Factorizations of one-dimensional classical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuru, Senguel; Negro, Javier
2008-01-01
A class of one-dimensional classical systems is characterized from an algebraic point of view. The Hamiltonians of these systems are factorized in terms of two functions that together with the Hamiltonian itself close a Poisson algebra. These two functions lead directly to two time-dependent integrals of motion from which the phase motions are derived algebraically. The systems so obtained constitute the classical analogues of the well known factorizable one-dimensional quantum mechanical systems
One dimensional systems with singular perturbations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez, J J; Gadella, M; Nieto, L M; Glasser, L M; Lara, L P
2011-01-01
This paper discusses some one dimensional quantum models with singular perturbations. Eventually, a mass discontinuity is added at the points that support the singular perturbations. The simplest model includes an attractive singular potential with a mass jump both located at the origin. We study the form of the only bound state. Another model exhibits a hard core at the origin plus one or more repulsive deltas with mass jumps at the points supporting these deltas. We study the location and the multiplicity of these resonances for the case of one or two deltas and settle the basis for a generalization. Finally, we consider the harmonic oscillator and the infinite square well plus a singular potential at the origin. We see how the energy of bound states is affected by the singular perturbation.
Electron localization in one-dimensional systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chao, K.A.
1984-01-01
The pure regional localization and the global localization have been investigated via the inverse participation ratio and te moment analysis. If the envelop function of a localized state is more complicated than the simple exponential function e sup(-r/xi), the inverse participation ratio is inadequate to describe the localization properties of an electron. This is the case discovered recently in a stereo-irregular chain fo atoms including the electron-electron interaction and the structure disorder. The localization properties in this system are analysed in terms of the moments. (Author) [pt
Study of one dimensional magnetic system via field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Talim, S.L.
1988-04-01
We present a study of one-dimensional magnetic system using field theory methods. We studied the discreteness effects in a classical anisotropic one dimensional antiferromagnet in an external magnetic field. It is shown that for TMMC, at the temperatures and magnetic fields where most experiments have been done, the corrections are small and can be neglected. (author)
One-dimensional autonomous systems and dissipative systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lopez, G.
1996-01-01
The Lagrangian and the Generalized Linear Momentum are given in terms of a constant of motion for a one-dimensional autonomous system. The possibility of having an explicit Hamiltonian expression is also analyzed. The approach is applied to some dissipative systems. Copyright copyright 1996 Academic Press, Inc
One dimensional Bosons: From Condensed Matter Systems to Ultracold Gases
Cazalilla, M. A.; Citro, R.; Giamarchi, T.; Orignac, E.; Rigol, M.
2011-01-01
The physics of one-dimensional interacting bosonic systems is reviewed. Beginning with results from exactly solvable models and computational approaches, the concept of bosonic Tomonaga-Luttinger liquids relevant for one-dimensional Bose fluids is introduced, and compared with Bose-Einstein condensates existing in dimensions higher than one. The effects of various perturbations on the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid state are discussed as well as extensions to multicomponent and out of equilibrium ...
Strong chaos in one-dimensional quantum system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, C.-D.; Wei, C.-H.
2008-01-01
According to the Poincare-Bendixson theorem, a minimum of three autonomous equations is required to exhibit deterministic chaos. Because a one-dimensional quantum system is described by only two autonomous equations using de Broglie-Bohm's trajectory interpretation, chaos in one-dimensional quantum systems has long been considered impossible. We will prove in this paper that chaos phenomenon does exist in one-dimensional quantum systems, if the domain of quantum motions is extended to complex space by noting that the quantum world is actually characterized by a four-dimensional complex spacetime according to the E (∞) theory. Furthermore, we point out that the interaction between the real and imaginary parts of complex trajectories produces a new chaos phenomenon unique to quantum systems, called strong chaos, which describes the situation that quantum trajectories may emerge and diverge spontaneously without any perturbation in the initial position
Statistics of resonances in one-dimensional continuous systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Vol. 73, No. 3. — journal of. September 2009 physics pp. 565–572. Statistics of resonances in one-dimensional continuous systems. JOSHUA FEINBERG. Physics Department, University of Haifa at Oranim, Tivon 36006, Israel ..... relativistic quantum mechanics (Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem,. 1969).
Light propagation in one-dimensional porous silicon complex systems
Oton, C.J.; Dal Negro, L.; Gaburro, Z.; Pavesi, L.; Johnson, P.J.; Lagendijk, Aart; Wiersma, D.S.
2003-01-01
We discuss the optical properties of one-dimensional complex dielectric systems, in particular the time-resolved transmission through thick porous silicon quasiperiodic multi-layers. Both in numerical calculations and experiments we find dramatic distortion effects, i.e. pulse stretching and
Solitons in one-dimensional charge density wave systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Su, W.P.
1981-01-01
Theoretical research on one dimensional charge density wave systems is outlined. A simple coupled electron-photon Hamiltonian is studied including a Green's function approach, molecular dynamics, and Monte Carlo path integral method. As in superconductivity, the nonperturbative nature of the system makes the physical ground states and low energy excitations drastically different from the bare electrons and phonons. Solitons carry quantum numbers which are entirely different from those of the bare electrons and holes. The fractional charge character of the solitons is an example of this fact. Solitons are conveniently generated by doping material with donors or acceptors or by photon absorption. Most predictions of the theory are in qualitative agreement with experiments. The one dimensional charge density wave system has potential technological importance and a possible role in uncovering phenomena which might have implications in relativistic field theory and elementary particle physics
Thermal conductivity in one-dimensional nonlinear systems
Politi, Antonio; Giardinà, Cristian; Livi, Roberto; Vassalli, Massimo
2000-03-01
Thermal conducitivity of one-dimensional nonlinear systems typically diverges in the thermodynamic limit, whenever the momentum is conserved (i.e. in the absence of interactions with an external substrate). Evidence comes from detailed studies of Fermi-Pasta-Ulam and diatomic Toda chains. Here, we discuss the first example of a one-dimensional system obeying Fourier law : a chain of coupled rotators. Numerical estimates of the thermal conductivity obtained by simulating a chain in contact with two thermal baths at different temperatures are found to be consistent with those ones based on linear response theory. The dynamics of the Fourier modes provides direct evidence of energy diffusion. The finiteness of the conductivity is traced back to the occurrence of phase-jumps. Our conclusions are confirmed by the analysis of two variants of the rotator model.
Nonlinear acoustic wave propagating in one-dimensional layered system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yun, Y.; Miao, G.Q.; Zhang, P.; Huang, K.; Wei, R.J.
2005-01-01
The propagation of finite-amplitude plane sound in one-dimensional layered media is studied by the extended method of transfer matrix formalism. For the periodic layered system consisting of two alternate types of liquid, the energy distribution and the phase vectors of the interface vibration are computed and analyzed. It is found that in the pass-band, the second harmonic of sound wave can propagate with the characteristic modulation
Bound states of Dipolar Bosons in One-dimensional Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
G. Volosniev, A.; R. Armstrong, J.; V. Fedorov, D.
2013-01-01
that in the weakly-coupled limit the inter-tube interaction is similar to a zero-range term with a suitable rescaled strength. This allows us to address the corresponding many-body physics of the system by constructing a model where bound chains with one molecule in each tube are the effective degrees of freedom......We consider one-dimensional tubes containing bosonic polar molecules. The long-range dipole-dipole interactions act both within a single tube and between different tubes. We consider arbitrary values of the externally aligned dipole moments with respect to the symmetry axis of the tubes. The few....... This model can be mapped onto one-dimensional Hamiltonians for which exact solutions are known....
Exactly integrable analogue of a one-dimensional gravitating system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, Bruce N.; Yawn, Kenneth R.; Maier, Bill
2005-01-01
Exchange symmetry in acceleration partitions the configuration space of an N particle one-dimensional gravitational system (OGS) into N! equivalent cells. We take advantage of the resulting small angular separation between the forces in neighboring cells to construct a related integrable version of the system that takes the form of a central force problem in N-1 dimensions. The properties of the latter, including the construction of trajectories and possible continuum limits, are developed. Dynamical simulation is employed to compare the two models. For some initial conditions, excellent agreement is observed
Relativistic collective diffusion in one-dimensional systems
Lin, Gui-Wu; Lam, Yu-Yiu; Zheng, Dong-Qin; Zhong, Wei-Rong
2018-05-01
The relativistic collective diffusion in one-dimensional molecular system is investigated through nonequilibrium molecular dynamics with Monte Carlo methods. We have proposed the relationship among the speed, the temperature, the density distribution and the collective diffusion coefficient of particles in a relativistic moving system. It is found that the relativistic speed of the system has no effect on the temperature, but the collective diffusion coefficient decreases to zero as the velocity of the system approaches to the speed of light. The collective diffusion coefficient is modified as D‧ = D(1 ‑w2 c2 )3 2 for satisfying the relativistic circumstances. The present results may contribute to the understanding of the behavior of the particles transport diffusion in a high speed system, as well as enlighten the study of biological metabolism at relativistic high speed situation.
Resonant scattering induced thermopower in one-dimensional disordered systems
Müller, Daniel; Smit, Wilbert J.; Sigrist, Manfred
2015-05-01
This study analyzes thermoelectric properties of a one-dimensional random conductor which shows localization effects and simultaneously includes resonant scatterers yielding sharp conductance resonances. These sharp features give rise to a distinct behavior of the Seebeck coefficient in finite systems and incorporate the degree of localization as a means to enhance thermoelectric performance, in principle. The model for noninteracting electrons is discussed within the Landauer-Büttiker formalism such that analytical treatment is possible for a wide range of properties, if a special averaging scheme is applied. The approximations in the averaging procedure are tested with numerical evaluations showing good qualitative agreement, with some limited quantitative disagreement. The validity of low-temperature Mott's formula is determined and a good approximation is developed for the intermediate temperature range. In both regimes the intricate interplay between Anderson localization due to disorder and conductance resonances of the disorder potential is analyzed.
Energy Current Cumulants in One-Dimensional Systems in Equilibrium
Dhar, Abhishek; Saito, Keiji; Roy, Anjan
2018-06-01
A recent theory based on fluctuating hydrodynamics predicts that one-dimensional interacting systems with particle, momentum, and energy conservation exhibit anomalous transport that falls into two main universality classes. The classification is based on behavior of equilibrium dynamical correlations of the conserved quantities. One class is characterized by sound modes with Kardar-Parisi-Zhang scaling, while the second class has diffusive sound modes. The heat mode follows Lévy statistics, with different exponents for the two classes. Here we consider heat current fluctuations in two specific systems, which are expected to be in the above two universality classes, namely, a hard particle gas with Hamiltonian dynamics and a harmonic chain with momentum conserving stochastic dynamics. Numerical simulations show completely different system-size dependence of current cumulants in these two systems. We explain this numerical observation using a phenomenological model of Lévy walkers with inputs from fluctuating hydrodynamics. This consistently explains the system-size dependence of heat current fluctuations. For the latter system, we derive the cumulant-generating function from a more microscopic theory, which also gives the same system-size dependence of cumulants.
Relativistic band gaps in one-dimensional disordered systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clerk, G.J.; McKellar, B.H.J.
1992-01-01
Conditions for the existence of band gaps in a one-dimensional disordered array of δ-function potentials possessing short range order are developed in a relativistic framework. Both Lorentz vector and scalar type potentials are treated. The relationship between the energy gaps and the transmission properties of the array are also discussed. 20 refs., 2 figs
Topologically protected states in one-dimensional systems
Fefferman, C L; Weinstein, M I
2017-01-01
The authors study a class of periodic Schrödinger operators, which in distinguished cases can be proved to have linear band-crossings or "Dirac points". They then show that the introduction of an "edge", via adiabatic modulation of these periodic potentials by a domain wall, results in the bifurcation of spatially localized "edge states". These bound states are associated with the topologically protected zero-energy mode of an asymptotic one-dimensional Dirac operator. The authors' model captures many aspects of the phenomenon of topologically protected edge states for two-dimensional bulk structures such as the honeycomb structure of graphene. The states the authors construct can be realized as highly robust TM-electromagnetic modes for a class of photonic waveguides with a phase-defect.
Charge and spin separation in one-dimensional systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balseiro, C.A.; Jagla, E.A.; Hallberg, K.
1995-01-01
In this article we discuss charge and spin separation and quantum interference in one-dimensional models. After a short introduction we briefly present the Hubbard and Luttinger models and discuss some of the known exact results. We study numerically the charge and spin separation in the Hubbard model. The time evolution of a wave packet is obtained and the charge and spin densities are evaluated for different times. The charge and spin wave packets propagate with different velocities. The results are interpreted in terms of the Bethe-ansatz solution. In section IV we study the effect of charge and spin separation on the quantum interference in a Aharonov-Bohm experiment. By calculating the one-particle propagators of the Luttinger model for a mesoscopic ring with a magnetic field we calculate the Aharonov-Bohm conductance. The conductance oscillates with the magnetic field with a characteristic frequency that depends on the charge and spin velocities. (author)
Quantum one dimensional spin systems. Disorder and impurities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brunel, V.
1999-01-01
This thesis presents three studies that are respectively the spin-1 disordered chain, the non magnetic impurities in the spin-1/2 chain and the reaction-diffusion process. The spin-1 chain of weak disorder is performed by the Abelian bosonization and the renormalization group. This allows to take into account the competition between the disorder and the interactions and predicts the effects of various spin-1 anisotropy chain phases under many different disorders. A second work uses the non magnetic impurities as local probes of the correlations in the spin-1/2 chain. When the impurities are connected to the chain boundary, the author predicts a temperature dependence of the relaxation rate (1/T) of the nuclear spin impurities, different from the case of these impurities connected to the whole chain. The last work deals with one dimensional reaction-diffusion problem. The Jordan-Wigner transformation allows to consider a fermionic field theory that critical exponents follow from the renormalization group. (A.L.B.)
Phasons and amplitudons in one dimensional incommensurate systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weissmann, M.; Cohan, N.
1982-08-01
There has been recently great interest in two particular vibrational modes of incommensurate (I) systems: phasons and amplitudons. In this letter we show that for a 1D incommensurate system phasons and amplitudons can be obtained with the simplest possible model: that of harmonic interactions between first neighbours only, provided that a realistic dependence of the force constants k with distance r is used
Physics of zero- and one-dimensional nanoscopic systems
Maiti, Santanu; Chowdhury, Jayeeta
2007-01-01
In recent years submicron and nanoscale systems have featured strongly on the research agenda due to the technological progress and new physics that have emerged from studies of ultra-small systems. A fundamental understanding of basic physical phenomena on the mesoscopic and nanoscopic scales is required to exploit the technological potential offered by these exotic materials. The present book contains review-like chapters by some of the leading experts in the field, covering topics such as the Kondo effect, electron transport, disorder and quantum coherence with electron-electron interaction, persistent current, thermoelectric phenomena, etc. in quantum dots, quantum wires, carbon nanotubes and more. This book will be valuable to researchers and students in condensed matter physics.
Integrals of motion for one-dimensional Anderson localized systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Modak, Ranjan; Mukerjee, Subroto; Yuzbashyan, Emil A; Shastry, B Sriram
2016-01-01
Anderson localization is known to be inevitable in one-dimension for generic disordered models. Since localization leads to Poissonian energy level statistics, we ask if localized systems possess ‘additional’ integrals of motion as well, so as to enhance the analogy with quantum integrable systems. We answer this in the affirmative in the present work. We construct a set of nontrivial integrals of motion for Anderson localized models, in terms of the original creation and annihilation operators. These are found as a power series in the hopping parameter. The recently found Type-1 Hamiltonians, which are known to be quantum integrable in a precise sense, motivate our construction. We note that these models can be viewed as disordered electron models with infinite-range hopping, where a similar series truncates at the linear order. We show that despite the infinite range hopping, all states but one are localized. We also study the conservation laws for the disorder free Aubry–Andre model, where the states are either localized or extended, depending on the strength of a coupling constant. We formulate a specific procedure for averaging over disorder, in order to examine the convergence of the power series. Using this procedure in the Aubry–Andre model, we show that integrals of motion given by our construction are well-defined in localized phase, but not so in the extended phase. Finally, we also obtain the integrals of motion for a model with interactions to lowest order in the interaction. (paper)
Accurate correlation energies in one-dimensional systems from small system-adapted basis functions
Baker, Thomas E.; Burke, Kieron; White, Steven R.
2018-02-01
We propose a general method for constructing system-dependent basis functions for correlated quantum calculations. Our construction combines features from several traditional approaches: plane waves, localized basis functions, and wavelets. In a one-dimensional mimic of Coulomb systems, it requires only 2-3 basis functions per electron to achieve high accuracy, and reproduces the natural orbitals. We illustrate its effectiveness for molecular energy curves and chains of many one-dimensional atoms. We discuss the promise and challenges for realistic quantum chemical calculations.
On the conductivity of a one-dimensional system of interacting fermions in a random potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Apel, W.
1981-01-01
A one-dimensional system of interacting fermions in an external potential is studied. The problem was for this purpose transformed to two classical models of statistical mechanics in two dimensions in which occasionally results were found in complementary ranges of the interaction constants of the fermion system. The conductivity appeared as a simple correlation function in both classical models. It was shown that the interaction in a one-dimensional polluted fermion system can cause an isolator-metal transition. (orig./HSI) [de
Hopping transport and electrical conductivity in one-dimensional systems with off-diagonal disorder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma Songshan; Xu Hui; Li Yanfeng; Song Zhaoquan
2007-01-01
In this paper, we present a model to describe hopping transport and electrical conductivity of one-dimensional systems with off-diagonal disorder, in which electrons are transported via hopping between localized states. We find that off-diagonal disorder leads to delocalization and drastically enhances the electrical conductivity of systems. The model also quantitatively explains the temperature and electrical field dependence of the conductivity in one-dimensional systems with off-diagonal disorder. In addition, we also show the dependence of the conductivity on the strength of off-diagonal disorder
An interpolatory ansatz captures the physics of one-dimensional confined Fermi systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Molte Emil Strange; Salami Dehkharghani, Amin; Volosniev, A. G.
2016-01-01
beyond the Bethe ansatz and bosonisation allow us to predict the behaviour of one-dimensional confined systems with strong short-range interactions, and new experiments with cold atomic Fermi gases have already confirmed these theories. Here we demonstrate that a simple linear combination of the strongly...
Derivation of Ginzburg-Landau theory for a one-dimensional system with contact interaction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frank, Rupert; Hanizl, Christian; Seiringer, Robert
2013-01-01
In a recent paper we give the first rigorous derivation of the celebrated Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory, starting from the microscopic Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) model. Here we present our results in the simplified case of a one-dimensional system of particles interacting via a delta-potential....
Boudin , Laurent; Mathiaud , Julien
2012-01-01
In this work, we discuss some numerical properties of the viscous numerical scheme introduced in [Boudin, Mathiaud, NMPDE 2012] to solve the one-dimensional pressureless gases system, and study in particular, from a computational viewpoint, its asymptotic behavior when the viscosity parameter used in the scheme becomes smaller.
One dimensional Dirac-Moshinsky oscillator-like system and isospectral partners
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Contreras-Astorga, A
2015-01-01
Two different exactly solvable systems are constructed using the supersymmetric quantum mechanics formalism and a pseudoscalar one-dimensional version of the Dirac- Moshinsky oscillator as a departing system. One system is built using a first-order SUSY transformation. The second is obtained through the confluent supersymmetry algorithm. The two of them are explicitly designed to have the same spectrum as the departing system and pseudoscalar potentials. (paper)
Rational solutions to two- and one-dimensional multicomponent Yajima–Oikawa systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Junchao; Chen, Yong; Feng, Bao-Feng; Maruno, Ken-ichi
2015-01-01
Exact explicit rational solutions of two- and one-dimensional multicomponent Yajima–Oikawa (YO) systems, which contain multi-short-wave components and single long-wave one, are presented by using the bilinear method. For two-dimensional system, the fundamental rational solution first describes the localized lumps, which have three different patterns: bright, intermediate and dark states. Then, rogue waves can be obtained under certain parameter conditions and their behaviors are also classified to above three patterns with different definition. It is shown that the simplest (fundamental) rogue waves are line localized waves which arise from the constant background with a line profile and then disappear into the constant background again. In particular, two-dimensional intermediate and dark counterparts of rogue wave are found with the different parameter requirements. We demonstrate that multirogue waves describe the interaction of several fundamental rogue waves, in which interesting curvy wave patterns appear in the intermediate times. Different curvy wave patterns form in the interaction of different types fundamental rogue waves. Higher-order rogue waves exhibit the dynamic behaviors that the wave structures start from lump and then retreat back to it, and this transient wave possesses the patterns such as parabolas. Furthermore, different states of higher-order rogue wave result in completely distinguishing lumps and parabolas. Moreover, one-dimensional rogue wave solutions with three states are constructed through the further reduction. Specifically, higher-order rogue wave in one-dimensional case is derived under the parameter constraints. - Highlights: • Exact explicit rational solutions of two-and one-dimensional multicomponent Yajima–Oikawa systems. • Two-dimensional rogue wave contains three different patterns: bright, intermediate and dark states. • Multi- and higher-order rogue waves exhibit distinct dynamic behaviors in two-dimensional case
An algorithm for engineering regime shifts in one-dimensional dynamical systems
Tan, James P. L.
2018-01-01
Regime shifts are discontinuous transitions between stable attractors hosting a system. They can occur as a result of a loss of stability in an attractor as a bifurcation is approached. In this work, we consider one-dimensional dynamical systems where attractors are stable equilibrium points. Relying on critical slowing down signals related to the stability of an equilibrium point, we present an algorithm for engineering regime shifts such that a system may escape an undesirable attractor into a desirable one. We test the algorithm on synthetic data from a one-dimensional dynamical system with a multitude of stable equilibrium points and also on a model of the population dynamics of spruce budworms in a forest. The algorithm and other ideas discussed here contribute to an important part of the literature on exercising greater control over the sometimes unpredictable nature of nonlinear systems.
Quantum magnetism in strongly interacting one-dimensional spinor Bose systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Salami Dehkharghani, Amin; Volosniev, A. G.; Lindgren, E. J.
2015-01-01
-range inter-species interactions much larger than their intra-species interactions and show that they have novel energetic and magnetic properties. In the strongly interacting regime, these systems have energies that are fractions of the basic harmonic oscillator trap quantum and have spatially separated......Strongly interacting one-dimensional quantum systems often behave in a manner that is distinctly different from their higher-dimensional counterparts. When a particle attempts to move in a one-dimensional environment it will unavoidably have to interact and 'push' other particles in order...... ground states with manifestly ferromagnetic wave functions. Furthermore, we predict excited states that have perfect antiferromagnetic ordering. This holds for both balanced and imbalanced systems, and we show that it is a generic feature as one crosses from few- to many-body systems....
Entanglement growth and simulation efficiency in one-dimensional quantum lattice systems
Perales, Alvaro; Vidal, Guifre
2007-01-01
We study the evolution of one-dimensional quantum lattice systems when the ground state is perturbed by altering one site in the middle of the chain. For a large class of models, we observe a similar pattern of entanglement growth during the evolution, characterized by a moderate increase of significant Schmidt coefficients in all relevant bipartite decompositions of the state. As a result, the evolution can be accurately described by a matrix product state and efficiently simulated using the...
A numerical scheme for the one-dimensional pressureless gases system
Boudin , Laurent; Mathiaud , Julien
2012-01-01
International audience; In this work, we investigate the numerical solving of the one-dimensional pressureless gases system. After briefly recalling the mathematical framework of the duality solutions introduced by Bouchut and James, we point out that the upwind scheme for the density and momentum does not satisfy the one-sided Lipschitz (OSL) condition on the expansion rate required for the duality solutions. Then we build a diffusive scheme which allows to recover the OSL condition by follo...
One-dimensional classical many-body system having a normal thermal conductivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casati, G.; Ford, J.; Vivaldi, F.; Visscher, W.M.
1984-01-01
By numerically computing orbits for a chaotic, one-dimensional, many-body system placed between two thermal reservoirs, we verify directly that its energy transport obeys the Fourier heat law and we determine its thermal conductivity K. The same value of K is independently obtained by use of the Green-Kubo formalism. These numerical studies verify that chaos is the essential ingredient of diffusive energy transport, and they validate the Green-Kubo formalism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bulka, B.R.
1982-04-01
A tight-binding one-dimensional distorted system with impurities is considered and the electron density of states is calculated in the coherent potential approximation. It is shown that two types of impurities, an impurity built in a chain and a domain wall (a soliton), play the essential role and a drastic reduction of the energy gap is observed for a few per cent of impurities. The experimental situation in polyacetylene is also discussed. (author)
The electronic structure of quasi-one-dimensional disordered systems with parallel multi-chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Xiaoliang; Xu Hui; Deng Chaosheng; Ma Songshan
2006-01-01
For the quasi-one-dimensional disordered systems with parallel multi-chains, taking a special method to code the sites and just considering the nearest-neighbor hopping integral, we write the systems' Hamiltonians as precisely symmetric matrixes, which can be transformed into three diagonally symmetric matrixes by using the Householder transformation. The densities of states, the localization lengths and the conductance of the systems are calculated numerically using the minus eigenvalue theory and the transfer matrix method. From the results of quasi-one-dimensional disordered systems with varied chains, we find, the energy band of the systems extends slightly, the energy gaps are observed and the distribution of the density of states changes obviously with the increase of the dimensionality. Especially, for the systems with four, five or six chains, at the energy band center, there exist extended states whose localization lengths are greater than the size of the systems, accordingly, there having great conductance. With the increasing of the number of the chains, the correlated ranges expand and the systems present the similar behavior to that with off-diagonal long-range correlation
Library system for a one dimensional tokamak transport code: (LIBJT60), 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirayama, Toshio
1982-12-01
A library system is developed to control and manage huge programs in terms of FORTRAN source. It is applied to widely used one dimensional tokamak transport codes (LIBJT60), which have been developed in the Division of Large Tokamak Development. The structure of data and program in the transport code turn out to be flexible enough to respond to various demands and this gigantic code frame work can be decomposed into groups of a compact code with a specific function. Some editing support tools for programming and debugging are also developed to save programming work. By applying this library system, users can obtain a code whose functions can be efficiently developed. (author)
Effects of weak localization in quasi-one-dimensional electronic system over liquid helium
Kovdrya, Y Z; Gladchenko, S P
2001-01-01
One measured rho sub x sub x magnetoresistance of a quasi-one-dimensional electronic system over liquid helium within gas scattering range (1.3-2.0 K temperature range). It is shown that with increase of magnetic field the magnetoresistance is reduced at first and them upon passing over minimum it begins to increase from rho sub x sub x approx B sup 2 law. One anticipated that the negative magnetoresistance detected in the course of experiments resulted from the effects of weak localization. The experiment results are in qualitative conformity with the theoretical model describing processes of weak localization in single-dimensional nondegenerate electronic systems
On the generating function of Poincare plots defining one dimensional perturbed Hamiltonian systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montvai, A.
1989-01-01
A simple numerical method has been devised, for deriving the generating function of an arbitrary, one dimensional Hamiltonian system represented by its Poincare plot. In this case, the plot to be numerically processed is an area preserving transformation of a two-dimensional surface onto itself. Although the method in its present form is capable of treating only this case, there are no principal restrictions excluding the analysis of systems with higher dimensionality as well. As an example, the generating function of the motion of alpha particles in a nonsymmetric, toroidal magnetic field is derived and studied numerically. (orig.)
Nuclear relaxation study of the spin dynamics in a one-dimensional Heisenberg system, TMMC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bakheit, M.A.
1974-01-01
Changes in the nuclear relaxation time as a function of the magnetic field intensity in TMMC are very different wether the field direction is parallel or perpendicular to the direction of the exchange chains (vector c). In parallel field, the relaxation probability increases as the field decreases. The process of spin diffusion in a one-dimensional system is well illustrated by the changes experimentally observed. In perpendicular field, the relaxation probability is constant as far as H 0 >2kG, it clearly decreases for H 0 [fr
Nature of the band tails in one-dimensional disordered systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brezini, A.; Sebbani, M.; Benkhaled, N.; Depollier, C.; Kergomard, J.
1995-12-01
A theoretical model for the density of states based on a tight-binding scheme for one-dimensional disordered systems is investigated within a self-consistent approach in terms of a probabilistic procedure. In particular an exact analytical expression is worked out for the density of states for the case of a Cauchy distribution for the site energies in the region of localized states. A particular attention is paid to the energies lying in the band tails. It is mainly shown that the band tails are sensitive to the typical nature of the disorder. (author). 35 refs, 1 fig
Harada, Hiromitsu; Mouchet, Amaury; Shudo, Akira
2017-10-01
The topology of complex classical paths is investigated to discuss quantum tunnelling splittings in one-dimensional systems. Here the Hamiltonian is assumed to be given as polynomial functions, so the fundamental group for the Riemann surface provides complete information on the topology of complex paths, which allows us to enumerate all the possible candidates contributing to the semiclassical sum formula for tunnelling splittings. This naturally leads to action relations among classically disjoined regions, revealing entirely non-local nature in the quantization condition. The importance of the proper treatment of Stokes phenomena is also discussed in Hamiltonians in the normal form.
Magnetic-Field Control Of Tunnel-Coupling In Strongly Confined One-Dimensional Electron Systems
Fischer, S. F.; Apetrii, G.; Kunze, U.; Schuh, D.; Abstreiter, G.
2007-04-01
One-dimensional (1D) ballistic electron transport is studied through stacked 1D quantum conductors separated by a thin tunneling barrier. The 1D electron systems of large 1D subband spacings (more than 10 meV) allow single mode operation. Degeneracies of 1D subbands of equal lateral mode index are lifted by the formation of symmetric and antisymmetric states and are depicted by anti-crossings of transconductance maxima. We observe a mode-dependent turnover from level anti-crossings to crossings in longitudinal magnetic fields.
To the theory of spin-charge separation in one-dimensional correlated electron systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zvyagin, A.A.
2004-01-01
Spin-charge separation is considered to be one of the key properties that distinguish low-dimensional electron systems from others. Three-dimensional correlated electron systems are described by the Fermi liquid theory. There, low-energy excitations (quasiparticles) are reminiscent of noninteracting electrons: They carry charges -e and spins 1/2 . It is believed that for any one-dimensional correlated electron system, low-lying electron excitations carry either only spin and no charge, or only charge without spin. That is why recent experiments looked for such low-lying collective electron excitations, one of which carries only spin, and the other carries only charge. Here we show that despite the fact that for exactly solvable one-dimensional correlated electron models there exist excitations which carry only spin and only charge, in all these models with short-range interactions the low-energy physics is described by low-lying collective excitations, one of which carries both spin and charge
Magnetotransport in a quasi-one-dimensional electron system over superfluid helium
Nikolaenko, V A; Gladchenko, S P
2002-01-01
Magnetotransport in a nondegenerate quasi-one-dimensional electron system (Q1D) over superfluid helium is investigated experimentally. The experiments were carried out at perpendicular magnetic fields, B 0.9 K) and the electron-ripplon scattering (T 1(here omega sub c is the cyclotron frequency and t is the relaxation time of the electron system) agree qualitatively with the self-consistent Born approximation theory for a 2D electron system over helium. It is supposed that the quantitative discrepancies in the experimental and theoretical data are connected with different peculiar features of the investigated and analyzed electron systems. The experimental data on electron mobility at low temperatures and small magnetic fields coincide with the theoretical calculation made for the Q1D system. The negative magnetoresistance of the channels observed both in the electron-gas scattering and electron-ripplon scattering regions is supposed to be due to weak localization of carriers in the investigated electron syst...
Direct current hopping conductance in one-dimensional diagonal disordered systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ma Song-Shan; Xu Hui; Liu Xiao-Liang; Xiao Jian-Rong
2006-01-01
Based on a tight-binding disordered model describing a single electron band, we establish a direct current (dc) electronic hopping transport conductance model of one-dimensional diagonal disordered systems, and also derive a dc conductance formula. By calculating the dc conductivity, the relationships between electric field and conductivity and between temperature and conductivity are analysed, and the role played by the degree of disorder in electronic transport is studied. The results indicate the conductivity of systems decreasing with the increase of the degree of disorder, characteristics of negative differential dependence of resistance on temperature at low temperatures in diagonal disordered systems, and the conductivity of systems decreasing with the increase of electric field, featuring the non-Ohm's law conductivity.
A one-dimensional ion beam figuring system for x-ray mirror fabrication
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Idir, Mourad; Huang, Lei; Bouet, Nathalie; Kaznatcheev, Konstantine; Vescovi, Matthew; Lauer, Ken; Conley, Ray; Rennie, Kent; Kahn, Jim; Nethery, Richard; Zhou, Lin
2015-01-01
We report on the development of a one-dimensional Ion Beam Figuring (IBF) system for x-ray mirror polishing. Ion beam figuring provides a highly deterministic method for the final precision figuring of optical components with advantages over conventional methods. The system is based on a state of the art sputtering deposition system outfitted with a gridded radio frequency inductive coupled plasma ion beam source equipped with ion optics and dedicated slit developed specifically for this application. The production of an IBF system able to produce an elongated removal function rather than circular is presented in this paper, where we describe in detail the technical aspect and present the first obtained results
A one-dimensional ion beam figuring system for x-ray mirror fabrication
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Idir, Mourad, E-mail: midir@bnl.gov; Huang, Lei; Bouet, Nathalie; Kaznatcheev, Konstantine; Vescovi, Matthew; Lauer, Ken [NSLS-II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, P.O. Box 5000, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Conley, Ray [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Rennie, Kent; Kahn, Jim; Nethery, Richard [Kaufman & Robinson, Inc., 1330 Blue Spruce Drive, Fort Collins, Colorado 80524 (United States); Zhou, Lin [College of Mechatronics and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, 109 Deya Road, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China); Hu’nan Key Laboratory of Ultra-precision Machining Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China)
2015-10-15
We report on the development of a one-dimensional Ion Beam Figuring (IBF) system for x-ray mirror polishing. Ion beam figuring provides a highly deterministic method for the final precision figuring of optical components with advantages over conventional methods. The system is based on a state of the art sputtering deposition system outfitted with a gridded radio frequency inductive coupled plasma ion beam source equipped with ion optics and dedicated slit developed specifically for this application. The production of an IBF system able to produce an elongated removal function rather than circular is presented in this paper, where we describe in detail the technical aspect and present the first obtained results.
Stopping single photons in one-dimensional circuit quantum electrodynamics systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen, J.-T.; Povinelli, M. L.; Sandhu, Sunil; Fan Shanhui
2007-01-01
We propose a mechanism to stop and time reverse single photons in one-dimensional circuit quantum electrodynamics systems. As a concrete example, we exploit the large tunability of the superconducting charge quantum bit (charge qubit) to predict one-photon transport properties in multiple-qubit systems with dynamically controlled transition frequencies. In particular, two qubits coupled to a waveguide give rise to a single-photon transmission line shape that is analogous to electromagnetically induced transparency in atomic systems. Furthermore, by cascading double-qubit structures to form an array and dynamically controlling the qubit transition frequencies, a single photon can be stopped, stored, and time reversed. With a properly designed array, two photons can be stopped and stored in the system at the same time. Moreover, the unit cell of the array can be designed to be of deep subwavelength scale, miniaturizing the circuit
Ordering kinetics in quasi-one-dimensional Ising-like systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mueller, M.; Paul, W.
1993-01-01
Results are presented of a Monte Carlo simulation of the kinetics of ordering in the two-dimensional nearest-neighbor Ising model in an L x M geometry with two free boundaries of length M much-gt L. This model can be viewed as representing an adsorbant on a stepped surface with mean terrace width L. The authors follow the ordering kinetics after quenches to temperatures 0.25 ≤T/T c ≤1 starting from a random initial configuration at a coverage of Θ=0.5 in the corresponding lattice gas picture. The systems evolve in time according to a Glauber kinetics with nonconserved order parameter. The equilibrium structure is given by a one-dimensional sequence of ordered domains. The ordering process evolves from a short initial two-dimensional ordering process through a crossover region to a quasi-one-dimensional behavior. The whole process is diffusive (inverse half-width of the structure factor peak 1/Δq parallel ∝ √t), in contrast to a model proposed by Kawasaki et al., where an intermediate logarithmic growth law is expected. All results are completely describable in the picture of an annihilating random walk (ARW) of domain walls. 36 refs., 16 figs
Lattice relaxation theory of localized excitations in quasi-one-dimensional systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Chuilin; Su Zhaobin; Yu Lu.
1993-04-01
The lattice relaxation theory developed earlier by Su and Yu for solitons and polarons in conducting polymers is applied to systems with both electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions, described by a single band Peierls-Hubbard model. The localized excitations in the competing bond-order-wave (BOW), charge-density-wave (CDW) and spin-density-wave (SDW) systems show interesting new features in their dynamics. In particular, a non-monotonic dependence of the relaxation rate on the coupling strength is predicted from the theory. The possible connection of this effect with photo-luminescence experiments is discussed. Similar phenomena may occur in other quasi-one-dimensional systems as well. (author). 21 refs, 4 figs
EXPANDA-75: one-dimensional diffusion code for multi-region plate lattice heterogeneous system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kikuchi, Yasuyuki; Katsuragi, Satoru; Suzuki, Tomoo; Ogitsu, Makoto.
1975-08-01
An advanced treatment has been developed for analyzing a multi-region plate lattice heterogeneous system using the coarse group constants set provided for a homogeneous system. The essential points of this treatment are modification of effective admixture cross sections and improvement of effective elastic removal cross sections. By this treatment the heterogeneity effects for flux distributions and effective cross sections in the unit cell can be reproduced accurately in comparison with the ultra fine group treatment which consumes huge amounts of computing time. Based on the present treatment and using the JAERI-Fast set, a one-dimensional diffusion code, EXPANDA-75, was developed for extensive use for analyses of fast critical experiments. The user's guide is also presented in this report. (auth.)
A Direct Algorithm Maple Package of One-Dimensional Optimal System for Group Invariant Solutions
Zhang, Lin; Han, Zhong; Chen, Yong
2018-01-01
To construct the one-dimensional optimal system of finite dimensional Lie algebra automatically, we develop a new Maple package One Optimal System. Meanwhile, we propose a new method to calculate the adjoint transformation matrix and find all the invariants of Lie algebra in spite of Killing form checking possible constraints of each classification. Besides, a new conception called invariance set is raised. Moreover, this Maple package is proved to be more efficiency and precise than before by applying it to some classic examples. Supported by the Global Change Research Program of China under Grant No. 2015CB95390, National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11675054 and 11435005, and Shanghai Collaborative Innovation Center of Trustworthy Software for Internet of Things under Grant No. ZF1213
Boundary entropy of one-dimensional quantum systems at low temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Friedan, Daniel; Konechny, Anatoly
2004-01-01
The boundary β function generates the renormalization group acting on the universality classes of one-dimensional quantum systems with boundary which are critical in the bulk but not critical at the boundary. We prove a gradient formula for the boundary β function, expressing it as the gradient of the boundary entropy s at fixed nonzero temperature. The gradient formula implies that s decreases under renormalization, except at critical points (where it stays constant). At a critical point, the number exp(s) is the 'ground-state degeneracy', g, of Affleck and Ludwig, so we have proved their long-standing conjecture that g decreases under renormalization, from critical point to critical point. The gradient formula also implies that s decreases with temperature, except at critical points, where it is independent of temperature. It remains open whether the boundary entropy is always bounded below
Proton conductivity in quasi-one dimensional hydrogen-bonded systems: A nonlinear approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsironis, G.; Phevmatikos, S.
1988-01-01
Defect formation and transport in a hydrogen-bonded system is studied via a two-sublattice soliton-bearing one-dimensional model. Ionic and orientational defects are associated with distinct nonlinear topological excitations in the present model. The dynamics of these excitations is studied both analytically and with the use of numerical simulations. It is shown that the two types of defects are soliton solutions of a double Sine--Gordon equation which describes the motion of the protons in the long-wavelength limit. With each defect there is an associated deformation in the ionic lattice that, for small speeds, follows the defect dynamically albeit resisting its motion. Free propagation as well as collision properties of the proton solitons are presented. 33 refs., 10 figs
Localization and delocalization of a one-dimensional system coupled with the environment
Zhu, Hong-Jun; Xiong, Shi-Jie
2010-03-01
We investigate several models of a one-dimensional chain coupling with surrounding atoms to elucidate disorder-induced delocalization in quantum wires, a peculiar behaviour against common wisdom. We show that the localization length is enhanced by disorder of side sites in the case of strong disorder, but in the case of weak disorder there is a plateau in this dependence. The above behaviour is the conjunct influence of the coupling to the surrounding atoms and the antiresonant effect. We also discuss different effects and their physical origin of different types of disorder in such systems. The numerical results show that coupling with the surrounding atoms can induce either the localization or delocalization effect depending on the values of parameters.
Magnetotransport in a quasi-one-dimensional electron system over superfluid helium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikolaenko, V.A.; Kovdrya, Yu.Z.; Gladchenko, S.P.
2002-01-01
Magnetotransport in a nondegenerate quasi-one-dimensional electron system (Q1D) over superfluid helium is investigated experimentally. The experiments were carried out at perpendicular magnetic fields, B xx of the conducting channels mainly grows with increasing B for both the electron-gas atom scattering (T > 0.9 K) and the electron-ripplon scattering (T c τ>1(here ω c is the cyclotron frequency and t is the relaxation time of the electron system) agree qualitatively with the self-consistent Born approximation theory for a 2D electron system over helium. It is supposed that the quantitative discrepancies in the experimental and theoretical data are connected with different peculiar features of the investigated and analyzed electron systems. The experimental data on electron mobility at low temperatures and small magnetic fields coincide with the theoretical calculation made for the Q1D system. The negative magnetoresistance of the channels observed both in the electron-gas scattering and electron-ripplon scattering regions is supposed to be due to weak localization of carriers in the investigated electron system
Propagating gene expression fronts in a one-dimensional coupled system of artificial cells
Tayar, Alexandra M.; Karzbrun, Eyal; Noireaux, Vincent; Bar-Ziv, Roy H.
2015-12-01
Living systems employ front propagation and spatiotemporal patterns encoded in biochemical reactions for communication, self-organization and computation. Emulating such dynamics in minimal systems is important for understanding physical principles in living cells and in vitro. Here, we report a one-dimensional array of DNA compartments in a silicon chip as a coupled system of artificial cells, offering the means to implement reaction-diffusion dynamics by integrated genetic circuits and chip geometry. Using a bistable circuit we programmed a front of protein synthesis propagating in the array as a cascade of signal amplification and short-range diffusion. The front velocity is maximal at a saddle-node bifurcation from a bistable regime with travelling fronts to a monostable regime that is spatially homogeneous. Near the bifurcation the system exhibits large variability between compartments, providing a possible mechanism for population diversity. This demonstrates that on-chip integrated gene circuits are dynamical systems driving spatiotemporal patterns, cellular variability and symmetry breaking.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma Songshan; Xu Hui; Deng Honggui; Yang Bingchu
2011-01-01
The role of on-site potential disorder on phonon transmission and thermal conductance of one-dimensional system is investigated. We found that the on-site potential disorder can lead to the localization of phonons, and has great effect on the phonon transmission and thermal conductance of the system. As on-site potential disorder W increases, the transmission coefficients decrease, and approach zero at the band edges. Corresponding, the thermal conductance decreases drastically, and the curves for thermal conductance exhibit a series of steps and plateaus. Meanwhile, when the on-site potential disorder W is strong enough, the thermal conductance decreases dramatically with the increase of system size N. We also found that the efficiency of reducing thermal conductance by increasing the on-site potential disorder strength is much better than that by increasing the on-site potential's amplitude. - Highlights: → We studied the effect of on-site potential disorder on thermal transport. → Increasing disorder will decrease thermal transport. → Increasing system size will also decrease its thermal conductance. → Increasing disorder is more efficient than other in reducing thermal conductance.
Camera Calibration of Stereo Photogrammetric System with One-Dimensional Optical Reference Bar
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Q Y; Ye, D; Che, R S; Qi, X; Huang, Y
2006-01-01
To carry out the precise measurement of large-scale complex workpieces, accurately calibration of the stereo photogrammetric system has becoming more and more important. This paper proposed a flexible and reliable camera calibration of stereo photogrammetric system based on quaternion with one-dimensional optical reference bar, which has three small collinear infrared LED marks and the lengths between these marks have been precisely calibration. By moving the optical reference bar at a number of locations/orientations over the measurement volume, we calibrate the stereo photogrammetric systems with the geometric constraint of the optical reference bar. The extrinsic parameters calibration process consists of linear parameters estimation based on quaternion and nonlinear refinement based on the maximum likelihood criterion. Firstly, we linear estimate the extrinsic parameters of the stereo photogrameetric systems based on quaternion. Then with the quaternion results as the initial values, we refine the extrinsic parameters through maximum likelihood criterion with the Levenberg-Marquardt Algorithm. In the calibration process, we can automatically control the light intensity and optimize the exposure time to get uniform intensity profile of the image points at different distance and obtain higher S/N ratio. The experiment result proves that the calibration method proposed is flexible, valid and obtains good results in the application
Dynamics of one-dimensional self-gravitating systems using Hermite-Legendre polynomials
Barnes, Eric I.; Ragan, Robert J.
2014-01-01
The current paradigm for understanding galaxy formation in the Universe depends on the existence of self-gravitating collisionless dark matter. Modelling such dark matter systems has been a major focus of astrophysicists, with much of that effort directed at computational techniques. Not surprisingly, a comprehensive understanding of the evolution of these self-gravitating systems still eludes us, since it involves the collective non-linear dynamics of many particle systems interacting via long-range forces described by the Vlasov equation. As a step towards developing a clearer picture of collisionless self-gravitating relaxation, we analyse the linearized dynamics of isolated one-dimensional systems near thermal equilibrium by expanding their phase-space distribution functions f(x, v) in terms of Hermite functions in the velocity variable, and Legendre functions involving the position variable. This approach produces a picture of phase-space evolution in terms of expansion coefficients, rather than spatial and velocity variables. We obtain equations of motion for the expansion coefficients for both test-particle distributions and self-gravitating linear perturbations of thermal equilibrium. N-body simulations of perturbed equilibria are performed and found to be in excellent agreement with the expansion coefficient approach over a time duration that depends on the size of the expansion series used.
One-dimensional MHD simulations of MTF systems with compact toroid targets and spherical liners
Khalzov, Ivan; Zindler, Ryan; Barsky, Sandra; Delage, Michael; Laberge, Michel
2017-10-01
One-dimensional (1D) MHD code is developed in General Fusion (GF) for coupled plasma-liner simulations in magnetized target fusion (MTF) systems. The main goal of these simulations is to search for optimal parameters of MTF reactor, in which spherical liquid metal liner compresses compact toroid plasma. The code uses Lagrangian description for both liner and plasma. The liner is represented as a set of spherical shells with fixed masses while plasma is discretized as a set of nested tori with circular cross sections and fixed number of particles between them. All physical fields are 1D functions of either spherical (liner) or small toroidal (plasma) radius. Motion of liner and plasma shells is calculated self-consistently based on applied forces and equations of state. Magnetic field is determined by 1D profiles of poloidal and toroidal fluxes - they are advected with shells and diffuse according to local resistivity, this also accounts for flux leakage into the liner. Different plasma transport models are implemented, this allows for comparison with ongoing GF experiments. Fusion power calculation is included into the code. We performed a series of parameter scans in order to establish the underlying dependencies of the MTF system and find the optimal reactor design point.
Polylogs, thermodynamics and scaling functions of one-dimensional quantum many-body systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guan, X-W; Batchelor, M T
2011-01-01
We demonstrate that the thermodynamics of one-dimensional Lieb-Liniger bosons can be accurately calculated in analytic fashion using the polylog function in the framework of the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz. The approach does away with the need to numerically solve the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz (Yang-Yang) equation. The expression for the equation of state allows the exploration of Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid physics and quantum criticality in an archetypical quantum system. In particular, the low-temperature phase diagram is obtained, along with the scaling functions for the density and compressibility. It has been shown recently by Guan and Ho (arXiv:1010.1301) that such scaling can be used to map out the criticality of ultracold fermionic atoms in experiments. We show here how to map out quantum criticality for Lieb-Liniger bosons. More generally, the polylog function formalism can be applied to a wide range of Bethe ansatz integrable quantum many-body systems which are currently of theoretical and experimental interest, such as strongly interacting multi-component fermions, spinor bosons and mixtures of bosons and fermions. (fast track communication)
Topologically protected bound states in one-dimensional Floquet acoustic waveguide systems
Peng, Yu-Gui; Geng, Zhi-Guo; Zhu, Xue-Feng
2018-03-01
Topological manipulation of sound has recently been a hot spot in acoustics due to the fascinating property of defect immune transport. To the best of our knowledge, the studies on one-dimensional (1D) topological acoustic systems hitherto mainly focus on the case of the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model. Here, we show that topologically protected bound states may also exist in 1D periodically modulated acoustic waveguide systems, viz., 1D Floquet topological insulators. The results show that tuning the coupling strength in a waveguide lattice could trigger topological phase transition, which gives rise to topologically protected interface states as we put together two waveguide lattices featured with different topological phases or winding numbers. However, for the combined lattice, input at the waveguides other than the interfacial ones will excite bulk states. We have further verified the robustness of interface bound states against the variation of coupling strengths between the two distinct waveguide lattices. This work extends the scope of topological acoustics and may promote potential applications for acoustic devices with topological functionalities.
