WorldWideScience

Sample records for one-dimensional cse study

  1. One-dimensional long-range percolation: A numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, G.; Michelangeli, M.; Defenu, N.; Trombettoni, A.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we study bond percolation on a one-dimensional chain with power-law bond probability C /rd +σ , where r is the distance length between distinct sites and d =1 . We introduce and test an order-N Monte Carlo algorithm and we determine as a function of σ the critical value Cc at which percolation occurs. The critical exponents in the range 0 introduction of a suitably defined effective dimension deff relating the long-range model with a short-range one in dimension deff. We finally present a formulation of our algorithm for bond percolation on general graphs, with order N efficiency on a large class of graphs including short-range percolation and translationally invariant long-range models in any spatial dimension d with σ >0 .

  2. Study on pile drivability with one dimensional wave propagation theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈仁朋; 王仕方; 陈云敏

    2003-01-01

    Pile drivability is a key problem during the stage of design and construction installation of pile foundations. The solution to the one dimensional wave equation was used to determine the impact force at the top of a concrete pile for a given ram mass, cushion stiffness, and pile impedance. The kinematic equation of pile toe was established and solved based on wave equation theory. The movements of the pile top and pile toe were presented, which clearly showed the dynamic displacement, including rebound and penetration of pile top and toe. A parametric study was made with a full range of practical values of ram weight, cushion stiffness, dropheight, and pile impedance. Suggestions for optimizing the parameters were also presented. Comparisons between the results obtained by the present solution and in-situ measurements indicated the reliability and validity of the method.

  3. Fermion Coherent State Studies of One-Dimensional Hubbard Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Ji; GAO Xian-Long; WANG Ke-Lin

    2007-01-01

    We present a comparative study of the ground state of the one-dimensional Hubbard model. We first use a new fermion coherent state method in the framework of Fermi liquid theory by introducing a hole operator and considering the interactions of two pairs electrons and holes. We construct the ground state of the Hubbard model as |〉 = [f + ∑′ψc+k1σ1 h+k2σ2 c+k3σ3 h+k4σ4 ∏exp(ρc+k1σ1 h+k2σ2)] [〉0, where ψ and ρ are the coupling constants. Our results are then compared to those of variational methods, density functional theory based on the exact solvable Bethe ansatz solutions, variational Monto-Carlo method (VMC) as well as to the exact result of the infinite system. We find satisfactory agreement between the fermion coherent state scheme and the VMC data, and provide a new picture to deal with the strongly correlated system.

  4. An algebraic study of unitary one dimensional quantum cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Arrighi, P

    2005-01-01

    We provide algebraic characterizations of unitary one dimensional quantum cellular automata. We do so both by algebraizing existing decision procedures, and by adding constraints into the model which do not change the quantum cellular automata's computational power. The configurations we consider have finite but unbounded size.

  5. Novel Progress in One-Dimensional Carbon Nanotubes Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ One-dimensional carbon nanotubes (CNT) have received considerable attention from researchers worldwide. It is not only because of their unique physical properties, but also their potential applications. Recently, researchers of the CAS Institute of Physics have made new progress in the field.

  6. Neutron scattering studies of three one-dimensional antiferromagnets

    CERN Document Server

    Kenzelmann, M

    2001-01-01

    observed in the disordered phase of spin-1/2 chains. The magnetic order of the one-dimensional spin-1/2 XY antiferromagnet Cs sub 2 CoCl sub 4 was investigated using neutron diffraction. The magnetic structure has an ordering wave-vector (0, 0.5, 0.5) for T < 217 mK and the magnetic structure is a non-linear structure with the magnetic moments at a small angle to the b axis. Above a field of H = 2.1 T the magnetic order collapses in an apparent first order phase transition, suggesting a transition to a spin-liquid phase. Low-dimensional magnets with low-spin quantum numbers are ideal model systems for investigating strongly interacting macroscopic quantum ground states and their non-linear spin excitations. This thesis describes neutron scattering experiments of three one-dimensional low-spin antiferromagnets where strong quantum fluctuations lead to highly-correlated ground states and unconventional cooperative spin excitations. The excitation spectrum of the antiferromagnetic spin-1 Heisenberg chain CsNi...

  7. Kinetic simulation study of one dimensional collisional bounded plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    A self-consistent kinetic simulation study ofone dimensional collisional bounded plasma is presented.The formation of stable sheath potential is investigated.It is found that mass ratio of electron and ion not onlyaffects the level of sheath potential, but also affectsthe ion temperature of system. It is clarified that the effects of secondaryemission electron on both the total potential dropand the temperature are not important.

  8. A one-dimensional stochastic approach to the study of cyclic voltammetry with adsorption effects

    OpenAIRE

    Adib J. Samin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a one-dimensional stochastic model based on the random walk approach is used to simulate cyclic voltammetry. The model takes into account mass transport, kinetics of the redox reactions, adsorption effects and changes in the morphology of the electrode. The model is shown to display the expected behavior. Furthermore, the model shows consistent qualitative agreement with a finite difference solution. This approach allows for an understanding of phenomena on a microscopic level ...

  9. A study of the one dimensional total generalised variation regularisation problem

    KAUST Repository

    Papafitsoros, Konstantinos

    2015-03-01

    © 2015 American Institute of Mathematical Sciences. In this paper we study the one dimensional second order total generalised variation regularisation (TGV) problem with L2 data fitting term. We examine the properties of this model and we calculate exact solutions using simple piecewise affine functions as data terms. We investigate how these solutions behave with respect to the TGV parameters and we verify our results using numerical experiments.

  10. Numerical studies of variable-range hopping in one-dimensional systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodin, A. S.; Fogler, M. M.

    2010-03-01

    We report on our recent numerical study [1] of hopping transport in disordered one-dimensional systems. A fast new algorithm, based on Dijkstra shortest-path algorithm, is devised to find the lowest-resistance path through the hopping network at arbitrary electric field. Probability distribution functions of individual resistances on the path and the net resistance are calculated and fitted to compact analytic formulas. Qualitative differences between statistics of resistance fluctuations in Ohmic and non-Ohmic regimes are elucidated. The results are compared with prior theoretical and experimental work on the subject.[6pt] [1] A. S. Rodin and M. M. Fogler, Phys. Rev. B 80, 155435 (2009).

  11. A computational study of the electronic properties of one-dimensional armchair phosphorene nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sheng; Zhu, Hao; Eshun, Kwesi; Arab, Abbas; Badwan, Ahmad; Li, Qiliang [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia 22033 (United States)

    2015-10-28

    We have performed a comprehensive first-principle computational study of the electronic properties of one-dimensional phosphorene nanotubes (PNTs), and the strain effect on the mechanical and electrical properties of PNTs, including the elastic modulus, energy bandstructure, and carrier effective mass. The study has demonstrated that the armchair PNTs have semiconducting properties along the axial direction and the carrier mobility can be significantly improved by compressive strain. The hole mobility increases from 40.7 cm{sup 2}/V s to 197.0 cm{sup 2}/V s as the compressive strain increases to −5% at room temperature. The investigations of size effect on armchair PNTs indicated that the conductance increases significantly as the increasing diameter. Overall, this study indicated that the PNTs have very attractive electronic properties for future application in nanomaterials and devices.

  12. Excitons in the one-dimensional Hubbard model: a real-time study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hassanieh, K A; Reboredo, F A; Feiguin, A E; González, I; Dagotto, E

    2008-04-25

    We study the real-time dynamics of a hole and doubly occupied site pair, namely, a holon and a doublon, in a 1D Hubbard insulator with on-site and nearest-neighbor Coulomb repulsion. Our analysis shows that the pair is long-lived and the expected decay mechanism to underlying spin excitations is actually inefficient. For a nonzero intersite Coulomb repulsion, we observe that part of the wave function remains in a bound state. Our study also provides insight on the holon-doublon propagation in real space. Because of the one-dimensional nature of the problem, these particles move in opposite directions even in the absence of an applied electric field. The potential relevance of our results to solar cell applications is discussed.

  13. Time-resolved photoluminescence study of excitonic relaxation in one-dimensional systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanino, H.; Rühle, W. W.; Takahashi, K.

    1988-12-01

    Self-trapped exciton luminescence of quasi-one-dimensional (1D) halogen-bridged mixed-valence platinum complexes [Pt(II) (EA)4][Pt(IV)Cl2(EA)4] Cl4.4H2O (EA=ethylamine) and [Pt(II)(en)2] [Pt(IV)Cl2(en)2](ClO4)4 (en=1,2-diaminoethane) are studied by time-resolved photoluminescence experiments. The lifetimes of the luminescence of self-trapped exciton are exceptionally short, of the order of 100 psec. We interpret the short lifetime by a ``giant oscillator strength'' caused by a strong coupling between the electron and hole of the 1D charge transfer exciton and an extended polaronlike character of the 1D state. The lifetimes of the broad luminescence and of the resonant Raman lines during the barrier-free relaxation process are both faster than 7 psec.

  14. Monte Carlo study of Lefschetz thimble structure in one-dimensional Thirring model at finite density

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, Hirotsugu; Kikukawa, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    We consider the one-dimensional massive Thirring model formulated on the lattice with staggered fermions and an auxiliary compact vector (link) field, which is exactly solvable and shows a phase transition with increasing the chemical potential of fermion number: the crossover at a finite temperature and the first order transition at zero temperature. We complexify its path-integration on Lefschetz thimbles and examine its phase transition by hybrid Monte Carlo simulations on the single dominant thimble. We observe a discrepancy between the numerical and exact results in the crossover region for small inverse coupling $\\beta$ and/or large lattice size $L$, while they are in good agreement at the lower and higher density regions. We also observe that the discrepancy persists in the continuum limit keeping the temperature finite and it becomes more significant toward the low-temperature limit. This numerical result is consistent with our analytical study of the model's thimble structure. And these results imply...

  15. Comparative Study of Biofuel and Biodiesel Blend with Mineral Diesel Using One-Dimensional Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Rafidah; Mamat, Rizalman; Yusof Taib, Mohd

    2012-09-01

    This study is intended to perform one-dimensional simulation for four cylinders diesel engine by using various type of fuels and blend. The testing of biofuels properties conducted according to ASTM standards. The physical properties of the fuel are investigated in chemical laboratory which comprises of flash point, kinematic viscosity, density, cloud & pour point, acid value and moisture content. There are three types of fuels used throughout the study, which are straight vegetable oil (SVO), biodiesel 20% blend (B20) and biodiesel 5% blend (B5). Then, the properties data from the experiment will be used in the simulation GT Power software. Simulation tests have been run with the aim of obtaining comparative measures of torque, power, specific fuel consumption and volumetric efficiency. The results is use to evaluate and analyze the performance of diesel engine running with the mentioned fuels above. The comparison performances for each fuel have been discussed. There is no significant difference in the engine performance when fueled with B5 and diesel. There is only about one percent lower of B5 and four percent higher of B20 and SVO compare to diesel fuel.

  16. A benchmark study of numerical schemes for one-dimensional arterial blood flow modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boileau, Etienne; Nithiarasu, Perumal; Blanco, Pablo J; Müller, Lucas O; Fossan, Fredrik Eikeland; Hellevik, Leif Rune; Donders, Wouter P; Huberts, Wouter; Willemet, Marie; Alastruey, Jordi

    2015-10-01

    Haemodynamical simulations using one-dimensional (1D) computational models exhibit many of the features of the systemic circulation under normal and diseased conditions. Recent interest in verifying 1D numerical schemes has led to the development of alternative experimental setups and the use of three-dimensional numerical models to acquire data not easily measured in vivo. In most studies to date, only one particular 1D scheme is tested. In this paper, we present a systematic comparison of six commonly used numerical schemes for 1D blood flow modelling: discontinuous Galerkin, locally conservative Galerkin, Galerkin least-squares finite element method, finite volume method, finite difference MacCormack method and a simplified trapezium rule method. Comparisons are made in a series of six benchmark test cases with an increasing degree of complexity. The accuracy of the numerical schemes is assessed by comparison with theoretical results, three-dimensional numerical data in compatible domains with distensible walls or experimental data in a network of silicone tubes. Results show a good agreement among all numerical schemes and their ability to capture the main features of pressure, flow and area waveforms in large arteries. All the information used in this study, including the input data for all benchmark cases, experimental data where available and numerical solutions for each scheme, is made publicly available online, providing a comprehensive reference data set to support the development of 1D models and numerical schemes.

  17. BURNOUT SYNDROME IN SCHOOL PRINCIPAL. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY FROM A ONE-DIMENSIONAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Barraza Macías

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to: a Specify the descriptive profile Burnout Syndrome who have primary school principal, b Establish the extent to which demographic variables influence the level of burnout syndrome reported by primary school principal, and c determine the relationship between the level of job satisfaction and burnout syndrome reported by primary school principal. The theoretical construction of the research object was based on the approach conceptual one-dimensional and the interactive model explanatory. To achieve the stated objectives,  was performed a study exploratory, correlational, cross and not experimental. For the collection of information was applied Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure of a population of 24 directors of elementary education in the of seven and eight school zones located in the city of Surango. The main results are: 1 .- that primary school managers surveyed present a mild level of burnout, 2 .- that the sociodemographic variables studied did not influence the level and 3 .- the variable job satisfaction have a significant negative correlation with level of burnout syndrome.

  18. Study on optical gain of one-dimensional photonic crystals with active impurity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenghua Li; Tinggen Shen; Xuehua Song; Junfeng Ma; Yong Sheng; Gang Wang

    2007-01-01

    Localized fields in the defect mode of one-dimensional photonic crystals with active impurity are studied with the help of the theory of spontaneous emission from two-level atoms embedded in photonic crystals.Numerical simulations demonstrate that the enhancement of stimulated radiation, as well as the phenomena of transmissivity larger than unity and the abnormality of group velocity close to the edges of photonic band gap, are related to the negative imaginary part of the complex effective refractive index of doped layers. This means that the complex effective refractive index has a negative imaginary part, and that the impurity state with very high quality factor and great state density will occur in the photonic forbidden band if active impurity is introduced into the defect layer properly. Therefore, the spontaneous emission can be enhanced, the amplitude of stimulated emission will be very large and it occurs most probably close to the edges of photonic band gap with the fundamental reason, the group velocity close to the edges of band gap is very small or abnormal.

  19. Study on one-dimensional consolidation of soil under cyclic loading and with varied compressibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG Ying-chun; XIE Kang-he

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a semi-analytical method to solve one dimensional consolidation problem by taking consideration of varied compressibility of soil under cyclic loading. In the method, soil stratum is divided equally into n layers while load and consolidation time are also divided into small parts and time intervals accordingly. The problem of one-dimensional consolidation of soil stratum under cyclic loading can then be dealt with at each time interval as one-dimensional linear consolidation of multi-layered soils under constant loading. The compression or rebounding of each soil layer can be judged by the effective stress of the layer. When the effective stress is larger than that in the last time interval, the soil layer is compressed, and when it is smaller, the soil layer rebounds. Thus, appropriate compressibility can be chosen and the consolidation of the layered system can be analyzed by the available analytical linear consolidation theory. Based on the semi-analytical method, a computer program was developed and the behavior of one-dimensional consolidation of soil with varied compressibility under cyclic loading was investigated, and compared with the available consolidation theory which takes no consideration of varied compressibility of soil under cyclic loading. The results showed that by taking the variable compressibility into account, the rate of consolidation of soil was greater than the one predicted by conventional consolidation theory.

  20. Parametric studies of contrail ice particle formation in jet regime using one-dimensional microphysical modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-W. Wong

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Condensation trails (contrails formed from water vapor emissions behind aircraft engines are the most uncertain components of the aviation impacts on climate change. To gain improved knowledge of contrail and contrail-induced cirrus cloud formation, understanding of contrail ice particle formation immediately after aircraft engines is needed. Despite many efforts spent in modeling the microphysics of ice crystal formation in jet regime (with a plume age <5 s, systematic understanding of parametric effects of variables affecting contrail ice particle formation is still limited. In this work, we apply a one-dimensional modeling approach to study contrail ice particle formation in near-field aircraft plumes up to 1000 m downstream of an aircraft engine in the soot-rich regime (soot number emission index >1×1015 (kg-fuel−1 at cruise. The effects of ion-mediated nucleation, ambient relative humidity, fuel sulfur content, and initial soot emissions were investigated. Our simulation results suggest that ice particles are mainly formed by water condensation on emitted soot particles. The growth of ice coated soot particles is driven by water vapor emissions in the first 1000 m and by ambient relative humidity afterwards. The presence of chemi-ions does not significantly contribute to the formation of ice particles, and the effect of fuel sulfur content is small over the range typical of standard jet fuels. The initial properties of soot emissions play the most critical role, and our calculations suggest that higher number concentration and smaller size of contrail particle nuclei may be able to effectively suppress the formation of contrail ice particles, providing a possible approach for contrail mitigation.

  1. Study of ac hopping conductivity on one-dimensional nanometre systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐慧; 宋祎璞

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we establish a one-dimensional random nanocrystalline chain model, we derive a new formula of ac electron-phonon-field conductance for electron tunnelling transfer in one-dimensional nanometre systems. By calculating the ac conductivity, the relationship between the electric field, temperature and conductivity is analysed, and the effect of crystalline grain size and distortion of interfacial atoms on the ac conductance is discussed. A characteristic of negative differential dependence of resistance and temperature in the low-temperature region for a nanometre system is found. The ac conductivity increases linearly with rising frequency of the electric field, and it tends to increase as the crystalline grain size increases and to decrease as the distorted degree of interfacial atoms increases.

  2. Quantum-chemical studies of quasi-one-dimensional electron systems. 1. Polyenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Kruglyak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review is devoted to the basic problem in quantum theory of quasi-one-dimensional electron systems like polyenes (Part 1 and cumulenes (Part 2 – physical origin of the forbidden zone in these and analogous 1D electron systems due to two possible effects – Peierls instability (bond alternation and Mott instability (electron correlation. Both possible contradiction and coexistence of the Mott and Peierls instabilities are summerized on the basis of the Kiev quantum chemistry team research projects.

  3. Studies of Plasma Detachment Using a One Dimensional Model for Divertor Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Vesey, R A; Bateman, G

    1995-01-01

    To characterize the conditions required to reach advanced divertor regimes, a one-dimensional computational model has been developed based on a coordinate transformation to incorporate two-dimensional effects. This model includes transport of ions, two species each of atoms and molecules, momentum, and ion and electron energy both within and across the flux surfaces. Impurity radiation is calculated using a coronal equilibrium model which includes the effects of charge-exchange recombination. Numerical results indicate that impurity radiation acts to facilitate plasma detachment and enhances the power lost from the divertor channel in escaping neutral atoms by cooling the electrons and suppressing ionization. As divertor particle densities increase, cold and thermal molecules become increasingly important in cooling the plasma, with molecular densities dominating electron and atomic densities under some conditions.

  4. Synthesis and micro-structural study of one-dimensional nano-materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周光文; 张泽; 俞大鹏

    1999-01-01

    Silicon nano-wires (SiNWs) and boron nitride nano-tubules (BN-NTs) were successfully synthesized by excimer laser ablation at high temperature. These one-dimensional nano-materials synthesized by this method have a very high yield, a uniform diameter distribution, and a high purity. Micro-structures of these nano-materials were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The SiNWs have a high density of structural defects of microtwin, stacking faults, and low-angle boundary, which ere closely related to the formation of SiNWs and the determination of morphology of the nano-wires. BN-NTs ere mainly single atomic-layered and the outer surface of tubules is clean without any attachment. The formation of single atomic-layered tubule is attributed to the catalyst effect which makes the axial rate of BN-NTs much higher than the radial growth.

  5. Angle-resolved photoemission study of quasi one-dimensional TlInSe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimura, Kojiro [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan)], E-mail: mimura@ms.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Wakita, Kazuki [Department of Physics and Electronics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Arita, Masashi [Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan); Mamedov, Nazim; Orudzhev, Guseyn [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Science, Baku, AZ-1143 (Azerbaijan); Taguchi, Yukihiro; Ichikawa, Kouichi [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki [Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan)

    2007-05-15

    TlInSe{sub 2} with a quasi one-dimensional chain structure and a giant Seebeck coefficient of more than 10{sup 6} {mu}V/K below 140 {sup o}C has been investigated by means of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy at 50 K and 280 K. The obtained energy bands favorably agree with the calculated band structure and show quite noticeable dispersion in the direction normal to the chains. A rigid shift toward lower binding energies, a splitting and the formation of the mini-gap-like structures are clearly observed in the experimental electronic bands with the temperature reduced to 50 K. These features are indicative of an incommensurate superlattice phase emerging in TlInSe{sub 2} with temperature, and causing the record-breaking values of Seebeck coefficient.

  6. Diffusion in a tube of varying cross section: Numerical study of reduction to effective one-dimensional description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhkovskii, A. M.; Pustovoit, M. A.; Bezrukov, S. M.

    2007-04-01

    Brownian dynamics simulations of the particle diffusing in a long conical tube (the length of the tube is much greater than its smallest radius) are used to study reduction of the three-dimensional diffusion in tubes of varying cross section to an effective one-dimensional description. The authors find that the one-dimensional description in the form of the Fick-Jacobs equation with a position-dependent diffusion coefficient, D(x ), suggested by Zwanzig [J. Phys. Chem. 96, 3926 (1992)], with D(x ) given by the Reguera-Rubí formula [Phys. Rev. E 64, 061106 (2001)], D(x )=D/√1+R'(x)2, where D is the particle diffusion coefficient in the absence of constraints, and R(x ) is the tube radius at x, is valid when ∣R'(x)∣⩽1. When ∣R'(x)∣>1, higher spatial derivatives of the one-dimensional concentration in the effective diffusion equation cannot be neglected anymore as was indicated by Kalinay and Percus [J. Chem. Phys. 122, 204701 (2005)]. Thus the reduction to the effective one-dimensional description is a useful tool only when ∣R'(x)∣⩽1 since in this case one can apply the powerful standard methods to analyze the resulting diffusion equation.

  7. Electronic structures of one-dimensional poly-fused selenophene radical cations: density functional theory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kawabata et al

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid density functional theory (DFT calculations have been carried out for neutral and radical cation species of a fused selenophene oligomer, denoted by Se(n, where n represents the number of selenophene rings in the oligomer, to elucidate the electronic structures at ground and low-lying excited states. A polymer of fused selenophene was also investigated using one-dimensional periodic boundary conditions (PBC for comparison. It was found that the reorganization energy of a radical cation of Se(n from a vertical hole trapping point to its relaxed structure is significantly small. Also, the reorganization energy decreased gradually with increasing n, indicating that Se(n has an effective intramolecular hole transport property. It was found that the radical cation species of Se(n has a low-energy band in the near-IR region, which is strongly correlated to hole conductivity. The relationship between the electronic states and intramolecular hole conductivity was discussed on the basis of theoretical calculations.

  8. Structural study of quasi-one-dimensional vanadium pyroxene LiVSi2O6 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Yuto; Matsushita, Yoshitaka; Oda, Migaku; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-01

    Single crystals of quasi-one-dimensional vanadium pyroxene LiVSi2O6 were synthesized and the crystal structures at 293 K and 113 K were studied using X-ray diffraction experiments. We found a structural phase transition from the room-temperature crystal structure with space group C2/c to a low-temperature structure with space group P21/c, resulting from a rotational displacement of SiO4 tetrahedra. The temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility shows a broad maximum around 116 K, suggesting an opening of the Haldane gap expected for one-dimensional antiferromagnets with S=1. However, an antiferromagnetic long-range order was developed below 24 K, probably caused by a weak inter-chain magnetic coupling in the compound.

  9. Study of the equatorial Atlantic Ocean mixing layer using a one-dimensional turbulence model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Tersiano Skielka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM is applied to the diagnostic turbulence field of the mixing layer (ML over the equatorial region of the Atlantic Ocean. Two situations were investigated: rainy and dry seasons, defined, respectively, by the presence of the intertropical convergence zone and by its northward displacement. Simulations were carried out using data from a PIRATA buoy located on the equator at 23º W to compute surface turbulent fluxes and from the NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget Project to close the surface radiation balance. A data assimilation scheme was used as a surrogate for the physical effects not present in the one-dimensional model. In the rainy season, results show that the ML is shallower due to the weaker surface stress and stronger stable stratification; the maximum ML depth reached during this season is around 15 m, with an averaged diurnal variation of 7 m depth. In the dry season, the stronger surface stress and the enhanced surface heat balance components enable higher mechanical production of turbulent kinetic energy and, at night, the buoyancy acts also enhancing turbulence in the first meters of depth, characterizing a deeper ML, reaching around 60 m and presenting an average diurnal variation of 30 m.O modelo General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM é aplicado para diagnosticar o campo de turbulência da camada de mistura oceânica (CM na região equatorial do Oceano Atlântico. Foram investigadas as estações chuvosa e seca, definidas, respectivamente, pela presença da zona de convergência intertropical e pelo seu deslocamento para norte. Simulações foram realizadas usando dados da bóia PIRATA (0º, 23ºW para o cálculo dos fluxos turbulentos de superfície e dados do Projeto NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget para "fechar" o balanço de radiação na superfície. Um esquema para assimilação de dados foi usado para considerar os mecanismos físicos não representados pelo modelo unidimensional

  10. Microscopic Study of Static and Dynamical Properties of Dilute One-Dimensional Soft Bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teruzzi, M.; Galli, D. E.; Bertaina, G.

    2017-01-01

    We study static properties and the dynamical structure factor of zero-temperature dilute bosons interacting via a soft-shoulder potential in one dimension. Our approach is fully microscopic and employs state-of-the-art quantum Monte Carlo and analytic continuation techniques. By increasing the interaction strength, our model reproduces the Lieb-Liniger gas, the Tonks-Girardeau and the hard-rods models.

  11. One dimensional CuO nanocrystals synthesis by electrical explosion: A study on structural, optical and electronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Shutesh, E-mail: shutesh.k@onsemi.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); ON Semiconductor Package Innovation and Development Center, 70450 Seremban (Malaysia); Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Johan, Mohd Rafie [Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • One-dimensional CuO nanoflakes were synthesized by novel wire explosion technique. • A physical synthesis method capable of producing high aspect ratio (1:16) nanocrystals. • Most energy efficient and eco-friendly synthesis of low-dimensional transition metal oxide nanocrystals. -- Abstract: One-dimensional (1D) copper oxide (CuO) nanocrystals were synthesized using a novel wire explosion in de-ionized (DI) water without any chemical additives. Highly crystalline 1D CuO nanocrystals with 1:16 aspect ratio were successfully synthesized using this technique. The chemical nature and physical structure of the nanocrystals were controlled by simply modulating the exploding medium temperature. The results showed that nanocrystals produced at explosion temperatures 65 °C and 95 °C are pure CuO with optical band-gap energy of 2.38 eV. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope analysis (HRTEM) indicates that the CuO nanocrystals are with growth in [1{sup ¯}11] and [1 1 1] directions. The epitaxial crystal growth kinetics of the 1D nanostructure by aggregation was discussed. The incorporation of microstructural features like edge dislocations and porosity in the growth mechanism was examined. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization indicates the formation of high purity CuO nanocrystals with valence state +2. This study provides an energy efficient and eco-friendly synthesis method of 1D transition metal oxide nanocrystals for electronic applications.

  12. One-dimensional ocean model with three types of vertical velocities: a case study in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenfang; Yan, Xiao-Hai; Han, Lu; Jiang, Yuwu

    2017-01-01

    In this research, three vertical velocities were included in a one-dimensional (1D) ocean model for a case study of the SouthEast Asian Time-Series Study station in the South China Sea. The vertical velocities consisted three processes, i.e., Ekman pumping (WEK), Eddy pumping (WEP), and the background upwelling (WBK). The quantification of WEK followed the classical Ekman pumping theory. The WEP, whose underlying mechanism was consistent with the baroclinic modes (dominated by the first mode), was quantified by Argo observation and altimetry data. The WBK, related with the background circulation, was estimated from the long-term heat budget balance. The skill assessment indicated that the case with all three processes performed best. The study confirmed the capability of the 1D model with three types of vertical velocities, which can reproduce the general structure and variation of temperature in vertical direction.

  13. One-dimensional turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerstein, A.R. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    One-Dimensional Turbulence is a new turbulence modeling strategy involving an unsteady simulation implemented in one spatial dimension. In one dimension, fine scale viscous and molecular-diffusive processes can be resolved affordably in simulations at high turbulence intensity. The mechanistic distinction between advective and molecular processes is thereby preserved, in contrast to turbulence models presently employed. A stochastic process consisting of mapping {open_quote}events{close_quote} applied to a one-dimensional velocity profile represents turbulent advection. The local event rate for given eddy size is proportional to the velocity difference across the eddy. These properties cause an imposed shear to induce an eddy cascade analogous in many respects to the eddy cascade in turbulent flow. Many scaling and fluctuation properties of self-preserving flows, and of passive scalars introduced into these flows, are reproduced.

  14. One-dimensional photonic crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Huaizhong; Wang, Zhanhua; Wu, Yuxin; Yang, Bai

    2016-01-01

    A one-dimensional photonic crystal (1DPC), which is a periodic nanostructure with a refractive index distribution along one direction, has been widely studied by scientists. In this review, materials and methods for 1DPC fabrication are summarized. Applications are listed, with a special emphasis

  15. Ultrafast energy transfer of one-dimensional excitons between carbon nanotubes: a femtosecond time-resolved luminescence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Takeshi; Miyata, Yasumitsu; Asaka, Koji; Shinohara, Hisanori; Saito, Yahachi; Nakamura, Arao

    2012-01-21

    Excitation energy transfer has long been an intriguing subject in the fields of photoscience and materials science. Along with the recent progress of photovoltaics, photocatalysis, and photosensors using nanoscale materials, excitation energy transfer between a donor and an acceptor at a short distance (≤1-10 nm) is of growing importance in both fundamental research and technological applications. This Perspective highlights our recent studies on exciton energy transfer between carbon nanotubes with interwall (surface-to-surface) distances of less than ∼1 nm, which are equivalent to or shorter than the size of one-dimensional excitons in carbon nanotubes. We show exciton energy transfer in bundles of single-walled carbon nanotubes with the interwall distances of ∼0.34 and 0.9 nm (center-to-center distances ∼1.3-1.4 and 1.9 nm). For the interwall distance of ∼0.34 nm (center-to-center distance ∼1.3-1.4 nm), the transfer rate per tube from a semiconducting tube to adjacent semiconducting tubes is (1.8-1.9) × 10(12) s(-1), and that to adjacent metallic tubes is 1.1 × 10(12) s(-1). For the interwall distance of ∼0.9 nm (center-to-center distance ∼1.9 nm), the transfer rate per tube from a semiconducting tube to adjacent semiconducting tubes is 2.7 × 10(11) s(-1). These transfer rates are much lower than those predicted by the Förster model calculation based on a point dipole approximation, indicating the failure of the conventional Förster model calculations. In double-walled carbon nanotubes, which are equivalent to ideal nanoscale coaxial cylinders, we show exciton energy transfer from the inner to the outer tubes. The transfer rate between the inner and the outer tubes with an interwall distance of ∼0.38 nm is 6.6 × 10(12) s(-1). Our findings provide an insight into the energy transfer mechanisms of one-dimensional excitons.

  16. A one dimensional model study of the mechanism of halogen liberation and vertical transport in the polar troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lehrer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden depletions of tropospheric ozone during spring were reported from the Arctic and also from Antarctic coastal sites. Field studies showed that those depletion events are caused by reactive halogen species, especially bromine compounds. However the source and seasonal variation of reactive halogen species is still not completely understood. There are several indications that the halogen mobilisation from the sea ice surface of the polar oceans may be the most important source for the necessary halogens. Here we present a one dimensional model study aimed at determining the primary source of reactive halogens. The model includes gas phase and heterogeneous bromine and chlorine chemistry as well as vertical transport between the surface and the top of the boundary layer. The autocatalytic Br release by photochemical processes (bromine explosion and subsequent rapid bromine catalysed ozone depletion is well reproduced in the model and the major source of reactive bromine appears to be the sea ice surface. The sea salt aerosol alone is not sufficient to yield the high levels of reactive bromine in the gas phase necessary for fast ozone depletion. However, the aerosol efficiently 'recycles' less reactive bromine species (e.g. HBr and feeds them back into the ozone destruction cycle. Isolation of the boundary layer air from the free troposphere by a strong temperature inversion was found to be critical for boundary layer ozone depletion to happen. The combination of strong surface inversions and presence of sunlight occurs only during polar spring.

  17. Quantum Monte Carlo study of the Bose-polaron problem in a one-dimensional gas with contact interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, L.; Giorgini, S.

    2017-02-01

    We present a theoretical study based upon quantum Monte Carlo methods of the Bose polaron in one-dimensional systems with contact interactions. In this instance of the problem of a single impurity immersed in a quantum bath, the medium is a Lieb-Liniger gas of bosons ranging from the weakly interacting to the Tonks-Girardeau regime, whereas the impurity is coupled to the bath via a different contact potential, producing both repulsive and attractive interactions. Both the case of a mobile impurity, having the same mass as the particles in the medium, and the case of a static impurity with infinite mass are considered. We make use of numerical techniques that allow us to calculate the ground-state energy of the impurity, its effective mass, and the contact parameter between the impurity and the bath. These quantities are investigated as a function of the strength of interactions between the impurity and the bath and within the bath. In particular, we find that the effective mass rapidly increases to very large values when the impurity gets strongly coupled to an otherwise weakly repulsive bath. This heavy impurity hardly moves within the medium, thereby realizing the "self-localization" regime of the Landau-Pekar polaron. Furthermore, we compare our results with predictions of perturbation theory valid for weak interactions and with exact solutions available when the bosons in the medium behave as impenetrable particles.

  18. Experimental Study and Numerical Solution of Poly Acrylic Acid Supported Magnetite Nanoparticles Transport in a One-Dimensional Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Golzar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, iron nanoparticles have attracted more attention for groundwater remediation due to its potential to reduce subsurface contaminants such as PCBs, chlorinated solvents, and heavy metals. The magnetic properties of iron nanoparticles cause to attach to each other and form bigger colloid particles of iron nanoparticles with more rapid sedimentation rate in aqueous environment. Using the surfactants such as poly acrylic acid (PAA prevents iron nanoparticles from forming large flocs that may cause sedimentation and so increases transport distance of the nanoparticles. In this study, the transport of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 stabilized with PAA in a one-dimensional porous media (column was investigated. The slurries with concentrations of 20,100 and 500 (mg/L were injected into the bottom of the column under hydraulic gradients of 0.125, 0.375, and 0.625. The results obtained from experiments were compared with the results obtained from numerical solution of advection-dispersion equation based on the classical colloid filtration theory (CFT. The experimental and simulated breakthrough curves showed that CFT is able to predict the transport and fate of iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized with PAA (up to concentration 500 ppm in a porous media.

  19. One Dimensional Ballistic Electron Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K J

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Research in low-dimensional semiconductor systems over the last three decades has been largely responsible for the current progress in the areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology. The ability to control and manipulate the size, the carrier density, and the carrier type in two-, one-, and zero- dimensional structures has been widely exploited to study various quantum transport phenomena. In this article, a brief introduction is given to ballistic electron transport in one-dimensional quantum wires.

  20. Ion temperature profiles in front of a negative planar electrode studied by a one-dimensional two-fluid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyergyek, T.; Kovačič, J.

    2016-06-01

    Plasma-wall transition is studied by a one-dimensional steady state two-fluid model. Continuity and momentum exchange equations are used for the electrons, while the continuity, momentum exchange, and energy transport equation are used for the ions. Electrons are assumed to be isothermal. The closure of ion equations is made by the assumption that the heat flux is zero. The model equations are solved for potential, ion and electron density, and velocity and ion temperature as independent variables. The model includes coulomb collisions between ions and electrons and charge exchange collisions between ions and neutral atoms of the same species and same mass. The neutral atoms are assumed to be essentially at rest. The model is solved for finite ratio ɛ = /λ D L between the Debye length and λD and ionization length L in the pre-sheath and in the sheath at the same time. Charge exchange collisions heat the ions in the sheath and the pre-sheath. Even a small increase of the frequency of charge exchange collisions causes a substantial increase of ion temperature. Coulomb collisions have negligible effect on ion temperature in the pre-sheath, while in the sheath they cause a small cooling of ions. The increase of ɛ causes the increase of ion temperature. From the ion density and temperature profiles, the polytropic function κ is calculated according to its definition given by Kuhn et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 013503 (2006)]. The obtained profiles of κ indicate that the ion flow is isothermal only in a relatively narrow region in the pre-sheath, while close to the sheath edge and in the sheath it is closer to adiabatic. The ion sound velocity is space dependent and exhibits a maximum. This maximum indicates the location of the sheath edge only in the limit ɛ → 0 .

  1. Power countings versus physical scalings in disordered elastic systems—case study of the one-dimensional interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoritsas, Elisabeth; Lecomte, Vivien

    2017-03-01

    We study the scaling properties of a one-dimensional interface at equilibrium, at finite temperature and in a disordered environment with a finite disorder correlation length. We focus our approach on the scalings of its geometrical fluctuations as a function of its length. At large lengthscales, the roughness of the interface, defined as the variance of its endpoint fluctuations, follows a power-law behaviour whose exponent characterises its superdiffusive behaviour. In 1+1 dimensions, the roughness exponent is known to be the characteristic 2/3 exponent of the Kardar–Parisi–Zhang (KPZ) universality class. An important feature of the model description is that its Flory exponent, obtained by a power counting argument on its Hamiltonian, is equal to 3/5 and thus does not yield the correct KPZ roughness exponent. In this work, we review the available power-counting options, and relate the physical validity of the exponent values that they predict, to the existence (or not) of well-defined optimal trajectories in a large-size or low-temperature asymptotics. We identify the crucial role of the ‘cut-off’ lengths of the problem (the disorder correlation length and the system size), which one has to carefully follow throughout the scaling analysis. To complement the latter, we device a novel Gaussian variational method (GVM) scheme to compute the roughness, taking into account the effect of a large but finite interface length. Interestingly, such a procedure yields the correct KPZ roughness exponent, instead of the Flory exponent usually obtained through the GVM approach for an infinite interface. We explain the physical origin of this improvement of the GVM procedure and discuss possible extensions of this work to other disordered systems.

  2. Study on one-dimensional consolidation of saturated soil with semi-pirviovs boundaries and under cyclic loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁旭; 蔡袁强; 吴世明

    2002-01-01

    The variation of effective stress ratio of stratfied soil with semi-pervious boundaries and under cyclic loading was analyzed on the basis of Terzaghi's one-dimensional consolidation assumptions. A solution by Laplace Transform was obtained for the case when the soil was under time-varied loading. With numerical inversion of Laplace Transform, some useful results were obtained for several kinds of commonly encountered loadings. The results can be meaningful in engineering practice.

  3. Quantum-chemical studies of quasi-one-dimensional electron systems. Part 2. Cumulenes and origin of the forbidden zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Kruglyak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This review is devoted to the basic problem in quantum theory of quasi-one-dimensional electron systems like polyenes (Part 1 and cumulenes (Part 2 – physical origin of the forbidden zone in these and analogous 1D electron systems due to two possible effects – Peierls instability (bond alternation and Mott instability (electron correlation. Both possible contradiction and coexistence of the Mott and Peierls instabilities are summerized on the basis of the Kiev quantum chemistry team research projects.

