscle strength was lower in asthmatic children. There was a statistically significant difference between girls with asthma and healthy girls (PEmax = 81.7 ± 29.8% vs. 100.1 ± 23.7% of predicted, p < .001. PEmax was significantly higher in boys with asthma than in girls with asthma (PEmax = 92.9 ± 26.4 % vs. 81.7 ± 29.8% of predicted, p = .03. A higher incidence of breathing difficulties during physical activity (uphill walking, running, swimming was confirmed in children with asthma with lower respiratory muscle strength. Conclusions: There was a higher prevalence of decreased expiratory muscle strength in children with asthma; therefore, respiratory muscle strength should be tested in these children, especially in those who are symptomatic.

  3. Withdrawal Strength and Bending Yield Strength of Stainless Steel Nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas R. Rammer; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2015-01-01

    It has been well established that stainless steel nails have superior corrosion performance compared to carbon steel or galvanized nails in treated wood; however, their mechanical fastening behavior is unknown. In this paper, the performance of stainless steel nails is examined with respect to two important properties used in wood connection design: withdrawal strength...

  4. Strength Properties of Aalborg Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kirsten Malte; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Augustesen, Anders Hust

    glacial time are characterised by the absence of this mussel. These deposits are named Aalborg Clay and Aalborg Sand. In the city of Aalborg, a fill layer superposes Aalborg Clay. This layer is at some places found to be 6m thick. This fill layer does not provide sufficient bearing capacity, which has...... resulted in many damaged buildings in Aalborg. To provide sufficient bearing capacity it is therefore necessary either to remove the fill or to construct the building on piles. Both methods imply that the strength of Aalborg Clay is important for the construction. This paper evaluates the strength...

  5. Topological strength of magnetic skyrmions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Ramos, J.G.G.S.; Rodrigues, E.I.B.

    2017-02-01

    This work deals with magnetic structures that attain integer and half-integer skyrmion numbers. We model and solve the problem analytically, and show how the solutions appear in materials that engender distinct, very specific physical properties, and use them to describe their topological features. In particular, we found a way to model skyrmion with a large transition region correlated with the presence of a two-peak skyrmion number density. Moreover, we run into the issue concerning the topological strength of a vortex-like structure and suggest an experimental realization, important to decide how to modify and measure the topological strength of the magnetic structure.

  6. Efficacy of a novel formulation of L-Carnitine, creatine, and leucine on lean body mass and functional muscle strength in healthy older adults: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Progressive decline in skeletal muscle mass and function are growing concerns in an aging population. Diet and physical activity are important for muscle maintenance but these requirements are not always met. This highlights the potential for nutritional supplementation. As a primary obj...

  7. The added value of measuring thumb and finger strength when comparing strength measurements in hypoplastic thumb patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, H M Ties; Selles, Ruud W; de Kraker, Marjolein; Stam, Henk J; Hovius, Steven E R

    2013-10-01

    When interventions to the hand are aimed at improving function of specific fingers or the thumb, the RIHM (Rotterdam Intrinsic Hand Myometer) is a validated tool and offers more detailed information to assess strength of the involved joints besides grip and pinch measurements. In this study, strength was measured in 65 thumbs in 40 patients diagnosed with thumb hypoplasia. These 65 thumbs were classified according to Blauth. Longitudinal radial deficiencies were also classified. The strength measurements comprised of grip, tip, tripod and key pinch. Furthermore palmar abduction and opposition of the thumb as well as abduction of the index and little finger were measured with the RIHM. For all longitudinal radial deficiency patients, grip and pinch strength as well as palmar abduction and thumb opposition were significantly lower than reference values (P<0.001). However, strength in the index finger abduction and the little finger abduction was maintained or decreased to a lesser extent according to the degree of longitudinal radial deficiency. All strength values decreased with increasing Blauth-type. Blauth-type II hands (n=15) with flexor digitorum superficialis 4 opposition transfer including stabilization of the metacarpophalangeal joint showed a trend toward a higher opposition strength without reaching statistical significance (P=0.094),however compared to non-operated Blauth-type II hands (n=6) they showed a lower grip strength (P=0.019). The RIHM is comparable in accuracy to other strength dynamometers. Using the RIHM, we were able to illustrate strength patterns on finger-specific level, showing added value when evaluating outcome in patients with hand related problems. © 2013.