An introduction to integrable techniques in one-dimensional quantum systems
Franchini, Fabio
2017-01-01
This book introduces the reader to basic notions of integrable techniques for one-dimensional quantum systems. In a pedagogical way, a few examples of exactly solvable models are worked out to go from the coordinate approach to the Algebraic Bethe Ansatz, with some discussion on the finite temperature thermodynamics. The aim is to provide the instruments to approach more advanced books or to allow for a critical reading of research articles and the extraction of useful information from them. We describe the solution of the anisotropic XY spin chain; of the Lieb-Liniger model of bosons with contact interaction at zero and finite temperature; and of the XXZ spin chain, first in the coordinate and then in the algebraic approach. To establish the connection between the latter and the solution of two dimensional classical models, we also introduce and solve the 6-vertex model. Finally, the low energy physics of these integrable models is mapped into the corresponding conformal field theory. Through its style and t...
Semiclassical investigation of the revival phenomena in a one-dimensional system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Zhexian; Heller, Eric J
2009-01-01
In a quantum revival, a localized wave packet re-forms or 'revives' into a compact reincarnation of itself long after it has spread in an unruly fashion over a region restricted only by the potential energy. This is a purely quantum phenomenon, which has no classical analog. Quantum revival and Anderson localization are members of a small class of subtle interference effects resulting in a quantum distribution radically different from the classical after long time evolution under classically nonlinear evolution. However, it is not clear that semiclassical methods, which start with the classical density and add interference effects, are in fact capable of capturing the revival phenomenon. Here we investigate two different one-dimensional systems, the infinite square well and Morse potential. In both the cases, after a long time the underlying classical manifolds are spread rather uniformly over phase space and are correspondingly spread in coordinate space, yet the semiclassical amplitudes are able to destructively interfere over most of coordinate space and constructively interfere in a small region, correctly reproducing a quantum revival. Further implications of this ability are discussed
Semiclassical investigation of the revival phenomena in a one-dimensional system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang Zhexian [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Heller, Eric J [Department of Physics and Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
2009-07-17
In a quantum revival, a localized wave packet re-forms or 'revives' into a compact reincarnation of itself long after it has spread in an unruly fashion over a region restricted only by the potential energy. This is a purely quantum phenomenon, which has no classical analog. Quantum revival and Anderson localization are members of a small class of subtle interference effects resulting in a quantum distribution radically different from the classical after long time evolution under classically nonlinear evolution. However, it is not clear that semiclassical methods, which start with the classical density and add interference effects, are in fact capable of capturing the revival phenomenon. Here we investigate two different one-dimensional systems, the infinite square well and Morse potential. In both the cases, after a long time the underlying classical manifolds are spread rather uniformly over phase space and are correspondingly spread in coordinate space, yet the semiclassical amplitudes are able to destructively interfere over most of coordinate space and constructively interfere in a small region, correctly reproducing a quantum revival. Further implications of this ability are discussed.
Semiclassical investigation of the revival phenomena in a one-dimensional system
Wang, Zhe-xian; Heller, Eric J.
2009-07-01
In a quantum revival, a localized wave packet re-forms or 'revives' into a compact reincarnation of itself long after it has spread in an unruly fashion over a region restricted only by the potential energy. This is a purely quantum phenomenon, which has no classical analog. Quantum revival and Anderson localization are members of a small class of subtle interference effects resulting in a quantum distribution radically different from the classical after long time evolution under classically nonlinear evolution. However, it is not clear that semiclassical methods, which start with the classical density and add interference effects, are in fact capable of capturing the revival phenomenon. Here we investigate two different one-dimensional systems, the infinite square well and Morse potential. In both the cases, after a long time the underlying classical manifolds are spread rather uniformly over phase space and are correspondingly spread in coordinate space, yet the semiclassical amplitudes are able to destructively interfere over most of coordinate space and constructively interfere in a small region, correctly reproducing a quantum revival. Further implications of this ability are discussed.
Well-posedness for one-dimensional anisotropic Cahn-Hilliard and Allen-Cahn systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmad Makki
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Our aim is to prove the existence and uniqueness of solutions for one-dimensional Cahn-Hilliard and Allen-Cahn type equations based on a modification of the Ginzburg-Landau free energy proposed in [8]. In particular, the free energy contains an additional term called Willmore regularization and takes into account strong anisotropy effects.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clancy, B.E.
1982-05-01
ANAUSN is a general purpose, one-dimensional discrete ordinate transport theory program which has access to AUS datapools. Fixed source, reactivity and a variety of criticality search calculations can be performed. The program can be operated as a module in the AUS scheme or as a stand-alone program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brunel, V
1999-06-29
This thesis presents three studies that are respectively the spin-1 disordered chain, the non magnetic impurities in the spin-1/2 chain and the reaction-diffusion process. The spin-1 chain of weak disorder is performed by the Abelian bosonization and the renormalization group. This allows to take into account the competition between the disorder and the interactions and predicts the effects of various spin-1 anisotropy chain phases under many different disorders. A second work uses the non magnetic impurities as local probes of the correlations in the spin-1/2 chain. When the impurities are connected to the chain boundary, the author predicts a temperature dependence of the relaxation rate (1/T) of the nuclear spin impurities, different from the case of these impurities connected to the whole chain. The last work deals with one dimensional reaction-diffusion problem. The Jordan-Wigner transformation allows to consider a fermionic field theory that critical exponents follow from the renormalization group. (A.L.B.)
Fermi-edge singularity in one-dimensional electron systems with long-range Coulomb interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Otani, H.; Ogawa, T.
1996-01-01
Effects of long-range Coulomb interactions on the Fermi-edge singularity in optical spectra are investigated theoretically for one-dimensional spin-1/2 fermion systems with the use of the Tomonaga-Luttinger bosonization technique. Low-energy excitation spectrum near the Fermi level shows that dispersion of the charge-density fluctuation remains gapless but is nonlinear when the electron-electron (e-e) Coulomb interaction is of the x -1 type (i.e., an infinite force range). Temporal behavior of the current-current correlation function is calculated analytically for arbitrary force ranges, λ e and λ h , of the e-e and the electron-hole (e-h) Coulomb interactions. (i) When both the e-e and the e-h interactions have large but finite force ranges (λ e h max[λ e ,λ h ]/v F . Corresponding optical spectrum near the Fermi edge (within an energy range of ℎv F /max[λ e ,λ h ]) exhibits the power-law divergence or the power-law convergence, which is an ordinary Fermi-edge singularity. (ii) When either the e-e or the e-h interaction is of the x -1 type (i.e., λ e →∞ and/or λ h →∞), an exponent of the correlation function is dependent on time to lead the faster decay than that of any power laws. Then the optical spectra show no power law dependence and always converge (become zero) at the Fermi edge, which is in striking contrast to the ordinary power-law singularity
Quantum scattering in one-dimensional systems satisfying the minimal length uncertainty relation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernardo, Reginald Christian S., E-mail: rcbernardo@nip.upd.edu.ph; Esguerra, Jose Perico H., E-mail: jesguerra@nip.upd.edu.ph
2016-12-15
In quantum gravity theories, when the scattering energy is comparable to the Planck energy the Heisenberg uncertainty principle breaks down and is replaced by the minimal length uncertainty relation. In this paper, the consequences of the minimal length uncertainty relation on one-dimensional quantum scattering are studied using an approach involving a recently proposed second-order differential equation. An exact analytical expression for the tunneling probability through a locally-periodic rectangular potential barrier system is obtained. Results show that the existence of a non-zero minimal length uncertainty tends to shift the resonant tunneling energies to the positive direction. Scattering through a locally-periodic potential composed of double-rectangular potential barriers shows that the first band of resonant tunneling energies widens for minimal length cases when the double-rectangular potential barrier is symmetric but narrows down when the double-rectangular potential barrier is asymmetric. A numerical solution which exploits the use of Wronskians is used to calculate the transmission probabilities through the Pöschl–Teller well, Gaussian barrier, and double-Gaussian barrier. Results show that the probability of passage through the Pöschl–Teller well and Gaussian barrier is smaller in the minimal length cases compared to the non-minimal length case. For the double-Gaussian barrier, the probability of passage for energies that are more positive than the resonant tunneling energy is larger in the minimal length cases compared to the non-minimal length case. The approach is exact and applicable to many types of scattering potential.
Some exact solutions for one-dimensional self-interacting systems in quantum field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Puy, R.J.
1975-01-01
Particular positive or negative frequency solutions of the field equation, (d 2 /dt 2 + m 2 )phi/sub q lambda/ + lambda phi/sub q lambda/ /sup 2q+1/ = 0, for which q not equal to 0, -1 are used in the study of one-dimensional quantum field theories. The commutator, [phi/sub q lambda/,d phi/sub q lambda//dt]/sub -/ = 1, is not applied because phi/sub q lambda/ is required to be a general solution. The commutator, [phi/sub q lambda//sup (+)/(t),phi/sub q lambda//sup (-)/(t)]/sub -/ = 1, cannot be applied to the particular solutions considered. The system is quantized by requiring that [phi/sub q lambda//sup (+)/(0),phi/sub q lambda//sup (-)/(0)]/sub -/ = 1 in analogy with the quantization procedure prescribed for free fields. This quantization procedure leads to a propagator which is not invariant with respect to time translations. Hence any connection between the procedure for quantizing nonlinear particular solutions and the linear canonical quantization formalism remains obscure. General solutions of the field equation, (d 2 /dt 2 + m 2 )phi + lambda phi 3 = 0, are patterned after solutions obtained by the method of successive approximations. These solutions process terms containing polynomial factors in the independent variable, t, known as secular terms which account for the unboundedness of the solutions for large magnitudes of the independent variable. Therefore the differential equation and its solution complete with secular terms are modified by making structural changes in both and by expanding the mass in operator-valued terms. The constituent operators of the solution and mass are chosen such that the secular terms are eliminated. The higher order terms in the mass operator are rewritten in terms of the field solution and its first derivative
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Loft, Niels Jakob; Salami Dehkharghani, Amin; Mehta, N. P.
2015-01-01
We study a three-body system with zero-range interactions in a one-dimensional harmonic trap. The system consists of two spin-polarized fermions and a third particle which is distinct from two others (2+1 system). First we assume that the particles have equal masses. For this case the system in t...
Double and super-exchange model in one-dimensional systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vallejo, E.; Navarro, O.; Avignon, M.
2010-01-01
We present an analytical and numerical study of the competition between double and super-exchange interactions in a one-dimensional model. For low super-exchange interaction energy we find phase separation between ferromagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic phases. When the super-exchange interaction energy gets larger, the conduction electrons are self-trapped within separate small magnetic polarons. These magnetic polarons contain a single electron inside two or three sites depending on the conduction electron density and form a Wigner crystallization. A new phase separation is found between these small polarons and the anti-ferromagnetic phase. Spin-glass behavior is obtained consistent with experimental results of the nickelate one-dimensional compound Y 2-x Ca x BaNiO 5 .
Complex classical paths and the one-dimensional sine-Gordon system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Millard, P.A.
1985-01-01
The semiclassical limit of the Green function for a particle in the one-dimensional sine-Gordon potential is obtained by summing over complex classical paths. The results are the same as those obtained in the less physically intuitive WKB approach. In addition to being of practical utility for solving quantum mechanical problems involving tunnelling, the classical path method may show how to deal with dense configuration of instantons. (orig.)
Relativistic bound-state problem of a one-dimensional system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, T.; Niwa, T.; Ohtsubo, H.; Tamura, K.
1991-01-01
A Poincare-covariant description of the two-body bound-state problem in one-dimensional space is studied by using the relativistic Schrodinger equation. We derive the many-body Hamiltonian, electromagnetic current and generators of the Poincare group in the framework of one-boson exchange. Our theory satisfies Poincare algebra within the one-boson-exchange approximation. We numerically study the relativistic effects on the bound-state wavefunction and the elastic electromagnetic form factor. The Lorentz boost of the bound-state wavefunction and the two-body exchange current are shown to play an important role in guaranteeing the Lorentz invariance of the form factor. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Shiliang; Zhang Danwei; Wang, Z. D.
2009-01-01
We study theoretically the localization of relativistic particles in disordered one-dimensional chains. It is found that the relativistic particles tend to delocalization in comparison with the nonrelativistic particles with the same disorder strength. More intriguingly, we reveal that the massless Dirac particles are entirely delocalized for any energy due to the inherent chiral symmetry, leading to a well-known result that particles are always localized in one-dimensional systems for arbitrary weak disorders to break down. Furthermore, we propose a feasible scheme to detect the delocalization feature of the Dirac particles with cold atoms in a light-induced gauge field.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lasker, L.
1976-01-01
OSCIL is a program to predict the effects of seismic input on a HTGR core. The present model is a one-dimensional array of blocks with appropriate spring constants, inter-elemental and ground damping, and clearances. It can be used more generally for systems of moving masses separated by nonlinear springs and dampers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Modi, Anish; Pérez-Segarra, Carlos David
2014-01-01
Concentrated solar power plants have attracted increasing interest from researchers and governments all over the world in recent years. An important part of these plants is the storage system which improves dispatchability and makes the plant more reliable. In this paper, a one-dimensional transi...
Saso, Tetsuro; Kim, C. I.; Kasuya, Tadao
1983-06-01
Report is given on a computer simulation of the dynamical conductivity σ(ω) of one-dimensional disordered systems with up to 106 sites by MacKinnon’s method. A comparison is made with the asymptotically exact solution valid for weak disorder by Berezinskii.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Betin, A Yu; Bobrinev, V I; Verenikina, N M; Donchenko, S S; Odinokov, S B [Research Institute ' Radiotronics and Laser Engineering' , Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Evtikhiev, N N; Zlokazov, E Yu; Starikov, S N; Starikov, R S [National Reseach Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation)
2015-08-31
A multiplex method of recording computer-synthesised one-dimensional Fourier holograms intended for holographic memory devices is proposed. The method potentially allows increasing the recording density in the previously proposed holographic memory system based on the computer synthesis and projection recording of data page holograms. (holographic memory)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lasker, L. (ed.)
1976-01-01
OSCIL is a program to predict the effects of seismic input on a HTGR core. The present model is a one-dimensional array of blocks with appropriate spring constants, inter-elemental and ground damping, and clearances. It can be used more generally for systems of moving masses separated by nonlinear springs and dampers.
Quasi-one-dimensional magnetic behaviour of the Ising system CsFeCl3.2aq
Kopinga, K.; Steiner, M.; Jonge, de W.J.M.
1985-01-01
The magnetic behaviour of the quasi-one-dimensional system CsFeCl3.2aq(aq=H2O, D2O) has been investigated by heat capacity measurements, quasi-elastic neutron scattering and spin-cluster resonance. the experiments demonstrate that below 25K the compound is a very good realisation of an (S=1/2) Ising
Highly ordered self-assembly of one-dimensional nanoparticles in amphiphilic molecular systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Tae Hwan
2009-02-01
Two kinds of one-dimensional (1D) nanoparticles, stable rod-like nanoparticles with highly controlled surface charge density (cROD) and non-covalently functionalized isolated single wall carbon nanotubes (p-SWNT) that were readily redispersible in water, have been developed. Using these 1D nanoparticles, various highly ordered superstructures of 1D nanoparticles by molecular self-assembling based on electrostatic interaction in amphiphilic molecular systems (two different cationic liposome systems) have been investigated. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of highly ordered self-assembly of 1D nanoparticles based on electrostatic interaction between 1D nanoparticles and amphiphilic molecules. The cRODs have been developed by free radical polymerization of a mixture of polymerizable cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium 4-vinylbenzoate (CTVB), and hydrotropic salt sodium 4-styrenesulfonate (NaSS) in aqueous solution. The surface charge of the cROD was controlled by varying the NaSS concentration during the polymerization process and the charge variation was interpreted in terms of the overcharging effect in colloidal systems. The small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements showed that the diameter of cROD is constant at 4 nm and the particle length ranges from 20 nm to 85 nm, depending on the NaSS concentration. The cRODs are longest when the NaSS concentration is 5 mol % which corresponds to the charge inversion or neutral point. The SANS and zeta potential measurements showed that the Coulomb interactions between the particles are strongly dependent on the NaSS concentration and the zeta potential of the cRODs changes from positive to negative (+ 12.8 mV ∼ - 44.2 mV) as the concentration of NaSS increases from 0 mol % to 40 mol %. As the NaSS concentration is further increased, the zeta potential is saturated at approximately - 50 mV. The p-SWNTs have been developed by 1) dispersing single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in water using
Dynamic one-dimensional modeling of secondary settling tanks and system robustness evaluation.
Li, Ben; Stenstrom, M K
2014-01-01
One-dimensional secondary settling tank models are widely used in current engineering practice for design and optimization, and usually can be expressed as a nonlinear hyperbolic or nonlinear strongly degenerate parabolic partial differential equation (PDE). Reliable numerical methods are needed to produce approximate solutions that converge to the exact analytical solutions. In this study, we introduced a reliable numerical technique, the Yee-Roe-Davis (YRD) method as the governing PDE solver, and compared its reliability with the prevalent Stenstrom-Vitasovic-Takács (SVT) method by assessing their simulation results at various operating conditions. The YRD method also produced a similar solution to the previously developed Method G and Enquist-Osher method. The YRD and SVT methods were also used for a time-to-failure evaluation, and the results show that the choice of numerical method can greatly impact the solution. Reliable numerical methods, such as the YRD method, are strongly recommended.
A High Performance Banknote Recognition System Based on a One-Dimensional Visible Light Line Sensor.
Park, Young Ho; Kwon, Seung Yong; Pham, Tuyen Danh; Park, Kang Ryoung; Jeong, Dae Sik; Yoon, Sungsoo
2015-06-15
An algorithm for recognizing banknotes is required in many fields, such as banknote-counting machines and automatic teller machines (ATM). Due to the size and cost limitations of banknote-counting machines and ATMs, the banknote image is usually captured by a one-dimensional (line) sensor instead of a conventional two-dimensional (area) sensor. Because the banknote image is captured by the line sensor while it is moved at fast speed through the rollers inside the banknote-counting machine or ATM, misalignment, geometric distortion, and non-uniform illumination of the captured images frequently occur, which degrades the banknote recognition accuracy. To overcome these problems, we propose a new method for recognizing banknotes. The experimental results using two-fold cross-validation for 61,240 United States dollar (USD) images show that the pre-classification error rate is 0%, and the average error rate for the final recognition of the USD banknotes is 0.114%.
Wavepacket dynamics in one-dimensional system with long-range correlated disorder
Yamada, Hiroaki S.
2018-03-01
We numerically investigate dynamical property in the one-dimensional tight-binding model with long-range correlated disorder having power spectrum 1 /fα (α: spectrum exponent) generated by Fourier filtering method. For relatively small α MSD) of the initially localized wavepacket shows ballistic spread and localizes as time elapses. It is shown that α-dependence of the dynamical localization length determined by the MSD exhibits a simple scaling law in the localization regime for the relatively weak disorder strength W. Furthermore, scaled MSD by the dynamical localization length almost obeys an universal function from the ballistic to the localization regime in the various combinations of the parameters α and W.
Bischoff, Jan-Moritz; Jeckelmann, Eric
2017-11-01
We improve the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) evaluation of the Kubo formula for the zero-temperature linear conductance of one-dimensional correlated systems. The dynamical DMRG is used to compute the linear response of a finite system to an applied ac source-drain voltage; then the low-frequency finite-system response is extrapolated to the thermodynamic limit to obtain the dc conductance of an infinite system. The method is demonstrated on the one-dimensional spinless fermion model at half filling. Our method is able to replicate several predictions of the Luttinger liquid theory such as the renormalization of the conductance in a homogeneous conductor, the universal effects of a single barrier, and the resonant tunneling through a double barrier.
One-dimensional thermal response modeling of a transuranic foamed overpack system to a fire
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suchsland, K.E.; Kwong, K.C.; Fretter, E.F.; Boyd, R.D.; Auerbach, I.; Yoshimura, H.R.
1980-01-01
Procedures have been established for modeling the thermal response of TRU container walls (TRUPACT) exposed to a fire environment. The effort included simulation testing and thermal modeling of the wall material. In this study, both testing and modeling were directed at determining a one-dimensional thermal model for undamaged polyurethane foam. The foam was assumed to exist in a nonoxidizing environment and was exposed to an almost step change in surface temperature. Results indicate that if the TRU waste container wall includes a polyurethane foam (64 kg/m 3 density) of thickness greater than 20 cm and the wall is otherwise undamaged, there will be no change in the waste content temperature where the container is subjected to a surface temperature as high as 1333 K for times less than 3600 s. Further improvements are needed in the thermal model to include transpiration, better estimates of the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity, effects of damaged wall structure and radiation absorption effects for the charged foam. 10 figures
A High Performance Banknote Recognition System Based on a One-Dimensional Visible Light Line Sensor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Young Ho Park
2015-06-01
Full Text Available An algorithm for recognizing banknotes is required in many fields, such as banknote-counting machines and automatic teller machines (ATM. Due to the size and cost limitations of banknote-counting machines and ATMs, the banknote image is usually captured by a one-dimensional (line sensor instead of a conventional two-dimensional (area sensor. Because the banknote image is captured by the line sensor while it is moved at fast speed through the rollers inside the banknote-counting machine or ATM, misalignment, geometric distortion, and non-uniform illumination of the captured images frequently occur, which degrades the banknote recognition accuracy. To overcome these problems, we propose a new method for recognizing banknotes. The experimental results using two-fold cross-validation for 61,240 United States dollar (USD images show that the pre-classification error rate is 0%, and the average error rate for the final recognition of the USD banknotes is 0.114%.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuriy Kruglyak
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This review is devoted to the basic problem in quantum theory of quasi-one-dimensional electron systems like polyenes (Part 1 and cumulenes (Part 2 – physical origin of the forbidden zone in these and analogous 1D electron systems due to two possible effects – Peierls instability (bond alternation and Mott instability (electron correlation. Both possible contradiction and coexistence of the Mott and Peierls instabilities are summerized on the basis of the Kiev quantum chemistry team research projects.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Sakabekov
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We prove existence and uniqueness of the solution of the problem with initial and Maxwell-Auzhan boundary conditions for nonstationary nonlinear one-dimensional Boltzmann’s six-moment system equations in space of functions continuous in time and summable in square by a spatial variable. In order to obtain a priori estimation of the initial and boundary value problem for nonstationary nonlinear one-dimensional Boltzmann’s six-moment system equations we get the integral equality and then use the spherical representation of vector. Then we obtain the initial value problem for Riccati equation. We have managed to obtain a particular solution of this equation in an explicit form.
Lanceleur, Laurent; Schäfer, Jörg; Chiffoleau, Jean-François; Blanc, Gérard; Auger, Dominique; Renault, Sophie; Baudrimont, Magalie; Audry, Stéphane
2011-11-01
The Gironde fluvial estuarine system is impacted by historic metal pollution (e.g. Cd, Zn, Hg) and oysters (Crassostrea gigas) from the estuary mouth have shown extremely high Cd concentrations for decades. Based on recent work (Chiffoleau et al., 2005) revealing anomalously high Ag concentrations (up to 65 mg kg(-1); dry weight) in Gironde oysters, we compared long-term (~1955-2001) records of Ag and Cd concentrations in reservoir sediment with the respective concentrations in oysters collected between 1979 and 2010 to identify the origin and historical trend of the recently discovered Ag anomaly. Sediment cores from two reservoirs upstream and downstream from the main metal pollution source provided information on (i) geochemical background (upstream; Ag: ~0.3 mg kg(-1); Cd: ~0.8 mg kg(-1)) and (ii) historical trends in Ag and Cd pollution. The results showed parallel concentration-depth profiles of Ag and Cd supporting a common source and transport. Decreasing concentrations since 1986 (Cd: from 300 to 11 mg kg(-1); Ag: from 6.7 to 0.43 mg kg(-1)) reflected the termination of Zn ore treatment in the Decazeville basin followed by remediation actions. Accordingly, Cd concentrations in oysters decreased after 1988 (from 109 to 26 mg kg(-1), dry weight (dw)), while Ag bioaccumulation increased from 38 up to 116 mg kg(-1), dw after 1993. Based on the Cd/Ag ratio (Cd/Ag~2) in oysters sampled before the termination of zinc ore treatment (1981-1985) and assuming that nearly all Cd in oysters originated from the metal point source, we estimated the respective contribution of Ag from this source to Ag concentrations in oysters. The evolution over the past 30 years clearly suggested that the recent, unexplained Ag concentrations in oysters are due to increasing contributions (>70% after 1999) by other sources, such as photography, electronics and emerging Ag applications/materials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gong, Longyan; Zhu, Hao; Zhao, Shengmei; Cheng, Weiwen; Sheng, Yubo
2012-01-01
We investigate numerically the quantum discord and the classical correlation in a one-dimensional slowly varying potential model and a one-dimensional Soukoulis–Economou ones, respectively. There are well-defined mobility edges in the slowly varying potential model, while there are discrepancies on mobility edges in the Soukoulis–Economou ones. In the slowly varying potential model, we find that extended and localized states can be distinguished by both the quantum discord and the classical correlation. There are sharp transitions in the quantum discord and the classical correlation at mobility edges. Based on these, we study “mobility edges” in the Soukoulis–Economou model using the quantum discord and the classical correlation, which gives another perspectives for these “mobility edges”. All these provide us good quantities, i.e., the quantum discord and the classical correlation, to reflect mobility edges in these one-dimensional aperiodic single-electron systems. Moreover, our studies propose a consistent interpretation of the discrepancies between previous numerical results about the Soukoulis–Economou model. -- Highlights: ► Quantum discord and classical correlation can signal mobility edges in two models. ► An interpretation for mobility edges in the Soukoulis–Economou model is proposed. ► Quantum discord and classical correlation can reflect well localization properties.
Electron localisation in static and time-dependent one-dimensional model systems
Durrant, T. R.; Hodgson, M. J. P.; Ramsden, J. D.; Godby, R. W.
2018-02-01
The most direct signature of electron localisation is the tendency of an electron in a many-body system to exclude other same-spin electrons from its vicinity. By applying this concept directly to the exact many-body wavefunction, we find that localisation can vary considerably between different ground-state systems, and can also be strongly disrupted, as a function of time, when a system is driven by an applied electric field. We use this measure to assess the well-known electron localisation function (ELF), both in its approximate single-particle form (often applied within density-functional theory) and its full many-particle form. The full ELF always gives an excellent description of localisation, but the approximate ELF fails in time-dependent situations, even when the exact Kohn-Sham orbitals are employed.
Geometric Optics for One-Dimensional Schr(o)dinger-Poisson System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhifei ZHANG; Qionglei CHEN
2006-01-01
This paper considers a family of Schr(o)dinger-Poisson system in one dimension,whose initial data oscillates so that a caustic appears. By using the Lagrangian integrals,the authors obtain a uniform description of the solution outside the caustic, and near the caustic.
Energy levels of one-dimensional systems satisfying the minimal length uncertainty relation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernardo, Reginald Christian S., E-mail: rcbernardo@nip.upd.edu.ph; Esguerra, Jose Perico H., E-mail: jesguerra@nip.upd.edu.ph
2016-10-15
The standard approach to calculating the energy levels for quantum systems satisfying the minimal length uncertainty relation is to solve an eigenvalue problem involving a fourth- or higher-order differential equation in quasiposition space. It is shown that the problem can be reformulated so that the energy levels of these systems can be obtained by solving only a second-order quasiposition eigenvalue equation. Through this formulation the energy levels are calculated for the following potentials: particle in a box, harmonic oscillator, Pöschl–Teller well, Gaussian well, and double-Gaussian well. For the particle in a box, the second-order quasiposition eigenvalue equation is a second-order differential equation with constant coefficients. For the harmonic oscillator, Pöschl–Teller well, Gaussian well, and double-Gaussian well, a method that involves using Wronskians has been used to solve the second-order quasiposition eigenvalue equation. It is observed for all of these quantum systems that the introduction of a nonzero minimal length uncertainty induces a positive shift in the energy levels. It is shown that the calculation of energy levels in systems satisfying the minimal length uncertainty relation is not limited to a small number of problems like particle in a box and the harmonic oscillator but can be extended to a wider class of problems involving potentials such as the Pöschl–Teller and Gaussian wells.
Size-scaling behaviour of the electronic polarizability of one-dimensional interacting systems
Chiappe, G.; Louis, E.; Vergés, J. A.
2018-05-01
Electronic polarizability of finite chains is accurately calculated from the total energy variation of the system produced by small but finite static electric fields applied along the chain direction. Normalized polarizability, that is, polarizability divided by chain length, diverges as the second power of length for metallic systems but approaches a constant value for insulating systems. This behaviour provides a very convenient way to characterize the wave-function malleability of finite systems as it avoids the need of attaching infinite contacts to the chain ends. Hubbard model calculations at half filling show that the method works for a small U = 1 interaction value that corresponds to a really small spectral gap of 0.005 (hopping t = ‑1 is assumed). Once successfully checked, the method has been applied to the long-range hopping model of Gebhard and Ruckenstein showing 1/r hopping decay (Gebhard and Ruckenstein 1992 Phys. Rev. Lett. 68 244; Gebhard et al 1994 Phys. Rev. B 49 10926). Metallicity for U values below the reported metal-insulator transition is obtained but the surprise comes for U values larger than the critical one (when a gap appears in the spectral density of states) because a steady increase of the normalized polarizability with size is obtained. This critical size-scaling behaviour can be understood as corresponding to a molecule which polarizability is unbounded. We have checked that a real transfer of charge from one chain end to the opposite occurs as a response to very small electric fields in spite of the existence of a large gap of the order of U for one-particle excitations. Finally, ab initio quantum chemistry calculations of realistic poly-acetylene chains prove that the occurrence of such critical behaviour in real systems is unlikely.
Simulation of one-dimensional heat transfer system based on the blended coal combustion
Jin, Y. G.; Li, W. B.; Cheng, Z. S.; Cheng, J. W.; liu, Y.
2017-12-01
In this paper, the supercritical boiler thermodynamic calculation model is studied. Three types of heat exchangers are proposed, namely furnace (total radiation type), semi-radiation and convection, and discussed. Two cases were simulated - mixing of two bituminous coals and mixing of a bituminous coal and lignite- order to analyze the performance on the flue gas side. The study shows that the influence of flue air leakage and gas distribution coefficient on the system.
Exact results for quantum chaotic systems and one-dimensional fermions from matrix models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simons, B.D.; Lee, P.A.; Altshuler, B.L.
1993-01-01
We demonstrate a striking connection between the universal parametric correlations of the spectra of quantum chaotic systems and a class of integrable quantum hamiltonians. We begin by deriving a non-perturbative expression for the universal m-point correlation function of the spectra of random matrix ensembles in terms of a non-linear supermatrix σ-model. These results are shown to coincide with those from previous studies of weakly disordered metallic systems. We then introduce a continuous matrix model which describes the quantum mechanics of the Sutherland hamiltonian describing particles interacting through an inverse-square pairwise potential. We demonstrate that a field theoretic approach can be employed to determine exact analytical expressions for correlations of the quantum hamiltonian. The results, which are expressed in terms of a non-linear σ-model, are shown to coincide with those for analogous correlation functions of random matrix ensembles after an appropriate change of variables. We also discuss possible generalizations of the matrix model to higher dimensions. These results reveal a common mathematical structure which underlies branches of theoretical physics ranging from continuous matrix models to strongly interacting quantum hamiltonians, and universalities in the spectra of quantum chaotic systems. (orig.)
Field theory methods applied for the study of superconductivity in one-dimensional systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martins, M.J.
1986-01-01
It is shown that the Froehlich's hamiltonian in one spatial dimension is identical to that of an exactly solvable field Theory. The spectrum of the theory is computed. A critical coupling is found above which the system becomes unstable, indicating a superconducting transition. It is also proposed and investigated a renormalizable relativistic field theory model in two space-time dimensions, with quartic self-interaction among N species of fermions, which undergoes dynamical generation of a superconducting gap and is asymptotically free. A finite temperature is introduced and, for N -> ∞ a critical value T c is found above which the gap vanishes. (author)
Frequency dependence of localization length of an electromagnetic wave in a one-dimensional system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vinogradov, A.P.; Merzlikin, A.M.
2003-01-01
It is shown that the existence in the high-frequency limit of the localization length of an electromagnetic wave in a randomly layered system requires the presence of an infinitely large number of layers with different incommensurable optical paths. Moreover, the measure of the layers with optical paths that are multiples of any real number should equal zero. The localization length in the high-frequency limit is determined by the mean value of the layer thickness and impedance distribution only. The scaling behavior L loc (k 0 )∼k 0 -2 is observed only if the mean value tends to zero (corresponding to a delta-correlated process)
The von Neumann entanglement entropy for Wigner-crystal states in one dimensional N-particle systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kościk, Przemysław
2015-01-01
We study one-dimensional systems of N particles in a one-dimensional harmonic trap with an inverse power law interaction ∼|x| −d . Within the framework of the harmonic approximation we derive, in the strong interaction limit, the Schmidt decomposition of the one-particle reduced density matrix and investigate the nature of the degeneracy appearing in its spectrum. Furthermore, the ground-state asymptotic occupancies and their natural orbitals are derived in closed analytic form, which enables their easy determination for a wide range of values of N. A closed form asymptotic expression for the von Neumann entanglement entropy is also provided and its dependence on N is discussed for the systems with d=1 (charged particles) and with d=3 (dipolar particles). - Highlights: • We study confined systems of N particles with an inverse power law interaction. • We apply the harmonic approximation to the systems. • We derive closed form expressions for the asymptotic von Neumann entropy. • The asymptotic von Neumann entropy grows monotonically as N increases
Static and dynamic properties of frictional phenomena in a one-dimensional system with randomness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawaguchi, T.; Matsukawa, H.
1997-01-01
Static and dynamic frictional phenomena at the interface with random impurities are investigated in a two-chain model with incommensurate structure. Static frictional force is caused by the impurity pinning and/or by the pinning due to the regular potential, which is responsible for the breaking of analyticity transition for impurity-free cases. It is confirmed that the static frictional force is always finite in the presence of impurities, in contrast to the impurity-free system. The nature of impurity pinning is discussed in connection with that in density waves. The kinetic frictional force of a steady sliding state is also investigated numerically. The relationship between the sliding velocity dependence of the kinetic frictional force and the strength of impurity potential is discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
On the orientational properties of some one-dimensional model systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lebowitz, J.L.; Percus, J.K.; Talbot, J.
1987-01-01
We use the transfer matrix formalism to examine the behavior of some anisotropic hard-core fluids, the centers of whose particles are constrained to a line. At large elongation and pressure, the compressibility factor βp/rho is higher than that for a system with complete alignment by a factor 1+ν that depends upon the molecular geometry. For molecules with a finite radius of curvature, e.g., ellipses, ν = d/2, while for objects with flat sides ν = d; here d is the number of orientational degrees of freedom. A connection is made to some recent studies of hard ellipsoid fluids. We also model the effect of an external field on physical adsorption and show the existence of a phase transition in certain limiting situations
On the orientational properties of some one-dimensional model systems
Lebowitz, J. L.; Percus, J. K.; Talbot, J.
1987-12-01
We use the transfer matrix formalism to examine the behavior of some anisotropic hard-core fluids, the centers of whose particles are constrained to a line. At large elongation and pressure, the compressibility factor βp/p is higher than that for a system with complete aligment by a factor 1+υ that depends upon the molecular geometry. For molecules with a finite radius of curvature, e.g., ellipses, υ= d/2, while for objects with flat sides υ= d; here d is the number of orientational degrees of freedom. A connection is made to some recent studies of hard ellipsoid fluids. We also model the effect of an external field on physical adsorption and show the existence of a phase transition in certain limiting situations.
Multichain Mean-Field Theory of Quasi-One-Dimensional Quantum Spin Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sandvik, A.W.
1999-01-01
A multichain mean-field theory is developed and applied to a two-dimensional system of weakly coupled S=1/2 Heisenberg chains. The environment of a chain C 0 is modeled by a number of neighboring chains C δ , δ=±1, hor-ellipsis,± , with the edge chains C ±n coupled to a staggered field. Using a quantum Monte Carlo method, the effective (2n+1) -chain Hamiltonian is solved self-consistently for n up to 4 . The results are compared with simulation results for the original Hamiltonian on large rectangular lattices. Both methods show that the staggered magnetization M for small interchain couplings α behaves as M∼√(α) enhanced by a multiplicative logarithmic correction. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society
Open quantum system model of the one-dimensional Burgers equation with tunable shear viscosity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yepez, Jeffrey
2006-01-01
Presented is an analysis of an open quantum model of the time-dependent evolution of a flow field governed by the nonlinear Burgers equation in one spatial dimension. The quantum model is a system of qubits where there exists a minimum time interval in the time-dependent dynamics. Each temporally discrete unitary quantum-mechanical evolution is followed by state reduction of the quantum state. The mesoscopic behavior of this quantum model is described by a quantum Boltzmann equation with a naturally emergent entropy function and H theorem and the model obeys the detailed balance principle. The macroscopic-scale effective field theory for the quantum model is derived using a perturbative Chapman-Enskog expansion applied to the linearized quantum Boltzmann equation. The entropy function is consistent with the quantum-mechanical collision process and a Fermi-Dirac single-particle distribution function for the occupation probabilities of the qubit's energy eigenstates. Comparisons are presented between analytical predictions and numerical predictions and the agreement is excellent, indicating that the nonlinear Burgers equation with a tunable shear viscosity is the operative macroscopic scale effective field theory
Transition from normal to ballistic diffusion in a one-dimensional impact system
Livorati, André L. P.; Kroetz, Tiago; Dettmann, Carl P.; Caldas, Iberê L.; Leonel, Edson D.
2018-03-01
We characterize a transition from normal to ballistic diffusion in a bouncing ball dynamics. The system is composed of a particle, or an ensemble of noninteracting particles, experiencing elastic collisions with a heavy and periodically moving wall under the influence of a constant gravitational field. The dynamics lead to a mixed phase space where chaotic orbits have a free path to move along the velocity axis, presenting a normal diffusion behavior. Depending on the control parameter, one can observe the presence of featured resonances, known as accelerator modes, that lead to a ballistic growth of velocity. Through statistical and numerical analysis of the velocity of the particle, we are able to characterize a transition between the two regimes, where transport properties were used to characterize the scenario of the ballistic regime. Also, in an analysis of the probability of an orbit to reach an accelerator mode as a function of the velocity, we observe a competition between the normal and ballistic transport in the midrange velocity.
Investigation of one-dimensional heat flow in a solarflat plate collector with sun tracing system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H Samimi Akhijahani
2016-09-01
variation of total heat flow over the time at different surfaces of the collector is determined by using equation 3: 3 Two cases (solar panel with rotation and without rotation were considered for testing. Data measuring was carried out for 9 hours from 8 to 17. The fluid flow rate was 0.0185m3.s-1. The dryer was installed in an environment with air temperature of 31.6 oC and 31.8 oC, with the air velocity of 0.58 m.s-1 and 0.54 m.s-1 and with the relative air humidity of about 21%and 21.5% at the first and second days, respectively. The dryer had an automatic temperature controller to fix the air temperature with an accuracy of ±0.1 oC. An anemometer Yk-2005AM model was used to regulate the required air velocity. The output data of the thermocouples was recorded by a digital thermometer (DL-9601A, Lutron that was connected to a computer using RS232 cable and recorded the temperature at required point every an hour. The relative humidity of the ambient was measured every hour with a digital hygrometer (HT.3600, Taiwan, accuracy of 3%. By assembling controlling system with a DC motor, a precious photocell and a proper mechanism, the frame would rotate by the sun and followed solar radiation, therefore more solar energy produced in solar panel. Results and Discussion The results of the experiments showed that the heat transfer process increased in both cases from the early morning and reached to its maximum value around 12 to 14 o’clock. The trend was more homogeneous in the dryer by absorber plate without rotation due to the decline of the heat accumulation. The mean temperature rise in the solar dryer without rotation was 37oC and in the solar dryer with rotation was 54oC. Because of the rotation of solar plate, variations of solar radiation were low. Therefore, by rotation of the solar dryer panel the temperature rise was 27oC. The values of heat transfer coefficient in the solar dryer with rotation were decreased by the time. This reduction in the hours before noon is
Functional methods for the solution of one-dimensional quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wirth, Tobias
2010-01-01
for the bosonic degree of freedom again a TQ-equation is obtained but in this case being defined on an infinite descrete set of points. Finally a different approach to the case of non-diagonal boundary conditions using non-linear integral equations is studied. By construction of higher dimensional representations of the Yang Baxter algebra a hierarchy of transfer matrices is obtained. In this construction two R-matrices are fused together yielding the name of fusion hierarchy. From such hierarchies it is possible to derive non-linear integral equations for a certain eigenvalue of the transfer matrix using Fourier transform techniques. The equations are valid for arbitrary system sized and a range of boundary parameters. By careful analysis of the zero and pole structure it is possible to extract information about the eigenvalue of a specific state. (orig.)
Nocera, A.; Patel, N. D.; Fernandez-Baca, J.; Dagotto, E.; Alvarez, G.
2016-11-01
We study the effects of charge degrees of freedom on the spin excitation dynamics in quasi-one-dimensional magnetic materials. Using the density matrix renormalization group method, we calculate the dynamical spin structure factor of the Hubbard model at half electronic filling on a chain and on a ladder geometry, and compare the results with those obtained using the Heisenberg model, where charge degrees of freedom are considered frozen. For both chains and two-leg ladders, we find that the Hubbard model spectrum qualitatively resembles the Heisenberg spectrum—with low-energy peaks resembling spinonic excitations—already at intermediate on-site repulsion as small as U /t ˜2 -3 , although ratios of peak intensities at different momenta continue evolving with increasing U /t converging only slowly to the Heisenberg limit. We discuss the implications of these results for neutron scattering experiments and we propose criteria to establish the values of U /t of quasi-one-dimensional systems described by one-orbital Hubbard models from experimental information.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pȩkalski, J.; Ciach, A. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, 01-224 Warszawa (Poland); Almarza, N. G. [Instituto de Química Física Rocasolano, CSIC, Serrano 119, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)
2015-01-07
The impact of confinement on self-assembly of particles interacting with short-range attraction and long-range repulsion potential is studied for thermodynamic states corresponding to local ordering of clusters or layers in the bulk. Exact and asymptotic expressions for the local density and for the effective potential between the confining surfaces are obtained for a one-dimensional lattice model introduced by J. Pȩkalski et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 138, 144903 (2013)]. The simple asymptotic formulas are shown to be in good quantitative agreement with exact results for slits containing at least 5 layers. We observe that the incommensurability of the system size and the average distance between the clusters or layers in the bulk leads to structural deformations that are different for different values of the chemical potential μ. The change of the type of defects is reflected in the dependence of density on μ that has a shape characteristic for phase transitions. Our results may help to avoid misinterpretation of the change of the type of defects as a phase transition in simulations of inhomogeneous systems. Finally, we show that a system confined by soft elastic walls may exhibit bistability such that two system sizes that differ approximately by the average distance between the clusters or layers are almost equally probable. This may happen when the equilibrium separation between the soft boundaries of an empty slit corresponds to the largest stress in the confined self-assembling system.
Yin, Chuanhao; Jiang, Hui; Li, Linhu; Lü, Rong; Chen, Shu
2018-05-01
We unveil the geometrical meaning of winding number and utilize it to characterize the topological phases in one-dimensional chiral non-Hermitian systems. While chiral symmetry ensures the winding number of Hermitian systems are integers, it can take half integers for non-Hermitian systems. We give a geometrical interpretation of the half integers by demonstrating that the winding number ν of a non-Hermitian system is equal to half of the summation of two winding numbers ν1 and ν2 associated with two exceptional points, respectively. The winding numbers ν1 and ν2 represent the times of the real part of the Hamiltonian in momentum space encircling the exceptional points and can only take integers. We further find that the difference of ν1 and ν2 is related to the second winding number or energy vorticity. By applying our scheme to a non-Hermitian Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model and an extended version of it, we show that the topologically different phases can be well characterized by winding numbers. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the existence of left and right zero-mode edge states is closely related to the winding number ν1 and ν2.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahashi, M.; Bracken, P.; Cizek, J.; Paldus, J.
1995-01-01
The perturbation expansion coefficients for the ground-state energy of the half-filled one-dimensional Hubbard model with N = 4 ν + 2, (ν = 1,2,...) sites and satisfying cyclic boundary conditions were calculated in the Hueckel limit (U/β → 0), where β designates the one-electron hopping or resonance integral, and U, the two-electron on-site Coulomb integral. This was achieved by solving-order by order-the Lieb-Wu equations, a system of transcendental equations that determines the set of quasi-momenta (k i ) and spin variable τ α for this model. The exact values for these quantities were found for the N = 6 member ring up to the 20th order in terms of the coupling constant B = U/2β, as well as numerically for 10 ≤ N ≤ 50, and the N = 6 Lieb-Wu system was reduced to a system of sextic algebraic equations. These results are compared with those of the infinite system derived analytically by Misurkin and Ovchinnikov. It is further shown how the results of this article can be used for the interpolation by the root of a polynomial. It is demonstrated that a polynomial of relatively small degree provides a very good approximation for the energy in the intermediate coupling region. 20 refs., 3 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gasparian, Vladimir; Cahay, Marc; Jodar, Esther
2011-01-01
A two-dimensional δ-potential Kronig-Penney model for quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) disordered systems is used to study analytically the influence of a constant electric field on the inverse localization length (LL). Based on the Green's function formalism we have calculated LL as a function of the incoming energy E, electric field F, length L of the Q1D sample, number of modes M in the transverse direction and the amount of disorder w. We show that, for large L in Q1D systems, states are weakly localized, i.e. we deal with power-law localization. With increasing electric field in Q1D mesoscopic systems a transition from exponential to a power-law behavior takes place, as in 1D systems. We note that the graphs showing the inverse LL change significantly with increasing F (for fixed M) rather than with increasing M (for fixed F). We also show that the graphs representing the ratio of the corresponding localization length without and with electric field collapse for all modes M into a universal curve in the Q1D strip model.
Minoura, Itsushi; Katayama, Eisaku; Sekimoto, Ken; Muto, Etsuko
2010-01-01
Various proteins are known to exhibit one-dimensional Brownian motion along charged rodlike polymers, such as microtubules (MTs), actin, and DNA. The electrostatic interaction between the proteins and the rodlike polymers appears to be crucial for one-dimensional Brownian motion, although the underlying mechanism has not been fully clarified. We examined the interactions of positively-charged nanoparticles composed of polyacrylamide gels with MTs. These hydrophilic nanoparticles bound to MTs ...
Diaz-Espinosa, O
2006-01-01
We study the effect of noise on one--dimensional critical dynamical systems (that is, maps with a renormalization theory). We consider in detail two examples of such dynamical systems: unimodal maps of the interval at the accumulation of period--doubling and smooth homeomorphisms of the circle with a critical point and with golden mean rotation number. We show that, if we scale the space and the time, several properties of the noise (the cumulants or Wick--ordered moments) satisfy some scaling relations. A consequence of the scaling relations is that a version of the central limit theorem holds. Irrespective of the shape of the initial noise, if the bare noise is weak enough, the effective noise becomes close to Gaussian in several senses that we can make precise. We notice that the conclusions are false for maps with positive Lyapunov exponents. The method of analysis is close in spirit to the study of scaling limits in renormalization theory. We also perform several numerical experiments that confirm the ri...
Droplet size effects on NO/x/ formation in a one-dimensional monodisperse spray combustion system
Sarv, H.; Nizami, A. A.; Cernansky, N. P.
1982-01-01
A one-dimensional monodisperse aerosol spray combustion facility is described and experimental results of post flame NO/NO(x) emissions are presented. Four different hydrocarbon fuels were studied: isopropanol, methanol, n-heptane, and n-octane. The results indicate an optimum droplet size in the range of 48-58 microns for minimizing NO/NO(x) production for all of the test fuels. This NO(x) behavior is associated with droplet interactions and the transition from diffusive type of spray burning to that of a prevaporized and premixed case. Decreasing the droplet size results in a trend of increasing droplet interactions, which suppresses temperatures and reduces NO(x). This trend continues until prevaporization effects begin to dominate and the system tends towards the premixed limit. The occurrence of the minimum NO(x) point at different droplet diameters for the different fuels appears to be governed by the extent of prevaporization of the fuel in the spray, and is consistent with theoretical calculations based on each fuel's physical properties.