  4. One-Dimensionality and Whiteness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Dolores

    2006-01-01

    This article is a theoretical discussion that links Marcuse's concept of one-dimensional society and the Great Refusal with critical race theory in order to achieve a more robust interrogation of whiteness. The author argues that in the context of the United States, the one-dimensionality that Marcuse condemns in "One-Dimensional Man" is best…

  5. One-Dimensionality and Whiteness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Dolores

    2006-01-01

    This article is a theoretical discussion that links Marcuse's concept of one-dimensional society and the Great Refusal with critical race theory in order to achieve a more robust interrogation of whiteness. The author argues that in the context of the United States, the one-dimensionality that Marcuse condemns in "One-Dimensional Man" is best…

  6. Adaptation of the Euler-Lagrange equation for studying one-dimensional motions in a constant force

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, Clenilda F; Silva, Gislene M; Santos, Creuza A S; Barros, Pedro; Carvalho-Santos, Vagson L

    2012-01-01

    In this work we have shown that the Euler-Lagrange equation (ELE) can be simplified for one-dimensional motions. By using the partial derivative operators definition, we have proposed two operators, here called \\textit{mean delta operators}, which may be used to solve the ELE in a simplest way. We have applied this simplification to solve three known mechanical problems: a free fall body, the Atwood's machine and the inclinated plan. The proposed simplification may be used for introducing the lagrangian formalism for classical mechanics in introductory physics students, e.g., high school or undergraduate students in the beginning of engineering, mathematics and/or physics courses.

  7. Simulation study of one-dimensional self-organized pattern in an atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiao; Wang, Yanhui, E-mail: wangyh@dlut.edu.cn; Wang, Dezhen, E-mail: wangdez@dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2015-04-15

    A two-dimensional fluid model is developed to simulate the one-dimensional self-organized patterns in an atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) driven by sinusoidal voltage in argon. Under certain conditions, by changing applied voltage amplitude, the transversely uniform discharge can evolve into the patterned discharge and the varied self-organized patterned discharges with different numbers and arrangements of discharge channels can be observed. Similar to the uniform atmospheric-pressure DBD, the patterned discharge mode is found to undergo a transition from Townsend regime, sub-glow regime to glow regime with increasing applied voltage amplitude. In the different regimes, charged particles and electric field display different dynamical behaviors. If the voltage amplitude is increased over a certain value, the discharge enters an asymmetric patterned discharge mode, and then transforms into the spatially chaotic state with out-of-order discharge channels. The reason for forming the one-dimensional self-organized pattern is mainly due to the so-called activation-inhibition effect resulting from the local high electron density region appearing in discharge space. Electrode arrangement is the reason that induces local high electron density.

  8. Finite-temperature hydrodynamics for one-dimensional Bose gases: Breathing-mode oscillations as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchoule, I.; Szigeti, S. S.; Davis, M. J.; Kheruntsyan, K. V.

    2016-11-01

    We develop a finite-temperature hydrodynamic approach for a harmonically trapped one-dimensional quasicondensate and apply it to describe the phenomenon of frequency doubling in the breathing-mode oscillations of the quasicondensate momentum distribution. The doubling here refers to the oscillation frequency relative to the oscillations of the real-space density distribution, invoked by a sudden confinement quench. By constructing a nonequilibrium phase diagram that characterizes the regime of frequency doubling and its gradual disappearance, we find that this crossover is governed by the quench strength and the initial temperature rather than by the equilibrium-state crossover from the quasicondensate to the ideal Bose gas regime. The hydrodynamic predictions are supported by the results of numerical simulations based on a finite-temperature c -field approach and extend the utility of the hydrodynamic theory for low-dimensional quantum gases to the description of finite-temperature systems and their dynamics in momentum space.

  9. A Study of Evolutionary Algorithm Selection Hyper-Heuristics for the One-Dimensional Bin-Packing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelishia Pillay

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyper-heuristics are aimed at providing a generalized solution to optimization problems rather than producing the best result for one or more problem instances. This paper examines the use of evolutionary algorithm (EA selection hyper-heuristics to solve the offline one-dimensional bin-packing problem. Two EA hyper-heuristics are evaluated. The first (EA-HH1 searches a heuristic space of combinations of low-level construction heuristics for bin selection. The second (EA-HH2 explores a space of combinations of both item selection and bin selection heuristic combinations. These EA hyper-heuristics use tournament selection to choose parents, and mutation and crossover with hill-climbing to create the offspring of each generation. The performance of the hyper-heuristics is compared to that of each of the low-level heuristics applied independently to solve this problem. Furthermore, the performance of both hyper-heuristics is also compared. The comparisons revealed that hyper-heuristics in general perform better than any single low-level construction heuristic in solving the problem. In addition to this it was found that the hyper-heuristic exploring a space of both item selection and bin selection heuristic combinations is more effective than the hyper-heuristic searching a space of just bin selection heuristic combinations. The performance of this hyper-heuristic was found to be comparable to other methods applied to the same benchmark sets of problems.

  10. One dimensional equivalent linear ground response analysis - A case study of collapsed Margalla Tower in Islamabad during 2005 Muzaffarabad Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Khalid; Rehman, Zia-ur-; Farooq, Khalid; Memon, Shazim Ali

    2016-07-01

    One dimensional equivalent linear ground response analysis was conducted in the Margalla Tower building in Islamabad, which collapsed during 2005 Muzaffarabad Earthquake. The analyses were conducted in DEEPSOIL software, without considering the effect of ground water table. The input subsoil data were selected from laboratory and field tests conducted for the site with bedrock at a depth of 21 m as per site condition. The field and laboratory testing data showed that the subsoil beneath the Tower site was silty clay to lean clay according to the unified soil classification system. Four different accelerograms with PGA values of 0.17 g, 0.15 g, 0.22 g and 0.21 g, compatible with the earthquake in the target area were applied at the bedrock. The surface response spectra showed that, except the Accelerogram-1 all other three were amplified near the fundamental period of the site. The analyses showed that different PGA values (0.26 g, 0.21 g, 0.36 g and 0.21 g) were produced at the surface which can be explained due to the difference in the Fourier amplitude of input accelerograms. Furthermore, the different input accelerograms produced a different shear strain and thus mobilized different shear strengths along the soil profile depth. Finally, the calculated response spectra of accelerograms were compared with the response spectra of Islamabad. The calculated spectral acceleration values were found to be higher than reported by the Building Code of Pakistan (0.16 g to 0.24 g).

  11. Formation of selfbound states in a one-dimensional nuclear model—a renormalization group based density functional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemler, Sandra; Pospiech, Martin; Braun, Jens

    2017-01-01

    In nuclear physics, density functional theory (DFT) provides the basis for state-of-the art studies of ground-state properties of heavy nuclei. However, the direct relation of the density functional underlying these calculations and the microscopic nuclear forces is not yet fully understood. We present a combination of DFT and renormalization group (RG) techniques which allows to study selfbound many-body systems from microscopic interactions. We discuss its application with the aid of systems of identical fermions interacting via a long-range attractive and short-range repulsive two-body force in one dimension. We compute ground-state energies, intrinsic densities, and density correlation functions of these systems and compare our results to those obtained from other methods. In particular, we show how energies of excited states as well as the absolute square of the ground-state wave function can be extracted from the correlation functions within our approach. The relation between many-body perturbation theory and our DFT-RG approach is discussed and illustrated with the aid of the calculation of the second-order energy correction for a system of N identical fermions interacting via a general two-body interaction. Moreover, we discuss the control of spuriously emerging fermion self-interactions in DFT studies within our framework. In general, our approach may help to guide the development of energy functionals for future quantitative DFT studies of heavy nuclei from microscopic interactions.

  12. A comparative study of modelling AC electric arc by one-dimensional interpolation for power system harmonics analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Yu-Jen; Hung Jen-Pan; Chen Shang-I; Lin Cheng-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Electric arc is a discharge phenomenon caused by particular electrical events and arc produced facilities in power system, for example the occurrence of short-circuit fault in feeders and the use of electric arc furnace for steel-making. All of these electric arcs have a highly nonlinear nature and can be considered as a significant source of power quality problems. To investigate the impacts of the electric arcs on power quality studies the development of the electric arc models for simulati...

  13. THE STUDY OF THERMAL EFFECTS AND DEFECT MODE PROPERTIES ON THE ONE-DIMENSIONAL PHONONIC BAND GAP STRUCTURES

    OpenAIRE

    Arafa H. Aly; Ahmed Mehaney

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we describe an efficient study of the stop-band/pass-band dispersive behavior of 1D phononic crystal. We have treated the propagation and localization of in-plane (P and S)/anti-plane (SH) shear waves in perfect/defect phononic crystals. Based on the transfer matrix method and Bloch theory, the dispersion relations were calculated and plotted for both SH and in-plane waves. In order to confirm the results, the reflection coefficients were plotted for in-plane waves and co...

  14. Electronic structures of one-dimensional metal-molecule hybrid chains studied using scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kyung-Hoon; Koo, Bon-Gil; Kim, Howon; Yoon, Jong Keon; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Kwon, Young-Kyun; Kahng, Se-Jong

    2012-05-28

    The electronic structures of self-assembled hybrid chains comprising Ag atoms and organic molecules were studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) in parallel with density functional theory (DFT). Hybrid chains were prepared by catalytic breaking of Br-C bonds in 4,4″-dibromo-p-terphenyl molecules, followed by spontaneous formation of Ag-C bonds on Ag(111). An atomic model was proposed for the observed hybrid chain structures. Four electronic states were resolved using STS measurements, and strong energy dependence was observed in STM images. These results were explained using first-principles calculations based on DFT.

  15. Formation of Selfbound States in a One-Dimensional Nuclear Model -- A Renormalization Group based Density Functional Study

    CERN Document Server

    Kemler, Sandra; Braun, Jens

    2016-01-01

    In nuclear physics, Density Functional Theory (DFT) provides the basis for state-of-the art studies of ground-state properties of heavy nuclei. However, the direct relation of the density functional underlying these calculations and the microscopic nuclear forces is not yet fully understood. We present a combination of DFT and Renormalization Group (RG) techniques which allows to study selfbound many-body systems from microscopic interactions. We discuss its application with the aid of systems of identical fermions interacting via a long-range attractive and short-range repulsive two-body force in one dimension. We compute ground-state energies, intrinsic densities, and density correlation functions of these systems and compare our results to those obtained from other methods. In particular, we show how energies of excited states as well as the absolute square of the ground-state wave function can be extracted from the correlation functions within our approach. The relation between many-body perturbation theo...

  16. THE STUDY OF THERMAL EFFECTS AND DEFECT MODE PROPERTIES ON THE ONE-DIMENSIONAL PHONONIC BAND GAP STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arafa H. Aly

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we describe an efficient study of the stop-band/pass-band dispersive behavior of 1D phononic crystal. We have treated the propagation and localization of in-plane (P and S/anti-plane (SH shear waves in perfect/defect phononic crystals. Based on the transfer matrix method and Bloch theory, the dispersion relations were calculated and plotted for both SH and in-plane waves. In order to confirm the results, the reflection coefficients were plotted for in-plane waves and compared with dispersion relations results. The effect of several parameters such as type and thickness of defect layer on the waves localization had be taken in account. Moreover, we have studied the effect of temperature on the phononic band gaps for SH and in-plane waves. These results can be useful in using phononic crystals as temperature sensor materials. Also, the presented analysis can be extended to acoustic filters and wave multiplexer.

  17. Investigating the role of combined acoustic-visual feedback in one-dimensional synchronous brain computer interfaces, a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, Gaetano D; Mohamed, Armin; McEwan, Alistair L; Bifulco, Paolo; Cesarelli, Mario; Jin, Craig T; Ruffo, Mariano; Tapson, Jonathan; van Schaik, André

    2012-01-01

    Feedback plays an important role when learning to use a brain computer interface (BCI), particularly in the case of synchronous feedback that relies on the interaction subject. In this preliminary study, we investigate the role of combined auditory-visual feedback during synchronous μ rhythm-based BCI sessions to help the subject to remain focused on the selected imaginary task. This new combined feedback, now integrated within the general purpose BCI2000 software, has been tested on eight untrained and three trained subjects during a monodimensional left-right control task. In order to reduce the setup burden and maximize subject comfort, an electroencephalographic device suitable for dry electrodes that required no skin preparation was used. Quality and index of improvement was evaluated based on a personal self-assessment questionnaire from each subject and quantitative data based on subject performance. Results for this preliminary study show that the combined feedback was well tolerated by the subjects and improved performance in 75% of the naïve subjects compared with visual feedback alone. PMID:23152713

  18. Investigating the role of combined acoustic-visual feedback in one-dimensional synchronous brain computer interfaces, a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargiulo GD

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Gaetano D Gargiulo,1–3 Armin Mohamed,1 Alistair L McEwan,1 Paolo Bifulco,2 Mario Cesarelli,2 Craig T Jin,1 Mariano Ruffo,2 Jonathan Tapson,3 André van Schaik31School of Electrical and Information Engineering, The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; 2Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettronica e delle Telecomunicazioni "Federico II" University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 3BENS Laboratory, MARCS Institute, The University of Western Sydney, New South Wales, AustraliaAbstract: Feedback plays an important role when learning to use a brain computer interface (BCI, particularly in the case of synchronous feedback that relies on the interaction subject. In this preliminary study, we investigate the role of combined auditory-visual feedback during synchronous µ rhythm-based BCI sessions to help the subject to remain focused on the selected imaginary task. This new combined feedback, now integrated within the general purpose BCI2000 software, has been tested on eight untrained and three trained subjects during a monodimensional left-right control task. In order to reduce the setup burden and maximize subject comfort, an electroencephalographic device suitable for dry electrodes that required no skin preparation was used. Quality and index of improvement was evaluated based on a personal self-assessment questionnaire from each subject and quantitative data based on subject performance. Results for this preliminary study show that the combined feedback was well tolerated by the subjects and improved performance in 75% of the naïve subjects compared with visual feedback alone.Keywords: brain computer interface, dry electrodes, subject feedback

  19. Study of attachment-detachment instabilities in RF and DC discharges using the SIGLO one-dimensional codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeuf, J.P.; Pitchford, L.C. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France); Morgan, W.L. [Kinema Research, Monument Colorado, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this communication is to present a 1-D fluid model of DC and RF discharges in 1-D and to show examples of results from this model in electronegative gases under conditions where the attachment-detachment-ionization instability appears in the body of the plasma. The codes corresponding to these models are referred to as belonging to the SIGLO (Simulation of GLOw discharges) series. The physical and numerical models have been formulated for especially rapid computation on a PC. The rapid computational times make this model suitable for parametric studies and the incorporation of on-line graphics (such as movies showing the evolution of the charged particle densities and electric field distributions) directly into the computer model. The results we present here are in CF4 for DC and RF (13.56 Mhz) applied voltages, for a pressure of 1 torr and a gap length of 4 cm. The conditions are close to those of Gogolides et al., and we illustrate here the possibility of attachment induced instabilities when detachment is significant. Detachment of the fluorine negative ion F- by CFP{sub x} radicals could be efficient in CF{sub 4} plasmas. In this paper we consider the detachment frequency due to CF{sub x} radicals as a parameters and study the structure and evolution of the discharge in the presence of attachment-detachment instabilities. The results show that for some values of the detachment frequency, the charged particle densities and field amplitude in the plasma of a RF discharge in CF{sub 4} do not reach constant (time independent) values but oscillates, at a frequency much lower than the applied voltage (typically on the order of 10 kHz in our conditions). The plasma column contains adjacent low field and strong field {open_quotes}domains{close_quotes} where the relative concentrations of electrons and negative ions are different.

  20. Non-Arrhenius temperature dependence of the island density of one-dimensional Al chains on Si(100): A kinetic Monte Carlo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albia, Jason R.; Albao, Marvin A., E-mail: maalbao@uplb.edu.ph [Institute of Mathematical Sciences and Physics, University of the Philippines Los Baños, Los Baños 4031 (Philippines)

    2015-03-15

    Classical nucleation theory predicts that the evolution of mean island density with temperature during growth in one-dimensional systems obeys the Arrhenius relation. In this study, kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of a suitable atomistic lattice-gas model were performed to investigate the experimentally observed non-Arrhenius scaling behavior of island density in the case of one-dimensional Al islands grown on Si(100). Previously, it was proposed that adatom desorption resulted in a transition temperature signaling the departure from classical predictions. Here, the authors demonstrate that desorption above the transition temperature is not possible. Instead, the authors posit that the existence of a transition temperature is due to a combination of factors such as reversibility of island growth, presence of C-defects, adatom diffusion rates, as well as detachment rates at island ends. In addition, the authors show that the anomalous non-Arrhenius behavior vanishes when adatom binds irreversibly with C-defects as observed in In on Si(100) studies.

  1. Homocysteine Triggers Inflammatory Responses in Macrophages through Inhibiting CSE-H2S Signaling via DNA Hypermethylation of CSE Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao-Jiao Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy is an independent risk factor of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. Unfortunately, Hcy-lowering strategies were found to have limited effects in reducing cardiovascular events. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Increasing evidence reveals a role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of HHcy. Homocysteine (Hcy is a precursor of hydrogen sulfide (H2S, which is formed via the transsulfuration pathway catalyzed by cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE and serves as a novel modulator of inflammation. In the present study, we showed that methionine supplementation induced mild HHcy in mice, associated with the elevations of TNF-α and IL-1β in the plasma and reductions of plasma H2S level and CSE expression in the peritoneal macrophages. H2S-releasing compound GYY4137 attenuated the increases of TNF-α and IL-1β in the plasma of HHcy mice and Hcy-treated raw264.7 cells while CSE inhibitor PAG exacerbated it. Moreover, the in vitro study showed that Hcy inhibited CSE expression and H2S production in macrophages, accompanied by the increases of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT expression and DNA hypermethylation in cse promoter region. DNMT inhibition or knockdown reversed the decrease of CSE transcription induced by Hcy in macrophages. In sum, our findings demonstrate that Hcy may trigger inflammation through inhibiting CSE-H2S signaling, associated with increased promoter DNA methylation and transcriptional repression of cse in macrophages.

  2. QUASI-ONE DIMENSIONAL CLASSICAL FLUIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K.Percus

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the equilibrium statistical mechanics of simple fluids in narrow pores. A systematic expansion is made about a one-dimensional limit of this system. It starts with a density functional, constructed from projected densities, which depends upon projected one and two-body potentials. The nature of higher order corrections is discussed.

  3. Implementation of a one-dimensional enthalpy sea-ice model in a simple pycnocline prediction model for sea-ice data assimilation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinrong; Zhang, Shaoqing; Liu, Zhengyu

    2016-02-01

    To further explore enthalpy-based sea-ice assimilation, a one-dimensional (1D) enthalpy sea-ice model is implemented into a simple pycnocline prediction model. The 1D enthalpy sea-ice model includes the physical processes such as brine expulsion, flushing, and salt diffusion. After being coupled with the atmosphere and ocean components, the enthalpy sea-ice model can be integrated stably and serves as an important modulator of model variability. Results from a twin experiment show that the sea-ice data assimilation in the enthalpy space can produce smaller root-mean-square errors of model variables than the traditional scheme that assimilates the observations of ice concentration, especially for slow-varying states. This study provides some insights into the improvement of sea-ice data assimilation in a coupled general circulation model.

  4. Vectorlike representation of one-dimensional scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Soto, L L; Barriuso, A G; Monzon, J J

    2004-01-01

    We present a self-contained discussion of the use of the transfer-matrix formalism to study one-dimensional scattering. We elaborate on the geometrical interpretation of this transfer matrix as a conformal mapping on the unit disk. By generalizing to the unit disk the idea of turns, introduced by Hamilton to represent rotations on the sphere, we develop a method to represent transfer matrices by hyperbolic turns, which can be composed by a simple parallelogramlike rule.

  5. Chronotropic Modulation of the Source-Sink Relationship of Sinoatrial-Atrial Impulse Conduction and Its Significance to Initiation of AF: A One-Dimensional Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciani, Francesca; Zaniboni, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Initiation and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF) is often associated with pharmacologically or pathologically induced bradycardic states. Even drugs specifically developed in order to counteract cardiac arrhythmias often combine their action with bradycardia and, in turn, with development of AF, via still largely unknown mechanisms. This study aims to simulate action potential (AP) conduction between sinoatrial node (SAN) and atrial cells, either arranged in cell pairs or in a one-dimensional strand, where the relative amount of SAN membrane is made varying, in turn, with junctional resistance. The source-sink relationship between the two membrane types is studied in control conditions and under different simulated chronotropic interventions, in order to define a safety factor for pacemaker-to-atrial AP conduction (SASF) for each treatment. Whereas antiarrhythmic-like interventions which involve downregulation of calcium channels or of calcium handling decrease SASF, the simulation of Ivabradine administration does so to a lesser extent. Particularly interesting is the increase of SASF observed when downregulation GKr, which simulates the administration of class III antiarrhythmic agents and is likely sustained by an increase in ICaL. Also, the increase in SASF is accompanied by a decreased conduction delay and a better entrainment of repolarization, which is significant to anti-AF strategies. PMID:26229960

  6. Chronotropic Modulation of the Source-Sink Relationship of Sinoatrial-Atrial Impulse Conduction and Its Significance to Initiation of AF: A One-Dimensional Model Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cacciani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Initiation and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF is often associated with pharmacologically or pathologically induced bradycardic states. Even drugs specifically developed in order to counteract cardiac arrhythmias often combine their action with bradycardia and, in turn, with development of AF, via still largely unknown mechanisms. This study aims to simulate action potential (AP conduction between sinoatrial node (SAN and atrial cells, either arranged in cell pairs or in a one-dimensional strand, where the relative amount of SAN membrane is made varying, in turn, with junctional resistance. The source-sink relationship between the two membrane types is studied in control conditions and under different simulated chronotropic interventions, in order to define a safety factor for pacemaker-to-atrial AP conduction (SASF for each treatment. Whereas antiarrhythmic-like interventions which involve downregulation of calcium channels or of calcium handling decrease SASF, the simulation of Ivabradine administration does so to a lesser extent. Particularly interesting is the increase of SASF observed when downregulation GKr, which simulates the administration of class III antiarrhythmic agents and is likely sustained by an increase in ICaL. Also, the increase in SASF is accompanied by a decreased conduction delay and a better entrainment of repolarization, which is significant to anti-AF strategies.

  7. Theoretical Studies on the First Hyperpolarizabilities of One-dimensional Donor-bridge-acceptor Chromophores and New Applications of BLA in Determining Molecular First Hyperpolarizabilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We present a quantum-chemical analysis of the relationship between the bond length alteration (BLA) and the static first hyperpolarizability of a series of one-dimensional (ID)chromophores with donor-bridge-acceptor (D-B-A) structures.The calculated results show that the parameter BLA can be considered as an indicator to evaluate the molecular first hyper-polarizability.Along the direction of molecular ground-state dipole moments, the evolutions of BLA can be classified into three categories: the first is a non-monotonic line, which represents most chromophores; the second is monotonic increasing; and the third, contrarily, is monotonic decreasing.On the whole, the first hyperpolarizabilities of these studied chromophores are the mortotonic functions of BLA along the direction of dipole moments.Therefore, the first hyper-polarizability of these 1D chromophores can be preliminarily evaluated in terms of the deve-lopment of BLA without a rigorous computation.In other words, one can roughly estimate the relative magnitude of the first hyperpolarizability according to the optimized geometry.

  8. Gibbs measures and phase transitions in one-dimensional models

    OpenAIRE

    Mallak, Saed

    2000-01-01

    Ankara : Department of Mathematics and the Institute of Engineering and Sciences of Bilkent University, 2000. Thesis (Ph.D.) -- Bilkent University, 2000. Includes bibliographical references leaves 63-64 In this thesis we study the problem of limit Gibbs measures in one-dimensional models. VVe investigate uniqueness conditions for the limit Gibbs measures for one-dimensional models. VVe construct a one-dimensional model disproving a uniqueness conjecture formulated before for...

  9. Material properties of one-dimensional systems studied by path-integral quantum Monte Carlo simulations and an analytical many-body model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Michael C.; Schulte, Joachim; Utrera, Luis

    Feynman path-integral quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations and an analytic many-body approach are used to study the ground state properties of one-dimensional (1D) chains in the theoretical framework of model Hamiltonians of the Hubbard type. The QMC algorithm is employed to derive position-space quantities, while band structure properties are evaluated by combining QMC data with expressions derived in momentum (k) space. Bridging link between both representations is the quasi-chemical approximation (QCA). Electronic charge fluctuations and the fluctuations of the magnetic local moments are studied as a function of the on-site density and correlation strength, which is given by the ratio between two-electron interaction and kinetic hopping. Caused by the non-analytic behaviour of the chemical potential μ = ∂E/∂ (with E denoting the electronic energy), strict 1D systems with an on-site density of 1·0 do not exhibit the properties of a conductor for any non-zero interaction beyond the mean-field approximation. The QMC simulations lead to straightforward access to the probabilities Pi(n) of finding n = 0, 1, 2 electrons at the ith lattice site. The Pi(n) elements allow to calculate the enhancement factors on the electron spin susceptibility χ, effective electronic mass m* and Knight shift κ. m* is enhanced by a bandwidth renormalization factor D-10, κ by an element ηK mapping the additional localization of the correlated electrons in the presence of an external magnetic field B and χ by the product D-10 ηK. Available experimental data are discussed in the light of the present theoretical findings.

  10. 一维碳纳米管与金属氧化物材料研究%Study on One Dimensional Carbon Nanotubes and Metal Oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭欣; 赵新宇

    2016-01-01

    One dimensional nanostructures have attracted much attention because they are the most fascinating functional ma-terials. The one dimensional morphologies can easily enhance the unique properties of the nanostructures, which make them suit-able for a wide variety of applications, including gas sensors, electro-chromic devices, light-emitting diodes, field emitters, supercapacitors, nanoelectronics, and nanogenerators. Therefore, much effort has been made to synthesize and characterize one dimensional nanostructures in the forms of nanorods, nanowires, nanotubes, nanobelts, etc. This article mainly introduced the one dimensional nanostructures carbon nanotubes and metal oxide, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of two kinds of materials for complementary modified synthesis of new composite materials.%一维纳米结构是最吸引人的功能材料而被广泛关注.一维形态可以很容易地提高纳米结构的独特性能,使它们适合各种各样的应用程序,包括气体传感器、电致变色的设备、发光二极管、场发射器、超级电容器和纳米发电机.因此,目前已合成多种一维纳米结构形式的纳米棒、纳米线、纳米管、纳米带等.本文主要介绍了一维碳纳米管与金属氧化物的性质与研究现状,探讨两种材料的优缺点以期进行互补修饰合成新型复合材料.

  11. Properties of bosons in a one-dimensional bichromatic optical lattice in the regime of the Sine-Gordon transition: a Worm Algorithm Monte Carlo study

    OpenAIRE

    Sakhel, Asaad R.

    2015-01-01

    The properties of interacting bosons in a weak, one-dimensional, and bichromatic optical with a rational ratio of the constituting wavelengths $\\lambda_1$ and $\\lambda_2$ are numerically examined along a broad range of the Lieb-Liniger interaction parameter $\\gamma$ passing through the Sine-Gordon transition. It is argued that there should not be much difference in the results between those due to an irrational ratio $\\lambda_1/\\lambda_2$ and due to a rational approximation of the latter. For...

  12. One-Dimensional Anisotropic Band Gap Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The band gap structure of one-dimensional anisotropic photonic crystal has been studied by means of the transfer matrix formalism. From the analytic expressions and numeric calculations we see some general characteristics of the band gap structure of anisotropic photonic crystals, each band separates into two branches and the two branches react to polarization sensitively. In the practical case of oblique incidence, gaps move towards high frequency when the angle of incidence increases. Under some special conditions, the two branches become degenerate again.

  13. NMR study of quasi-one-dimensional itinerant-electron magnets RMn4Al8 ( R=Y, Lu and Sc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Kohara, T.

    2008-04-01

    55Mn-NMR measurements, which revealed previously the presence of spin pseudogap in YMn 4Al 8, have been extended to LuMn 4Al 8 and ScMn 4Al 8. Temperature ( T) dependences of the Knight shift, K, and the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate, 1/T1, are well explained by the same pseudogap model used to explain a broad maximum observed in the T-dependence of the susceptibility, indicating common nature in the spin excitation spectrum in the quasi-one-dimensional itinerant-electron compounds.

  14. One Dimensional Locally Connected S-spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kunen, Joan E Hart Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    We construct, assuming Jensen's principle diamond, a one-dimensional locally connected hereditarily separable continuum without convergent sequences. The construction is an inverse limit in omega_1 steps, and is patterned after the original Fedorchuk construction of a compact S-space. To make it one-dimensional, each space in the inverse limit is a copy of the Menger sponge.

  15. Superfluid helium-4 in one dimensional channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Duk Y.; Banavar, Samhita; Chan, Moses H. W.; Hayes, John; Sazio, Pier

    2013-03-01

    Superfluidity, as superconductivity, cannot exist in a strict one-dimensional system. However, the experiments employing porous media showed that superfluid helium can flow through the pores of nanometer size. Here we report a study of the flow of liquid helium through a single hollow glass fiber of 4 cm in length with an open id of 150 nm between 1.6 and 2.3 K. We found the superfluid transition temperature was suppressed in the hollow cylinder and that there is no flow above the transition. Critical velocity at temperature below the transition temperature was determined. Our results bear some similarity to that found by Savard et. al. studying the flow of helium through a nanohole in a silicon nitrite membrane. Experimental study at Penn State is supported by NSF Grants No. DMR 1103159.

  16. A mechanistic study on templated electrodeposition of one-dimensional TiO2 nanorods and nanotubes using TiOSO4 as a precursor

    KAUST Repository

    Teo, Gladys Y.

    2014-10-01

    One-dimensional (1D) TiO2 nanorods and nanotubes have been successfully synthesized by templated electrodeposition within an anodic aluminium oxide membrane (AAM) using an aqueous precursor containing TiOSO 4. The deposition voltages were found to influence the resultant nanostructure of TiO2. Using a precursor of aqueous TiOSO4 at pH 3 maintained at 10 °C, TiO2 nanorods were electrodeposited in the AAM between applied voltages of - 1.4 V to - 1.0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), while TiO2 nanotubes were obtained at less negative voltages of - 1.0 V to - 0.3 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) revealed that nitrate reduction in the voltage range of - 0.3 V to - 1.4 V played an essential role in the formation of TiO2. The mechanism for TiO2 nanotube formation has been elucidated, paving the way for the future tailoring of metal oxide nanostructures by templated electrodeposition. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  17. NMR studies of the internal electric field in a single crystal of the quasi-one-dimensional conductor Li0.9Mo6O17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guoqing; Wu, Bing

    2015-03-01

    The quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) conductor Li0.9Mo6O17 is of considerable interest because it has a highly conducting phase with properties likely associated with a Luttinger liquid, a poorly understood ``metal-insulator'' crossover at temperature TMI = 24 K, and a 3D superconducting phase that may involve triplet Cooper pairs at Tc = 2.2 K, while the mechanism for many of its properties has been a long mystery and it presents tremendous experimental challenges. We report the 7Li-NMR measurements of the internal electric field with an externally applied magnetic field B0 = 9 - 12 T, and we also show our theoretically calculated result of the electric field based on the structure of the crystal lattice. We find that the 7Li-NQR frequency (νQ) has a value of ~ 45 kHz and the electric field gradient (EFG) at the Li site due to the charges of the surrounding Mo conduction electrons has an axial symmetry with the principle axis (pz) to be along the lattice a-axis. There is no temperature or field dependence for the value of νQ or EFG, indicating that the ``metal-insulator'' crossover has a magnetic origin, rather than the charge density wave (CDW) as one of the possible mechanisms previously thought in literature.

  18. Exactly solvable one-dimensional inhomogeneous models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrida, B.; France, M.M.; Peyriere, J.

    1986-11-01

    The authors present a simple way of constructing one-dimensional inhomogeneous models (random or quasiperiodic) which can be solved exactly. They treat the example of an Ising chain in a varying magnetic field, but their procedure can easily be extended to other one-dimensional inhomogeneous models. For all the models they can construct, the free energy and its derivatives with respect to temperature can be computed exactly at one particular temperature.

  19. Quasi-one-dimensional nanostructured cobalt (Co) intercalated vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}): Peroxovanadate sol gel synthesis and structural study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langie da Silva, Douglas, E-mail: douglas.langie@ufpel.edu.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Caixa Postal 354, Pelotas 96010-900 (Brazil); Moreira, Eduardo Ceretta [Laboratório de Espectroscopia, Universidade Federal do Pampa, Campus Bagé, Bagé 96400-970 (Brazil); Dias, Fábio Teixeira; Neves Vieira, Valdemar das [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Caixa Postal 354, Pelotas 96010-900 (Brazil); Brandt, Iuri Stefani; Cas Viegas, Alexandre da; Pasa, André Avelino [Laboratório de Filmes Finos e Superfícies, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Caixa Postal 476, Florianópolis 88.040-900 (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Nanostructured cobalt vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) xerogels spread onto crystalline Si substrates were synthesized via peroxovanadate sol gel route. The resulting products were characterized by distinct experimental techniques. The surface morphology and the nanostructure of xerogels correlate with Co concentration. The decrease of the structural coherence length is followed by the formation of a loose network of nanopores when the concentration of intercalated species was greater than 4 at% of Co. The efficiency of the synthesis route also drops with the increase of Co concentration. The interaction between the Co(OH{sub 2}){sub 6}{sup 2+} cations and the (H{sub 2}V{sub 10}O{sub 28}){sup 4−} anions during the synthesis was suggested as a possible explanation for the incomplete condensation of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} gel. Finally the experimental results points for the intercalation of Co between the bilayers of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. In this scenario two possible preferential occupation sites for the metallic atoms in the framework of the xerogel were proposed. - Graphical abstract: Quasi-one-dimensional nanostructured cobalt (Co) intercalated vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) nanoribbons synthesized by peroxovanadate sol gel route. - Highlights: • Nanostructured cobalt V{sub 2}O{sub 5} gel spread onto c{sub S}i were synthesized via peroxovanadate sol gel route. • The micro and nanostructure correlates with the cobalt content. • The efficiency of the synthesis route shows to be also dependent of Co content. • The experimental results points for the intercalation of Co between the bilayers of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} xerogel.

  20. Fidelity of an electron in one-dimensional determined potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Wen-Guang; Tong Pei-Qing

    2009-01-01

    We numerically study the fidelity of an electron in the one-dimensional Harper model and in the one-dimensional slowly varying potential model. Our results show that many properties of the two models can be well reflected by the fidelity: (i) the mobility edge and metal-insulator transition can be characterized by the static fidelity; (ii) the extended state and localized state can be identified by the dynamic fidelity. Therefore, it may broaden the applied areas of the fidelity.

  1. Properties of bosons in a one-dimensional bichromatic optical lattice in the regime of the pinning transition: A worm-algorithm Monte Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhel, Asaad R.

    2016-09-01

    The sensitivity of the pinning transition (PT) as described by the sine-Gordon model of strongly interacting bosons confined in a shallow, one-dimensional, periodic optical lattice (OL), is examined against perturbations of the OL. The PT has been recently realized experimentally by Haller et al. [Nature (London) 466, 597 (2010), 10.1038/nature09259] and is the exact opposite of the superfluid-to-Mott-insulator transition in a deep OL with weakly interacting bosons. The continuous-space worm-algorithm (WA) Monte Carlo method [Boninsegni et al., Phys. Rev. E 74, 036701 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevE.74.036701] is applied for the present examination. It is found that the WA is able to reproduce the PT, which is another manifestation of the power of continuous-space WA methods in capturing the physics of phase transitions. In order to examine the sensitivity of the PT, it is tweaked by the addition of the secondary OL. The resulting bichromatic optical lattice (BCOL) is considered with a rational ratio of the constituting wavelengths λ1 and λ2 in contrast to the commonly used irrational ratio. For a weak BCOL, it is chiefly demonstrated that this PT is robust against the introduction of a weaker, secondary OL. The system is explored numerically by scanning its properties in a range of the Lieb-Liniger interaction parameter γ in the regime of the PT. It is argued that there should not be much difference in the results between those due to an irrational ratio λ1/λ2 and those due to a rational approximation of the latter, bringing this in line with a recent statement by Boers et al. [Phys. Rev. A 75, 063404 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevA.75.063404]. The correlation function, Matsubara Green's function (MGF), and the single-particle density matrix do not respond to changes in the depth of the secondary OL V1. For a stronger BCOL, however, a response is observed because of changes in V1. In the regime where the bosons are fermionized, the MGF reveals that hole excitations are

  2. Few quantum particles on one dimensional lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valiente Cifuentes, Manuel

    2010-06-18

    extended Hubbard models; it is found that the latter can show resonant scattering behavior. A new theorem, which characterizes all two-body bound states on a one-dimensional lattice with arbitrary finite range interactions, is proven here. The methods used for the simplest Hubbard models are then generalized to obtain exact results for arbitrary interactions and particle statistics. The problem of binding and scattering of three identical bosons is studied in detail, finding new types of bound states with no continuous space counterparts. The physics of these trimers is revealed by an effective model which is then applied to ''dimer''-''monomer'' scattering on the lattice. Stationary states of other lattice systems are also considered. First, the problems of binding and scattering of a single particle on a superlattice off a static impurity are analytically solved. Among the results obtained, the presence of a second bound state for any lattice and interaction strengths is highlighted. Second, a model of the harmonic oscillator on the lattice, preserving most of the properties of its continuous space analog, is presented and analytically solved. Two different models, being formally equivalent to the aforementioned lattice oscillator, are then constructed and solved exactly. Quantum transport of a a single particle and a bound particle pair on a onedimensional lattice superimposed with a weak trap is investigated. Based on the knowledge of the results obtained for stationary states, coherent, non-dispersive transport of one and two particles can be achieved. A surprising fact - repulsively bound pairs are tighter bound than those with attractive interaction - is found and physically explained in a simple way. (orig.)

  3. Stationary one-dimensional dispersive shock waves

    CERN Document Server

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V

    2011-01-01

    We address shock waves generated upon the interaction of tilted plane waves with negative refractive index defect in defocusing media with linear gain and two-photon absorption. We found that in contrast to conservative media where one-dimensional dispersive shock waves usually exist only as nonstationary objects expanding away from defect or generating beam, the competition between gain and two-photon absorption in dissipative medium results in the formation of localized stationary dispersive shock waves, whose transverse extent may considerably exceed that of the refractive index defect. One-dimensional dispersive shock waves are stable if the defect strength does not exceed certain critical value.

  4. One-dimensional oscillator in a box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Fernandez, Francisco M [INIFTA (UNLP, CCT La Plata-CONICET), Division Quimica Teorica, Blvd 113 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: paolo@ucol.mx, E-mail: fernande@quimica.unlp.edu.ar

    2010-01-15

    We discuss a quantum-mechanical model of two particles that interact by means of a harmonic potential and are confined to a one-dimensional box with impenetrable walls. We apply perturbation theory to the cases of different and equal masses and analyse the symmetry of the states in the latter case. We compare the approximate perturbation results with accurate numerical ones.