  8. Impaired hip muscle strength in patients with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Signe; Mechlenburg, Inger; Lund, Bent; Søballe, Kjeld; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2017-12-01

    Patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) experience hip pain as well as decreased function and lowered quality of life. The aim was to compare maximal isometric and isokinetic muscle strength (MVC) during hip flexion and extension and rate of force development (RFD) during extension between patients with FAI and a matched reference group. Secondary, the aim was to compare patient hips and subgroups defined by gender and age as well as to investigate associations between hip muscle strength and self-reported outcomes. Design Cross-sectional, comparative study Methods Sixty patients (36±9 years, 63% females) and 30 age and gender matched reference persons underwent MVC tests in an isokinetic dynamometer. During hip flexion and extension, patients' affected hip showed a strength deficit of 15-21% (phip of the patients was significantly weaker than their contralateral hip. RFD was significantly decreased for both patient hips compared to the reference group (phip muscle strength. Patients with FAI demonstrate decreased hip flexion and extension strength when compared to (1) reference persons and (2) their contralateral hip. There seems to be a gender specific affection which should be investigated further and addressed when planning training protocols. Furthermore, self-reported measures were associated with isometric muscle strength, which underlines the clinical importance of the reduced muscle strength. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Strength Model and Service Envelope for PBX 9501

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-02-05

    An analytical method is proposed for making an assessment of the severity of the response of PBX 9501 in structural response simulations. The approach is based on the coherent use of a strength model and a failure criterion. The strength model is based on a creep rupture function and an associated cumulative damage model. The material's residual strength at any time during a simulation of structural response is determined by taking into account both the actual stress history up to that time, and a hypothetical continuation of the applied stresses that are assumed to grow until material failure results. The residual strength is used by the failure criterion to define the region of safe (non-failed) material response. The Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion is chosen for its general applicability to materials with both cohesive and frictional strength. The combined use of the residual strength model and the failure criterion provides a quantitative method of assessing the severity of the response of PBX 9501 material in structural simulations: the proximity of any evolving, general state of stress to the failure surface (which shrinks due to the cumulative damage caused by the past stress history) can be calculated and used as a measure of margin to failure. The strength model has been calibrated to a broad range of uniaxial tension and compression tests, and a small set of creep tests, and is applicable to a broad range of loading conditions.

  10. Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bull, J.W.; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.; Mascarenhas, A.; Sitas, N.; Baulcomb, C.; Lambini, C.K.; Rawlins, M.; Baral, H.; Zähringer, J.; Carter-Silk, E.; Balzan, M.V.; Kenter, J.O.; Häyhä, T.; Petz, K.; Koss, R.

    2016-01-01

    The ecosystem services concept (ES) is becoming a cornerstone of contemporary sustainability thought. Challenges with this concept and its applications are well documented, but have not yet been systematically assessed alongside strengths and external factors that influence uptake. Such an

  11. Polynomial expansions and transition strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draayer, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is statistical spectroscopy applied to determining strengths and strength sums of excitation processes in nuclei. The focus will be on a ds-shell isoscalar E2 study with detailed shell-model results providing the standard for comparison; similar results are available for isovector E2 and M1 and E4 transitions as well as for single-particle transfer and ν +- decay. The present study is intended to serve as a tutorial for applications where shell-model calculations are not feasible. The problem is posed and a schematic theory for strengths and sums is presented. The theory is extended to include the effect of correlations between H, the system Hamiltonian, and theta, the excitation operator. Associated with correlation measures is a geometry that can be used to anticipate the goodness of a symmetry. This is illustrated for pseudo SU(3) in the fp-shell. Some conclusions about fluctuations and collectivity that one can deduce from the statistical results for strengths are presented

  12. On strength of porous material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    1999-01-01

    The question of non-destructive testing of porous materials has always been of interest for the engineering profession. A number of empirically based MOE-MOR relations between stiffness (Modulus Of Elasticity) and strength (Modulus OF Rupture) of materials have been established in order to control...

  13. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Joseph William; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.

    2016-01-01

    The ecosystem services concept (ES) is becoming a cornerstone of contemporary sustainability thought. Challenges with this concept and its applications are well documented, but have not yet been systematically assessed alongside strengths and external factors that influence uptake. Such an assess...

  14. Comparing strengths of beliefs explicitly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, S.; de Jongh, D.

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by a similar use in provability logic, formulas p > B q and p ≥ B q are introduced in the existing logical framework for discussing beliefs to express that the strength of belief in p is greater than (or equal to) that in q. Besides its usefulness in studying the properties of the concept

  15. Modeling of Sylgard Adhesive Strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Ralph Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-03

    Sylgard is the name of a silicone elastomeric potting material manufactured by Dow Corning Corporation.1 Although the manufacturer cites its low adhesive strength as a feature of this product, thin layers of Sylgard do in fact have a non-negligible strength, which has been measured in recent tensile and shear debonding tests. The adhesive strength of thin layers of Sylgard potting material can be important in applications in which components having signi cantly di erent thermal expansion properties are potted together, and the potted assembly is subjected to temperature changes. The tensile and shear tractions developed on the potted surfaces of the components can cause signi cant internal stresses, particularly for components made of low-strength materials with a high area-to-volume ratio. This report is organized as follows: recent Sylgard debonding tests ar