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Banach, Zbigniew; Larecki, Wieslaw
2013-01-01
The spectral formulation of the nine-moment radiation hydrodynamics resulting from using the Boltzmann entropy maximization procedure is considered. The analysis is restricted to the one-dimensional flows of a gas of massless fermions. The objective of the paper is to demonstrate that, for such flows, the spectral nine-moment maximum entropy hydrodynamics of fermionic radiation is not a purely formal theory. We first determine the domains of admissible values of the spectral moments and of the Lagrange multipliers corresponding to them. We then prove the existence of a solution to the constrained entropy optimization problem. Due to the strict concavity of the entropy functional defined on the space of distribution functions, there exists a one-to-one correspondence between the Lagrange multipliers and the moments. The maximum entropy closure of moment equations results in the symmetric conservative system of first-order partial differential equations for the Lagrange multipliers. However, this system can be transformed into the equivalent system of conservation equations for the moments. These two systems are consistent with the additional conservation equation interpreted as the balance of entropy. Exploiting the above facts, we arrive at the differential relations satisfied by the entropy function and the additional function required to close the system of moment equations. We refer to this additional function as the moment closure function. In general, the moment closure and entropy–entropy flux functions cannot be explicitly calculated in terms of the moments determining the state of a gas. Therefore, we develop a perturbation method of calculating these functions. Some additional analytical (and also numerical) results are obtained, assuming that the maximum entropy distribution function tends to the Maxwell–Boltzmann limit. (paper)
Dessup, Tommy; Coste, Christophe; Saint Jean, Michel
2016-01-01
In this article, we study the effects of white Gaussian additive thermal noise on a subcritical pitchfork bifurcation. We consider a quasi-one-dimensional system of particles that are transversally confined, with short-range (non-Coulombic) interactions and periodic boundary conditions in the longitudinal direction. In such systems, there is a structural transition from a linear order to a staggered row, called the zigzag transition. There is a finite range of transverse confinement stiffnesses for which the stable configuration at zero temperature is a localized zigzag pattern surrounded by aligned particles, which evidences the subcriticality of the bifurcation. We show that these configurations remain stable for a wide temperature range. At zero temperature, the transition between a straight line and such localized zigzag patterns is hysteretic. We have studied the influence of thermal noise on the hysteresis loop. Its description is more difficult than at T =0 K since thermally activated jumps between the two configurations always occur and the system cannot stay forever in a unique metastable state. Two different regimes have to be considered according to the temperature value with respect to a critical temperature Tc(τobs) that depends on the observation time τobs. An hysteresis loop is still observed at low temperature, with a width that decreases as the temperature increases toward Tc(τobs) . In contrast, for T >Tc(τobs) the memory of the initial condition is lost by stochastic jumps between the configurations. The study of the mean residence times in each configuration gives a unique opportunity to precisely determine the barrier height that separates the two configurations, without knowing the complete energy landscape of this many-body system. We also show how to reconstruct the hysteresis loop that would exist at T =0 K from high-temperature simulations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Fournier
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Secular variations of the geomagnetic field have been measured with a continuously improving accuracy during the last few hundred years, culminating nowadays with satellite data. It is however well known that the dynamics of the magnetic field is linked to that of the velocity field in the core and any attempt to model secular variations will involve a coupled dynamical system for magnetic field and core velocity. Unfortunately, there is no direct observation of the velocity. Independently of the exact nature of the above-mentioned coupled system – some version being currently under construction – the question is debated in this paper whether good knowledge of the magnetic field can be translated into good knowledge of core dynamics. Furthermore, what will be the impact of the most recent and precise geomagnetic data on our knowledge of the geomagnetic field of the past and future? These questions are cast into the language of variational data assimilation, while the dynamical system considered in this paper consists in a set of two oversimplified one-dimensional equations for magnetic and velocity fields. This toy model retains important features inherited from the induction and Navier-Stokes equations: non-linear magnetic and momentum terms are present and its linear response to small disturbances contains Alfvén waves. It is concluded that variational data assimilation is indeed appropriate in principle, even though the velocity field remains hidden at all times; it allows us to recover the entire evolution of both fields from partial and irregularly distributed information on the magnetic field. This work constitutes a first step on the way toward the reassimilation of historical geomagnetic data and geomagnetic forecast.
One dimensional reactor core model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kostadinov, V.; Stritar, A.; Radovo, M.; Mavko, B.
1984-01-01
The one dimensional model of neutron dynamic in reactor core was developed. The core was divided in several axial nodes. The one group neutron diffusion equation for each node is solved. Feedback affects of fuel and water temperatures is calculated. The influence of xenon, boron and control rods is included in cross section calculations for each node. The system of equations is solved implicitly. The model is used in basic principle Training Simulator of NPP Krsko. (author)
Minoura, Itsushi; Katayama, Eisaku; Sekimoto, Ken; Muto, Etsuko
2010-04-21
Various proteins are known to exhibit one-dimensional Brownian motion along charged rodlike polymers, such as microtubules (MTs), actin, and DNA. The electrostatic interaction between the proteins and the rodlike polymers appears to be crucial for one-dimensional Brownian motion, although the underlying mechanism has not been fully clarified. We examined the interactions of positively-charged nanoparticles composed of polyacrylamide gels with MTs. These hydrophilic nanoparticles bound to MTs and displayed one-dimensional Brownian motion in a charge-dependent manner, which indicates that nonspecific electrostatic interaction is sufficient for one-dimensional Brownian motion. The diffusion coefficient decreased exponentially with an increasing particle charge (with the exponent being 0.10 kBT per charge), whereas the duration of the interaction increased exponentially (exponent of 0.22 kBT per charge). These results can be explained semiquantitatively if one assumes that a particle repeats a cycle of binding to and movement along an MT until it finally dissociates from the MT. During the movement, a particle is still electrostatically constrained in the potential valley surrounding the MT. This entire process can be described by a three-state model analogous to the Michaelis-Menten scheme, in which the two parameters of the equilibrium constant between binding and movement, and the rate of dissociation from the MT, are derived as a function of the particle charge density. This study highlights the possibility that the weak binding interactions between proteins and rodlike polymers, e.g., MTs, are mediated by a similar, nonspecific charge-dependent mechanism. Copyright 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
One-Dimensionality and Whiteness
Calderon, Dolores
2006-01-01
This article is a theoretical discussion that links Marcuse's concept of one-dimensional society and the Great Refusal with critical race theory in order to achieve a more robust interrogation of whiteness. The author argues that in the context of the United States, the one-dimensionality that Marcuse condemns in "One-Dimensional Man" is best…
Siebbeles, L.D.A.; Movaghar, B.
2000-01-01
Using Monte Carlo simulations we calculate the frequency dependence of the diffusive mobility of a group of carriers on a short one-dimensional chain. We allow the carriers to interact with each other through weakly screened long-range Coulomb potentials. We consider both doped systems with discrete
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jha, A.; Banerjee, D.; Chattopadhyay, K.K.
2011-01-01
Different one dimensional (1D) carbon nanostructures, such as carbon nanonoodles (CNNs), carbon nanospikes (CNSs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been synthesized via thermal chemical vapour deposition (TCVD) technique. The different 1D morphologies were synthesized by varying the substrate material and the deposition conditions. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). FESEM and TEM images showed that the diameters of the CNNs and CNTs were ∼40 nm while the diameters of the CNSs were around 100 nm. Field emission studies of the as-prepared samples showed that CNSs to be a better field emitter than CNNs, whereas CNTs are the best among the three producing large emission current. The variation of field emission properties with inter-electrode distance has been studied in detail. Also the time dependent field emission studies of all the nanostructures have been carried out.
Huot, F; Bertrand, P; Sonnendrücker, E; Coulaud, O
2003-01-01
The Time Splitting Scheme (TSS) has been examined within the context of the one-dimensional (1D) relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell model. In the strongly relativistic regime of the laser-plasma interaction, the TSS cannot be applied to solve the Vlasov equation. We propose a new semi-Lagrangian scheme based on a full 2D advection and study its advantages over the classical Splitting procedure. Details of the underlying integration of the Vlasov equation appear to be important in achieving accurate plasma simulations. Examples are given which are related to the relativistic modulational instability and the self-induced transparency of an ultra-intense electromagnetic pulse in the relativistic regime.
Matsumoto, Karin; Ogura, Daisuke; Kuroki, Kazuhiko
2018-01-01
We study superconductivity in the Hubbard model on various quasi-one-dimensional lattices with coexisting wide and narrow bands originating from multiple sites within a unit cell, where each site corresponds to a single orbital. The systems studied are the two-leg and three-leg ladders, the diamond chain, and the crisscross ladder. These one-dimensional lattices are weakly coupled to form two-dimensional (quasi-one-dimensional) ones, and the fluctuation exchange approximation is adopted to study spin-fluctuation-mediated superconductivity. When one of the bands is perfectly flat and the Fermi level intersecting the wide band is placed in the vicinity of, but not within, the flat band, superconductivity arising from the interband scattering processes is found to be strongly enhanced owing to the combination of the light electron mass of the wide band and the strong pairing interaction due to the large density of states of the flat band. Even when the narrow band has finite bandwidth, the pairing mechanism still works since the edge of the narrow band, due to its large density of states, plays the role of the flat band. The results indicate the wide applicability of the high-Tc pairing mechanism due to coexisting wide and "incipient" narrow bands in quasi-one-dimensional systems.
Basic physics of one-dimensional metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emery, V.J.
1976-01-01
Largely nonmathematical qualitative lectures are given on the basic physics of nearly one-dimensional conductors. The main emphasis is placed on the properties of a purely one-dimensional electron gas. The effects of a real system having interchain coupling, impurities, a compressible lattice, lattice distortions and phonon anomalies are discussed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaudin, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1967-11-01
The subject of this thesis is a one dimensional model for a quantum system of fermions with attractive or repulsive interaction. The eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Hamiltonian with periodic boundary conditions are exactly determined. The knowledge of the spectrum is essentially applied on the study of the attractive gas, characterized by the presence of 'pairs' or two particles bound states. This system can be described as a gas of 'one dimensional deuterons', which has some analogy with a boson gas. Some extensive properties of the ground state have been discussed for example energy as a function of the density and magnetization, for all the values of the coupling constant. The analytic properties of the energy function are studied, but not completely resolved. Finally the elementary excitations of the phonon type are considered and the dispersion curves are given. (author) [French] On etudie un modele a une dimension pour un systeme quantique de fermions en interaction attractive ou repulsive dans un volume donne. L'ensemble des niveaux d'energie et des etats propres du systeme est determine exactement. La connaissance du spectre est surtout appliquee a l'etude du gaz attractif, interessant par la presence de 'paires' ou etats lies a deux particules. On peut decrire ce systeme comme un gaz de 'deuterons a une dimension' qui possede quelque ressemblance avec un systeme de bosons. Quelques proprietes extensives de l'etat fondamental sont donnees, comme l'energie en fonction de la densite et de la magnetisation totale, pour toute valeur de la constante de couplage. Les proprietes analytiques de la fonction energie sont etudiees sans etre completement elucidees. On aborde enfin les excitations elementaires du systeme et on etablit la courbe de dispersion d'une excitation de type phonon. (auteur)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grazevicius, Audrius; Kaliatka, Algirdas [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Kaunas (Lithuania). Lab. of Nuclear Installation Safety
2017-07-15
The main functions of spent fuel pools are to remove the residual heat from spent fuel assemblies and to perform the function of biological shielding. In the case of loss of heat removal from spent fuel pool, the fuel rods and pool water temperatures would increase continuously. After the saturated temperature is reached, due to evaporation of water the pool water level would drop, eventually causing the uncover of spent fuel assemblies, fuel overheating and fuel rods failure. This paper presents an analysis of loss of heat removal accident in spent fuel pool of BWR 4 and a comparison of two different modelling approaches. The one-dimensional system thermal-hydraulic computer code RELAP5 and CFD tool ANSYS Fluent were used for the analysis. The results are similar, but the local effects cannot be simulated using a one-dimensional code. The ANSYS Fluent calculation demonstrated that this three-dimensional treatment allows to avoid the need for many one-dimensional modelling assumptions in the pool modelling and enables to reduce the uncertainties associated with natural circulation flow calculation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Honodel, C.A.
1975-01-01
A new gun system is being constructed at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory for studies of the behavior of toxic materials under shock-loaded conditions. Due to the extreme toxicity of some materials, such as plutonium, the entire gun system must be enclosed in gloveboxes. Some of the experimental requirements that affected the design of the system, various diagnostic techniques that will be employed with the system, and some details of the final design that is presently under assembly are presented
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang Guangjun [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Structural Strength and Vibration, School of Architectural Engineering and Mechanics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Xu Jianxue [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Structural Strength and Vibration, School of Architectural Engineering and Mechanics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China)] e-mail: jxxu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn
2006-02-01
This paper analyzes the stochastic resonance induced by a novel transition of one-dimensional bistable system in the neighborhood of bifurcation point with the method of moment, which refer to the transition of system motion among a potential well of stable fixed point before bifurcation of original system and double-well potential of two coexisting stable fixed points after original system bifurcation at the presence of internal noise. The results show: the semi-analytical result of stochastic resonance of one-dimensional bistable system in the neighborhood of bifurcation point may be obtained, and the semi-analytical result is in accord with the one of Monte Carlo simulation qualitatively, the occurrence of stochastic resonance is related to the bifurcation of noisy nonlinear dynamical system moment equations, which induce the transfer of energy of ensemble average (Ex) of system response in each frequency component and make the energy of ensemble average of system response concentrate on the frequency of input signal, stochastic resonance occurs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Guangjun; Xu Jianxue
2006-01-01
This paper analyzes the stochastic resonance induced by a novel transition of one-dimensional bistable system in the neighborhood of bifurcation point with the method of moment, which refer to the transition of system motion among a potential well of stable fixed point before bifurcation of original system and double-well potential of two coexisting stable fixed points after original system bifurcation at the presence of internal noise. The results show: the semi-analytical result of stochastic resonance of one-dimensional bistable system in the neighborhood of bifurcation point may be obtained, and the semi-analytical result is in accord with the one of Monte Carlo simulation qualitatively, the occurrence of stochastic resonance is related to the bifurcation of noisy nonlinear dynamical system moment equations, which induce the transfer of energy of ensemble average (Ex) of system response in each frequency component and make the energy of ensemble average of system response concentrate on the frequency of input signal, stochastic resonance occurs
Mitra, Aditi
2012-12-28
A renormalization group approach is used to show that a one-dimensional system of bosons subject to a lattice quench exhibits a finite-time dynamical phase transition where an order parameter within a light cone increases as a nonanalytic function of time after a critical time. Such a transition is also found for a simultaneous lattice and interaction quench where the effective scaling dimension of the lattice becomes time dependent, crucially affecting the time evolution of the system. Explicit results are presented for the time evolution of the boson interaction parameter and the order parameter for the dynamical transition as well as for more general quenches.
Dessup, Tommy; Coste, Christophe; Saint Jean, Michel
2017-01-01
We study the path toward equilibrium of pairs of solitary wave envelopes (bubbles) that modulate a regular zigzag pattern in an annular channel. We evidence that bubble pairs are metastable states, which spontaneously evolve toward a stable single bubble. We exhibit the concept of topological frustration of a bubble pair. A configuration is frustrated when the particles between the two bubbles are not organized in a modulated staggered row. For a nonfrustrated (NF) bubble pair configuration, the bubbles interaction is attractive, whereas it is repulsive for a frustrated (F) configuration. We describe a model of interacting solitary wave that provides all qualitative characteristics of the interaction force: It is attractive for NF systems and repulsive for F systems and decreases exponentially with the bubbles distance. Moreover, for NF systems, the bubbles come closer and eventually merge as a single bubble, in a coalescence process. We also evidence a collapse process, in which one bubble shrinks in favor of the other one, overcoming an energetic barrier in phase space. This process is relevant for both NF systems and F systems. In NF systems, the coalescence prevails at low temperature, whereas thermally activated jumps make the collapse prevail at high temperature. In F systems, the path toward equilibrium involves a collapse process regardless of the temperature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreri, J. C.; Carmen, A. del
1998-01-01
A numerical study of the dynamics of pattern evolution in reaction-diffusion systems is performed, although limited to one spatial dimension. The diffusion coefficients are nonlinear, based on powers of the scalar variables. The system keeps the dynamics of previous studies in the literature, but the presence of nonlinear diffusion generates a field of strong nonlinear interactions due to the presence of receding travelling waves. This field is limited by the plane of symmetry of the space domain and the last born outgoing travelling wave. These effects are discussed. (author). 10 refs., 7 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pyun, J.J.
1981-01-01
As part of an effort to incorporate the variable Eulerian mesh into the second-order PIC computational method, a truncation error analysis was performed to calculate the second-order error terms for the variable Eulerian mesh system. The results that the maximum mesh size increment/decrement is limited to be α(Δr/sub i/) 2 where Δr/sub i/ is a non-dimensional mesh size of the ith cell, and α is a constant of order one. The numerical solutions of Burgers' equation by the second-order PIC method in the variable Eulerian mesh system wer compared with its exact solution. It was found that the second-order accuracy in the PIC method was maintained under the above condition. Additional problems were analyzed using the second-order PIC methods in both variable and uniform Eulerian mesh systems. The results indicate that the second-order PIC method in the variable Eulerian mesh system can provide substantial computational time saving with no loss in accuracy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pernot, P.
1982-01-01
A curved multiwire proportional drift chamber has been built as a general purpose instrument for X-ray scattering and X-ray diffraction experiments with synchrotron radiation. This parallaxe-free one-dimensional linear position sensitive detector has a parallel readout with a double hit logic. The data acquisition system, installed as a part of the D11 camera at LURE-DCI, is designed to perform time slicing and cyclic experiments; it has been used with either the fast multiwire chamber or a standard position sensitive detector with delay line readout [fr
Purkayastha, Archak; Dhar, Abhishek; Kulkarni, Manas
2017-11-01
We investigate and map out the nonequilibrium phase diagram of a generalization of the well known Aubry-André-Harper (AAH) model. This generalized AAH (GAAH) model is known to have a single-particle mobility edge which also has an additional self-dual property akin to that of the critical point of the AAH model. By calculating the population imbalance, we get hints of a rich phase diagram. We also find a fascinating connection between single particle wave functions near the mobility edge of the GAAH model and the wave functions of the critical AAH model. By placing this model far from equilibrium with the aid of two baths, we investigate the open system transport via system size scaling of nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) current, calculated by fully exact nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism. The critical point of the AAH model now generalizes to a `critical' line separating regions of ballistic and localized transport. Like the critical point of the AAH model, current scales subdiffusively with system size on the `critical' line (I ˜N-2 ±0.1 ). However, remarkably, the scaling exponent on this line is distinctly different from that obtained for the critical AAH model (where I ˜N-1.4 ±0.05 ). All these results can be understood from the above-mentioned connection between states near the mobility edge of the GAAH model and those of the critical AAH model. A very interesting high temperature nonequilibrium phase diagram of the GAAH model emerges from our calculations.
Aspects of Majorana Bound States in One-Dimensional Systems with and without Time-Reversal Symmetry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wölms, Konrad Udo Hannes
In recent years there has been a lot of interest in topological phases of matter. Unlike conventional phases of matter, topological phases are not distinguished by symmetries, but by so-called topological invariants which have more subtle physical implications. It comes therefore as no surprise...... phase the edge excitations are called Majorana bound states and they are interesting in themselves. There has been a lot of eort in detecting Majorana bound states in the lab. One reason is that these excitations provide evidence that a system is indeed in a topological phase. It is therefore required...... to have unambiguous experimental evidence for the presence Majorana bound states, which in turn requires a good theoretical understanding of the physics associated with Majorana bound states. In particular for the most common experimental methods that are used to study them, the signature of Majorana...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Scoullos
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Among the diverse research fields and wide range of studies encompassed by environmental magnetism, the present work elaborates on critical aspects of the geochemistry of trace metals that emerged through years of original research in a variety of environmental compartments. This review aims at sharing the insights gained on (a tracing metal pollution sources; and (b identifying processes and transport pathways from sources to depositional environments. Case studies on the Elefsis Gulf (Greece and the Gulf of Lions (France demonstrate the potential of combined magnetic measurements and chemical analysis to trace pollution signals resulting from land-based sources and atmospheric deposition. Case studies on estuarine environments, namely the Louros, Acheloos, and Asopos Estuaries (Greece, address modes of trace metal behavior under the influence of different hydrological regimes and elucidate in situ processes within the transitional estuarine zone, that define their ultimate fate. As sources, transport pathways, and processes of trace metals are fundamental in environmental management assessments, the involvement of magnetic measurements in the policy cycle could facilitate the development and implementation of appropriate regulatory measures for the integrated management of river basins, coastal, and marine areas.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wong, C.H., E-mail: ch.kh.vong@urfu.ru [Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Russian Federation); Wu, R.P.H., E-mail: pak-hong-raymond.wu@connect.polyu.hk [Department of Applied Physics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong); Lortz, R., E-mail: lortz@ust.hk [Department of Physics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong)
2017-03-15
The dimensional crossover from a 1D fluctuating state at high temperatures to a 3D phase coherent state in the low temperature regime in two coaxial weakly-coupled cylindrical surfaces formed by two-dimensional arrays of parallel nanowires is studied via an 8-state 3D-XY model. This system serves as a model for quasi-one-dimensional superconductors in the form of bundles of weakly-coupled superconducting nanowires. A periodic variation of the dimensional crossover temperature T{sub DC} is observed when the inner superconducting cylindrical surface is rotated in the angular plane. T{sub DC} reaches a maximum when the relative angle between the cylinders is 2.81°, which corresponds to the maximum separation of nanowires between the two cylindrical surfaces. We demonstrate that the relative strength of phase fluctuations in this system is controllable by the rotational angle between the two surfaces with a strong suppression of the fluctuation strength at 2.81°. The phase fluctuations are suppressed gradually upon cooling, before they abruptly vanish below T{sub DC}. Our model thus allows us to study how phase fluctuations can be suppressed in quasi-one-dimensional superconductors in order to achieve a global phase coherent state throughout the nanowire array with zero electric resistance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ono, Masayoshi; Tasaki, Seiji; Okamoto, Sunao
1989-01-01
A data acquisition system having the various modern electronic devices was designed and tested for practical use of neutron time-of-flight (TOF) measurements with multiple counters. The system is principally composed of TOF logic units (load-able up to 128 units) with a control unit and a conventional micro-computer. The TOF logic unit (main memory, 2048 ch, 24 bits/ch) demonstrates about 1.7 times higher efficiency for neutron counting rate per channel than the one by a conventional TOF logic unit. Meanwhile, some data-access functions of the TOF logic unit were applied to position sensitive analyzer of one-dimensional neutron PSD for small angle scattering. The analyzer was tested with use of pulse generator. The result shows good linearity. (author)
Wang, Yuwen
2016-09-22
We study the dynamics of an ultrafast single photon pulse in a one-dimensional waveguide two-point coupled with a Jaynes-Cummings system. We find that for any single photon input the transmissivity depends periodically on the separation between the two coupling points. For a pulse containing many plane wave components it is almost impossible to suppress transmission, especially when the width of the pulse is less than 20 times the period. In contrast to plane wave input, the waveform of the pulse can be modified by controlling the coupling between the waveguide and Jaynes-Cummings system. Tailoring of the waveform is important for single photon manipulation in quantum informatics. © The Author(s) 2016.
Martirosyan, A; Saakian, David B
2011-08-01
We apply the Hamilton-Jacobi equation (HJE) formalism to solve the dynamics of the chemical master equation (CME). We found exact analytical expressions (in large system-size limit) for the probability distribution, including explicit expression for the dynamics of variance of distribution. We also give the solution for some simple cases of the model with time-dependent rates. We derived the results of the Van Kampen method from the HJE approach using a special ansatz. Using the Van Kampen method, we give a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to define the variance in a two-dimensional case. We performed numerics for the CME with stationary noise. We give analytical criteria for the disappearance of bistability in the case of stationary noise in one-dimensional CMEs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
William Hansen
2017-12-01
Full Text Available A striking difference between the folk-narrative genres of legend and folktale is how the human characters respond to supernatural, otherworldly, or uncanny beings such as ghosts, gods, dwarves, giants, trolls, talking animals, witches, and fairies. In legend the human actors respond with fear and awe, whereas in folktale they treat such beings as if they were ordinary and unremarkable. Since folktale humans treat all characters as belonging to a single realm, folklorists have described the world of the folktale as one-dimensional, in contrast to the two-dimensionality of the legend. The present investigation examines dimensionality in the third major genre of folk narrative: myth. Using the Greek and Hebrew myths of primordial paradise as sample narratives, the present essay finds—surprisingly—that the humans in these stories respond to the otherworldly one-dimensionally, as folktale characters do, and suggests an explanation for their behavior that is peculiar to the world of myth.
QUASI-ONE DIMENSIONAL CLASSICAL FLUIDS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.K.Percus
2003-01-01
Full Text Available We study the equilibrium statistical mechanics of simple fluids in narrow pores. A systematic expansion is made about a one-dimensional limit of this system. It starts with a density functional, constructed from projected densities, which depends upon projected one and two-body potentials. The nature of higher order corrections is discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naymik, T.G.
1978-01-01
To evaluate the inability of a one-dimensional ground-water model to interact continuously with surrounding hydraulic head gradients, simulations using one-dimensional and two-dimensional ground-water flow models were compared. This approach used two types of models: flow-conserving one-and-two dimensional models, and one-dimensional and two-dimensional models designed to yield two-dimensional solutions. The hydraulic conductivities of controlling features were varied and model comparison was based on the travel times of marker particles. The solutions within each of the two model types compare reasonably well, but a three-dimensional solution is required to quantify the comparison
One dimensional model for polytypes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosato, A.
1979-01-01
The general expression for the dispersion relation for a polyatomic one dimensional crystal obtained by the Laplace Transform Method is applied to materials with the fcc and hcp structures, both consisting of close-packed planes of atoms with the stacking sequence of plane ABC/ABC... and AB/AB... respectively. The expression is also applied to polytypes, that is materials caracterized by a stacking sequence with longer repeat unit. The effective mass is cast in a condensed form useful for further calculations. The results from this simple model are only qualitative. (Author) [pt
Highly conducting one-dimensional solids
Evrard, Roger; Doren, Victor
1979-01-01
Although the problem of a metal in one dimension has long been known to solid-state physicists, it was not until the synthesis of real one-dimensional or quasi-one-dimensional systems that this subject began to attract considerable attention. This has been due in part to the search for high temperature superconductivity and the possibility of reaching this goal with quasi-one-dimensional substances. A period of intense activity began in 1973 with the report of a measurement of an apparently divergent conduc tivity peak in TfF-TCNQ. Since then a great deal has been learned about quasi-one-dimensional conductors. The emphasis now has shifted from trying to find materials of very high conductivity to the many interesting problems of physics and chemistry involved. But many questions remain open and are still under active investigation. This book gives a review of the experimental as well as theoretical progress made in this field over the last years. All the chapters have been written by scientists who have ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dupret, K.; Delande, D.
1996-01-01
We study the time propagation of an initially localized wave packet for a generic one-dimensional time-independent system, using the open-quote open-quote nonlinear wave-packet dynamics close-quote close-quote [S. Tomsovic and E. J. Heller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 664 (1991)], a semiclassical approximation using a local linearization of the wave packet in the vicinity of classical reference trajectories. Several reference trajectories are needed to describe the behavior of the full wave packet. The introduction of action-angle variables allows us to obtain a simple analytic expression for the autocorrelation function, and to show that a universal behavior (quantum collapses, quantum revivals, etc.) is obtained via interferences between the reference trajectories. A connection with the standard WKB approach is established. Finally, we apply the nonlinear wave-packet dynamics to the case of the hydrogen atom in a weak magnetic field, and show that the semiclassical expressions obtained by nonlinear wave-packet dynamics are extremely accurate. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
NMR studies at high magnetic fields of LiVGe_2O_6, a quasi one-dimensional spin S=1 system
Vonlanthen, P.; Tanaka, K. B.; Clark, W. G.; Gavilano, J. L.; Ott, H. R.; Millet, P.; Mila, F.; Kuhns, P.; Reyes, A. P.; Moulton, W. G.
2001-03-01
We report ^7Li NMR studies of LiVGe_2O_6, a quasi one-dimensional spin S=1 system. Our measurements include NMR spectra, the spin-lattice relaxation rate, T_1-1, and the spin-spin relaxation rate, T_2-1, obtained at magnetic fields (B) of 9 and 23 T and temperatures (T) over the range 1.8 - 300 K. The 9 T NMR spectra show a continuous transfer of spectral weight from a paramagnetic phase to an antiferromagnetic one in a narrow temperature range of about 2 K around the transition temperature TN ≈ 25 K. Both phases coexist in this range. Below 10 K, well into the antiferromagnetic phase, the T_1-1 measurements are consistent with electron spin excitations across an energy gap (Δ) with Δ/k_B≈ 14 K at 9 T and 11 K at about 23 T; i.e., applying a large B slightly reduces Δ. Changing B from 9 to 23 T increases TN by 1 K. Thus, TN is influenced only marginally by B up to 23 Tesla. The UCLA part of the work was supported by NSF Grants DMR-9705369 and DMR-0072524.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gyergyek, T.; Jurcic-Zlobec, B.; Cercek, M.
2008-01-01
Potential formation in a bounded plasma system that contains electrons with a two-temperature velocity distribution and is terminated by a floating, electron emitting electrode (collector) is studied by a one-dimensional kinetic model. A method on how to determine the boundary conditions at the collector for the numerical solution of the Poisson equation is presented. The difference between the regular and the irregular numerical solutions of the Poisson equation is explained. The regular numerical solution of the Poisson equation fulfills the boundary conditions at the source and can be computed for any distance from the collector. The irregular solution does not fulfill the source boundary conditions and the computation breaks down at some distance from the collector. An excellent agreement of the values of the potential at the inflection point found from the numerical solution of the Poisson equation with the values predicted by the analytical model is obtained. Potential, electric field, and particle density profiles found by the numerical solution of the Poisson equation are compared to the profiles obtained with the particle in cell computer simulation. A very good quantitative agreement of the potential and electric field profiles is obtained. For certain values of the parameters the analytical model predicts three possible values of the potential at the inflection point. In such cases always only one of the corresponding numerical solutions of the Poisson equation is regular, while the other two are irregular. The regular numerical solution of the Poisson equation always corresponds to the solution of the model that predicts the largest ion flux to the collector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lopez, G.
1993-12-01
A constant of motion is defined for a one-dimensional and nth-differenital-order autonomous svstem. A generalization of the Legendre transformation is given that allows one to obtain a relation among the constant of motion the Lagrangian, and the Hamiltonian. The approach is used to obtain the constant of motion associated with the nonrelativistic third-differential-order Abraham-Lorentz radiation damping equation
One-dimensional hypersonic phononic crystals.
Gomopoulos, N; Maschke, D; Koh, C Y; Thomas, E L; Tremel, W; Butt, H-J; Fytas, G
2010-03-10
We report experimental observation of a normal incidence phononic band gap in one-dimensional periodic (SiO(2)/poly(methyl methacrylate)) multilayer film at gigahertz frequencies using Brillouin spectroscopy. The band gap to midgap ratio of 0.30 occurs for elastic wave propagation along the periodicity direction, whereas for inplane propagation the system displays an effective medium behavior. The phononic properties are well captured by numerical simulations. The porosity in the silica layers presents a structural scaffold for the introduction of secondary active media for potential coupling between phonons and other excitations, such as photons and electrons.
One-dimensional nanomaterials for energy storage
Chen, Cheng; Fan, Yuqi; Gu, Jianhang; Wu, Liming; Passerini, Stefano; Mai, Liqiang
2018-03-01
The search for higher energy density, safer, and longer cycling-life energy storage systems is progressing quickly. One-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials have a large length-to-diameter ratio, resulting in their unique electrical, mechanical, magnetic and chemical properties, and have wide applications as electrode materials in different systems. This article reviews the latest hot topics in applying 1D nanomaterials, covering both their synthesis and their applications. 1D nanomaterials can be grouped into the categories: carbon, silicon, metal oxides, and conducting polymers, and we structure our discussion accordingly. Then, we survey the unique properties and application of 1D nanomaterials in batteries and supercapacitors, and provide comments on the progress and advantages of those systems, paving the way for a better understanding of employing 1D nanomaterials for energy storage.
Cohesive motion in one-dimensional flocking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dossetti, V
2012-01-01
A one-dimensional rule-based model for flocking, which combines velocity alignment and long-range centering interactions, is presented and studied. The induced cohesion in the collective motion of the self-propelled agents leads to unique group behavior that contrasts with previous studies. Our results show that the largest cluster of particles, in the condensed states, develops a mean velocity slower than the preferred one in the absence of noise. For strong noise, the system also develops a non-vanishing mean velocity, alternating its direction of motion stochastically. This allows us to address the directional switching phenomenon. The effects of different sources of stochasticity on the system are also discussed. (paper)
RETRAN-02 one-dimensional kinetics model: a review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gose, G.C.; McClure, J.A.
1986-01-01
RETRAN-02 is a modular code system that has been designed for one-dimensional, transient thermal-hydraulics analysis. In RETRAN-02, core power behavior may be treated using a one-dimensional reactor kinetics model. This model allows the user to investigate the interaction of time- and space-dependent effects in the reactor core on overall system behavior for specific LWR operational transients. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent analysis and development activities related to the one dimensional kinetics model in RETRAN-02
One-Dimensional Czedli-Type Islands
Horvath, Eszter K.; Mader, Attila; Tepavcevic, Andreja
2011-01-01
The notion of an island has surfaced in recent algebra and coding theory research. Discrete versions provide interesting combinatorial problems. This paper presents the one-dimensional case with finitely many heights, a topic convenient for student research.
Analytical solution of one dimensional temporally dependent ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
transfer of heat in fluids, flow through porous media, and the spread of ... In present paper, advection-dispersion equation is considered one dimensional longitudinal initially solute free semi- .... free. Thus initial and boundary conditions for eq.
One-dimensional photonic crystal design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mee, Cornelis van der; Contu, Pietro; Pintus, Paolo
2010-01-01
In this article we present a method to determine the band spectrum, band gaps, and discrete energy levels, of a one-dimensional photonic crystal with localized impurities. For one-dimensional crystals with piecewise constant refractive indices we develop an algorithm to recover the refractive index distribution from the period map. Finally, we derive the relationship between the period map and the scattering matrix containing the information on the localized modes.
Few quantum particles on one dimensional lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valiente Cifuentes, Manuel
2010-01-01
; it is found that the latter can show resonant scattering behavior. A new theorem, which characterizes all two-body bound states on a one-dimensional lattice with arbitrary finite range interactions, is proven here. The methods used for the simplest Hubbard models are then generalized to obtain exact results for arbitrary interactions and particle statistics. The problem of binding and scattering of three identical bosons is studied in detail, finding new types of bound states with no continuous space counterparts. The physics of these trimers is revealed by an effective model which is then applied to ''dimer''-''monomer'' scattering on the lattice. Stationary states of other lattice systems are also considered. First, the problems of binding and scattering of a single particle on a superlattice off a static impurity are analytically solved. Among the results obtained, the presence of a second bound state for any lattice and interaction strengths is highlighted. Second, a model of the harmonic oscillator on the lattice, preserving most of the properties of its continuous space analog, is presented and analytically solved. Two different models, being formally equivalent to the aforementioned lattice oscillator, are then constructed and solved exactly. Quantum transport of a a single particle and a bound particle pair on a onedimensional lattice superimposed with a weak trap is investigated. Based on the knowledge of the results obtained for stationary states, coherent, non-dispersive transport of one and two particles can be achieved. A surprising fact - repulsively bound pairs are tighter bound than those with attractive interaction - is found and physically explained in a simple way. (orig.)
Few quantum particles on one dimensional lattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Valiente Cifuentes, Manuel
2010-06-18
extended Hubbard models; it is found that the latter can show resonant scattering behavior. A new theorem, which characterizes all two-body bound states on a one-dimensional lattice with arbitrary finite range interactions, is proven here. The methods used for the simplest Hubbard models are then generalized to obtain exact results for arbitrary interactions and particle statistics. The problem of binding and scattering of three identical bosons is studied in detail, finding new types of bound states with no continuous space counterparts. The physics of these trimers is revealed by an effective model which is then applied to ''dimer''-''monomer'' scattering on the lattice. Stationary states of other lattice systems are also considered. First, the problems of binding and scattering of a single particle on a superlattice off a static impurity are analytically solved. Among the results obtained, the presence of a second bound state for any lattice and interaction strengths is highlighted. Second, a model of the harmonic oscillator on the lattice, preserving most of the properties of its continuous space analog, is presented and analytically solved. Two different models, being formally equivalent to the aforementioned lattice oscillator, are then constructed and solved exactly. Quantum transport of a a single particle and a bound particle pair on a onedimensional lattice superimposed with a weak trap is investigated. Based on the knowledge of the results obtained for stationary states, coherent, non-dispersive transport of one and two particles can be achieved. A surprising fact - repulsively bound pairs are tighter bound than those with attractive interaction - is found and physically explained in a simple way. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Keil, Andreas; Peuser, Jörn; Loeffler, Torsten
2011-01-01
An active stand-off imaging system operating at 230–320 GHz is presented. Imaging is achieved by combining a line array consisting of 8 sources and 16 detectors with a scanning cylindrical mirror system. The stand-off distance is 8 meters and the effective aperture of the system is 0.5 meters by ...
One-dimensional Gromov minimal filling problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanov, Alexandr O; Tuzhilin, Alexey A
2012-01-01
The paper is devoted to a new branch in the theory of one-dimensional variational problems with branching extremals, the investigation of one-dimensional minimal fillings introduced by the authors. On the one hand, this problem is a one-dimensional version of a generalization of Gromov's minimal fillings problem to the case of stratified manifolds. On the other hand, this problem is interesting in itself and also can be considered as a generalization of another classical problem, the Steiner problem on the construction of a shortest network connecting a given set of terminals. Besides the statement of the problem, we discuss several properties of the minimal fillings and state several conjectures. Bibliography: 38 titles.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marchukov, O. V.; Eriksen, E. H.; Midtgaard, J. M.
2016-01-01
-trivial geometric factors that depend solely on the geometry of the confinement through the single-particle eigenstates of the external potential. To obtain accurate effective Hamiltonians to describe such systems one needs to be able to compute these geometric factors with high precision which is difficult due...
Sounds in one-dimensional superfluid helium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Um, C.I.; Kahng, W.H.; Whang, E.H.; Hong, S.K.; Oh, H.G.; George, T.F.
1989-01-01
The temperature variations of first-, second-, and third-sound velocity and attenuation coefficients in one-dimensional superfluid helium are evaluated explicitly for very low temperatures and frequencies (ω/sub s/tau 2 , and the ratio of second sound to first sound becomes unity as the temperature decreases to absolute zero
Remarks for one-dimensional fractional equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Massimiliano Ferrara
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we study a class of one-dimensional Dirichlet boundary value problems involving the Caputo fractional derivatives. The existence of infinitely many solutions for this equations is obtained by exploiting a recent abstract result. Concrete examples of applications are presented.
Controlled size and one-dimensional growth
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
875–881. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Synthesis of azamacrocycle stabilized palladium nanoparticles: Controlled size and one-dimensional growth. JEYARAMAN ATHILAKSHMI and DILLIP KUMAR CHAND. ∗. Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, India e-mail: dillip@iitm.ac.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martins, M J
1987-12-31
It is shown that the Froehlich`s hamiltonian in one spatial dimension is identical to that of an exactly solvable field Theory. The spectrum of the theory is computed. A critical coupling is found above which the system becomes unstable, indicating a superconducting transition. It is also proposed and investigated a renormalizable relativistic field theory model in two space-time dimensions, with quartic self-interaction among N species of fermions, which undergoes dynamical generation of a superconducting gap and is asymptotically free. A finite temperature is introduced and, for N -> {infinity} a critical value T{sub c} is found above which the gap vanishes. (author).
A review on one dimensional perovskite nanocrystals for piezoelectric applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li-Qian Cheng
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In recent years, one-dimensional piezoelectric nanomaterials have become a research topic of interest because of their special morphology and excellent piezoelectric properties. This article presents a short review on one dimensional perovskite piezoelectric materials in different systems including Pb(Zr,TiO3, BaTiO3 and (K,NaNbO3 (KNN. We emphasize KNN as a promising lead-free piezoelectric compound with a high Curie temperature and high piezoelectric properties and describe its synthesis and characterization. In particular, details are presented for nanoscale piezoelectricity characterization of a single KNN nanocrystal by piezoresponse force microscopy. Finally, this review describes recent progress in applications based on one dimensional piezoelectric nanostructures with a focus on energy harvesting composite materials.
Realization of Configurable One-Dimensional Reflectarray
2017-08-31
experiments show strong signatures of beam steering that are dependent upon graphene doping. This seed grant has allowed our team to establish the essential...based, one-dimensional reflectarrays. Several immediate improvements to the device design and process flow are essential to suppress specular...beam steering that are dependent upon graphene doping. This seed grant has allowed our team to establish the essential operating procedures (i.e
Quasi-one-dimensional scattering in a discrete model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Valiente, Manuel; Mølmer, Klaus
2011-01-01
We study quasi-one-dimensional scattering of one and two particles with short-range interactions on a discrete lattice model in two dimensions. One of the directions is tightly confined by an arbitrary trapping potential. We obtain the collisional properties of these systems both at finite and zero...
One-dimensional position readout from microchannel plates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Connell, K.A.; Przybylski, M.M.
1982-01-01
The development of a one-dimensional position readout system with microchannel plates, is described, for heavy ion detectors for use in a particle time-of-flight telescope and as a position sensitive device in front of an ionisation counter at the Nuclear Structure Facility. (U.K.)
Quantum transport in strongly interacting one-dimensional nanostructures
Agundez, R.R.
2015-01-01
In this thesis we study quantum transport in several one-dimensional systems with strong electronic interactions. The first chapter contains an introduction to the concepts treated throughout this thesis, such as the Aharonov-Bohm effect, the Kondo effect, the Fano effect and quantum state transfer.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Efimov, V.N.; Schulz, H.
1976-01-01
It is shown that in the framework of the boundary condition models (BCM) for the two-particle interaction the Schroedinger equation for the system of three identical bosons can be reduced to the one-dimensional integral equation in an exact way. The method used for obtaining such an equation is based on a special consideration of the two-particle off-shell wave functions. The binding energy of the simple three-particle system is calculated. It is indicated that by means of the equation obtained it is possible to change the off-shell behaviour of the two-particle t-matrix and therefore to simulate three particle effects. (Auth.)
One-dimensional plasma simulation studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Friberg, Ari; Virtamo, Jorma
1976-01-01
Some basic plasma phenomena are studied by a one-dimensional electrostatic simulation code. A brief description of the code and its application to a test problem is given. The experiments carried out include Landau damping of an excited wave, particle retardation by smoothed field and beam-plasma instability. In each case, the set-up of the experiment is described and the results are compared with theoretical predictions. In the theoretical discussions, the oscillatory behaviour found in the Landau damping experiment is explained, an explicit formula for the particle retardation rate is derived and a rudimentary picture of the beam-plasma instability in terms of quasilinear theory is given. (author)
Solitons in one-dimensional antiferromagnetic chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pires, A.S.T.; Talim, S.L.; Costa, B.V.
1989-01-01
We study the quantum-statistical mechanics, at low temperatures, of a one-dimensional antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model with two anisotropies. In the weak-coupling limit we determine the temperature dependences of the soliton energy and the soliton density. We have found that the leading correction to the sine-Gordon (SG) expression for the soliton density and the quantum soliton energy comes from the out-of-plane magnon mode, not present in the pure SG model. We also show that when an external magnetic field is applied, the chain supports a new type of kink, where the sublattices rotate in opposite directions
Specificities of one-dimensional dissipative magnetohydrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Popov, P. V., E-mail: popov.pv@mipt.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)
2016-11-15
One-dimensional dynamics of a plane slab of cold (β ≪ 1) isothermal plasma accelerated by a magnetic field is studied in terms of the MHD equations with a finite constant conductivity. The passage to the limit β → 0 is analyzed in detail. It is shown that, at β = 0, the character of the solution depends substantially on the boundary condition for the electric field at the inner plasma boundary. The relationship between the boundary condition for the pressure at β > 0 and the conditions for the electric field at β = 0 is found. The stability of the solution against one-dimensional longitudinal perturbations is analyzed. It is shown that, in the limit β → 0, the stationary solution is unstable if the time during which the acoustic wave propagates across the slab is longer than the time of magnetic field diffusion. The growth rate and threshold of instability are determined, and results of numerical simulation of its nonlinear stage are presented.
Underwater striling engine design with modified one-dimensional model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daijin Li
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Stirling engines are regarded as an efficient and promising power system for underwater devices. Currently, many researches on one-dimensional model is used to evaluate thermodynamic performance of Stirling engine, but in which there are still some aspects which cannot be modeled with proper mathematical models such as mechanical loss or auxiliary power. In this paper, a four-cylinder double-acting Stirling engine for Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs is discussed. And a one-dimensional model incorporated with empirical equations of mechanical loss and auxiliary power obtained from experiments is derived while referring to the Stirling engine computer model of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA. The P-40 Stirling engine with sufficient testing results from NASA is utilized to validate the accuracy of this one-dimensional model. It shows that the maximum error of output power of theoretical analysis results is less than 18% over testing results, and the maximum error of input power is no more than 9%. Finally, a Stirling engine for UUVs is designed with Schmidt analysis method and the modified one-dimensional model, and the results indicate this designed engine is capable of showing desired output power.
One-Dimensional Modelling of Internal Ballistics
Monreal-González, G.; Otón-Martínez, R. A.; Velasco, F. J. S.; García-Cascáles, J. R.; Ramírez-Fernández, F. J.
2017-10-01
A one-dimensional model is introduced in this paper for problems of internal ballistics involving solid propellant combustion. First, the work presents the physical approach and equations adopted. Closure relationships accounting for the physical phenomena taking place during combustion (interfacial friction, interfacial heat transfer, combustion) are deeply discussed. Secondly, the numerical method proposed is presented. Finally, numerical results provided by this code (UXGun) are compared with results of experimental tests and with the outcome from a well-known zero-dimensional code. The model provides successful results in firing tests of artillery guns, predicting with good accuracy the maximum pressure in the chamber and muzzle velocity what highlights its capabilities as prediction/design tool for internal ballistics.
Stability model for one-dimensional FRCs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schwarzmeier, J.L.; Hewitt, T.G.; Lewis, H.R.; Seyler, C.E.; Symon, K.R.
1982-01-01
The subject of transport near the separatrix in FRC devices is important for determining the performance to be expected from an FRC reactor or from FRC experiments. A computer code was constructed for studying the micro-stability properties of FRCs near the separatrix as a first step in obtaining quasilinear transport coefficients that can be used in a transport code. We consider collisionless ions and electrons, without an expansion in powers of a parameter, like the electron or ion gyroradius, and we approximate the equilibrium with an infinitely long axially and translationally symmetric equilibrium. Thus, in our equilibria, there are only an axial magnetic field and a radial electric field. Our equilibria are collisionless, two-species, diffuse-profile, one-dimensional, theta-pinch equilibria. We allow the possibility that there be a magnetic field null in order to be able to model FRC devices more realistically
One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Superprisms
Ting, David
2005-01-01
Theoretical calculations indicate that it should be possible for one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystals (see figure) to exhibit giant dispersions known as the superprism effect. Previously, three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal superprisms have demonstrated strong wavelength dispersion - about 500 times that of conventional prisms and diffraction gratings. Unlike diffraction gratings, superprisms do not exhibit zero-order transmission or higher-order diffraction, thereby eliminating cross-talk problems. However, the fabrication of these 3D photonic crystals requires complex electron-beam substrate patterning and multilayer thin-film sputtering processes. The proposed 1D superprism is much simpler in structural complexity and, therefore, easier to design and fabricate. Like their 3D counterparts, the 1D superprisms can exhibit giant dispersions over small spectral bands that can be tailored by judicious structure design and tuned by varying incident beam direction. Potential applications include miniature gas-sensing devices.
Impurity modes in the one-dimensional XXZ Heisenberg model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sousa, J.M.; Leite, R.V.; Landim, R.R.; Costa Filho, R.N.
2014-01-01
A Green's function formalism is used to calculate the energy of impurity modes associated with one and/or two magnetic impurities in the one-dimensional Heisenberg XXZ magnetic chain. The system can be tuned from the Heisenberg to the Ising model varying a parameter λ. A numerical study is performed showing two types of localized modes (s and p). The modes depend on λ and the degeneracy of the acoustic modes is broken.
UNICIN - an one-dimensional computer code for reactor kinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosa, M.A.P.; Alcantara, H.G. de; Nair, R.P.K.
1984-01-01
A program for the solution of the time- and space-dependent multigroup diffusion equations and the delayed-neutron precursors concentration equations in one dimensional geometries by the weighted residual method is described. The discretized equations are solved through an iterative procedure with convergence accelerated by the over-relaxation method. The system is perturbed through the variation of the nuclide concentrations in specified regions. Two feedback effects are included, namely, the temperature and the burnup. (Author) [pt
One-dimensional crystal with a complex periodic potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boyd, John K.
2001-01-01
A one-dimensional crystal model is constructed with a complex periodic potential. A wave function solution for the crystal model is derived without relying on Bloch functions. The new wave function solution of this model is shown to correspond to the solution for the probability amplitude of a two-level system. The energy discriminant is evaluated using an analytic formula derived from the probability amplitude solution, and based on an expansion parameter related to the energy and potential amplitude. From the wave function energy discriminant the crystal band structure is derived and related to standard energy bands and gaps. It is also shown that several of the properties of the two-level system apply to the one-dimensional crystal model. The two-level system solution which evolves in time is shown to manifest as a spatial configuration of the one-dimensional crystal model. The sensitivity of the wave function probability density is interpreted in the context of the new solution. The spatial configuration of the wave function, and the appearance of a long wavelength in the wave function probability density is explained in terms of the properties of Bessel functions
One dimensional benchmark calculations using diffusion theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ustun, G.; Turgut, M.H.