  5. Highly conducting one-dimensional solids

    CERN Document Server

    Evrard, Roger; Doren, Victor

    1979-01-01

    Although the problem of a metal in one dimension has long been known to solid-state physicists, it was not until the synthesis of real one-dimensional or quasi-one-dimensional systems that this subject began to attract considerable attention. This has been due in part to the search for high­ temperature superconductivity and the possibility of reaching this goal with quasi-one-dimensional substances. A period of intense activity began in 1973 with the report of a measurement of an apparently divergent conduc­ tivity peak in TfF-TCNQ. Since then a great deal has been learned about quasi-one-dimensional conductors. The emphasis now has shifted from trying to find materials of very high conductivity to the many interesting problems of physics and chemistry involved. But many questions remain open and are still under active investigation. This book gives a review of the experimental as well as theoretical progress made in this field over the last years. All the chapters have been written by scientists who have ...

  6. One-dimensional nanomaterials: Synthesis and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Bo

    My research mainly covers three types of one-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials: metal oxide nanowires, transition metal oxide core-shell nanowires and single-walled carbon nanotubes. This new class of nanomaterials has generated significant impact in multiple fields including electronics, medicine, computing and energy. Their peculiar, fascinating properties are promising for unique applications on electronics, spintronics, optical and chemical/biological sensing. This dissertation will summarize my research work on these three 1D nanomaterials and propose some ideas that may lead to further development. Chapter 1 will give a brief introduction of nanotechnology journey and 1D nanomaterials. Chapter 2 and 3 will discuss indium oxide nanowires, as the representative of metal oxide nanwires. More specifically, chapter 2 is focused on the synthesis, material characterization, transport studies and doping control of indium oxide nanowires; Chapter 3 will give a comprehensive review of our systematic studies on molecular memory applications based on molecule/indium oxide nanowire heterostructures. Chapter 4 will introduce another 1D nanomaterial-transition metal oxide (TMO) core-shell nanowires. The discuss will focus on the synthesis of TMO nanowires, material analysis and their electronic properties as a function of temperature and magnetic field. Chapter 5 is dedicated to aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) on synthesis with rational control of position and orientation, detailed characterization and construction of scaled top-gated transistors. This chapter presents a way to produce the p- and n-type nanotube transistors based on gate voltage polarity control during electrical breakdown. Finally, chapter 6 summarizes the above discussions and proposes some suggestions for future studies.

  7. l-Cys/CSE/H2S pathway modulates mouse uterus motility and sildenafil effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitidieri, Emma; Tramontano, Teresa; Donnarumma, Erminia; Brancaleone, Vincenzo; Cirino, Giuseppe; D Emmanuele di Villa Bianca, Roberta; Sorrentino, Raffaella

    2016-09-01

    Sildenafil, a selective phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, commonly used in the oral treatment for erectile dysfunction, relaxes smooth muscle of human bladder through the activation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) signaling. H2S is an endogenous gaseous transmitter with myorelaxant properties predominantly formed from l-cysteine (l-Cys) by cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE). Sildenafil also relaxes rat and human myometrium during preterm labor but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. In the present study we investigated the possible involvement of H2S as a mediator of sildenafil-induced effect in uterine mouse contractility. We firstly demonstrated that both enzymes, CBS and CSE were expressed, and able to convert l-Cys into H2S in mouse uterus. Thereafter, sildenafil significantly increased H2S production in mouse uterus and this effect was abrogated by CBS or CSE inhibition. In parallel, l-Cys, sodium hydrogen sulfide or sildenafil but not d-Cys reduced spontaneous uterus contractility in a functional study. The blockage of CBS and CSE reduced this latter effect even if a major role for CSE than CBS was observed. This data was strongly confirmed by using CSE(-/-) mice. Indeed, the increase in H2S production mediated by l-Cys or by sildenafil was not found in CSE(-/-) mice. Besides, the effect of H2S or sildenafil on spontaneous contractility was reduced in CSE(-/-) mice. A decisive proof for the involvement of H2S signaling in sildenafil effect in mice uterus was given by the measurement of cGMP. Sildenafil increased cGMP level that was significantly reduced by CSE inhibition. In conclusion, l-Cys/CSE/H2S signaling modulates the mouse uterus motility and the sildenafil effect. Therefore the study may open different therapeutical approaches for the management of the uterus abnormal contractility disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Selectivity of commonly used pharmacological inhibitors for cystathionine β synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ lyase (CSE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimakopoulou, Antonia; Panopoulos, Panagiotis; Chasapis, Christos T; Coletta, Ciro; Zhou, Zongmin; Cirino, Giuseppe; Giannis, Athanassios; Szabo, Csaba; Spyroulias, Georgios A; Papapetropoulos, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) is a signalling molecule that belongs to the gasotransmitter family. Two major sources for endogenous enzymatic production of H₂S are cystathionine β synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ lyase (CSE). In the present study, we examined the selectivity of commonly used pharmacological inhibitors of H₂S biosynthesis towards CSE and CBS. To address this question, human CSE or CBS enzymes were expressed and purified from Escherichia coli as fusion proteins with GSH-S-transferase. After purification, the activity of the recombinant enzymes was tested using the methylene blue method. β-Cyanoalanine (BCA) was more potent in inhibiting CSE than propargylglycine (PAG) (IC₅₀ 14 ± 0.2 μM vs. 40 ± 8 μM respectively). Similar to PAG, L-aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) only inhibited CSE, but did so at much lower concentrations. On the other hand, aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), a frequently used CBS inhibitor, was more potent in inhibiting CSE compared with BCA and PAG (IC₅₀ 1.1 ± 0.1 μM); the IC₅₀ for AOAA for inhibiting CBS was 8.5 ± 0.7 μM. In line with our biochemical observations, relaxation to L-cysteine was blocked by AOAA in aortic rings that lacked CBS expression. Trifluoroalanine and hydroxylamine, two compounds that have also been used to block H₂S biosynthesis, blocked the activity of CBS and CSE. Trifluoroalanine had a fourfold lower IC₅₀ for CBS versus CSE, while hydroxylamine was 60-fold more selective against CSE. In conclusion, although PAG, AVG and BCA exhibit selectivity in inhibiting CSE versus CBS, no selective pharmacological CBS inhibitor is currently available. © 2013 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. One-Dimensional Simulation of Clay Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siljan Siljan

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Drying of clay is simulated by a one-dimensional model. The background of the work is to form a better basis for investigation of the drying process in production of clay-based building materials. A model of one-dimensional heat and mass transfer in porous material is used and modified to simulate drying of clay particles. The convective terms are discretized by first-order upwinding, and the diffusive terms are discretized by central differencing. DASSL was used to solve the set of algebraic and differential equations. The different simulations show the effect of permeability, initial moisture content and different boundary conditions. Both drying of a flat plate and a spherical particle are modelled.

  10. One-dimensional nano-interconnection formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jianlong; Zhou, Zhaoying; Yang, Xing; Zhang, Wendong; Sang, Shengbo; Li, Pengwei

    2013-09-23

    Interconnection of one-dimensional nanomaterials such as nanowires and carbon nanotubes with other parts or components is crucial for nanodevices to realize electrical contacts and mechanical fixings. Interconnection has been being gradually paid great attention since it is as significant as nanomaterials properties, and determines nanodevices performance in some cases. This paper provides an overview of recent progress on techniques that are commonly used for one-dimensional interconnection formation. In this review, these techniques could be categorized into two different types: two-step and one-step methods according to their established process. The two-step method is constituted by assembly and pinning processes, while the one-step method is a direct formation process of nano-interconnections. In both methods, the electrodeposition approach is illustrated in detail, and its potential mechanism is emphasized.

  11. One-Dimensional Tunable Josephson Metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Butz, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents a novel approach to the experimental realization of tunable, superconducting metamaterials. Therefore, conventional resonant meta-atoms are replaced by meta-atoms that contain Josephson junctions, which renders their resonance frequency tunable by an external magnetic field. This tunability is theoretically and experimentally investigated in one-dimensional magnetic and electric metamaterials. For the magnetic metamaterial, the effective, magnetic permeability is determined.

  12. Momentum Dynamics of One Dimensional Quantum Walks

    CERN Document Server

    Fuss, I; Sherman, P J; Naguleswaran, S; Fuss, Ian; White, langord B.; Sherman, Peter J.; Naguleswaran, Sanjeev

    2006-01-01

    We derive the momentum space dynamic equations and state functions for one dimensional quantum walks by using linear systems and Lie group theory. The momentum space provides an analytic capability similar to that contributed by the z transform in discrete systems theory. The state functions at each time step are expressed as a simple sum of three Chebyshev polynomials. The functions provide an analytic expression for the development of the walks with time.

  13. Positional enrichment by proton analysis (PEPA). A one-dimensional {sup 1}H-NMR approach for {sup 13}C stable isotope tracer studies in metabolomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinaixa, Maria; Yanes, Oscar [Department of Electronic Engineering-Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Spanish Biomedical Research Center in Diabetes and Associated Metabolic Disorders (CIBERDEM), Reus (Spain); Rodriguez, Miguel A.; Capellades, Jordi [Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Spanish Biomedical Research Center in Diabetes and Associated Metabolic Disorders (CIBERDEM), Reus (Spain); Aivio, Suvi; Stracker, Travis H. [Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona), Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (Spain); Gomez, Josep; Canyellas, Nicolau [Department of Electronic Engineering-, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain)

    2017-03-20

    A novel metabolomics approach for NMR-based stable isotope tracer studies called PEPA is presented, and its performance validated using human cancer cells. PEPA detects the position of carbon label in isotopically enriched metabolites and quantifies fractional enrichment by indirect determination of {sup 13}C-satellite peaks using 1D-{sup 1}H-NMR spectra. In comparison with {sup 13}C-NMR, TOCSY and HSQC, PEPA improves sensitivity, accelerates the elucidation of {sup 13}C positions in labeled metabolites and the quantification of the percentage of stable isotope enrichment. Altogether, PEPA provides a novel framework for extending the high-throughput of {sup 1}H-NMR metabolic profiling to stable isotope tracing in metabolomics, facilitating and complementing the information derived from 2D-NMR experiments and expanding the range of isotopically enriched metabolites detected in cellular extracts. (copyright 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA.)

  14. A clear-sky radiation closure study using a one-dimensional radiative transfer model and collocated satellite-surface-reanalysis data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinar, Erica K.; Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Loeb, Norman G.

    2016-11-01

    Earth's climate is largely determined by the planet's energy budget, i.e., the balance of incoming and outgoing radiation at the surface and top of atmosphere (TOA). Studies have shown that computing clear-sky radiative fluxes are strongly dependent on atmospheric state variables, such as temperature and water vapor profiles, while the all-sky fluxes are greatly influenced by the presence of clouds. NASA-modeled vertical profiles of temperature and water vapor are used to derive the surface radiation budget from Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES), which is regarded as one of the primary sources for evaluating climate change in climate models. In this study, we evaluate the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications version 2 (MERRA-2) reanalyzed clear-sky temperature and water vapor profiles with newly generated atmospheric profiles from Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM)-merged soundings and Aura Microwave Limb Sounder retrievals at three ARM sites. The temperature profiles are well replicated in MERRA-2 at all three sites, whereas tropospheric water vapor is slightly dry below 700 hPa. These profiles are then used to calculate clear-sky surface and TOA radiative fluxes from the Langley-modified Fu-Liou radiative transfer model (RTM). In order to achieve radiative closure at both the surface and TOA, the ARM-measured surface albedos and aerosol optical depths are adjusted to account for surface inhomogeneity. In general, most of the averaged RTM-calculated surface downward and TOA upward shortwave and longwave fluxes agree within 5 W/m2 of the observations, which is within the uncertainties of the ARM and CERES measurements. Yet still, further efforts are required to reduce the bias in calculated fluxes in coastal regions.

  15. Neutron diffraction study of quasi-one-dimensional spin-chain compounds Ca3Co2−FeO6

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil Jain; S M Yusuf; Sher Singh

    2008-11-01

    We report the results of the DC magnetization, neutron powder diffraction and neutron depolarization studies on the spin-chain compounds Ca3Co2−FeO6 ( = 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4). Rietveld refinement of neutron powder diffraction patterns at room temperature confirms the single-phase formation for all the compounds in rhombohedral structure with space group R$\\bar{3}$c. Rietveld refinement also confirms that Fe was doped at the trigonal prism site, 6a (0, 0, 1/4) of Co. The high temperature magnetic susceptibility obeys the Curie–Weiss law; the value of the paramagnetic Curie temperature () decreases as the concentration of iron increases and it becomes negative for = 0.4. No extra Bragg peak as well as no observable enhancement in the intensity of the fundamental (nuclear) Bragg peaks has been observed in the neutron diffraction patterns down to 30 K. No depolarization of neutron beam has been observed down to 3 K confirming the absence of ferro- or ferrimagnetic-like correlation.

  16. One-dimensional nanostructures principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhai, Tianyou

    2012-01-01

    Reviews the latest research breakthroughs and applications Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes in 1991, one-dimensional nanostructures have been at the forefront of nanotechnology research, promising to provide the building blocks for a new generation of nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices. With contributions from 68 leading international experts, this book reviews both the underlying principles as well as the latest discoveries and applications in the field, presenting the state of the technology. Readers will find expert coverage of all major classes of one-di

  17. Distibines, New One-Dimensional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    Diarsines, Distibines * and Dibismuthines," XI International Conference on Organometallic * Chemistry , Pine Mountain, Georgia, October 1983. (vi...D-R158 534 DISTIINES NEW ONE-DIMENSIONAL MTERILS(U) ICHIGAN i/UNJY ANN ARBOR DEPT OF CHEMISTRY A J ASHE 17 NAY 85 RFOSR-TR-85-9592 RFOSR-81-909 N...ADDRESS (Ci, Stett, and ZIP Code) Department of Chemistry , University Building 410, Bolling AFS, D.C. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 20332-6448 Sa

  18. One-dimensional hypersonic phononic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomopoulos, N; Maschke, D; Koh, C Y; Thomas, E L; Tremel, W; Butt, H-J; Fytas, G

    2010-03-10

    We report experimental observation of a normal incidence phononic band gap in one-dimensional periodic (SiO(2)/poly(methyl methacrylate)) multilayer film at gigahertz frequencies using Brillouin spectroscopy. The band gap to midgap ratio of 0.30 occurs for elastic wave propagation along the periodicity direction, whereas for inplane propagation the system displays an effective medium behavior. The phononic properties are well captured by numerical simulations. The porosity in the silica layers presents a structural scaffold for the introduction of secondary active media for potential coupling between phonons and other excitations, such as photons and electrons.

  19. Symmetricity of Distribution for One-Dimensional Hadamard Walk

    CERN Document Server

    Konno, N; Soshi, T; Konno, Norio; Namiki, Takao; Soshi, Takahiro

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we study a one-dimensional quantum random walk with the Hadamard transformation which is often called the Hadamard walk. We construct the Hadamard walk using a transition matrix on probability amplitude and give some results on symmetricity of probability distributions for the Hadamard walk.

  20. The Long Decay Model of One-Dimensional Projectile Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattery, Mark Joseph

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces a research study on student model formation and development in introductory mechanics. As a point of entry, I present a detailed analysis of the Long Decay Model of one-dimensional projectile motion. This model has been articulated by Galileo ("in De Motu") and by contemporary students. Implications for instruction are…

  1. One-dimensional models of thermal activation under shear stress

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of thermal activation under shear stress in three- and even two-dimensional models presents unresolved problems. The analysis of one-dimensional models presented here may illuminate the study of more realistic models. For the model...

  2. Quantum transport in strongly interacting one-dimensional nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agundez, R. R.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we study quantum transport in several one-dimensional systems with strong electronic interactions. The first chapter contains an introduction to the concepts treated throughout this thesis, such as the Aharonov-Bohm effect, the Kondo effect, the Fano effect and quantum state transfer.

  3. Bloch oscillations in an aperiodic one-dimensional potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Moura, FABF; Lyra, ML; Dominguez-Adame, F; Malyshev, V.A.

    2005-01-01

    We study the dynamics of an electron subjected to a static uniform electric field within a one-dimensional tight-binding model with a slowly varying aperiodic potential. The unbiased model is known to support phases of localized and extended one-electron states separated by two mobility edges. We sh

  4. Lie symmetry algebra of one-dimensional nonconservative dynamical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Cui-Mei; Wu Run-Heng; Fu Jing-Li

    2007-01-01

    Lie symmetry algebra of linear nonconservative dynamical systems is studied in this paper. By using 1-1 mapping,the Lie point and Lie contact symmetry algebras are obtained from two independent solutions of the one-dimensional linear equations of motion.

  5. Exact results for one dimensional fluids through functional integration

    CERN Document Server

    Fantoni, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    We review some of the exactly solvable one dimensional continuum fluid models of equilibrium classical statistical mechanics under the unified setting of functional integration in one dimension. We make some further developments and remarks concerning fluids with penetrable particles. We then apply our developments to the study of the Gaussian core model for which we are unable to find a well defined thermodynamics.

  6. Transport through a Finite One-Dimensional Crystal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouwenhoven, L.P.; Hekking, F.W.J.; Wees, B.J. van; Harmans, C.J.P.M.; Timmering, C.E.; Foxon, C.T.

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the magnetotransport properties of an artificial one-dimensional crystal. The crystal consists of a sequence of fifteen quantum dots, defined in the two-dimensional electron gas of a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure by means of a split-gate technique. At a fixed magnetic field of 2 T, two

  7. The interaction of estrogen and CSE/H2S pathway in the development of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongzhu; Mani, Sarathi; Wu, Lingyun; Fu, Ming; Shuang, Tian; Xu, Changqing; Wang, Rui

    2017-03-01

    Both estrogen and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) have been shown to inhibit the development of atherosclerosis. We previously reported that cystathionine γ-lyase knockout (CSE-KO) male mice develop atherosclerosis earlier than male wild-type (WT) mice. The present study investigated the interaction of CSE/H2S pathway and estrogen on the development of atherosclerosis in female mice. Plasma estrogen levels were significantly lower in female CSE-KO mice than in female WT mice. NaHS treatment had no effect on plasma estrogen levels in both WT and CSE-KO female mice. After CSE-KO and WT female mice were fed with atherogenic diet for 12 wk, plasma lipid levels were significantly increased and triglyceride levels decreased compared with those of control diet-fed mice. Atherogenic diet induced more atherosclerotic lesion, oxidative stress, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and NF-κB in CSE-KO mice than in WT mice. Estrogen treatment of atherogenic diet-fed WT mice attenuated hypercholesterolemia, oxidative stress, ICAM-1 expression, and NF-κB in WT mice but not in atherogenic diet-fed CSE-KO mice. Furthermore, H2S production in both the liver and vascular tissues was enhanced by estrogen in WT mice but not in CSE-KO mice. It is concluded that the antiatherosclerotic effect of estrogen is mediated by CSE-generated H2S. This study provides new insights into the interaction of H2S and estrogen signaling pathways on the regulation of cardiovascular functions.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Female cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE)-knockout mice have significantly lower plasma estrogen levels and more severe early atherosclerotic lesion than female wild-type mice. H2S production in liver and vascular tissues is enhanced by estrogen via its stimulatory effect on CSE activity. The antiatherosclerotic effect of estrogen is mediated by CSE-generated H2S. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Localized chaos in one-dimensional hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humm, D.C.; Saltz, D.; Nayfeh, M.H. (Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (USA))

    1990-08-01

    We calculate the response of hydrogen to the presence of both a strong dc electric field (necessary to isolate a nearly one-dimensional motion) and a strong radiation field of higher frequency than the binding energy of the system, a regime that has not previously been examined by theory or experiment. We determine the classical ionization threshold, the quantum-delocalization threshold, and the threshold of {ital n} mixing due to chaotic effects. The analysis indicates that the dc field can have a dramatic effect on the quantum localization of classically chaotic diffusion, changing the delocalization threshold by more than an order of magnitude. Moreover, this system provides a large spectral region in which quantum-mechanical localization inhibits classical chaotic diffusion. This theory is well suited to experimental testing.

  9. One-dimensional spinon spin currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirobe, Daichi; Sato, Masahiro; Kawamata, Takayuki; Shiomi, Yuki; Uchida, Ken-Ichi; Iguchi, Ryo; Koike, Yoji; Maekawa, Sadamichi; Saitoh, Eiji

    2017-01-01

    Quantum spin fluctuation in a low-dimensional or frustrated magnet breaks magnetic ordering while keeping spin correlation. Such fluctuation has been a central topic in magnetism because of its relevance to high-Tc superconductivity and topological states. However, utilizing such spin states has been quite difficult. In a one-dimensional spin-1/2 chain, a particle-like excitation called a spinon is known to be responsible for spin fluctuation in a paramagnetic state. Spinons behave as a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid at low energy, and the spin system is often called a quantum spin chain. Here we show that a quantum spin chain generates and carries spin current, which is attributed to spinon spin current. This is demonstrated by observing an anisotropic negative spin Seebeck effect along the spin chains in Sr2CuO3. The results show that spin current can flow even in an atomic channel owing to long-range spin fluctuation.

  10. Collapsing of chaos in one dimensional maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Guocheng; Yorke, James A.

    2000-02-01

    In their numerical investigation of the family of one dimensional maps f l(x)=1-2∣x∣ l, where l>2 , Diamond et al. [P. Diamond et al., Physica D 86 (1999) 559-571] have observed the surprising numerical phenomenon that a large fraction of initial conditions chosen at random eventually wind up at -1, a repelling fixed point. This is a numerical artifact because the continuous maps are chaotic and almost every (true) trajectory can be shown to be dense in [-1,1]. The goal of this paper is to extend and resolve this obvious contradiction. We model the numerical simulation with a randomly selected map. While they used 27 bit precision in computing f l, we prove for our model that this numerical artifact persists for an arbitrary high numerical prevision. The fraction of initial points eventually winding up at -1 remains bounded away from 0 for every numerical precision.

  11. One-dimensional reduction of viscous jets

    CERN Document Server

    Pitrou, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    We build a general formalism to describe thin viscous jets as one-dimensional objects with an internal structure. We present in full generality the steps needed to describe the viscous jets around their central line, and we argue that the Taylor expansion of all fields around that line is conveniently expressed in terms of symmetric trace-free tensors living in the two dimensions of the fiber sections. We recover the standard results of axisymmetric jets and we report the first and second corrections to the lowest order description, also allowing for a rotational component around the axis of symmetry. When applied to generally curved fibers, the lowest order description corresponds to a viscous string model whose sections are circular. However, when including the first corrections we find that curved jets generically develop elliptic sections. Several subtle effects imply that the first corrections cannot be described by a rod model, since it amounts to selectively discard some corrections. However, in a fast...

  12. One-dimensional Vlasov-Maxwell equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, John M.

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that the Vlasov equilibrium of a plasma of charged particles in an electromagnetic field is closely related to a fluid equilibrium, where only a few moments of the velocity distribution of the plasma are considered. In this fluid equilibrium the electric field should be calculated from Ohm's law, rather than the Poisson equation. In practice, only one-dimensional equilibria are treated, because the symmetry makes this case tractable. The emphasis here is on gaining a better understanding of the subject, but an alternate way of doing the calculations is suggested. It is shown that particle distributions can be found that are consistent with any reasonable electromagnetic field profile.

  13. Study of a one-dimensional model for a system of interacting fermions; Etude d'un modele a une dimension pour un systeme de fermions en interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudin, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-11-01

    The subject of this thesis is a one dimensional model for a quantum system of fermions with attractive or repulsive interaction. The eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Hamiltonian with periodic boundary conditions are exactly determined. The knowledge of the spectrum is essentially applied on the study of the attractive gas, characterized by the presence of 'pairs' or two particles bound states. This system can be described as a gas of 'one dimensional deuterons', which has some analogy with a boson gas. Some extensive properties of the ground state have been discussed for example energy as a function of the density and magnetization, for all the values of the coupling constant. The analytic properties of the energy function are studied, but not completely resolved. Finally the elementary excitations of the phonon type are considered and the dispersion curves are given. (author) [French] On etudie un modele a une dimension pour un systeme quantique de fermions en interaction attractive ou repulsive dans un volume donne. L'ensemble des niveaux d'energie et des etats propres du systeme est determine exactement. La connaissance du spectre est surtout appliquee a l'etude du gaz attractif, interessant par la presence de 'paires' ou etats lies a deux particules. On peut decrire ce systeme comme un gaz de 'deuterons a une dimension' qui possede quelque ressemblance avec un systeme de bosons. Quelques proprietes extensives de l'etat fondamental sont donnees, comme l'energie en fonction de la densite et de la magnetisation totale, pour toute valeur de la constante de couplage. Les proprietes analytiques de la fonction energie sont etudiees sans etre completement elucidees. On aborde enfin les excitations elementaires du systeme et on etablit la courbe de dispersion d'une excitation de type phonon. (auteur)

  14. One-Dimensional (1-D) Nanoscale Heterostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guozhen SHEN; Di CHEN; Yoshio BANDO; Dmitri GOLBERG

    2008-01-01

    One-dimensional (1-D) nanostructures have been attracted much attention as a result of their exceptional properties, which are different from bulk materials. Among 1-D nanostructures, 1-D heterostructures with modulated compositions and interfaces have recently become of particular interest with respect to potential applications in nanoscale building blocks of future optoelectronic devices and systems. Many kinds of methods have been developed for the synthesis of 1-D nanoscale heterostructures. This article reviews the most recent development, with an emphasize on our own recent efforts, on 1-D nanoscale heterostructures, especially those synthesized from the vapor deposition methods, in which all the reactive precursors are mixed together in the reaction chamber. Three types of 1-D nanoscale heterostructures, defined from their morphologies characteristics, are discussed in detail, which include 1-D co-axial core-shell heterostructures, 1-D segmented heterostructures and hierarchical heterostructures. This article begins with a brief survey of various methods that have been developed for synthesizing 1-D nanoscale heterostructures and then mainly focuses on the synthesis, structures and properties of the above three types of nanoscale heterostructures. Finally, this review concludes with personal views towards the topic of 1-D nanoscale heterostructures.

  15. The Quantum Well of One-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Jing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the transmissivity of one-dimensional photonic crystals quantum well (QW with quantum theory approach. By calculation, we find that there are photon bound states in the QW structure (BA6(BBABBn(AB6, and the numbers of the bound states are equal to n+1. We have found that there are some new features in the QW, which can be used to design optic amplifier, attenuator, and optic filter of multiple channel.

  16. Bose gases in one-dimensional harmonic trap

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JI-XUAN HOU; JING YANG

    2016-10-01

    Thermodynamic quantities, occupation numbers and their fluctuations of a one-dimensional Bose gas confined by a harmonic potential are studied using different ensemble approaches. Combining number theory methods, a new approach is presented to calculate the occupation numbers of different energy levels in microcanonical ensemble. The visible difference of the ground state occupation number in grand-canonical ensemble and microcanonical ensemble is found to decrease by power law as the number of particles increases.

  17. Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics in one-dimensional bose gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldovin, F.; Cappellaro, A.; Orlandini, E.; Salasnich, L.

    2016-06-01

    We study cold dilute gases made of bosonic atoms, showing that in the mean-field one-dimensional regime they support stable out-of-equilibrium states. Starting from the 3D Boltzmann-Vlasov equation with contact interaction, we derive an effective 1D Landau-Vlasov equation under the condition of a strong transverse harmonic confinement. We investigate the existence of out-of-equilibrium states, obtaining stability criteria similar to those of classical plasmas.

  18. Few interacting fermions in one-dimensional harmonic trap

    CERN Document Server

    Sowiński, Tomasz; Dutta, Omjyoti; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    We study spin-1/2 fermions, interacting via a two-body contact potential, in a one-dimensional harmonic trap. Applying exact diagonalization, we investigate the behavior at finite interaction strength, and discuss the role of a ground state degeneracy which occurs for sufficiently strong repulsive interaction. Even low temperature or a completely depolarizing channel may then dramatically influence the system's behavior. We calculate level occupation numbers as signatures of thermalization, and we discuss the mechanisms to break the degeneracy.

  19. Thermal breakage of a discrete one-dimensional string.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chiu Fan

    2009-09-01

    We study the thermal breakage of a discrete one-dimensional string, with open and fixed ends, in the heavily damped regime. Basing our analysis on the multidimensional Kramers escape theory, we are able to make analytical predictions on the mean breakage rate and on the breakage propensity with respect to the breakage location on the string. We then support our predictions with numerical simulations.

  20. Impurity modes in the one-dimensional XXZ Heisenberg model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, J.M. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Campus Ministro Petrônio Portella, 57072-970 Teresina, Piauí (Brazil); Leite, R.V. [Centro de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologia, Curso de Física, Universidade Estadual Vale do Acaraú, Av. Dr. Guarany 317, Campus Cidao, 62040-730 Sobral, Ceará (Brazil); Landim, R.R. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Caixa Postal 6030, Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil); Costa Filho, R.N., E-mail: rai@fisica.ufc.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Caixa Postal 6030, Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil)

    2014-04-01

    A Green's function formalism is used to calculate the energy of impurity modes associated with one and/or two magnetic impurities in the one-dimensional Heisenberg XXZ magnetic chain. The system can be tuned from the Heisenberg to the Ising model varying a parameter λ. A numerical study is performed showing two types of localized modes (s and p). The modes depend on λ and the degeneracy of the acoustic modes is broken.

  1. One-dimensional photonic crystals bound by light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liyong; Li, Xiao; Chen, Jun; Cao, Yongyin; Du, Guiqiang; Ng, Jack

    2017-08-01

    Through rigorous simulations, the light scattering induced optical binding of one-dimensional (1D) dielectric photonic crystals is studied. The optical forces corresponding to the pass band, band gap, and band edge are qualitatively different. It is shown that light can induce self-organization of dielectric slabs into stable photonic crystals, with its lower band edge coinciding with the incident light frequency. Incident light at normal and oblique incidence and photonic crystals with parity-time symmetry are also considered.

  2. One-dimensional contact process: duality and renormalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooyberghs, J; Vanderzande, C

    2001-04-01

    We study the one-dimensional contact process in its quantum version using a recently proposed real-space renormalization technique for stochastic many-particle systems. Exploiting the duality and other properties of the model, we can apply the method for cells with up to 37 sites. After suitable extrapolation, we obtain exponent estimates that are comparable in accuracy with the best known in the literature.

  3. Statistics of resonances in one-dimensional continuous systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joshua Feinberg

    2009-09-01

    We study the average density of resonances (DOR) of a disordered one-dimensional continuous open system. The disordered system is semi-infinite, with white-noise random potential, and it is coupled to the external world by a semi-infinite continuous perfect lead. Our main result is an integral representation for the DOR which involves the probability density function of the logarithmic derivative of the wave function at the contact point.

  4. One-dimensional photonic band gaps in optical lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Samoylova, Marina; Holynski, Michael; Courteille, Philippe Wilhelm; Bachelard, Romain

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of photonic band gaps in one-dimensional optical lattices is reviewed using a microscopic approach. Formally equivalent to the transfer matrix approach in the thermodynamic limit, a microscopic model is required to study finite-size effects, such as deviations from the Bragg condition. Microscopic models describing both scalar and vectorial light are proposed, as well as for two- and three-level atoms. Several analytical results are compared to experimental data, showing a good agreement.

  5. Fate of classical solitons in one-dimensional quantum systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pustilnik, M.; Matveev, K. A.

    2015-11-23

    We study one-dimensional quantum systems near the classical limit described by the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. The excitations near this limit are the well-known solitons and phonons. The classical description breaks down at long wavelengths, where quantum effects become dominant. Focusing on the spectra of the elementary excitations, we describe analytically the entire classical-to-quantum crossover. We show that the ultimate quantum fate of the classical KdV excitations is to become fermionic quasiparticles and quasiholes. We discuss in detail two exactly solvable models exhibiting such crossover, the Lieb-Liniger model of bosons with weak contact repulsion and the quantum Toda model, and argue that the results obtained for these models are universally applicable to all quantum one-dimensional systems with a well-defined classical limit described by the KdV equation.

  6. Resonance Raman spectroscopy in one-dimensional carbon materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dresselhaus Mildred S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has played an important role in the development and use of resonance Raman spectroscopy as a powerful characterization tool for materials science. Here we present a short history of Raman scattering research in Brazil, highlighting the important contributions to the field coming from Brazilian researchers in the past. Next we discuss recent and important contributions where Brazil has become a worldwide leader, that is on the physics of quasi-one dimensional carbon nanotubes. We conclude this article by presenting results from a very recent resonance Raman study of exciting new materials, that are strictly one-dimensional carbon chains formed by the heat treatment of very pure double-wall carbon nanotube samples.

  7. One-dimensional Si nanolines in hydrogenated Si(001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Bianco; Köster, Sigrun A.; Owen, James G. H.; Renner, Christoph; Bowler, David R.

    2012-02-01

    We present a detailed study of the structural and electronic properties of a self-assembled silicon nanoline embedded in the H-terminated silicon (001) surface, known as the Haiku stripe. The nanoline is a perfectly straight and defect free endotaxial structure of huge aspect ratio; it can grow micrometre long at a constant width of exactly four Si dimers (1.54 nm). Another remarkable property is its capacity to be exposed to air without suffering any degradation. The nanoline grows independently of any step edges at tunable densities, from isolated nanolines to a dense array of nanolines. In addition to these unique structural characteristics, scanning tunnelling microscopy and density functional theory reveal a one-dimensional state confined along the Haiku core. This nanoline is a promising candidate for the long sought after electronic solid-state one-dimensional model system to explore the fascinating quantum properties emerging in such reduced dimensionality. Phys. Rev. B, 84, 035328 (2011)

  8. Luttinger parameter of quasi-one-dimensional para -H2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, G.; Gordillo, M. C.; Boronat, J.

    2017-02-01

    We have studied the ground-state properties of para-hydrogen in one dimension and in quasi-one-dimensional configurations using the path-integral ground-state Monte Carlo method. This method produces zero-temperature exact results for a given interaction and geometry. The quasi-one-dimensional setup has been implemented in two forms: the inner channel inside a carbon nanotube coated with H2 and a harmonic confinement of variable strength. Our main result is the dependence of the Luttinger parameter on the density within the stable regime. Going from one dimension to quasi-one dimension, keeping the linear density constant, produces a systematic increase of the Luttinger parameter. This increase is, however, not enough to reach the superfluid regime and the system always remain in the quasicrystal regime, according to Luttinger liquid theory.

  9. Dark Matter in a One-dimensional Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Sigismondi, C

    2003-01-01

    A computer code to simulate temporal evolution of overdensities in a one-dimensional Universe is presented for didactic purposes. The formation of large scale structures in this one-dimensional universe can be studied both in matter or radiation dominated eras. Since large scale structures are already observed at z > 7, primordial dark matter overdensities delta_DM which are 90 times larger than the observed barionic delta_B in the cosmic microwave background are required at z~1000. This makes possible non-linear gravitational collapse at redshift z >7 and the formation of the structures. Primordial perturbations delta_B~10^-5 do not leave the linear regime of growth without the aid of dark matter's potential wells. This code is suitable for commercial worksheets like MSExcel, StarOffice, or OpenOffice.

  10. Quasi-one-dimensional scattering in a discrete model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valiente, Manuel; Moelmer, Klaus [Lundbeck Foundation Theoretical Center for Quantum System Research, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2011-11-15

    We study quasi-one-dimensional scattering of one and two particles with short-range interactions on a discrete lattice model in two dimensions. One of the directions is tightly confined by an arbitrary trapping potential. We obtain the collisional properties of these systems both at finite and zero Bloch quasimomenta, considering as well finite sizes and transversal traps that support a continuum of states. This is made straightforward by using the exact ansatz for the quasi-one-dimensional states from the beginning. In the more interesting case of genuine two-particle scattering, we find that more than one confinement-induced resonances appear due to the nonseparability of the center-of-mass and relative coordinates on the lattice. This is done by solving its corresponding Lippmann-Schwinger-like equation. We characterize the effective one-dimensional interaction and compare it with a model that includes only the effect of the dominant, broadest resonance, which amounts to a single-pole approximation for the interaction coupling constant.

  11. Dysregulation of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE)/hydrogen sulfide pathway contributes to ox-LDL-induced inflammation in macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xian-Hui; Wang, Fen; You, Shou-Jiang; Cao, Yong-Jun; Cao, Li-Dan; Han, Qiao; Liu, Chun-Feng; Hu, Li-Fang

    2013-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), mainly produced by cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) in vascular system, emerges as a novel gasotransmitter exerting anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic effects. Alterations of CSE/H2S pathway may thus be involved in atherosclerosis pathogenesis. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The present study showed that the levels of CSE mRNA and protein expression, as well as H2S production were decreased in ox-LDL-treated macrophage. CSE overexpression reduced the ox-LDL-stimulated tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) generation in Raw264.7 and primary macrophage while CSE knockdown enhanced it. Exogenous supplementation of H2S with NaHS and Na2S also decreased the production of TNF-α and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in ox-LDL-stimulated macrophage, and alleviated the adhesion of macrophage to endothelial monolayer. Cysteine, a CSE preferential substrate for H2S biosynthesis, produced similar effects on the pro-inflammatory cytokine generation, which were reversed by CSE inhibitors PAG and BCA, respectively. Moreover, NaHS and Na2S attenuated the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα and p65 nuclear translocation, as well as JNK activation caused by ox-LDL. The JNK inhibitor suppressed the NF-κB transcription activity in ox-LDL-treated cells. Furthermore, inhibitors of NF-κB (PDTC), ERK (U0126 and PD98059) and JNK (SP600125) partially blocked the suppression by ox-LDL on the CSE mRNA levels. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that ox-LDL may down-regulate the CSE/H2S pathway, which plays an anti-inflammatory role in ox-LDL-stimulated macrophage by suppressing JNK/NF-κB signaling. The study reveals new therapeutic strategies for atherosclerosis, based on modulating CSE/H2S pathway.

  12. Enhanced dipolar transport in one-dimensional waveguide arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Cantillano, Camilo; Real, Bastián; Rojas-Rojas, Santiago; Delgado, Aldo; Szameit, Alexander; Vicencio, Rodrigo A

    2016-01-01

    We study the transport properties of fundamental and dipolar (first-excited) modes on one-dimensional coupled waveguide arrays. By modulating an optical beam, we are able to generate fundamental and dipolar modes to study discrete diffraction (single-site excitation) and gaussian beam propagation (multi-site excitation \\& phase gradient). We find that dipolar modes experience a coupling constant more than two times larger than the one for fundamental modes. This implies an enhanced transport of energy for dipoles in a tight-binding lattice. Additionally, we study disordered systems and find that while fundamental modes are already trapped in a weakly disorder array, dipoles still diffract across the lattice.

  13. 纳米级的一维II-VI族化合物的合成及其电子结构研究%One-dimensional (1D) Ⅱ-Ⅳ Based Nanostructures-synthesis and Electronic Structure Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Various single crystalline IIB-VIA one-dimensional nanostructures have been fabricated using thermal evaporation. Although these nanostructures possess large amount of unpassivated surface, it does not lead to dissociation of excitons, which fact indicates the high purity and high quality of the electronic structure of these nanostructures.

  14. MARCUSE’S ONE-DIMENSIONAL SOCIETY IN ONE-DIMENSIONAL MAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILOS RASTOVIC

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Marcuse’s main book One-Dimensional Man is almost obsolete, or rather passé. However, there are reasons to renew the reading of his book because of “the crisis of capitalism,” and the prevailing framework of technological domination in “advanced industrial society” in which we live today. “The new forms of control” in “advanced industrial societies” have replaced traditional methods of political and economic administration. The dominant structural element of “advanced industrial society” has become a technical and scientific apparatus of production and distribution of technology and administrative practice based on application of impersonal rules by a hierarchy of associating authorities. Technology has been liberated from the control of particular interests, and it has become the factor of domination in itself. Technological domination stems from the technical development of the productive apparatus that reproduces its ability into all spheres of social life (cultural, political, and economic. Based upon this consideration, in this paper, I will examine Marcuse’s ideas of “the new forms of control,” which creates a one–dimensional society. Marcuse’s fundamental thesis in One-Dimensional Man is that technological rationality is the most dominant factor in an “advanced industrial society,” which unites two earlier opposing forces of dissent: the bourgeoisie and the proletariat.