1986-01-01
This is a comparative study by using different one dimensional diffusion codes which are available at our Nuclear Engineering Department. Some modifications have been made in the used codes to fit the problems. One of the codes, DIFFUSE, solves the neutron diffusion equation in slab, cylindrical and spherical geometries by using 'Forward elimination- Backward substitution' technique. DIFFUSE code calculates criticality, critical dimensions and critical material concentrations and adjoint fluxes as well. It is used for the space and energy dependent neutron flux distribution. The whole scattering matrix can be used if desired. Normalisation of the relative flux distributions to the reactor power, plotting of the flux distributions and leakage terms for the other two dimensions have been added. Some modifications also have been made for the code output. Two Benchmark problems have been calculated with the modified version and the results are compared with BBD code which is available at our department and uses same techniques of calculation. Agreements are quite good in results such as k-eff and the flux distributions for the two cases studies. (author)
One-dimensional model of inertial pumping
Kornilovitch, Pavel E.; Govyadinov, Alexander N.; Markel, David P.; Torniainen, Erik D.
2013-02-01
A one-dimensional model of inertial pumping is introduced and solved. The pump is driven by a high-pressure vapor bubble generated by a microheater positioned asymmetrically in a microchannel. The bubble is approximated as a short-term impulse delivered to the two fluidic columns inside the channel. Fluid dynamics is described by a Newton-like equation with a variable mass, but without the mass derivative term. Because of smaller inertia, the short column refills the channel faster and accumulates a larger mechanical momentum. After bubble collapse the total fluid momentum is nonzero, resulting in a net flow. Two different versions of the model are analyzed in detail, analytically and numerically. In the symmetrical model, the pressure at the channel-reservoir connection plane is assumed constant, whereas in the asymmetrical model it is reduced by a Bernoulli term. For low and intermediate vapor bubble pressures, both models predict the existence of an optimal microheater location. The predicted net flow in the asymmetrical model is smaller by a factor of about 2. For unphysically large vapor pressures, the asymmetrical model predicts saturation of the effect, while in the symmetrical model net flow increases indefinitely. Pumping is reduced by nonzero viscosity, but to a different degree depending on the microheater location.
Diffusiophoresis in one-dimensional solute gradients
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ault, Jesse T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Warren, Patrick B. [Unilever R& D Port Sunlight, Bebington (United Kingdom); Shin, Sangwoo [Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States); Stone, Howard A. [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States)
2017-11-06
Here, the diffusiophoretic motion of suspended colloidal particles under one-dimensional solute gradients is solved using numerical and analytical techniques. Similarity solutions are developed for the injection and withdrawal dynamics of particles into semi-infinite pores. Furthermore, a method of characteristics formulation of the diffusion-free particle transport model is presented and integrated to realize particle trajectories. Analytical solutions are presented for the limit of small particle diffusiophoretic mobility Γ_{p} relative to the solute diffusivity D_{s} for particle motions in both semi-infinite and finite domains. Results confirm the build up of local maxima and minima in the propagating particle front dynamics. The method of characteristics is shown to successfully predict particle motions and the position of the particle front, although it fails to accurately predict suspended particle concentrations in the vicinity of sharp gradients, such as at the particle front peak seen in some injection cases, where particle diffusion inevitably plays an important role. Results inform the design of applications in which the use of applied solute gradients can greatly enhance particle injection into and withdrawal from pores.
Diffusiophoresis in one-dimensional solute gradients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ault, Jesse T.; Warren, Patrick B.; Shin, Sangwoo; Stone, Howard A.
2017-01-01
Here, the diffusiophoretic motion of suspended colloidal particles under one-dimensional solute gradients is solved using numerical and analytical techniques. Similarity solutions are developed for the injection and withdrawal dynamics of particles into semi-infinite pores. Furthermore, a method of characteristics formulation of the diffusion-free particle transport model is presented and integrated to realize particle trajectories. Analytical solutions are presented for the limit of small particle diffusiophoretic mobility Γ p relative to the solute diffusivity D s for particle motions in both semi-infinite and finite domains. Results confirm the build up of local maxima and minima in the propagating particle front dynamics. The method of characteristics is shown to successfully predict particle motions and the position of the particle front, although it fails to accurately predict suspended particle concentrations in the vicinity of sharp gradients, such as at the particle front peak seen in some injection cases, where particle diffusion inevitably plays an important role. Results inform the design of applications in which the use of applied solute gradients can greatly enhance particle injection into and withdrawal from pores.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davidson, R.; Kozak, J.J.
1978-01-01
In this paper we study the emission of a two-level atom in a radiation field in the case where one mode of the field is assumed to be excited initially, and where the system is assumed to be of infinite extent. (The restriction to a one-dimensional field, which has been made throughout this series, is not essential: It is made chiefly for ease of presentation of the mathematical methods.) An exact expression is obtained for the probability rho (t) that the two-level quantum system is in the excited state at time t. This problem, previously unsolved in radiation theory, is tackled by reformulating the expression found in VII [J. Math. Phys. 16, 1013 (1975)] of this series for the time evolution of rho (t) in a finite system in the presence of an extra photon, and then constructing the infinite-system limit. A quantitative assessment of the role of the extra photon and of the coupling constant in influencing the dynamics is obtained by studying numerically the expression derived for rho (t) for a particular choice of initial condition. The study presented here casts light on the problem of time-reversal invariance and clarifies the sense in which exponential decay is universal; in particular, we find that: (1) It is the infinite-system limit which converts the time-reversible solutions of VII into the irreversible solution obtained here, and (2) it is the weak-coupling limit that imposes exponential form on the time dependence of the evolution of the system. The anticipated generalization of our methods to more complicated radiation-matter problems is discussed, and finally, several problems in radiation chemistry and physics, already accessible to exact analysis given the approach introduced here, are cited
One-dimensional neutron imager for the Sandia Z facility.
Fittinghoff, David N; Bower, Dan E; Hollaway, James R; Jacoby, Barry A; Weiss, Paul B; Buckles, Robert A; Sammons, Timothy J; McPherson, Leroy A; Ruiz, Carlos L; Chandler, Gordon A; Torres, José A; Leeper, Ramon J; Cooper, Gary W; Nelson, Alan J
2008-10-01
A multiinstitution collaboration is developing a neutron imaging system for the Sandia Z facility. The initial system design is for slit aperture imaging system capable of obtaining a one-dimensional image of a 2.45 MeV source producing 5x10(12) neutrons with a resolution of 320 microm along the axial dimension of the plasma, but the design being developed can be modified for two-dimensional imaging and imaging of DT neutrons with other resolutions. This system will allow us to understand the spatial production of neutrons in the plasmas produced at the Z facility.
Quasi-one-dimensional metals on semiconductor surfaces with defects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasegawa, Shuji
2010-01-01
Several examples are known in which massive arrays of metal atomic chains are formed on semiconductor surfaces that show quasi-one-dimensional metallic electronic structures. In this review, Au chains on Si(557) and Si(553) surfaces, and In chains on Si(111) surfaces, are introduced and discussed with regard to the physical properties determined by experimental data from scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and electrical conductivity measurements. They show quasi-one-dimensional Fermi surfaces and parabolic band dispersion along the chains. All of them are known from STM and ARPES to exhibit metal-insulator transitions by cooling and charge-density-wave formation due to Peierls instability of the metallic chains. The electrical conductivity, however, reveals the metal-insulator transition only on the less-defective surfaces (Si(553)-Au and Si(111)-In), but not on a more-defective surface (Si(557)-Au). The latter shows an insulating character over the whole temperature range. Compared with the electronic structure (Fermi surfaces and band dispersions), the transport property is more sensitive to the defects. With an increase in defect density, the conductivity only along the metal atomic chains was significantly reduced, showing that atomic-scale point defects decisively interrupt the electrical transport along the atomic chains and hide the intrinsic property of transport in quasi-one-dimensional systems.
Gravitational anomalies and one-dimensional behavior of black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Department of Physics, Guwahati, Assam (India)
2015-12-15
It has been pointed out by Bekenstein and Mayo that the behavior of the black hole's entropy or information flow is similar to information flow through one-dimensional channel. Here I analyze the same issue with the use of gravitational anomalies. The rate of the entropy change (S) and the power (P) of the Hawking emission are calculated from the relevant components of the anomalous stress tensor under the Unruh vacuum condition. I show that the dependence of S on the power is S ∝ P{sup 1/2}, which is identical to that for the information flow in a one-dimensional system. This is established by using the (1+1)-dimensional gravitational anomalies first. Then the fact is further bolstered by considering the (1+3)-dimensional gravitational anomalies. It is found that, in the former case, the proportionality constant is exactly identical to the one-dimensional situation, known as Pendry's formula, while in the latter situation its value decreases. (orig.)
GITTAM program for numerical simulation of one-dimensional targets TIS. Part 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arpishkin, Yu.P.; Basko, M.M.; Sokolovskij, M.V.
1989-01-01
A finite-difference algorithm for numeric solution of a system of one-dimensional hydrodynamics equation with heat conductivity, radiation diffusion and thermonuclear combustion is considered. The algorithm presented allows one to simulate one-dimensional thermonuclear targets for heavy-ion synthesis (HIS), irradiated with heavy ion beams. A brief description of a complex of GITTAM programs in which finite-difference algorithm for one-dimensional thermonuclear HIS target simulation is used, is given. 5 refs.; 3 figs
Integrability of the one dimensional Schrödinger equation
Combot, Thierry
2018-02-01
We present a definition of integrability for the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation, which encompasses all known integrable systems, i.e., systems for which the spectrum can be explicitly computed. For this, we introduce the class of rigid functions, built as Liouvillian functions, but containing all solutions of rigid differential operators in the sense of Katz, and a notion of natural of boundary conditions. We then make a complete classification of rational integrable potentials. Many new integrable cases are found, some of them physically interesting.
Hidden symmetries in one-dimensional quantum Hamiltonians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Curado, E.M.F.; Rego-Monteiro, M.A.; Nazareno, H.N.
2000-11-01
We construct a Heisenberg-like algebra for the one dimensional infinite square-well potential in quantum mechanics. The number-type and ladder operators are realized in terms of physical operators of the system as in the harmonic oscillator algebra. These physical operators are obtained with the help of variables used in a recently developed non commutative differential calculus. This square-well algebra is an example of an algebra in large class of generalized Heisenberg algebras recently constructed. This class of algebras also contains q-oscillators as a particular case. We also show here how this general algebra can address hidden symmetries present in several quantum systems. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salvador, F.J.; Gimeno, J.; De la Morena, J.; Carreres, M.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Effect of using diesel or biodiesel on injector hydraulic behavior has been analyzed. ► Single and main + post injections have been studied for different injection pressures. ► Higher viscosity affects needle dynamics, especially for low injection pressure. ► The post injection masses are lower for biodiesel fuel despite its higher density. ► Modified injector has been proposed to compensate the differences between the fuels. - Abstract: The influence of using biodiesel fuels on the hydraulic behavior of a solenoid operated common rail injection system has been explored by means of a one-dimensional model. This model has been previously obtained, including a complete characterization of the different components of the injector (mainly the nozzle, the injector holder and the electrovalve), and extensively validated by means of mass flow rate results under different conditions. After that, both single and multiple injection strategies have been analyzed, using a standard diesel fuel and rapeseed methyl ester (RME) as working fluids. Single long injections allowed the characterization of the hydraulic delay of the injector, the needle dynamics and the discharge capability of the couple injector-nozzle for the two fuels considered. Meanwhile, the effect of biodiesel on main plus post injection strategies has been evaluated in several aspects, such as the separation of the two injections or the effect of the main injection on the post injection fueling. Finally, a modification in the injector hardware has been proposed in order to have similar performances using biodiesel as the original injector configuration using standard diesel fuel.
Quantum quench in an atomic one-dimensional Ising chain.
Meinert, F; Mark, M J; Kirilov, E; Lauber, K; Weinmann, P; Daley, A J; Nägerl, H-C
2013-08-02
We study nonequilibrium dynamics for an ensemble of tilted one-dimensional atomic Bose-Hubbard chains after a sudden quench to the vicinity of the transition point of the Ising paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic quantum phase transition. The quench results in coherent oscillations for the orientation of effective Ising spins, detected via oscillations in the number of doubly occupied lattice sites. We characterize the quench by varying the system parameters. We report significant modification of the tunneling rate induced by interactions and show clear evidence for collective effects in the oscillatory response.
Ordering phase transition in the one-dimensional Axelrod model
Vilone, D.; Vespignani, A.; Castellano, C.
2002-12-01
We study the one-dimensional behavior of a cellular automaton aimed at the description of the formation and evolution of cultural domains. The model exhibits a non-equilibrium transition between a phase with all the system sharing the same culture and a disordered phase of coexisting regions with different cultural features. Depending on the initial distribution of the disorder the transition occurs at different values of the model parameters. This phenomenology is qualitatively captured by a mean-field approach, which maps the dynamics into a multi-species reaction-diffusion problem.
One-dimensional calculation of flow branching using the method of characteristics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meier, R.W.; Gido, R.G.
1978-05-01
In one-dimensional flow systems, the flow often branches, such as at a tee or manifold. The study develops a formulation for calculating the flow through branch points with one-dimensional method of characteristics equations. The resultant equations were verified by comparison with experimental measurements
MARCUSE’S ONE-DIMENSIONAL SOCIETY IN ONE-DIMENSIONAL MAN
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MILOS RASTOVIC
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Nowadays, Marcuse’s main book One-Dimensional Man is almost obsolete, or rather passé. However, there are reasons to renew the reading of his book because of “the crisis of capitalism,” and the prevailing framework of technological domination in “advanced industrial society” in which we live today. “The new forms of control” in “advanced industrial societies” have replaced traditional methods of political and economic administration. The dominant structural element of “advanced industrial society” has become a technical and scientific apparatus of production and distribution of technology and administrative practice based on application of impersonal rules by a hierarchy of associating authorities. Technology has been liberated from the control of particular interests, and it has become the factor of domination in itself. Technological domination stems from the technical development of the productive apparatus that reproduces its ability into all spheres of social life (cultural, political, and economic. Based upon this consideration, in this paper, I will examine Marcuse’s ideas of “the new forms of control,” which creates a one–dimensional society. Marcuse’s fundamental thesis in One-Dimensional Man is that technological rationality is the most dominant factor in an “advanced industrial society,” which unites two earlier opposing forces of dissent: the bourgeoisie and the proletariat.
One-Dimensional Forward–Forward Mean-Field Games
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gomes, Diogo A., E-mail: diogo.gomes@kaust.edu.sa; Nurbekyan, Levon; Sedjro, Marc [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), CEMSE Division (Saudi Arabia)
2016-12-15
While the general theory for the terminal-initial value problem for mean-field games (MFGs) has achieved a substantial progress, the corresponding forward–forward problem is still poorly understood—even in the one-dimensional setting. Here, we consider one-dimensional forward–forward MFGs, study the existence of solutions and their long-time convergence. First, we discuss the relation between these models and systems of conservation laws. In particular, we identify new conserved quantities and study some qualitative properties of these systems. Next, we introduce a class of wave-like equations that are equivalent to forward–forward MFGs, and we derive a novel formulation as a system of conservation laws. For first-order logarithmic forward–forward MFG, we establish the existence of a global solution. Then, we consider a class of explicit solutions and show the existence of shocks. Finally, we examine parabolic forward–forward MFGs and establish the long-time convergence of the solutions.
One-Dimensional Forward–Forward Mean-Field Games
Gomes, Diogo A.; Nurbekyan, Levon; Sedjro, Marc
2016-01-01
While the general theory for the terminal-initial value problem for mean-field games (MFGs) has achieved a substantial progress, the corresponding forward–forward problem is still poorly understood—even in the one-dimensional setting. Here, we consider one-dimensional forward–forward MFGs, study the existence of solutions and their long-time convergence. First, we discuss the relation between these models and systems of conservation laws. In particular, we identify new conserved quantities and study some qualitative properties of these systems. Next, we introduce a class of wave-like equations that are equivalent to forward–forward MFGs, and we derive a novel formulation as a system of conservation laws. For first-order logarithmic forward–forward MFG, we establish the existence of a global solution. Then, we consider a class of explicit solutions and show the existence of shocks. Finally, we examine parabolic forward–forward MFGs and establish the long-time convergence of the solutions.
One-Dimensional Forward–Forward Mean-Field Games
Gomes, Diogo A.
2016-11-01
While the general theory for the terminal-initial value problem for mean-field games (MFGs) has achieved a substantial progress, the corresponding forward–forward problem is still poorly understood—even in the one-dimensional setting. Here, we consider one-dimensional forward–forward MFGs, study the existence of solutions and their long-time convergence. First, we discuss the relation between these models and systems of conservation laws. In particular, we identify new conserved quantities and study some qualitative properties of these systems. Next, we introduce a class of wave-like equations that are equivalent to forward–forward MFGs, and we derive a novel formulation as a system of conservation laws. For first-order logarithmic forward–forward MFG, we establish the existence of a global solution. Then, we consider a class of explicit solutions and show the existence of shocks. Finally, we examine parabolic forward–forward MFGs and establish the long-time convergence of the solutions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Hao; Shi Tianjun
2011-01-01
In this article,the qualities of Wigner function and the corresponding stationary perturbation theory are introduced and applied to one-dimensional infinite potential well and one-dimensional harmonic oscillator, and then the particular Wigner function of one-dimensional infinite potential well is specified and a special constriction effect in its pure state Wigner function is discovered, to which,simultaneously, a detailed and reasonable explanation is elaborated from the perspective of uncertainty principle. Ultimately, the amendment of Wigner function and energy of one-dimensional infinite potential well and one-dimensional harmonic oscillator under perturbation are calculated according to stationary phase space perturbation theory. (authors)
Non-equilibrium dynamics of one-dimensional Bose gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Langen, T.
2013-01-01
Understanding the non-equilibrium dynamics of isolated quantum many-body systems is an open problem on vastly different energy, length, and time scales. Examples range from the dynamics of the early universe and heavy-ion collisions to the subtle coherence and transport properties in condensed matter physics. However, realizations of such quantum many-body systems, which are both well isolated from the environment and accessible to experimental study are scarce. This thesis presents a series of experiments with ultracold one-dimensional Bose gases. These gases combine a nearly perfect isolation from the environment with many well-established methods to manipulate and probe their quantum states. This makes them an ideal model system to explore the physics of quantum many body systems out of equilibrium. In the experiments, a well-defined non-equilibrium state is created by splitting a single one-dimensional gas coherently into two parts. The relaxation of this state is probed using matter-wave interferometry. The Observations reveal the emergence of a prethermalized steady state which differs strongly from thermal equilibrium. Such thermal-like states had previously been predicted for a large variety of systems, but never been observed directly. Studying the relaxation process in further detail shows that the thermal correlations of the prethermalized state emerge locally in their final form and propagate through the system in a light-cone-like evolution. This provides first experimental evidence for the local relaxation conjecture, which links relaxation processes in quantum many-body systems to the propagation of correlations. Furthermore, engineering the initial state of the evolution demonstrates that the prethermalized state is described by a generalized Gibbs ensemble, an observation which substantiates the importance of this ensemble as an extension of standard statistical mechanics. Finally, an experiment is presented, where pairs of gases with an atom
Bjorken flow in one-dimensional relativistic magnetohydrodynamics with magnetization
Pu, Shi; Roy, Victor; Rezzolla, Luciano; Rischke, Dirk H.
2016-04-01
We study the one-dimensional, longitudinally boost-invariant motion of an ideal fluid with infinite conductivity in the presence of a transverse magnetic field, i.e., in the ideal transverse magnetohydrodynamical limit. In an extension of our previous work Roy et al., [Phys. Lett. B 750, 45 (2015)], we consider the fluid to have a nonzero magnetization. First, we assume a constant magnetic susceptibility χm and consider an ultrarelativistic ideal gas equation of state. For a paramagnetic fluid (i.e., with χm>0 ), the decay of the energy density slows down since the fluid gains energy from the magnetic field. For a diamagnetic fluid (i.e., with χmlaw ˜τ-a, two distinct solutions can be found depending on the values of a and χm. Finally, we also solve the ideal magnetohydrodynamical equations for one-dimensional Bjorken flow with a temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility and a realistic equation of state given by lattice-QCD data. We find that the temperature and energy density decay more slowly because of the nonvanishing magnetization. For values of the magnetic field typical for heavy-ion collisions, this effect is, however, rather small. It is only for magnetic fields about an order of magnitude larger than expected for heavy-ion collisions that the system is substantially reheated and the lifetime of the quark phase might be extended.
One-dimensional Ising model with multispin interactions
Turban, Loïc
2016-09-01
We study the spin-1/2 Ising chain with multispin interactions K involving the product of m successive spins, for general values of m. Using a change of spin variables the zero-field partition function of a finite chain is obtained for free and periodic boundary conditions and we calculate the two-spin correlation function. When placed in an external field H the system is shown to be self-dual. Using another change of spin variables the one-dimensional Ising model with multispin interactions in a field is mapped onto a zero-field rectangular Ising model with first-neighbour interactions K and H. The 2D system, with size m × N/m, has the topology of a cylinder with helical BC. In the thermodynamic limit N/m\\to ∞ , m\\to ∞ , a 2D critical singularity develops on the self-duality line, \\sinh 2K\\sinh 2H=1.
One-Dimensional Time to Explosion (Thermal Sensitivity) of ANPZ
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hsu, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hust, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McClelland, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gresshoff, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2014-11-12
Incidents caused by fire and combat operations can heat energetic materials that may lead to thermal explosion and result in structural damage and casualty. Some explosives may thermally explode at fairly low temperatures (< 100 C) and the violence from thermal explosion may cause a significant damage. Thus it is important to understand the response of energetic materials to thermal insults. The One Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been used for decades to measure times to explosion, threshold thermal explosion temperature, and determine kinetic parameters of energetic materials. Samples of different configurations (pressed part, powder, paste, and liquid) can be tested in the system. The ODTX testing can also provide useful data for assessing the thermal explosion violence of energetic materials. This report summarizes the recent ODTX experimental data and modeling results for 2,6-diamino-3,5-dintropyrazine (ANPZ).
Well-posedness of one-dimensional Korteweg models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sylvie Benzoni-Gavage
2006-05-01
Full Text Available We investigate the initial-value problem for one-dimensional compressible fluids endowed with internal capillarity. We focus on the isothermal inviscid case with variable capillarity. The resulting equations for the density and the velocity, consisting of the mass conservation law and the momentum conservation with Korteweg stress, are a system of third order nonlinear dispersive partial differential equations. Additionally, this system is Hamiltonian and admits travelling solutions, representing propagating phase boundaries with internal structure. By change of unknown, it roughly reduces to a quasilinear Schrodinger equation. This new formulation enables us to prove local well-posedness for smooth perturbations of travelling profiles and almost-global existence for small enough perturbations. A blow-up criterion is also derived.
Quasi one dimensional transport in individual electrospun composite nanofibers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Avnon, A., E-mail: avnon@phys.fu-berlin.de; Datsyuk, V.; Trotsenko, S. [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Wang, B.; Zhou, S. [Research Center of Microperipheric Technologies, Technische Universität Berlin, TiB4/2-1, Gustav-Meyer-Allee 25, 13355 Berlin (Germany); Grabbert, N.; Ngo, H.-D. [Microsystem Engineering (FB I), University of Applied Sciences, Wilhelminenhofstr. 74 (C 525), 12459 Berlin (Germany)
2014-01-15
We present results of transport measurements of individual suspended electrospun nanofibers Poly(methyl methacrylate)-multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The nanofiber is comprised of highly aligned consecutive multiwalled carbon nanotubes. We have confirmed that at the range temperature from room temperature down to ∼60 K, the conductance behaves as power-law of temperature with an exponent of α ∼ 2.9−10.2. The current also behaves as power law of voltage with an exponent of β ∼ 2.3−8.6. The power-law behavior is a footprint for one dimensional transport. The possible models of this confined system are discussed. Using the model of Luttinger liquid states in series, we calculated the exponent for tunneling into the bulk of a single multiwalled carbon nanotube α{sub bulk} ∼ 0.06 which agrees with theoretical predictions.
Dynamics of an impurity in a one-dimensional lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Massel, F; Kantian, A; Giamarchi, T; Daley, A J; Törmä, P
2013-01-01
We study the non-equilibrium dynamics of an impurity in a harmonic trap that is kicked with a well-defined quasi-momentum, and interacts with a bath of free fermions or interacting bosons in a one-dimensional lattice configuration. Using numerical and analytical techniques we investigate the full dynamics beyond linear response, which allows us to quantitatively characterize states of the impurity in the bath for different parameter regimes. These vary from a tightly bound molecular state in a strongly interacting limit to a polaron (dressed impurity) and a free particle for weak interactions, with composite behaviour in the intermediate regime. These dynamics and different parameter regimes should be readily realizable in systems of cold atoms in optical lattices. (paper)
Piezoelectric transducer vibrations in a one-dimensional approximation
Hilke, H J
1973-01-01
The theory of piezoelectric transducer vibrations, which may be treated as one-dimensional, is developed in detail for thin discs vibrating in a pure thickness extensional mode. An effort has been made to obtain relations of general validity, which include losses, and which are in a simple explicit form convenient for practical calculations. The behaviour of transducers is discussed with special attention to their characteristics at the two fundamental frequencies, the so-called parallel and series resonances. Several peculiarities occur when transducers are coupled to media with considerably different acoustic impedances. These peculiarities are discussed and illustrated by numerical results for quartz and PZT 4 piezoelectric discs radiating into water, air and liquid hydrogen. The application of the theory to different types of vibrations is briefly illustrated for thin bars vibrating longitudinally. Short discussions are included on compound transducer systems, and on the properties of thin discs as receiv...
Hidden magnetism in periodically modulated one dimensional dipolar fermions
Fazzini, S.; Montorsi, A.; Roncaglia, M.; Barbiero, L.
2017-12-01
The experimental realization of time-dependent ultracold lattice systems has paved the way towards the implementation of new Hubbard-like Hamiltonians. We show that in a one-dimensional two-components lattice dipolar Fermi gas the competition between long range repulsion and correlated hopping induced by periodically modulated on-site interaction allows for the formation of hidden magnetic phases, with degenerate protected edge modes. The magnetism, characterized solely by string-like nonlocal order parameters, manifests in the charge and/or in the spin degrees of freedom. Such behavior is enlighten by employing Luttinger liquid theory and numerical methods. The range of parameters for which hidden magnetism is present can be reached by means of the currently available experimental setups and probes.
Asymmetrically doped one-dimensional trans-polymers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caldas, Heron
2009-01-01
More than 30 years ago [H. Shirakawa, E.J. Louis, A.G. MacDiarmid, C.K. Chiang, A.J. Heeger, J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Comm. 578 (1977); S. Etemad, A.J. Heeger, Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 33 (1982) 443] it was discovered that doped trans-polyacetylene (CH) x , a one-dimensional (1D) conjugated polymer, exhibits electrical conductivity. In this work we show that an asymmetrically doped 1D trans-polymer has non-conventional properties, as compared to symmetrically doped systems. Depending on the level of asymmetry between the chemical potentials of the two involved fermionic species, the polymer can be in a partially or fully spin polarized state. Some possible experimental consequences of doped 1D trans-polymers used as 1D organic polarized conductors are discussed.
Critical exponents in the transition to chaos in one-dimensional ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The transition from periodic to chaotic behavior in one-dimensional discrete dynamical systems .... consider the reverse sequence from µb to µ∞, a ... at which the change from one scaling region to another takes place, with the higher order. 12.
Plasma properties of quasi-one-dimensional ring
Shmelev, G M
2001-01-01
The plasma properties of the quasi-one-dimensional ring in the threshold cases of low and high frequencies, corresponding to the plasma oscillations and dielectric relaxation are studied within the frames of the classical approach. The plasma oscillations spectrum and the electron dielectric relaxation frequency in the quasi-one-dimensional ring are calculated. The plasmons spectrum equidistance is identified. It is shown , that in contrast to the three-dimensional case there takes place the dielectric relaxation dispersion, wherefrom there follows the possibility of studying the carriers distribution in the quasi-one-dimensional rings through the method of the dielectric relaxation spectroscopy
Explicit Solutions for One-Dimensional Mean-Field Games
Prazeres, Mariana
2017-01-01
In this thesis, we consider stationary one-dimensional mean-field games (MFGs) with or without congestion. Our aim is to understand the qualitative features of these games through the analysis of explicit solutions. We are particularly interested
Negative differential resistance in a one-dimensional molecular wire ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
voltage characteristics of a one-dimensional molecular wire with odd number of ... lem, although interesting both from a fundamental point of view and in terms of ..... SKP acknowledges the DST, Government of India, for financial support.
The one-dimensional extended Bose–Hubbard model
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Unknown
method to obtain the zero-temperature phase diagram of the one-dimensional, extended ... Progress in this field has been driven by an interplay between ... superconductor-insulator transition in thin films of superconducting materials like bis-.
One-dimensional reactor kinetics model for RETRAN
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gose, G.C.; Peterson, C.E.; Ellis, N.L.; McClure, J.A.
1981-01-01
This paper describes a one-dimensional spatial neutron kinetics model that was developed for the RETRAN code. The RETRAN -01 code has a point kinetics model to describe the reactor core behavior during thermal-hydraulic transients. A one-dimensional neutronics model has been developed for RETRAN-02. The ability to account for flux shape changes will permit an improved representation of the thermal and hydraulic feedback effects for many operational transients. 19 refs
One dimensional models of excitons in carbon nanotubes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cornean, Horia Decebal; Duclos, P.; Pedersen, Thomas Garm
Excitons in carbon nanotubes may be modeled by two oppositely charged particles living on the surface of a cylinder. We derive three one dimensional effective Hamiltonians which become exact as the radius of the cylinder vanishes. Two of them are solvable.......Excitons in carbon nanotubes may be modeled by two oppositely charged particles living on the surface of a cylinder. We derive three one dimensional effective Hamiltonians which become exact as the radius of the cylinder vanishes. Two of them are solvable....
Spin glasses and algorithm benchmarks: A one-dimensional view
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Katzgraber, H G
2008-01-01
Spin glasses are paradigmatic models that deliver concepts relevant for a variety of systems. However, rigorous analytical results are difficult to obtain for spin-glass models, in particular for realistic short-range models. Therefore large-scale numerical simulations are the tool of choice. Concepts and algorithms derived from the study of spin glasses have been applied to diverse fields in computer science and physics. In this work a one-dimensional long-range spin-glass model with power-law interactions is discussed. The model has the advantage over conventional systems in that by tuning the power-law exponent of the interactions the effective space dimension can be changed thus effectively allowing the study of large high-dimensional spin-glass systems to address questions as diverse as the existence of an Almeida-Thouless line, ultrametricity and chaos in short range spin glasses. Furthermore, because the range of interactions can be changed, the model is a formidable test-bed for optimization algorithms
BERMUDA-1DG: a one-dimensional photon transport code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Tomoo; Hasegawa, Akira; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Kunio.
1984-10-01
A one-dimensional photon transport code BERMUDA-1DG has been developed for spherical and infinite slab geometries. The purpose of development is to equip the function of gamma rays calculation for the BERMUDA code system, which was developed by 1983 only for neutron transport calculation as a preliminary version. A group constants library has been prepared for 30 nuclides, and it now consists of the 36-group total cross sections and secondary gamma ray yields by the 120-group neutron flux. For the Compton scattering, group-angle transfer matrices are accurately obtained by integrating the Klein-Nishina formula taking into account the energy and scattering angle correlation. The pair production cross sections are now calculated in the code from atomic number and midenergy of each group. To obtain angular flux distribution, the transport equation is solved in the same way as in case of neutron, using the direct integration method in a multigroup model. Both of an independent gamma ray source problem and a neutron-gamma source problem are possible to be solved. This report is written as a user's manual with a brief description of the calculational method. (author)
One dimensional coordination polymers: Synthesis, crystal structures and spectroscopic properties
Karaağaç, Dursun; Kürkçüoğlu, Güneş Süheyla; Şenyel, Mustafa; Şahin, Onur
2016-11-01
Two new one dimensional (1D) cyanide complexes, namely [M(4-aepy)2(H2O)2][Pt(CN)4], (4-aepy = 4-(2-aminoethyl)pyridine M = Cu(II) (1) or Zn(II) (2)), have been synthesized and characterized by vibrational (FT-IR and Raman) spectroscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, thermal and elemental analyses techniques. The crystallographic analyses reveal that 1 and 2 are isomorphous and isostructural, and crystallize in the monoclinic system and C2 space group. The Pt(II) ions are coordinated by four cyanide-carbon atoms in the square-planar geometry and the [Pt(CN)4]2- ions act as a counter ion. The M(II) ions display an N4O2 coordination sphere with a distorted octahedral geometry, the nitrogen donors belonging to four molecules of the organic 4-aepy that act as unidentate ligands and two oxygen atoms from aqua ligands. The crystal structures of 1 and 2 are similar each other and linked via intermolecular hydrogen bonding, Pt⋯π interactions to form 3D supramolecular network. Vibration assignments of all the observed bands are given and the spectral features also supported to the crystal structures of the complexes.
Tunneling and resonant conductance in one-dimensional molecular structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kozhushner, M.A.; Posvyanskii, V.S.; Oleynik, I.I.
2005-01-01
We present a theory of tunneling and resonant transitions in one-dimensional molecular systems which is based on Green's function theory of electron sub-barrier scattering off the structural units (or functional groups) of a molecular chain. We show that the many-electron effects are of paramount importance in electron transport and they are effectively treated using a formalism of sub-barrier scattering operators. The method which calculates the total scattering amplitude of the bridge molecule not only predicts the enhancement of the amplitude of tunneling transitions in course of tunneling electron transfer through onedimensional molecular structures but also allows us to interpret conductance mechanisms by calculating the bound energy spectrum of the tunneling electron, the energies being obtained as poles of the total scattering amplitude of the bridge molecule. We found that the resonant tunneling via bound states of the tunneling electron is the major mechanism of electron conductivity in relatively long organic molecules. The sub-barrier scattering technique naturally includes a description of tunneling in applied electric fields which allows us to calculate I-V curves at finite bias. The developed theory is applied to explain experimental findings such as bridge effect due to tunneling through organic molecules, and threshold versus Ohmic behavior of the conductance due to resonant electron transfer
New Poisson–Boltzmann type equations: one-dimensional solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Chiun-Chang; Lee, Hijin; Hyon, YunKyong; Lin, Tai-Chia; Liu, Chun
2011-01-01
The Poisson–Boltzmann (PB) equation is conventionally used to model the equilibrium of bulk ionic species in different media and solvents. In this paper we study a new Poisson–Boltzmann type (PB n ) equation with a small dielectric parameter ε 2 and non-local nonlinearity which takes into consideration the preservation of the total amount of each individual ion. This equation can be derived from the original Poisson–Nernst–Planck system. Under Robin-type boundary conditions with various coefficient scales, we demonstrate the asymptotic behaviours of one-dimensional solutions of PB n equations as the parameter ε approaches zero. In particular, we show that in case of electroneutrality, i.e. α = β, solutions of 1D PB n equations have a similar asymptotic behaviour as those of 1D PB equations. However, as α ≠ β (non-electroneutrality), solutions of 1D PB n equations may have blow-up behaviour which cannot be found in 1D PB equations. Such a difference between 1D PB and PB n equations can also be verified by numerical simulations
Localization properties of one-dimensional electrified chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ouasti, R.; Brezini, A.; Zekri, N.
1993-08-01
A Kronig-Penney model with a constant electric filed for a non-interacting electron is used to study the transmission properties of Anderson transition in one-dimensional (1-D) systems with disordered strengths of δ-function potentials. we examined the cases where the potential varies uniformly from O to W (barriers) or from -W to O (wells) for a given disorder W. Mainly, we observe unexpected abrupt transition at the points E + Fx = n 2 π 2 . However, these transitions are related to the small oscillations observed by Soukoulis et al. in the mixed case (wells and barriers). An interesting feature in the wells is that in the presence of a small field the states become more localized and the localization length decrease up to a minimum for a critical value F m . In the end, we have studied the effect of the disorder on the Anderson transition by the mean of the participation ratio and the localization length. (author). 27 refs, 6 figs
Integral Transport Theory in One-dimensional Geometries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carlvik, I
1966-06-15
A method called DIT (Discrete Integral Transport) has been developed for the numerical solution of the transport equation in one-dimensional systems. The characteristic features of the method are Gaussian integration over the coordinate as described by Kobayashi and Nishihara, and a particular scheme for the calculation of matrix elements in annular and spherical geometry that has been used for collision probabilities in earlier Flurig programmes. The paper gives a general theory including such things as anisotropic scattering and multi-pole fluxes, and it gives a brief description of the Flurig scheme. Annular geometry is treated in some detail, and corresponding formulae are given for spherical and plane geometry. There are many similarities between DIT and the method of collision probabilities. DIT is in many cases faster, because for a certain accuracy in the fluxes DIT often needs fewer space points than the method of collision probabilities needs regions. Several computer codes using DIT, both one-group and multigroup, have been written. It is anticipated that experience gained in calculations with these codes will be reported in another paper.
Magnetic ordering in arrays of one-dimensional nanoparticle chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Serantes, D; Baldomir, D; Pereiro, M; Hernando, B; Prida, V M; Sanchez Llamazares, J L; Zhukov, A; Ilyn, M; Gonzalez, J
2009-01-01
The magnetic order in parallel-aligned one-dimensional (1D) chains of magnetic nanoparticles is studied using a Monte Carlo technique. If the easy anisotropy axes are collinear along the chains a macroscopic mean-field approach indicates antiferromagnetic (AFM) order even when no interparticle interactions are taken into account, which evidences that a mean-field treatment is inadequate for the study of the magnetic order in these highly anisotropic systems. From the direct microscopic analysis of the evolution of the magnetic moments, we observe spontaneous intra-chain ferromagnetic (FM)-type and inter-chain AFM-type ordering at low temperatures (although not completely regular) for the easy-axes collinear case, whereas a random distribution of the anisotropy axes leads to a sort of intra-chain AFM arrangement with no inter-chain regular order. When the magnetic anisotropy is neglected a perfectly regular intra-chain FM-like order is attained. Therefore it is shown that the magnetic anisotropy, and particularly the spatial distribution of the easy axes, is a key parameter governing the magnetic ordering type of 1D-nanoparticle chains.
Transmission properties of one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shiveshwari, Laxmi; Awasthi, S. K.
2015-01-01
Omnidirectional photonic band gaps (PBGs) are found in one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals (PPC) composed of single negative metamaterials. The band characteristics and transmission properties are investigated through the transfer matrix method. We show that the proposed structure can trap light in three-dimensional space due to the elimination of Brewster's angle transmission resonance allowing the existence of complete PBG. The results are discussed in terms of incident angle, layer thickness, dielectric constant of the dielectric material, and number of unit cells (N) for TE and TM polarizations. It is seen that PBG characteristics is apparent even in an N ≥ 2 system, which is weakly sensitive to the incident angle and completely insensitive to the polarization. Finite PPC could be used for multichannel transmission filter without introducing any defect in the geometry. We show that the locations of the multichannel transmission peaks are in the allowed band of the infinite structure. The structure can work as a single or multichannel filter by varying the number of unit cells. Binary PPC can also work as a polarization sensitive tunable filter
Fractal geometry in an expanding, one-dimensional, Newtonian universe.
Miller, Bruce N; Rouet, Jean-Louis; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel
2007-09-01
Observations of galaxies over large distances reveal the possibility of a fractal distribution of their positions. The source of fractal behavior is the lack of a length scale in the two body gravitational interaction. However, even with new, larger, sample sizes from recent surveys, it is difficult to extract information concerning fractal properties with confidence. Similarly, three-dimensional N-body simulations with a billion particles only provide a thousand particles per dimension, far too small for accurate conclusions. With one-dimensional models these limitations can be overcome by carrying out simulations with on the order of a quarter of a million particles without compromising the computation of the gravitational force. Here the multifractal properties of two of these models that incorporate different features of the dynamical equations governing the evolution of a matter dominated universe are compared. For each model at least two scaling regions are identified. By employing criteria from dynamical systems theory it is shown that only one of them can be geometrically significant. The results share important similarities with galaxy observations, such as hierarchical clustering and apparent bifractal geometry. They also provide insights concerning possible constraints on length and time scales for fractal structure. They clearly demonstrate that fractal geometry evolves in the mu (position, velocity) space. The observed patterns are simply a shadow (projection) of higher-dimensional structure.
Transmission properties of one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shiveshwari, Laxmi [Department of Physics, K. B. Womens' s College, Hazaribagh 825 301 (India); Awasthi, S. K. [Department of Physics and Material Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida 201 304 (India)
2015-09-15
Omnidirectional photonic band gaps (PBGs) are found in one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals (PPC) composed of single negative metamaterials. The band characteristics and transmission properties are investigated through the transfer matrix method. We show that the proposed structure can trap light in three-dimensional space due to the elimination of Brewster's angle transmission resonance allowing the existence of complete PBG. The results are discussed in terms of incident angle, layer thickness, dielectric constant of the dielectric material, and number of unit cells (N) for TE and TM polarizations. It is seen that PBG characteristics is apparent even in an N ≥ 2 system, which is weakly sensitive to the incident angle and completely insensitive to the polarization. Finite PPC could be used for multichannel transmission filter without introducing any defect in the geometry. We show that the locations of the multichannel transmission peaks are in the allowed band of the infinite structure. The structure can work as a single or multichannel filter by varying the number of unit cells. Binary PPC can also work as a polarization sensitive tunable filter.
Absorption in one-dimensional metallic-dielectric photonic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Junfei; Shen Yifeng; Liu Xiaohan; Fu Rongtang; Zi Jian; Zhu Zhiqiang
2004-01-01
We show theoretically that the absorption of one-dimensional metallic-dielectric photonic crystals can be enhanced considerably over the corresponding constituent metal. By properly choosing the structural and material parameters, the absorption of one-dimensional metallic-dielectric photonic crystals can be enhanced by one order of magnitude in the visible and in the near infrared regions. It is found that the absorptance of such photonic crystals increases with increasing number of periods. Rules on how to obtain a absorption enhancement in a certain frequency range are discussed. (letter to the editor)
One-dimensional models of excitons in carbon nanotubes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cornean, Horia Decebal; Duclos, Pierre; Pedersen, Thomas Garm
2004-01-01
Excitons in carbon nanotubes may be modeled by two oppositely charged particles living on the surface of a cylinder. We derive three one-dimensional effective Hamiltonians which become exact as the radius of the cylinder vanishes. Two of them are solvable.......Excitons in carbon nanotubes may be modeled by two oppositely charged particles living on the surface of a cylinder. We derive three one-dimensional effective Hamiltonians which become exact as the radius of the cylinder vanishes. Two of them are solvable....
Fractal spectra in generalized Fibonacci one-dimensional magnonic quasicrystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Costa, C.H.O. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Vasconcelos, M.S., E-mail: manoelvasconcelos@yahoo.com.br [Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Barbosa, P.H.R.; Barbosa Filho, F.F. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Piaui, 64049-550 Teresina-Pi (Brazil)
2012-07-15
In this work we carry out a theoretical analysis of the spectra of magnons in quasiperiodic magnonic crystals arranged in accordance with generalized Fibonacci sequences in the exchange regime, by using a model based on a transfer-matrix method together random-phase approximation (RPA). The generalized Fibonacci sequences are characterized by an irrational parameter {sigma}(p,q), which rules the physical properties of the system. We discussed the magnonic fractal spectra for first three generalizations, i.e., silver, bronze and nickel mean. By varying the generation number, we have found that the fragmentation process of allowed bands makes possible the emergence of new allowed magnonic bulk bands in spectra regions that were magnonic band gaps before, such as which occurs in doped semiconductor devices. This interesting property arises in one-dimensional magnonic quasicrystals fabricated in accordance to quasiperiodic sequences, without the need to introduce some deferent atomic layer or defect in the system. We also make a qualitative and quantitative investigations on these magnonic spectra by analyzing the distribution and magnitude of allowed bulk bands in function of the generalized Fibonacci number F{sub n} and as well as how they scale as a function of the number of generations of the sequences, respectively. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quasiperiodic magnonic crystals are arranged in accordance with the generalized Fibonacci sequence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heisenberg model in exchange regime is applied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use a theoretical model based on a transfer-matrix method together random-phase approximation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fractal spectra are characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyze the distribution of allowed bulk bands in function of the generalized Fibonacci number.
Optimally localized Wannier functions for quasi one-dimensional nonperiodic insulators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cornean, Horia; Nenciu, A.; Nenciu, Gheorghe
2008-01-01
It is proved that for general, not necessarily periodic, quasi one-dimensional systems the band position operator corresponding to an isolated part of the energy spectrum has discrete spectrum and its eigenfunctions have the same spatial localization as the corresponding spectral projection....... As a consequence, an eigenbasis of the band position operator provides a basis of optimally localized (generalized) Wannier functions for quasi one-dimensional systems, and this proves the strong Marzari-Vanderbilt conjecture. If the system has some translation symmetries (e.g. usual translations, screw...
Optimally localized Wannier functions for quasi one-dimensional nonperiodic insulators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cornean, Horia; Nenciu, A.; Nenciu, Gheorghe
It is proved that for general, not necessarily periodic quasi one dimensional systems, the band position operator corresponding to an isolated part of the energy spectrum has discrete spectrum and its eigenfunctions have the same spatial localization as the corresponding spectral projection....... As a consequence, an eigenbasis of the band position operator provides a basis of optimally localized (generalized) Wannier functions for quasi one dimensional systems. If the system has some translation symmetries (e.g. usual translations, screw transformations), they are "inherited" bythe Wannier basis....
PAD: a one-dimensional, coupled neutronic-thermodynamic-hydrodynamic computer code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peterson, D.M.; Stratton, W.R.; McLaughlin, T.P.
1976-12-01
Theoretical and numerical foundations, utilization guide, sample problems, and program listing and glossary are given for the PAD computer code which describes dynamic systems with interactive neutronics, thermodynamics, and hydrodynamics in one-dimensional spherical, cylindrical, and planar geometries. The code has been applied to prompt critical excursions in various fissioning systems (solution, metal, LMFBR, etc.) as well as to nonfissioning systems
Quantum phase transitions in matrix product states of one-dimensional spin-1 chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Jingmin
2014-01-01
We present a new model of quantum phase transitions in matrix product systems of one-dimensional spin-1 chains and study the phases coexistence phenomenon. We find that in the thermodynamic limit the proposed system has three different quantum phases and by adjusting the control parameters we are able to realize any phase, any two phases equal coexistence and the three phases equal coexistence. At every critical point the physical quantities including the entanglement are not discontinuous and the matrix product system has long-range correlation and N-spin maximal entanglement. We believe that our work is helpful for having a comprehensive understanding of quantum phase transitions in matrix product states of one-dimensional spin chains and of certain directive significance to the preparation and control of one-dimensional spin lattice models with stable coherence and N-spin maximal entanglement. (author)
Approximate characteristics for one-dimensional two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarayloo, A.; Peddleson, J.
1985-01-01
An approximate method for determining the characteristics associated with one-dimensional particulate two-phase flow models is presented. The method is based on iteration and is valid for small particulate volume fractions. The method is applied to several special cases involving incompressible particles suspended in a gas. The influences of certain changes in the physical model are investigated
Correlation Functions of the One-Dimensional Attractive Bose Gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calabrese, Pasquale; Caux, Jean-Sebastien
2007-01-01
The zero-temperature correlation functions of the one-dimensional attractive Bose gas with a delta-function interaction are calculated analytically for any value of the interaction parameter and number of particles, directly from the integrability of the model. We point out a number of interesting features, including zero recoil energy for a large number of particles, analogous to the Moessbauer effect
Analytical solutions of one-dimensional advection–diffusion
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Analytical solutions are obtained for one-dimensional advection –diffusion equation with variable coefficients in a longitudinal ﬁnite initially solute free domain,for two dispersion problems.In the ﬁrst one,temporally dependent solute dispersion along uniform ﬂow in homogeneous domain is studied.In the second problem the ...
Quantitative hyperbolicity estimates in one-dimensional dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Day, S; Kokubu, H; Pilarczyk, P; Luzzatto, S; Mischaikow, K; Oka, H
2008-01-01
We develop a rigorous computational method for estimating the Lyapunov exponents in uniformly expanding regions of the phase space for one-dimensional maps. Our method uses rigorous numerics and graph algorithms to provide results that are mathematically meaningful and can be achieved in an efficient way
Structure Variation from One-Dimensional Chain to Three ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
WEN-XUAN LI, XIAO-MIN GU, WEN-LI ZHANG and LIANG NI. School of Chemistry ... Compound 1 possesses one-dimensional chain structure, and expands into ..... sis of fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals.30 The results were summarized ...
Current-Voltage Characteristics of Quasi-One-Dimensional Superconductors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vodolazov, D.Y.; Peeters, F.M.; Piraux, L.
2003-01-01
The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of quasi-one-dimensional superconductors were discussed. The I-V characteristics exhibited an unusual S behavior. The dynamics of superconducting condensate and the existence of two different critical currents resulted in such an unusual behavior....
Diffusive transport in a one dimensional disordered potential involving correlations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monthus, C.; Paris-6 Univ., 75
1995-03-01
Transport properties of one dimensional Brownian diffusion under the influence of a quenched random force, distributed as a two-level Poisson process is discussed. Large time scaling laws of the position of the Brownian particle, and the probability distribution of the stationary flux going through a sample between two prescribed concentrations are studied. (author) 14 refs.; 3 figs
Appropriateness of one-dimensional calculations for repository analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eaton, R.R.
1994-01-01
This paper brings into focus the results of numerous studies that have addressed issues associated with the validity of assumptions which are used to justify reducing the dimensionality of numerical calculations of water flow through Yucca Mountain, NV. It is shown that in many cases, one-dimensional modeling is more rigorous than previously assumed
Lekhnitskii's formalism of one-dimensional quasicrystals and its ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
To illustrate its utility, the generalized Lekhnitskii's formal- ism is used to analyse the coupled phonon and phason fields in an infinite quasicrystal medium con- taining an elliptic rigid inclusion. Keywords. Generalized Lekhnitskii's formalism; one-dimensional quasicrystals; plane problems; elliptic inclusion. PACS Nos 61.44.
Backward scattering in the one-dimensional Fermi gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Apostol, M.
1980-05-01
The Ward identity is derived for non-relativistic fermions with two-body spin-independent interaction. Using this identity for the one-dimensional Fermi gas with backward scattering the equations of the perturbation theory are solved for the effective interaction and the collective excitations of the particle density fluctuations are obtained. (author)
Simulation of the diffraction pattern of one dimensional quasicrystal ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The effects of the variation of atomic spacing ratio of a one dimensional quasicrystal material are investigated. The work involves the use of the solid state simulation code, Laue written by Silsbee and Drager. We are able to observe the general features of the diffraction pattern by a quasicrystal. In addition, it has been found ...
Monte Carlo investigation of the one-dimensional Potts model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karma, A.S.; Nolan, M.J.
1983-01-01
Monte Carlo results are presented for a variety of one-dimensional dynamical q-state Potts models. Our calculations confirm the expected universal value z = 2 for the dynamic scaling exponent. Our results also indicate that an increase in q at fixed correlation length drives the dynamics into the scaling regime
State reconstruction of one-dimensional wave packets
Krähmer, D. S.; Leonhardt, U.
1997-12-01
We review and analyze the method [U. Leonhardt, M.G. Raymer: Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1985 (1996)] for quantum-state reconstruction of one-dimensional non-relativistic wave packets from position observations. We illuminate the theoretical background of the technique and show how to extend the procedure to the continuous part of the spectrum.
Statistical mechanics of quantum one-dimensional damped harmonic oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borges, E.N.M.; Borges, O.N.; Ribeiro, L.A.A.
1985-01-01
We calculate the thermal correlation functions of the one-dimensional damped harmonic oscillator in contact with a reservoir, in an exact form by applying Green's function method. In this way the thermal fluctuations are incorporated in the Caldirola-Kanai Hamiltonian
Anomalous heat conduction in a one-dimensional ideal gas.
Casati, Giulio; Prosen, Tomaz
2003-01-01
We provide firm convincing evidence that the energy transport in a one-dimensional gas of elastically colliding free particles of unequal masses is anomalous, i.e., the Fourier law does not hold. Our conclusions are confirmed by a theoretical and numerical analysis based on a Green-Kubo-type approach specialized to momentum-conserving lattices.
The electromagnetic Brillouin precursor in one-dimensional photonic crystals
Uitham, R.; Hoenders, B. J.
2008-01-01
We have calculated the electromagnetic Brillouin precursor that arises in a one-dimensional photonic crystal that consists of two homogeneous slabs which each have a single electron resonance. This forerunner is compared with the Brillouin precursor that arises in a homogeneous double-electron
On the quantisation of one-dimensional bags
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fairley, G.T.; Squires, E.J.
1976-01-01
The quantisation of one-dimensional MIT bags by expanding the fields as a sum of classical modes and truncating the series after the first term is discussed. The lowest states of a bag in a world containing two scalar quark fields are obtained. Problems associated with the zero-point oscillations of the field are discussed. (Auth.)
The appropriateness of one-dimensional Yucca Mountain hydrologic calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eaton, R.R.
1993-07-01
This report brings into focus the results of numerous studies that have addressed issues associated with the validity of assumptions which are used to justify reducing the dimensionality of numerical calculations of water flow through Yucca Mountain, NV. it is shown that, in many cases, one-dimensional modeling is more rigorous than previously assumed
Analytical approach for collective diffusion: one-dimensional heterogeneous lattice
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Tarasenko, Alexander
2016-01-01
Roč. 144, č. 14 (2016), 1-11, č. článku 144105. ISSN 0021-9606 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diffusion * Monte Carlo simulations * one-dimensional heterogeneous lattice Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.965, year: 2016
Approximate Approaches to the One-Dimensional Finite Potential Well
Singh, Shilpi; Pathak, Praveen; Singh, Vijay A.
2011-01-01
The one-dimensional finite well is a textbook problem. We propose approximate approaches to obtain the energy levels of the well. The finite well is also encountered in semiconductor heterostructures where the carrier mass inside the well (m[subscript i]) is taken to be distinct from mass outside (m[subscript o]). A relevant parameter is the mass…
Toward precise solution of one-dimensional velocity inverse problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gray, S.; Hagin, F.
1980-01-01
A family of one-dimensional inverse problems are considered with the goal of reconstructing velocity profiles to reasonably high accuracy. The travel-time variable change is used together with an iteration scheme to produce an effective algorithm for computation. Under modest assumptions the scheme is shown to be convergent
Quantum interference of ballistic carriers in one-dimensional semiconductor rings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagraev, N.T.; Buravlev, A.D.; Klyachkin, L.E.; Malyarenko, A.M.; Ivanov, V.K.; Rykov, S.A.; Shelykh, I.A.
2000-01-01
Quantum interference of ballistic carriers has been studied for the first time, using one-dimensional rings formed by quantum wire pairs in self-assembled silicon quantum wells. Energy dependencies of the transmission coefficient is calculated as a function of the length and modulation of the quantum wire pairs separated by a unified drain-source system or the quantum point contacts. The quantum conductance is predicted to be increased by a factor of four using the unified drain-source system as a result of the quantum interference. Theoretical dependencies are revealed by the quantum conductance oscillations created by the deviations of both the drain-source voltage and external magnetic field inside the silicon one-dimensional rings. The results obtained put forward a basis to create the Aharonov-Bohm interferometer using the silicon one-dimensional ring [ru
Visualizing One-Dimensional Electronic States and their Scattering in Semi-conducting Nanowires
Beidenkopf, Haim; Reiner, Jonathan; Norris, Andrew; Nayak, Abhay Kumar; Avraham, Nurit; Shtrikman, Hadas
One-dimensional electronic systems constitute a fascinating playground for the emergence of exotic electronic effects and phases, within and beyond the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid paradigm. More recently topological superconductivity and Majorana modes were added to that long list of phenomena. We report scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy measurements conducted on pristine, epitaxialy grown InAs nanowires. We resolve the 1D electronic band structure manifested both via Van-Hove singularities in the local density-of-states, as well as by the quasi-particle interference patterns, induced by scattering from surface impurities. By studying the scattering of the one-dimensional electronic states off various scatterers, including crystallographic defects and the nanowire end, we identify new one-dimensional relaxation regimes and yet unexplored effects of interactions. Some of these may bear implications on the topological superconducting state and Majorana modes therein. The authors acknowledge support from the Israeli Science Foundation (ISF).
Method and apparatus for the electro-optic convolution of a one-dimensional signal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1979-01-01
Procedure for the electro-optic convolution of a signal and a filter function, whereby the one dimensional electro-optical signal would be portrayed as a line along which the clarity varies and whereby filter function is determined by one or more masks, whilst after each mask is placed a light detector, with which the light passing through the masks may be detected, whilst a one-dimensional portrayal of the signal along the masks will be developed, characterised in that a one dimensional portrayal of the signal, with the aid of an optical system in a direction across the line, will be enlarged, and that this enlarged signal in the direction of the line along the masks will be affected which the masks closing fields will contain, which are either fully transparent or are fully non-transparent. (Auth.)
One dimensional neutron kinetics in the TRAC-BF1 code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weaver, W.L. III; Wagner, K.C.
1987-01-01
The TRAC-BWR code development program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is developing a version of the TRAC code for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) to provide a best-estimate analysis capability for the simulation of postulated accidents in boiling water reactor (BWR) power systems and related experimental facilities. Recent development efforts in the TRAC-BWR program have focused on improving the computational efficiency through the incorporation of a hybrid Courant- limit-violating numerical solution scheme in the one-dimensional component models and on improving code accuracy through the development of a one-dimensional neutron kinetics model. Many other improvements have been incorporated into TRAC-BWR to improve code portability, accuracy, efficiency, and maintainability. This paper will describe the one- dimensional neutron kinetics model, the generation of the required input data for this model, and present results of the first calculations using the model
Apparent destruction of superconductivity in the disordered one-dimensional limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graybeal, J.M.; Mankiewich, P.M.; Dynes, R.C.; Beasley, M.R.
1987-01-01
We present the results of a model-system study of the competition between superconductivity and disorder in narrow superconducting wires. As one moves from the two-dimensional regime toward the one-dimensional limit, large and systematic reductions in the superconducting transition temperature are obtained. The observed behavior extrapolates to the total destruction of superconductivity in the disordered one-dimensional limit. Our findings are in clear disagreement with a recent theoretical treatment. In addition, the superconducting fluctuations appear to be modified by disorder for the narrowest samples
Longitudinal and spin Hall conductance of a one-dimensional Aharonov-Bohm ring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moca, Catalin Pascu; Marinescu, D C
2006-01-01
The longitudinal and spin Hall conductances of an electron gas with Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction, confined to a quasi-one-dimensional Aharonov-Bohm ring, are studied as functions of disorder and magnetic flux. The system is mapped onto a one-dimensional virtual lattice and is described, in a tight binding approximation, by a Hamiltonian that depends parametrically on the nearest neighbour hopping integral t, the Rashba spin-orbit coupling V R , the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling V D and an Anderson-like, on-site disorder energy strength W. Numerical results are obtained within a spin dependent Landauer-Buettiker formalism
GITTAM program for numerical simulation of one-dimensional targets TIS. Part 3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basko, M.M.; Sokolovskij, M.V.
1989-01-01
Results of testing calculations according to GITTAM program, developed for numeric simulation of one-dimensional thermonuclear targets of heavy-ion synthesis are presented. Finite-difference method for solving a system of one-dimensional hydrodynamics equations with heat conductivity, radiation diffusion and thermonuclear combustion is used in the GITTAM program. In the tests presented, based on simple automodel solutions, adiabatic motion as well as distribution of shock, thermal and radial waves in gas with simple polytron state equation is investigated. 3 refs.; 6 figs
Quantum quenches to the attractive one-dimensional Bose gas: exact results
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lorenzo Piroli, Pasquale Calabrese, Fabian H. L. Essler
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We study quantum quenches to the one-dimensional Bose gas with attractive interactions in the case when the initial state is an ideal one-dimensional Bose condensate. We focus on properties of the stationary state reached at late times after the quench. This displays a finite density of multi-particle bound states, whose rapidity distribution is determined exactly by means of the quench action method. We discuss the relevance of the multi-particle bound states for the physical properties of the system, computing in particular the stationary value of the local pair correlation function $g_2$.
Quasi-One-Dimensional Intermittent Flux Behavior in Superconducting Films
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. J. Qviller
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Intermittent filamentary dynamics of the vortex matter in superconductors is found in films of YBa_{2}Cu_{3}O_{7-δ} deposited on tilted substrates. Deposition of this material on such substrates creates parallel channels of easy flux penetration when a magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the film. As the applied field is gradually increased, magneto-optical imaging reveals that flux penetrates via numerous quasi-one-dimensional jumps. The distribution of flux avalanche sizes follows a power law, and data collapse is obtained by finite-size scaling, with the depth of the flux front used as crossover length. The intermittent behavior shows no threshold value in the applied field, in contrast to conventional flux jumping. The results strongly suggest that the quasi-one-dimensional flux jumps are of a different nature than the thermomagnetic dendritic (branching avalanches that are commonly found in superconducting films.
Versatile hydrothermal synthesis of one-dimensional composite structures
Luo, Yonglan
2008-12-01
In this paper we report on a versatile hydrothermal approach developed to fabricate one-dimensional (1D) composite structures. Sulfur and selenium formed liquid and adsorbed onto microrods as droplets and subsequently reacted with metallic ion in solution to produce nanoparticles-decorated composite microrods. 1D composites including ZnO/CdS, ZnO/MnS, ZnO/CuS, ZnO/CdSe, and FeOOH/CdS were successfully made using this hydrothermal strategy and the growth mechanism was also discussed. This hydrothermal strategy is simple and green, and can be extended to the synthesis of various 1D composite structures. Moreover, the interaction between the shell nanoparticles and the one-dimensional nanomaterials were confirmed by photoluminescence investigation of ZnO/CdS.
Applications of one-dimensional models in simplified inelastic analyses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamal, S.A.; Chern, J.M.; Pai, D.H.
1980-01-01
This paper presents an approximate inelastic analysis based on geometric simplification with emphasis on its applicability, modeling, and the method of defining the loading conditions. Two problems are investigated: a one-dimensional axisymmetric model of generalized plane strain thick-walled cylinder is applied to the primary sodium inlet nozzle of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Intermediate Heat Exchanger (CRBRP-IHX), and a finite cylindrical shell is used to simulate the branch shell forging (Y) junction. The results are then compared with the available detailed inelastic analyses under cyclic loading conditions in terms of creep and fatigue damages and inelastic ratchetting strains per the ASME Code Case N-47 requirements. In both problems, the one-dimensional simulation is able to trace the detailed stress-strain response. The quantitative comparison is good for the nozzle, but less satisfactory for the Y junction. Refinements are suggested to further improve the simulation
Thermoelectric properties of one-dimensional graphene antidot arrays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan, Yonghong; Liang, Qi-Feng; Zhao, Hui; Wu, Chang-Qin; Li, Baowen
2012-01-01
We investigate the thermoelectric properties of one-dimensional (1D) graphene antidot arrays by nonequilibrium Green's function method. We show that by introducing antidots to the pristine graphene nanoribbon the thermal conductance can be reduced greatly while keeping the power factor still high, thus leading to an enhanced thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT). Our numerical results indicate that ZT values of 1D antidot graphene arrays can be up to unity, which means the 1D graphene antidot arrays may be promising for thermoelectric applications. -- Highlights: ► We study thermoelectric properties of one-dimensional (1D) graphene antidot arrays. ► Thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of 1D antidot arrays can exceed unity. ► ZT of 1D antidot arrays is larger than that of two-dimensional arrays.
Scattering theory for one-dimensional step potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruijsenaars, S.N.M.; Bongaarts, P.J.M.
1977-01-01
The scattering theory is treated for the one-dimensional Dirac equation with potentials that are bounded, measurable, real-valued functions on the real line, having constant values, not necessarily the same, on the left and on the right side of a compact interval. Such potentials appear in the Klein paradox. It is shown that appropriately modified wave operators exist and that the corresponding S-operator is unitary. The connection between time-dependent scattering theory and time-independent scattering theory in terms of incoming and outgoing plane wave solutions is established and some further properties are proved. All results and their proofs have a straightforward translation to the one-dimensional Schroedinger equation with the same class of step potentials
Resonance Raman spectroscopy in one-dimensional carbon materials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dresselhaus Mildred S.
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Brazil has played an important role in the development and use of resonance Raman spectroscopy as a powerful characterization tool for materials science. Here we present a short history of Raman scattering research in Brazil, highlighting the important contributions to the field coming from Brazilian researchers in the past. Next we discuss recent and important contributions where Brazil has become a worldwide leader, that is on the physics of quasi-one dimensional carbon nanotubes. We conclude this article by presenting results from a very recent resonance Raman study of exciting new materials, that are strictly one-dimensional carbon chains formed by the heat treatment of very pure double-wall carbon nanotube samples.
The analysis of one-dimensional reactor kinetics benchmark computations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sidell, J.
1975-11-01
During March 1973 the European American Committee on Reactor Physics proposed a series of simple one-dimensional reactor kinetics problems, with the intention of comparing the relative efficiencies of the numerical methods employed in various codes, which are currently in use in many national laboratories. This report reviews the contributions submitted to this benchmark exercise and attempts to assess the relative merits and drawbacks of the various theoretical and computer methods. (author)
Heat transfer in a one-dimensional mixed convection loop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Min Joon; Lee, Yong Bum; Kim, Yong Kyun; Kim, Jong Man; Nam, Ho Yun
1999-01-01
Effects of non-uniform heating in the core and additional forced circulation during decay heat removal operation are studied with a simplified mixed convection loop. The heat transfer coefficient is calculated analytically and measured experimentally. The analytic solution obtained from a one-dimensional heat equation is found to agree well with the experimental results. The effects of the non-uniform heating and the forced circulation are discussed
Energy in one-dimensional linear waves in a string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burko, Lior M
2010-01-01
We consider the energy density and energy transfer in small amplitude, one-dimensional waves on a string and find that the common expressions used in textbooks for the introductory physics with calculus course give wrong results for some cases, including standing waves. We discuss the origin of the problem, and how it can be corrected in a way appropriate for the introductory calculus-based physics course. (letters and comments)
Quasi-one-dimensional intermittent flux behavior in superconducting films
Qviller, A. J.; Yurchenko, V. V.; Galperin, Y. M.; Vestgården, J. I.; Mozhaev, Peter; Hansen, Jørn Bindslev; Johansen, T. H.
2012-01-01
Intermittent filamentary dynamics of the vortex matter in superconductors is found in films of YBa_{2}Cu_{3}O_{7-δ} deposited on tilted substrates. Deposition of this material on such substrates creates parallel channels of easy flux penetration when a magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the film. As the applied field is gradually increased, magneto-optical imaging reveals that flux penetrates via numerous quasi-one-dimensional jumps. The distribution of flux avalanche sizes follows a ...
Variational iteration method for one dimensional nonlinear thermoelasticity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sweilam, N.H.; Khader, M.M.
2007-01-01
This paper applies the variational iteration method to solve the Cauchy problem arising in one dimensional nonlinear thermoelasticity. The advantage of this method is to overcome the difficulty of calculation of Adomian's polynomials in the Adomian's decomposition method. The numerical results of this method are compared with the exact solution of an artificial model to show the efficiency of the method. The approximate solutions show that the variational iteration method is a powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear problems
Localization in a one-dimensional spatially correlated random potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kasner, M.; Weller, W.
1986-01-01
The motion of an electron in a random one-dimensional spatially correlated potential is investigated. The spatial correlation is generated by a Markov chain. It is shown that the influence of the spatial correlation can be described by means of oscillating vertices usually neglected in the Berezinskii diagram technique. Correlation mainly leads to an increase of the localization length in comparison with an uncorrelated potential. However, there is a region of the parameter, where the localization decreases. (author)
ONE-DIMENSIONAL AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLES
Nikola Stefanović
2007-01-01
In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic ...
Correlation functions of one-dimensional bosons at low temperature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kozlowski, K.K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Maillet, J.M. [CNRS, ENS Lyon (France). Lab. de Physique; Slavnov, N.A. [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2010-12-15
We consider the low-temperature limit of the long-distance asymptotic behavior of the finite temperature density-density correlation function in the one-dimensional Bose gas derived recently in the algebraic Bethe Ansatz framework. Our results confirm the predictions based on the Luttinger liquid and conformal field theory approaches. We also demonstrate that the amplitudes arising in this asymptotic expansion at low-temperature coincide with the amplitudes associated with the so-called critical form factors. (orig.)
Graphene-based one-dimensional photonic crystal
Berman, Oleg L.; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.
2011-01-01
A novel type of one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal formed by the array of periodically located stacks of alternating graphene and dielectric stripes embedded into a background dielectric medium is proposed. The wave equation for the electromagnetic wave propagating in such structure solved in the framework of the Kronig-Penney model. The frequency band structure of 1D graphene-based photonic crystal is obtained analytically as a function of the filling factor and the thickness of the diele...
Negative Refraction Angular Characterization in One-Dimensional Photonic Crystals
Lugo, Jesus Eduardo; Doti, Rafael; Faubert, Jocelyn
2011-01-01
Background Photonic crystals are artificial structures that have periodic dielectric components with different refractive indices. Under certain conditions, they abnormally refract the light, a phenomenon called negative refraction. Here we experimentally characterize negative refraction in a one dimensional photonic crystal structure; near the low frequency edge of the fourth photonic bandgap. We compare the experimental results with current theory and a theory based on the group velocity de...
Majorana fermion exchange in strictly one dimensional structures
Chiu, Ching-Kai; Vazifeh, M. M.; Franz, M.
2014-01-01
It is generally thought that adiabatic exchange of two identical particles is impossible in one spatial dimension. Here we describe a simple protocol that permits adiabatic exchange of two Majorana fermions in a one-dimensional topological superconductor wire. The exchange relies on the concept of "Majorana shuttle" whereby a $\\pi$ domain wall in the superconducting order parameter which hosts a pair of ancillary Majoranas delivers one zero mode across the wire while the other one tunnels in ...
On a class of one-dimensional random walks
O.J. Boxma (Onno); V.I. Lotov
1995-01-01
textabstractnoindent This paper studies a one-dimensional Markov chain ${X_n,n=0,1,dots$ that satisfies the recurrence relation $X_n = max(0, X_{n-1 + eta_n^{(m) )$ if $X_{n-1 =m leq a$; for $X_{n-1 > a$ it satisfies the same relation with $eta_n^{(m)$ replaced by $xi_n$. Here ${ eta_n^{(m) $ and ${
Theory of the one-dimensional forest-fire model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paczuski, M.; Bak, P.
1993-01-01
Turbulent cascade processes are studied in terms of a one-dimensional forest-fire model. A hier- archy of steady-state equations for the forests and the holes between them is constructed and solved within a mean-field closure scheme. The exact hole distribution function is found to be N H (s)=4N/[s(s+1)(s+2)], where N is the number of forests
Quantum logic using correlated one-dimensional quantum walks
Lahini, Yoav; Steinbrecher, Gregory R.; Bookatz, Adam D.; Englund, Dirk
2018-01-01
Quantum Walks are unitary processes describing the evolution of an initially localized wavefunction on a lattice potential. The complexity of the dynamics increases significantly when several indistinguishable quantum walkers propagate on the same lattice simultaneously, as these develop non-trivial spatial correlations that depend on the particle's quantum statistics, mutual interactions, initial positions, and the lattice potential. We show that even in the simplest case of a quantum walk on a one dimensional graph, these correlations can be shaped to yield a complete set of compact quantum logic operations. We provide detailed recipes for implementing quantum logic on one-dimensional quantum walks in two general cases. For non-interacting bosons—such as photons in waveguide lattices—we find high-fidelity probabilistic quantum gates that could be integrated into linear optics quantum computation schemes. For interacting quantum-walkers on a one-dimensional lattice—a situation that has recently been demonstrated using ultra-cold atoms—we find deterministic logic operations that are universal for quantum information processing. The suggested implementation requires minimal resources and a level of control that is within reach using recently demonstrated techniques. Further work is required to address error-correction.
Critical exponents in the transition to chaos in one-dimensional
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We report the numerically evaluated critical exponents associated with the scaling of generalized fractal dimensions during the transition from order to chaos. The analysis is carried out in detail in the context of unimodal and bimodal maps representing typical one-dimensional discrete dynamical systems. The behavior of ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, L.
1981-08-01
With coherent potential approximation method the effect of the substitutional disorder in the pseudo one-dimensional conductors on the Peierls transition temperature (Tsub(p)) and superconductive transition temperature (Tsub(c)) has been calculated. The favourable condition for searching for somewhat high Tsub(c) superconductors in these systems has been discussed. (author)
Friedel oscillations in one-dimensional metals: From Luttinger's theorem to the Luttinger liquid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vieira, Daniel; Freire, Henrique J.P.; Campo, V.L.; Capelle, K.
2008-01-01
Charge density and magnetization density profiles of one-dimensional metals are investigated by two complementary many-body methods: numerically exact (Lanczos) diagonalization, and the Bethe-Ansatz local-density approximation with and without a simple self-interaction correction. Depending on the magnetization of the system, local approximations reproduce different Fourier components of the exact Friedel oscillations
Organometallic benzene-vanadium wire: A one-dimensional half-metallic ferromagnet
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maslyuk, V.; Bagrets, A.; Meded, V.
2006-01-01
Using density functional theory we perform theoretical investigations of the electronic properties of a freestanding one-dimensional organometallic vanadium-benzene wire. This system represents the limiting case of multidecker V-n(C6H6)(n+1) clusters which can be synthesized with established meth...
Nonlinear behavior of a monochromatic wave in a one-dimensional Vlasov plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shoucri, M.M.; Gagne, R.R.J.
1978-01-01
The nonlinear evolution of a monochromatic wave in a one-dimensional Vlasov plasma is studied numerically. The numerical results are carried out far enough in time for phase mixing to dominate the asymptotic state of the system. A qualitative comparison with previously reported simulations is given
Lateral shift in one-dimensional quasiperiodic chiral photonic crystal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Da, Jian, E-mail: dajian521@sina.com [Department of Information Engineering, Huaian Senior Vocational and Technical School, Feiyao road, Huaian 223005, Jiangsu Province (China); Mo, Qi, E-mail: moqiyueyang@163.com [School of Software, Yunnan University, Cuihu Bai Road, Kunming City, Yunnan Province 650091 (China); Cheng, Yaokun [Department of Information Engineering, Huaian Senior Vocational and Technical School, Feiyao road, Huaian 223005, Jiangsu Province (China); Liu, Taixiang [Taishan Vocational College of Nursing, Shandong Province 271000 (China)
2015-02-01
We investigate the lateral shift of a one-dimensional quasiperiodic photonic crystal consisting of chiral and conventional dielectric materials. The effect of structural irregularity on lateral shift is evaluated by stationary-phase approach. Our results show that the lateral shift can be modulated by varying the structural irregularity in quasiperiodic structure. Besides, the position of peak in lateral shift spectrum stays sensitive to the chiral factor of chiral materials. In comparison with that of periodic structure, quasiperiodic structure provides an extra degree of freedom to manipulate the lateral shift.
Inversion of reflection for the one-dimensional Dirac equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clerk, G.L.; Davies, A.J.
1991-01-01
It is a general result of one-dimensional non-relativistic quantum mechanics that the coefficient of reflection (reflected flux) is the same irrespective of the direction of traversing a potential barrier, a result that is independent of the barrier shape. In this note, the authors consider the transmission coefficient instead, and derive a strong result, namely that the transmission amplitude is independent of the direction of barrier traversal. That is, the transmission amplitude has the same complex phase as well as being unchanged in magnitude by changing the barrier around. This process was called inversion of reflection. 2 refs
Two-dimensional beam profiles and one-dimensional projections
Findlay, D. J. S.; Jones, B.; Adams, D. J.
2018-05-01
One-dimensional projections of improved two-dimensional representations of transverse profiles of particle beams are proposed for fitting to data from harp-type monitors measuring beam profiles on particle accelerators. Composite distributions, with tails smoothly matched on to a central (inverted) parabola, are shown to give noticeably better fits than single gaussian and single parabolic distributions to data from harp-type beam profile monitors all along the proton beam transport lines to the two target stations on the ISIS Spallation Neutron Source. Some implications for inferring beam current densities on the beam axis are noted.
Optical Tamm states in one-dimensional magnetophotonic structures.
Goto, T; Dorofeenko, A V; Merzlikin, A M; Baryshev, A V; Vinogradov, A P; Inoue, M; Lisyansky, A A; Granovsky, A B
2008-09-12
We demonstrate the existence of a spectrally narrow localized surface state, the so-called optical Tamm state, at the interface between one-dimensional magnetophotonic and nonmagnetic photonic crystals. The state is spectrally located inside the photonic band gaps of each of the photonic crystals comprising this magnetophotonic structure. This state is associated with a sharp transmission peak through the sample and is responsible for the substantial enhancement of the Faraday rotation for the corresponding wavelength. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions.
Acoustic and electronic properties of one-dimensional quasicrystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nori, F.; Rodriguez, J.P.
1986-01-01
We study the acoustic and electronic properties of one-dimensional quasicrystals. Both numerical (nonperturbative) and analytical (perturbative) results are shown. The phonon and electronic spectra exhibit a self-similar hierarchy of gaps and many localized states in the gaps. We study quasiperiodic structures with any number of layers and several types of boundary conditions. We discuss the connection between our phonon model and recent experiments on quasiperiodic GaAs-AlAs superlattices. We predict the existence of many gap states localized at the surfaces
Chemical potential of one-dimensional simple harmonic oscillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mungan, Carl E
2009-01-01
Expressions for the chemical potential of an Einstein solid, and of ideal Fermi and Bose gases in an external one-dimensional oscillatory trap, are calculated by two different methods and are all found to share the same functional form. These derivations are easier than traditional textbook calculations for an ideal gas in an infinite three-dimensional square well. Furthermore, the results indicate some important features of chemical potential that could promote student learning in an introductory course in statistical mechanics at the undergraduate level.
Peierls' instability in a one-dimensional potentially metallic solid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valladares, A.A.; Cetina, E.A.; Sansores, L.E.
1980-01-01
The Peierls instability of one-dimensional potentially metallic lithium solid is investigated in the Hueckel and SCF approximations. In the Hueckel approximation Esub(F) is a monotonic increasing function of the displacement of every other atom of the lattice, whereas in the SCF approximation, where the filling of the bands is considered, Esub(F) shows the minimum predicted by Peierls. The energy gap (for the arrangement that minimizes Esub(F)) is 4.5 eV, indicating that this solid is an insulator. (author)
One-dimensional radionuclide transport under time-varying conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gelbard, F.; Olague, N.E.; Longsine, D.E.
1990-01-01
This paper discusses new analytical and numerical solutions presented for one-dimensional radionuclide transport under time-varying fluid-flow conditions including radioactive decay. The analytical solution assumes that all radionuclides have identical retardation factors, and is limited to instantaneous releases. The numerical solution does not have these limitations, but is tested against the limiting case given for the analytical solution. Reasonable agreement between the two solutions was found. Examples are given for the transport of a three-member radionuclide chain transported over distances and flow rates comparable to those reported for Yucca Mountain, the proposed disposal site for high-level nuclear waste
One-dimensional nonlinear inverse heat conduction technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hills, R.G.; Hensel, E.C. Jr.
1986-01-01
The one-dimensional nonlinear problem of heat conduction is considered. A noniterative space-marching finite-difference algorithm is developed to estimate the surface temperature and heat flux from temperature measurements at subsurface locations. The trade-off between resolution and variance of the estimates of the surface conditions is discussed quantitatively. The inverse algorithm is stabilized through the use of digital filters applied recursively. The effect of the filters on the resolution and variance of the surface estimates is quantified. Results are presented which indicate that the technique is capable of handling noisy measurement data
The quantum flux in quasis one-dimensional conductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ventura, J.
1989-01-01
A method is presented which quantizes electromagnetic fluxes directly in flux space. It is based on the commutation law [φ B , φ E ] = i, where φ B is the magnetic flux, and φ E the longitudinal electric flux of a quasi one-dimensional conductor. The relevance of such a method for the description of the quantized Hall plateaus is discussed. In a second step, the polarization electric flux is introduced, together with a method for quantization of hybrid variables formed with pure electromagnetic fluxes plus electronic variables. (author) [pt
Evaluation of one dimensional analytical models for vegetation canopies
Goel, Narendra S.; Kuusk, Andres
1992-01-01
The SAIL model for one-dimensional homogeneous vegetation canopies has been modified to include the specular reflectance and hot spot effects. This modified model and the Nilson-Kuusk model are evaluated by comparing the reflectances given by them against those given by a radiosity-based computer model, Diana, for a set of canopies, characterized by different leaf area index (LAI) and leaf angle distribution (LAD). It is shown that for homogeneous canopies, the analytical models are generally quite accurate in the visible region, but not in the infrared region. For architecturally realistic heterogeneous canopies of the type found in nature, these models fall short. These shortcomings are quantified.
ONE-DIMENSIONAL AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikola Stefanović
2007-06-01
Full Text Available In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic leadership style, leadership theory researchers use two dimensional matrices. The two-dimensional matrices define leadership styles on the basis of different parameters. By using these parameters, one can identify two-dimensional styles.
Generalized entropy decay rates of one-dimensional maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Csordas, A.; Szepfalusy, P.
1988-01-01
A series of entropies, approaching the order-q Renyi's entropies when the length of orbits tends to infinity, is considered. Their scaling form is determined for chaotic one-dimensional maps. For the characteristic relaxation time a general expression is derived, and it is shown to be closely related to the eigenvalues of a generalized Frobenius-Perron operator. The case of intermittent maps is also considered, and the spectrum of relaxation time is found to reflect the phase transition at q = 1. Results of numerical experiments are also presented
Entanglement entropy and complexity for one-dimensional holographic superconductors
Kord Zangeneh, Mahdi; Ong, Yen Chin; Wang, Bin
2017-08-01
Holographic superconductor is an important arena for holography, as it allows concrete calculations to further understand the dictionary between bulk physics and boundary physics. An important quantity of recent interest is the holographic complexity. Conflicting claims had been made in the literature concerning the behavior of holographic complexity during phase transition. We clarify this issue by performing a numerical study on one-dimensional holographic superconductor. Our investigation shows that holographic complexity does not behave in the same way as holographic entanglement entropy. Nevertheless, the universal terms of both quantities are finite and reflect the phase transition at the same critical temperature.
Fragmented one dimensional man / El hombre unidimensional fragmentado
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juan Antonio Rodríguez del Pino
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Paraphrase the title of the famous essay by Herbert Marcuse, since the image has traditionally been generated of man, masculinity, has been one-dimensional. I mean, the man was characterized by traits and behaviors established and entrenched since ancient time, considering all other distinguishing signs as mere deviations from the normative improper. But observe that this undeniable reality, as analyzed various researchers through what has come to be called Men's studies, has proven to be a fallacy difficult to maintain throughout history and today turns into fallacious and ineffective against changes in our current existing corporate models.
One-dimensional computational modeling on nuclear reactor problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alves Filho, Hermes; Baptista, Josue Costa; Trindade, Luiz Fernando Santos; Heringer, Juan Diego dos Santos
2013-01-01
In this article, we present a computational modeling, which gives us a dynamic view of some applications of Nuclear Engineering, specifically in the power distribution and the effective multiplication factor (keff) calculations. We work with one-dimensional problems of deterministic neutron transport theory, with the linearized Boltzmann equation in the discrete ordinates (SN) formulation, independent of time, with isotropic scattering and then built a software (Simulator) for modeling computational problems used in a typical calculations. The program used in the implementation of the simulator was Matlab, version 7.0. (author)
One-Dimensional Rydberg Gas in a Magnetoelectric Trap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mayle, Michael; Hezel, Bernd; Lesanovsky, Igor; Schmelcher, Peter
2007-01-01
We study the quantum properties of Rydberg atoms in a magnetic Ioffe-Pritchard trap which is superimposed by a homogeneous electric field. Trapped Rydberg atoms can be created in long-lived electronic states exhibiting a permanent electric dipole moment of several hundred Debye. The resulting dipole-dipole interaction in conjunction with the radial confinement is demonstrated to give rise to an effectively one-dimensional ultracold Rydberg gas with a macroscopic interparticle distance. We derive analytical expressions for the electric dipole moment and the required linear density of Rydberg atoms
One-dimensional inverse problems of mathematical physics
Lavrent'ev, M M; Yakhno, V G; Schulenberger, J R
1986-01-01
This monograph deals with the inverse problems of determining a variable coefficient and right side for hyperbolic and parabolic equations on the basis of known solutions at fixed points of space for all times. The problems are one-dimensional in nature since the desired coefficient of the equation is a function of only one coordinate, while the desired right side is a function only of time. The authors use methods based on the spectral theory of ordinary differential operators of second order and also methods which make it possible to reduce the investigation of the inverse problems to the in
One-dimensional energy flow model for poroelastic material
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jung Soo; Kang, Yeon June
2009-01-01
This paper presents a one-dimensional energy flow model to investigate the energy behavior for poroelastic media coupled with acoustical media. The proposed energy flow model is expressed by an independent energy governing equation that is classified into each wave component propagating in poroelastic media. The energy governing equation is derived using the General Energetic Method (GEM). To facilitate a comparison with the classical solution based on the conventional displacement-base formulation, approximate solutions of energy density and intensity are obtained. Furthermore, the limitations and usability of the proposed energy flow model for poroelastic media are described.
Hydrogen peroxide stabilization in one-dimensional flow columns
Schmidt, Jeremy T.; Ahmad, Mushtaque; Teel, Amy L.; Watts, Richard J.
2011-09-01
Rapid hydrogen peroxide decomposition is the primary limitation of catalyzed H 2O 2 propagations in situ chemical oxidation (CHP ISCO) remediation of the subsurface. Two stabilizers of hydrogen peroxide, citrate and phytate, were investigated for their effectiveness in one-dimensional columns of iron oxide-coated and manganese oxide-coated sand. Hydrogen peroxide (5%) with and without 25 mM citrate or phytate was applied to the columns and samples were collected at 8 ports spaced 13 cm apart. Citrate was not an effective stabilizer for hydrogen peroxide in iron-coated sand; however, phytate was highly effective, increasing hydrogen peroxide residuals two orders of magnitude over unstabilized hydrogen peroxide. Both citrate and phytate were effective stabilizers for manganese-coated sand, increasing hydrogen peroxide residuals by four-fold over unstabilized hydrogen peroxide. Phytate and citrate did not degrade and were not retarded in the sand columns; furthermore, the addition of the stabilizers increased column flow rates relative to unstabilized columns. These results demonstrate that citrate and phytate are effective stabilizers of hydrogen peroxide under the dynamic conditions of one-dimensional columns, and suggest that citrate and phytate can be added to hydrogen peroxide before injection to the subsurface as an effective means for increasing the radius of influence of CHP ISCO.
Stopping time of a one-dimensional bounded quantum walk
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo Hao; Zhang Peng; Zhan Xiang; Xue Peng
2016-01-01
The stopping time of a one-dimensional bounded classical random walk (RW) is defined as the number of steps taken by a random walker to arrive at a fixed boundary for the first time. A quantum walk (QW) is a non-trivial generalization of RW, and has attracted a great deal of interest from researchers working in quantum physics and quantum information. In this paper, we develop a method to calculate the stopping time for a one-dimensional QW. Using our method, we further compare the properties of stopping time for QW and RW. We find that the mean value of the stopping time is the same for both of these problems. However, for short times, the probability for a walker performing a QW to arrive at the boundary is larger than that for a RW. This means that, although the mean stopping time of a quantum and classical walker are the same, the quantum walker has a greater probability of arriving at the boundary earlier than the classical walker. (paper)
One-dimensional organic lead halide perovskites with efficient bluish white-light emission
Yuan, Zhao; Zhou, Chenkun; Tian, Yu; Shu, Yu; Messier, Joshua; Wang, Jamie C.; van de Burgt, Lambertus J.; Kountouriotis, Konstantinos; Xin, Yan; Holt, Ethan; Schanze, Kirk; Clark, Ronald; Siegrist, Theo; Ma, Biwu
2017-01-01
Organic-inorganic hybrid metal halide perovskites, an emerging class of solution processable photoactive materials, welcome a new member with a one-dimensional structure. Herein we report the synthesis, crystal structure and photophysical properties of one-dimensional organic lead bromide perovskites, C4N2H14PbBr4, in which the edge sharing octahedral lead bromide chains [PbBr4 2-]∞ are surrounded by the organic cations C4N2H14 2+ to form the bulk assembly of core-shell quantum wires. This unique one-dimensional structure enables strong quantum confinement with the formation of self-trapped excited states that give efficient bluish white-light emissions with photoluminescence quantum efficiencies of approximately 20% for the bulk single crystals and 12% for the microscale crystals. This work verifies once again that one-dimensional systems are favourable for exciton self-trapping to produce highly efficient below-gap broadband luminescence, and opens up a new route towards superior light emitters based on bulk quantum materials.
Asiri, Sharefa M.; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem
2016-01-01
In this paper, modulating functions-based method is proposed for estimating space–time-dependent unknowns in one-dimensional partial differential equations. The proposed method simplifies the problem into a system of algebraic equations linear
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petukhov, B. V., E-mail: petukhov@ns.crys.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics,” (Russian Federation)
2017-01-15
The state switching in an extended quasi-one-dimensional material is modeled by the stochastic formation of local new-state nuclei and their subsequent growth along the system axis. An analytical approach is developed to describe the influence of defects, dividing a sample into an ensemble of finite-length segments, on its state switching kinetics. As applied to magnetic systems, the method makes it possible to calculate magnetization curves for different defect concentrations and parameters of material.
Effects of Interaction Imbalance in a Strongly Repulsive One-Dimensional Bose Gas
Barfknecht, R. E.; Foerster, A.; Zinner, N. T.
2018-05-01
We calculate the spatial distributions and the dynamics of a few-body two-component strongly interacting Bose gas confined to an effectively one-dimensional trapping potential. We describe the densities for each component in the trap for different interaction and population imbalances. We calculate the time evolution of the system and show that, for a certain ratio of interactions, the minority population travels through the system as an effective wave packet.
Molecule formation and the Farey tree in the one-dimensional Falicov-Kimball model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gruber, C.; Ueltschi, D.; Jedrzejewski, J.
1994-01-01
The ground-state configurations of the one-dimensional Falicov-Kimball model are studied exactly with numerical calculations revealing unexpected effects for small interaction strength. In neutral systems we observe molecular formation, phase separation, and changes in the conducting properties; while in nonneutral systems the phase diagram exhibits Farey tree order (Aubry sequence) and a devil's staircase structure. Conjectures are presented for the boundary of the segregated domain and the general structure of the ground states
Testing of a one dimensional model for Field II calibration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bæk, David; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Willatzen, Morten
2008-01-01
Field II is a program for simulating ultrasound transducer fields. It is capable of calculating the emitted and pulse-echoed fields for both pulsed and continuous wave transducers. To make it fully calibrated a model of the transducer’s electro-mechanical impulse response must be included. We...... examine an adapted one dimensional transducer model originally proposed by Willatzen [9] to calibrate Field II. This model is modified to calculate the required impulse responses needed by Field II for a calibrated field pressure and external circuit current calculation. The testing has been performed...... to the calibrated Field II program for 1, 4, and 10 cycle excitations. Two parameter sets were applied for modeling, one real valued Pz27 parameter set, manufacturer supplied, and one complex valued parameter set found in literature, Alguer´o et al. [11]. The latter implicitly accounts for attenuation. Results show...
One-dimensional reactor kinetics model for RETRAN
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gose, G.C.; Peterson, C.E.; Ellis, N.L.; McClure, J.A.
1981-01-01
Previous versions of RETRAN have had only a point kinetics model to describe the reactor core behavior during thermal-hydraulic transients. The principal assumption in deriving the point kinetics model is that the neutron flux may be separated into a time-dependent amplitude funtion and a time-independent shape function. Certain types of transients cannot be correctly analyzed under this assumption, since proper definitions for core average quantities such as reactivity or lifetime include the inner product of the adjoint flux with the perturbed flux. A one-dimensional neutronics model has been included in a preliminary version of RETRAN-02. The ability to account for flux shape changes will permit an improved representation of the thermal and hydraulic feedback effects. This paper describes the neutronics model and discusses some of the analyses
Lateral shifting in one dimensional chiral photonic crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
You Yuan; Chen Changyuan
2012-01-01
We report the lateral shifts of the transmitted waves in a one dimensional chiral photonic crystal by using the stationary-phase approach. It is revealed that two kinds of lateral shifts are observed due to the existence of cross coupling in chiral materials, which is different from what has been observed in previous non-chiral photonic crystals. Unlike the chiral slab, the positions of lateral shift peaks are closely related to the band edges of band gap characteristics of periodic structure and lateral shifts can be positive as well as negative. Besides, the lateral shifts show a strong dependence on the chiral factor, which varies the lateral shift peaks in both magnitudes and positions. These features are desirable for future device applications.
Magnons in one-dimensional k-component Fibonacci structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Costa, C. H., E-mail: carloshocosta@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Vasconcelos, M. S. [Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil)
2014-05-07
We have studied the magnon transmission through of one-dimensional magnonic k-component Fibonacci structures, where k different materials are arranged in accordance with the following substitution rule: S{sub n}{sup (k)}=S{sub n−1}{sup (k)}S{sub n−k}{sup (k)} (n≥k=0,1,2,…), where S{sub n}{sup (k)} is the nth stage of the sequence. The calculations were carried out in exchange dominated regime within the framework of the Heisenberg model and taking into account the RPA approximation. We have considered multilayers composed of simple cubic spin-S Heisenberg ferromagnets, and, by using the powerful transfer-matrix method, the spin wave transmission is obtained. It is demonstrated that the transmission coefficient has a rich and interesting magnonic pass- and stop-bands structures, which depends on the frequency of magnons and the k values.
One-dimensional thermodynamical model for poling of ferroelectric ceramics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bassiouny, E.
1990-11-01
In this work, we use a model developed to deduce a one-dimensional model for the description of the poling of ferroelectric ceramics. This is built within the scheme of the thermodynamical theory of internal variables. The model produces both plastic and electric hysteresis effects in the form of ''plasticity'', i.e., rate-independent evolution equations for the plastic strain, and the residual electric polarization and both mechanical and electric hardenings. The influence of stresses on ferroelectric hysteresis loops through piezoelectricity and electrostriction is a natural outcome of this model. Some simple experimental methods for the determination of the material coefficients of the considered ceramics are suggested. (author). 21 refs, 3 figs
NMR relaxation rate in quasi one-dimensional antiferromagnets
Capponi, Sylvain; Dupont, Maxime; Laflorencie, Nicolas; Sengupta, Pinaki; Shao, Hui; Sandvik, Anders W.
We compare results of different numerical approaches to compute the NMR relaxation rate 1 /T1 in quasi one-dimensional (1d) antiferromagnets. In the purely 1d regime, recent numerical simulations using DMRG have provided the full crossover behavior from classical regime at high temperature to universal Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid at low-energy (in the gapless case) or activated behavior (in the gapped case). For quasi 1d models, we can use mean-field approaches to reduce the problem to a 1d one that can be studied using DMRG. But in some cases, we can also simulate the full microscopic model using quantum Monte-Carlo techniques. This allows to compute dynamical correlations in imaginary time and we will discuss recent advances to perform stochastic analytic continuation to get real frequency spectra. Finally, we connect our results to experiments on various quasi 1d materials.
One-dimensional disk model simulation for klystron design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yonezawa, H.; Okazaki, Y.
1984-05-01
In 1982, one of the authors (Okazaki), of Toshiba Corporation, wrote a one-dimensional, rigid-disk model computer program to serve as a reliable design tool for the 150 MW klystron development project. This is an introductory note for the users of this program. While reviewing the so-called disk programs presently available, hypotheses such as gridded interaction gaps, a linear relation between phase and position, and so on, were found. These hypotheses bring serious limitations and uncertainties into the computational results. JPNDISK was developed to eliminate these defects, to follow the equations of motion as rigorously as possible, and to obtain self-consistent solutions for the gap voltages and the electron motion. Although some inaccuracy may be present in the relativistic region, JPNDISK, in its present form, seems a most suitable tool for klystron design; it is both easy and inexpensive to use
Probing the exchange statistics of one-dimensional anyon models
Greschner, Sebastian; Cardarelli, Lorenzo; Santos, Luis
2018-05-01
We propose feasible scenarios for revealing the modified exchange statistics in one-dimensional anyon models in optical lattices based on an extension of the multicolor lattice-depth modulation scheme introduced in [Phys. Rev. A 94, 023615 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.94.023615]. We show that the fast modulation of a two-component fermionic lattice gas in the presence a magnetic field gradient, in combination with additional resonant microwave fields, allows for the quantum simulation of hardcore anyon models with periodic boundary conditions. Such a semisynthetic ring setup allows for realizing an interferometric arrangement sensitive to the anyonic statistics. Moreover, we show as well that simple expansion experiments may reveal the formation of anomalously bound pairs resulting from the anyonic exchange.
One-dimensional reduction of viscous jets. II. Applications
Pitrou, Cyril
2018-04-01
In a companion paper [Phys. Rev. E 97, 043115 (2018), 10.1103/PhysRevE.97.043115], a formalism allowing to describe viscous fibers as one-dimensional objects was developed. We apply it to the special case of a viscous fluid torus. This allows to highlight the differences with the basic viscous string model and with its viscous rod model extension. In particular, an elliptic deformation of the torus section appears because of surface tension effects, and this cannot be described by viscous string nor viscous rod models. Furthermore, we study the Rayleigh-Plateau instability for periodic deformations around the perfect torus, and we show that the instability is not sufficient to lead to the torus breakup in several droplets before it collapses to a single spherical drop. Conversely, a rotating torus is dynamically attracted toward a stationary solution, around which the instability can develop freely and split the torus in multiple droplets.
Lateral shifting in one dimensional chiral photonic crystal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
You Yuan, E-mail: yctcyouyuan@163.com [School of Physics and Electronics, Yancheng Teachers University, Yancheng, 224002 Jiangsu (China); Chen Changyuan [School of Physics and Electronics, Yancheng Teachers University, Yancheng, 224002 Jiangsu (China)
2012-07-01
We report the lateral shifts of the transmitted waves in a one dimensional chiral photonic crystal by using the stationary-phase approach. It is revealed that two kinds of lateral shifts are observed due to the existence of cross coupling in chiral materials, which is different from what has been observed in previous non-chiral photonic crystals. Unlike the chiral slab, the positions of lateral shift peaks are closely related to the band edges of band gap characteristics of periodic structure and lateral shifts can be positive as well as negative. Besides, the lateral shifts show a strong dependence on the chiral factor, which varies the lateral shift peaks in both magnitudes and positions. These features are desirable for future device applications.