  15. Impedance of rigid bodies in one-dimensional elastic collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Janilo; de Oliveira, Bruna P. W.; Nelson,Osman Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In this work we study the problem of one-dimensional elastic collisions of billiard balls, considered as rigid bodies, in a framework very different from the classical one presented in text books. Implementing the notion of impedance matching as a way to understand efficiency of energy transmission in elastic collisions, we find a solution which frames the problem in terms of this conception. We show that the mass of the ball can be seen as a measure of its impedance and verify that the probl...

  16. Fragmented one dimensional man / El hombre unidimensional fragmentado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Rodríguez del Pino

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Paraphrase the title of the famous essay by Herbert Marcuse, since the image has traditionally been generated of man, masculinity, has been one-dimensional. I mean, the man was characterized by traits and behaviors established and entrenched since ancient time, considering all other distinguishing signs as mere deviations from the normative improper. But observe that this undeniable reality, as analyzed various researchers through what has come to be called Men's studies, has proven to be a fallacy difficult to maintain throughout history and today turns into fallacious and ineffective against changes in our current existing corporate models.

  17. Spiral Magnetic Order in the One-Dimensional Kondo Lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhen-Rong; LI Zheng-Zhong; SHEN Rui

    2001-01-01

    The effects of c-f (conduction-f electrons) hybridization on the spiral spin magnetism in the one dimensional Kondo lattice are studied. By using the mean-field approximation, a close set of equations of the Green's functions with arbitrary wave vector Q for the spiral ordering of spins is deduced. The magnetic phase boundary between the spiral magnetism and ferromagnetism has been calculated approximately. From our qualitative results, one can find that the ferromagnetic region is enlarged due to the c f hybridization. Moreover, some new results reflecting the Kondo effect, such as the modified dispersion relation and the weakening of the localized magnetic moments are also obtained.

  18. Obstacle Effects on One-Dimensional Translocation of ATPase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xian-Ju; AI Bao-Quan; LIU Liang-Gang

    2002-01-01

    We apply a general random walk model to the study of the ATPase's one-dimensional translocation along obstacle biological environment, and show the effects of random obstacles on the ATPase translocation along single stranded DNA. We find that the obstacle environment can reduce the lifetime of ATPase lattice-bound state which results in the inhibition of ATPase activity. We also carry out the ranges of rate constant of ATPase unidirectonal translocation and bidirectional translocation. Our results are consistent with the experiments and relevant theoretical consideration, and can be used to explain some physiological phenomena.

  19. One-Dimensional Forward–Forward Mean-Field Games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2016-11-01

    While the general theory for the terminal-initial value problem for mean-field games (MFGs) has achieved a substantial progress, the corresponding forward–forward problem is still poorly understood—even in the one-dimensional setting. Here, we consider one-dimensional forward–forward MFGs, study the existence of solutions and their long-time convergence. First, we discuss the relation between these models and systems of conservation laws. In particular, we identify new conserved quantities and study some qualitative properties of these systems. Next, we introduce a class of wave-like equations that are equivalent to forward–forward MFGs, and we derive a novel formulation as a system of conservation laws. For first-order logarithmic forward–forward MFG, we establish the existence of a global solution. Then, we consider a class of explicit solutions and show the existence of shocks. Finally, we examine parabolic forward–forward MFGs and establish the long-time convergence of the solutions.

  20. One-Dimensional Forward–Forward Mean-Field Games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Diogo A., E-mail: diogo.gomes@kaust.edu.sa; Nurbekyan, Levon; Sedjro, Marc [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), CEMSE Division (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-12-15

    While the general theory for the terminal-initial value problem for mean-field games (MFGs) has achieved a substantial progress, the corresponding forward–forward problem is still poorly understood—even in the one-dimensional setting. Here, we consider one-dimensional forward–forward MFGs, study the existence of solutions and their long-time convergence. First, we discuss the relation between these models and systems of conservation laws. In particular, we identify new conserved quantities and study some qualitative properties of these systems. Next, we introduce a class of wave-like equations that are equivalent to forward–forward MFGs, and we derive a novel formulation as a system of conservation laws. For first-order logarithmic forward–forward MFG, we establish the existence of a global solution. Then, we consider a class of explicit solutions and show the existence of shocks. Finally, we examine parabolic forward–forward MFGs and establish the long-time convergence of the solutions.

  1. Bjorken flow in one-dimensional relativistic magnetohydrodynamics with magnetization

    CERN Document Server

    Pu, Shi; Rezzolla, Luciano; Rischke, Dirk H

    2016-01-01

    We study the one-dimensional, longitudinally boost-invariant motion of an ideal fluid with infinite conductivity in the presence of a transverse magnetic field, i.e., in the ideal transverse magnetohydrodynamical limit. In an extension of our previous work [1], we consider the fluid to have a non-zero magnetization. First, we assume a constant magnetic susceptibility $\\chi_{m}$ and consider an ultrarelativistic ideal gas equation of state. For a paramagnetic fluid (i.e., with $\\chi_{m}>0$), the decay of the energy density slows down since the fluid gains energy from the magnetic field. For a diamagnetic fluid (i.e., with $\\chi_{m}<0$), the energy density decays faster because it feeds energy into the magnetic field. Furthermore, when the magnetic field is taken to be external and to decay in proper time $\\tau$ with a power law $\\sim\\tau^{-a}$, two distinct solutions can be found depending on the values of $a$ and $\\chi_m$. Finally, we also solve the ideal magnetohydrodynamical equations for one-dimensional...

  2. Bjorken flow in one-dimensional relativistic magnetohydrodynamics with magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Shi; Roy, Victor; Rezzolla, Luciano; Rischke, Dirk H.

    2016-04-01

    We study the one-dimensional, longitudinally boost-invariant motion of an ideal fluid with infinite conductivity in the presence of a transverse magnetic field, i.e., in the ideal transverse magnetohydrodynamical limit. In an extension of our previous work Roy et al., [Phys. Lett. B 750, 45 (2015)], we consider the fluid to have a nonzero magnetization. First, we assume a constant magnetic susceptibility χm and consider an ultrarelativistic ideal gas equation of state. For a paramagnetic fluid (i.e., with χm>0 ), the decay of the energy density slows down since the fluid gains energy from the magnetic field. For a diamagnetic fluid (i.e., with χmlaw ˜τ-a, two distinct solutions can be found depending on the values of a and χm. Finally, we also solve the ideal magnetohydrodynamical equations for one-dimensional Bjorken flow with a temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility and a realistic equation of state given by lattice-QCD data. We find that the temperature and energy density decay more slowly because of the nonvanishing magnetization. For values of the magnetic field typical for heavy-ion collisions, this effect is, however, rather small. It is only for magnetic fields about an order of magnitude larger than expected for heavy-ion collisions that the system is substantially reheated and the lifetime of the quark phase might be extended.

  3. One-Dimensional Nanostructures for Neutron Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yong [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Eapen, Jacob [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Hawari, Ayman [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2015-05-04

    This report consists of four parts in addition to a publication/presentation list. Part I is on electronic structure simulations on boron nitride (BN) and BCxN nanotubes using density function theory (DFT), Part II is on fabrication and characterization of nanowire sensors, Part III is on irradiation response of BN nanotubes using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and Part IV is on the in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of irradiation response of BN nanotubes.

  4. Energy in one-dimensional linear waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repetto, C E; Roatta, A; Welti, R J, E-mail: welti@fceia.unr.edu.ar [Laboratorio de Vibraciones y Ondas, Departamento de Fisica, Escuela de Formacion Basica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, IngenierIa y Agrimensura (UNR), Pellegrini 250, S2000BTP Rosario (Argentina)

    2011-11-15

    This work is based on propagation phenomena that conform to the classical wave equation. General expressions of power, the energy conservation equation in continuous media and densities of the kinetic and potential energies are presented. As an example, we study the waves in a string and focused attention on the case of standing waves. The treatment is applicable to introductory science textbooks. (letters and comment)

  5. Algebraic curves and one-dimensional fields

    CERN Document Server

    Bogomolov, Fedor

    2002-01-01

    Algebraic curves have many special properties that make their study particularly rewarding. As a result, curves provide a natural introduction to algebraic geometry. In this book, the authors also bring out aspects of curves that are unique to them and emphasize connections with algebra. This text covers the essential topics in the geometry of algebraic curves, such as line and vector bundles, the Riemann-Roch Theorem, divisors, coherent sheaves, and zeroth and first cohomology groups. The authors make a point of using concrete examples and explicit methods to ensure that the style is clear an

  6. One-dimensional mercury(II) halide coordination polymers of 3,6-bis(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine ligand: Synthesis, crystal structure, spectroscopic and DFT studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saghatforoush, Lotfali, E-mail: saghatforoush@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, PO Box 19395-4697, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoshtarkib, Zeinab [Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, PO Box 19395-4697, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amani, Vahid [Department of Chemistry,Yadegar-e-Imam Khomeini (RAH) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bakhtiari, Akbar; Hakimi, Mohammad [Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, PO Box 19395-4697, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Keypour, Hassan [Department of Chemistry, Buali University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Three new coordination polymers, [Hg(μ-bptz)X{sub 2}]{sub n} (X=Cl (1), Br (2)) and [Hg{sub 2}(μ-bptz)(μ-I){sub 2}I{sub 2}]{sub n} (3) (bptz=3,6-bis(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine) were synthesized. X-ray structural analysis indicated that compounds 1 and 2 are composed of one-dimensional (1D) linear chains while the compound 3 has 1D stair-stepped structure. The electronic band structure along with density of states (DOS) calculated by the DFT method indicates that compound 1 and 2 are direct band gap semiconductors; however, compound 3 is an indirect semiconductor. The linear optical properties of the compounds are also calculated by DFT method. According to the DFT calculations, the observed emission band of the compounds in solid state is due to electron transfer from an excited bptz-π* state (CBs) to the top of VBs. {sup 1}H NMR spectra of the compounds indicate that, in solution phase, the compounds don’t decompose completely. Thermal stability of the compounds is studied using TG, DTA methods. - Graphical abstract: Synthesis, crystal structure and emission spectra of [Hg(μ-bptz)X{sub 2}]{sub n} (X=Cl and Br) and [Hg{sub 2}(μ-bptz)(μ-I){sub 2}I{sub 2}]{sub n} are presented. The electronic band structure and linear optical properties of the compounds are calculated by the DFT method. - Highlights: • Three 1D Hg(II) halide coordination polymers with bptz ligand have been prepared. • The structures of the compounds are determined by single crystal XRD. • DFT calculations show that [Hg(μ-bptz)X{sub 2}]{sub n} (X=Cl and Br) have a direct band gap. • DFT calculations show that [Hg{sub 2}(μ-bptz)(μ-I){sub 2}I{sub 2}]{sub n} has an indirect band gap. • The compounds show an intraligand electron transfer emission band in solid state.

  7. Self-Similar One-Dimensional Quasilattices

    CERN Document Server

    Boyle, Latham

    2016-01-01

    We study 1D quasilattices, especially self-similar ones that can be used to generate two-, three- and higher-dimensional quasicrystalline tesselations that have matching rules and invertible self-similar substitution rules (also known as inflation rules) analogous to the rules for generating Penrose tilings. The lattice positions can be expressed in a closed-form expression we call \\emph{floor form}: $x_{n} = S (n-\\alpha) + (L-S) \\lfloor \\kappa (n-\\beta) \\rfloor$, where $L > S > 0$ and $0 < \\kappa < 1$ is an irrational number. We describe three equivalent geometric constructions of these quasilattices and show how they can be subdivided into various types of equivalence classes: (i) \\emph{lattice equivalent}, where any two quasilattices in the same lattice equivalence class may be derived from one another by a local decoration/gluing rule; (ii) \\emph{self-similar}, a proper subset of lattice equivalent where, in addition, the two quasilattices are locally isomorphic; and (iii) \\emph{self-same}, a proper...

  8. One dimensional Convolutional Goppa Codes over the projective line

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, J A Domínguez; Sotelo, G Serrano

    2011-01-01

    We give a general method to construct MDS one-dimensional convolutional codes. Our method generalizes previous constructions of H. Gluesing-Luerssen and B. Langfeld. Moreover we give a classification of one-dimensional Convolutional Goppa Codes and propose a characterization of MDS codes of this type.

  9. One-dimensional diffusion model in an Inhomogeneous region

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fedotov, I

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional model is developed to describe atomic diffusion in a graphite tube atomizer for electrothermal atomic adsorption spectrometry. The underlying idea of the model is the solution of an inhomogeneous one-dimensional diffusion equation...

  10. The statistical distributions of one-dimensional “turbulence”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrard, Michel

    2004-06-01

    We study a one-dimensional discrete analog of the von Kármán flow widely investigated in turbulence, made of a lattice of anharmonic oscillators excited by both ends in the presence of a dissipative term proportional to the second-order finite difference of the velocities, similar to the viscous term in a fluid. The dynamics of the model shows striking similarities with an actual turbulent flow, both at local and global scales. Calculations of the probability distribution function of velocity increments, extensively studied in turbulence, with a very large number of points in order to determine accurately the statistics of rare events, allow us to provide a meaningful comparison of different theoretical expressions of the PDFs.

  11. Thermal radiation in one-dimensional photonic quasicrystals with graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, C. H.; Vasconcelos, M. S.; Fulco, U. L.; Albuquerque, E. L.

    2017-10-01

    In this work we investigate the thermal power spectra of the electromagnetic radiation through one-dimensional stacks of dielectric layers, with graphene at their interfaces, arranged according to a quasiperiodic structure obeying the Fibonacci (FB), Thue-Morse (TM) and double-period (DP) sequences. The thermal radiation power spectra are determined by means of a theoretical model based on a transfer matrix formalism for both normal and oblique incidence geometries, considering the Kirchhoff's law of thermal radiation. A systematic study of the consequences of the graphene layers in the thermal emittance spectra is presented and discussed. We studied also the radiation spectra considering the case where the chemical potential is changed in order to tune the omnidirectional photonic band gap.

  12. A Practical Application of the Computational Science Environment (CSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Visualization Using several of the tools available in CSE (Python, NumPy , PyQt, and Matplotlib), the CSE team worked with the MSRM Infrastructure team...automatically generate graphs of the data output using Python, NumPy , and Matplotlib. Figures 2 and 3 shows example plots of the MOES data. Figure 2

  13. Impedance of rigid bodies in one-dimensional elastic collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Janilo; Nelson, Osman Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In this work we study the problem of one-dimensional elastic collisions of billiard balls, considered as rigid bodies, in a framework very different from the classical one presented in text books. Implementing the notion of impedance matching as a way to understand eficiency of energy transmission in elastic collisions, we find a solution which frames the problem in terms of this conception. We show that the mass of the ball can be seen as a measure of its impedance and verify that the problem of maximum energy transfer in elastic collisions can be thought of as a problem of impedance matching between different media. This approach extends the concept of impedance, usually associated with oscillatory systems, to system of rigid bodies.

  14. Configurational and energy landscape in one-dimensional Coulomb systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Lucas; Téllez, Gabriel; Trizac, Emmanuel

    2017-02-01

    We study a one-dimensional Coulomb system, where two charged colloids are neutralized by a collection of point counterions, with global neutrality. With temperature being given, two situations are addressed: Either the colloids are kept at fixed positions (canonical ensemble) or the force acting on the colloids is fixed (isobaric-isothermal ensemble). The corresponding partition functions are worked out exactly, in view of determining which arrangement of counterions is optimal. How many counterions should be in the confined segment between the colloids? For the remaining ions outside, is there a left-right symmetry breakdown? We evidence a cascade of transitions as system size is varied in the canonical treatment or as pressure is increased in the isobaric formulation.

  15. Topologically protected states in one-dimensional systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fefferman, C L; Weinstein, M I

    2017-01-01

    The authors study a class of periodic Schrödinger operators, which in distinguished cases can be proved to have linear band-crossings or "Dirac points". They then show that the introduction of an "edge", via adiabatic modulation of these periodic potentials by a domain wall, results in the bifurcation of spatially localized "edge states". These bound states are associated with the topologically protected zero-energy mode of an asymptotic one-dimensional Dirac operator. The authors' model captures many aspects of the phenomenon of topologically protected edge states for two-dimensional bulk structures such as the honeycomb structure of graphene. The states the authors construct can be realized as highly robust TM-electromagnetic modes for a class of photonic waveguides with a phase-defect.

  16. One-dimensional quasi-relativistic particle in the box

    CERN Document Server

    Kaleta, Kamil; Malecki, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Two-term Weyl-type asymptotic law for the eigenvalues of one-dimensional quasi-relativistic Hamiltonian (-h^2 c^2 d^2/dx^2 + m^2 c^4)^(1/2) + V_well(x) (the Klein-Gordon square-root operator with electrostatic potential) with the infinite square well potential V_well(x) is given: the n-th eigenvalue is equal to (n pi/2 - pi/8) h c/a + O(1/n), where 2a is the width of the potential well. Simplicity of eigenvalues is proved. Some L^2 and L^infinity properties of eigenfunctions are also studied. Eigenvalues represent energies of a `massive particle in the box' quasi-relativistic model.

  17. Novel superconducting phenomena in quasi-one-dimensional Bechgaard salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, Denis; Yonezawa, Shingo

    2016-03-01

    It is the saturation of the transition temperature Tc in the range of 24 K for known materials in the late sixties that triggered the search for additional materials offering new coupling mechanisms leading in turn to higher Tc's. As a result of this stimulation, superconductivity in organic matter was discovered in tetramethyl-tetraselenafulvalene-hexafluorophosphate, (TMTSF)2PF6, in 1979, in the laboratory founded at Orsay by Professor Friedel and his colleagues in 1962. Although this conductor is a prototype example for low-dimensional physics, we mostly focus in this article on the superconducting phase of the ambient-pressure superconductor (TMTSF)2ClO4, which has been studied most intensively among the TMTSF salts. We shall present a series of experimental results supporting nodal d-wave symmetry for the superconducting gap in these prototypical quasi-one-dimensional conductors. xml:lang="fr"

  18. Reprint of : Absorbing/Emitting Phonons with one dimensional MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosisio, Riccardo; Gorini, Cosimo; Fleury, Geneviève; Pichard, Jean-Louis

    2016-08-01

    We consider nanowires in the field effect transistor device configuration. Modeling each nanowire as a one dimensional lattice with random site potentials, we study the heat exchanges between the nanowire electrons and the substrate phonons, when electron transport is due to phonon-assisted hops between localized states. Shifting the nanowire conduction band with a metallic gate induces different behaviors. When the Fermi potential is located near the band center, a bias voltage gives rise to small local heat exchanges which fluctuate randomly along the nanowire. When it is located near one of the band edges, the bias voltage yields heat currents which flow mainly from the substrate towards the nanowire near one boundary of the nanowire, and in the opposite direction near the other boundary. This opens interesting perspectives for heat management at submicron scales: arrays of parallel gated nanowires could be used for a field control of phonon emission/absorption.

  19. Charge diffusion in the one-dimensional Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinigeweg, R.; Jin, F.; De Raedt, H.; Michielsen, K.; Gemmer, J.

    2017-08-01

    We study the real-time and real-space dynamics of charge in the one-dimensional Hubbard model in the limit of high temperatures. To this end, we prepare pure initial states with sharply peaked density profiles and calculate the time evolution of these nonequilibrium states, by using numerical forward-propagation approaches to chains as long as 20 sites. For a class of typical states, we find excellent agreement with linear-response theory and unveil the existence of remarkably clean charge diffusion in the regime of strong particle-particle interactions. We additionally demonstrate that, in the half-filling sector, this diffusive behavior does not depend on certain details of our initial conditions, i.e., it occurs for five different realizations with random and nonrandom internal degrees of freedom, single and double occupation of the central site, and displacement of spin-up and spin-down particles.

  20. Magnons in one-dimensional k-component Fibonacci structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, C. H.; Vasconcelos, M. S.

    2014-05-01

    We have studied the magnon transmission through of one-dimensional magnonic k-component Fibonacci structures, where k different materials are arranged in accordance with the following substitution rule: Sn(k)=Sn-1(k)Sn-k(k) (n ≥k=0,1,2,…), where Sn(k) is the nth stage of the sequence. The calculations were carried out in exchange dominated regime within the framework of the Heisenberg model and taking into account the RPA approximation. We have considered multilayers composed of simple cubic spin-S Heisenberg ferromagnets, and, by using the powerful transfer-matrix method, the spin wave transmission is obtained. It is demonstrated that the transmission coefficient has a rich and interesting magnonic pass- and stop-bands structures, which depends on the frequency of magnons and the k values.

  1. Magnons in one-dimensional k-component Fibonacci structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, C. H., E-mail: carloshocosta@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Vasconcelos, M. S. [Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil)

    2014-05-07

    We have studied the magnon transmission through of one-dimensional magnonic k-component Fibonacci structures, where k different materials are arranged in accordance with the following substitution rule: S{sub n}{sup (k)}=S{sub n−1}{sup (k)}S{sub n−k}{sup (k)} (n≥k=0,1,2,…), where S{sub n}{sup (k)} is the nth stage of the sequence. The calculations were carried out in exchange dominated regime within the framework of the Heisenberg model and taking into account the RPA approximation. We have considered multilayers composed of simple cubic spin-S Heisenberg ferromagnets, and, by using the powerful transfer-matrix method, the spin wave transmission is obtained. It is demonstrated that the transmission coefficient has a rich and interesting magnonic pass- and stop-bands structures, which depends on the frequency of magnons and the k values.

  2. CBS and CSE are critical for maintenance of mitochondrial function and glucocorticoid production in adrenal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chang-Nan; Liu, Yu-Jian; Duan, Guo-Li; Zhao, Wei; Li, Xiao-Han; Zhu, Xiao-Yan; Ni, Xin

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondria are known to play a central role in adrenocortical steroidogenesis. Recently, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gaseous transmitter endogenously produced by cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), has been found to improve mitochondrial function. The present study aimed at examining whether CBS and CSE are expressed in adrenal glands, and investigated the role of these enzymes in the maintenance of mitochondrial function and the production of glucocorticoids in adrenocortical cells. Both CBS and CSE are present in murine adrenocortical cells and account for H2S generation in adrenal glands. Using a combination of both in vivo and in vitro approaches, we demonstrated that either CBS/CSE inhibitors or small interfering RNAs led to mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunction, which meanwhile resulted in blunted corticosterone responses to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). These effects were significantly attenuated by the treatment of H2S donor GYY4137. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) also caused mitochondrial damage, thereby resulting in adrenal insufficiency. Moreover, LPS inhibited CBS/CSE expression and H2S production in adrenal glands, while H₂S donor GYY4137 protected against LPS-induced mitochondrial damage and hyporesponsiveness to ACTH. Local suppression of CBS or CSE in adrenal glands significantly increased the mortality in endotoxemic mice, which was also improved by GYY4137. The identification of endogenous H2S generation as critical regulators of adrenocortical responsiveness might result in the development of new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of relative adrenal insufficiency during sepsis. Endogenous H₂S plays a critical role in the maintenance of mitochondrial function in the adrenal cortex, thereby resulting in an adequate adrenocortical response to ACTH.

  3. 考虑起始比降的饱和土体一维复杂非线性固结研究%Study on one-dimensional nonlinear consolidation behavior for saturated soils with threshold gradient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄杰卿; 谢新宇; 王文军; 刘开富

    2013-01-01

    In reduced coordinates, a one-dimensional finite strain consolidation equation for saturated soils is derived with threshold gradient. The new equation shows that threshold gradient and variation of permeability coefficient with void ratio should be considered. Using the two empirical relations proposed by Mesri, a new governing equation is obtained. Then three examples are analyzed by applying the partial differential finite element software FlexPDE. The results show that excess pore water pressure slightly increases at the beginning of consolidation progress and then dissipates. This phenomenon is similar to the Mandel-Cryer effect. It will be more significant if threshold gradient is greater or location of soil is deeper. Even though the maximum excess pore water pressure increases when threshold gradient increases, the increment is very small. It is too difficult for us to observe the tiny increments in laboratory and practical engineerings. Therefore, there is no need to consider threshold gradient in vast majority of actual projects. In other words, classical Carey's law is applicable. This research shows that it is very important to consider threshold gradient, geometric nonlinearity and material nonlinearity in studying the Mandel-Cryer effect so as to further understand the consolidation properties of saturated soils.%在固相物质坐标下推导出了考虑起始比降的饱和土体一维大应变固结控制方程.从新方程可以看出,要综合考虑土体固结过程中的渗流非线性,要同时考虑起始比降和渗透系数随孔隙比的变化.采用Mesri提出的两个经验关系式进一步推导出了新的控制方程.借助偏微分有限元软件FlexPDE对3个算例进行了分析.分析结果表明,土体固结开始阶段超静孔压先略微增大,然后减小,类似于Mandel-Cryer效应.起始比降越大,土层越深,该现象越显著.虽然超静孔压最大值随起始比降的增大而增大,但增量很小.如此微小的

  4. Torsional Detwinning Domino in Nanotwinned One-Dimensional Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haofei; Li, Xiaoyan; Wang, Ying; Liu, Zishun; Yang, Wei; Gao, Huajian

    2015-09-09

    How to maintain sustained deformation in one-dimensional nanostructures without localized failure is an important question for many applications of nanotechnology. Here we report a phenomenon of torsional detwinning domino that leads to giant rotational deformation without localized failure in nanotwinned one-dimensional metallic nanostructures. This mechanism is demonstrated in nanotwinned Cu nanorods via molecular dynamics simulations, where coherent twin boundaries are transformed into twist boundaries and then dissolved one by one, resulting in practically unlimited rotational deformation. This finding represents a fundamental advance in our understanding of deformation mechanisms in one-dimensional metallic nanostructures.

  5. One- and Two- Magnon Excitations in a One-Dimensional Antiferromagnet in a Magnetic Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilmann, I.U.; Kjems, Jørgen; Endoh, Y.;

    1981-01-01

    We have carried out a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the inelastic scattering in the one-dimensional near-Heisenberg antiferromagnet (CD3)4NMnCl3 (TMMC) at low temperatures, 0.3......We have carried out a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the inelastic scattering in the one-dimensional near-Heisenberg antiferromagnet (CD3)4NMnCl3 (TMMC) at low temperatures, 0.3...

  6. A NEW ONE-DIMENSIONAL CHAOTIC MAP WITH INFINITE COLLAPSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Yuehong; He Chen; Zhu Hongwen

    2002-01-01

    This letter presents a new one-dimensional chaotic map with infinite collapses. Theoretical analyses show that the map has complicated dynamical behavior and ideal distribution.The map can be applied in chaotic spreading spectrum communication and chaotic cipher.

  7. One-dimensional spatially dependent solute transport in semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One-dimensional spatially dependent solute transport in semi-infinite porous media: an analytical solution. ... Journal Home > Vol 9, No 4 (2017) > ... In this mathematical model the dispersion coefficient is considered spatially dependent while ...

  8. One-Dimensional Tunable Photonic-Crystal IR Filter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MetroLaser proposes to design and develop an innovative narrowband tunable IR filter based on the properties of a one-dimensional photonic crystal structure with a...

  9. One-Dimensional Tunable Photonic-Crystal IR Filter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MetroLaser proposes to design and develop an innovative narrowband tunable IR filter based on the properties of a one-dimensional photonic crystal structure with a...

  10. One dimensional models of excitons in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia Decebal; Duclos, P.; Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    Excitons in carbon nanotubes may be modeled by two oppositely charged particles living on the surface of a cylinder. We derive three one dimensional effective Hamiltonians which become exact as the radius of the cylinder vanishes. Two of them are solvable.......Excitons in carbon nanotubes may be modeled by two oppositely charged particles living on the surface of a cylinder. We derive three one dimensional effective Hamiltonians which become exact as the radius of the cylinder vanishes. Two of them are solvable....

  11. An investigation of dopping profile for a one dimensional heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhaohui

    2005-03-01

    A one-dimensional junction is formed by joining two silicon nanowires whose surfaces are terminated with capping groups of different electronegativity and polarizability. If this heterostructure is doped (with e.g. phosphorous) on the side with the higher bandgap, the system becomes a modulation doped heterostructure with novel one-dimensional electrostatics. We use density functional theory calculations in the pseudopotential approximation, plus empirical model calculations, to investigate doping profiles in this new class of nanostructures.

  12. Nucleation and growth of nanoscaled one-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongtao

    Nanoscaled one-dimensional materials have attracted great interest due to their novel physical and chemical properties. The purpose of this dissertation is to study the nucleation and growth mechanisms of carbon nanotubes and silicon nitride nanowires with their field emission applications in mind. As a result of this research, a novel methodology has been developed to deposit aligned bamboo-like carbon nanotubes on substrates using a methane and ammonia mixture in microwave plasma enhanced chemical deposition. Study of growth kinetics suggests that the carbon diffusion through bulk catalyst particles controls growth in the initial deposition process. Microstructures of carbon nanotubes are affected by the growth temperature and carbon concentration in the gas phase. High-resolution transmission electron microscope confirms the existence of the bamboo-like structure. Electron diffraction reveals that the iron-based catalyst nucleates and sustains the growth of carbon nanotubes. A nucleation and growth model has been constructed based upon experimental data and observations. In the study of silicon nitride nanoneedles, a vapor-liquid-solid model is employed to explain the nucleation and growth processes. Ammonia plasma etching is proposed to reduce the size of the catalyst and subsequently produce the novel needle-like nanostructure. High-resolution transmission electron microscope shows the structure is well crystallized and composed of alpha-silicon nitride. Other observations in the structure are also explained.

  13. Topological water wave states in a one-dimensional structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhaoju; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Baile

    2016-01-01

    Topological concepts have been introduced into electronic, photonic, and phononic systems, but have not been studied in surface-water-wave systems. Here we study a one-dimensional periodic resonant surface-water-wave system and demonstrate its topological transition. By selecting three different water depths, we can construct different types of water waves - shallow, intermediate and deep water waves. The periodic surface-water-wave system consists of an array of cylindrical water tanks connected with narrow water channels. As the width of connecting channel varies, the band diagram undergoes a topological transition which can be further characterized by Zak phase. This topological transition holds true for shallow, intermediate and deep water waves. However, the interface state at the boundary separating two topologically distinct arrays of water tanks can exhibit different bands for shallow, intermediate and deep water waves. Our work studies for the first time topological properties of water wave systems, and paves the way to potential management of water waves. PMID:27373982

  14. [Expressions of CSE and CBS in the corpus cavernosum of spontaneous hypertensive rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiu-Bo; Jiang, Jun; Jiang, Rui; Chen, Feng

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the expressions of cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) in the corpus cavernosum of spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) and their relationship with erectile dysfunction. This study included 10 male SHRs and 10 healthy male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats as controls, all aged 12 weeks. We applied a series of electric stimuli to the major pelvic ganglions of the rats, observed changes in the ratio of intracavernosal to mean arterial blood pressure (ICP/MAP), measured the levels of serum testosterone (T) and endogenous H2S, and determined the expressions of CSE and CBS in the corpus cavernosum by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. No obvious difference was found in the serum T level between the two groups. Compared with the WKY rats, the SHRs showed significant reduction in the ICP/MAP ratio, the contents of plasma H2S ([21.92 +/- 2.75] micromol/L vs [10.49 +/- 1.35] micromol/L, P CBS and CSE (P CBS were distributed mainly in the smooth muscle cells and vascular endothelial cells of the corpus cavernosum. The ICP/MAP ratio was highly positively correlated with the expressions of CSE (r = 0.977, P CBS (r = 0.955, P CBS in the corpus cavernosum, which might be related with hypertension-induced reduction of erectile function.

  15. A Smart Colorful Supercapacitor with One Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cihui; Liu, Xing; Xuan, Hongyun; Ren, Jiaoyu; Ge, Liqin

    2015-12-01

    To meet the pressing demands for portable and flexible equipment in contemporary society, developing flexible, lightweight, and sustainable supercapacitor systems with large power densities, long cycle life, and ease of strongly required. However, estimating the state-of-charge of existing supercapacitors is difficult, and thus their service life is limited. In this study, we fabricate a flexible color indicative supercapacitor device with mesoporous polyaniline (mPANI)/Poly(N-Isopropyl acrylamide-Graphene Oxide-Acrylic Acid) (P(NiPPAm-GO-AA)) one dimensional photonic crystals (1DPCs) as the electrode material through a low-cost, eco-friendly, and scalable fabrication process. We found that the state-of-charge could be monitored by the structural color oscillation due to the change in the photonic band gap position of the 1DPCs. The flexible 1DPCs supercapacitor is thin at 3 mm and exhibits good specific capacitance of 22.6 F g-1 with retention of 91.1% after 3,000 cycles. This study shows the application of the 1DPCs supercapacitor as a visual ultrathin power source. The technology may find many applications in future wearable electronics.

  16. A Smart Colorful Supercapacitor with One Dimensional Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cihui; Liu, Xing; Xuan, Hongyun; Ren, Jiaoyu; Ge, Liqin

    2015-12-22

    To meet the pressing demands for portable and flexible equipment in contemporary society, developing flexible, lightweight, and sustainable supercapacitor systems with large power densities, long cycle life, and ease of strongly required. However, estimating the state-of-charge of existing supercapacitors is difficult, and thus their service life is limited. In this study, we fabricate a flexible color indicative supercapacitor device with mesoporous polyaniline (mPANI)/Poly(N-Isopropyl acrylamide-Graphene Oxide-Acrylic Acid) (P(NiPPAm-GO-AA)) one dimensional photonic crystals (1DPCs) as the electrode material through a low-cost, eco-friendly, and scalable fabrication process. We found that the state-of-charge could be monitored by the structural color oscillation due to the change in the photonic band gap position of the 1DPCs. The flexible 1DPCs supercapacitor is thin at 3 mm and exhibits good specific capacitance of 22.6 F g(-1) with retention of 91.1% after 3,000 cycles. This study shows the application of the 1DPCs supercapacitor as a visual ultrathin power source. The technology may find many applications in future wearable electronics.

  17. Electron Rydberg wave packets in one-dimensional atoms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supriya Chatterjee; Amitava Choudhuri; Aparna Saha; B Talukdar

    2010-09-01

    An expression for the transition probability or form factor in one-dimensional Rydberg atom irradiated by short half-cycle pulse was constructed. In applicative contexts, our expression was found to be more useful than the corresponding result given by Landau and Lifshitz. Using the new expression for the form factor, the motion of a localized quantum wave packet was studied with particular emphasis on its revival and super-revival properties. Closed form analytical expressions were derived for expectation values of the position and momentum operators that characterized the widths of the position and momentum distributions. Transient phase-space localization of the wave packet produced by the application of a single impulsive kick was explicitly demonstrated. The undulation of the uncertainty product as a function of time was studied in order to visualize how the motion of the wave packet in its classical trajectory spreads throughout the orbit and the system becomes nonclassical. The process, however, repeats itself such that the atom undergoes a free evolution from a classical, to a nonclassical, and back to a classical state.

  18. One dimensional speckle fields generated by three phase level diffusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, L.; Amaya, D.; Bolognini, N.; Lencina, A.

    2015-02-01

    Speckle patterns have usually been obtained by using ground glass as random diffusers. Liquid-crystal spatial light modulators have opened the possibility of engineering tailored speckle fields obtained from designed diffusers. In this work, one-dimensional Gaussian speckle fields with fully controllable features are generated. By employing a low-cost liquid-crystal spatial light modulator, one-dimensional three phase level diffusers are implemented. These diffusers make it possible to control average intensity distribution and statistical independence among the generated patterns. The average speckle size is governed by an external slit pupil. A theoretical model to describe the generated speckle patterns is developed. Experimental and theoretical results confirming the generation of one-dimensional speckle fields are presented. Some possible applications of these speckles, such as atom trapping and super-resolution imaging, are briefly envisaged.

  19. Analysis of one dimensional and two dimensional fuzzy controllers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ban Xiaojun; Gao Xiaozhi; Huang Xianlin; Wu Tianbao

    2006-01-01

    The analytical structures and the corresponding mathematical properties of the one dimensional and two dimensional fuzzy controllers are first investigated in detail.The nature of these two kinds of fuzzy controllers is next probed from the perspective of control engineering. For the one dimensional fuzzy controller, it is concluded that this controller is a combination of a saturation element and a nonlinear proportional controller, and the system that employs the one dimensional fuzzy controller is the combination of an open-loop control system and a closedloop control system. For the latter case, it is concluded that it is a hybrid controller, which comprises the saturation part, zero-output part, nonlinear derivative part, nonlinear proportional part, as well as nonlinear proportional-derivative part, and the two dimensional fuzzy controller-based control system is a loop-varying system with varying number of control loops.

  20. A review on one dimensional perovskite nanocrystals for piezoelectric applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Qian Cheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, one-dimensional piezoelectric nanomaterials have become a research topic of interest because of their special morphology and excellent piezoelectric properties. This article presents a short review on one dimensional perovskite piezoelectric materials in different systems including Pb(Zr,TiO3, BaTiO3 and (K,NaNbO3 (KNN. We emphasize KNN as a promising lead-free piezoelectric compound with a high Curie temperature and high piezoelectric properties and describe its synthesis and characterization. In particular, details are presented for nanoscale piezoelectricity characterization of a single KNN nanocrystal by piezoresponse force microscopy. Finally, this review describes recent progress in applications based on one dimensional piezoelectric nanostructures with a focus on energy harvesting composite materials.

  1. Geometric structure, electronic structure and optical absorption properties of one-dimensional thiolate-protected gold clusters containing a quasi-face-centered-cubic (quasi-fcc) Au-core: a density-functional theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhongyun; Wang, Pu; Pei, Yong

    2016-09-29

    Based on the recently reported atomic structures of thiolate-protected Au28(SR)20, Au36(SR)24, Au44(SR)28, and Au52(SR)32 clusters, a family of homogeneous, linear, thiolate-protected gold superstructures containing novel quasi-face-centered-cubic (quasi-fcc) Au-cores is theoretically envisioned, denoted as the Au20+8N(SR)16+4N cluster. By means of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations, a unified view of the geometric structure, electronic structure, magic stable size and size-dependent NIR absorption properties of Au20+8N(SR)16+4N clusters is provided. We find that the Au20+8N(SR)16+4N clusters demonstrate oscillating transformation energies dependent on N. The odd-N clusters show more favorable (negative) reaction energies than the even-N clusters. The magic stability of recently reported Au28(SR)20, Au36(SR)24, Au44(SR)28, Au52(SR)32 and Au76(SR)44 clusters can be addressed from the relative reaction energies and geometric distortion of Au-cores. A novel 4N + 4 magic electron-number is suggested for the Au20+8N(SR)16+4N cluster. Using the polyhedral skeletal electron pair theory (PSEPT) and the extended Hückel molecular orbital (EHMO) calculations, we suggest that the magic 4N + 4 electron number is correlated with the quasi-fcc Au-cores, which can be viewed as double helical tetrahedron-Au4 chains. The size-dependent optical absorption properties of Au20+8N(SR)16+4N clusters are revealed based on TD-DFT calculations. We propose that these clusters are potential candidates for the experimental synthesis of atomically precise one-dimensional ligand protected gold superstructures with tunable NIR absorption properties.

  2. Solitary Wave in One-dimensional Buckyball System at Nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Zheng, Bowen; Liu, Yilun

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the stress wave propagation in one-dimensional (1-D) nanoscopic buckyball (C60) system by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and quantitative modeling. Simulation results have shown that solitary waves are generated and propagating in the buckyball system through impacting one buckyball at one end of the buckyball chain. We have found the solitary wave behaviors are closely dependent on the initial temperature and impacting speed of the buckyball chain. There are almost no dispersion and dissipation of the solitary waves (stationary solitary wave) for relatively low temperature and high impacting speed. While for relatively high temperature and low impacting speed the profile of the solitary waves is highly distorted and dissipated after propagating several tens of buckyballs. A phase diagram is proposed to describe the effect of the temperature and impacting speed on the solitary wave behaviors in buckyball system. In order to quantitatively describe the wave behavior in buckyball system, a simple nonlinear-spring model is established, which can describe the MD simulation results at low temperature very well. The results presented in this work may lay a solid step towards the further understanding and manipulation of stress wave propagation and impact energy mitigation at nanoscale. PMID:26891624

  3. Solution-phase Synthesis of One-dimensional Semiconductor Nanostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianfeng YE; Limin QI

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of one-dimensional (1D) semiconductor nanostructures has been studied intensively for a wide range of materials due to their unique structural and physical properties and promising potential for future technological applications. Among various strategies for synthesizing 1D semiconductor nanostructures, solution-phase synthetic routes are advantageous in terms of cost, throughput, modulation of composition, and the potential for large-scale and environmentally benign production. This article gives a concise review on the recent developments in the solution-phase synthesis of 1D semiconductor nanostructures of different compositions, sizes, shapes, and architectures. We first introduce several typical solution-phase synthetic routes based on controlled precipitation from homogeneous solutions, including hydrothermal/solvothermal process, solution-liquid-solid (SLS) process, high-temperature organic-solution process, and low-temperature aqueous-solution process. Subsequently, we discuss two solution-phase synthetic strategies involving solid templates or substrates, such as the chemical transformation of 1D sacrificial templates and the oriented growth of 1D nanostructure arrays on solid substrates. Finally, prospects of the solution-phase approaches to 1D semiconductor nanostructures will be briefly discussed.

  4. Spin interference in silicon one-dimensional rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagraev, N T [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, RAS, 194021 St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Galkin, N G [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, RAS, 194021 St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gehlhoff, W [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, TU Berlin, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Klyachkin, L E [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, RAS, 194021 St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Malyarenko, A M [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, RAS, 194021 St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Shelykh, I A [Physics and Astronomy School, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton, S017 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2006-11-15

    We present the first findings of the spin transistor effect in a Rashba gate-controlled ring embedded in a p-type self-assembled silicon quantum well that is prepared on an n-type Si(100) surface. The coherence and phase sensitivity of the spin-dependent transport of holes are studied by varying the values of the external magnetic field and the bias voltage that are applied perpendicularly to the plane of the double-slit ring. First, the amplitude and phase sensitivity of the 0.7 x (2e{sup 2}/h) feature of the hole quantum conductance staircase revealed by the quantum point contact inserted in one of the arms of the double-slit ring are found to result from the interplay of the spontaneous spin polarization and the Rashba spin-orbit interaction. Second, the quantum scatterers connected to two one-dimensional leads and the quantum point contact inserted are shown to define the amplitude and the phase of the Aharonov-Bohm and the Aharonov-Casher conductance oscillations. (letter to the editor)

  5. Trapped Atoms in One-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, H.

    2013-05-01

    I describe one-dimensional photonic crystals that support a guided mode suitable for atom trapping within a unit cell, as well as a second probe mode with strong atom-photon interactions. A new hybrid trap is analyzed that combines optical and Casimir-Polder forces to form stable traps for neutral atoms in dielectric nanostructures. By suitable design of the band structure, the atomic spontaneous emission rate into the probe mode can exceed the rate into all other modes by more than tenfold. The unprecedented single-atom reflectivity r0 ~= 0 . 9 for the guided probe field could create new scientific opportunities, including quantum many-body physics for 1 D atom chains with photon-mediated interactions and high-precision studies of vacuum forces. Towards these goals, my colleagues and I are pursuing numerical simulation, device fabrication, and cold-atom experiments with nanoscopic structures. Funding is provided by by the IQIM, an NSF PFC with support of the Moore Foundation, by the AFOSR QuMPASS MURI, by the DoD NSSEFF program (HJK), and by NSF Grant PHY0652914 (HJK). DEC acknowledges funding from Fundacio Privada Cellex Barcelona.

  6. Validation and Comparison of One-Dimensional Graound Motion Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Darragh; W. Silva; N. Gregor

    2006-06-28

    Both point- and finite-source stochastic one-dimensional ground motion models, coupled to vertically propagating equivalent-linear shear-wave site response models are validated using an extensive set of strong motion data as part of the Yucca Mountain Project. The validation and comparison exercises are presented entirely in terms of 5% damped pseudo absolute response spectra. The study consists of a quantitative analyses involving modeling nineteen well-recorded earthquakes, M 5.6 to 7.4 at over 600 sites. The sites range in distance from about 1 to about 200 km in the western US (460 km for central-eastern US). In general, this validation demonstrates that the stochastic point- and finite-source models produce accurate predictions of strong ground motions over the range of 0 to 100 km and for magnitudes M 5.0 to 7.4. The stochastic finite-source model appears to be broadband, producing near zero bias from about 0.3 Hz (low frequency limit of the analyses) to the high frequency limit of the data (100 and 25 Hz for response and Fourier amplitude spectra, respectively).

  7. One-dimensional Ising model with multispin interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Turban, L

    2016-01-01

    We study the spin-$1/2$ Ising chain with multispin interactions $K$ involving the product of $m$ successive spins, for general values of $m$. Using a change of spin variables the zero-field partition function of a finite chain is obtained for free and periodic boundary conditions (BC) and we calculate the two-spin correlation function. When placed in an external field $H$ the system is shown to be self-dual. Using another change of spin variables the one-dimensional (1D) Ising model with multispin interactions in a field is mapped onto a zero-field rectangular Ising model with first-neighbour interactions $K$ and $H$. The 2D system, with size $m\\times N/m$, has the topology of a cylinder with helical BC. In the thermodynamic limit $N/m\\to\\infty$, $m\\to\\infty$, a 2D critical singularity develops on the self-duality line, $\\sinh 2K\\sinh 2H=1$.

  8. One dimensional numerical simulation of small scale CFB combustors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gungor, Afsin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Nigde University, 51100 Nigde (Turkey)

    2009-03-15

    In this study, a one-dimensional model which includes volatilization, attrition and combustion of char particles for a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustor has been developed. In the modeling, the CFB combustor is analyzed in two regions: bottom zone considering as a bubbling fluidized bed in turbulent fluidization regime and upper zone core-annulus solids flow structure is established. In the bottom zone, a single-phase back-flow cell model is used to represent the solid mixing. Solids exchange, between the bubble phase and emulsion phase is a function of the bubble diameter and varies along the axis of the combustor. In the upper zone, particles move upward in the core and downward in the annulus. Thickness of the annulus varies according to the combustor height. Using the developed simulation program, the effects of operational parameters which are the particle diameter, superficial velocity and air-to-fuel ratio on net solids flux, oxygen and carbon dioxide mole ratios along the bed height and carbon content and bed temperature on the top of the riser are investigated. Simulation results are compared with test results obtained from the 50 kW Gazi University Heat Power Laboratory pilot scale unit and good agreement is observed. (author)

  9. A one-dimensional theory for Higgs branch operators

    CERN Document Server

    Dedushenko, Mykola; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-01-01

    We use supersymmetric localization to calculate correlation functions of half-BPS local operators in 3d ${\\cal N} = 4$ superconformal field theories whose Lagrangian descriptions consist of vectormultiplets coupled to hypermultiplets. The operators we primarily study are certain twisted linear combinations of Higgs branch operators that can be inserted anywhere along a given line. These operators are constructed from the hypermultiplet scalars. They form a one-dimensional non-commutative operator algebra with topological correlation functions. The 2- and 3-point functions of Higgs branch operators in the full 3d ${\\cal N}=4$ theory can be simply inferred from the 1d topological algebra. After conformally mapping the 3d superconformal field theory from flat space to a round three-sphere, we preform supersymmetric localization using a supercharge that does not belong to any 3d ${\\cal N} = 2$ subalgebra of the ${\\cal N}=4$ algebra. The result is a simple model that can be used to calculate correlation functions ...

  10. One-dimensional models of excitons in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia Decebal; Duclos, Pierre; Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    2004-01-01

    Excitons in carbon nanotubes may be modeled by two oppositely charged particles living on the surface of a cylinder. We derive three one-dimensional effective Hamiltonians which become exact as the radius of the cylinder vanishes. Two of them are solvable.......Excitons in carbon nanotubes may be modeled by two oppositely charged particles living on the surface of a cylinder. We derive three one-dimensional effective Hamiltonians which become exact as the radius of the cylinder vanishes. Two of them are solvable....

  11. One-dimensional Nanostructured Materials From Organic Precursor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. F. Cai

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction One-dimensional nanostructured materials, such as nanowires, nanobelts, nanotubes and nanocables have been attracting a great research interest in the last decade due to their superior electrical, optical, mechanical and thermal properties, and many methods have been explored to synthesis of the materials, e.g., arc discharge, laser ablation, chemical vapor deposition, thermal evaporation, sol-gel method, template method and so on. In this work, we present a novel and simple method to one-dimensional nanostructured materials by pyrolysis of organic precursor.

  12. Branching solutions to one-dimensional variational problems

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, A O

    2001-01-01

    This book deals with the new class of one-dimensional variational problems - the problems with branching solutions. Instead of extreme curves (mappings of a segment to a manifold) we investigate extreme networks, which are mappings of graphs (one-dimensional cell complexes) to a manifold. Various applications of the approach are presented, such as several generalizations of the famous Steiner problem of finding the shortest network spanning given points of the plane. Contents: Preliminary Results; Networks Extremality Criteria; Linear Networks in R N; Extremals of Length Type Functionals: The

  13. The electromagnetic Brillouin precursor in one-dimensional photonic crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitham, R.; Hoenders, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    We have calculated the electromagnetic Brillouin precursor that arises in a one-dimensional photonic crystal that consists of two homogeneous slabs which each have a single electron resonance. This forerunner is compared with the Brillouin precursor that arises in a homogeneous double-electron reson

  14. Time correlation functions for the one-dimensional Lorentz gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazo, R.M.; Beijeren, H. van

    1983-01-01

    The velocity autocorrelation function and related quantities are investigated for the one-dimensional deterministic Lorentz gas, consisting of randomly distributed fixed scatterers and light particles moving back and forth between two of these at a constant given speed. An expansion for the velocity

  15. Current-Voltage Characteristics of Quasi-One-Dimensional Superconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vodolazov, D.Y.; Peeters, F.M.; Piraux, L.

    2003-01-01

    The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of quasi-one-dimensional superconductors were discussed. The I-V characteristics exhibited an unusual S behavior. The dynamics of superconducting condensate and the existence of two different critical currents resulted in such an unusual behavior....

  16. The electromagnetic Brillouin precursor in one-dimensional photonic crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitham, R.; Hoenders, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    We have calculated the electromagnetic Brillouin precursor that arises in a one-dimensional photonic crystal that consists of two homogeneous slabs which each have a single electron resonance. This forerunner is compared with the Brillouin precursor that arises in a homogeneous double-electron

  17. Quasi-one-dimensional scattering in a discrete model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valiente, Manuel; Mølmer, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    that more than one confinement-induced resonances appear due to the nonseparability of the center-of-mass and relative coordinates on the lattice. This is done by solving its corresponding Lippmann-Schwinger-like equation. We characterize the effective one-dimensional interaction and compare it with a model...

  18. One-dimensional Bose gas on an atom chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amerongen, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    We describe experiments investigating the (coherence) properties of a finite-temperature one-dimensional (1D) Bose gas with repulsive interactions. The confining magnetic field is generated with a micro-electronic circuit. This microtrap for atoms or `atom chip' is particularly suited to generate a

  19. Quantum Dynamics of One-Dimensional Nanocrystalline Solids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁建文; 颜晓红; 曹觉先; 王登龙

    2002-01-01

    A novel ballistic-nonballistic dynamic transition in one-dimensional nanocrystalline solids is found upon varyingthe strength of the composition modulation and the grain-boundary effect. This can contribute to the under-standing of the strange electronic transport properties of nanostructured systems.

  20. How good are one-dimensional Josephson junction models?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomdahl, P. S.; Olsen, O.H.; Eilbeck, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    A two-dimensional model of Josephson junctions of overlap type is presented and shown to reduce to the usual one-dimensional (1D) model in the limit of a very narrow junction. Comparisons between the stability limits for fluxon reflection obtained from the two models suggest that the many results...

  1. Quasi-one-dimensional intermittent flux behavior in superconducting films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qviller, A. J.; Yurchenko, V. V.; Galperin, Y. M.

    2012-01-01

    . The intermittent behavior shows no threshold value in the applied field, in contrast to conventional flux jumping. The results strongly suggest that the quasi-one-dimensional flux jumps are of a different nature than the thermomagnetic dendritic (branching) avalanches that are commonly found in superconducting...

  2. Radiative decay of the one-dimensional large acoustic polaron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivic, Zoran; Zekovic, Slobodan; Przulj, Zeljko

    2002-12-30

    Finite temperature dynamics and stability of the adiabatic large acoustic polaron in one-dimensional systems have been examined by means of the perturbation method based upon the inverse scattering transform. Polaron life-time was estimated in dependence of temperature and electron (exciton)-phonon coupling constant.

  3. Intertwining technique for the one-dimensional stationary Dirac equation

    CERN Document Server

    Nieto, L M; Samsonov, B F; Samsonov, Boris F.

    2003-01-01

    The technique of differential intertwining operators (or Darboux transformation operators) is systematically applied to the one-dimensional Dirac equation. The following aspects are investigated: factorization of a polynomial of Dirac Hamiltonians, quadratic supersymmetry, closed extension of transformation operators, chains of transformations, and finally particular cases of pseudoscalar and scalar potentials. The method is widely illustrated by numerous examples.

  4. One Dimensional Quasi-Exactly Solvable Differential Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Fasihi, Mohammad A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper by means of similarity transformation we find some one-dimensional quasi-exactly solvable differential equations and their related Hamiltonians which appear in physical problems. We have provided also two examples with application of these differential equations.

  5. Quantum dynamics of one-dimensional nanocrystalline solids

    CERN Document Server

    Ding Jian Wen; Cao Jue Xian; Wang Deng Long

    2002-01-01

    A novel ballistic-non-ballistic dynamic transition in one-dimensional nanocrystalline solids is found upon varying the strength of the composition modulation and the grain-boundary effect. This can contribute to the understanding of the strange electronic transport properties of nano-structured systems

  6. MPST but not CSE is the primary regulator of hydrogen sulfide production and function in the coronary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Maggie M; Kim, Dae Hee; Jandu, Sandeep; Bergman, Yehudit; Tan, Siqi; Wang, Huilei; Pandey, Deepesh R; Abraham, Theodore P; Shoukas, Artin A; Berkowitz, Dan E; Santhanam, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as an important gasotransmitter in the vasculature. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that H2S contributes to coronary vasoregulation and evaluated the physiological relevance of two sources of H2S, namely, cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) and 3-mercaptypyruvate sulfertransferase (MPST). MPST was detected in human coronary artery endothelial cells as well as rat and mouse coronary artery; CSE was not detected in the coronary vasculature. Rat coronary artery homogenates produced H2S through the MPST pathway but not the CSE pathway in vitro. In vivo coronary vasorelaxation response was similar in CSE knockout mice, wild-type mice (WT), and WT mice treated with the CSE inhibitor propargylglycine, suggesting that CSE-produced H2S does not have a significant role in coronary vasoregulation in vivo. Ex vivo, the MPST substrate 3-mercaptopyruvate (3-MP) and H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) elicited similar coronary vasoreactivity responses. Pyruvate did not have any effects on vasoreactivity. The vasoactive effect of H2S appeared to be nitric oxide (NO) dependent: H2S induced coronary vasoconstriction in the presence of NO and vasorelaxation in its absence. Maximal endothelial-dependent relaxation was intact after 3-MP and NaHS induced an increase in preconstriction tone, suggesting that endothelial NO synthase activity was not significantly inhibited. In vitro, H2S reacted with NO, which may, in part explain the vasoconstrictive effects of 3-MP and NaHS. Taken together, these data show that MPST rather than CSE generates H2S in coronary artery, mediating its effects through direct modulation of NO. This has important implications for H2S-based therapy in healthy and diseased coronary arteries.

  7. Rashba electron transport in one-dimensional quantum waveguides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The properties of Rashba wave function in the planar one-dimensional waveguide are studied, and the following results are obtained. Due to the Rashba effect, the plane waves of electron with the energy E divide into two kinds of waves with the wave vectors k 1 =k 0 +k δ and k 2 =k 0 -k δ , where k δ is proportional to the Rashba coefficient, and their spin orientations are +π/2 (spin up) and -π/2 (spin down) with respect to the circuit, respectively. If there is gate or ferromagnetic contact in the circuit, the Rashba wave function becomes standing wave form exp(±ik δ l)sin[k 0 (l-L)], where L is the position coordinate of the gate or contact. Unlike the electron without considering the spin, the phase of the Rashba plane or standing wave function depends on the direction angle θ of the circuit. The travel velocity of the Rashba waves with the wave vector k 1 or k 2 are the same hk0/m * . The boundary conditions of the Rashba wave functions at the intersection of circuits are given from the continuity of wave functions and the conservation of current density. Using the boundary conditions of Rashba wave functions we study the transmission and reflection probabilities of Rashba electron moving in several structures, and find the interference effects of the two Rashba waves with different wave vectors caused by ferromagnetic contact or the gate. Lastly we derive the general theory of multiple branches structure. The theory can be used to design various spin polarized devices.

  8. Synthesis and application of one-dimensional nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daihua

    My research has been focused on the synthesis, characterization and application of three types of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures, including metal oxide nanowires, transition metal oxide core-shell nanocables, and carbon nanotubes. They represent a new class of materials that have attracted steadily growing interest due to their peculiar properties and unique applications complementary to bulk materials. This dissertation will summarize my studies on these three 1D nanomaterials, as well as propose future research work that may lead to further development of this field. Following a brief introduction to 1D nanomaterials in Chapter 1, Chapter 2 will focus on the first material - metal oxide nanowires. The discussion starts from the synthesis approach and material characterization of metal oxide nanowires, and then shifts to the electron transport properties and potential applications. A series of functional devices based on In2O 3 and SnO2 nanowires will be demonstrated and evaluated, which range from field effect transistors (FETs), nonvolatile memories, to photo-detecting devices and chemical sensors. Chapter 3 will discuss the fabrication of transition metal oxide (TMO) core-shell nanocables and their electron transport properties as a function of temperature and external magnetic field. The discussion will primarily focus on one of the TMO materials---magnetite (Fe3O 4) core-shell nanowires and nanotubes. Chapter 4 focuses on the application of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in macroelectronics and explores the feasibility of using CNT films as transparent electrodes for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Chapter 5, in the end, summarizes the above discussions and proposes future research directions in 1D nanomaterials.

  9. One-dimensional semirelativistic Hamiltonian with multiple Dirac delta potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erman, Fatih; Gadella, Manuel; Uncu, Haydar

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we consider the one-dimensional semirelativistic Schrödinger equation for a particle interacting with N Dirac delta potentials. Using the heat kernel techniques, we establish a resolvent formula in terms of an N ×N matrix, called the principal matrix. This matrix essentially includes all the information about the spectrum of the problem. We study the bound state spectrum by working out the eigenvalues of the principal matrix. With the help of the Feynman-Hellmann theorem, we analyze how the bound state energies change with respect to the parameters in the model. We also prove that there are at most N bound states and explicitly derive the bound state wave function. The bound state problem for the two-center case is particularly investigated. We show that the ground state energy is bounded below, and there exists a self-adjoint Hamiltonian associated with the resolvent formula. Moreover, we prove that the ground state is nondegenerate. The scattering problem for N centers is analyzed by exactly solving the semirelativistic Lippmann-Schwinger equation. The reflection and the transmission coefficients are numerically and asymptotically computed for the two-center case. We observe the so-called threshold anomaly for two symmetrically located centers. The semirelativistic version of the Kronig-Penney model is shortly discussed, and the band gap structure of the spectrum is illustrated. The bound state and scattering problems in the massless case are also discussed. Furthermore, the reflection and the transmission coefficients for the two delta potentials in this particular case are analytically found. Finally, we solve the renormalization group equations and compute the beta function nonperturbatively.

  10. Murine anti-vaccinia virus D8 antibodies target different epitopes and differ in their ability to block D8 binding to CS-E.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Matho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The IMV envelope protein D8 is an adhesion molecule and a major immunodominant antigen of vaccinia virus (VACV. Here we identified the optimal D8 ligand to be chondroitin sulfate E (CS-E. CS-E is characterized by a disaccharide moiety with two sulfated hydroxyl groups at positions 4' and 6' of GalNAc. To study the role of antibodies in preventing D8 adhesion to CS-E, we have used a panel of murine monoclonal antibodies, and tested their ability to compete with CS-E for D8 binding. Among four antibody specificity groups, MAbs of one group (group IV fully abrogated CS-E binding, while MAbs of a second group (group III displayed widely varying levels of CS-E blocking. Using EM, we identified the binding site for each antibody specificity group on D8. Recombinant D8 forms a hexameric arrangement, mediated by self-association of a small C-terminal domain of D8. We propose a model in which D8 oligomerization on the IMV would allow VACV to adhere to heterogeneous population of CS, including CS-C and potentially CS-A, while overall increasing binding efficiency to CS-E.

  11. Direct Current Hopping Conductivity in One-Dimensional Nanometre Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋祎璞; 徐慧; 罗峰

    2003-01-01

    A one-dimensional random nanocrystalline chain model is established. A dc electron-phonon-field conductance model of electron tunnelling transfer is set up, and a new dc conductance formula in one-dimensional nanometre systems is derived. By calculating the dc conductivity, the relationship among the electric field, temperature and conductivity is analysed, and the effect of the crystalline grain size and the distortion of interfacial atoms on the dc conductance is discussed. The result shows that the nanometre system appears the characteristic of negative differential dependence of resistance and temperature at low temperature. The dc conductivity of nanometre systems varies with the change of electric field and trends to rise as the crystalline grain size increases and to decrease as the distorted degree of interfacial atoms increases.

  12. True Bilayer Exciton Condensate of One-Dimensional Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantian, A.; Abergel, D. S. L.

    2017-07-01

    We theoretically predict that a true bilayer exciton condensate, characterized by off-diagonal long-range order and global phase coherence, can be created in one-dimensional solid state electron systems. The mechanism by which this happens is to introduce a single particle hybridization of electron and hole populations, which locks the phase of the relevant mode and hence invalidates the Mermin-Wagner theorem. Electron-hole interactions then amplify this tendency towards off-diagonal long-range order, enhancing the condensate properties by more than an order of magnitude over the noninteracting limit. We show that the temperatures below which a substantial condensate fraction would form could reach hundreds of Kelvin, a benefit of the weak screening in one-dimensional systems.

  13. One-dimensional XY model: Ergodic properties and hydrodynamic limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhov, A. G.; Suhov, Yu. M.

    1986-11-01

    We prove theorems on convergence to a stationary state in the course of time for the one-dimensional XY model and its generalizations. The key point is the well-known Jordan-Wigner transformation, which maps the XY dynamics onto a group of Bogoliubov transformations on the CAR C *-algebra over Z 1. The role of stationary states for Bogoliubov transformations is played by quasifree states and for the XY model by their inverse images with respect to the Jordan-Wigner transformation. The hydrodynamic limit for the one-dimensional XY model is also considered. By using the Jordan-Wigner transformation one reduces the problem to that of constructing the hydrodynamic limit for the group of Bogoliubov transformations. As a result, we obtain an independent motion of "normal modes," which is described by a hyperbolic linear differential equation of second order. For the XX model this equation reduces to a first-order transfer equation.

  14. Kinetic properties of small one-dimensional Ising magnetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udodov, Vladimir; Spirin, Dmitriy; Katanov Khakas State University Team

    2011-03-01

    Within the framework of a generalized Ising model, a one-dimensional magnetic of a finite length with free ends is considered. The correlation length critical exponent ν and kinetic critical exponent z of the magnet is calculated taking into account the next nearest neighbor interactions and the external field. Of special interest are non-equilibrium processes taking place within the critical temperature interval, which are characterized critical exponent y and dynamic critical index z . Due to significant difficulties encountered in the experimental investigations (e.g., measurement of z) , a natural solution to this complex problem would be modeling of those non-eqilibrium processes. This work addresses non-equilibrium processes in one-dimensional magnetics. Using the Monte Carlo method, an equilibrium critical exponent of the correlation length ν and the dynamic critical index z are calculated for a finite-size magnetic.

  15. Extended Wronskian Determinant Approach and Iterative Solutions of One-Dimensional Dirac Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ying; LU Meng; SU Ru-Keng

    2004-01-01

    An approximation method, namely, the Extended Wronskian Determinant Approach, is suggested to study the one-dimensional Dirac equation. An integral equation, which can be solved by iterative procedure to find the wave functions, is established. We employ this approach to study the one-dimensional Dirac equation with one-well potential,and give the energy levels and wave functions up to the first order iterative approximation. For double-well potential,the energy levels up to the first order approximation are given.

  16. ONE-DIMENSIONAL AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLES

    OpenAIRE

    Nikola Stefanović

    2007-01-01

    In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic ...

  17. One-Dimensional Tunable Josephson Metamaterials - Eindimensionale stimmbare Josephson Metamaterialien

    OpenAIRE

    Butz, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents a novel approach to the experimental realization of tunable, superconducting metamaterials. Therefore, conventional resonant meta-atoms are replaced by meta-atoms that contain Josephson junctions, which renders their resonance frequency tunable by an external magnetic field. This tunability is theoretically and experimentally investigated in one-dimensional magnetic and electric metamaterials. For the magnetic metamaterial, the effective, magnetic permeability is determined.

  18. Hidden Symmetry from Supersymmetry in One-Dimensional Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Andrianov

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When several inequivalent supercharges form a closed superalgebra in Quantum Mechanics it entails the appearance of hidden symmetries of a Super-Hamiltonian. We examine this problem in one-dimensional QM for the case of periodic potentials and potentials with finite number of bound states. After the survey of the results existing in the subject the algebraic and analytic properties of hidden-symmetry differential operators are rigorously elaborated in the Theorems and illuminated by several examples.

  19. PT-invariant one-dimensional Coulomb problem

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, A K; Sinha, Anjana; Roychoudhury, Rajkumar

    2002-01-01

    The one-dimensional Coulomb-like potential with a real coupling constant beta, and a centrifugal-like core of strength G = alpha^2 - {1/4}, viz. V(x) = {alpha^2 - (1/4)}/{(x-ic)^2} + beta/|x-ic|, is discussed in the framework of PT-symmetry. The PT-invariant exactly solvable model so formed, is found to admit a double set of real and discrete energies, numbered by a quasi-parity q = +/- 1.

  20. Universal correlations of one-dimensional electrons at low density

    OpenAIRE

    Göhmann, F.

    2000-01-01

    We summarize results on the asymptotics of the two-particle Green functions of interacting electrons in one dimension. Below a critical value of the chemical potential the Fermi surface vanishes, and the system can no longer be described as a Luttinger liquid. Instead, the non-relativistic Fermi gas with infinite point-like repulsion becomes the universal model for the long-wavelength, low temperature physics of the one-dimensional electrons. This model, which we call the impenetrable electro...

  1. One Dimensional Polymeric Organic Photonic Crystals for DFB Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Scotognella

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a very simple method to realize a one-dimensional photonic crystal (1D PC, consisting of a dye-doped polymeric multilayer. Due to the high photonic density of states at the edges of the photonic band-gap (PBG, a surface emitting distributed feedback (DFB laser is obtained with this structure. Furthermore, the incidence angle dependence of the PBG of the polymeric multilayer is reported.

  2. PERIODIC SOLUTIONS IN ONE-DIMENSIONAL COUPLED MAP LATTICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑永爱; 刘曾荣

    2003-01-01

    It is proven that the existence of nonlinear solutions with time period in one-dimensional coupled map lattice with nearest neighbor coupling. This is a class of systemswhose behavior can be regarded as infinite array of coupled oscillators. A method forestimating the critical coupling strength below which these solutions with time period persistis given. For some particular nonlinear solutions with time period, exponential decay inspace is proved.

  3. Correlation functions of one-dimensional bosons at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Maillet, J.M. [CNRS, ENS Lyon (France). Lab. de Physique; Slavnov, N.A. [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-12-15

    We consider the low-temperature limit of the long-distance asymptotic behavior of the finite temperature density-density correlation function in the one-dimensional Bose gas derived recently in the algebraic Bethe Ansatz framework. Our results confirm the predictions based on the Luttinger liquid and conformal field theory approaches. We also demonstrate that the amplitudes arising in this asymptotic expansion at low-temperature coincide with the amplitudes associated with the so-called critical form factors. (orig.)

  4. Fast Integration of One-Dimensional Boundary Value Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Rafael G.; Ruiz, Rafael García

    2013-11-01

    Two-point nonlinear boundary value problems (BVPs) in both unbounded and bounded domains are solved in this paper using fast numerical antiderivatives and derivatives of functions of L2(-∞, ∞). This differintegral scheme uses a new algorithm to compute the Fourier transform. As examples we solve a fourth-order two-point boundary value problem (BVP) and compute the shape of the soliton solutions of a one-dimensional generalized Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation.

  5. The one-dimensional extended Bose-Hubbard model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramesh V Pai; Rahul Pandit

    2003-10-01

    We use the finite-size, density-matrix-renormalization-group (DMRG) method to obtain the zero-temperature phase diagram of the one-dimensional, extended Bose-Hubbard model, for mean boson density ρ = 1, in the - plane ( and are respectively, onsite and nearest-neighbour repulsive interactions between bosons). The phase diagram includes superfluid (SF), bosonic-Mott-insulator (MI), and mass-density-wave (MDW) phases. We determine the natures of the quantum phase transitions between these phases.

  6. Negative Refraction Angular Characterization in One-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Jesus Eduardo Lugo; Rafael Doti; Jocelyn Faubert

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Photonic crystals are artificial structures that have periodic dielectric components with different refractive indices. Under certain conditions, they abnormally refract the light, a phenomenon called negative refraction. Here we experimentally characterize negative refraction in a one dimensional photonic crystal structure; near the low frequency edge of the fourth photonic bandgap. We compare the experimental results with current theory and a theory based on the group velocity d...

  7. Exchange effects in a quasi-one-dimensional electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, A.; Ghazali, A.

    1990-04-01

    We calculate the electron exchange of a quasi-one-dimensional electron gas in a quantum-well wire of radius R0. A two-subband model is considered and the exchange self-energy for the first and second subband is calculated under the assumption that only the lowest subband is partially filled with electrons. Band-bending effects are also discussed. Results for the total energy per electron including kinetic and exchange energy are presented.

  8. Topological modes in one-dimensional solids and photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Timothy J.; Butler, Celia A. M.; Taylor, Melita C.; Hooper, Ian R.; Hibbins, Alastair P.; Sambles, J. Roy; Mathur, Harsh

    2016-03-01

    It is shown theoretically that a one-dimensional crystal with time-reversal and particle-hole symmetries is characterized by a topological invariant that predicts the existence or otherwise of edge states. This is confirmed experimentally through the construction and simulation of a photonic crystal analog in the microwave regime. It is shown that the edge mode couples to modes external to the photonic crystal via a Fano resonance.

  9. Morphology-Controlled Growth of AIN One-Dimensional Nanostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting XIE; Min YE; Xiaosheng FANG; Zhi JIANG; Li CHEN; Mingguang KONG; Yucheng WU; Lide ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Aluminum nitride (AIN) nanowires, serrated nanoribbons, and nanoribbons were selectively obtained through a simple chloride assisted chemical vapor deposition process. The morphologies of the products could be controlled by adjusting the deposition position and the flux of the reactant gas. The morphologies and structures of the AIN products were investigated in detail. The formation mechanism of the as-prepared different morphologies of AIN one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures was discussed on the basis of the experimental results.

  10. Strong correlations and topological order in one-dimensional systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gottardi, Wade Wells

    This thesis presents theoretical studies of strongly correlated systems as well as topologically ordered systems in 1D. Non-Fermi liquid behavior characteristic of interacting 1D electron systems is investigated with an emphasis on experimentally relevant setups and observables. The existence of end Majorana fermions in a 1D p-wave superconductor subject to periodic, incommensurate and disordered potentials is studied. The Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL), a model of interacting electrons in one spatial dimension, is considered in the context of two systems of experimental interest. First, a study of the electronic properties of single-walled armchair carbon nanotubes in the presence of transverse electric and magnetic fields is presented. As a result of their effect on the band structure and electron wave functions, fields alter the nature of the (effective) Coulomb interaction in tubes. In particular, it is found that fields couple to nanotube bands (or valleys), a quantum degree of freedom inherited from the underlying graphene lattice. As revealed by a detailed TLL calculation, it is predicted that fields induce electrons to disperse into their spin, band, and charge components. Fields also provide a means of tuning the shell-filling behavior associated with short tubes. The phenomenon of charge fractionalization is investigated in a one-dimensional ring. TLL theory predicts that momentum-resolved electrons injected into the ring will fractionalize into clockwise- and counterclockwise-moving quasiparticles. As a complement to transport measurements in quantum wires connected to leads, non-invasive measures involving the magnetic field profiles around the ring are proposed. Topological aspects of 1D p-wave superconductors are explored. The intimate connection between non-trivial topology (fermions) and spontaneous symmetry breaking (spins) in one-dimension is investigated. Building on this connection, a spin ladder system endowed with vortex degrees of freedom is

  11. Analysis of necking based on a one-dimensional model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audoly, Basile; Hutchinson, John W.

    2016-12-01

    Dimensional reduction is applied to derive a one-dimensional energy functional governing tensile necking localization in a family of initially uniform prismatic solids, including as particular cases rectilinear blocks in plane strain and cylindrical bars undergoing axisymmetric deformations. The energy functional depends on both the axial stretch and its gradient. The coefficient of the gradient term is derived in an exact and general form. The one-dimensional model is used to analyze necking localization for nonlinear elastic materials that experience a maximum load under tensile loading, and for a class of nonlinear materials that mimic elastic-plastic materials by displaying a linear incremental response when stretch switches from increasing to decreasing. Bifurcation predictions for the onset of necking from the simplified theory compared with exact results suggest the approach is highly accurate at least when the departures from uniformity are not too large. Post-bifurcation behavior is analyzed to the point where the neck is fully developed and localized to a region on the order of the thickness of the block or bar. Applications to the nonlinear elastic and elastic-plastic materials reveal the highly unstable nature of necking for the former and the stable behavior for the latter, except for geometries where the length of the block or bar is very large compared to its thickness. A formula for the effective stress reduction at the center of a neck is established based on the one-dimensional model, which is similar to that suggested by Bridgman (1952).

  12. Gravitational anomalies and one-dimensional behavior of black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan, E-mail: bibhas.majhi@iitg.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, 781039, Guwahati, Assam (India)

    2015-12-08

    It has been pointed out by Bekenstein and Mayo that the behavior of the black hole’s entropy or information flow is similar to information flow through one-dimensional channel. Here I analyze the same issue with the use of gravitational anomalies. The rate of the entropy change (S{sup .}) and the power (P) of the Hawking emission are calculated from the relevant components of the anomalous stress tensor under the Unruh vacuum condition. I show that the dependence of S{sup .} on the power is S{sup .} ∝P{sup 1/2}, which is identical to that for the information flow in a one-dimensional system. This is established by using the (1+1)-dimensional gravitational anomalies first. Then the fact is further bolstered by considering the (1+3)-dimensional gravitational anomalies. It is found that, in the former case, the proportionality constant is exactly identical to the one-dimensional situation, known as Pendry’s formula, while in the latter situation its value decreases.

  13. Gravitational anomalies and one-dimensional behavior of black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Department of Physics, Guwahati, Assam (India)

    2015-12-15

    It has been pointed out by Bekenstein and Mayo that the behavior of the black hole's entropy or information flow is similar to information flow through one-dimensional channel. Here I analyze the same issue with the use of gravitational anomalies. The rate of the entropy change (S) and the power (P) of the Hawking emission are calculated from the relevant components of the anomalous stress tensor under the Unruh vacuum condition. I show that the dependence of S on the power is S ∝ P{sup 1/2}, which is identical to that for the information flow in a one-dimensional system. This is established by using the (1+1)-dimensional gravitational anomalies first. Then the fact is further bolstered by considering the (1+3)-dimensional gravitational anomalies. It is found that, in the former case, the proportionality constant is exactly identical to the one-dimensional situation, known as Pendry's formula, while in the latter situation its value decreases. (orig.)

  14. Gravitational anomalies and one dimensional behaviour of black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    It has been pointed out by Bekenstein and Mayo that the behavior of the Black hole's entropy or information flow is similar to that through one-dimensional channel. Here I analyse the same issue with the use of gravitational anomalies. The rate of the entropy change ($\\dot{S}$) and the power ($P$) of the Hawking emission are calculated from the relevant components of the anomalous stress-tensor under the Unruh vacuum condition. I show that the dependence of $\\dot{S}$ on power is $\\dot{S}\\propto P^{1/2}$ which is identical to that for the information flow in one dimensional system. This is established by using the ($1+1$) dimensional gravitational anomalies first. Then the fact is further bolstered by considering the ($1+3$) dimensional gravitational anomalies. It is found that in the former case, the proportionality constant is exactly identical to one dimensional situation, known as Pendry's formula, while in later situation its value decreases.

  15. Comparison of the elastic coefficients and Calculation Models of the Mechanical Behavior one- Dimensional Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Alsubari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the mechanical models that are devoted to the elastic properties of one-dimensional composite. We have compared the equivalent coefficients of one-dimensional composite, resulting from different models. The validation of the results was made through effective experiments on a one-dimensional composite consisting of fibers of alumina and a matrix of aluminum. This study allows us to better assess the rigidity of composite structures, and the results of calculation of the mechanical behavior, resulting from each model. It appears that the finite element model is the best suited to the approach of a refined conception. For more insurance, we have chosen to make our calculations by finite element in the three-dimensional case, using the technique of homogenization by asymptotic development.

  16. Visualizing One-Dimensional Electronic States and their Scattering in Semi-conducting Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidenkopf, Haim; Reiner, Jonathan; Norris, Andrew; Nayak, Abhay Kumar; Avraham, Nurit; Shtrikman, Hadas

    One-dimensional electronic systems constitute a fascinating playground for the emergence of exotic electronic effects and phases, within and beyond the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid paradigm. More recently topological superconductivity and Majorana modes were added to that long list of phenomena. We report scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy measurements conducted on pristine, epitaxialy grown InAs nanowires. We resolve the 1D electronic band structure manifested both via Van-Hove singularities in the local density-of-states, as well as by the quasi-particle interference patterns, induced by scattering from surface impurities. By studying the scattering of the one-dimensional electronic states off various scatterers, including crystallographic defects and the nanowire end, we identify new one-dimensional relaxation regimes and yet unexplored effects of interactions. Some of these may bear implications on the topological superconducting state and Majorana modes therein. The authors acknowledge support from the Israeli Science Foundation (ISF).