The transmission probability method in one-dimensional cylindrical geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rubin, I.E.
1983-01-01
The collision probability method widely used in solving the problems of neutron transpopt in a reactor cell is reliable for simple cells with small number of zones. The increase of the number of zones and also taking into account the anisotropy of scattering greatly increase the scope of calculations. In order to reduce the time of calculation the transmission probability method is suggested to be used for flux calculation in one-dimensional cylindrical geometry taking into account the scattering anisotropy. The efficiency of the suggested method is verified using the one-group calculations for cylindrical cells. The use of the transmission probability method allows to present completely angular and spatial dependences is neutrons distributions without the increase in the scope of calculations. The method is especially effective in solving the multi-group problems
Experiment and simulation on one-dimensional plasma photonic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Lin; Ouyang, Ji-Ting
2014-01-01
The transmission characteristics of microwaves passing through one-dimensional plasma photonic crystals (PPCs) have been investigated by experiment and simulation. The PPCs were formed by a series of discharge tubes filled with argon at 5 Torr that the plasma density in tubes can be varied by adjusting the discharge current. The transmittance of X-band microwaves through the crystal structure was measured under different discharge currents and geometrical parameters. The finite-different time-domain method was employed to analyze the detailed properties of the microwaves propagation. The results show that there exist bandgaps when the plasma is turned on. The properties of bandgaps depend on the plasma density and the geometrical parameters of the PPCs structure. The PPCs can perform as dynamical band-stop filter to control the transmission of microwaves within a wide frequency range
Analytical models of optical response in one-dimensional semiconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pedersen, Thomas Garm
2015-01-01
The quantum mechanical description of the optical properties of crystalline materials typically requires extensive numerical computation. Including excitonic and non-perturbative field effects adds to the complexity. In one dimension, however, the analysis simplifies and optical spectra can be computed exactly. In this paper, we apply the Wannier exciton formalism to derive analytical expressions for the optical response in four cases of increasing complexity. Thus, we start from free carriers and, in turn, switch on electrostatic fields and electron–hole attraction and, finally, analyze the combined influence of these effects. In addition, the optical response of impurity-localized excitons is discussed. - Highlights: • Optical response of one-dimensional semiconductors including excitons. • Analytical model of excitonic Franz–Keldysh effect. • Computation of optical response of impurity-localized excitons
SUSY-hierarchy of one-dimensional reflectionless potentials
Maydanyuk, Sergei P
2004-01-01
A class of one-dimensional reflectionless potentials, an absolute transparency of which is concerned with their belonging to one SUSY-hierarchy with a constant potential, is studied. An approach for determination of a general form of the reflectionless potential on the basis of construction of such a hierarchy by the recurrent method is proposed. A general form of interdependence between superpotentials with neighboring numbers of this hierarchy, opening a possibility to find new reflectionless potentials, have a simple analytical view and are expressed through finite number of elementary functions (unlike some reflectionless potentials, which are constructed on the basis of soliton solutions or are shape invariant in one or many steps with involving scaling of parameters, and are expressed through series), is obtained. An analysis of absolute transparency existence for the potential which has the inverse power dependence on space coordinate (and here tunneling is possible), i.e. which has the form $V(x) = \\p...
Strongly-Refractive One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Prisms
Ting, David Z. (Inventor)
2004-01-01
One-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal prisms can separate a beam of polychromatic electromagnetic waves into constituent wavelength components and can utilize unconventional refraction properties for wavelength dispersion over significant portions of an entire photonic band rather than just near the band edges outside the photonic band gaps. Using a ID photonic crystal simplifies the design and fabrication process and allows the use of larger feature sizes. The prism geometry broadens the useful wavelength range, enables better optical transmission, and exhibits angular dependence on wavelength with reduced non-linearity. The properties of the 1 D photonic crystal prism can be tuned by varying design parameters such as incidence angle, exit surface angle, and layer widths. The ID photonic crystal prism can be fabricated in a planar process, and can be used as optical integrated circuit elements.
A Reduced Order, One Dimensional Model of Joint Response
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
DOHNER,JEFFREY L.
2000-11-06
As a joint is loaded, the tangent stiffness of the joint reduces due to slip at interfaces. This stiffness reduction continues until the direction of the applied load is reversed or the total interface slips. Total interface slippage in joints is called macro-slip. For joints not undergoing macro-slip, when load reversal occurs the tangent stiffness immediately rebounds to its maximum value. This occurs due to stiction effects at the interface. Thus, for periodic loads, a softening and rebound hardening cycle is produced which defines a hysteretic, energy absorbing trajectory. For many jointed sub-structures, this hysteretic trajectory can be approximated using simple polynomial representations. This allows for complex joint substructures to be represented using simple non-linear models. In this paper a simple one dimensional model is discussed.
Capillary condensation in one-dimensional irregular confinement.
Handford, Thomas P; Pérez-Reche, Francisco J; Taraskin, Sergei N
2013-07-01
A lattice-gas model with heterogeneity is developed for the description of fluid condensation in finite sized one-dimensional pores of arbitrary shape. Mapping to the random-field Ising model allows an exact solution of the model to be obtained at zero-temperature, reproducing the experimentally observed dependence of the amount of fluid adsorbed in the pore on external pressure. It is demonstrated that the disorder controls the sorption for long pores and can result in H2-type hysteresis. Finite-temperature Metropolis dynamics simulations support analytical findings in the limit of low temperatures. The proposed framework is viewed as a fundamental building block of the theory of capillary condensation necessary for reliable structural analysis of complex porous media from adsorption-desorption data.
Interacting Fermi gases in disordered one-dimensional lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xianlong, Gao; Polini, M.; Tosi, M. P.; Tanatar, B.
2006-01-01
Interacting two-component Fermi gases loaded in a one-dimensional (1D) lattice and subject to harmonic trapping exhibit intriguing compound phases in which fluid regions coexist with local Mott-insulator and/or band-insulator regions. Motivated by experiments on cold atoms inside disordered optical lattices, we present a theoretical study of the effects of a random potential on these ground-state phases. Within a density-functional scheme we show that disorder has two main effects: (i) it destroys the local insulating regions if it is sufficiently strong compared with the on-site atom-atom repulsion, and (ii) it induces an anomaly in the compressibility at low density from quenching of percolation
A one-dimensional ice structure built from pentagons
Carrasco, Javier; Michaelides, Angelos
2010-03-01
Heterogeneous nucleation of water plays a key role in fields as diverse as atmospheric chemistry, astrophysics, and biology. Ice nucleation on metal surfaces offers an opportunity to watch this process unfold, providing a molecular-scale description at a well-defined, planar interface. We discuss a density-functional theory study on a metal surface specifically designed to understand such phenomena. Together with our colleges at the University of Liverpool, we found that the nanometer wide water-ice chains experimentally observed to nucleate and grow on Cu(110) are built from a face sharing arrangement of water pentagons [1]. The novel one-dimensional pentagon structure maximizes the water-metal bonding whilst simultaneously maintaining a strong hydrogen bonding network. These results reveal an unanticipated structural adaptability of water-ice films, demonstrating that the presence of the substrate can be sufficient to favor non-conventional structural units. [4pt] [1] J. Carrasco et al., Nature Mater. 8, 427 (2009).
One-dimensional plasma photonic crystals with sinusoidal densities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qi, L.; Shang, L.; Zhang, S.
2014-01-01
Properties of electromagnetic waves with normal and oblique incidence have been studied for one-dimensional plasma layers with sinusoidal densities. Wave transmittance as a function of wave frequency exhibits photonic band gaps characteristic of photonic crystals. For periodic structures, increasing collision frequency is demonstrated to lead to greater absorption, increasing the modulation factor enlarges the gap width, and increasing incidence angle can change the gap locations of the two polarizations. If a defect layer is introduced by inserting a new plasma layer in the center, a defect mode may appear within the gap. Periodic number, collision frequency, and modulation factor can affect magnitude of the defect mode. The incidence angle enables the frequency to be tuned. Defect layer thickness affects both frequency and number of defect modes. These results may provide theoretical guidance in designing tunable narrow-band filters
Explicit Solutions for One-Dimensional Mean-Field Games
Prazeres, Mariana
2017-04-05
In this thesis, we consider stationary one-dimensional mean-field games (MFGs) with or without congestion. Our aim is to understand the qualitative features of these games through the analysis of explicit solutions. We are particularly interested in MFGs with a nonmonotonic behavior, which corresponds to situations where agents tend to aggregate. First, we derive the MFG equations from control theory. Then, we compute explicit solutions using the current formulation and examine their behavior. Finally, we represent the solutions and analyze the results. This thesis main contributions are the following: First, we develop the current method to solve MFG explicitly. Second, we analyze in detail non-monotonic MFGs and discover new phenomena: non-uniqueness, discontinuous solutions, empty regions and unhappiness traps. Finally, we address several regularization procedures and examine the stability of MFGs.
One-dimensional central-force problem, including radiation reaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kasher, J.C.
1976-01-01
Two equal masses of equal charge magnitude (either attractive or repulsive) are held a certain distance apart for their entire past history. AT t = 0 one of them is either started from rest or given an initial velocity toward or away from the other charge. When the Dirac radiation-reaction force is included in the force equation, our Taylor-series numerical calculations lead to two types of nonphysical results for both the attractive and repulsive cases. In the attractive case, the moving charge either stops and moves back out to infinity, or violates energy conservation as it nears collision with the fixed charge. For the repulsive charges, the moving particle either eventually approaches and collides with the fixed one, or violates energy conservation as it goes out to infinity. These results lead us to conclude that the Lorentz-Dirac equation is not valid for the one-dimensional central-force problem
Periodic transmission peak splitting in one dimensional disordered photonic structures
Kriegel, Ilka; Scotognella, Francesco
2016-08-01
In the present paper we present ways to modulate the periodic transmission peaks arising in disordered one dimensional photonic structures with hundreds of layers. Disordered structures in which the optical length nd (n is the refractive index and d the layer thickness) is the same for each layer show regular peaks in their transmission spectra. A proper variation of the optical length of the layers leads to a splitting of the transmission peaks. Notably, the variation of the occurrence of high and low refractive index layers, gives a tool to tune also the width of the peaks. These results are of highest interest for optical application, such as light filtering, where the manifold of parameters allows a precise design of the spectral transmission ranges.
REVIEW One-Dimensional Dynamical Modeling of Earthquakes: A Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeen-Hwa Wang
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Studies of the power-law relations of seismicity and earthquake source parameters based on the one-dimensional (1-D Burridge-Knopoff¡¦s (BK dynamical lattice model, especially those studies conducted by Taiwan¡¦s scientists, are reviewed in this article. In general, velocity- and/or state-dependent friction is considered to control faulting. A uniform distribution of breaking strengths (i.e., the static friction strength is taken into account in some studies, and inhomogeneous distributions in others. The scaling relations in these studies include: Omori¡¦s law, the magnitude-frequency or energy-frequency relation, the relation between source duration time and seismic moment, the relation between rupture length and seismic moment, the frequency-length relation, and the source power spectra. The main parameters of the one-dimensional (1-D Burridge-Knopoff¡¦s (BK dynamical lattice model include: the decreasing rate (r of dynamic friction strength with sliding velocity; the type and degree of heterogeneous distribution of the breaking strengths, the stiffness ratio (i.e., the ratio between the stiffness of the coil spring connecting two mass elements and that of the leaf spring linking a mass element and the moving plate; the frictional drop ratio of the minimum dynamic friction strength to the breaking strength; and the maximum breaking strength. For some authors, the distribution of the breaking strengths was considered to be a fractal function. Hence, the fractal dimension of such a distribution is also a significant parameter. Comparison between observed scaling laws and simulation results shows that the 1-D BK dynamical lattice model acceptably approaches fault dynamics.
One-dimensional reduction of viscous jets. I. Theory
Pitrou, Cyril
2018-04-01
We build a general formalism to describe thin viscous jets as one-dimensional objects with an internal structure. We present in full generality the steps needed to describe the viscous jets around their central line, and we argue that the Taylor expansion of all fields around that line is conveniently expressed in terms of symmetric trace-free tensors living in the two dimensions of the fiber sections. We recover the standard results of axisymmetric jets and we report the first and second corrections to the lowest order description, also allowing for a rotational component around the axis of symmetry. When applied to generally curved fibers, the lowest order description corresponds to a viscous string model whose sections are circular. However, when including the first corrections, we find that curved jets generically develop elliptic sections. Several subtle effects imply that the first corrections cannot be described by a rod model since it amounts to selectively discard some corrections. However, in a fast rotating frame, we find that the dominant effects induced by inertial and Coriolis forces should be correctly described by rod models. For completeness, we also recover the constitutive relations for forces and torques in rod models and exhibit a missing term in the lowest order expression of viscous torque. Given that our method is based on tensors, the complexity of all computations has been beaten down by using an appropriate tensor algebra package such as xAct, allowing us to obtain a one-dimensional description of curved viscous jets with all the first order corrections consistently included. Finally, we find a description for straight fibers with elliptic sections as a special case of these results, and recover that ellipticity is dynamically damped by surface tension. An application to toroidal viscous fibers is presented in the companion paper [Pitrou, Phys. Rev. E 97, 043116 (2018), 10.1103/PhysRevE.97.043116].
X-ray imaging device for one-dimensional and two-dimensional radioscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1978-01-01
The X-ray imaging device for the selectable one-dimensional or two-dimensional pictures of objects illuminated by X-rays, comprising an X-ray source, an X-ray screen, and an opto-electrical picture development device placed behind the screen, is characterized by an anamorphotic optical system, which is positioned with a one-dimensional illumination between the X-ray screen and the opto-electrical device and that a two-dimensional illumination will be developed, and that in view of the lens system which forms part of the opto-electrical device, there is placed an X-ray screen in a specified beam direction so that a magnified image may be formed by equalisation of the distance between the X-ray screen and the lens system. (G.C.)
Theory of finite-entanglement scaling at one-dimensional quantum critical points.
Pollmann, Frank; Mukerjee, Subroto; Turner, Ari M; Moore, Joel E
2009-06-26
Studies of entanglement in many-particle systems suggest that most quantum critical ground states have infinitely more entanglement than noncritical states. Standard algorithms for one-dimensional systems construct model states with limited entanglement, which are a worse approximation to quantum critical states than to others. We give a quantitative theory of previously observed scaling behavior resulting from finite entanglement at quantum criticality. Finite-entanglement scaling in one-dimensional systems is governed not by the scaling dimension of an operator but by the "central charge" of the critical point. An important ingredient is the universal distribution of density-matrix eigenvalues at a critical point [P. Calabrese and A. Lefevre, Phys. Rev. A 78, 032329 (2008)10.1103/PhysRevA.78.032329]. The parameter-free theory is checked against numerical scaling at several quantum critical points.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khater, Antoine; Szczesniak, Dominik
2011-01-01
An analytical model is presented for the electronic conductance in a one dimensional atomic chain across an isolated defect. The model system consists of two semi infinite lead atomic chains with the defect atom making the junction between the two leads. The calculation is based on a linear combination of atomic orbitals in the tight-binding approximation, with a single atomic one s-like orbital chosen in the present case. The matching method is used to derive analytical expressions for the scattering cross sections for the reflection and transmission processes across the defect, in the Landauer-Buttiker representation. These analytical results verify the known limits for an infinite atomic chain with no defects. The model can be applied numerically for one dimensional atomic systems supported by appropriate templates. It is also of interest since it would help establish efficient procedures for ensemble averages over a field of impurity configurations in real physical systems.
Photoinduced charge-order melting dynamics in a one-dimensional interacting Holstein model
Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Sumio
2017-07-01
Transient quantum dynamics in an interacting fermion-phonon system are investigated with a focus on a charge order (CO) melting after a short optical-pulse irradiation and the roles of the quantum phonons in the transient dynamics. A spinless-fermion model in a one-dimensional chain coupled with local phonons is analyzed numerically. The infinite time-evolving block decimation algorithm is adopted as a reliable numerical method for one-dimensional quantum many-body systems. Numerical results for the photoinduced CO melting dynamics without phonons are well interpreted by the soliton picture for the CO domains. This interpretation is confirmed by numerical simulation of an artificial local excitation and the classical soliton model. In the case of large phonon frequencies corresponding to the antiadiabatic condition, CO melting is induced by propagations of the polaronic solitons with the renormalized soliton velocity. On the other hand, in the case of small phonon frequencies corresponding to the adiabatic condition, the first stage of the CO melting dynamics occurs due to the energy transfer from the fermionic to phononic systems, and the second stage is brought about by the soliton motions around the bottom of the soliton band. The analyses provide a standard reference for photoinduced CO melting dynamics in one-dimensional many-body quantum systems.
A one-dimensional gravitationally interacting gas and the convex minorant of Brownian motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suidan, T M
2001-01-01
The surprising connection between a one-dimensional gravitationally interacting gas of sticky particles and the convex minorant process generated by Brownian motion on [0,1] is studied. A study is made of the dynamics of this 1-D gas system by identifying three distinct clustering regimes and the time scales at which they occur. At the critical moment of time the mass distribution of the gas can be computed in terms of functionals of the convex minorant process
Topological phase transition in the quench dynamics of a one-dimensional Fermi gas
Wang, Pei; Yi, Wei; Xianlong, Gao
2014-01-01
We study the quench dynamics of a one-dimensional ultracold Fermi gas in an optical lattice potential with synthetic spin-orbit coupling. At equilibrium, the ground state of the system can undergo a topological phase transition and become a topological superfluid with Majorana edge states. As the interaction is quenched near the topological phase boundary, we identify an interesting dynamical phase transition of the quenched state in the long-time limit, characterized by an abrupt change of t...
SING-dialoque subsystem for graphical representation of one-dimensional array contents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karlov, A.A.; Kirilov, A.S.
1979-01-01
General principles of organization and main features of dialogue subsystem for graphical representation of one-dimensional array contents are considered. The subsystem is developed for remote display station of the JINR BESM-6 computer. Some examples of using the subsystem for drawing curves and histograms are given. The subsystem is developed according to modern dialogue systems requirements. It is ''open'' for extension and could be installed into other computers [ru
One-dimensional unstable eigenfunction and manifold computations in delay differential equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, Kirk; Krauskopf, Bernd; Engelborghs, Koen
2004-01-01
In this paper we present a new numerical technique for computing the unstable eigenfunctions of a saddle periodic orbit in a delay differential equation. This is used to obtain the necessary starting data for an established algorithm for computing one-dimensional (1D) unstable manifolds of an associated saddle fixed point of a suitable Poincare map. To illustrate our method, we investigate an intermittent transition to chaos in a delay system describing a semiconductor laser subject to phase-conjugate feedback
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bobula, E.; Kalicka, Z.
1981-10-01
In the paper we consider the one-dimensional solidification of binary alloys in the finite system. The authors present the sufficient condition for solidification in the liquid in front of the moving solid-liquid interface. The effect may produce a fluctuating concentration distributin in the solid. The convection in the liquid and supercooling required for homogeneous nucleation are omitted. A local-equilibrium approximation at the liquid-solid interface is supposed. (author)
One-dimensional transient radiative transfer by lattice Boltzmann method.
Zhang, Yong; Yi, Hongliang; Tan, Heping
2013-10-21
The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is extended to solve transient radiative transfer in one-dimensional slab containing scattering media subjected to a collimated short laser irradiation. By using a fully implicit backward differencing scheme to discretize the transient term in the radiative transfer equation, a new type of lattice structure is devised. The accuracy and computational efficiency of this algorithm are examined firstly. Afterwards, effects of the medium properties such as the extinction coefficient, the scattering albedo and the anisotropy factor, and the shapes of laser pulse on time-resolved signals of transmittance and reflectance are investigated. Results of the present method are found to compare very well with the data from the literature. For an oblique incidence, the LBM results in this paper are compared with those by Monte Carlo method generated by ourselves. In addition, transient radiative transfer in a two-Layer inhomogeneous media subjected to a short square pulse irradiation is investigated. At last, the LBM is further extended to study the transient radiative transfer in homogeneous medium with a refractive index discontinuity irradiated by the short pulse laser. Several trends on the time-resolved signals different from those for refractive index of 1 (i.e. refractive-index-matched boundary) are observed and analysed.
SUSY-hierarchy of one-dimensional reflectionless potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maydanyuk, Sergei P.
2005-01-01
A class of one-dimensional reflectionless potentials is studied. It is found that all possible types of the reflectionless potentials can be combined into one SUSY-hierarchy with a constant potential. An approach for determination of a general form of the reflectionless potential on the basis of construction of such a hierarchy by the recurrent method is proposed. A general integral form of interdependence between superpotentials with neighboring numbers of this hierarchy, opening a possibility to find new reflectionless potentials, is found and has a simple analytical view. It is supposed that any possible type of the reflectionless potential can be expressed through finite number of elementary functions (unlike some presentations of the reflectionless potentials, which are constructed on the basis of soliton solutions or are shape invariant in one or many steps with involving scaling of parameters, and are expressed through series). An analysis of absolute transparency existence for the potential which has the inverse power dependence on space coordinate (and here tunneling is possible), i.e., which has the form V (x) = ± α/ vertical bar x-x 0 vertical bar n (where α and x 0 are constants, n is natural number), is fulfilled. It is shown that such a potential can be reflectionless at n = 2 only. A SUSY-hierarchy of the inverse power reflectionless potentials is constructed. Isospectral expansions of this hierarchy are analyzed
One-Dimensional Electron Transport Layers for Perovskite Solar Cells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ujwal K. Thakur
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The electron diffusion length (Ln is smaller than the hole diffusion length (Lp in many halide perovskite semiconductors meaning that the use of ordered one-dimensional (1D structures such as nanowires (NWs and nanotubes (NTs as electron transport layers (ETLs is a promising method of achieving high performance halide perovskite solar cells (HPSCs. ETLs consisting of oriented and aligned NWs and NTs offer the potential not merely for improved directional charge transport but also for the enhanced absorption of incoming light and thermodynamically efficient management of photogenerated carrier populations. The ordered architecture of NW/NT arrays affords superior infiltration of a deposited material making them ideal for use in HPSCs. Photoconversion efficiencies (PCEs as high as 18% have been demonstrated for HPSCs using 1D ETLs. Despite the advantages of 1D ETLs, there are still challenges that need to be overcome to achieve even higher PCEs, such as better methods to eliminate or passivate surface traps, improved understanding of the hetero-interface and optimization of the morphology (i.e., length, diameter, and spacing of NWs/NTs. This review introduces the general considerations of ETLs for HPSCs, deposition techniques used, and the current research and challenges in the field of 1D ETLs for perovskite solar cells.
Periodic solutions for one dimensional wave equation with bounded nonlinearity
Ji, Shuguan
2018-05-01
This paper is concerned with the periodic solutions for the one dimensional nonlinear wave equation with either constant or variable coefficients. The constant coefficient model corresponds to the classical wave equation, while the variable coefficient model arises from the forced vibrations of a nonhomogeneous string and the propagation of seismic waves in nonisotropic media. For finding the periodic solutions of variable coefficient wave equation, it is usually required that the coefficient u (x) satisfies ess infηu (x) > 0 with ηu (x) = 1/2 u″/u - 1/4 (u‧/u)2, which actually excludes the classical constant coefficient model. For the case ηu (x) = 0, it is indicated to remain an open problem by Barbu and Pavel (1997) [6]. In this work, for the periods having the form T = 2p-1/q (p , q are positive integers) and some types of boundary value conditions, we find some fundamental properties for the wave operator with either constant or variable coefficients. Based on these properties, we obtain the existence of periodic solutions when the nonlinearity is monotone and bounded. Such nonlinearity may cross multiple eigenvalues of the corresponding wave operator. In particular, we do not require the condition ess infηu (x) > 0.
One-dimensional two-phase thermal hydraulics (ENSTA course)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olive, J.
1995-11-01
This course is part of the ENSTA 3rd year thermal hydraulics program (nuclear power option). Its purpose is to provide the theoretical basis and main physical notions pertaining to two-phase flow, mainly focussed on water-steam flows. The introduction describes the physical specificities of these flows, emphasizing their complexity. The mathematical bases are then presented (partial derivative equations), leading to a one-dimensional type, simplified description. Balances drawn up for a pipe length volume are used to introduce the mass conservation. motion and energy equations for each phase. Various postulates used to simplify two-phase models are presented, culminating in homogeneous model definitions and equations, several common examples of which are given. The model is then applied to the calculation of pressure drops in two-phase flows. This involves presenting the models most frequently used to represent pressure drops by friction or due to pipe irregularities, without giving details (numerical values of parameters). This chapter terminates with a brief description of static and dynamic instabilities in two-phase flows. Finally, heat transfer conditions frequently encountered in liquid-steam flows are described, still in the context of a 1D model. This chapter notably includes reference to under-saturated boiling conditions and the various forms of DNB. The empirical heat transfer laws are not discussed in detail. Additional material is appended, some of which is in the form of corrected exercises. (author). 6 appends
One-dimensional long-range percolation: A numerical study
Gori, G.; Michelangeli, M.; Defenu, N.; Trombettoni, A.
2017-07-01
In this paper we study bond percolation on a one-dimensional chain with power-law bond probability C /rd +σ , where r is the distance length between distinct sites and d =1 . We introduce and test an order-N Monte Carlo algorithm and we determine as a function of σ the critical value Cc at which percolation occurs. The critical exponents in the range 0 values for Cc are compared with a known exact bound, while the critical exponent ν is compared with results from mean-field theory, from an expansion around the point σ =1 and from the ɛ -expansion used with the introduction of a suitably defined effective dimension deff relating the long-range model with a short-range one in dimension deff. We finally present a formulation of our algorithm for bond percolation on general graphs, with order N efficiency on a large class of graphs including short-range percolation and translationally invariant long-range models in any spatial dimension d with σ >0 .
Validation and Comparison of One-Dimensional Ground Motion Methodologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
B. Darragh; W. Silva; N. Gregor
2006-01-01
Both point- and finite-source stochastic one-dimensional ground motion models, coupled to vertically propagating equivalent-linear shear-wave site response models are validated using an extensive set of strong motion data as part of the Yucca Mountain Project. The validation and comparison exercises are presented entirely in terms of 5% damped pseudo absolute response spectra. The study consists of a quantitative analyses involving modeling nineteen well-recorded earthquakes, M 5.6 to 7.4 at over 600 sites. The sites range in distance from about 1 to about 200 km in the western US (460 km for central-eastern US). In general, this validation demonstrates that the stochastic point- and finite-source models produce accurate predictions of strong ground motions over the range of 0 to 100 km and for magnitudes M 5.0 to 7.4. The stochastic finite-source model appears to be broadband, producing near zero bias from about 0.3 Hz (low frequency limit of the analyses) to the high frequency limit of the data (100 and 25 Hz for response and Fourier amplitude spectra, respectively)
Electroconvection in one-dimensional liquid crystal cells
Huh, Jong-Hoon
2018-04-01
We investigate the alternating current (ac) -driven electroconvection (EC) in one-dimensional cells (1DCs) under the in-plane switching mode. In 1DCs, defect-free EC can be realized. In the presence and absence of external multiplicative noise, the features of traveling waves (TWs), such as their Hopf frequency fH and velocity, are examined in comparison with those of conventional two-dimensional cells (2DCs) accompanying defects of EC rolls. In particular, we show that the defects significantly contribute to the features of the TWs. Additionally, owing to the defect-free EC in the 1DCs, the effects of the ac and noise fields on the TW are clarified. The ac field linearly increases fH, independent of the ac frequency f . The noise increases fH monotonically, but fH does not vary below a characteristic noise intensity VN*. In addition, soliton-like waves and unfamiliar oscillation of EC vortices in 1DCs are observed, in contrast to the localized EC (called worms) and the oscillation of EC rolls in 2DCs.
17th century treatments of one-dimensional collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goehring, G.D.
1975-01-01
The issue of conservation in the collisions of bodies aroused considerable interest in the period of its initial investigation. Descartes asserted that the quantity of motion, the scalar product of the mass and speed, was the quantity that was conserved. Huygens, with the aid of his relativity of motion principle, recognized that it was not Descartes' scalar quantity that was conserved, but instead another scalar quality, the product of the mass and the square of the speed, whose total remained constant. Newton discovered that Descartes' quantity was conserved if considered a vector quantity, and thereby announced the principle of conservation of momentum. Leibniz recognized the conservation of Newton's momentum, and also the conservation of vis viva, the same scalar quantity that Huygens has earlier proposed. Although recognition of the immense importance of these principles had to await further developments in physics, the original formulation of these conservation principles, resulting from the analysis of one-dimensional collisions, was completed by the end of the 17th century. (U.K.)
Negative refraction angular characterization in one-dimensional photonic crystals.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jesus Eduardo Lugo
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Photonic crystals are artificial structures that have periodic dielectric components with different refractive indices. Under certain conditions, they abnormally refract the light, a phenomenon called negative refraction. Here we experimentally characterize negative refraction in a one dimensional photonic crystal structure; near the low frequency edge of the fourth photonic bandgap. We compare the experimental results with current theory and a theory based on the group velocity developed here. We also analytically derived the negative refraction correctness condition that gives the angular region where negative refraction occurs.By using standard photonic techniques we experimentally determined the relationship between incidence and negative refraction angles and found the negative refraction range by applying the correctness condition. In order to compare both theories with experimental results an output refraction correction was utilized. The correction uses Snell's law and an effective refractive index based on two effective dielectric constants. We found good agreement between experiment and both theories in the negative refraction zone.Since both theories and the experimental observations agreed well in the negative refraction region, we can use both negative refraction theories plus the output correction to predict negative refraction angles. This can be very useful from a practical point of view for space filtering applications such as a photonic demultiplexer or for sensing applications.
Negative refraction angular characterization in one-dimensional photonic crystals.
Lugo, Jesus Eduardo; Doti, Rafael; Faubert, Jocelyn
2011-04-06
Photonic crystals are artificial structures that have periodic dielectric components with different refractive indices. Under certain conditions, they abnormally refract the light, a phenomenon called negative refraction. Here we experimentally characterize negative refraction in a one dimensional photonic crystal structure; near the low frequency edge of the fourth photonic bandgap. We compare the experimental results with current theory and a theory based on the group velocity developed here. We also analytically derived the negative refraction correctness condition that gives the angular region where negative refraction occurs. By using standard photonic techniques we experimentally determined the relationship between incidence and negative refraction angles and found the negative refraction range by applying the correctness condition. In order to compare both theories with experimental results an output refraction correction was utilized. The correction uses Snell's law and an effective refractive index based on two effective dielectric constants. We found good agreement between experiment and both theories in the negative refraction zone. Since both theories and the experimental observations agreed well in the negative refraction region, we can use both negative refraction theories plus the output correction to predict negative refraction angles. This can be very useful from a practical point of view for space filtering applications such as a photonic demultiplexer or for sensing applications.
One-dimensional quantum walk with a moving boundary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwek, Leong Chuan; Setiawan
2011-01-01
Quantum walks are interesting models with potential applications to quantum algorithms and physical processes such as photosynthesis. In this paper, we study two models of one-dimensional quantum walks, namely, quantum walks with a moving absorbing wall and quantum walks with one stationary and one moving absorbing wall. For the former, we calculate numerically the survival probability, the rate of change of average position, and the rate of change of standard deviation of the particle's position in the long time limit for different wall velocities. Moreover, we also study the asymptotic behavior and the dependence of the survival probability on the initial particle's state. While for the latter, we compute the absorption probability of the right stationary wall for different velocities and initial positions of the left wall boundary. The results for these two models are compared with those obtained for the classical model. The difference between the results obtained for the quantum and classical models can be attributed to the difference in the probability distributions.
Numerical modelling of random walk one-dimensional diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vamos, C.; Suciu, N.; Peculea, M.
1996-01-01
The evolution of a particle which moves on a discrete one-dimensional lattice, according to a random walk low, approximates better the diffusion process smaller the steps of the spatial lattice and time are. For a sufficiently large assembly of particles one can assume that their relative frequency at lattice knots approximates the distribution function of the diffusion process. This assumption has been tested by simulating on computer two analytical solutions of the diffusion equation: the Brownian motion and the steady state linear distribution. To evaluate quantitatively the similarity between the numerical and analytical solutions we have used a norm given by the absolute value of the difference of the two solutions. Also, a diffusion coefficient at any lattice knots and moment of time has been calculated, by using the numerical solution both from the diffusion equation and the particle flux given by Fick's low. The difference between diffusion coefficient of analytical solution and the spatial lattice mean coefficient of numerical solution constitutes another quantitative indication of the similarity of the two solutions. The results obtained show that the approximation depends first on the number of particles at each knot of the spatial lattice. In conclusion, the random walk is a microscopic process of the molecular dynamics type which permits simulations precision of the diffusion processes with given precision. The numerical method presented in this work may be useful both in the analysis of real experiments and for theoretical studies
MARG1D: One dimensional outer region matching data code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tokuda, Shinji; Watanabe, Tomoko.
1995-08-01
A code MARG1D has been developed which computes outer region matching data of the one dimensional Newcomb equation. Matching data play an important role in the resistive (and non ideal) Magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) stability analysis in a tokamak plasma. The MARG1D code computes matching data by using the boundary value method or by the eigenvalue method. Variational principles are derived for the problems to be solved and a finite element method is applied. Except for the case of marginal stability, the eigenvalue method is equivalent to the boundary value method. However, the eigenvalue method has the several advantages: it is a new method of ideal MHD stability analysis for which the marginally stable state can be identified, and it guarantees numerical stability in computing matching data close to marginal stability. We perform detailed numerical experiments for a model equation with analytical solutions and for the Newcomb equation in the m=1 mode theory. Numerical experiments show that MARG1D code gives the matching data with numerical stability and high accuracy. (author)
One-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals with magnetooptical double layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berzhansky, V. N.; Shaposhnikov, A. N.; Prokopov, A. R.; Karavainikov, A. V.; Mikhailova, T. V.; Lukienko, I. N.; Kharchenko, Yu. N.; Golub, V. O.; Salyuk, O. Yu.; Belotelov, V. I.
2016-01-01
One-dimensional magnetophotonic microcavity crystals with nongarnet dielectric mirrors are created and investigated. The defect layers in the magnetophotonic crystals are represented by two bismuth-substituted yttrium iron garnet Bi:YIG layers with various bismuth contents in order to achieve a high magnetooptical response of the crystals. The parameters of the magnetophotonic crystal layers are optimized by numerical solution of the Maxwell equations by the transfer matrix method to achieve high values of Faraday rotation angle Θ F and magnetooptical Q factor. The calculated and experimental data agree well with each other. The maximum values of Θ F =–20.6°, Q = 8.1° at a gain t = 16 are obtained for magnetophotonic crystals with m = 7 pairs of layers in Bragg mirrors, and the parameters obtained for crystals with m = 4 and t = 8.5 are Θ F =–12.5° and Q = 14.3°. It is shown that, together with all-garnet and multimicrocavities magnetophotonic crystals, such structures have high magnetooptical characteristics.
One-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals with magnetooptical double layers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berzhansky, V. N., E-mail: v.n.berzhansky@gmail.com; Shaposhnikov, A. N.; Prokopov, A. R.; Karavainikov, A. V.; Mikhailova, T. V. [V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University (Russian Federation); Lukienko, I. N.; Kharchenko, Yu. N., E-mail: kharcenko@ilt.kharkov.ua [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering (Ukraine); Golub, V. O., E-mail: v-o-golub@yahoo.com; Salyuk, O. Yu. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Magnetism (Ukraine); Belotelov, V. I., E-mail: belotelov@physics.msu.ru [Russian Quantum Center (Russian Federation)
2016-11-15
One-dimensional magnetophotonic microcavity crystals with nongarnet dielectric mirrors are created and investigated. The defect layers in the magnetophotonic crystals are represented by two bismuth-substituted yttrium iron garnet Bi:YIG layers with various bismuth contents in order to achieve a high magnetooptical response of the crystals. The parameters of the magnetophotonic crystal layers are optimized by numerical solution of the Maxwell equations by the transfer matrix method to achieve high values of Faraday rotation angle Θ{sub F} and magnetooptical Q factor. The calculated and experimental data agree well with each other. The maximum values of Θ{sub F} =–20.6°, Q = 8.1° at a gain t = 16 are obtained for magnetophotonic crystals with m = 7 pairs of layers in Bragg mirrors, and the parameters obtained for crystals with m = 4 and t = 8.5 are Θ{sub F} =–12.5° and Q = 14.3°. It is shown that, together with all-garnet and multimicrocavities magnetophotonic crystals, such structures have high magnetooptical characteristics.
Approximate approaches to the one-dimensional finite potential well
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Shilpi; Pathak, Praveen; Singh, Vijay A
2011-01-01
The one-dimensional finite well is a textbook problem. We propose approximate approaches to obtain the energy levels of the well. The finite well is also encountered in semiconductor heterostructures where the carrier mass inside the well (m i ) is taken to be distinct from mass outside (m o ). A relevant parameter is the mass discontinuity ratio β = m i /m o . To correctly account for the mass discontinuity, we apply the BenDaniel-Duke boundary condition. We obtain approximate solutions for two cases: when the well is shallow and when the well is deep. We compare the approximate results with the exact results and find that higher-order approximations are quite robust. For the shallow case, the approximate solution can be expressed in terms of a dimensionless parameter σ l = 2m o V 0 L 2 /ℎ 2 (or σ = β 2 σ l for the deep case). We show that the lowest-order results are related by a duality transform. We also discuss how the energy upscales with L (E∼1/L γ ) and obtain the exponent γ. Exponent γ → 2 when the well is sufficiently deep and β → 1. The ratio of the masses dictates the physics. Our presentation is pedagogical and should be useful to students on a first course on elementary quantum mechanics or low-dimensional semiconductors.
One-Dimensional Electron Transport Layers for Perovskite Solar Cells
Thakur, Ujwal K.; Kisslinger, Ryan; Shankar, Karthik
2017-01-01
The electron diffusion length (Ln) is smaller than the hole diffusion length (Lp) in many halide perovskite semiconductors meaning that the use of ordered one-dimensional (1D) structures such as nanowires (NWs) and nanotubes (NTs) as electron transport layers (ETLs) is a promising method of achieving high performance halide perovskite solar cells (HPSCs). ETLs consisting of oriented and aligned NWs and NTs offer the potential not merely for improved directional charge transport but also for the enhanced absorption of incoming light and thermodynamically efficient management of photogenerated carrier populations. The ordered architecture of NW/NT arrays affords superior infiltration of a deposited material making them ideal for use in HPSCs. Photoconversion efficiencies (PCEs) as high as 18% have been demonstrated for HPSCs using 1D ETLs. Despite the advantages of 1D ETLs, there are still challenges that need to be overcome to achieve even higher PCEs, such as better methods to eliminate or passivate surface traps, improved understanding of the hetero-interface and optimization of the morphology (i.e., length, diameter, and spacing of NWs/NTs). This review introduces the general considerations of ETLs for HPSCs, deposition techniques used, and the current research and challenges in the field of 1D ETLs for perovskite solar cells. PMID:28468280
Stepwise Nanopore Evolution in One-Dimensional Nanostructures
Choi, Jang Wook
2010-04-14
We report that established simple lithium (Li) ion battery cycles can be used to produce nanopores inside various useful one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures such as zinc oxide, silicon, and silver nanowires. Moreover, porosities of these 1D nanomaterials can be controlled in a stepwise manner by the number of Li-battery cycles. Subsequent pore characterization at the end of each cycle allows us to obtain detailed snapshots of the distinct pore evolution properties in each material due to their different atomic diffusion rates and types of chemical bonds. Also, this stepwise characterization led us to the first observation of pore size increases during cycling, which can be interpreted as a similar phenomenon to Ostwald ripening in analogous nanoparticle cases. Finally, we take advantage of the unique combination of nanoporosity and 1D materials and demonstrate nanoporous silicon nanowires (poSiNWs) as excellent supercapacitor (SC) electrodes in high power operations compared to existing devices with activated carbon. © 2010 American Chemical Society.
Validation and Comparison of One-Dimensional Graound Motion Methodologies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
B. Darragh; W. Silva; N. Gregor
2006-06-28
Both point- and finite-source stochastic one-dimensional ground motion models, coupled to vertically propagating equivalent-linear shear-wave site response models are validated using an extensive set of strong motion data as part of the Yucca Mountain Project. The validation and comparison exercises are presented entirely in terms of 5% damped pseudo absolute response spectra. The study consists of a quantitative analyses involving modeling nineteen well-recorded earthquakes, M 5.6 to 7.4 at over 600 sites. The sites range in distance from about 1 to about 200 km in the western US (460 km for central-eastern US). In general, this validation demonstrates that the stochastic point- and finite-source models produce accurate predictions of strong ground motions over the range of 0 to 100 km and for magnitudes M 5.0 to 7.4. The stochastic finite-source model appears to be broadband, producing near zero bias from about 0.3 Hz (low frequency limit of the analyses) to the high frequency limit of the data (100 and 25 Hz for response and Fourier amplitude spectra, respectively).
One-dimensional versus two-dimensional electronic states in vicinal surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ortega, J E; Ruiz-Oses, M; Cordon, J; Mugarza, A; Kuntze, J; Schiller, F
2005-01-01
Vicinal surfaces with periodic arrays of steps are among the simplest lateral nanostructures. In particular, noble metal surfaces vicinal to the (1 1 1) plane are excellent test systems to explore the basic electronic properties in one-dimensional superlattices by means of angular photoemission. These surfaces are characterized by strong emissions from free-electron-like surface states that scatter at step edges. Thereby, the two-dimensional surface state displays superlattice band folding and, depending on the step lattice constant d, it splits into one-dimensional quantum well levels. Here we use high-resolution, angle-resolved photoemission to analyse surface states in a variety of samples, in trying to illustrate the changes in surface state bands as a function of d
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skoczen, A.; Machowski, W.; Kaprzyk, S.
1990-07-01
Computer program aiming at application in quantum mechanics didactics has been proposed. This program can generate the moving pictures of one-dimensional quantum mechanics scattering phenomena. Constructions of this program provide two options. In the first option the wave packet is generated in infinite one-dimensional well which has walls on the borders of graphic window. In the second option the square potential barrier is located in this well and transmission and reflection of wave packet are shown. We have selected a Gaussian wave packet to represent the initial state of the particle. The wave equation is solved numerically by a method discussed in detail. Solutions for the succesive time moments are graphically presented on the monitor screen. In this way observer can watch whole time-development of physical system. Graphically presented results are physically realistic when program parameters satisfy conditions discussed in this paper. (author)
Sufficient conditions for a period incrementing big bang bifurcation in one-dimensional maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avrutin, V; Granados, A; Schanz, M
2011-01-01
Typically, big bang bifurcation occurs for one (or higher)-dimensional piecewise-defined discontinuous systems whenever two border collision bifurcation curves collide transversely in the parameter space. At that point, two (feasible) fixed points collide with one boundary in state space and become virtual, and, in the one-dimensional case, the map becomes continuous. Depending on the properties of the map near the codimension-two bifurcation point, there exist different scenarios regarding how the infinite number of periodic orbits are born, mainly the so-called period adding and period incrementing. In our work we prove that, in order to undergo a big bang bifurcation of the period incrementing type, it is sufficient for a piecewise-defined one-dimensional map that the colliding fixed points are attractive and with associated eigenvalues of different signs
One-dimensional silicon nanolines in the Si(001):H surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bianco, F.; Köster, S. A.; Longobardi, M.; Owen, J. H.G.; Renner, Ch.; Bowler, D. R.
2013-01-01
We present a detailed study of the structural and electronic properties of a self-assembled silicon nanoline embedded in the monohydride Si(001):H surface, known as the Haiku stripe. The nanoline is a perfectly straight and defect free endotaxial structure of huge aspect ratio; it can grow micrometer long at a constant width of exactly four Si dimers (1.54 nm). Another remarkable property is its capacity to be exposed to air without suffering any degradation. The nanoline grows independently of any step edges at tunable densities, from isolated nanolines to a dense array of nanolines. In addition to these unique structural characteristics, scanning tunnelling microscopy and density functional theory reveal a one-dimensional state confined along the Haiku core. This nanoline is a promising candidate for the long sought after electronic solid-state one-dimensional model system to explore the fascinating quantum properties emerging in such reduced dimensionality
Sufficient conditions for a period incrementing big bang bifurcation in one-dimensional maps
Avrutin, V.; Granados, A.; Schanz, M.
2011-09-01
Typically, big bang bifurcation occurs for one (or higher)-dimensional piecewise-defined discontinuous systems whenever two border collision bifurcation curves collide transversely in the parameter space. At that point, two (feasible) fixed points collide with one boundary in state space and become virtual, and, in the one-dimensional case, the map becomes continuous. Depending on the properties of the map near the codimension-two bifurcation point, there exist different scenarios regarding how the infinite number of periodic orbits are born, mainly the so-called period adding and period incrementing. In our work we prove that, in order to undergo a big bang bifurcation of the period incrementing type, it is sufficient for a piecewise-defined one-dimensional map that the colliding fixed points are attractive and with associated eigenvalues of different signs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen, Yun; Fu, Jiwu; Yu, Guoping
2011-01-01
Highlights: → A simple one-dimensional chirped photonic crystal is proposed to realize rainbow trapping. → The results show different wavelengths can be trapped at different spatial positions. → The structure can be used for optical buffer, memories and filter, sorter, etc. -- Abstract: One-dimensional chirped photonic crystals composed of alternating dielectric slabs are proposed to realize rainbow trapping. We theoretically and numerically demonstrate that not only significantly reduced group velocity can be achieved in the proposed chirped structures, but different wavelengths can be localized in different spatial positions, indicating trapped rainbow. Our results imply a feasible way to slow or even trap light in simple systems, which can be used for optical buffer, memory, data processor and filter, sorter, etc.
Zak phase and band inversion in dimerized one-dimensional locally resonant metamaterials
Zhu, Weiwei; Ding, Ya-qiong; Ren, Jie; Sun, Yong; Li, Yunhui; Jiang, Haitao; Chen, Hong
2018-05-01
The Zak phase, which refers to Berry's phase picked up by a particle moving across the Brillouin zone, characterizes the topological properties of Bloch bands in a one-dimensional periodic system. Here the Zak phase in dimerized one-dimensional locally resonant metamaterials is investigated. It is found that there are some singular points in the bulk band across which the Bloch states contribute π to the Zak phase, whereas in the rest of the band the contribution is nearly zero. These singular points associated with zero reflection are caused by two different mechanisms: the dimerization-independent antiresonance of each branch and the dimerization-dependent destructive interference in multiple backscattering. The structure undergoes a topological phase-transition point in the band structure where the band inverts, and the Zak phase, which is determined by the numbers of singular points in the bulk band, changes following a shift in dimerization parameter. Finally, the interface state between two dimerized metamaterial structures with different topological properties in the first band gap is demonstrated experimentally. The quasi-one-dimensional configuration of the system allows one to explore topology-inspired new methods and applications on the subwavelength scale.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moon, Jinsoo; Won Jang, Kyoung; Jae Yoo, Wook; Han, Ki-Tek; Park, Jang-Yeon; Lee, Bongsoo
2012-01-01
In this study, we fabricated a one-dimensional scintillating fiber-optic dosimeter, which consists of 9 scintillating fiber-optic dosimeters, septa, and PMMA blocks for measuring surface and percentage depth doses of a therapeutic photon beam. Each dosimeter embedded in the 1-D scintillating fiber-optic dosimeter is composed of square type organic scintillators and plastic optical fibers. Also black PVC films are used as septa to minimize cross-talk between the scintillating fiber-optic dosimeters. To construct a dosimeter system, a 1-D scintillating fiber-optic dosimeter and a CMOS image sensor were combined with 20 m-length plastic optical fibers. Using the dosimeter system, we measured surface and percentage depth doses of 6 and 15 MV photon beams and compared the results with those of EBT films and an ionization chamber. - Highlights: ► Fabrication of a one-dimensional scintillating fiber-optic dosimeter. ► The one-dimensional scintillating fiber-optic dosimeter has 9 scintillating fiber-optic dosimeters. ► Measurements of surface and percentage depth doses of a therapeutic photon beam. ► The results were compared with those of EBT films and an ionization chamber.
A modeling of sliding joint on one-dimensional flexible medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong Difeng; Ren Gexue
2011-01-01
The dynamic modeling of a sliding joint on a one-dimensional medium, such as a cable or a beam, is studied in this paper. The sliding joint is implemented by positioning it at a moving node on the one-dimensional medium, which is realized by variable-length elements at either side of the joint. The variable-length element is established with an absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF) in the framework of the Arbitrary Lagrange–Euler (ALE) description. The sliding of the joint is described by the increasing of the length on one side of the one-dimensional medium and a corresponding decreasing of the other side. In order to capture the discontinuity of the slopes at the position of the sliding joint, the moving node has two slopes as generalized coordinates which are equal to each other in the case of a beam but not in the case of a cable, and in order to avoid the addition–deletion constraint, the node adjacent to the moving node is added or deleted if the element is too long or too short. The governing equations for the coupled system are derived in terms of D’Alembert’s principle and the resulting equations of motion are formulated in the standard form of differential algebraic equations of multibody systems. Numerical examples are presented to validate the method proposed by comparing with analytical results which are available or are made possible by simplifying the model.
Interfacial Thermal Transport via One-Dimensional Atomic Junction Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guohuan Xiong
2018-03-01
Full Text Available In modern information technology, as integration density increases rapidly and the dimension of materials reduces to nanoscale, interfacial thermal transport (ITT has attracted widespread attention of scientists. This review introduces the latest theoretical development in ITT through one-dimensional (1D atomic junction model to address the thermal transport across an interface. With full consideration of the atomic structures in interfaces, people can apply the 1D atomic junction model to investigate many properties of ITT, such as interfacial (Kapitza resistance, nonlinear interface, interfacial rectification, and phonon interference, and so on. For the ballistic ITT, both the scattering boundary method (SBM and the non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF method can be applied, which are exact since atomic details of actual interfaces are considered. For interfacial coupling case, explicit analytical expression of transmission coefficient can be obtained and it is found that the thermal conductance maximizes at certain interfacial coupling (harmonic mean of the spring constants of the two leads and the transmission coefficient is not a monotonic decreasing function of phonon frequency. With nonlinear interaction—phonon–phonon interaction or electron–phonon interaction at interface, the NEGF method provides an efficient way to study the ITT. It is found that at weak linear interfacial coupling, the nonlinearity can improve the ITT, but it depresses the ITT in the case of strong-linear coupling. In addition, the nonlinear interfacial coupling can induce thermal rectification effect. For interfacial materials case which can be simulated by a two-junction atomic chain, phonons show interference effect, and an optimized thermal coupler can be obtained by tuning its spring constant and atomic mass.
Shell-crossing in quasi-one-dimensional flow
Rampf, Cornelius; Frisch, Uriel
2017-10-01
Blow-up of solutions for the cosmological fluid equations, often dubbed shell-crossing or orbit crossing, denotes the breakdown of the single-stream regime of the cold-dark-matter fluid. At this instant, the velocity becomes multi-valued and the density singular. Shell-crossing is well understood in one dimension (1D), but not in higher dimensions. This paper is about quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) flow that depends on all three coordinates but differs only slightly from a strictly 1D flow, thereby allowing a perturbative treatment of shell-crossing using the Euler-Poisson equations written in Lagrangian coordinates. The signature of shell-crossing is then just the vanishing of the Jacobian of the Lagrangian map, a regular perturbation problem. In essence, the problem of the first shell-crossing, which is highly singular in Eulerian coordinates, has been desingularized by switching to Lagrangian coordinates, and can then be handled by perturbation theory. Here, all-order recursion relations are obtained for the time-Taylor coefficients of the displacement field, and it is shown that the Taylor series has an infinite radius of convergence. This allows the determination of the time and location of the first shell-crossing, which is generically shown to be taking place earlier than for the unperturbed 1D flow. The time variable used for these statements is not the cosmic time t but the linear growth time τ ˜ t2/3. For simplicity, calculations are restricted to an Einstein-de Sitter universe in the Newtonian approximation, and tailored initial data are used. However it is straightforward to relax these limitations, if needed.
Research on one-dimensional two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adachi, Hiromichi
1988-10-01
In Part I the fundamental form of the hydrodynamic basic equations for a one-dimensional two-phase flow (two-fluid model) is described. Discussions are concentrated on the treatment of phase change inertial force terms in the equations of motion and the author's equations of motion which have a remarkable uniqueness on the following three points. (1) To express force balance of unit mass two-phase fluid instead of that of unit volume two-phase fluid. (2) To pick up the unit existing mass and the unit flowing mass as the unit mass of two-phase fluid. (3) To apply the kinetic energy principle instead of the momentum low in the evaluation of steady inertial force term. In these three, the item (1) is for excluding a part of momentum change or kinetic energy change due to mass change of the examined part of fluid, which is independent of force. The item (2) is not to introduce a phenomenological physical model into the evaluation of phase change inertial force term. And the item (3) is for correctly applying the momentum law taking into account the difference of representative velocities between the main flow fluid (vapor phase or liquid phase) and the phase change part of fluid. In Part II, characteristics of various kinds of high speed two-phase flow are clarified theoretically by the basic equations derived. It is demonstrated that the steam-water two-phase critical flow with violent flashing and the airwater two-phase critical flow without phase change can be described with fundamentally the same basic equations. Furthermore, by comparing the experimental data from the two-phase critical discharge test and the theoretical prediction, the two-phase discharge coefficient, C D , for large sharp-edged orifice is determined as the value which is not affected by the experimental facility characteristics, etc. (author)
Quasi-one-dimensional Hall physics in the Harper–Hofstadter–Mott model
Kozarski, Filip; Hügel, Dario; Pollet, Lode
2018-04-01
We study the ground-state phase diagram of the strongly interacting Harper–Hofstadter–Mott model at quarter flux on a quasi-one-dimensional lattice consisting of a single magnetic flux quantum in y-direction. In addition to superfluid phases with various density patterns, the ground-state phase diagram features quasi-one-dimensional analogs of fractional quantum Hall phases at fillings ν = 1/2 and 3/2, where the latter is only found thanks to the hopping anisotropy and the quasi-one-dimensional geometry. At integer fillings—where in the full two-dimensional system the ground-state is expected to be gapless—we observe gapped non-degenerate ground-states: at ν = 1 it shows an odd ‘fermionic’ Hall conductance, while the Hall response at ν = 2 consists of the transverse transport of a single particle–hole pair, resulting in a net zero Hall conductance. The results are obtained by exact diagonalization and in the reciprocal mean-field approximation.
Novel preparation and photocatalytic activity of one-dimensional TiO2 hollow structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Huogen; Yu Jiaguo; Cheng Bei; Liu Shengwei
2007-01-01
Usually, templated methods include two important steps: the coating of nanocrystals on the surface of the templates and the removal of the templates. In this study, one-dimensional TiO 2 hollow structures, based on the template-directed deposition and then in situ template-sacrificial reaction (or dissolution), were prepared by a one-step template method using vanadium oxide nanobelts as the templates and TiF 4 as the precursor at 60 deg. C. The coating of TiO 2 nanoparticles on the surface of the templates was accompanied with the dissolution of vanadium oxide nanobelts by HF produced during the hydrolysis of TiF 4 in the reaction solution. It was found that the prepared one-dimensional TiO 2 hollow structures with a mesoporous wall were composed of TiO 2 nanoparticles with a diameter of 10-55 nm, resulting in a large specific surface area (77.2 m 2 g -1 ) and high pore volume (0.13 cm 3 g -1 ), and the wall thickness of the TiO 2 hollow structures could be easily controlled by adjusting the precursor concentration of TiF 4 . The photocatalytic activity experiment indicated that the prepared one-dimensional TiO 2 hollow structures, which could be readily separated from a slurry system after photocatalytic reaction, exhibited obvious photocatalytic activity for the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange aqueous solution
Maximizing kinetic energy transfer in one-dimensional many-body collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ricardo, Bernard; Lee, Paul
2015-01-01
The main problem discussed in this paper involves a simple one-dimensional two-body collision, in which the problem can be extended into a chain of one-dimensional many-body collisions. The result is quite interesting, as it provides us with a thorough mathematical understanding that will help in designing a chain system for maximum energy transfer for a range of collision types. In this paper, we will show that there is a way to improve the kinetic energy transfer between two masses, and the idea can be applied recursively. However, this method only works for a certain range of collision types, which is indicated by a range of coefficients of restitution. Although the concept of momentum, elastic and inelastic collision, as well as Newton’s laws, are taught in junior college physics, especially in Singapore schools, students in this level are not expected to be able to do this problem quantitatively, as it requires rigorous mathematics, including calculus. Nevertheless, this paper provides nice analytical steps that address some common misconceptions in students’ way of thinking about one-dimensional collisions. (paper)
Nanostructural evolution from nanosheets to one-dimensional nanoparticles for manganese oxide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pan, Hongmei; Kong, Xingang; Wen, Puhong; Kitayama, Tomonori; Feng, Qi
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Nanosheets were transformed to other one-dimensional nanoparticles. ► Nanofibers, nanotubes, nanoribbons, and nanobelts were obtained. ► Nanoparticle morphology can be controlled with organic amines. ► Organic amines act as morphology directing agent. -- Abstract: This paper introduces a novel hydrothermal soft chemical synthesis process for manganese oxide nanostructured particles using two-dimensional manganese oxide nanosheets as precursor. In this process, a birnessite-type manganese oxide with a layered structure was exfoliated into its elementary layer nanosheets, and then the nanosheets were hydrothermally treated to transform the two-dimensional morphology of the nanosheets to one-dimensional nanoparticles. The manganese oxide nanofibers, nanotubes, nanobelts, nanoribbons, and fabric-ribbon-like particles constructed from nanofibers or nanobelts were obtained using this hydrothermal soft chemical process. The nanostructural evolution from the two-dimensional nanosheets to the one-dimensional nanoparticles was characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, and TG-DTA analysis. The morphology and nanostructure of the products are strongly dependent on the molecular dimension of organic amine cations added in the reaction system. The organic amine cations act as a morphology directing agent in the nanostructural evolution process.
Maximizing kinetic energy transfer in one-dimensional many-body collisions
Ricardo, Bernard; Lee, Paul
2015-03-01
The main problem discussed in this paper involves a simple one-dimensional two-body collision, in which the problem can be extended into a chain of one-dimensional many-body collisions. The result is quite interesting, as it provides us with a thorough mathematical understanding that will help in designing a chain system for maximum energy transfer for a range of collision types. In this paper, we will show that there is a way to improve the kinetic energy transfer between two masses, and the idea can be applied recursively. However, this method only works for a certain range of collision types, which is indicated by a range of coefficients of restitution. Although the concept of momentum, elastic and inelastic collision, as well as Newton’s laws, are taught in junior college physics, especially in Singapore schools, students in this level are not expected to be able to do this problem quantitatively, as it requires rigorous mathematics, including calculus. Nevertheless, this paper provides nice analytical steps that address some common misconceptions in students’ way of thinking about one-dimensional collisions.
One-Dimensional Hetero-Nanostructures for Rechargeable Batteries.
Mai, Liqiang; Sheng, Jinzhi; Xu, Lin; Tan, Shuangshuang; Meng, Jiashen
2018-04-17
Rechargeable batteries are regarded as one of the most practical electrochemical energy storage devices that are able to convert and store the electrical energy generated from renewable resources, and they function as the key power sources for electric vehicles and portable electronics. The ultimate goals for electrochemical energy storage devices are high power and energy density, long lifetime, and high safety. To achieve the above goals, researchers have tried to apply various morphologies of nanomaterials as the electrodes to enhance the electrochemical performance. Among them, one-dimensional (1D) materials show unique superiorities, such as cross-linked structures for external stress buffering and large draw ratios for internal stress dispersion. However, a homogeneous single-component electrode material can hardly have the characteristics of high electronic/ionic conductivity and high stability in the electrochemical environment simultaneously. Therefore, designing well-defined functional 1D hetero-nanostructures that combine the advantages and overcome the limitations of different electrochemically active materials is of great significance. This Account summarizes fabrication strategies for 1D hetero-nanostructures, including nucleation and growth, deposition, and melt-casting and electrospinning. Besides, the chemical principles for each strategy are discussed. The nucleation and growth strategy is suitable for growing and constructing 1D hetero-nanostructures of partial transition metal compounds, and the experimental conditions for this strategy are relatively accessible. Deposition is a reliable strategy to synthesize 1D hetero-nanostructures by decorating functional layers on 1D substrate materials, on the condition that the preobtained substrate materials must be stable in the following deposition process. The melt-casting strategy, in which 1D hetero-nanostructures are synthesizes via a melting and molding process, is also widely used. Additionally
Bioinspired one-dimensional materials for directional liquid transport.
Ju, Jie; Zheng, Yongmei; Jiang, Lei
2014-08-19
One-dimensional materials (1D) capable of transporting liquid droplets directionally, such as spider silks and cactus spines, have recently been gathering scientists' attention due to their potential applications in microfluidics, textile dyeing, filtration, and smog removal. This remarkable property comes from the arrangement of the micro- and nanostructures on these organisms' surfaces, which have inspired chemists to develop methods to prepare surfaces with similar directional liquid transport ability. In this Account, we report our recent progress in understanding how this directional transport works, as well our advances in the design and fabrication of bioinspired 1D materials capable of transporting liquid droplets directionally. To begin, we first discuss some basic theories on droplet directional movement. Then, we discuss the mechanism of directional transport of water droplets on natural spider silks. Upon contact with water droplets, the spider silk undergoes what is known as a wet-rebuilt, which forms periodic spindle-knots and joints. We found that the resulting gradient of Laplace pressure and surface free energy between the spindle-knots and joints account for the cooperative driving forces to transport water droplets directionally. Next, we discuss the directional transport of water droplets on desert cactus. The integration of multilevel structures of the cactus and the resulting integration of multiple functions together allow the cactus spine to transport water droplets continuously from tip to base. Based on our studies of natural spider silks and cactus spines, we have prepared a series of artificial spider silks (A-SSs) and artificial cactus spines (A-CSs) with various methods. By changing the surface roughness and chemical compositions of the artificial spider silks' spindle-knots, or by introducing stimulus-responsive molecules, such as thermal-responsive and photoresponsive molecules, onto the spindle-knots, we can reversibly manipulate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu Dongsheng; Xiong Shijie
2002-01-01
We investigate the transport properties and Andreev reflection in one-dimensional (1D) systems with randomly doped superconducting grains. The superconducting grains are described by the Bogoliubov-de Gene Hamiltonian and the conductance is calculated by using the transfer matrix method and Landauer-Buettiker formula. It is found that although the quasiparticle states are localized due to the randomness and the low dimensionality, the conductance is still kept finite in the thermodynamical limit due to the Andreev reflection. We also investigate the effect of correlation of disorder in such systems and the results show the delocalization of quasiparticle states and suppression of Andreev reflection in a wide energy window
One dimensional two-body collisions experiment based on LabVIEW interface with Arduino
Saphet, Parinya; Tong-on, Anusorn; Thepnurat, Meechai
2017-09-01
The purpose of this work is to build a physics lab apparatus that is modern, low-cost and simple. In one dimensional two-body collisions experiment, we used the Arduino UNO R3 as a data acquisition system which was controlled by LabVIEW program. The photogate sensors were designed using LED and LDR to measure position as a function of the time. Aluminium frame houseware and blower were used for the air track system. In both totally inelastic and elastic collision experiments, the results of momentum and energy conservation are in good agreement with the theoretical calculations.
Modeling digital pulse waveforms by solving one-dimensional Navier-stokes equations.
Fedotov, Aleksandr A; Akulova, Anna S; Akulov, Sergey A
2016-08-01
Mathematical modeling for composition distal arterial pulse wave in the blood vessels of the upper limbs was considered. Formation of distal arterial pulse wave is represented as a composition of forward and reflected pulse waves propagating along the arterial vessels. The formal analogy between pulse waves propagation along the human arterial system and the propagation of electrical oscillations in electrical transmission lines with distributed parameters was proposed. Dependencies of pulse wave propagation along the human arterial system were obtained by solving the one-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for a few special cases.
Numerical solution of multigroup diffuse equations of one-dimensional geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavelesku, M.; Adam, S.
1975-01-01
The one-dimensional diffuse theory is used for reactor physics calculations of fast reactors. Computer program based on the one-dimensional diffuse theory is speedy and not memory consuming. The algorithm is described for the three-zone fast reactor criticality computation in one-dimensional diffusion approximation. This algorithm is realised on IBM 370/135 computer. (I.T.)
Thermal conductivity engineering of bulk and one-dimensional Si-Ge nanoarchitectures.
Kandemir, Ali; Ozden, Ayberk; Cagin, Tahir; Sevik, Cem
2017-01-01
Various theoretical and experimental methods are utilized to investigate the thermal conductivity of nanostructured materials; this is a critical parameter to increase performance of thermoelectric devices. Among these methods, equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) is an accurate technique to predict lattice thermal conductivity. In this study, by means of systematic EMD simulations, thermal conductivity of bulk Si-Ge structures (pristine, alloy and superlattice) and their nanostructured one dimensional forms with square and circular cross-section geometries (asymmetric and symmetric) are calculated for different crystallographic directions. A comprehensive temperature analysis is evaluated for selected structures as well. The results show that one-dimensional structures are superior candidates in terms of their low lattice thermal conductivity and thermal conductivity tunability by nanostructuring, such as by diameter modulation, interface roughness, periodicity and number of interfaces. We find that thermal conductivity decreases with smaller diameters or cross section areas. Furthermore, interface roughness decreases thermal conductivity with a profound impact. Moreover, we predicted that there is a specific periodicity that gives minimum thermal conductivity in symmetric superlattice structures. The decreasing thermal conductivity is due to the reducing phonon movement in the system due to the effect of the number of interfaces that determine regimes of ballistic and wave transport phenomena. In some nanostructures, such as nanowire superlattices, thermal conductivity of the Si/Ge system can be reduced to nearly twice that of an amorphous silicon thermal conductivity. Additionally, it is found that one crystal orientation, [Formula: see text]100[Formula: see text], is better than the [Formula: see text]111[Formula: see text] crystal orientation in one-dimensional and bulk SiGe systems. Our results clearly point out the importance of lattice thermal conductivity
One-Dimensional Contact Mode Interdigitated Center of Pressure Sensor (CMIPS)
Xu, Tian-Bing; Kang, Jinho; Park, Cheol; Harrison, Joycelyn S.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Hubbard, James E.
2009-01-01
A one dimensional contact mode interdigitated center of pressure sensor (CMIPS) has been developed. The experimental study demonstrated that the CMIPS has the capability to measure the overall pressure as well as the center of pressure in one dimension, simultaneously. A theoretical model for the CMIPS is established here based on the equivalent circuit of the configuration of the CMIPS as well as the material properties of the sensor. The experimental results match well with theoretical modeling predictions. A system mapped with two or more pieces of the CMIPS can be used to obtain information from the pressure distribution in multi-dimensions.
A one-dimensional heat transfer model for parallel-plate thermoacoustic heat exchangers.
de Jong, J A; Wijnant, Y H; de Boer, A
2014-03-01
A one-dimensional (1D) laminar oscillating flow heat transfer model is derived and applied to parallel-plate thermoacoustic heat exchangers. The model can be used to estimate the heat transfer from the solid wall to the acoustic medium, which is required for the heat input/output of thermoacoustic systems. The model is implementable in existing (quasi-)1D thermoacoustic codes, such as DeltaEC. Examples of generated results show good agreement with literature results. The model allows for arbitrary wave phasing; however, it is shown that the wave phasing does not significantly influence the heat transfer.
Electron energy-loss spectroscopy of quasi-one-dimensional cuprates and vanadates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atzkern, S.
2001-01-01
In a combination of experimental and theoretical methods in this thesis the electronic structures of quasi-one-dimensional cuprates and vanadates were studied. For this the momentum-dependent loss function was measured by means of the electron energy-loss spectroscopy in transmission on monocrystals of Li 2 CuO 2 , CuGeO 3 , V 2 O 5 and α'-NaVO 5 . The comparison of the experimental data with results from band-structure and cluster calculations allowed conclusions on the mobility and correlations of the electrons in these systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen Minh Khue; Solyom, J.
1980-03-01
The novel method proposed by one of the authors to calculate exactly the response functions of the one-dimensional Tomonaga-model is described in more detail. The method is generalized for the case of a system of coupled chains where both the interchain and interchain interactions have forward scattering components only. The model does not show real phase transition at any finite temperature indicating that the interchain backward scattering or hopping is needed to have an ordering of the chains at finite temperature. (author)
Quantum quench dynamics of the attractive one-dimensional Bose gas via the coordinate Bethe ansatz
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jan C. Zill, Tod M. Wright, Karen V. Kheruntsyan, Thomas Gasenzer, Matthew J. Davis
2018-02-01
Full Text Available We use the coordinate Bethe ansatz to study the Lieb-Liniger model of a one-dimensional gas of bosons on a finite-sized ring interacting via an attractive delta-function potential. We calculate zero-temperature correlation functions for seven particles in the vicinity of the crossover to a localized solitonic state and study the dynamics of a system of four particles quenched to attractive interactions from the ideal-gas ground state. We determine the time evolution of correlation functions, as well as their temporal averages, and discuss the role of bound states in shaping the postquench correlations and relaxation dynamics.
Double ionization in Helium. Ab initio calculations beyond the one dimensional approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Camilo Ruiz; Luis Plaja; Luis Roso; Andreas Becker
2006-01-01
Complete test of publication follows. We present ab-initio computations of the ionization of two-electron atoms by short pulses of coherent radiation beyond the one-dimensional approximation. In the model the electron correlation is included in its full dimensionality, while the center-of-mass motion is restricted along the polarization axis. We show some result for Non Sequential Double Ionization (NSDI) as well as for SDI for high intensity low IR frequency. Some recent applications for this correlated system is also presented.
Stability of trapped Bose—Einstein condensates in one-dimensional tilted optical lattice potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fang Jian-Shu; Liao Xiang-Ping
2011-01-01
Using the direct perturbation technique, this paper obtains a general perturbed solution of the Bose—Einstein condensates trapped in one-dimensional tilted optical lattice potential. We also gave out two necessary and sufficient conditions for boundedness of the perturbed solution. Theoretical analytical results and the corresponding numerical results show that the perturbed solution of the Bose-Einstein condensate system is unbounded in general and indicate that the Bose—Einstein condensates are Lyapunov-unstable. However, when the conditions for boundedness of the perturbed solution are satisfied, then the Bose-Einstein condensates are Lyapunov-stable. (general)
ac conductivity of a one-dimensional site-disordered lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albers, R.C.; Gubernatis, J.E.
1978-01-01
We report the results of a numerical study of the ac conductivity for the Anderson model of a one-dimensional, site-disordered system of 400 atoms. For different degrees of disorder, we directly diagonalized the Anderson Hamiltonian, used the Kubo-Greenwood formula to evaluate the conductivity, and then averaged the conductivity over 12 configurations. We found that the dominant frequency dependence of the conductivity consisted of a single peak which shifted to higher frequency and decreased in overall magnitude as the disorder was increased. The joint density of states and the eigenstate localization were also computed and are discussed in connection with our results
Abbasabadi, Majid; Sahrai, Mostafa
2018-01-01
We investigated the propagation of an electromagnetic pulse through a one-dimensional photonic crystal doped with quantum-dot (QD) molecules in a defect layer. The QD molecules behave as a three-level quantum system and are driven by a coherent probe laser field and an incoherent pump field. No coherent coupling laser fields were introduced, and the coherence was created by the interdot tunnel effect. Further studied was the effect of tunneling and incoherent pumping on the group velocity of the transmitted and reflected probe pulse.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paixao, S.B.
1985-01-01
The methodology used in the WIGLE3 computer code is studied. This methodology has been applied for the steady-state and transient solutions of the one-dimensional, two-group, diffusion equations in slab geometry, in axial type probelm analysis. It's also studied, based in a WIGLE3 computer code, reactor representative models, considering non-boiling heat transfer. A steady-state program for control rod bank position search- CITER 1D- has been developed. Some criticality research on the proposed system has been done using different control rod bank initial positions, time steps and convergence parameters. (E.G.) [pt
Korteweg de Vries Description of One-Dimensional Superfluid Fermi Gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Yan-Xia; Duan Wen-Shan
2011-01-01
We study one-dimensional matter-wave pulses in cigar-shaped superfluid Fermi gases, including the linear and nonlinear waves of the system. A Korteweg de Vries (KdV) solitary wave is obtained for the superfluid Fermi gases in the limited case of a BEC regime, a BCS regime and unitarity. The dependences of the propagation velocity, amplitude and the width of the solitary wave on the dimensionless interaction parameter y = 1/(k F a sc ) are given for the limited cases of BEC and unitarity. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)
Novel phenomena in one-dimensional non-linear transport in long quantum wires
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morimoto, T; Hemmi, M; Naito, R; Tsubaki, K; Park, J-S; Aoki, N; Bird, J P; Ochiai, Y
2006-01-01
We have investigated the non-linear transport properties of split-gate quantum wires of various channel lengths. In this report, we present results on a resonant enhancement of the non-linear conductance that is observed near pinch-off under a finite source-drain bias voltage. The resonant phenomenon exhibits a strong dependence on temperature and in-plane magnetic field. We discuss the possible relationship of this phenomenon to the spin-polarized manybody state that has recently been suggested to occur in quasi-one dimensional systems
A mean field study of the quasi-one-dimensional antiferromagnetic anisotropic Heisenberg model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benyoussef, A.
1996-10-01
The effect of the chain and the dimer anisotropies on the ground state energy and the energy gap of the spin-1/2 quasi-one-dimensional antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model is investigated using a mean field theory. The dependence of the magnetization and the effective hopping parameters on the anisotropy α xy (=J xy perpendicular /J xy parallel ) are presented for several values of the chain anisotropy. However, such a system exhibits a transition from antiferromagnetic ordered to disordered phases for arbitrary chain anisotropy and dimer anisotropy. (author). 22 refs, 11 figs
The magnetic flux dynamics in the critical state of one-dimensional discrete superconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ginzburg, S.L.; Nakin, A.V.; Savitskaya, N.E.
2006-01-01
We give a theoretical description of avalanche-like dynamics of magnetic flux in the critical state of discrete superconductors using a one-dimensional model of a multijunction SQUID. We show that the system under consideration demonstrates the self-organized criticality. The avalanches of vortices manifest themselves as jumps of the total magnetic flux in the sample. The sizes of these jumps have a power-law distribution. We argue that similarities in the behavior of discrete and usual type-II superconductors allows to extend our results for description of avalanche-like dynamics in type-II superconductors with strong pinning
A one-dimensional collisional model for plasma-immersion ion implantation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vahedi, V.; Lieberman, M.A.; Alves, M.V.; Verboncoeur, J.P.; Birdsall, C.K.
1991-01-01
Plasma-immersion ion implantation (also known as plasma-source ion implantation) is a process in which a target is immersed in a plasma and a series of large negative-voltage pulses are applied to it to extract ions from the plasma and implant them into the target. A general one-dimensional model is developed to study this process in different coordinate systems for the case in which the pressure of the neutral gas is large enough that the ion motion in the sheath can be assumed to be highly collisional
Lime Kiln Modeling. CFD and One-dimensional simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Svedin, Kristoffer; Ivarsson, Christofer; Lundborg, Rickard
2009-03-15
The incentives for burning alternative fuels in lime kilns are growing. An increasing demand on thorough investigations of alternative fuel impact on lime kiln performance have been recognized, and the purpose of this project has been to develop a lime kiln CFD model with the possibility to fire fuel oil and lignin. The second part of the project consists of three technical studies. Simulated data from a one-dimensional steady state program has been used to support theories on the impact of biofuels and lime mud dryness. The CFD simulations was carried out in the commercial code FLUENT. Due to difficulties with the convergence of the model the calcination reaction is not included. The model shows essential differences between the two fuels. Lignin gives a different flame shape and a longer flame length compared to fuel oil. Mainly this depends on how the fuel is fed into the combustion chamber and how much combustion air that is added as primary and secondary air. In the case of lignin combustion the required amount of air is more than in the fuel oil case. This generates more combustion gas and a different flow pattern is created. Based on the values from turbulent reaction rate for the different fuels an estimated flame length can be obtained. For fuel oil the combustion is very intense with a sharp peak in the beginning and a rapid decrease. For lignin the combustion starts not as intense as for the fuel oil case and has a smoother shape. The flame length appears to be approximately 2-3 meter longer for lignin than for fuel oil based on turbulent reaction rate in the computational simulations. The first technical study showed that there are many benefits of increasing dry solids content in the lime mud going into a kiln such as increased energy efficiency, reduced TRS, and reduced sodium in the kiln. However, data from operating kilns indicates that these benefits can be offset by increasing exit gas temperature that can limit kiln production capacity. Simulated
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chiruta, Daniel [GEMaC, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, CNRS-UVSQ (UMR 8635), 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Stefan cel Mare University, Suceava 720229 (Romania); Linares, Jorge, E-mail: jorge.linares@uvsq.fr, E-mail: miya@spin.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Boukheddaden, Kamel [GEMaC, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, CNRS-UVSQ (UMR 8635), 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); Miyashita, Seiji, E-mail: jorge.linares@uvsq.fr, E-mail: miya@spin.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo (Japan); CREST, JST, 4-1-8 Honcho Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)
2014-05-21
In order to explain clearly the role of the open boundary conditions (OBCs) on phase transition in one dimensional system, we consider an Ising model with both short-range (J) and long-range (G) interactions, which has allowed us to study the cooperative nature of spin-crossover (SCO) materials at the nanometer scale. At this end, we developed a transfer-matrix method for one-dimensional (1D) SCO system with free boundary conditions, and we give numerical evidences for how the thermal spin transition curves vary as a function of the physical parameters (J, G) or an applied pressure. Moreover for OBCs case, we have derived the bulk, surface and finite-size contributions to the free energy and we have investigated the variation of these energies as function of J and system size. We have found that the surface free energy behaves like J〈σ〉{sup 2}, where 〈σ〉 is the average magnetization per site. Since the properties of the nanometric scale are dramatically influenced by the system's size (N), our analytical outcomes for the size dependence represent a step to achieve new characteristic of the future devices and also a way to find various novel properties which are absent in the bulk materials.
Non-equilibrium coherence dynamics in one-dimensional Bose gases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hofferberth, S.; Lesanovsky, Igor; Fischer, B.
2007-01-01
Low-dimensional systems provide beautiful examples of many-body quantum physics. For one-dimensional (1D) systems, the Luttinger liquid approach provides insight into universal properties. Much is known of the equilibrium state, both in the weakly and strongly interacting regimes. However......, the coherence factor is observed to approach a non-zero equilibrium value, as predicted by a Bogoliubov approach. This coupled-system decay to finite coherence is the matter wave equivalent of phase-locking two lasers by injection. The non-equilibrium dynamics of superfluids has an important role in a wide...... range of physical systems, such as superconductors, quantum Hall systems, superfluid helium and spin systems. Our experiments studying coherence dynamics show that 1D Bose gases are ideally suited for investigating this class of phenomena....
The physicist's companion to current fluctuations: one-dimensional bulk-driven lattice gases
Lazarescu, Alexandre
2015-12-01
One of the main features of statistical systems out of equilibrium is the currents they exhibit in their stationary state: microscopic currents of probability between configurations, which translate into macroscopic currents of mass, charge, etc. Understanding the general behaviour of these currents is an important step towards building a universal framework for non-equilibrium steady states akin to the Gibbs-Boltzmann distribution for equilibrium systems. In this review, we consider one-dimensional bulk-driven particle gases, and in particular the asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) with open boundaries, which is one of the most popular models of one-dimensional transport. We focus, in particular, on the current of particles flowing through the system in its steady state, and on its fluctuations. We show how one can obtain the complete statistics of that current, through its large deviation function, by combining results from various methods: exact calculation of the cumulants of the current, using the integrability of the model; direct diagonalization of a biased process in the limits of very high or low current; hydrodynamic description of the model in the continuous limit using the macroscopic fluctuation theory. We give a pedagogical account of these techniques, starting with a quick introduction to the necessary mathematical tools, as well as a short overview of the existing works relating to the ASEP. We conclude by drawing the complete dynamical phase diagram of the current. We also remark on a few possible generalizations of these results.
A parallel algorithm for solving linear equations arising from one-dimensional network problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mesina, G.L.
1991-01-01
One-dimensional (1-D) network problems, such as those arising from 1- D fluid simulations and electrical circuitry, produce systems of sparse linear equations which are nearly tridiagonal and contain a few non-zero entries outside the tridiagonal. Most direct solution techniques for such problems either do not take advantage of the special structure of the matrix or do not fully utilize parallel computer architectures. We describe a new parallel direct linear equation solution algorithm, called TRBR, which is especially designed to take advantage of this structure on MIMD shared memory machines. The new method belongs to a family of methods which split the coefficient matrix into the sum of a tridiagonal matrix T and a matrix comprised of the remaining coefficients R. Efficient tridiagonal methods are used to algebraically simplify the linear system. A smaller auxiliary subsystem is created and solved and its solution is used to calculate the solution of the original system. The newly devised BR method solves the subsystem. The serial and parallel operation counts are given for the new method and related earlier methods. TRBR is shown to have the smallest operation count in this class of direct methods. Numerical results are given. Although the algorithm is designed for one-dimensional networks, it has been applied successfully to three-dimensional problems as well. 20 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs
Novel Method of Detecting Movement of the Interference Fringes Using One-Dimensional PSD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qi Wang
2015-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a method of using a one-dimensional position-sensitive detector (PSD by replacing charge-coupled device (CCD to measure the movement of the interference fringes is presented first, and its feasibility is demonstrated through an experimental setup based on the principle of centroid detection. Firstly, the centroid position of the interference fringes in a fiber Mach-Zehnder (M-Z interferometer is solved in theory, showing it has a higher resolution and sensitivity. According to the physical characteristics and principles of PSD, a simulation of the interference fringe’s phase difference in fiber M-Z interferometers and PSD output is carried out. Comparing the simulation results with the relationship between phase differences and centroid positions in fiber M-Z interferometers, the conclusion that the output of interference fringes by PSD is still the centroid position is obtained. Based on massive measurements, the best resolution of the system is achieved with 5.15, 625 μm. Finally, the detection system is evaluated through setup error analysis and an ultra-narrow-band filter structure. The filter structure is configured with a one-dimensional photonic crystal containing positive and negative refraction material, which can eliminate background light in the PSD detection experiment. This detection system has a simple structure, good stability, high precision and easily performs remote measurements, which makes it potentially useful in material small deformation tests, refractivity measurements of optical media and optical wave front detection.
One-dimensional acoustic standing waves in rectangular channels for flow cytometry.
Austin Suthanthiraraj, Pearlson P; Piyasena, Menake E; Woods, Travis A; Naivar, Mark A; Lόpez, Gabriel P; Graves, Steven W
2012-07-01
Flow cytometry has become a powerful analytical tool for applications ranging from blood diagnostics to high throughput screening of molecular assemblies on microsphere arrays. However, instrument size, expense, throughput, and consumable use limit its use in resource poor areas of the world, as a component in environmental monitoring, and for detection of very rare cell populations. For these reasons, new technologies to improve the size and cost-to-performance ratio of flow cytometry are required. One such technology is the use of acoustic standing waves that efficiently concentrate cells and particles to the center of flow channels for analysis. The simplest form of this method uses one-dimensional acoustic standing waves to focus particles in rectangular channels. We have developed one-dimensional acoustic focusing flow channels that can be fabricated in simple capillary devices or easily microfabricated using photolithography and deep reactive ion etching. Image and video analysis demonstrates that these channels precisely focus single flowing streams of particles and cells for traditional flow cytometry analysis. Additionally, use of standing waves with increasing harmonics and in parallel microfabricated channels is shown to effectively create many parallel focused streams. Furthermore, we present the fabrication of an inexpensive optical platform for flow cytometry in rectangular channels and use of the system to provide precise analysis. The simplicity and low-cost of the acoustic focusing devices developed here promise to be effective for flow cytometers that have reduced size, cost, and consumable use. Finally, the straightforward path to parallel flow streams using one-dimensional multinode acoustic focusing, indicates that simple acoustic focusing in rectangular channels may also have a prominent role in high-throughput flow cytometry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Severini, S.; Settimi, A.; Sibilia, C.; Bertolotti, M.; Napoli, A.; Messina, A.
2004-01-01
An extension of the second quantization scheme based on the quasinormal-modes theory to one-dimensional photonic band gap (PBG) structures is discussed. Such structures, treated as double open optical cavities, are studied as part of a compound closed system including the electromagnetic radiative external bath. The electromagnetic field inside the photonic crystal is successfully represented by a new class of modes called quasinormal modes. Starting from this representation we introduce the Feynman's propagator to calculate the decay rate of a dipole inside a PBG structure, related to the density of modes, in the presence of the vacuum fluctuations outside the one-dimensional cavity
Zhou, L.; Gong, Z. R.; Liu, Y. X.; Sun, C. P.; Nori, F.
2010-03-01
We analyze the coherent transport of a single photon, which propagates in a one-dimensional coupled-resonator waveguide and is scattered by a controllable two-level system located inside one of the resonators of this waveguide. Our approach, which uses discrete coordinates, unifies low and high energy effective theories for single-photon scattering. We show that the controllable two-level system can behave as a quantum switch for the coherent transport of a single photon. This study may inspire new electro-optical single-photon quantum devices. We also suggest an experimental setup based on superconducting transmission line resonators and qubits. References: L. Zhou, Z.R. Gong, Y.X. Liu, C.P. Sun, F. Nori, Controllable scattering of photons inside a one-dimensional resonator waveguide, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 100501 (2008). L. Zhou, H. Dong, Y.X. Liu, C.P. Sun, F. Nori, Quantum super-cavity with atomic mirrors, Phys. Rev. A 78, 063827 (2008).
Effect of disorders on topological phases in one-dimensional optical superlattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Zhizhou; Wu Yidong; Du Huijing; Jing Xili
2016-01-01
In a recent paper, Lang et al. proposed that edge states and topological phases can be observed in one-dimensional optical superlattices. They showed that the topological phases can be revealed by observing the density profile of a trapped fermion system, which displays plateaus with their positions. However, disorders are not considered in their model. To study the effect of disorders on the topological phases, we introduce random potentials to the model for optical superlattcies. Our calculations show that edge states are robust against the disorders. We find the edge states are very sensitive to the number of the sites in the optical superlattice and we propose a simple rule to describe the relationship between the edge states and the number of sites. The density plateaus are also robust against weak disorders provided that the average density is calculated over a long interval. The widths of the plateaus are proportional to the widths of the bulk energy gaps when there are disorders. The disorders can diminish the bulk energy gaps. So the widths of the plateaus decrease with the increase of disorders and the density plateaus disappear when disorders are too strong. The results in our paper can be used to guide the experimental detection of topological phases in one-dimensional systems. (paper)
A one-dimensional Q-machine model taking into account charge-exchange collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maier, H.; Kuhn, S.
1992-01-01
The Q-machine is a nontrivial bounded plasma system which is excellently suited not only for fundamental plasma physics investigations but also for the development and testing of new theoretical methods for modeling such systems. However, although Q-machines have now been around for over thirty years, it appears that there exist no comprehensive theoretical models taking into account their considerable geometrical and physical complexity with a reasonable degree of self-consistency. In the present context we are concerned with the low-density, single-emitter Q-machine, for which the most widely used model is probably the (one-dimensional) ''collisionless plane-diode model'', which has originally been developed for thermionic diodes. Although the validity of this model is restricted to certain ''axial'' phenomena, we consider it a suitable starting point for extensions of various kinds. While a generalization to two-dimensional geometry (with still collisionless plasma) is being reported elsewhere, the present work represents a first extension to collisional plasma (with still one-dimensional geometry). (author) 12 refs., 2 figs
One-dimensional cuts through multidimensional potential-energy surfaces by tunable x rays
Eckert, Sebastian; da Cruz, Vinícius Vaz; Gel'mukhanov, Faris; Ertan, Emelie; Ignatova, Nina; Polyutov, Sergey; Couto, Rafael C.; Fondell, Mattis; Dantz, Marcus; Kennedy, Brian; Schmitt, Thorsten; Pietzsch, Annette; Odelius, Michael; Föhlisch, Alexander
2018-05-01
The concept of the potential-energy surface (PES) and directional reaction coordinates is the backbone of our description of chemical reaction mechanisms. Although the eigenenergies of the nuclear Hamiltonian uniquely link a PES to its spectrum, this information is in general experimentally inaccessible in large polyatomic systems. This is due to (near) degenerate rovibrational levels across the parameter space of all degrees of freedom, which effectively forms a pseudospectrum given by the centers of gravity of groups of close-lying vibrational levels. We show here that resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) constitutes an ideal probe for revealing one-dimensional cuts through the ground-state PES of molecular systems, even far away from the equilibrium geometry, where the independent-mode picture is broken. We strictly link the center of gravity of close-lying vibrational peaks in RIXS to a pseudospectrum which is shown to coincide with the eigenvalues of an effective one-dimensional Hamiltonian along the propagation coordinate of the core-excited wave packet. This concept, combined with directional and site selectivity of the core-excited states, allows us to experimentally extract cuts through the ground-state PES along three complementary directions for the showcase H2O molecule.
NASA One-Dimensional Combustor Simulation--User Manual for S1D_ML
Stueber, Thomas J.; Paxson, Daniel E.
2014-01-01
The work presented in this paper is to promote research leading to a closed-loop control system to actively suppress thermo-acoustic instabilities. To serve as a model for such a closed-loop control system, a one-dimensional combustor simulation composed using MATLAB software tools has been written. This MATLAB based process is similar to a precursor one-dimensional combustor simulation that was formatted as FORTRAN 77 source code. The previous simulation process requires modification to the FORTRAN 77 source code, compiling, and linking when creating a new combustor simulation executable file. The MATLAB based simulation does not require making changes to the source code, recompiling, or linking. Furthermore, the MATLAB based simulation can be run from script files within the MATLAB environment or with a compiled copy of the executable file running in the Command Prompt window without requiring a licensed copy of MATLAB. This report presents a general simulation overview. Details regarding how to setup and initiate a simulation are also presented. Finally, the post-processing section describes the two types of files created while running the simulation and it also includes simulation results for a default simulation included with the source code.
Analytical solutions for one-dimensional advection– dispersion ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Department of Mathematics, AinShams University, Cairo 0020, Egypt. ∗. Corresponding author. .... Applying Laplace transformation to equations (1 and 2) gives: D d2. ∼ ...... Land, Water & Environmental Management: Integrated. Systems for ...
Quantum restoration of broken symmetry in one- dimensional loop ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Though quantum theory and classical theory are completely different from ... authors) that the classical property of a system and the classical limit of the ..... pactly supported function (for example, the alternate deposition of thin layers of GaAs.
Oscillatory Dynamics of One-Dimensional Homogeneous Granular Chains
Starosvetsky, Yuli; Jayaprakash, K. R.; Hasan, Md. Arif; Vakakis, Alexander F.
The acoustics of the homogeneous granular chains has been studied extensively both numerically and experimentally in the references cited in the previous chapters. This chapter focuses on the oscillatory behavior of finite dimensional homogeneous granular chains. It is well known that normal vibration modes are the building blocks of the vibrations of linear systems due to the applicability of the principle of superposition. One the other hand, nonlinear theory is deprived of such a general superposition principle (although special cases of nonlinear superpositions do exist), but nonlinear normal modes ‒ NNMs still play an important role in the forced and resonance dynamics of these systems. In their basic definition [1], NNMs were defined as time-periodic nonlinear oscillations of discrete or continuous dynamical systems where all coordinates (degrees-of-freedom) oscillate in-unison with the same frequency; further extensions of this definition have been considered to account for NNMs of systems with internal resonances [2]...
Quantum Impurity in a One-dimensional Trapped Bose Gas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Salami Dehkharghani, Amin; Volosniev, A. G.; Zinner, N. T.
2015-01-01
We present a new theoretical framework for describing an impurity in a trapped Bose system in one spatial dimension. The theory handles any external confinement, arbitrary mass ratios, and a weak interaction may be included between the Bose particles. To demonstrate our technique, we calculate th...... the ground state energy and properties of a sample system with eight bosons and find an excellent agreement with numerically exact results. Our theory can thus provide definite predictions for experiments in cold atomic gases....
Exact results for the one dimensional asymmetric exclusion model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Derrida, B.; Evans, M.R.; Pasquier, V.
1993-01-01
The asymmetric exclusion model describes a system of particles hopping in a preferred direction with hard core repulsion. These particles can be thought of as charged particles in a field, as steps of an interface, as cars in a queue. Several exact results concerning the steady state of this system have been obtained recently. The solution consists of representing the weights of the configurations in the steady state as products of non-commuting matrices. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qin Shaojin; Yu Lu.
1996-03-01
The critical exponent of the momentum distribution near k F , 3k F and 5k F are studied numerically for one-dimensional U → ∞ Hubbard model, using finite size systems and extrapolating them to the thermodynamic limit. Results at k F agree with earlier calculations, while at 3k F exponents less than 1 are obtained for finite size systems with extrapolation to 1 (regular behaviour) in the thermodynamic limit, in contrast to earlier analytic prediction 9/8. The distribution is regular at 5k F even for finite systems. The singularity near 3k F is interpreted as due to low energy excitations near 3k F in finite systems. (author). 18 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab
Quantum anomalous Hall phase in a one-dimensional optical lattice
Liu, Sheng; Shao, L. B.; Hou, Qi-Zhe; Xue, Zheng-Yuan
2018-03-01
We propose to simulate and detect quantum anomalous Hall phase with ultracold atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice, with the other synthetic dimension being realized by modulating spin-orbit coupling. We show that the system manifests a topologically nontrivial phase with two chiral edge states which can be readily detected in this synthetic two-dimensional system. Moreover, it is interesting that at the phase transition point there is a flat energy band and this system can also be in a topologically nontrivial phase with two Fermi zero modes existing at the boundaries by considering the synthetic dimension as a modulated parameter. We also show how to measure these topological phases experimentally in ultracold atoms. Another model with a random Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling strength is also found to exhibit topological nontrivial phase, and the impact of the disorder to the system is revealed.
One-dimensional acoustic modeling of thermoacoustic instabilities (on cd)
van Kampen, J.F.; Huls, R.A.; Kok, Jacobus B.W.; van der Meer, Theodorus H.; Nilsson, A.; Boden, H.
2003-01-01
In this paper the acoustic stability of a premixed turbulent natural gas flame confined in a combustor is investigated. Specifically when the flame is operated in a lean premixed mode, the thermoacoustic system is known to exhibit instabilities. These arise from a feedback mechanism between the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez, J.
2010-10-01
A standard numerical procedure for the solution of singular integral equations is applied to the one-dimensional transport equation for monoenergetic neutrons. As is usual in quadrature methods, the procedure yields an Eigen system whose solution provide, for the critical slab, both the eigenvalue which is proportional to the number of secondary neutrons per collision, and the density as a function of position. The results obtained with two versions of the procedure, differing only in the extent of the basic region to which they are applied, are compared with analytically derived results available for benchmarking. The procedures considered yield consistent results for the calculated neutron densities and eigenvalues. Since the one-dimensional transport kernel and its spatial moments are integrable and their integrals can be put in terms of exponential integral functions, the resulting approximations to the neutron density yield somewhat lengthy but closed, forms. These approximate expressions of the neutron density can be used to render, after they are operated on, closed-form formulas for build-up factors, extrapolation distances or angular densities or employed for other purposes that require an analytical expression of the neutron density. As an example of this latter capability, the results of the calculation of the angular density at the surface of the slab are provided. (Author)
A new digitized reverse correction method for hypoid gears based on a one-dimensional probe
Li, Tianxing; Li, Jubo; Deng, Xiaozhong; Yang, Jianjun; Li, Genggeng; Ma, Wensuo
2017-12-01
In order to improve the tooth surface geometric accuracy and transmission quality of hypoid gears, a new digitized reverse correction method is proposed based on the measurement data from a one-dimensional probe. The minimization of tooth surface geometrical deviations is realized from the perspective of mathematical analysis and reverse engineering. Combining the analysis of complex tooth surface generation principles and the measurement mechanism of one-dimensional probes, the mathematical relationship between the theoretical designed tooth surface, the actual machined tooth surface and the deviation tooth surface is established, the mapping relation between machine-tool settings and tooth surface deviations is derived, and the essential connection between the accurate calculation of tooth surface deviations and the reverse correction method of machine-tool settings is revealed. Furthermore, a reverse correction model of machine-tool settings is built, a reverse correction strategy is planned, and the minimization of tooth surface deviations is achieved by means of the method of numerical iterative reverse solution. On this basis, a digitized reverse correction system for hypoid gears is developed by the organic combination of numerical control generation, accurate measurement, computer numerical processing, and digitized correction. Finally, the correctness and practicability of the digitized reverse correction method are proved through a reverse correction experiment. The experimental results show that the tooth surface geometric deviations meet the engineering requirements after two trial cuts and one correction.
Development of a reactivity worth correction scheme for the one-dimensional transient analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, J. Y.; Song, J. S.; Joo, H. G.; Kim, H. Y.; Kim, K. S.; Lee, C. C.; Zee, S. Q.
2003-11-01
This work is to develop a reactivity worth correction scheme for the MASTER one-dimensional (1-D) calculation model. The 1-D cross section variations according to the core state in the MASTER input file, which are produced for 1-D calculation performed by the MASTER code, are incorrect in most of all the core states except for exactly the same core state where the variations are produced. Therefore this scheme performs the reactivity worth correction factor calculations before the main 1-D transient calculation, and generates correction factors for boron worth, Doppler and moderator temperature coefficients, and control rod worth, respectively. These correction factors force the one dimensional calculation to generate the same reactivity worths with the 3-dimensional calculation. This scheme is applied to the control bank withdrawal accident of Yonggwang unit 1 cycle 14, and the performance is examined by comparing the 1-D results with the 3-D results. This problem is analyzed by the RETRAN-MASTER consolidated code system. Most of all results of 1-D calculation including the transient power behavior, the peak power and time are very similar with the 3-D results. In the MASTER neutronics computing time, the 1-D calculation including the correction factor calculation requires the negligible time comparing with the 3-D case. Therefore, the reactivity worth correction scheme is concluded to be very good in that it enables the 1-D calculation to produce the very accurate results in a few computing time
Three species one-dimensional kinetic model for weakly ionized plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gonzalez, J., E-mail: jorge.gonzalez@upm.es; Donoso, J. M.; Tierno, S. P. [Department of Applied Physics, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Aeronáutica y del Espacio, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)
2016-06-15
A three species one-dimensional kinetic model is presented for a spatially homogeneous weakly ionized plasma subjected to the action of a time varying electric field. Planar geometry is assumed, which means that the plasma evolves in the privileged direction of the field. The energy transmitted to the electric charges is channelized to the neutrals thanks to collisions, a mechanism that influences the plasma dynamics. Charge-charge interactions have been designed as a one-dimensional collision term equivalent to the Landau operator used for fully ionized plasmas. Charge-neutral collisions are modelled by a conservative drift-diffusion operator in the Dougherty's form. The resulting set of coupled integro-differential equations is solved with the stable and robust propagator integral method. This semi–analytical method feasibility accounts for non–linear effects without appealing to linearisation or simplifications, providing conservative physically meaningful solutions even for initial or emerging sharp velocity distribution function profiles. It is found that charge-neutral collisions exert a significant effect since a quite different plasma evolution arises if compared to the collisionless limit. In addition, substantial differences in the system motion are found for constant and temperature dependent collision frequencies cases.