  17. Metal-insulator transition in one-dimensional lattices with chaotic energy sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, R.A. [Laboratorio de Fisica Estadistica, Centro de Fisica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Apartado 21827, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela)]. E-mail: ripinto@ivic.ve; Rodriguez, M. [Laboratorio de Fisica Estadistica, Centro de Fisica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Apartado 21827, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela); Gonzalez, J.A. [Laboratorio de Fisica Computacional, Centro de Fisica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Apartado 21827, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela); Medina, E. [Laboratorio de Fisica Estadistica, Centro de Fisica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Apartado 21827, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela)

    2005-06-20

    We study electronic transport through a one-dimensional array of sites by using a tight binding Hamiltonian, whose site-energies are drawn from a chaotic sequence. The correlation degree between these energies is controlled by a parameter regulating the dynamic Lyapunov exponent measuring the degree of chaos. We observe the effect of chaotic sequences on the localization length, conductance, conductance distribution and wave function, finding evidence of a metal-insulator transition (MIT) at a critical degree of chaos. The one-dimensional metallic phase is characterized by a Gaussian conductance distribution and exhibits a peculiar non-selfaveraging.

  18. Optical Properties of One-dimensional Three-component Photonic Band Gap Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Theoretical study of the optical properties of one-dimensional three-component photonic band gap structure, which is composed of three alternating dielectric layers of different refractive indices and thickness in a unit cell, is performed. This one-dimensional photonic band gap structure exhibits the transparency band and forbidden band. We find that there are several mini-bands of the allowed transmission to be created within the photonic band gap region of the structure if a defect designed specially is introduced inside the structure. This characteristic is very important for some practical applications.

  19. Neutron beam applications - Development of one dimensional position sensitive neutron detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Yun; Kang, Hee Dong; Kim, Wan; Moon, Myung Kook [Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    This research is sponsored and supported by KAERI as a part of {sup D}evelopment of One Dimensional Position Sensitive Neutron Detector{sup .} To apply residual stress measurement and small angle neutron scattering the one dimensional position sensitive neutron detectors which have wide window and good position resolution were designed and fabricated. The detection area are 200 mm x 100, 120 mm x 80 mm. The thermal neutron detection efficiency are about 60%. The spatial resolution of the detector are less than 2mm. The characteristics of the detectors were studied. Using the detector we could get neutron diffraction patterns from some samples. 19 refs., 103 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  20. Correlations in light propagation in one-dimensional waveguides for classical and quantum degenerate atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Ruostekoski, Janne

    2016-01-01

    We study the transmission of light through a one-dimensional waveguide that confines strongly coupled classical or quantum degenerate fermionic atomic ensembles. The emergence of light-induced correlation effects between the atoms is analyzed by using stochastic Monte-Carlo simulations and transfer matrix methods of transport theory. The conditions of the correlated collective response are identified in terms of the atom density, thermal broadening, and photon losses. We also calculate the "cooperative Lamb shift" for the waveguide transmission resonance, and discuss line shifts that are specific to effectively one-dimensional waveguide systems.

  1. Quantum quenches to the attractive one-dimensional Bose gas: exact results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Piroli, Pasquale Calabrese, Fabian H. L. Essler

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We study quantum quenches to the one-dimensional Bose gas with attractive interactions in the case when the initial state is an ideal one-dimensional Bose condensate. We focus on properties of the stationary state reached at late times after the quench. This displays a finite density of multi-particle bound states, whose rapidity distribution is determined exactly by means of the quench action method. We discuss the relevance of the multi-particle bound states for the physical properties of the system, computing in particular the stationary value of the local pair correlation function $g_2$.

  2. Some New Band Characteristics in One-Dimensional Plasma Dielectric Photonic Crystals%Some New Band Characteristics in One-Dimensional Plasma Dielectric Photonic Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laxmi SHIVESHWARI

    2011-01-01

    Propagation of electromagnetic waves in one-dimensional plasma dielectric photonic crystals, the superlattice structure consisting of alternating plasma and dielectric materials, is studied theoretically for oblique incidence by using the transfer matrix method. Our results show that complete photonic band gaps for all polarizations can be obtained in one-dimensional plasma dielectric photonic crystals. These structures can exhibit a new type of band or gap, for the incidence other than the normal one, near frequencies where the electric permittivity of the plasma layer changes sign. This new band or gap arises, from the dispersive properties of the plasma layer, only for transverse magnetic polarized waves, and its width increases with the increase in incident angle. This differential behavior under polarization can be utilized in the design of an efficient polarization splitter. The existence of both photonic gaps and resonance transmission bands is demonstrated for experimentally realizable structures such as double electromagnetic barriers.

  3. One-dimensional Transport Simulation of Pollutants in Natural Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Ramezani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rivers are the main sources of freshwater systems which governments need to manage and plan to maintain them as per an acceptable quality. In this research, a numerical scheme was used and implemented in MATLAB to provide a one-dimensional water quality tool. This code then was tested with two datasets of Chattahoochee and Mackinaw rivers. To evaluate the model performance, results and sampled data were checked in terms of conformity by using three metrics: CE, MARE, and RMSE. Results were almost near to observed data and metrics’ values were found satisfactory, showing that the employed numerical approach is an appropriate method for surface water quality planning and management.

  4. Universality of anomalous one-dimensional heat conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepri, Stefano; Livi, Roberto; Politi, Antonio

    2003-12-01

    In one and two dimensions, transport coefficients may diverge in the thermodynamic limit due to long-time correlation of the corresponding currents. The effective asymptotic behavior is addressed with reference to the problem of heat transport in one-dimensional crystals, modeled by chains of classical nonlinear oscillators. Extensive accurate equilibrium and nonequilibrium numerical simulations confirm that the finite-size thermal conductivity diverges with system size L as κ∝Lα. However, the exponent α deviates systematically from the theoretical prediction α=1/3 proposed in a recent paper [O. Narayan and S. Ramaswamy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 200601 (2002)].

  5. One-dimensional hydrodynamic model generating turbulent cascade

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    As a minimal mathematical model generating cascade analogous to that of the Navier-Stokes turbulence in the inertial range, we propose a one-dimensional partial-differential-equation model that conserves the integral of the squared vorticity analogue (enstrophy) in the inviscid case. With a large-scale forcing and small viscosity, we find numerically that the model exhibits the enstrophy cascade, the broad energy spectrum with a sizable correction to the dimensional-analysis prediction, peculiar intermittency and self-similarity in the dynamical system structure.

  6. On Global One-Dimensionality proposal in Quantum General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Glinka, L A

    2008-01-01

    Quantum General Relativity, better known as Quantum Gravity with additional epithets, currently is faraway from phenomenology. This mental crisis leads at most to empty hypotheses, but not to realistic physics. However, there exists the way, investigated by Dirac, which is constructive for experimental data predictions in astrophysics, high energy physics, and condensed matter physics. It is Field Theory. This article presents certain proposal for new discussion. General Relativity in 3+1 metric field gauge and its canonical quantization is developed. Reduction of the quantum geometrodynamics to Global One-Dimensional bosonic field theory, its quantization, and some conclusions are presented.

  7. Exactly integrable analogue of a one-dimensional gravitating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States)]. E-mail: b.miller@tcu.edu; Yawn, Kenneth R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Maier, Bill [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States)

    2005-10-10

    Exchange symmetry in acceleration partitions the configuration space of an N particle one-dimensional gravitational system (OGS) into N{exclamation_point} equivalent cells. We take advantage of the resulting small angular separation between the forces in neighboring cells to construct a related integrable version of the system that takes the form of a central force problem in N-1 dimensions. The properties of the latter, including the construction of trajectories and possible continuum limits, are developed. Dynamical simulation is employed to compare the two models. For some initial conditions, excellent agreement is observed.

  8. One-dimensional inverse problems of mathematical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrent'ev, M M; Yakhno, V G; Schulenberger, J R

    1986-01-01

    This monograph deals with the inverse problems of determining a variable coefficient and right side for hyperbolic and parabolic equations on the basis of known solutions at fixed points of space for all times. The problems are one-dimensional in nature since the desired coefficient of the equation is a function of only one coordinate, while the desired right side is a function only of time. The authors use methods based on the spectral theory of ordinary differential operators of second order and also methods which make it possible to reduce the investigation of the inverse problems to the in

  9. Solution of One-dimensional Dirac Equation via Poincare Map

    CERN Document Server

    Bahlouli, Hocine; Jellal, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    We solve the general one-dimensional Dirac equation using a "Poincare Map" approach which avoids any approximation to the spacial derivatives and reduces the problem to a simple recursive relation which is very practical from the numerical implementation point of view. To test the efficiency and rapid convergence of this approach we apply it to a vector coupling Woods--Saxon potential, which is exactly solvable. Comparison with available analytical results is impressive and hence validates the accuracy and efficiency of this method.

  10. Fluctuation dissipation ratio in the one dimensional kinetic Ising model

    OpenAIRE

    Lippiello, E.; Zannetti, M.

    2000-01-01

    The exact relation between the response function $R(t,t^{\\prime})$ and the two time correlation function $C(t,t^{\\prime})$ is derived analytically in the one dimensional kinetic Ising model subjected to a temperature quench. The fluctuation dissipation ratio $X(t,t^{\\prime})$ is found to depend on time through $C(t,t^{\\prime})$ in the time region where scaling $C(t,t^{\\prime}) = f(t/t^{\\prime})$ holds. The crossover from the nontrivial form $X(C(t,t^{\\prime}))$ to $X(t,t^{\\prime}) \\equiv 1$ t...

  11. One-dimensional hydrodynamic model generating a turbulent cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Sakajo, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    As a minimal mathematical model generating cascade analogous to that of the Navier-Stokes turbulence in the inertial range, we propose a one-dimensional partial-differential-equation model that conserves the integral of the squared vorticity analog (enstrophy) in the inviscid case. With a large-scale random forcing and small viscosity, we find numerically that the model exhibits the enstrophy cascade, the broad energy spectrum with a sizable correction to the dimensional-analysis prediction, peculiar intermittency, and self-similarity in the dynamical system structure.

  12. Quantum Simulations of One-Dimensional Nanostructures under Arbitrary Deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Pekka

    2016-09-01

    A powerful technique is introduced for simulating mechanical and electromechanical properties of one-dimensional nanostructures under arbitrary combinations of bending, twisting, and stretching. The technique is based on an unconventional control of periodic symmetry which eliminates artifacts due to deformation constraints and quantum finite-size effects and allows transparent electronic-structure analysis. Via density-functional tight-binding implementation, the technique demonstrates its utility by predicting nonlinear electromechanical properties in carbon nanotubes and abrupt behavior in the structural yielding of Au7 and Mo6 S6 nanowires. The technique drives simulations markedly closer to the realistic modeling of these slender nanostructures under experimental conditions.

  13. Beam interactions in one-dimensional saturable waveguide arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Stepic, M; Rueter, C E; Shandarov, V; Kip, D; Stepic, Milutin; Smirnov, Eugene; Rueter, Christian E.; Shandarov, Vladimir; Kip, Detlef

    2006-01-01

    The interaction between two parallel beams in one-dimensional discrete saturable systems has been investigated using lithium niobate nonlinear waveguide arrays. When the beams are separated by one channel and in-phase it is possible to observe soliton fusion at low power levels. This new result is confirmed numerically. By increasing the power, soliton-like propagation of weakly-coupled beams occurs. When the beams are out-of-phase the most interesting result is the existence of oscillations which resemble the recently discovered Tamm oscillations.

  14. Waves and instability in a one-dimensional microfluidic array

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Bin; Feng, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Motion in a one-dimensional (1D) microfluidic array is simulated. Water droplets, dragged by flowing oil, are arranged in a single row, and due to their hydrodynamic interactions spacing between these droplets oscillates with a wave-like motion that is longitudinal or transverse. The simulation yields wave spectra that agree well with experiment. The wave-like motion has an instability which is confirmed to arise from nonlinearities in the interaction potential. The instability's growth is spatially localized. By selecting an appropriate correlation function, the interaction between the longitudinal and transverse waves is described.

  15. Molecular nanostamp based on one-dimensional porphyrin polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaizuka, Katsuhiko; Izumi, Atsushi; Ishizaki, Manabu; Kon, Hiroki; Togashi, Takanari; Miyake, Ryosuke; Ishida, Takao; Tamura, Ryo; Haga, Masa-aki; Moritani, Youji; Sakamoto, Masatomi; Kurihara, Masato

    2013-08-14

    Surface design with unique functional molecules by a convenient one-pot treatment is an attractive project for the creation of smart molecular devices. We have employed a silane coupling reaction of porphyrin derivatives that form one-dimensional polymer wires on substrates. Our simple one-pot treatment of a substrate with porphyrin has successfully achieved the construction of nanoscale bamboo shoot structures. The nanoscale bamboo shoots on the substrates were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-vis spectra, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The uneven and rigid nanoscale structure has been used as a stamp for constructing bamboo shoot structures of fullerene.

  16. Dynamical Structure Factors of quasi-one-dimensional antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemans, Rob; Caux, Jean-Sébastien; Maillet, Jean Michel

    2007-03-01

    For a long time it has been impossible to accurately calculate the dynamical structure factors (spin-spin correlators as a function of momentum and energy) of quasi-one-dimensional antiferromagnets. For integrable Heisenberg chains, the recently developed ABACUS method (a first-principles computational approach based on the Bethe Ansatz) now yields highly accurate (over 99% of the sum rule) results for the DSF for finite chains, allowing for a very precise description of neutron-scattering data over the full momentum and energy range. We show remarkable agreement between results obtained with ABACUS and experiment.

  17. ONE-DIMENSIONAL AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Stefanović

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic leadership style, leadership theory researchers use two dimensional matrices. The two-dimensional matrices define leadership styles on the basis of different parameters. By using these parameters, one can identify two-dimensional styles.

  18. Strongly anisotropic wetting on one-dimensional nanopatterned surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Deying; Brueck, S R J

    2008-09-01

    This communication reports strongly anisotropic wetting behavior on one-dimensional nanopatterned surfaces. Contact angles, degree of anisotropy, and droplet distortion are measured on micro- and nanopatterned surfaces fabricated with interference lithography. Both the degree of anisotropy and the droplet distortion are extremely high as compared with previous reports because of the well-defined nanostructural morphology. The surface is manipulated to tune with the wetting from hydrophobic to hydrophilic while retaining the structural wetting anisotropy with a simple silica nanoparticle overcoat. The wetting mechanisms are discussed. Potential applications in microfluidic devices and evaporation-induced pattern formation are demonstrated.

  19. Longitudinal waves in one dimensional non-uniform waveguides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Wave approach is used to analyze the longitudinal wave motion in one dimensional non-uniform waveguides.With assumptions of constant wave velocity and no wave conversion,there exist four types of non-uniform rods and corresponding traveling wave solutions are investigated.The obtained results indicate that the kinetic energy is preserved as a constant and the wave amplitude is inversely proportional to square root of the cross-sectional area of the rod.Under certain condition,there exists a cut-off frequ...

  20. Bloch oscillations in a one-dimensional spinor gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangardt, D M; Kamenev, A

    2009-02-20

    A force applied to a spin-flipped particle in a one-dimensional spinor gas may lead to Bloch oscillations of the particle's position and velocity. The existence of Bloch oscillations crucially depends on the viscous friction force exerted by the rest of the gas on the spin excitation. We evaluate the friction in terms of the quantum fluid parameters. In particular, we show that the friction is absent for integrable cases, such as an SU(2) symmetric gas of bosons or fermions. For small deviations from the exact integrability the friction is very weak, opening the possibility to observe Bloch oscillations.

  1. Black Phosphorus based One-dimensional Photonic Crystals and Microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Kriegel, I

    2016-01-01

    The latest achievements in the fabrication of black phosphorus thin layers, towards the technological breakthrough of a phosphorene atomically thin layer, are paving the way for a their employment in electronics, optics, and optoelectronics. In this work, we have simulated the optical properties of one-dimensional photonic structures, i.e. photonic crystals and microcavities, in which few-layer black phosphorus is one of the components. The insertion of the 5 nm black phosphorous layers leads to a photonic band gap in the photonic crystals and a cavity mode in the microcavity interesting for light manipulation and emission enhancement.

  2. Fourier's law for quasi-one-dimensional chaotic quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Thomas H.; Weidenmüller, Hans A.

    2011-05-01

    We derive Fourier's law for a completely coherent quasi-one-dimensional chaotic quantum system coupled locally to two heat baths at different temperatures. We solve the master equation to first order in the temperature difference. We show that the heat conductance can be expressed as a thermodynamic equilibrium coefficient taken at some intermediate temperature. We use that expression to show that for temperatures large compared to the mean level spacing of the system, the heat conductance is inversely proportional to the level density and, thus, inversely proportional to the length of the system.

  3. Coherent Backscattering of Light Off One-Dimensional Atomic Strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, H. L.; Béguin, J.-B.; Kluge, K. W.; Iakoupov, I.; Sørensen, A. S.; Müller, J. H.; Polzik, E. S.; Appel, J.

    2016-09-01

    We present the first experimental realization of coherent Bragg scattering off a one-dimensional system—two strings of atoms strongly coupled to a single photonic mode—realized by trapping atoms in the evanescent field of a tapered optical fiber, which also guides the probe light. We report nearly 12% power reflection from strings containing only about 1000 cesium atoms, an enhancement of 2 orders of magnitude compared to reflection from randomly positioned atoms. This result paves the road towards collective strong coupling in 1D atom-photon systems. Our approach also allows for a straightforward fiber connection between several distant 1D atomic crystals.

  4. Multiple nonequilibrium steady states for one-dimensional heat flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F; Isbister, D J; Evans, D J

    2001-08-01

    A nonequilibrium molecular dynamics model of heat flow in one-dimensional lattices is shown to have multiple steady states for any fixed heat field strength f(e) ranging from zero to a certain positive value. We demonstrate that, depending on the initial conditions, there are at least two possibilities for the system's evolution: (i) formation of a stable traveling wave (soliton), and (ii) chaotic motion throughout the entire simulation. The percentage of the soliton-generating trajectories is zero for small field strength f(e), but increases sharply to unity over a critical region of the parameter f(e).

  5. Nonlocal separable potential in the one-dimensional Dirac equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calkin, M.G.; Kiang, D.; Nogami, Y.

    1988-08-01

    The one-dimensional Dirac equation is solved for a separable potential of the form of Lorentz scalar plus vector, (..beta..g+h)v(x)v(x'). Exact analytic solutions are obtained for bound and scattering states for arbitrary v(x). For a particular combination of the values of g and h, degeneracy of the bound state occurs, and total reflection also takes place for a certain incident energy. The limiting case, in which v(x) becomes a delta function, is discussed in detail.

  6. Lateral shift in one-dimensional quasiperiodic chiral photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da, Jian, E-mail: dajian521@sina.com [Department of Information Engineering, Huaian Senior Vocational and Technical School, Feiyao road, Huaian 223005, Jiangsu Province (China); Mo, Qi, E-mail: moqiyueyang@163.com [School of Software, Yunnan University, Cuihu Bai Road, Kunming City, Yunnan Province 650091 (China); Cheng, Yaokun [Department of Information Engineering, Huaian Senior Vocational and Technical School, Feiyao road, Huaian 223005, Jiangsu Province (China); Liu, Taixiang [Taishan Vocational College of Nursing, Shandong Province 271000 (China)

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the lateral shift of a one-dimensional quasiperiodic photonic crystal consisting of chiral and conventional dielectric materials. The effect of structural irregularity on lateral shift is evaluated by stationary-phase approach. Our results show that the lateral shift can be modulated by varying the structural irregularity in quasiperiodic structure. Besides, the position of peak in lateral shift spectrum stays sensitive to the chiral factor of chiral materials. In comparison with that of periodic structure, quasiperiodic structure provides an extra degree of freedom to manipulate the lateral shift.

  7. One-Dimensional Metals Conjugated Polymers, Organic Crystals, Carbon Nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Roth, Siegmar

    2004-01-01

    Low-dimensional solids are of fundamental interest in materials science due to their anisotropic properties. Written not only for experts in the field, this book explains the important concepts behind their physics and surveys the most interesting one-dimensional systems and discusses their present and emerging applications in molecular scale electronics. The second edition of this successful book has been completely revised to include the remarkable achievements of the last ten years of research and applications. Chemists, polymer and materials scientists as well as students will find this bo

  8. Electronic structure of the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor TTF-TCNQ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sing, M.; Schwingenschlögl, U.; Claessen, R.;

    2003-01-01

    We study the electronic structure of the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor TTF-TCNQ by means of density-functional band theory, Hubbard model calculations, and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES). The experimental spectra reveal significant quantitative and qualitative...

  9. Critical exponents in the transition to chaos in one-dimensional discrete systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Ambika; N V Sujatha

    2002-07-01

    We report the numerically evaluated critical exponents associated with the scaling of generalized fractal dimensions during the transition from order to chaos. The analysis is carried out in detail in the context of unimodal and bimodal maps representing typical one-dimensional discrete dynamical systems. The behavior of Lyapunov exponents (LE) in the cross over region is also studied for a complete characterization.

  10. Observation of Zero-Dimensional States in a One-Dimensional Electron Interferometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, B.J. van; Kouwenhoven, L.P.; Harmans, C.J.P.M.; Williamson, J.G.; Timmering, C.E.; Broekaart, M.E.I.; Foxon, C.T.; Harris, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    We have studied the electron transport in a one-dimensional electron interferometer. It consists of a disk-shaped two-dimensional electron gas, to which quantum point contacts are attached. Discrete zero-dimensional states are formed due to constructive interference of electron waves traveling along

  11. Apparent power-law behavior of conductance in disordered quasi-one-dimensional systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodin, A S; Fogler, M M

    2010-09-03

    The dependence of hopping conductance on temperature and voltage for an ensemble of modestly long one-dimensional wires is studied numerically using the shortest-path algorithm. In a wide range of parameters this dependence can be approximated by a power law rather than the usual stretched-exponential form. The relation to recent experiments and prior analytical theory is discussed.

  12. Characterization for defect modes of one-dimensional photonic crystals containing metamaterials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Tang; Lei Gao; Jianxing Fang

    2008-01-01

    Transmission studies for one-dimensional photonic crystals(1DPCs)containing single-negative(SNG)materials inserted with multiple defects are presented.The numbers and positions of the defect modes inside zero-phase(zero-φeff)gap are found to be well characterized by effective medium theory.

  13. Comparing the Impact of Dynamic and Static Media on Students' Learning of One-Dimensional Kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mešic, Vanes; Dervic, Dževdeta; Gazibegovic-Busuladžic, Azra; Salibašic, Džana; Erceg, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    In our study, we aimed to compare the impact of simulations, sequences of printed simulation frames and conventional static diagrams on the understanding of students with regard to the one-dimensional kinematics. Our student sample consisted of three classes of middle years students (N = 63; mostly 15 year-olds). These three classes served as…

  14. Pairing and phase separation in a one-dimensional spin-bag liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wrobel, P.; Eder, R

    1996-01-01

    We study the one-dimensional t-J model in a staggered magnetic field by a variational calculation based on the string picture. Our key assumption is the separation of energy scales between rapid incoherent hole motion on scale t and slow coherent motion on scale J. We discuss pair formation and phas

  15. Scaling Relations and Optimization of Excitonic Energy Transfer Rates between One-Dimensional Molecular Aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuang, Chern; Knoester, Jasper; Cao, Jianshu

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically study the distance, chain length, and temperature dependence of the electronic couplings as well as the excitonic energy transfer rates between one-dimensional (1D) chromophore aggregates. In addition to the well-known geometry dependent factor that leads to the deviation from Forst

  16. Cooperative jump motions of jammed particles in a one-dimensional periodic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu

    2009-12-01

    Cooperative jump motions are studied for mutually interacting particles in a one-dimensional periodic potential. The diffusion constant for the cooperative motion in systems including a small number of particles is numerically calculated and it is compared with theoretical estimates. We find that the size distribution of the cooperative jump motions obeys an exponential law in a large system.

  17. Cooperative jump motions of jammed particles in a one-dimensional periodic potential

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative jump motions are studied for mutually interacting particles in a one-dimensional periodic potential. The diffusion constant for the cooperative motion in systems including a small number of particles is numerically calculated and it is compared with theoretical estimates. We find that the size distribution of the cooperative jump motions obeys an exponential law in a large system.

  18. $C_{0}$-semigroups for hyperbolic partial differential equations on a one-dimensional spatial domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacob, Birgit; Morris, Kirsten; Zwart, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Hyperbolic partial differential equations on a one-dimensional spatial domain are studied. This class of systems includes models of beams and waves as well as the transport equation and networks of nonhomogeneous transmission lines. The main result of this paper is a simple test for $C_{0}$-semigrou

  19. Ultracold bosons in a one-dimensional optical lattice chain: Newton's cradle and Bose enhancement effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Guo; Yang, Shi-Jie

    2017-05-01

    We study a model to realize the long-distance correlated tunneling of ultracold bosons in a one-dimensional optical lattice chain. The model reveals the behavior of a quantum Newton's cradle, which is the perfect transfer between two macroscopic quantum states. Due to the Bose enhancement effect, we find that the resonantly tunneling through a Mott domain is greatly enhanced.

  20. Critical Behaviour of the One-Dimensional Ferromagnetic t - J Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨赋; 王玉鹏

    2002-01-01

    The one-dimensional super-symmetric ferromagnetic t - J model is studied via the thermal Bethe ansatz. Analytic expressions of the free energy for T → 0 are obtained. A new critical behaviour beyond the universal class of Luttinger liquids is found in this system.

  1. The homoclinic and heteroclinic C*-algebra of a generalized one-dimensional solenoid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    D. Ruelle and I. Putnam have constructed three C*-algebras from the homoclinic and heteroclinic structure of a Smale space. This paper gives gives a complete description of these algebras when the Smale space is one of the generalized one-dimensional solenoids studied by R. Williams and I. Yi....

  2. Benchmarking high order finite element approximations for one-dimensional boundary layer problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malagu, M.; Benvenuti, E.; Simone, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we investigate the application of high order approximation techniques to one-dimensional boundary layer problems. In particular, we use second order differential equations and coupled second order differential equations as case studies. The accuracy and convergence rate of numerical

  3. Theory of coherent time-dependent transport in one-dimensional multiband semiconductor super-lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotvig, J.; Smith, H.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1996-01-01

    We present an analytical study of one-dimensional semiconductor superlattices in external electric fields, which may be time dependent. A number of general results for the (quasi)energies and eigenstates are derived. An equation of motion for the density matrix is obtained for a two-band model an....... 74, 1831 (1995)], where a set of numerical simulations was presented....

  4. Transport in an Electron Interferometer and an Artificial One-Dimensional Crystal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, B.J. van; Kouwenhoven, L.P.; Kraayeveld, J.R.; Hekking, F.W.J.; Harmans, C.J.P.M.; Williamson, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the electron transport in a one-dimensional electron interferometer. It consists of a quantum dot, defined in a two-dimensional electron gas, to which quantum point contacts are attached. Discrete electronic states are formed due to the constructive interference of electron waves whi

  5. Quasi-Dirac points in one-dimensional graphene superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.H.; Tseng, P.; Hsueh, W.J., E-mail: hsuehwj@ntu.edu.tw

    2016-08-26

    Quasi-Dirac points (QDPs) with energy different from the traditional Dirac points (TDPs) have been found for the first time in one-dimensional graphene superlattices. The angular-averaged conductance reaches a minimum value at the QDPs, at which the Fano factor approaches 1/3. Surprisingly, the minimum conductance at these QDPs may be lower than that at the TDPs under certain conditions. This is remarkable as the minimum conductance attainable in graphene superlattices was believed to appear at TDPs. - Highlights: • Quasi-Dirac points (QDPs) are found for the first time in one-dimensional graphene superlattices. • The QDP is different from the traditional Dirac points (TDPs) in graphene superlattices. • The angular-averaged conductance reaches a minimum value at the QDPs, at which the Fano factor approaches 1/3. • The minimum conductance at these QDPs may be lower than that at the TDPs under certain conditions. • The minimum conductance attainable in graphene superlattices was believed to appear at TDPs.

  6. Hydrogen peroxide stabilization in one-dimensional flow columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jeremy T.; Ahmad, Mushtaque; Teel, Amy L.; Watts, Richard J.

    2011-09-01

    Rapid hydrogen peroxide decomposition is the primary limitation of catalyzed H 2O 2 propagations in situ chemical oxidation (CHP ISCO) remediation of the subsurface. Two stabilizers of hydrogen peroxide, citrate and phytate, were investigated for their effectiveness in one-dimensional columns of iron oxide-coated and manganese oxide-coated sand. Hydrogen peroxide (5%) with and without 25 mM citrate or phytate was applied to the columns and samples were collected at 8 ports spaced 13 cm apart. Citrate was not an effective stabilizer for hydrogen peroxide in iron-coated sand; however, phytate was highly effective, increasing hydrogen peroxide residuals two orders of magnitude over unstabilized hydrogen peroxide. Both citrate and phytate were effective stabilizers for manganese-coated sand, increasing hydrogen peroxide residuals by four-fold over unstabilized hydrogen peroxide. Phytate and citrate did not degrade and were not retarded in the sand columns; furthermore, the addition of the stabilizers increased column flow rates relative to unstabilized columns. These results demonstrate that citrate and phytate are effective stabilizers of hydrogen peroxide under the dynamic conditions of one-dimensional columns, and suggest that citrate and phytate can be added to hydrogen peroxide before injection to the subsurface as an effective means for increasing the radius of influence of CHP ISCO.

  7. Structure and Two-dimensional Correlation Infrared Spectroscopy Study of a New One-dimensional Chain Compound:(4,4'-Hbpy)3[NaMo8O26] (4,4'-bpy)2(H2O)4 (bpy = Bipydine)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yi-Ping; ZHANG Han-Hui; KE Da-Mei; SHEN Xiao-Min; HUANG Chang-Cang; SUN Rui-Qing

    2005-01-01

    A novel compound, (4,4'-Hbpy)3[NaMo8O26](4,4'-bpy)2(H2O)4 1 (bpy = bipydine),was synthesized by the hydrothermal method. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction shows that compound 1 belongs to the monoclinic system, space group C2/m with a = 19.1921(5), b = 18.6931(6), c = 9.3821 (3) (A), β = 104.8020(11)°, V = 3254.22(17) (A)3, C50H51Mo8N10NaO30, Mr = 2062.52, Z = 2,F(000) = 2016,μ = 1.591 mm- 1 and Dc = 2.105 g/cm3. The final R = 0.0283 and wR = 0.0912 for 3118 observed reflections (I > 2σ(Ⅰ)). Compound 1 contains the β-[Mo8O26]4- anion, sodium ion, 4,4'-bpy and lattice crystalline water molecules. The β-[Mo8O26] units link the sodium ion to form a chain structure. The infinitechains of [Na(Mo8O26)]3- blocks are surrounded by protonized 4,4'-bpy cations,4,4'-bpy and lattice crystalline water molecules. The 2D-IR correlation spectroscopy study indicates that the stretching vibrations of Mo=O occur more preferentially due to the thermal effect. The TGA analysis shows that compound 1 has high thermal stability.

  8. Crystallographic shear mechanisms in Rh one-dimensional oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, María; Boulahya, Khalid; Parras, Marina; González-Calbet, José M.

    2005-02-01

    Electron diffraction and high resolution electron microscopy have been used to characterize two new one-dimensional superstructures in the A sbnd Rh sbnd O system (A = Ca, Sr) related to the 2H-ABO 3-type. They are formed by the intergrowth of n A 3A'BO 6 blocks, showing the Sr 4RhO 6-type, with A 12A' 2B 8O 30 blocks, constituted by two A 3O 9 and two A 3A'O 6 layers alternating in the stacking sequence 1:1, leading to the A 27A' 7B 13O 60 ( n=5) and A 30A' 8B 14O 66 ( n=6) compositions. A crystallographic shear mechanism is proposed to describe the structural relationship between Sr 4RhO 6 (A 3A'BO 6-type) and the new superstructures.

  9. One-dimensional modeling of piping flow erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachouette, Damien; Golay, Frédéric; Bonelli, Stéphane

    2008-09-01

    A process called "piping", which often occurs in water-retaining structures (earth-dams, dykes, levees), involving the formation and progression of a continuous tunnel between the upstream and downstream sides, is one of the main cause of structure failure. Starting with the diphasic flow volume equations and the jump equations including the erosion processes, a simplified one-dimensional model for two-phase piping flow erosion was developed. The numerical simulation based on constant input and output pressures showed that the particle concentration can be a significant factor at the very beginning of the process, resulting in the enlargement of the hole at the exit. However, it was concluded that this influence is a secondary factor: the dilute flow assumption, which considerably simplifies the description, is relevant here. To cite this article: D. Lachouette et al., C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  10. Strongly interacting photons in one-dimensional continuum

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Dibyendu; Firstenberg, Ofer

    2016-01-01

    The photon-photon scattering in vacuum is extremely weak. However, strong effective interactions between single photons can be realized by employing strong light-matter coupling. These interactions are a fundamental building block for quantum optics, bringing many-body physics to the photonic world and providing important resources for quantum photonic devices and for optical metrology. In this Colloquium, we review the physics of strongly-interacting photons in one-dimensional systems with no optical confinement along the propagation direction. We focus on two recently-demonstrated experimental realizations: (i) superconducting qubits coupled to open transmission lines, and (ii) interacting Rydberg atoms in a cold gas. Advancements in the theoretical understanding of these systems are presented in complementary formalisms and compared to experimental results. The experimental achievements are summarized alongside of a systematic description of the quantum optical effects and quantum devices emerging from the...

  11. Scale dependent partitioning of one-dimensional aperiodic set diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkharrat, A.

    2004-06-01

    We give a multiresolution partition of pure point parts of diffraction patterns of one-dimensional aperiodic sets. When an aperiodic set is related to the Golden Ratio, denoted by tau, it is well known that the pure point part of its diffractive measure is supported by the extension ring of tau, denoted by mathbb{Z}[tau]. The partition we give is based on the formalism of the so called tau-integers, denoted by mathbb{Z}_tau. The set of tau-integers is a selfsimilar set obeying mathbb{Z}_tau/tau^{j-1}subsetmathbb{Z}_tau/tau^j subset mathbb{Z}_tau/tau^{j + 1} subsetmathbb{Z}[tau], jinmathbb{Z}. The pure point spectrum is then partitioned with respect to this “Russian doll” like sequence of subsets mathbb{Z}_tau/tau^j. Thus we deduce the partition of the pure point part of the diffractive measure of aperiodic sets.

  12. Explicit Solutions for One-Dimensional Mean-Field Games

    KAUST Repository

    Prazeres, Mariana

    2017-04-05

    In this thesis, we consider stationary one-dimensional mean-field games (MFGs) with or without congestion. Our aim is to understand the qualitative features of these games through the analysis of explicit solutions. We are particularly interested in MFGs with a nonmonotonic behavior, which corresponds to situations where agents tend to aggregate. First, we derive the MFG equations from control theory. Then, we compute explicit solutions using the current formulation and examine their behavior. Finally, we represent the solutions and analyze the results. This thesis main contributions are the following: First, we develop the current method to solve MFG explicitly. Second, we analyze in detail non-monotonic MFGs and discover new phenomena: non-uniqueness, discontinuous solutions, empty regions and unhappiness traps. Finally, we address several regularization procedures and examine the stability of MFGs.

  13. Numerical method of characteristics for one-dimensional blood flow

    CERN Document Server

    Acosta, Sebastian; Riviere, Beatrice; Penny, Daniel J; Rusin, Craig G

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling at the level of the full cardiovascular system requires the numerical approximation of solutions to a one-dimensional nonlinear hyperbolic system describing flow in a single vessel. This model is often simulated by computationally intensive methods like finite elements and discontinuous Galerkin, while some recent applications require more efficient approaches (e.g. for real-time clinical decision support, phenomena occurring over multiple cardiac cycles, iterative solutions to optimization/inverse problems, and uncertainty quantification). Further, the high speed of pressure waves in blood vessels greatly restricts the time-step needed for stability in explicit schemes. We address both cost and stability by presenting an efficient and unconditionally stable method for approximating solutions to diagonal nonlinear hyperbolic systems. Theoretical analysis of the algorithm is given along with a comparison of our method to a discontinuous Galerkin implementation. Lastly, we demonstrate the ...

  14. Testing of a one dimensional model for Field II calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bæk, David; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Willatzen, Morten

    2008-01-01

    to the calibrated Field II program for 1, 4, and 10 cycle excitations. Two parameter sets were applied for modeling, one real valued Pz27 parameter set, manufacturer supplied, and one complex valued parameter set found in literature, Alguer´o et al. [11]. The latter implicitly accounts for attenuation. Results show......Field II is a program for simulating ultrasound transducer fields. It is capable of calculating the emitted and pulse-echoed fields for both pulsed and continuous wave transducers. To make it fully calibrated a model of the transducer’s electro-mechanical impulse response must be included. We...... examine an adapted one dimensional transducer model originally proposed by Willatzen [9] to calibrate Field II. This model is modified to calculate the required impulse responses needed by Field II for a calibrated field pressure and external circuit current calculation. The testing has been performed...

  15. Automated quantification of one-dimensional nanostructure alignment on surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Jianjin; Abukhdeir, Nasser Mohieddin

    2016-01-01

    A method for automated quantification of the alignment of one-dimensional nanostructures from microscopy imaging is presented. Nanostructure alignment metrics are formulated and shown to able to rigorously quantify the orientational order of nanostructures within a two-dimensional domain (surface). A complementary image processing method is also presented which enables robust processing of microscopy images where overlapping nanostructures might be present. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of nanowire-covered surfaces are analyzed using the presented methods and it is shown that past single parameter alignment metrics are insufficient for highly aligned domains. Through the use of multiple parameter alignment metrics, automated quantitative analysis of SEM images is shown to be possible and the alignment characteristics of different samples are able to be rigorously compared using a similarity metric. The results of this work provide researchers in nanoscience and nanotechnology with a rigorous metho...

  16. Coherent backscattering of light off one-dimensional atomic strings

    CERN Document Server

    Sørensen, H L; Kluge, K W; Iakoupov, I; Sørensen, A S; Müller, J H; Polzik, E S; Appel, J

    2016-01-01

    Bragg scattering, well known in crystallography, has become a powerful tool for artificial atomic structures such as optical lattices. In an independent development photonic waveguides have been used successfully to boost quantum light-matter coupling. We combine these two lines of research and present the first experimental realisation of coherent Bragg scattering off a one-dimensional (1D) system - two strings of atoms strongly coupled to a single photonic mode - realised by trapping atoms in the evanescent field of a tapered optical fibre (TOF), which also guides the probe light. We report nearly 12% power reflection from strings containing only about one thousand caesium atoms, an enhancement of more than two orders of magnitude compared to reflection from randomly positioned atoms. This result paves the road towards collective strong coupling in 1D atom-photon systems. Our approach also allows for a straightforward fibre connection between several distant 1D atomic crystals.

  17. A Reduced Order, One Dimensional Model of Joint Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOHNER,JEFFREY L.

    2000-11-06

    As a joint is loaded, the tangent stiffness of the joint reduces due to slip at interfaces. This stiffness reduction continues until the direction of the applied load is reversed or the total interface slips. Total interface slippage in joints is called macro-slip. For joints not undergoing macro-slip, when load reversal occurs the tangent stiffness immediately rebounds to its maximum value. This occurs due to stiction effects at the interface. Thus, for periodic loads, a softening and rebound hardening cycle is produced which defines a hysteretic, energy absorbing trajectory. For many jointed sub-structures, this hysteretic trajectory can be approximated using simple polynomial representations. This allows for complex joint substructures to be represented using simple non-linear models. In this paper a simple one dimensional model is discussed.

  18. Properties of surface modes in one dimensional plasma photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, S.; Prasad, S., E-mail: prasad.surendra@gmail.com; Singh, V. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2015-02-15

    Properties of surface modes supported at the interface of air and a semi-infinite one dimensional plasma photonic crystal are analyzed. The surface mode equation is obtained by using transfer matrix method and applying continuity conditions of electric fields and its derivatives at the interface. It is observed that with increase in the width of cap layer, frequencies of surface modes are shifted towards lower frequency side, whereas increase in tangential component of wave-vector increases the mode frequency and total energy carried by the surface modes. With increase in plasma frequency, surface modes are found to shift towards higher frequency side. The group velocity along interface is found to control by cap layer thickness.

  19. Singularity formation for one dimensional full Euler equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ronghua; Zhu, Yi

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the basic open question on the global existence v.s. finite time blow-up phenomena of classical solutions for the one-dimensional compressible Euler equations of adiabatic flow. For isentropic flows, it is well-known that the solutions develop singularity if and only if initial data contain any compression (the Riemann variables have negative spatial derivative). The situation for non-isentropic flow is not quite clear so far, due to the presence of non-constant entropy. In [4], it is shown that initial weak compressions do not necessarily develop singularity in finite time, unless the compression is strong enough for general data. In this paper, we identify a class of solutions of the full (non-isentropic) Euler equations, developing singularity in finite time even though their initial data do not contain any compression. This is in sharp contrast to the isentropic flow.

  20. One-dimensional topological edge states of bismuth bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdov, Ilya K.; Alexandradinata, A.; Jeon, Sangjun; Nadj-Perge, Stevan; Ji, Huiwen; Cava, R. J.; Andrei Bernevig, B.; Yazdani, Ali

    2014-09-01

    The hallmark of a topologically insulating state of matter in two dimensions protected by time-reversal symmetry is the existence of chiral edge modes propagating along the perimeter of the sample. Among the first systems predicted to be a two-dimensional topological insulator are bilayers of bismuth. Here we report scanning tunnelling microscopy experiments on bulk Bi crystals that show that a subset of the predicted Bi-bilayers' edge states are decoupled from the states of the substrate and provide direct spectroscopic evidence of their one-dimensional nature. Moreover, by visualizing the quantum interference of edge-mode quasi-particles in confined geometries, we demonstrate their remarkable coherent propagation along the edge with scattering properties consistent with strong suppression of backscattering as predicted for the propagating topological edge states.

  1. Spin accumulation on a one-dimensional mesoscopic Rashba ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhiyong [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2006-04-26

    The nonequilibrium spin accumulation on a one-dimensional (1D) mesoscopic Rashba ring is investigated with unpolarized current injected through ideal leads. Due to the Rashba spin-orbit (SO) coupling and back-scattering at the interfaces between the leads and the ring, a beating pattern is formed in the fast oscillation of spin accumulation. If every beating period is complete, a plateau is formed, where the variation of spin accumulation with the external voltage is slow, but if new incomplete periods emerge in the envelope function, a transitional region appears. This plateau structure and the beating pattern are related to the tunnelling through spin-dependent resonant states. Because of the Aharonov-Casher (AC) effect, the average spin accumulation oscillates quasi-periodically with the Rashba SO coupling and has a series of zeros. In some situations, the direction of the average spin accumulation can be reversed by the external voltage in this 1D Rashba ring.

  2. Spin accumulation on a one-dimensional mesoscopic Rashba ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Yong

    2006-04-26

    The nonequilibrium spin accumulation on a one-dimensional (1D) mesoscopic Rashba ring is investigated with unpolarized current injected through ideal leads. Due to the Rashba spin-orbit (SO) coupling and back-scattering at the interfaces between the leads and the ring, a beating pattern is formed in the fast oscillation of spin accumulation. If every beating period is complete, a plateau is formed, where the variation of spin accumulation with the external voltage is slow, but if new incomplete periods emerge in the envelope function, a transitional region appears. This plateau structure and the beating pattern are related to the tunnelling through spin-dependent resonant states. Because of the Aharonov-Casher (AC) effect, the average spin accumulation oscillates quasi-periodically with the Rashba SO coupling and has a series of zeros. In some situations, the direction of the average spin accumulation can be reversed by the external voltage in this 1D Rashba ring.

  3. SUSY-inspired one-dimensional transformation optics

    CERN Document Server

    Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Christodoulides, Demetrios N

    2014-01-01

    Transformation optics aims to identify artificial materials and structures with desired electromagnetic properties by means of pertinent coordinate transformations. In general, such schemes are meant to appropriately tailor the constitutive parameters of metamaterials in order to control the trajectory of light in two and three dimensions. Here we introduce a new class of one-dimensional optical transformations that exploits the mathematical framework of supersymmetry (SUSY). This systematic approach can be utilized to synthesize photonic configurations with identical reflection and transmission characteristics, down to the phase, for all incident angles, thus rendering them perfectly indistinguishable to an external observer. Along these lines, low-contrast dielectric arrangements can be designed to fully mimic the behavior of a given high-contrast structure that would have been otherwise beyond the reach of available materials and existing fabrication techniques. Similar strategies can also be adopted to re...

  4. Characterizing high- n quasi-one-dimensional strontium Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Moritz; Yoshida, Shuhei; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Ye, Shuzhen; Zhang, Xinyue; Dunning, F. Barry

    2014-05-01

    The production of high- n, n ~ 300 , quasi-one-dimensional strontium Rydberg atoms by two-photon excitation of selected extreme Stark states in the presence of a weak dc field is examined using a crossed laser-atom beam geometry. The polarization of the product states is probed using three independent techniques which are analyzed with the aid of classical-trajectory Monte Carlo simulations that employ initial ensembles based on quantum calculations using a two-active-electron model. Comparisons between theory and experiment demonstrate that the product states have large dipole moments, ~ 1 . 0 - 1 . 2n2 a . u . and that they can be engineered using pulsed electric fields to create a wide variety of target states. Research supported by the NSF, the Robert A Welch Foundation, and the FWF (Austria).

  5. One-dimensional hybrid nanostructures for heterogeneous photocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fang-Xing; Miao, Jianwei; Tao, Hua Bing; Hung, Sung-Fu; Wang, Hsin-Yi; Yang, Hong Bin; Chen, Jiazang; Chen, Rong; Liu, Bin

    2015-05-13

    Semiconductor-based photocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis have received considerable attention as alternative approaches for solar energy harvesting and storage. The photocatalytic or photoelectrocatalytic performance of a semiconductor is closely related to the design of the semiconductor at the nanoscale. Among various nanostructures, one-dimensional (1D) nanostructured photocatalysts and photoelectrodes have attracted increasing interest owing to their unique optical, structural, and electronic advantages. In this article, a comprehensive review of the current research efforts towards the development of 1D semiconductor nanomaterials for heterogeneous photocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis is provided and, in particular, a discussion of how to overcome the challenges for achieving full potential of 1D nanostructures is presented. It is anticipated that this review will afford enriched information on the rational exploration of the structural and electronic properties of 1D semiconductor nanostructures for achieving more efficient 1D nanostructure-based photocatalysts and photoelectrodes for high-efficiency solar energy conversion.

  6. Polaron and bipolaron of uniaxially strained one dimensional zigzag ladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavidov, B.Ya., E-mail: bakhrom.yavidov@gmail.com

    2016-09-15

    An influence of the uniaxial strains in one dimensional zigzag ladder (1DZL) on the properties of polarons and bipolarons is considered. It is shown that strain changes all the parameters of the system, in particular, spectrum, existing bands and the masses of charge carriers. Numerical results obtained by taking into an account the Poisson effect clearly indicate that the properties of the (bi)polaronic system can be tuned via strain. Mass of bipolaron can be manipulated by the strain too which in turn leads to the way of tuning Bose–Einstein condensation temperature T{sub BEC} of bipolarons. It is shown that T{sub BEC} of bipolarons in strained 1DZL reasonably correlates with the values of critical temperature of superconductivity of certain perovskites.

  7. One-Dimensional Time to Explosion (Thermal Sensitivity) of ANPZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hust, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McClelland, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gresshoff, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-11-12

    Incidents caused by fire and combat operations can heat energetic materials that may lead to thermal explosion and result in structural damage and casualty. Some explosives may thermally explode at fairly low temperatures (< 100 C) and the violence from thermal explosion may cause a significant damage. Thus it is important to understand the response of energetic materials to thermal insults. The One Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been used for decades to measure times to explosion, threshold thermal explosion temperature, and determine kinetic parameters of energetic materials. Samples of different configurations (pressed part, powder, paste, and liquid) can be tested in the system. The ODTX testing can also provide useful data for assessing the thermal explosion violence of energetic materials. This report summarizes the recent ODTX experimental data and modeling results for 2,6-diamino-3,5-dintropyrazine (ANPZ).

  8. Capillary condensation in one-dimensional irregular confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handford, Thomas P.; Pérez-Reche, Francisco J.; Taraskin, Sergei N.

    2013-07-01

    A lattice-gas model with heterogeneity is developed for the description of fluid condensation in finite sized one-dimensional pores of arbitrary shape. Mapping to the random-field Ising model allows an exact solution of the model to be obtained at zero-temperature, reproducing the experimentally observed dependence of the amount of fluid adsorbed in the pore on external pressure. It is demonstrated that the disorder controls the sorption for long pores and can result in H2-type hysteresis. Finite-temperature Metropolis dynamics simulations support analytical findings in the limit of low temperatures. The proposed framework is viewed as a fundamental building block of the theory of capillary condensation necessary for reliable structural analysis of complex porous media from adsorption-desorption data.

  9. Compaction of quasi-one-dimensional elastoplastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaebani, M. Reza; Najafi, Javad; Farnudi, Ali; Bonn, Daniel; Habibi, Mehdi

    2017-06-01

    Insight into crumpling or compaction of one-dimensional objects is important for understanding biopolymer packaging and designing innovative technological devices. By compacting various types of wires in rigid confinements and characterizing the morphology of the resulting crumpled structures, here, we report how friction, plasticity and torsion enhance disorder, leading to a transition from coiled to folded morphologies. In the latter case, where folding dominates the crumpling process, we find that reducing the relative wire thickness counter-intuitively causes the maximum packing density to decrease. The segment size distribution gradually becomes more asymmetric during compaction, reflecting an increase of spatial correlations. We introduce a self-avoiding random walk model and verify that the cumulative injected wire length follows a universal dependence on segment size, allowing for the prediction of the efficiency of compaction as a function of material properties, container size and injection force.

  10. One-dimensional photonic crystal fishbone hybrid nanocavity with nanoposts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Tsan-Wen; Lin, Pin-Tso; Lee, Po-Tsung, E-mail: potsung@mail.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Photonics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Rm. 413 CPT Building, 1001 Ta-Hsueh Road, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China)

    2014-05-12

    We propose and investigate a one-dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) fishbone (FB) hybrid nanocavity lying on silver substrate with a horizontal air slot. With very few PhC periods, the confined transverse-magnetic, TM{sub 10} hybrid mode concentrated within the air slot shows high quality factor over effective mode volume ratio larger than 10{sup 5}λ{sup −3}. Most importantly, this FB hybrid nanocavity allows formation of low-index nanoposts within the air slot without significantly affecting the mode properties. These nanoposts guarantee the structural stabilities under different environmental perturbations. Furthermore, capabilities of our proposed design in serving as optical sensors and tweezers for bio-sized nanoparticles are also investigated.

  11. Analytical models of optical response in one-dimensional semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Thomas Garm, E-mail: tgp@nano.aau.dk

    2015-09-04

    The quantum mechanical description of the optical properties of crystalline materials typically requires extensive numerical computation. Including excitonic and non-perturbative field effects adds to the complexity. In one dimension, however, the analysis simplifies and optical spectra can be computed exactly. In this paper, we apply the Wannier exciton formalism to derive analytical expressions for the optical response in four cases of increasing complexity. Thus, we start from free carriers and, in turn, switch on electrostatic fields and electron–hole attraction and, finally, analyze the combined influence of these effects. In addition, the optical response of impurity-localized excitons is discussed. - Highlights: • Optical response of one-dimensional semiconductors including excitons. • Analytical model of excitonic Franz–Keldysh effect. • Computation of optical response of impurity-localized excitons.

  12. A one-dimensional toy model of globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Fanelli, D; Ruffo, S; Fanelli, Duccio; Merafina, Marco; Ruffo, Stefano

    2001-01-01

    We introduce a one-dimensional toy model of globular clusters. The model is a version of the well-known gravitational sheets system, where we take additionally into account mass and energy loss by evaporation of stars at the boundaries. Numerical integration by the "exact" event-driven dynamics is performed, for initial uniform density and Gaussian random velocities. Two distinct quasi-stationary asymptotic regimes are attained, depending on the initial energy of the system. We guess the forms of the density and velocity profiles which fit numerical data extremely well and allow to perform an independent calculation of the self-consistent gravitational potential. Some power-laws for the asymptotic number of stars and for the collision times are suggested.

  13. Well-posedness of one-dimensional Korteweg models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Benzoni-Gavage

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the initial-value problem for one-dimensional compressible fluids endowed with internal capillarity. We focus on the isothermal inviscid case with variable capillarity. The resulting equations for the density and the velocity, consisting of the mass conservation law and the momentum conservation with Korteweg stress, are a system of third order nonlinear dispersive partial differential equations. Additionally, this system is Hamiltonian and admits travelling solutions, representing propagating phase boundaries with internal structure. By change of unknown, it roughly reduces to a quasilinear Schrodinger equation. This new formulation enables us to prove local well-posedness for smooth perturbations of travelling profiles and almost-global existence for small enough perturbations. A blow-up criterion is also derived.

  14. Magnetic properties of manganese based one-dimensional spin chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, K S; Ranjith, K M; Yogi, Arvind; Nath, R; Mandal, Sukhendu

    2015-12-14

    We have correlated the structure-property relationship of three manganese-based inorganic-organic hybrid structures. Compound 1, [Mn2(OH-BDC)2(DMF)3] (where BDC = 1,4-benzene dicarboxylic acid and DMF = N,N'-dimethylformamide), contains Mn2O11 dimers as secondary building units (SBUs), which are connected by carboxylate anions forming Mn-O-C-O-Mn chains. Compound 2, [Mn2(BDC)2(DMF)2], contains Mn4O20 clusters as SBUs, which also form Mn-O-C-O-Mn chains. In compound 3, [Mn3(BDC)3(DEF)2] (where DEF = N,N'-diethylformamide), the distorted MnO6 octahedra are linked to form a one-dimensional chain with Mn-O-Mn connectivity. The magnetic properties were investigated by means of magnetization and heat capacity measurements. The temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility of all the three compounds could be nicely fitted using a one-dimensional S = 5/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chain model and the value of intra-chain exchange coupling (J/k(B)) between Mn(2+) ions was estimated to be ∼1.1 K, ∼0.7 K, and ∼0.46 K for compounds 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Compound 1 does not undergo any magnetic long-range-order down to 2 K while compounds 2 and 3 undergo long-range magnetic order at T(N) ≈ 4.2 K and ≈4.3 K, respectively, which are of spin-glass type. From the values of J/k(B) and T(N) the inter-chain coupling (J(⊥)/k(B)) was calculated to be about 0.1J/k(B) for both compounds 2 and 3, respectively.

  15. A One-Dimensional Synthetic-Aperture Microwave Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Terence; Piepmeier, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    A proposed one-dimensional synthetic- aperture microwave radiometer could serve as an alternative to either the two-dimensional synthetic-aperture radiometer described in the immediately preceding article or to a prior one-dimensional one, denoted the Electrically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR), mentioned in that article. The proposed radiometer would operate in a pushbroom imaging mode, utilizing (1) interferometric cross-track scanning to obtain cross-track resolution and (2) the focusing property of a reflector for along-track resolution. The most novel aspect of the proposed system would be the antenna (see figure), which would include a cylindrical reflector of offset parabolic cross section. The reflector could be made of a lightweight, flexible material amenable to stowage and deployment. Other than a stowage/deployment mechanism, the antenna would not include moving parts, and cross-track scanning would not entail mechanical rotation of the antenna. During operation, the focal line, parallel to the cylindrical axis, would be oriented in the cross-track direction, so that placement of receiving/radiating elements at the focal line would afford the desired along-track resolution. The elements would be microwave feed horns sparsely arrayed along the focal line. The feed horns would be oriented with their short and long cross-sectional dimensions parallel and perpendicular, respectively, to the cylindrical axis to obtain fan-shaped beams having their broad and narrow cross-sectional dimensions parallel and perpendicular, respectively, to the cylindrical axis. The interference among the beams would be controlled in the same manner as in the ESTAR to obtain along-cylindrical- axis (cross-track) resolution and cross-track scanning.

  16. Lime Kiln Modeling. CFD and One-dimensional simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svedin, Kristoffer; Ivarsson, Christofer; Lundborg, Rickard

    2009-03-15

    The incentives for burning alternative fuels in lime kilns are growing. An increasing demand on thorough investigations of alternative fuel impact on lime kiln performance have been recognized, and the purpose of this project has been to develop a lime kiln CFD model with the possibility to fire fuel oil and lignin. The second part of the project consists of three technical studies. Simulated data from a one-dimensional steady state program has been used to support theories on the impact of biofuels and lime mud dryness. The CFD simulations was carried out in the commercial code FLUENT. Due to difficulties with the convergence of the model the calcination reaction is not included. The model shows essential differences between the two fuels. Lignin gives a different flame shape and a longer flame length compared to fuel oil. Mainly this depends on how the fuel is fed into the combustion chamber and how much combustion air that is added as primary and secondary air. In the case of lignin combustion the required amount of air is more than in the fuel oil case. This generates more combustion gas and a different flow pattern is created. Based on the values from turbulent reaction rate for the different fuels an estimated flame length can be obtained. For fuel oil the combustion is very intense with a sharp peak in the beginning and a rapid decrease. For lignin the combustion starts not as intense as for the fuel oil case and has a smoother shape. The flame length appears to be approximately 2-3 meter longer for lignin than for fuel oil based on turbulent reaction rate in the computational simulations. The first technical study showed that there are many benefits of increasing dry solids content in the lime mud going into a kiln such as increased energy efficiency, reduced TRS, and reduced sodium in the kiln. However, data from operating kilns indicates that these benefits can be offset by increasing exit gas temperature that can limit kiln production capacity. Simulated

  17. Lime Kiln Modeling. CFD and One-dimensional simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svedin, Kristoffer; Ivarsson, Christofer; Lundborg, Rickard

    2009-03-15

    The incentives for burning alternative fuels in lime kilns are growing. An increasing demand on thorough investigations of alternative fuel impact on lime kiln performance have been recognized, and the purpose of this project has been to develop a lime kiln CFD model with the possibility to fire fuel oil and lignin. The second part of the project consists of three technical studies. Simulated data from a one-dimensional steady state program has been used to support theories on the impact of biofuels and lime mud dryness. The CFD simulations was carried out in the commercial code FLUENT. Due to difficulties with the convergence of the model the calcination reaction is not included. The model shows essential differences between the two fuels. Lignin gives a different flame shape and a longer flame length compared to fuel oil. Mainly this depends on how the fuel is fed into the combustion chamber and how much combustion air that is added as primary and secondary air. In the case of lignin combustion the required amount of air is more than in the fuel oil case. This generates more combustion gas and a different flow pattern is created. Based on the values from turbulent reaction rate for the different fuels an estimated flame length can be obtained. For fuel oil the combustion is very intense with a sharp peak in the beginning and a rapid decrease. For lignin the combustion starts not as intense as for the fuel oil case and has a smoother shape. The flame length appears to be approximately 2-3 meter longer for lignin than for fuel oil based on turbulent reaction rate in the computational simulations. The first technical study showed that there are many benefits of increasing dry solids content in the lime mud going into a kiln such as increased energy efficiency, reduced TRS, and reduced sodium in the kiln. However, data from operating kilns indicates that these benefits can be offset by increasing exit gas temperature that can limit kiln production capacity. Simulated

  18. Fabrication and characterization of one dimensional zinc oxide nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chun

    In this thesis, one dimensional (1D) ZnO nanostructures with controlled morphologies, defects and alignment have been fabricated by a simple vapor transfer method. The crystal structures, interfaces, growth mechanisms and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Great efforts have been devoted to the patterned growth and assembly of ZnO nanostructures as well as the stability of ZnO nanowires (NWs). Using carbonized photoresists, a simple and very effective method has been developed for fabricating and patterning high-quality ZnO NW arrays. ZnO NWs from this method show excellent alignment, crystal quality, and optical properties that are independent of the substrates. The carbonized photoresists provide perfect nucleation sites for the growth of aligned ZnO NWs and also perfectly connect to the NWs to form ideal electrodes. This approach is further extended to realize large area growth of different forms of ZnO NW arrays (e.g., the horizontal growth and multilayered ZnO NW arrays) on other kinds of carbon-based materials. In addition, the as-synthesized vertically aligned ZnO NW arrays show a low weighted reflectance (Rw) and can be used as antireflection coatings. Moreover, non c-axis growth of 1D ZnO nanostructures (e.g., nanochains, nanobrushes and nanobelts) and defect related 1D ZnO nanostructures (e.g., Y-shaped twinned nanobelts and hierarchical nanostructures decorated by flowers induced by screw dislocations) is also present. Using direct oxidization of pure Zn at high temperatures in air, uniformed ZnO NWs and tetrapods have been fabricated. The spatially-resolved PL study on these two kinds of nanostructures suggests that the defects leading to the green luminescence (GL) should originate from the structural changes along the legs of the tetrapods. Surface defects in these ZnO nanostructures play an unimportant

  19. One-dimensional analysis of piezoelectric transducers based on Thevenin theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, FJ

    2009-01-01

    In this work, a method of analysis of piezoelectric transducers is shown. This method is based on the simplification of Mason's equivalent electric circuit. An adaptation of Thevenin theorem has been employed to study the behavior of piezoelectric transducers used as transmitters (electric into mechanic energy conversion). This study was restricted to transducers with a typical configuration employed in high power applications. The transducers were one-dimensionally modeled, considering only ...

  20. Properties of photonic bandgap in one-dimensional multicomponent photonic crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi; WANG Qi

    2006-01-01

    Properties of photonic band gap and light propagation in one-dimensional multicomponent photonic crystal have been studied with the optical transfer matrix method.We mainly analyze the relation of photonic band-gap property with the arrangement of components,the refractive index and the geometrical thickness.In this study,the methods to change the width and the location of the existing photonic band-gaps in multicomponent photonic crystal are proposed.

  1. Observation of a dissipative phase transition in a one-dimensional circuit QED lattice

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzpatrick, Mattias; Sundaresan, Neereja M.; Li, Andy C. Y.; Koch, Jens; Houck, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Condensed matter physics has been driven forward by significant experimental and theoretical progress in the study and understanding of equilibrium phase transitions based on symmetry and topology. However, nonequilibrium phase transitions have remained a challenge, in part due to their complexity in theoretical descriptions and the additional experimental difficulties in systematically controlling systems out of equilibrium. Here, we study a one-dimensional chain of 72 microwave cavities, ea...

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of One-dimensional and Two-Dimensional Porphyrin Polymers* (Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Porphyrin polymers are of interest in relation to conductive materials[1, 2], catalysts for photosynthetic charge separation[3], or the fundamental features in biological systems[4]. There have been many versatile studies about them[5,6]. The one-dimensional “Shish Kebab” porphyrin polymers synthesized with a new method different from those reported and Schiff base porphyrin polymers with two-dimensional nano-structure have provided a new field of study. The present paper covers highly ordered porphyrin polymers.

  3. Supersolid Phase in One-Dimensional Hard-Core Boson Hubbard Model with a Superlattice Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Huai-Ming; LIANG Ying

    2008-01-01

    The ground state of the one-dimensional hard-core boson Hubbard model with a superlattice potential is studied by quantum Monte Carlo methods. We demonstrate that besides the CDW phase and the Mort insulator phase, the supersolid phase emerges due to the presence of the superlattice potential, which reflects the competition with the hopping term. We also study the densities of sublattices and have a clear idea about the distribution of the bosons on the lattice.

  4. 基于锥形量热仪的一维和三维燃烧性评价比较:以南方7种树叶为例%Comparison of One Dimensional and Three Dimensional Flammability Evaluation:A Case Study of Taking Leaves of Seven Tree Species in Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金森; 杨艳波

    2016-01-01

    [Objective]Fuel flammability evaluation is one of the most important topics in forest fire research. Different evaluation methods arise due to varied definitions of flammability. One-dimensional methods are commonly used at present. Importance of multidimensional evaluation based on multi-aspects of flammability has already been recognized by researchers but concrete work is not reported. It is not clear whether the two methods are similarity. This study is to identify the differences between one dimensional and three-dimensional method for a better understanding of fuel flammability. [Method]Leaves or needles of seven typical tree species in southern China were used for cone calorimeter analysis. Parameters such as heat release rate and total heat release were obtained. Flammability of the fuels was evaluated for one-dimensional flammability using a principal component ranking method which is commonly used in literatures,and for three-dimensional flammability using heat release parameter recommended by a literature. Spatial distances between the flammability manners were computed for each evaluation methods. The seven species were ranked according to the distances between the two methods. Ranking analysis was conducted on the rankings between the two methods to determine similarity of one-dimensional method and three-dimensional method. [Result]Among the 21 ranking pairs in comparison of two methods for each of the seven species,only two pairs were same in ranking and three with difference of one in ranking,and the rest pairs has large differences in ranking. The ranking correlation coefficients was 0. 078,suggesting that the one dimensional method and three-dimensional method would be different and not explicitly connected. Among the ranking analysis of one dimensional ranking and rankings in each of the three dimensions,one dimensional ranking is only remarkably correlated with sustainability but not with ignitibility and combustibility. This indicates that one

  5. Negative refraction angular characterization in one-dimensional photonic crystals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Eduardo Lugo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Photonic crystals are artificial structures that have periodic dielectric components with different refractive indices. Under certain conditions, they abnormally refract the light, a phenomenon called negative refraction. Here we experimentally characterize negative refraction in a one dimensional photonic crystal structure; near the low frequency edge of the fourth photonic bandgap. We compare the experimental results with current theory and a theory based on the group velocity developed here. We also analytically derived the negative refraction correctness condition that gives the angular region where negative refraction occurs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By using standard photonic techniques we experimentally determined the relationship between incidence and negative refraction angles and found the negative refraction range by applying the correctness condition. In order to compare both theories with experimental results an output refraction correction was utilized. The correction uses Snell's law and an effective refractive index based on two effective dielectric constants. We found good agreement between experiment and both theories in the negative refraction zone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Since both theories and the experimental observations agreed well in the negative refraction region, we can use both negative refraction theories plus the output correction to predict negative refraction angles. This can be very useful from a practical point of view for space filtering applications such as a photonic demultiplexer or for sensing applications.

  6. Charge transport through one-dimensional Moiré crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Roméo; Lherbier, Aurélien; Barraud, Clément; Rocca, Maria Luisa Della; Lafarge, Philippe; Charlier, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Moiré superlattices were generated in two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals heterostructures and have revealed intriguing electronic structures. The appearance of mini-Dirac cones within the conduction and valence bands of graphene is one of the most striking among the new quantum features. A Moiré superstructure emerges when at least two periodic sub-structures superimpose. 2D Moiré patterns have been particularly investigated in stacked hexagonal 2D atomic lattices like twisted graphene layers and graphene deposited on hexagonal boron-nitride. In this letter, we report both experimentally and theoretically evidence of superlattices physics in transport properties of one-dimensional (1D) Moiré crystals. Rolling-up few layers of graphene to form a multiwall carbon nanotube adds boundaries conditions that can be translated into interference fringes-like Moiré patterns along the circumference of the cylinder. Such a 1D Moiré crystal exhibits a complex 1D multiple bands structure with clear and robust interband quantum transitions due to the presence of mini-Dirac points and pseudo-gaps. Our devices consist in a very large diameter (>80 nm) multiwall carbon nanotubes of high quality, electrically connected by metallic electrodes acting as charge reservoirs. Conductance measurements reveal the presence of van Hove singularities assigned to 1D Moiré superlattice effect and illustrated by electronic structure calculations.

  7. Negative refraction angular characterization in one-dimensional photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, Jesus Eduardo; Doti, Rafael; Faubert, Jocelyn

    2011-04-06

    Photonic crystals are artificial structures that have periodic dielectric components with different refractive indices. Under certain conditions, they abnormally refract the light, a phenomenon called negative refraction. Here we experimentally characterize negative refraction in a one dimensional photonic crystal structure; near the low frequency edge of the fourth photonic bandgap. We compare the experimental results with current theory and a theory based on the group velocity developed here. We also analytically derived the negative refraction correctness condition that gives the angular region where negative refraction occurs. By using standard photonic techniques we experimentally determined the relationship between incidence and negative refraction angles and found the negative refraction range by applying the correctness condition. In order to compare both theories with experimental results an output refraction correction was utilized. The correction uses Snell's law and an effective refractive index based on two effective dielectric constants. We found good agreement between experiment and both theories in the negative refraction zone. Since both theories and the experimental observations agreed well in the negative refraction region, we can use both negative refraction theories plus the output correction to predict negative refraction angles. This can be very useful from a practical point of view for space filtering applications such as a photonic demultiplexer or for sensing applications.

  8. One-dimensional consolidation in unsaturated soils under cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Wei-Cheng; Sposito, Garrison; Lee, Jhe-Wei; Chu, Hsiuhua

    2016-05-01

    The one-dimensional consolidation model of poroelasticity of Lo et al. (2014) for an unsaturated soil under constant loading is generalized to include an arbitrary time-dependent loading. A closed-form solution for the pore water and air pressures along with the total settlement is derived by employing a Fourier series representation in the spatial domain and a Laplace transformation in the time domain. This solution is illustrated for the important example of a fully-permeable soil cylinder with an undrained initial condition acted upon by a periodic stress. Our results indicate that, in terms of a dimensionless time scale, the transient solution decays to zero most slowly in a water-saturated soil, whereas for an unsaturated soil, the time for the transient solution to die out is inversely proportional to the initial water saturation. The generalization presented here shows that the diffusion time scale for pore water in an unsaturated soil is orders of magnitude greater than that in a water-saturated soil, mainly because of the much smaller hydraulic conductivity of the former.

  9. Integral Transport Theory in One-dimensional Geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlvik, I.

    1966-06-15

    A method called DIT (Discrete Integral Transport) has been developed for the numerical solution of the transport equation in one-dimensional systems. The characteristic features of the method are Gaussian integration over the coordinate as described by Kobayashi and Nishihara, and a particular scheme for the calculation of matrix elements in annular and spherical geometry that has been used for collision probabilities in earlier Flurig programmes. The paper gives a general theory including such things as anisotropic scattering and multi-pole fluxes, and it gives a brief description of the Flurig scheme. Annular geometry is treated in some detail, and corresponding formulae are given for spherical and plane geometry. There are many similarities between DIT and the method of collision probabilities. DIT is in many cases faster, because for a certain accuracy in the fluxes DIT often needs fewer space points than the method of collision probabilities needs regions. Several computer codes using DIT, both one-group and multigroup, have been written. It is anticipated that experience gained in calculations with these codes will be reported in another paper.

  10. Correlation effects for a quasi-one-dimensional polaron gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Paulo Cesar Miranda [Escola de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao, Universidade Federal de Goias, Goiania (Brazil); Borges, Antonio Newton; Osorio, Francisco Aparecido Pinto [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Goias, Goiania (Brazil); Nucleo de Pesquisa em Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Goias, Goiania (Brazil)

    2011-04-15

    In this work, we investigate the plasmon-LO phonon interaction effects on the intrasubband structure factor, electron-electron effective potential, and plasmon energy associated with the lowest subband in a GaAs-AlGaAs rectangular quantum-well wire (QWW) as a function of the electronic density. Our calculations are performed using the self-consistent field approximation, which includes the local-field correction (LFC) within the Singwi, Tosi, Land, and Sjolander (STLS) theory, at zero temperature and assuming a three-subband model, where only the first subband is occupied by electrons. We report for the first time dips in the structure factor spectra as a function of the quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) plasmon-LO phonon wavevector that are directly related with the resonant split of the collective excitation energy into two branches due to the polaronic effects. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Controlled Growth of One-Dimensional Oxide Nanomaterials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaosheng FANG; Lide ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the recent developments in the controlled growth of one-dimensional (1D) oxide nanomaterials, including ZnO, SnO2, In2O3, Ga2O3, SiOx, MgO, and Al2O3. The growth of 1D oxide nanomaterials was carried out in a simple chemical vapor transport and condensation system. This article will begin with a survey of nanotechnology and 1D nanomaterials achieved by many researchers, and then mainly discuss on the controlled growth of 1D oxide nanomaterials with their morphologies, sizes, compositions, and microstructures controlled by altering experimental parameters, such as the temperature at the source material and the substrate, temperature gradient in the tube furnace, the total reaction time, the heating rate of the furnace, the gas flow rate, and the starting material. Their roles in the formation of various morphologies are analyzed and discussed. Finally, this review will be concluded with personal perspectives on the future research directions of this area.

  12. Approximate Relativistic Solutions for One-Dimensional Cylindrical Coaxial Diode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾正中; 刘国治; 邵浩

    2002-01-01

    Two approximate analytical relativistic solutions for one-dimensional, space-chargelimited cylindrical coaxial diode are derived and utilized to compose best-fitting approximate solutions. Comparison of the best-fitting solutions with the numerical one demonstrates an error of about 11% for cathode-inside arrangement and 12% in the cathode-outside case for ratios of larger to smaller electrode radius from 1.2 to 10 and a voltage above 0.5 MV up to 5 MV. With these solutions the diode lengths for critical self-magnetic bending and for the condition under which the parapotential model validates are calculated to be longer than 1 cm up to more than 100 cm depending on voltage, radial dimensions and electrode arrangement. The influence of ion flow from the anode on the relativistic electron-only solution is numerically computed, indicating an enhancement factor of total diode current of 1.85 to 4.19 related to voltage, radial dimension and electrode arrangement.

  13. Negativity spectrum of one-dimensional conformal field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggiero, Paola; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2016-01-01

    The partial transpose $\\rho_A^{T_2}$ of the reduced density matrix $\\rho_A$ is the key object to quantify the entanglement in mixed states, in particular through the presence of negative eigenvalues in its spectrum. Here we derive analytically the distribution of the eigenvalues of $\\rho_A^{T_2}$, that we dub negativity spectrum, in the ground sate of gapless one-dimensional systems described by a Conformal Field Theory (CFT), focusing on the case of two adjacent intervals. We show that the negativity spectrum is universal and depends only on the central charge of the CFT, similarly to the entanglement spectrum. The precise form of the negativity spectrum depends on whether the two intervals are in a pure or mixed state, and in both cases, a dependence on the sign of the eigenvalues is found. This dependence is weak for bulk eigenvalues, whereas it is strong at the spectrum edges. We also investigate the scaling of the smallest (negative) and largest (positive) eigenvalues of $\\rho_A^{T_2}$. We check our resu...

  14. One-Dimensional Electron Transport Layers for Perovskite Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujwal K. Thakur

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The electron diffusion length (Ln is smaller than the hole diffusion length (Lp in many halide perovskite semiconductors meaning that the use of ordered one-dimensional (1D structures such as nanowires (NWs and nanotubes (NTs as electron transport layers (ETLs is a promising method of achieving high performance halide perovskite solar cells (HPSCs. ETLs consisting of oriented and aligned NWs and NTs offer the potential not merely for improved directional charge transport but also for the enhanced absorption of incoming light and thermodynamically efficient management of photogenerated carrier populations. The ordered architecture of NW/NT arrays affords superior infiltration of a deposited material making them ideal for use in HPSCs. Photoconversion efficiencies (PCEs as high as 18% have been demonstrated for HPSCs using 1D ETLs. Despite the advantages of 1D ETLs, there are still challenges that need to be overcome to achieve even higher PCEs, such as better methods to eliminate or passivate surface traps, improved understanding of the hetero-interface and optimization of the morphology (i.e., length, diameter, and spacing of NWs/NTs. This review introduces the general considerations of ETLs for HPSCs, deposition techniques used, and the current research and challenges in the field of 1D ETLs for perovskite solar cells.

  15. Digital noise generators using one-dimensional chaotic maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Ñonthe, J. A; Palacios-Luengas, L.; Cruz-Irisson, M.; Vazquez Medina, R. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ESIME-Culhuacan, Santa Ana 1000, 04430, D.F. (Mexico); Díaz Méndez, J. A. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, Luis Enrique Erro 1, Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2014-05-15

    This work shows how to improve the statistical distribution of signals produced by digital noise generators designed with one-dimensional (1-D) chaotic maps. It also shows that in a digital electronic design the piecewise linear chaotic maps (PWLCM) should be considered because they do not have stability islands in its chaotic behavior region, as it occurs in the case of the logistic map, which is commonly used to build noise generators. The design and implementation problems of the digital noise generators are analyzed and a solution is proposed. This solution relates the output of PWLCM, usually defined in the real numbers' domain, with a codebook of S elements, previously defined. The proposed solution scheme produces digital noise signals with a statistical distribution close to a uniform distribution. Finally, this work shows that it is possible to have control over the statistical distribution of the noise signal by selecting the control parameter of the PWLCM and using, as a design criterion, the bifurcation diagram.

  16. Cooperative eigenmodes and scattering in one-dimensional atomic arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettles, Robert J.; Gardiner, Simon A.; Adams, Charles S.

    2016-10-01

    Collective coupling between dipoles can dramatically modify the optical response of a medium. Such effects depend strongly on the geometry of the medium and the polarization of the light. Using a classical coupled dipole model, here we investigate the simplest case of one-dimensional arrays of interacting atomic dipoles driven by a weak laser field. Changing the polarization and direction of the driving field allows us to separately address superradiant, subradiant, redshifted, and blueshifted eigenmodes, as well as observe strong Fano-like interferences between different modes. The cooperative eigenvectors can be characterized by the phase difference between nearest-neighbor dipoles, ranging from all oscillating in phase to all oscillating out of phase with their nearest neighbors. Investigating the eigenvalue behavior as a function of atom number and lattice spacing, we find that certain eigenmodes of an infinite atomic chain have the same decay rate as a single atom between two mirrors. The effects we observe provide a framework for collective control of the optical response of a medium, giving insight into the behavior of more complicated geometries, as well as providing further evidence for the dipolar analog of cavity QED.