One-dimensional Turbulence Models of Type I X-ray Bursts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hou, Chen [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)
2016-01-06
Type I X-ray bursts are caused by thermonuclear explosions occurring on the surface of an accreting neutron star in a binary star system. Observations and simulations of these phenomena are of great importance for understanding the fundamental properties of neutron stars and dense matter because the equation of state for cold dense matter can be constrained by the mass-radius relationship of neutron stars. During the bursts, turbulence plays a key role in mixing the fuels and driving the unstable nuclear burning process. This dissertation presents one-dimensional models of photospheric radius expansion bursts with a new approach to simulate turbulent advection. Compared with the traditional mixing length theory, the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model represents turbulent motions by a sequence of maps that are generated according to a stochastic process. The light curves I obtained with the ODT models are in good agreement with those of the KEPLER model in which the mixing length theory and various diffusive processes are applied. The abundance comparison, however, indicates that the differences in turbulent regions and turbulent diffusivities result in more ^{12}C survival during the bursts in the ODT models, which can make a difference in the superbursts phenomena triggered by unstable carbon burning.
Boudria, Yacine; Feltane, Amal; Besio, Walter
2014-06-01
Objective. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on electroencephalography (EEG) have been shown to accurately detect mental activities, but the acquisition of high levels of control require extensive user training. Furthermore, EEG has low signal-to-noise ratio and low spatial resolution. The objective of the present study was to compare the accuracy between two types of BCIs during the first recording session. EEG and tripolar concentric ring electrode (TCRE) EEG (tEEG) brain signals were recorded and used to control one-dimensional cursor movements. Approach. Eight human subjects were asked to imagine either ‘left’ or ‘right’ hand movement during one recording session to control the computer cursor using TCRE and disc electrodes. Main results. The obtained results show a significant improvement in accuracies using TCREs (44%-100%) compared to disc electrodes (30%-86%). Significance. This study developed the first tEEG-based BCI system for real-time one-dimensional cursor movements and showed high accuracies with little training.
One-dimensional nonlinear self-organized structures in dusty plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsytovich, V.N.
2000-01-01
Dusty plasmas, which are open systems, can form stable one-dimensional self-organized structures. Absorption of plasma by dust particles results in the plasma flux from the plasma regions where the dust is absent. It is found that, in a one-dimensional dust layer, this flux is completely determined by the number of dust particles per unit area of the layer surface. This number determines all of the other parameters of the steady-state dust structure; in particular, it determines the spatial distributions of the dust density, dust charge, electron and ion densities, and ion drift velocity. In these structures, a force and electrostatic balance is established that ensures the necessary conditions for confining the dust and plasma particles in the structure. The equilibrium structures exist only for subthermal ion flow velocities. This criterion determines the maximum possible number of dust particles per unit area in the steady-state structure. The structures have a universal thickness, and the dust density changes sharply at the edge of the structure. The structures with a size either less than or larger than the ion mean free path with respect to ion-neutral collisions, quasi-neutral and charged structures, and soliton- and anti-soliton-like structures are investigated. Laboratory experiments and observations in extraterrestrial plasma formation are discussed in relation to dust structures
One-dimensional Turbulence Models of Type I X-ray Bursts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hou, Chen
2016-01-01
Type I X-ray bursts are caused by thermonuclear explosions occurring on the surface of an accreting neutron star in a binary star system. Observations and simulations of these phenomena are of great importance for understanding the fundamental properties of neutron stars and dense matter because the equation of state for cold dense matter can be constrained by the mass-radius relationship of neutron stars. During the bursts, turbulence plays a key role in mixing the fuels and driving the unstable nuclear burning process. This dissertation presents one-dimensional models of photospheric radius expansion bursts with a new approach to simulate turbulent advection. Compared with the traditional mixing length theory, the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model represents turbulent motions by a sequence of maps that are generated according to a stochastic process. The light curves I obtained with the ODT models are in good agreement with those of the KEPLER model in which the mixing length theory and various diffusive processes are applied. The abundance comparison, however, indicates that the differences in turbulent regions and turbulent diffusivities result in more 12 C survival during the bursts in the ODT models, which can make a difference in the superbursts phenomena triggered by unstable carbon burning.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katharine N. Farrell
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Wind energy is an emblem of sustainability with the potential to promote a qualitative alternative to current energy systems and nuclear options for CO2 reduction. However, wind farm siting often conflicts with aspirations to conserve traditional landscapes and wildlife habitats. In this paper we adopt a Critical Theory perspective, informed by Herbert Marcuse`s work, to study the discourse concerning wind energy siting in Catalonia, Spain. We give particular attention to how tensions between potentially conflicting sustainability objectives are addressed and by whom. Based on a review of this siting discourse and the application of Marcuse’s theory, we find that the Catalan wind energy siting discourse is both influenced by and reproducing what Marcuse referred to as the ‘one-dimensional thinking’ of technology as ideology: erasing the possibility of critical dialectical thought by subsuming the question of “what should be” under the question of “what is”. This has implications both for how these conflicts are investigated and for the sustainability of decisions taken. We conclude that closer attention to the role of ‘one-dimensional thinking’ in wind energy siting discourses could improve not only the understanding of their logic but might also have the potential to help make them more democratic.
Du, Yongping; Liu, Huimei; Xu, Bo; Sheng, Li; Yin, Jiang; Duan, Chun-Gang; Wan, Xiangang
2015-01-01
Phosphorene, as a novel two-dimensional material, has attracted a great interest due to its novel electronic structure. The pursuit of controlled magnetism in Phosphorene in particular has been persisting goal in this area. In this paper, an antiferromagnetic insulating state has been found in the zigzag phosphorene nanoribbons (ZPNRs) from the comprehensive density functional theory calculations. Comparing with other one-dimensional systems, the magnetism in ZPNRs display several surprising characteristics: (i) the magnetic moments are antiparallel arranged at each zigzag edge; (ii) the magnetism is quite stable in energy (about 29 meV/magnetic-ion) and the band gap is big (about 0.7 eV); (iii) the electronic and magnetic properties is almost independent on the width of nanoribbons; (iv) a moderate compressive strain will induce a magnetic to nonmagnetic as well as semiconductor to metal transition. All of these phenomena arise naturally due to one unique mechanism, namely the electronic instability induced by the half-filled one-dimensional bands which cross the Fermi level at around π/2a. The unusual electronic and magnetic properties in ZPNRs endow them possible potential for the applications in nanoelectronic devices. PMID:25747727
Effects of Initial Symmetry on the Global Symmetry of One-Dimensional Legal Cellular Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ikuko Tanaka
2015-09-01
Full Text Available To examine the development of pattern formation from the viewpoint of symmetry, we applied a two-dimensional discrete Walsh analysis to a one-dimensional cellular automata model under two types of regular initial conditions. The amount of symmetropy of cellular automata (CA models under regular and random initial conditions corresponds to three Wolfram’s classes of CAs, identified as Classes II, III, and IV. Regular initial conditions occur in two groups. One group that makes a broken, regular pattern formation has four types of symmetry, whereas the other group that makes a higher hierarchy pattern formation has only two types. Additionally, both final pattern formations show an increased amount of symmetropy as time passes. Moreover, the final pattern formations are affected by iterations of base rules of CA models of chaos dynamical systems. The growth design formations limit possibilities: the ratio of developing final pattern formations under a regular initial condition decreases in the order of Classes III, II, and IV. This might be related to the difference in degree in reference to surrounding conditions. These findings suggest that calculations of symmetries of the structures of one-dimensional cellular automata models are useful for revealing rules of pattern generation for animal bodies.
An effective one-dimensional anisotropic fingerprint enhancement algorithm
Ye, Zhendong; Xie, Mei
2012-01-01
Fingerprint identification is one of the most important biometric technologies. The performance of the minutiae extraction and the speed of the fingerprint verification system rely heavily on the quality of the input fingerprint images, so the enhancement of the low fingerprint is a critical and difficult step in a fingerprint verification system. In this paper we proposed an effective algorithm for fingerprint enhancement. Firstly we use normalization algorithm to reduce the variations in gray level values along ridges and valleys. Then we utilize the structure tensor approach to estimate each pixel of the fingerprint orientations. At last we propose a novel algorithm which combines the advantages of onedimensional Gabor filtering method and anisotropic method to enhance the fingerprint in recoverable region. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated on the database of Fingerprint Verification Competition 2004, and the results show that our algorithm performs within less time.
Nurbekyan, Levon
2017-03-11
Here, we study a one-dimensional, non-local mean-field game model with congestion. When the kernel in the non-local coupling is a trigonometric polynomial we reduce the problem to a finite dimensional system. Furthermore, we treat the general case by approximating the kernel with trigonometric polynomials. Our technique is based on Fourier expansion methods.
Nurbekyan, Levon
2017-01-01
Here, we study a one-dimensional, non-local mean-field game model with congestion. When the kernel in the non-local coupling is a trigonometric polynomial we reduce the problem to a finite dimensional system. Furthermore, we treat the general case by approximating the kernel with trigonometric polynomials. Our technique is based on Fourier expansion methods.
One dimensional beam. Asymptotic and self similar solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feix, M.R.; Duranceau, J.L.; Besnard, D.
1982-06-01
Rescaling transformations provide a useful tool to solve nonlinear problems described by partial derivative equations. A brief review of this method is presented together with the connection with the self similar solutions obtained by compacting the independent variable with one of them (the time). The general theory is reported through examples found in Plasma Physics with a careful distinction between systems described by Hamiltonian and others where irreversible phenomena, like diffusion, are taken into account
BALDUR: a one-dimensional plasma transport code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singer, C.E.; Post, D.E.; Mikkelsen, D.R.
1986-07-01
The purpose of BALDUR is to calculate the evolution of plasma parameters in an MHD equilibrium which can be approximated by concentric circular flux surfaces. Transport of up to six species of ionized particles, of electron and ion energy, and of poloidal magnetic flux is computed. A wide variety of source terms are calculated including those due to neutral gas, fusion, and auxiliary heating. The code is primarily designed for modeling tokamak plasmas but could be adapted to other toroidal confinement systems
Higher first Chern numbers in one-dimensional Bose-Fermi mixtures
Knakkergaard Nielsen, Kristian; Wu, Zhigang; Bruun, G. M.
2018-02-01
We propose to use a one-dimensional system consisting of identical fermions in a periodically driven lattice immersed in a Bose gas, to realise topological superfluid phases with Chern numbers larger than 1. The bosons mediate an attractive induced interaction between the fermions, and we derive a simple formula to analyse the topological properties of the resulting pairing. When the coherence length of the bosons is large compared to the lattice spacing and there is a significant next-nearest neighbour hopping for the fermions, the system can realise a superfluid with Chern number ±2. We show that this phase is stable in a large region of the phase diagram as a function of the filling fraction of the fermions and the coherence length of the bosons. Cold atomic gases offer the possibility to realise the proposed system using well-known experimental techniques.
Strongly correlated quasi-one-dimensional bands: Ground states, optical absorption, and phonons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Campbell, D.K.; Gammel, J.T.; Loh, E.Y. Jr.
1989-01-01
Using the Lanczos method for exact diagonalization on systems up to 14 sites, combined with a novel ''phase randomization'' technique for extracting more information from these small systems, we investigate several aspects of the one-dimensional Peierls-Hubbard Hamiltonian, in the context of trans-polyacetylene: the dependence of the ground state dimerization on the strength of the electron-electron interactions, including the effects of ''off-diagonal'' Coulomb terms generally ignored in the Hubbard model; the phonon vibrational frequencies and dispersion relations, and the optical absorption properties, including the spectrum of absorptions as a function of photon energy. These three different observables provide considerable insight into the effects of electron-electron interactions on the properties of real materials and thus into the nature of strongly correlated electron systems. 29 refs., 11 figs
An Inverse Source Problem for a One-dimensional Wave Equation: An Observer-Based Approach
Asiri, Sharefa M.
2013-05-25
Observers are well known in the theory of dynamical systems. They are used to estimate the states of a system from some measurements. However, recently observers have also been developed to estimate some unknowns for systems governed by Partial differential equations. Our aim is to design an observer to solve inverse source problem for a one dimensional wave equation. Firstly, the problem is discretized in both space and time and then an adaptive observer based on partial field measurements (i.e measurements taken form the solution of the wave equation) is applied to estimate both the states and the source. We see the effectiveness of this observer in both noise-free and noisy cases. In each case, numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of this approach. Finally, we compare the performance of the observer approach with Tikhonov regularization approach.
Exponential and nonexponential localization of the one-dimensional periodically kicked Rydberg atom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshida, S.; Reinhold, C. O.; Kristoefel, P.; Burgdoerfer, J.
2000-01-01
We investigate the quantum localization of the one-dimensional Rydberg atom subject to a unidirectional periodic train of impulses. For high frequencies of the train the classical system becomes chaotic and leads to fast ionization. By contrast, the quantum system is found to be remarkably stable. We identify for this system the coexistence of different localization mechanisms associated with resonant and nonresonant diffusion. We find for the suppression of nonresonant diffusion an exponential localization whose localization length can be related to the classical dynamics in terms of the ''scars'' of the unstable periodic orbits. We show that the localization length is determined by the energy excursion along the periodic orbits. The suppression of resonant diffusion along the sequence of photonic peaks is found to be nonexponential due to the presence of high harmonics in the driving force. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Solitons and polarons in quasi-one dimensional conducting polymers and related materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Campbell, D.K.
1983-01-01
In recent years it has become increasingly appreciated that fundamentally nonlinear excitations - solitons - play an essential role in an incredible variety of natural systems. These solitons, which frequently exhibit remarkable stability under interactions and perturbations, often dominate the transport, response, or structural properties of the systems in which they occur. In this article, we present an introduction to the solitons that occur in quasi-one-dimensional conducting polymers (synmetals) and related systems. The relevance of this subject to molecular electronic devices is twofold. First, many of these materials have molecular structures similar to possible prototype molecular switches. Second, to understand in detail how a molecular electronic device could work, it is essential to have a broad perspective on the nature of possible excitations in a variety of natural and synthetic molecular materials. 51 references
Variational model for one-dimensional quantum magnets
Kudasov, Yu. B.; Kozabaranov, R. V.
2018-04-01
A new variational technique for investigation of the ground state and correlation functions in 1D quantum magnets is proposed. A spin Hamiltonian is reduced to a fermionic representation by the Jordan-Wigner transformation. The ground state is described by a new non-local trial wave function, and the total energy is calculated in an analytic form as a function of two variational parameters. This approach is demonstrated with an example of the XXZ-chain of spin-1/2 under a staggered magnetic field. Generalizations and applications of the variational technique for low-dimensional magnetic systems are discussed.
Extended forward sensitivity analysis of one-dimensional isothermal flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, M.; Zhao, H.
2013-01-01
Sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification is an important part of nuclear safety analysis. In this work, forward sensitivity analysis is used to compute solution sensitivities on 1-D fluid flow equations typical of those found in system level codes. Time step sensitivity analysis is included as a method for determining the accumulated error from time discretization. The ability to quantify numerical error arising from the time discretization is a unique and important feature of this method. By knowing the relative sensitivity of time step with other physical parameters, the simulation is allowed to run at optimized time steps without affecting the confidence of the physical parameter sensitivity results. The time step forward sensitivity analysis method can also replace the traditional time step convergence studies that are a key part of code verification with much less computational cost. One well-defined benchmark problem with manufactured solutions is utilized to verify the method; another test isothermal flow problem is used to demonstrate the extended forward sensitivity analysis process. Through these sample problems, the paper shows the feasibility and potential of using the forward sensitivity analysis method to quantify uncertainty in input parameters and time step size for a 1-D system-level thermal-hydraulic safety code. (authors)
IMPLODING IGNITION WAVES. I. ONE-DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kushnir, Doron; Waxman, Eli; Livne, Eli
2012-01-01
We show that converging spherical and cylindrical shock waves may ignite a detonation wave in a combustible medium, provided the radius at which the shocks become strong exceeds a critical radius, R crit . An approximate analytic expression for R crit is derived for an ideal gas equation of state and a simple (power-law-Arrhenius) reaction law, and shown to reproduce the results of numerical solutions. For typical acetylene-air experiments we find R crit ∼ 100 μm (spherical) and R crit ∼ 1 mm (cylindrical). We suggest that the deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) observed in these systems may be due to converging shocks produced by the turbulent deflagration flow, which reaches sub- (but near) sonic velocities on scales >>R crit . Our suggested mechanism differs from that proposed by Zel'dovich et al., in which a fine-tuned spatial gradient in the chemical induction time is required to be maintained within the turbulent deflagration flow. Our analysis may be readily extended to more complicated equations of state and reaction laws. An order of magnitude estimate of R crit within a white dwarf at the pre-detonation conditions believed to lead to Type Ia supernova explosions is 0.1 km, suggesting that our proposed mechanism may be relevant for DDT initiation in these systems. The relevance of our proposed ignition mechanism to DDT initiation may be tested by both experiments and numerical simulations.
One-dimensional barcode reading: an information theoretic approach
Houni, Karim; Sawaya, Wadih; Delignon, Yves
2008-03-01
In the convergence context of identification technology and information-data transmission, the barcode found its place as the simplest and the most pervasive solution for new uses, especially within mobile commerce, bringing youth to this long-lived technology. From a communication theory point of view, a barcode is a singular coding based on a graphical representation of the information to be transmitted. We present an information theoretic approach for 1D image-based barcode reading analysis. With a barcode facing the camera, distortions and acquisition are modeled as a communication channel. The performance of the system is evaluated by means of the average mutual information quantity. On the basis of this theoretical criterion for a reliable transmission, we introduce two new measures: the theoretical depth of field and the theoretical resolution. Simulations illustrate the gain of this approach.
Quasiparticle and excitonic gaps of one-dimensional carbon chains.
Mostaani, E; Monserrat, B; Drummond, N D; Lambert, C J
2016-06-01
We report diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (DMC) calculations of the quasiparticle and excitonic gaps of hydrogen-terminated oligoynes and extended polyyne. The electronic gaps are found to be very sensitive to the atomic structure in these systems. We have therefore optimised the geometry of polyyne by directly minimising the DMC energy with respect to the lattice constant and the Peierls-induced carbon-carbon bond-length alternation. We find the bond-length alternation of polyyne to be 0.136(2) Å and the excitonic and quasiparticle gaps to be 3.30(7) and 3.4(1) eV, respectively. The DMC zone-centre longitudinal optical phonon frequency of polyyne is 2084(5) cm(-1), which is consistent with Raman spectroscopic measurements for large oligoynes.
Boltzmann equations for a binary one-dimensional ideal gas.
Boozer, A D
2011-09-01
We consider a time-reversal invariant dynamical model of a binary ideal gas of N molecules in one spatial dimension. By making time-asymmetric assumptions about the behavior of the gas, we derive Boltzmann and anti-Boltzmann equations that describe the evolution of the single-molecule velocity distribution functions for an ensemble of such systems. We show that for a special class of initial states of the ensemble one can obtain an exact expression for the N-molecule velocity distribution function, and we use this expression to rigorously prove that the time-asymmetric assumptions needed to derive the Boltzmann and anti-Boltzmann equations hold in the limit of large N. Our results clarify some subtle issues regarding the origin of the time asymmetry of Boltzmann's H theorem.
Phonon scattering in quasi-one-dimensional structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bourahla, B., E-mail: bourahla_boualem@yahoo.f [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Universite de Tizi Ouzou, BP 17 RP 15000 (Algeria); Laboratoire de Physique de l' etat Condense, UMR 6087, Universite du Maine, 72085 Le Mans (France); Nafa, O. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Universite de Tizi Ouzou, BP 17 RP 15000 (Algeria); Tigrine, R. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Universite de Tizi Ouzou, BP 17 RP 15000 (Algeria); Laboratoire de Physique de l' etat Condense, UMR 6087, Universite du Maine, 72085 Le Mans (France)
2011-02-15
We introduce a model to study a symmetric nanocontact, whereby its mechanical properties can be analyzed via the vibration spectra. The model system consists of two groups of triple semi-infinite atomic chains joined by atoms in between. The matching method theoretical approach is used to calculate the coherent reflection and transmission scattering probabilities, the characteristic vibration Green functions and densities of states (DOS), for the vibration components of the individual atomic sites that constitute a complete representation of the nanocontact domain boundaries. The nanocontact observables are numerically calculated for different cases of elastic hardening and softening, to investigate how the local dynamics can respond to changes in the microscopic environment on the nanocontact domain. The analysis of the vibration spectra and the DOS demonstrate the fluctuations, related to Fano resonances, due to the coherent coupling between traveling phonons and the localized vibration modes in the nanocontact domain.
One Dimensional Turing-Like Handshake Test for Motor Intelligence
Karniel, Amir; Avraham, Guy; Peles, Bat-Chen; Levy-Tzedek, Shelly; Nisky, Ilana
2010-01-01
In the Turing test, a computer model is deemed to "think intelligently" if it can generate answers that are not distinguishable from those of a human. However, this test is limited to the linguistic aspects of machine intelligence. A salient function of the brain is the control of movement, and the movement of the human hand is a sophisticated demonstration of this function. Therefore, we propose a Turing-like handshake test, for machine motor intelligence. We administer the test through a telerobotic system in which the interrogator is engaged in a task of holding a robotic stylus and interacting with another party (human or artificial). Instead of asking the interrogator whether the other party is a person or a computer program, we employ a two-alternative forced choice method and ask which of two systems is more human-like. We extract a quantitative grade for each model according to its resemblance to the human handshake motion and name it "Model Human-Likeness Grade" (MHLG). We present three methods to estimate the MHLG. (i) By calculating the proportion of subjects' answers that the model is more human-like than the human; (ii) By comparing two weighted sums of human and model handshakes we fit a psychometric curve and extract the point of subjective equality (PSE); (iii) By comparing a given model with a weighted sum of human and random signal, we fit a psychometric curve to the answers of the interrogator and extract the PSE for the weight of the human in the weighted sum. Altogether, we provide a protocol to test computational models of the human handshake. We believe that building a model is a necessary step in understanding any phenomenon and, in this case, in understanding the neural mechanisms responsible for the generation of the human handshake. PMID:21206462
Random isotropic one-dimensional XY-model
Gonçalves, L. L.; Vieira, A. P.
1998-01-01
The 1D isotropic s = ½XY-model ( N sites), with random exchange interaction in a transverse random field is considered. The random variables satisfy bimodal quenched distributions. The solution is obtained by using the Jordan-Wigner fermionization and a canonical transformation, reducing the problem to diagonalizing an N × N matrix, corresponding to a system of N noninteracting fermions. The calculations are performed numerically for N = 1000, and the field-induced magnetization at T = 0 is obtained by averaging the results for the different samples. For the dilute case, in the uniform field limit, the magnetization exhibits various discontinuities, which are the consequence of the existence of disconnected finite clusters distributed along the chain. Also in this limit, for finite exchange constants J A and J B, as the probability of J A varies from one to zero, the saturation field is seen to vary from Γ A to Γ B, where Γ A(Γ B) is the value of the saturation field for the pure case with exchange constant equal to J A(J B) .
One-Dimensional Chirality: Strong Optical Activity in Epsilon-Near-Zero Metamaterials.
Rizza, Carlo; Di Falco, Andrea; Scalora, Michael; Ciattoni, Alessandro
2015-07-31
We suggest that electromagnetic chirality, generally displayed by 3D or 2D complex chiral structures, can occur in 1D patterned composites whose components are achiral. This feature is highly unexpected in a 1D system which is geometrically achiral since its mirror image can always be superposed onto it by a 180 deg rotation. We analytically evaluate from first principles the bianisotropic response of multilayered metamaterials and we show that the chiral tensor is not vanishing if the system is geometrically one-dimensional chiral; i.e., its mirror image cannot be superposed onto it by using translations without resorting to rotations. As a signature of 1D chirality, we show that 1D chiral metamaterials support optical activity and we prove that this phenomenon undergoes a dramatic nonresonant enhancement in the epsilon-near-zero regime where the magnetoelectric coupling can become dominant in the constitutive relations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Antal, T [Physics Department, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6 (Canada); Droz, M [Departement de Physique Theorique, Universite de Geneve, CH 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Racz, Z [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Eoetvoes University, 1117 Budapest, Pazmany setany 1/a (Hungary)
2004-02-06
Finite-size scaling functions are investigated both for the mean-square magnetization fluctuations and for the probability distribution of the magnetization in the one-dimensional Ising model. The scaling functions are evaluated in the limit of the temperature going to zero (T {yields} 0), the size of the system going to infinity (N {yields} {infinity}) while N[1 - tanh(J/k{sub B}T)] is kept finite (J being the nearest neighbour coupling). Exact calculations using various boundary conditions (periodic, antiperiodic, free, block) demonstrate explicitly how the scaling functions depend on the boundary conditions. We also show that the block (small part of a large system) magnetization distribution results are identical to those obtained for free boundary conditions.
Hu, Jiuning; Chen, Yong P.
2013-06-01
We show that in a finite one-dimensional (1D) system with diffusive thermal transport described by the Fourier's law, negative differential thermal conductance (NDTC) cannot occur when the temperature at one end is fixed and there are no abrupt junctions. We demonstrate that NDTC in this case requires the presence of junction(s) with temperature-dependent thermal contact resistance (TCR). We derive a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of NDTC in terms of the properties of the TCR for systems with a single junction. We show that under certain circumstances we even could have infinite (negative or positive) differential thermal conductance in the presence of the TCR. Our predictions provide theoretical basis for constructing NDTC-based devices, such as thermal amplifiers, oscillators, and logic devices.
Impenetrable Mass-Imbalanced Particles in One-Dimensional Harmonic Traps
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Salami Dehkharghani, Amin; Volosniev, A. G.; Zinner, N. T.
2016-01-01
Strongly interacting particles in one dimension subject to external confinement have become a topic of considerable interest due to recent experimental advances and the development of new theoretical methods to attack such systems. In the case of equal mass fermions or bosons with two or more...... internal degrees of freedom, one can map the problem onto the well-known Heisenberg spin models. However, many interesting physical systems contain mixtures of particles with different masses. Therefore, a generalization of the recent strong-coupling techniques would be highly desirable....... This is particularly important since such problems are generally considered non-integrable and thus the hugely successful Bethe ansatz approach cannot be applied. Here we discuss some initial steps towards this goal by investigating small ensembles of one-dimensional harmonically trapped particles where pairwise...
Controllable scattering of photons in a one-dimensional resonator waveguide
Sun, C. P.; Zhou, L.; Gong, Z. R.; Liu, Y. X.; Nori, F.
2009-03-01
We analyze the coherent transport of a single photon, which propagates in a one-dimensional coupled-resonator waveguide and is scattered by a controllable two-level system located inside one of the resonators of this waveguide. Our approach, which uses discrete coordinates, unifies low and high energy effective theories for single-photon scattering. We show that the controllable two-level system can behave as a quantum switch for the coherent transport of a single photon. This study may inspire new electro-optical single-photon quantum devices. We also suggest an experimental setup based on superconducting transmission line resonators and qubits. [4pt] L. Zhou, Z.R. Gong, Y.X. Liu, C.P. Sun, F. Nori, Controllable scattering of photons in a 1D resonator waveguide, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 100501 (2008). URL: http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v101/e100501
Corrections to the Eckhaus' stability criterion for one-dimensional stationary structures
Malomed, B. A.; Staroselsky, I. E.; Konstantinov, A. B.
1989-01-01
Two amendments to the well-known Eckhaus' stability criterion for small-amplitude non-linear structures generated by weak instability of a spatially uniform state of a non-equilibrium one-dimensional system against small perturbations with finite wavelengths are obtained. Firstly, we evaluate small corrections to the main Eckhaus' term which, on the contrary so that term, do not have a universal form. Comparison of those non-universal corrections with experimental or numerical results gives a possibility to select a more relevant form of an effective nonlinear evolution equation. In particular, the comparison with such results for convective rolls and Taylor vortices gives arguments in favor of the Swift-Hohenberg equation. Secondly, we derive an analog of the Eckhaus criterion for systems degenerate in the sense that in an expansion of their non-linear parts in powers of dynamical variables, the second and third degree terms are absent.
Glimmers of a Quantum KAM Theorem: Insights from Quantum Quenches in One-Dimensional Bose Gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandino, G. P.; Caux, J.-S.; Konik, R. M.
2015-01-01
Real-time dynamics in a quantum many-body system are inherently complicated and hence difficult to predict. There are, however, a special set of systems where these dynamics are theoretically tractable: integrable models. Such models possess non-trivial conserved quantities beyond energy and momentum. These quantities are believed to control dynamics and thermalization in low dimensional atomic gases as well as in quantum spin chains. But what happens when the special symmetries leading to the existence of the extra conserved quantities are broken? Is there any memory of the quantities if the breaking is weak? Here, in the presence of weak integrability breaking, we show that it is possible to construct residual quasi-conserved quantities, so providing a quantum analog to the KAM theorem and its attendant Nekhoreshev estimates. We demonstrate this construction explicitly in the context of quantum quenches in one-dimensional Bose gases and argue that these quasi-conserved quantities can be probed experimentally.
Slow quench dynamics of a one-dimensional Bose gas confined to an optical lattice.
Bernier, Jean-Sébastien; Roux, Guillaume; Kollath, Corinna
2011-05-20
We analyze the effect of a linear time variation of the interaction strength on a trapped one-dimensional Bose gas confined to an optical lattice. The evolution of different observables such as the experimentally accessible on site particle distribution are studied as a function of the ramp time by using time-dependent numerical techniques. We find that the dynamics of a trapped system typically displays two regimes: For long ramp times, the dynamics is governed by density redistribution, while at short ramp times, local dynamics dominates as the evolution is identical to that of an homogeneous system. In the homogeneous limit, we also discuss the nontrivial scaling of the energy absorbed with the ramp time.
Three-Dimensional Non-Fermi-Liquid Behavior from One-Dimensional Quantum Critical Local Moments
Classen, Laura; Zaliznyak, Igor; Tsvelik, Alexei M.
2018-04-01
We study the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity in a system composed of critical spin chains interacting with three-dimensional conduction electrons and driven to criticality via an external magnetic field. The relevant experimental system is Yb2 Pt2 Pb , a metal where itinerant electrons coexist with localized moments of Yb ions which can be described in terms of effective S =1 /2 spins with a dominantly one-dimensional exchange interaction. The spin subsystem becomes critical in a relatively weak magnetic field, where it behaves like a Luttinger liquid. We theoretically examine a Kondo lattice with different effective space dimensionalities of the two interacting subsystems. We characterize the corresponding non-Fermi liquid behavior due to the spin criticality by calculating the electronic relaxation rate and the dc resistivity and establish its quasilinear temperature dependence.
Monte Carlo study of one-dimensional confined fluids with Gay-Berne intermolecular potential
Moradi, M.; Hashemi, S.
2011-11-01
The thermodynamic quantities of a one dimensional system of particles with Gay-Berne model potential confined between walls have been obtained by means of Monte Carlo computer simulations. For a number of temperatures, the systems were considered and their density profiles, order parameter, pressure, configurational temperature and average potential energy per particle are reported. The results show that by decreasing the temperature, the soft particles become more ordered and they align to the walls and also they don't show any tendency to be near the walls at very low temperatures. We have also changed the structure of the walls by embedding soft ellipses in them, this change increases the total density near the wall whereas, increasing or decreasing the order parameter depend on the angle of embedded ellipses.
One-dimensional contaminant transport model for the design of soil-bentonite slurry walls
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khandelwal, A.; Rabideau, A.; Su, J.
1997-01-01
A user oriented computer model (TRANS1D) was developed for application to the analysis and design of vertical soil-bentonite barriers. TRANS1D is a collection of analytical and numerical solutions to the one dimensional advective-dispersive-reactive (ADR) equation. The primary objective in developing TRANS1D was to enable the designer of a barrier system to evaluate the potential system performance with respect to contaminant transport, without performing difficult and time consuming field or laboratory experiments. Several issues related to model application are discussed, including identification of governing transport processes, specification of boundary conditions, and parameter estimation. Model predictions are compared with the results of laboratory column experiments conducted with soil bentonite barrier material under diffusion-dominated conditions. Good agreement between model calibrations and experimental results was noted, with calibrated diffusion coefficients for organic contaminants consistent with literature values
Low-density, one-dimensional quantum gases in the presence of a localized attractive potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goold, J; O'Donoghue, D; Busch, Th
2008-01-01
We investigate low-density, quantum-degenerate gases in the presence of a localized attractive potential in the centre of a one-dimensional harmonic trap. The attractive potential is modelled using a parameterized δ-function, allowing us to determine all single-particle eigenfunctions analytically. From these we calculate the ground-state many-body properties for a system of spin-polarized fermions and, using the Bose-Fermi mapping theorem, extend the results to strongly interacting bosonic systems. We discuss the single-particle densities, the pair-correlation functions, the reduced single-particle density matrices and the momentum distributions as a function of the particle number and strength of the attractive point potential. As an important experimental observable, we place special emphasis on spatial coherence properties of such samples.
Creating cat states in one-dimensional quantum walks using delocalized initial states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Wei-Wei; Gao, Fei; Goyal, Sandeep K; Sanders, Barry C; Simon, Christoph
2016-01-01
Cat states are coherent quantum superpositions of macroscopically distinct states and are useful for understanding the boundary between the classical and the quantum world. Due to their macroscopic nature, cat states are difficult to prepare in physical systems. We propose a method to create cat states in one-dimensional quantum walks using delocalized initial states of the walker. Since the quantum walks can be performed on any quantum system, our proposal enables a platform-independent realization of the cat states. We further show that the linear dispersion relation of the effective quantum walk Hamiltonian, which governs the dynamics of the delocalized states, is responsible for the formation of the cat states. We analyze the robustness of these states against environmental interactions and present methods to control and manipulate the cat states in the photonic implementation of quantum walks. (paper)
Exact solutions of the one-dimensional generalized modified complex Ginzburg-Landau equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yomba, Emmanuel; Kofane, Timoleon Crepin
2003-01-01
The one-dimensional (1D) generalized modified complex Ginzburg-Landau (MCGL) equation for the traveling wave systems is analytically studied. Exact solutions of this equation are obtained using a method which combines the Painleve test for integrability in the formalism of Weiss-Tabor-Carnevale and Hirota technique of bilinearization. We show that pulses, fronts, periodic unbounded waves, sources, sinks and solution as collision between two fronts are the important coherent structures that organize much of the dynamical properties of these traveling wave systems. The degeneracies of the 1D generalized MCGL equation are examined as well as several of their solutions. These degeneracies include two important equations: the 1D generalized modified Schroedinger equation and the 1D generalized real modified Ginzburg-Landau equation. We obtain that the one parameter family of traveling localized source solutions called 'Nozaki-Bekki holes' become a subfamily of the dark soliton solutions in the 1D generalized modified Schroedinger limit
High-efficiency one-dimensional atom localization via two parallel standing-wave fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Zhiping; Wu, Xuqiang; Lu, Liang; Yu, Benli
2014-01-01
We present a new scheme of high-efficiency one-dimensional (1D) atom localization via measurement of upper state population or the probe absorption in a four-level N-type atomic system. By applying two classical standing-wave fields, the localization peak position and number, as well as the conditional position probability, can be easily controlled by the system parameters, and the sub-half-wavelength atom localization is also observed. More importantly, there is 100% detecting probability of the atom in the subwavelength domain when the corresponding conditions are satisfied. The proposed scheme may open up a promising way to achieve high-precision and high-efficiency 1D atom localization. (paper)
A thermodynamic counterpart of the Axelrod model of social influence: The one-dimensional case
Gandica, Y.; Medina, E.; Bonalde, I.
2013-12-01
We propose a thermodynamic version of the Axelrod model of social influence. In one-dimensional (1D) lattices, the thermodynamic model becomes a coupled Potts model with a bonding interaction that increases with the site matching traits. We analytically calculate thermodynamic and critical properties for a 1D system and show that an order-disorder phase transition only occurs at T=0 independent of the number of cultural traits q and features F. The 1D thermodynamic Axelrod model belongs to the same universality class of the Ising and Potts models, notwithstanding the increase of the internal dimension of the local degree of freedom and the state-dependent bonding interaction. We suggest a unifying proposal to compare exponents across different discrete 1D models. The comparison with our Hamiltonian description reveals that in the thermodynamic limit the original out-of-equilibrium 1D Axelrod model with noise behaves like an ordinary thermodynamic 1D interacting particle system.
Wave propagation in one-dimensional solid-fluid quasi-periodic and aperiodic phononic crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen Ali, E-mail: alchen@bjtu.edu.cn [Institute of Engineering Mechanics, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Wang Yuesheng [Institute of Engineering Mechanics, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Zhang Chuanzeng [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Siegen, D-57068 Siegen (Germany)
2012-02-01
The propagation of the elastic waves in one-dimensional (1D) solid-fluid quasi-periodic phononic crystals is studied by employing the concept of the localization factor, which is calculated by the transfer matrix method. The solid-fluid interaction effect at the interfaces between the solid and the fluid components is considered. For comparison, the periodic systems and aperiodic Thue-Morse sequence are also analyzed in this paper. The splitting phenomenon of the pass bands and bandgaps are discussed for these 1D solid-fluid systems. At last the influences of the material impedance ratios on the band structures of the 1D solid-fluid quasi-periodic phononic crystals arranged as Fibonacci sequence are discussed.
Global Pressure of One-Dimensional Polydisperse Granular Gases Driven by Gaussian White Noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Zhiyuan; Zhang Duanming; Yang Fengxia; Huang Mingtao; Li Rui; Zhang Ling; Zhu Hongying
2007-01-01
We study the global pressure of a one-dimensional polydisperse granular gases system for the first time, in which the size distribution of particles has the fractal characteristic and the inhomogeneity is described by a fractal dimension D. The particles are driven by Gaussian white noise and subject to inelastic mutual collisions. We define the global pressure P of the system as the impulse transferred across a surface in a unit of time, which has two contributions, one from the translational motion of particles and the other from the collisions. Explicit expression for the global pressure in the steady state is derived. By molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate how the inelasticity of collisions and the inhomogeneity of the particles influence the global pressure. The simulation results indicate that the restitution coefficient e and the fractal dimension D have significant effect on the pressure.
Diffusion related isotopic fractionation effects with one-dimensional advective–dispersive transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, Bruce S. [Civil Engineering Department, University of Toronto, 35 St George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 1A4 (Canada); Lollar, Barbara Sherwood [Earth Sciences Department, University of Toronto, 22 Russell Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3B1 (Canada); Passeport, Elodie [Civil Engineering Department, University of Toronto, 35 St George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 1A4 (Canada); Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry Department, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3E5 (Canada); Sleep, Brent E., E-mail: sleep@ecf.utoronto.ca [Civil Engineering Department, University of Toronto, 35 St George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 1A4 (Canada)
2016-04-15
Aqueous phase diffusion-related isotope fractionation (DRIF) for carbon isotopes was investigated for common groundwater contaminants in systems in which transport could be considered to be one-dimensional. This paper focuses not only on theoretically observable DRIF effects in these systems but introduces the important concept of constraining “observable” DRIF based on constraints imposed by the scale of measurements in the field, and on standard limits of detection and analytical uncertainty. Specifically, constraints for the detection of DRIF were determined in terms of the diffusive fractionation factor, the initial concentration of contaminants (C{sub 0}), the method detection limit (MDL) for isotopic analysis, the transport time, and the ratio of the longitudinal mechanical dispersion coefficient to effective molecular diffusion coefficient (D{sub mech}/D{sub eff}). The results allow a determination of field conditions under which DRIF may be an important factor in the use of stable carbon isotope measurements for evaluation of contaminant transport and transformation for one-dimensional advective–dispersive transport. This study demonstrates that for diffusion-dominated transport of BTEX, MTBE, and chlorinated ethenes, DRIF effects are only detectable for the smaller molar mass compounds such as vinyl chloride for C{sub 0}/MDL ratios of 50 or higher. Much larger C{sub 0}/MDL ratios, corresponding to higher source concentrations or lower detection limits, are necessary for DRIF to be detectable for the higher molar mass compounds. The distance over which DRIF is observable for VC is small (less than 1 m) for a relatively young diffusive plume (< 100 years), and DRIF will not easily be detected by using the conventional sampling approach with “typical” well spacing (at least several meters). With contaminant transport by advection, mechanical dispersion, and molecular diffusion this study suggests that in field sites where D{sub mech}/D{sub eff} is
Diffusion related isotopic fractionation effects with one-dimensional advective–dispersive transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Bruce S.; Lollar, Barbara Sherwood; Passeport, Elodie; Sleep, Brent E.
2016-01-01
Aqueous phase diffusion-related isotope fractionation (DRIF) for carbon isotopes was investigated for common groundwater contaminants in systems in which transport could be considered to be one-dimensional. This paper focuses not only on theoretically observable DRIF effects in these systems but introduces the important concept of constraining “observable” DRIF based on constraints imposed by the scale of measurements in the field, and on standard limits of detection and analytical uncertainty. Specifically, constraints for the detection of DRIF were determined in terms of the diffusive fractionation factor, the initial concentration of contaminants (C_0), the method detection limit (MDL) for isotopic analysis, the transport time, and the ratio of the longitudinal mechanical dispersion coefficient to effective molecular diffusion coefficient (D_m_e_c_h/D_e_f_f). The results allow a determination of field conditions under which DRIF may be an important factor in the use of stable carbon isotope measurements for evaluation of contaminant transport and transformation for one-dimensional advective–dispersive transport. This study demonstrates that for diffusion-dominated transport of BTEX, MTBE, and chlorinated ethenes, DRIF effects are only detectable for the smaller molar mass compounds such as vinyl chloride for C_0/MDL ratios of 50 or higher. Much larger C_0/MDL ratios, corresponding to higher source concentrations or lower detection limits, are necessary for DRIF to be detectable for the higher molar mass compounds. The distance over which DRIF is observable for VC is small (less than 1 m) for a relatively young diffusive plume (< 100 years), and DRIF will not easily be detected by using the conventional sampling approach with “typical” well spacing (at least several meters). With contaminant transport by advection, mechanical dispersion, and molecular diffusion this study suggests that in field sites where D_m_e_c_h/D_e_f_f is larger than 10, DRIF
One-Dimensional Mass-Spring Chains Supporting Elastic Waves with Non-Conventional Topology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2016-04-01
Full Text Available There are two classes of phononic structures that can support elastic waves with non-conventional topology, namely intrinsic and extrinsic systems. The non-conventional topology of elastic wave results from breaking time reversal symmetry (T-symmetry of wave propagation. In extrinsic systems, energy is injected into the phononic structure to break T-symmetry. In intrinsic systems symmetry is broken through the medium microstructure that may lead to internal resonances. Mass-spring composite structures are introduced as metaphors for more complex phononic crystals with non-conventional topology. The elastic wave equation of motion of an intrinsic phononic structure composed of two coupled one-dimensional (1D harmonic chains can be factored into a Dirac-like equation, leading to antisymmetric modes that have spinor character and therefore non-conventional topology in wave number space. The topology of the elastic waves can be further modified by subjecting phononic structures to externally-induced spatio-temporal modulation of their elastic properties. Such modulations can be actuated through photo-elastic effects, magneto-elastic effects, piezo-electric effects or external mechanical effects. We also uncover an analogy between a combined intrinsic-extrinsic systems composed of a simple one-dimensional harmonic chain coupled to a rigid substrate subjected to a spatio-temporal modulation of the side spring stiffness and the Dirac equation in the presence of an electromagnetic field. The modulation is shown to be able to tune the spinor part of the elastic wave function and therefore its topology. This analogy between classical mechanics and quantum phenomena offers new modalities for developing more complex functions of phononic crystals and acoustic metamaterials.
One-dimensional treatment of polyatomic crystals by the Laplace transform method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosato, A.; Santana, P.H.A.
1976-01-01
The one dimensional periodic potential problem is solved using the Laplace transform method and a condensed expression for the relation E x k and effective mass for one electron in a polyatomic structure is determined. Applications related to the effect of the asymmetry of the potential upon the one dimensional band structure are discussed [pt
Finite element method for one-dimensional rill erosion simulation on a curved slope
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lijuan Yan
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Rill erosion models are important to hillslope soil erosion prediction and to land use planning. The development of rill erosion models and their use has become increasingly of great concern. The purpose of this research was to develop mathematic models with computer simulation procedures to simulate and predict rill erosion. The finite element method is known as an efficient tool in many other applications than in rill soil erosion. In this study, the hydrodynamic and sediment continuity model equations for a rill erosion system were solved by the Galerkin finite element method and Visual C++ procedures. The simulated results are compared with the data for spatially and temporally measured processes for rill erosion under different conditions. The results indicate that the one-dimensional linear finite element method produced excellent predictions of rill erosion processes. Therefore, this study supplies a tool for further development of a dynamic soil erosion prediction model.
Partition function zeros of the one-dimensional Potts model: the recursive method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghulghazaryan, R G; Ananikian, N S
2003-01-01
The Yang-Lee, Fisher and Potts zeros of the one-dimensional Q-state Potts model are studied using the theory of dynamical systems. An exact recurrence relation for the partition function is derived. It is shown that zeros of the partition function may be associated with neutral fixed points of the recurrence relation. Further, a general equation for zeros of the partition function is found and a classification of the Yang-Lee, Fisher and Potts zeros is given. It is shown that the Fisher zeros in a nonzero magnetic field are located on several lines in the complex temperature plane and that the number of these lines depends on the value of the magnetic field. Analytical expressions for the densities of the Yang-Lee, Fisher and Potts zeros are derived. It is shown that densities of all types of zeros of the partition function are singular at the edge singularity points with the same critical exponent
One-dimensional motion of a material with a strain theshold
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Farina
2007-12-01
Full Text Available We consider the one-dimensional shearing motion of a material exhibiting elastic behaviour when the stress is below some threshold. The threshold represents a limit to the deformability, i.e. no further deformation can occur on increasing the stress. The mathematical formulation leads to a free boundary problem for the wave equation, whose structure depends on whether the stress (and the velocity are continuous across the propagating interface for the strain threshold .Local existence and uniqueness are proved for the continuous case (in which the interface propagation is subsonic. Some explicit solutions are calculated for another case (with a supersonic interface. It is shown that the model with strain threshold is never the limit of hyperelastic systems.
Assessment of one dimensional reflood model in REFLA/TRAC code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akimoto, Hajime; Ohnuki, Akira; Murao, Yoshio
1993-12-01
Post-test calculations for twelve selected SSRTF, SCTF and CCTF tests were performed to assess the predictive capability of the one-dimensional reflood model in the REFLA/TRAC code for core thermal behavior during the reflood in a PWR LOCA. Both core void fraction profile and clad temperature transients were predicted excellently by the REFLA/TRAC code including parameter effect of core inlet subcooling, core flooding rate, core configuration, core power, system pressure, initial clad temperature and so on. The peak clad temperature was predicted within an error of 50 K. Based on these assessment results, it is verified that the core thermal hydraulic behaviors during the reflood can be predicted excellently with the REFLA/TRAC code under various conditions where the reflood may occur in a PWR LOCA. (author)
A novel technique for one-dimensional scattering from Dirac Comb
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taya, Sofyan A.; Shabat, M.M.
2001-08-01
Using the well-known matrix formulation of the reflection and transmission of electromagnetic waves by a stratified planner structure, we show that the reflection and transmission coefficients of any number of isotropic media can be written by a simple general formula. This formula uses the so-called elementary symmetric functions that are extensively used in the mathematical theory of polynomials. The approach is then applied to the quantum scattering. We show that the reflection and transmission coefficients of any number of quantum wells or barriers can be written in the similar way. Finally, one-dimensional scattering from a series of delta-function barriers (a system that is called Dirac Comb) is studied. The computed numerical illustrations compared with the earlier results based on the transfer matrix and Chebychev polynomials reveal an excellent agreement. (author)
Deterministic hopping in a Josephson circuit described by a one-dimensional mapping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miracky, R.F.; Devoret, M.H.; Clarke, J.
1985-01-01
Analog simulations of the hopping noise of a current-biased Josephson tunnel junction shunted with an inductor in series with a resistor reveal a 1/ω spectral density over two decades of frequency ω for a narrow range of bias currents. The amplitude of the low-frequency part of the spectrum decreases when white noise, representing Nyquist noise in the resistor at a few degrees Kelvin, is added to the simulation. We explain the shape of the power spectrum and its dependence on bias current and added white noise in terms of a deterministic process, involving a one-dimensional mapping, that is analogous to that found in Pomeau-Manneville intermittency. Moreover, we are able to establish a detailed relationship between the origin of the mapping and the differential equation describing the dynamics of the system