  17. One-Dimensional Electron Transport Layers for Perovskite Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Ujwal K.; Kisslinger, Ryan; Shankar, Karthik

    2017-01-01

    The electron diffusion length (Ln) is smaller than the hole diffusion length (Lp) in many halide perovskite semiconductors meaning that the use of ordered one-dimensional (1D) structures such as nanowires (NWs) and nanotubes (NTs) as electron transport layers (ETLs) is a promising method of achieving high performance halide perovskite solar cells (HPSCs). ETLs consisting of oriented and aligned NWs and NTs offer the potential not merely for improved directional charge transport but also for the enhanced absorption of incoming light and thermodynamically efficient management of photogenerated carrier populations. The ordered architecture of NW/NT arrays affords superior infiltration of a deposited material making them ideal for use in HPSCs. Photoconversion efficiencies (PCEs) as high as 18% have been demonstrated for HPSCs using 1D ETLs. Despite the advantages of 1D ETLs, there are still challenges that need to be overcome to achieve even higher PCEs, such as better methods to eliminate or passivate surface traps, improved understanding of the hetero-interface and optimization of the morphology (i.e., length, diameter, and spacing of NWs/NTs). This review introduces the general considerations of ETLs for HPSCs, deposition techniques used, and the current research and challenges in the field of 1D ETLs for perovskite solar cells. PMID:28468280

  18. A disorder-enhanced quasi-one-dimensional superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, A P; Ansermet, D; Chernyshov, D; Hoesch, M; Salloum, D; Gougeon, P; Potel, M; Boeri, L; Panagopoulos, C

    2016-01-01

    A powerful approach to analysing quantum systems with dimensionality d>1 involves adding a weak coupling to an array of one-dimensional (1D) chains. The resultant quasi-1D (q1D) systems can exhibit long-range order at low temperature, but are heavily influenced by interactions and disorder due to their large anisotropies. Real q1D materials are therefore ideal candidates not only to provoke, test and refine theories of strongly correlated matter, but also to search for unusual emergent electronic phases. Here we report the unprecedented enhancement of a superconducting instability by disorder in single crystals of Na2-δMo6Se6, a q1D superconductor comprising MoSe chains weakly coupled by Na atoms. We argue that disorder-enhanced Coulomb pair-breaking (which usually destroys superconductivity) may be averted due to a screened long-range Coulomb repulsion intrinsic to disordered q1D materials. Our results illustrate the capability of disorder to tune and induce new correlated electron physics in low-dimensional materials.

  19. Multi-symplectic, Lagrangian, one-dimensional gas dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, G. M.

    2015-05-01

    The equations of Lagrangian, ideal, one-dimensional, compressible gas dynamics are written in a multi-symplectic form using the Lagrangian mass coordinate m and time t as independent variables, and in which the Eulerian position of the fluid element x = x(m, t) is one of the dependent variables. This approach differs from the Eulerian, multi-symplectic approach using Clebsch variables. Lagrangian constraints are used to specify equations for xm, xt, and St consistent with the Lagrangian map, where S is the entropy of the gas. We require St = 0 corresponding to advection of the entropy S with the flow. We show that the Lagrangian Hamiltonian equations are related to the de Donder-Weyl multi-momentum formulation. The pullback conservation laws and the symplecticity conservation laws are discussed. The pullback conservation laws correspond to invariance of the action with respect to translations in time (energy conservation) and translations in m in Noether's theorem. The conservation law due to m-translation invariance gives rise to a novel nonlocal conservation law involving the Clebsch variable r used to impose ∂S(m, t)/∂t = 0. Translation invariance with respect to x in Noether's theorem is associated with momentum conservation. We obtain the Cartan-Poincaré form for the system, and use it to obtain a closed ideal of two-forms representing the equation system.

  20. Transmission properties of one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiveshwari, Laxmi [Department of Physics, K. B. Womens' s College, Hazaribagh 825 301 (India); Awasthi, S. K. [Department of Physics and Material Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida 201 304 (India)

    2015-09-15

    Omnidirectional photonic band gaps (PBGs) are found in one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals (PPC) composed of single negative metamaterials. The band characteristics and transmission properties are investigated through the transfer matrix method. We show that the proposed structure can trap light in three-dimensional space due to the elimination of Brewster's angle transmission resonance allowing the existence of complete PBG. The results are discussed in terms of incident angle, layer thickness, dielectric constant of the dielectric material, and number of unit cells (N) for TE and TM polarizations. It is seen that PBG characteristics is apparent even in an N ≥ 2 system, which is weakly sensitive to the incident angle and completely insensitive to the polarization. Finite PPC could be used for multichannel transmission filter without introducing any defect in the geometry. We show that the locations of the multichannel transmission peaks are in the allowed band of the infinite structure. The structure can work as a single or multichannel filter by varying the number of unit cells. Binary PPC can also work as a polarization sensitive tunable filter.

  1. Phonons in a one-dimensional microfluidic crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Beatus, Tsevi; Bar-Ziv, Roy; 10.1038/nphys432

    2010-01-01

    The development of a general theoretical framework for describing the behaviour of a crystal driven far from equilibrium has proved difficult1. Microfluidic crystals, formed by the introduction of droplets of immiscible fluid into a liquid-filled channel, provide a convenient means to explore and develop models to describe non-equilibrium dynamics2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11. Owing to the fact that these systems operate at low Reynolds number (Re), in which viscous dissipation of energy dominates inertial effects, vibrations are expected to be over-damped and contribute little to their dynamics12, 13, 14. Against such expectations, we report the emergence of collective normal vibrational modes (equivalent to acoustic 'phonons') in a one-dimensional microfluidic crystal of water-in-oil droplets at Reapprox10-4. These phonons propagate at an ultra-low sound velocity of approx100 mum s-1 and frequencies of a few hertz, exhibit unusual dispersion relations markedly different to those of harmonic crystals, and g...

  2. Conjugated Molecules Described by a One-Dimensional Dirac Equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernzerhof, Matthias; Goyer, Francois

    2010-06-08

    Starting from the Hückel Hamiltonian of conjugated hydrocarbon chains (ethylene, allyl radical, butadiene, pentadienyl radical, hexatriene, etc.), we perform a simple unitary transformation and obtain a Dirac matrix Hamiltonian. Thus already small molecules are described exactly in terms of a discrete Dirac equation, the continuum limit of which yields a one-dimensional Dirac Hamiltonian. Augmenting this Hamiltonian with specially adapted boundary conditions, we find that all the orbitals of the unsaturated hydrocarbon chains are reproduced by the continuous Dirac equation. However, only orbital energies close to the highest occupied molecular orbital/lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy are accurately predicted by the Dirac equation. Since it is known that a continuous Dirac equation describes the electronic structure of graphene around the Fermi energy, our findings answer the question to what extent this peculiar electronic structure is already developed in small molecules containing a delocalized π-electron system. We illustrate how the electronic structure of small polyenes carries over to a certain class of rectangular graphene sheets and eventually to graphene itself. Thus the peculiar electronic structure of graphene extends to a large degree to the smallest unsaturated molecule (ethylene).

  3. Charge transport through one-dimensional Moiré crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Roméo; Lherbier, Aurélien; Barraud, Clément; Della Rocca, Maria Luisa; Lafarge, Philippe; Charlier, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-20

    Moiré superlattices were generated in two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals heterostructures and have revealed intriguing electronic structures. The appearance of mini-Dirac cones within the conduction and valence bands of graphene is one of the most striking among the new quantum features. A Moiré superstructure emerges when at least two periodic sub-structures superimpose. 2D Moiré patterns have been particularly investigated in stacked hexagonal 2D atomic lattices like twisted graphene layers and graphene deposited on hexagonal boron-nitride. In this letter, we report both experimentally and theoretically evidence of superlattices physics in transport properties of one-dimensional (1D) Moiré crystals. Rolling-up few layers of graphene to form a multiwall carbon nanotube adds boundaries conditions that can be translated into interference fringes-like Moiré patterns along the circumference of the cylinder. Such a 1D Moiré crystal exhibits a complex 1D multiple bands structure with clear and robust interband quantum transitions due to the presence of mini-Dirac points and pseudo-gaps. Our devices consist in a very large diameter (>80 nm) multiwall carbon nanotubes of high quality, electrically connected by metallic electrodes acting as charge reservoirs. Conductance measurements reveal the presence of van Hove singularities assigned to 1D Moiré superlattice effect and illustrated by electronic structure calculations.

  4. Redshift distortions in one-dimensional power spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Desjacques, V; Desjacques, Vincent; Nusser, Adi

    2004-01-01

    We present a model for one-dimensional (1D) matter power spectra in redshift space as estimated from data provided along individual lines of sight. We derive analytic expressions for these power spectra in the linear and nonlinear regimes, focusing on redshift distortions arising from peculiar velocities. In the linear regime, redshift distortions enhance the 1D power spectra only on small scales, and do not affect the power on large scales. This is in contrast to the effect of distortions on three-dimensional (3D) power spectra estimated from data in 3D space, where the enhancement is independent of scale. For CDM cosmologies, the 1D power spectra in redshift and real space are similar for wavenumbers $q<0.1h/Mpc$ where both have a spectral index close to unity, independent of the details of the 3D power spectrum. Nonlinear corrections drive the 1D power spectrum in redshift space into a nearly universal shape over scale $q<10h/Mpc$, and suppress the power on small scales as a result of the strong velo...

  5. One dimensional coordination polymers: Synthesis, crystal structures and spectroscopic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaağaç, Dursun; Kürkçüoğlu, Güneş Süheyla; Şenyel, Mustafa; Şahin, Onur

    2016-11-01

    Two new one dimensional (1D) cyanide complexes, namely [M(4-aepy)2(H2O)2][Pt(CN)4], (4-aepy = 4-(2-aminoethyl)pyridine M = Cu(II) (1) or Zn(II) (2)), have been synthesized and characterized by vibrational (FT-IR and Raman) spectroscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, thermal and elemental analyses techniques. The crystallographic analyses reveal that 1 and 2 are isomorphous and isostructural, and crystallize in the monoclinic system and C2 space group. The Pt(II) ions are coordinated by four cyanide-carbon atoms in the square-planar geometry and the [Pt(CN)4]2- ions act as a counter ion. The M(II) ions display an N4O2 coordination sphere with a distorted octahedral geometry, the nitrogen donors belonging to four molecules of the organic 4-aepy that act as unidentate ligands and two oxygen atoms from aqua ligands. The crystal structures of 1 and 2 are similar each other and linked via intermolecular hydrogen bonding, Pt⋯π interactions to form 3D supramolecular network. Vibration assignments of all the observed bands are given and the spectral features also supported to the crystal structures of the complexes.

  6. Automated quantification of one-dimensional nanostructure alignment on surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jianjin; Goldthorpe, Irene A.; Mohieddin Abukhdeir, Nasser

    2016-06-01

    A method for automated quantification of the alignment of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures from microscopy imaging is presented. Nanostructure alignment metrics are formulated and shown to be able to rigorously quantify the orientational order of nanostructures within a two-dimensional domain (surface). A complementary image processing method is also presented which enables robust processing of microscopy images where overlapping nanostructures might be present. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of nanowire-covered surfaces are analyzed using the presented methods and it is shown that past single parameter alignment metrics are insufficient for highly aligned domains. Through the use of multiple parameter alignment metrics, automated quantitative analysis of SEM images is shown to be possible and the alignment characteristics of different samples are able to be quantitatively compared using a similarity metric. The results of this work provide researchers in nanoscience and nanotechnology with a rigorous method for the determination of structure/property relationships, where alignment of 1D nanostructures is significant.

  7. Stepwise Nanopore Evolution in One-Dimensional Nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Jang Wook

    2010-04-14

    We report that established simple lithium (Li) ion battery cycles can be used to produce nanopores inside various useful one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures such as zinc oxide, silicon, and silver nanowires. Moreover, porosities of these 1D nanomaterials can be controlled in a stepwise manner by the number of Li-battery cycles. Subsequent pore characterization at the end of each cycle allows us to obtain detailed snapshots of the distinct pore evolution properties in each material due to their different atomic diffusion rates and types of chemical bonds. Also, this stepwise characterization led us to the first observation of pore size increases during cycling, which can be interpreted as a similar phenomenon to Ostwald ripening in analogous nanoparticle cases. Finally, we take advantage of the unique combination of nanoporosity and 1D materials and demonstrate nanoporous silicon nanowires (poSiNWs) as excellent supercapacitor (SC) electrodes in high power operations compared to existing devices with activated carbon. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  8. Current progress on heat conduction in one-dimensional gas channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Jun-wen; LI You-quan

    2006-01-01

    We give a brief review of the past development of model studies on one-dimensional heat conduction.Particularly,we describe recent achievements on the study of heat conduction in one-dimensional gas models including the hard-point gas model and billiard gas channel.For a onedimensional gas of elastically colliding particles of unequal masses,heat conduction is anomalous due to momentum conservation,and the divergence exponent of heat conductivity is estimated as α=0.33 in κ~Lα.Moreover,in billiard gas models,it is found that exponent instability is not necessary for normal heat conduction.The connection between heat conductivity and diffusion is investigated.Some new progress is reported.A recently proposed model with a quantized degree of freedom to study the heat transport in quasi-one dimensional systems is illustrated in which three distinct temperature regimes of heat conductivity are manifested.The establishment of local thermal equilibrium (LTE)in homogeneous and heterogeneous systems is also discussed.Finally,we give a summary with an outlook for further study about the problem of heat conduction.

  9. Asymmetric Heat Conduction in One-Dimensional Hard-Point Model with Mass Gradient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hai-Bin; NIE Qing-Miao; XIN Xiao-Tian

    2009-01-01

    The heat conduction in a one-dimensional (1D) hard-point model with mass gradient is studied. Using numerical simulation, we find an asymmetric heat conduction in this model with greater heat current in the direction of mass increase. The increase of temperature gradient, mass gradient and system size are found to enhance the asymmetric heat conduction. Based on the collision dynamic of a hard-point particle, we give a qualitative explanation for the underlying mechanism of asymmetric effect.

  10. Coherent single-photon absorption by single emitters coupled to one-dimensional nanophotonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yuntian; Wubs, Martijn; Mørk, Jesper;

    2011-01-01

    We study the dynamics of single-photon absorption by a single emitter coupled to a one-dimensional waveguide that simultaneously provides channels for spontaneous emission (SE) decay and a channel for the input photon. We have developed a time-dependent theory that allows us to specify any input ...... can be improved by a further 4% by engineering the dispersion. Efficient single-photon absorption by a single emitter has potential applications in quantum communication and quantum computation....

  11. Phase Space Compression in One-Dimensional Complex Ginzburg-Landau Dquation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ji-Hua; PENG Jian-Hua

    2007-01-01

    The transition from stationary to oscillatory states in dynamical systems under phase space compression is investigated. By considering the model for the spatially one-dimensional complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, we find that defect turbulence can be substituted with stationary and oscillatory signals by applying system perturbation and confining variable into various ranges. The transition procedure described by the oscillatory frequency is studied via numerical simulations in detail.

  12. The contact conductance of a one-dimensional wire partly embedded in a superconductor

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Raphael; Agam, Oded

    2007-01-01

    The conductance through a semi-infinite one-dimensional wire, partly embedded in a superconducting bulk electrode, is studied. When the electron-electron interactions within the wire are strongly repulsive, the wire effectively decouples from the superconductor. If they are moderately or weakly repulsive, the proximity of the superconductor induces superconducting order in the segment of the wire embedded in it. In this case it is shown that the conductance exhibits a crossover from conductiv...

  13. SUSY QM in a One-Dimensional Box and Local Observable Quantities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salvatore De Vincenzo

    2006-01-01

    @@ We investigate several Hamiltonians for a free particle in a one-dimensional box, in the context of supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Specifically, we study this problem with the Neumann boundary condition, the periodic and antiperiodic boundary condition, and some mixed and complex boundary conditions. This is achieved by using an approach recently proposed which expresses the factorization of the partner Hamiltonians in terms of the probability density and current for the ground-state eigenfunction of one of them.

  14. Conditioned quantum motion of an atom in a continuously monitored one-dimensional lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattmann, Ralf; Mølmer, Klaus

    2016-05-01

    We consider a quantum particle on a one-dimensional lattice subject to weak local measurements and study its stochastic dynamics conditioned on the measurement outcomes. Depending on the measurement strength our analysis of the quantum trajectories reveals dynamical regimes ranging from quasicoherent wave-packet oscillations to a Zeno-type dynamics. We analyze how these dynamical regimes are directly reflected in the spectral properties of the noisy measurement records.

  15. Entanglement in One-Dimensional Anderson Model with Long-Range Correlated Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zi-Zheng

    2008-01-01

    @@ By using the measure of concurrence,the entanglement of the ground state in the one-dimensional Anderson model is studied with consideration of the long-range correlations. Three kinds of correlations are discussed.We compare the effects of the long-rang Gaussian and power-law correlations between the site energies on the concurrence,and demonstrate the existence of the band structure of the concurrence in the power-law case.

  16. Competition between spin and charge order in a one-dimensional lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Amir Hossein; Davoudi, Bahman; Rahimitabar, M. Reza

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we study the presence of competing instabilities in one-dimensional (1D) extended Hubbard model (EHM). Using the extended two-particle self-consistent approximation (ETPSC), we derive the density and interaction dependent crossover diagram for spin and charge density wave fluctuations at arbitrary wave number. We determine the phase transitions of the system by means of spin and charge susceptibilities. We draw the phase diagram which separates different phases of the model for several effective particle densities.

  17. Impurity-induced local modes in one-dimensional dusty plasma chains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Yong-Chao; Wang Xin-Shang; Wang Xiao-Gang

    2012-01-01

    The effects of impurity on eigenmodes in one-dimensional dusty plasma lattices are studied.It is found that local modes can be excited besides lattice waves,due to the existence of an impurity particle.The dispersion relations of the modes are derived accordingly.Properties of the lattice and local modes are also analyzed and discussed,particularly for their symmetric features and conditions of the mode excitation.

  18. Topological and metric properties of a one-dimensional dynamical system in laser physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakvetadze, G. S.

    2002-08-01

    The iterates of the real rational function s_{a,b}(x)=b-ax/(1+x^2) are studied in their dependence on the parameters a,b\\in\\mathbb R. The parameter ranges corresponding to regular and chaotic dynamical behaviour of the system are determined. In particular, an analogue of Jakobson's theorem is proved for a two-parameter family of one-dimensional maps close to a certain map with a neutral fixed point.

  19. Long-time asymptotics in the one-dimensional trapping problem with large bias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldea, A.; Dulea, M.; Gartner, P.

    1988-08-01

    The survival probability of a particle which moves according to a biased random walk in a one-dimensional lattice containing randomly distributed deep traps is studied at large times. Exact asymptotic expansions are deduced for fields exceeding a certain threshold, using the method of images. In order to cover the whole range of fields, we also derive the behavior of the survival probability below this threshold, using the eigenvalue expansion method. The connection with the continuous diffusion model is discussed.

  20. Spin-incoherent one-dimensional spin-1 Bose Luttinger liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, H. H.; Yip, S.-K.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate spin-incoherent Luttinger liquid of a one-dimensional spin-1 Bose gas in a harmonic trap. In this regime highly degenerate spin configurations emerge since the energy splitting between different spin states is much less than the thermal energy of the system, while the temperature is low enough that the lowest energetic orbitals are occupied. As an example we numerically study the momentum distribution of a one-dimensional spin-1 Bose gas in Tonks-Girardeau gas limit and in the sector of zero magnetization. We find that the momentum distributions broaden as the number of atoms increase due to the averaging of spin function overlaps. Large momentum (p ) asymptotic is analytically derived, showing the universal 1 /p4 dependence. We demonstrate that the spin-incoherent Luttinger liquid has a momentum distribution also distinct from spinless bosons at finite temperature.

  1. One-dimensional consolidation of over-consolidated soil under time-dependent loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kanghe XIE; Kun WANG; Guohong CHEN; Anfeng HU

    2008-01-01

    The problem of one-dimensional consolidation of over-consolidated saturated soil under time-dependent loading was studied based on semi-analytical method. The relevant computer code was developed by FORTRAN programming, and one-dimensional consolidation behavior of over-consolidated soil was investigated. It is shown that, unlike this described by traditional Terzaghi's consolidation theory, the rate of excess pore water pressure dissipation is different from that of settlement developing. The magnitude of load and that of pre-consolidation pressure as well as the loading rate has all significant influence on consolidation. With the increasing of pre-consolidation pressure and loading rate, the rate of consolidation increases correspondingly. However, an increase in load will slow down the consolidation rate.

  2. Theory of finite-entanglement scaling at one-dimensional quantum critical points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollmann, Frank; Mukerjee, Subroto; Turner, Ari M; Moore, Joel E

    2009-06-26

    Studies of entanglement in many-particle systems suggest that most quantum critical ground states have infinitely more entanglement than noncritical states. Standard algorithms for one-dimensional systems construct model states with limited entanglement, which are a worse approximation to quantum critical states than to others. We give a quantitative theory of previously observed scaling behavior resulting from finite entanglement at quantum criticality. Finite-entanglement scaling in one-dimensional systems is governed not by the scaling dimension of an operator but by the "central charge" of the critical point. An important ingredient is the universal distribution of density-matrix eigenvalues at a critical point [P. Calabrese and A. Lefevre, Phys. Rev. A 78, 032329 (2008)10.1103/PhysRevA.78.032329]. The parameter-free theory is checked against numerical scaling at several quantum critical points.

  3. Universality of One-Dimensional Reversible and Number-Conserving Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Morita

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We study one-dimensional reversible and number-conserving cellular automata (RNCCA that have both properties of reversibility and number-conservation. In the case of 2-neighbor RNCCA, García-Ramos proved that every RNCCA shows trivial behavior in the sense that all the signals in the RNCCA do not interact each other. However, if we increase the neighborhood size, we can find many complex RNCCAs. Here, we show that for any one-dimensional 2-neighbor reversible partitioned CA (RPCA with s states, we can construct a 4-neighbor RNCCA with 4s states that simulates the former. Since it is known that there is a computationally universal 24-state 2-neighbor RPCA, we obtain a universal 96-state 4-neighbor RNCCA.

  4. Finite-size effects in quasi-one-dimensional conductors with a charge-density wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaitsev-Zotov, Sergei V [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-06-30

    Recent studies of finite-size effects in charge-density wave conductors are reviewed. Various manifestations of finite-size effects, including the transverse-size dependence of the nonlinear-conduction threshold field, the Peierls transition temperature, high-frequency conduction, and the relaxation rates of metastable states, are discussed. Resistivity jumps in thin samples, the smeared threshold field for nonlinear conduction, and threshold conduction above the Peierls transition temperature are considered, as are mesoscopic oscillations of the threshold field, one-dimensional conduction in thin crystals, absolute negative conductivity of quasi-one-dimensional conductors, the length dependence of the phase-slip voltage, and the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in sliding CDWs. Problems yet to be solved are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  5. Thermodynamics of a one-dimensional self-gravitating gas with periodic boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Miller, Bruce N.; Pirjol, Dan

    2017-02-01

    We study the thermodynamic properties of a one-dimensional gas with one-dimensional gravitational interactions. Periodic boundary conditions are implemented as a modification of the potential consisting of a sum over mirror images (Ewald sum), regularized with an exponential cutoff. As a consequence, each particle carries with it its own background density. Using mean-field theory, we show that the system has a phase transition at a critical temperature. Above the critical temperature the gas density is uniform, while below the critical point the system becomes inhomogeneous. Numerical simulations of the model, which include the caloric curve, the equation of state, the radial distribution function, and the largest Lyapunov exponent, confirm the existence of the phase transition, and they are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  6. One-dimensional silicon nanolines in the Si(001):H surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, F.; Köster, S. A.; Longobardi, M.; Owen, J. H. G.; Bowler, D. R.; Renner, Ch.

    2013-12-01

    We present a detailed study of the structural and electronic properties of a self-assembled silicon nanoline embedded in the monohydride Si(001):H surface, known as the Haiku stripe. The nanoline is a perfectly straight and defect free endotaxial structure of huge aspect ratio; it can grow micrometer long at a constant width of exactly four Si dimers (1.54 nm). Another remarkable property is its capacity to be exposed to air without suffering any degradation. The nanoline grows independently of any step edges at tunable densities, from isolated nanolines to a dense array of nanolines. In addition to these unique structural characteristics, scanning tunnelling microscopy and density functional theory reveal a one-dimensional state confined along the Haiku core. This nanoline is a promising candidate for the long sought after electronic solid-state one-dimensional model system to explore the fascinating quantum properties emerging in such reduced dimensionality.

  7. Self-organization of cosmic radiation pressure instability. II - One-dimensional simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Craig J.; Woods, Jorden

    1992-01-01

    The clustering of statistically uniform discrete absorbing particles moving solely under the influence of radiation pressure from uniformly distributed emitters is studied in a simple one-dimensional model. Radiation pressure tends to amplify statistical clustering in the absorbers; the absorbing material is swept into empty bubbles, the biggest bubbles grow bigger almost as they would in a uniform medium, and the smaller ones get crushed and disappear. Numerical simulations of a one-dimensional system are used to support the conjecture that the system is self-organizing. Simple statistics indicate that a wide range of initial conditions produce structure approaching the same self-similar statistical distribution, whose scaling properties follow those of the attractor solution for an isolated bubble. The importance of the process for large-scale structuring of the interstellar medium is briefly discussed.

  8. One-dimensional silicon nanolines in the Si(001):H surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianco, F.; Köster, S. A.; Longobardi, M.; Owen, J. H.G.; Renner, Ch. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, NCCR MaNEP, University of Geneva, 24 Quai Ernest-Ansermet, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Bowler, D. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower St, London WC1E 6BT, UK and London Centre for Nanotechnology, 17-19 Gordon St, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-04

    We present a detailed study of the structural and electronic properties of a self-assembled silicon nanoline embedded in the monohydride Si(001):H surface, known as the Haiku stripe. The nanoline is a perfectly straight and defect free endotaxial structure of huge aspect ratio; it can grow micrometer long at a constant width of exactly four Si dimers (1.54 nm). Another remarkable property is its capacity to be exposed to air without suffering any degradation. The nanoline grows independently of any step edges at tunable densities, from isolated nanolines to a dense array of nanolines. In addition to these unique structural characteristics, scanning tunnelling microscopy and density functional theory reveal a one-dimensional state confined along the Haiku core. This nanoline is a promising candidate for the long sought after electronic solid-state one-dimensional model system to explore the fascinating quantum properties emerging in such reduced dimensionality.

  9. Mobility and asymmetry effects in one-dimensional rock-paper-scissors games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkat, Siddharth; Pleimling, Michel

    2010-02-01

    As the behavior of a system composed of cyclically competing species is strongly influenced by the presence of fluctuations, it is of interest to study cyclic dominance in low dimensions where these effects are the most prominent. We here discuss rock-paper-scissors games on a one-dimensional lattice where the interaction rates and the mobility can be species dependent. Allowing only single site occupation, we realize mobility by exchanging individuals of different species. When the interaction and swapping rates are symmetric, a strongly enhanced swapping rate yields an increased mixing of the species, leading to a mean-field-like coexistence even in one-dimensional systems. This coexistence is transient when the rates are asymmetric, and eventually only one species will survive. Interestingly, in our spatial games the dominating species can differ from the species that would dominate in the corresponding nonspatial model. We identify different regimes in the parameter space and construct the corresponding dynamical phase diagram.

  10. Filtration-guided assembly for patterning one-dimensional nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaozhong; Wang, Chuan; Yeom, Junghoon

    2017-04-01

    Tremendous progress has been made in synthesizing various types of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures (NSs), such as nanotubes and nanowires, but some technical challenges still remain in the deterministic assembly of the solution-processed 1D NSs for device integration. In this work we investigate a scalable yet inexpensive nanomaterial assembly method, namely filtration-guided assembly (FGA), to place nanomaterials into desired locations as either an individual entity or ensembles, and form functional devices. FGA not only addresses the assembly challenges but also encompasses the notion of green nanomanufacturing, maximally utilizing nanomaterials and eliminating a waste stream of nanomaterials into the environment. FGA utilizes selective filtration of 1D NSs through the open windows on the nanoporous filter membrane whose surface is patterned by a polymer mask for guiding the 1D NS deposition. The modified soft-lithographic technique called blanket transfer (BT) is employed to create the various photoresist patterns of sub-10-micron resolution on the nanoporous filter membrane like mixed cellulose acetate. We use single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as a model 1D NS and demonstrate the fabrication of an array pattern of homogeneous 1D NS network films over an area of 20 cm2 within 10 min. The FGA-patterned SWCNT network films are transferred onto the substrate using the adhesive-based transfer technique, and show the highly uniform film thickness and resistance measurements across the entire substrate. Finally, the electrical performance of the back-gated transistors made from the FGA and transfer method of 95% pure SWCNTs is demonstrated.

  11. Spatial modes in one-dimensional models for capillary jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, J.; González, H.; García, F. J.

    2016-03-01

    One-dimensional (1D) models are widely employed to simplify the analysis of axisymmetric capillary jets. These models postulate that, for slender deformations of the free surface, the radial profile of the axial velocity can be approximated as uniform (viscous slice, averaged, and Cosserat models) or parabolic (parabolic model). In classical works on spatial stability analysis with 1D models, considerable misinterpretation was generated about the modes yielded by each model. The already existing physical analysis of three-dimensional (3D) axisymmetric spatial modes enables us to relate these 1D spatial modes to the exact 3D counterparts. To do so, we address the surface stimulation problem, which can be treated as linear, by considering the effect of normal and tangential stresses to perturb the jet. A Green's function for a spatially local stimulation having a harmonic time dependence provides the general formalism to describe any time-periodic stimulation. The Green's function of this signaling problem is known to be a superposition of the spatial modes, but in fact these modes are of fundamental nature, i.e., not restricted to the surface stimulation problem. The smallness of the wave number associated with each mode is the criterion to validate or invalidate the 1D approaches. The proposed axial-velocity profiles (planar or parabolic) also have a remarkable influence on the outcomes of each 1D model. We also compare with the classical 3D results for (i) conditions for absolute instability, and (ii) the amplitude of the unstable mode resulting from both normal and tangential surface stress stimulation. Incidentally, as a previous task, we need to re-deduce 1D models in order to include eventual stresses of various possible origins (electrohydrodynamic, thermocapillary, etc.) applied on the free surface, which were not considered in the previous general formulations.

  12. Hardening transition in a one-dimensional model for ferrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziata, Mario Alberto; Menzel, Andreas M.; Löwen, Hartmut

    2013-05-01

    We introduce and investigate a coarse-grained model for quasi one-dimensional ferrogels. In our description the magnetic particles are represented by hard spheres with a magnetic dipole moment in their centers. Harmonic springs connecting these spheres mimic the presence of a cross-linked polymer matrix. A special emphasis is put on the coupling of the dipolar orientations to the elastic deformations of the matrix, where a memory effect of the orientations is included. Although the particles are displaced along one spatial direction only, the system already shows rich behavior: as a function of the magnetic dipole moment, we find a phase transition between "soft-elastic" states with finite interparticle separation and finite compressive elastic modulus on the one hand, and "hardened" states with touching particles and therefore diverging compressive elastic modulus on the other hand. Corresponding phase diagrams are derived neglecting thermal fluctuations of the magnetic particles. In addition, we consider a situation in which a spatially homogeneous magnetization is initially imprinted into the material. Depending on the strength of the magneto-mechanical coupling between the dipole orientations and the elastic deformations, the system then relaxes to a uniaxially ferromagnetic, an antiferromagnetic, or a spiral state of magnetization to minimize its energy. One purpose of our work is to provide a largely analytically solvable approach that can provide a benchmark to test future descriptions of higher complexity. From an applied point of view, our results could be exploited, for example, for the construction of novel damping devices of tunable shock absorbance.

  13. Fractal spectra in generalized Fibonacci one-dimensional magnonic quasicrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, C.H.O. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Vasconcelos, M.S., E-mail: manoelvasconcelos@yahoo.com.br [Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Barbosa, P.H.R.; Barbosa Filho, F.F. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Piaui, 64049-550 Teresina-Pi (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    In this work we carry out a theoretical analysis of the spectra of magnons in quasiperiodic magnonic crystals arranged in accordance with generalized Fibonacci sequences in the exchange regime, by using a model based on a transfer-matrix method together random-phase approximation (RPA). The generalized Fibonacci sequences are characterized by an irrational parameter {sigma}(p,q), which rules the physical properties of the system. We discussed the magnonic fractal spectra for first three generalizations, i.e., silver, bronze and nickel mean. By varying the generation number, we have found that the fragmentation process of allowed bands makes possible the emergence of new allowed magnonic bulk bands in spectra regions that were magnonic band gaps before, such as which occurs in doped semiconductor devices. This interesting property arises in one-dimensional magnonic quasicrystals fabricated in accordance to quasiperiodic sequences, without the need to introduce some deferent atomic layer or defect in the system. We also make a qualitative and quantitative investigations on these magnonic spectra by analyzing the distribution and magnitude of allowed bulk bands in function of the generalized Fibonacci number F{sub n} and as well as how they scale as a function of the number of generations of the sequences, respectively. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quasiperiodic magnonic crystals are arranged in accordance with the generalized Fibonacci sequence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heisenberg model in exchange regime is applied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use a theoretical model based on a transfer-matrix method together random-phase approximation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fractal spectra are characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyze the distribution of allowed bulk bands in function of the generalized Fibonacci number.

  14. Integration of Local Observations into the One Dimensional Fog Model PAFOG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Christina; Schneider, Werner; Masbou, Matthieu; Bott, Andreas

    2012-05-01

    The numerical prediction of fog requires a very high vertical resolution of the atmosphere. Owing to a prohibitive computational effort of high resolution three dimensional models, operational fog forecast is usually done by means of one dimensional fog models. An important condition for a successful fog forecast with one dimensional models consists of the proper integration of observational data into the numerical simulations. The goal of the present study is to introduce new methods for the consideration of these data in the one dimensional radiation fog model PAFOG. First, it will be shown how PAFOG may be initialized with observed visibilities. Second, a nudging scheme will be presented for the inclusion of measured temperature and humidity profiles in the PAFOG simulations. The new features of PAFOG have been tested by comparing the model results with observations of the German Meteorological Service. A case study will be presented that reveals the importance of including local observations in the model calculations. Numerical results obtained with the modified PAFOG model show a distinct improvement of fog forecasts regarding the times of fog formation, dissipation as well as the vertical extent of the investigated fog events. However, model results also reveal that a further improvement of PAFOG might be possible if several empirical model parameters are optimized. This tuning can only be realized by comprehensive comparisons of model simulations with corresponding fog observations.

  15. Band gap characterization and slow light effects in periodic and quasiperiodic one dimensional photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghdoudi, J.; Kuszelewicz, R.; Kanzari, M.; Rezig, B.

    2008-04-01

    Slow light offers many opportunities for photonic devices by increasing the effective interaction length of imposed refractive index changes. The slow wave effect in photonic crystals is based on their unique dispersive properties and thus entirely dielectric in nature. In this work we demonstrate an interesting opportunity to decrease drastically the group velocity of light in one-dimensional photonic crystals constructed form materials with large dielectric constant without dispersion). We use numerical analysis to study the photonic properties of periodic (Bragg mirror) and quasiperiodic one dimensional photonic crystals realized to engineer slow light effects. Various geometries of the photonic pattern have been characterized and their photonic band-gap structure analyzed. Indeed, one dimensional quasi periodic photonic multilayer structure based on Fibonacci, Thue-Morse, and Cantor sequences were studied. Quasiperiodic structures have a rich and highly fragmented reflectivity spectrum with many sharp resonant peaks that could be exploited in a microcavity system. A comparison of group velocity through periodic and quasiperiodic photonic crystals was discussed in the context of slow light propagation. The velocity control of pulses in materials is one of the promising applications of photonic crystals. The material systems used for the numerical analysis are TiO II/SiO II and Te/SiO II which have a refractive index contrast of approximately 1.59 and 3.17 respectively. The proposed structures were modelled using the Transfer Matrix Method.

  16. Anti-atherogenic effect of hydrogen sulfide by over-expression of cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sau Ha Cheung

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is an important gaseous signaling molecule that functions in physiological and pathological conditions, such as atherosclerosis. H2S dilates vessels and therefore has been suggested as an anti-atherogenic molecule. Since cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE enzyme is responsible for producing H2S in the cardiovascular system, we hypothesized that up-regulation of CSE expression in vivo with preservation of H2S bioactivity can slow down plaque formation and, can serve as a therapeutic strategy against atherosclerosis. In this study, C57BL/6 wild type mice (WT, ApoE knockout mice (KO and transgenic ApoE knockout mice overexpressing CSE (Tg/KO at four weeks of age were weaned. They were then fed with either normal or atherogenic diet for 12 weeks. At week 16, serial plasma lipid levels, body weight, and blood pressure were measured prior to euthanization of the mice and the size of atherosclerotic plaques at their aortic roots was measured. Tg/KO mice showed an increase in endogenous H2S production in aortic tissue, reduced atherosclerotic plaque sizes and attenuation in plasma lipid profiles. We also showed an up-regulation in plasma glutathionine peroxidase that could indicate reduced oxidative stress. Furthermore, there was an increase in expression of p-p53 and down regulation of inflammatory nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB in aorta. To conclude, alteration of endogenous H2S by CSE gene activation was associated with reduced atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice. Up-regulation of CSE/H2S pathway attenuates atherosclerosis and this would be a potential target for therapeutic intervention against its formation.

  17. Application of a One-Dimensional Position Sensitive Chamber on Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Huirong; Liu, Mei

    2014-02-01

    In the last few years, wire chambers have been frequently used for X-ray detection because of their low cost, large area and reliability. X-ray diffraction is an irreplaceable method for powder crystal lattice measurements. A one-dimensional single-wire chamber has been developed in our lab to provide high position resolution for powder diffraction experiments using synchrotron radiation. There are 200 readout strips of 0.5 mm width with a pitch of 1.0 mm in the X direction, and the working gas is a mixture of Ar and CO2 (90/10). The one-dimensional position of the original ionization point is determined by the adjacent strip's distribution information using the center of gravity method. Recently, a study of the detector's performance and diffraction image was completed at the 1W1B laboratory of the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) using a sample of SiO2. Most of the relative errors between the measured values of diffraction angles and existing data were less than 1%. The best position resolution achieved for the detector in the test was 71 μm (σ value) with a 20 μm slit collimator. Finally, by changing the detector height in incremental distances from the center of the sample, the one-dimensional detector achieved a two-dimensional diffraction imaging function, and the results are in good agreement with standard data.

  18. Entanglement pre-thermalization in a one-dimensional Bose gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminishi, Eriko; Mori, Takashi; Ikeda, Tatsuhiko N.; Ueda, Masahito

    2015-12-01

    An isolated quantum system often shows relaxation to a quasi-stationary state before reaching thermal equilibrium. Such a pre-thermalized state was observed in recent experiments in a one-dimensional Bose gas after it had been coherently split into two. Although the existence of local conserved quantities is usually considered to be the key ingredient of pre-thermalization, the question of whether non-local correlations between the subsystems can influence pre-thermalization of the entire system has remained unanswered. Here we study the dynamics of coherently split one-dimensional Bose gases and find that the initial entanglement combined with energy degeneracy due to parity and translation invariance strongly affects the long-term behaviour of the system. The mechanism of this entanglement pre-thermalization is quite general and not restricted to one-dimensional Bose gases. In view of recent experiments with a small and well-defined number of ultracold atoms, our predictions based on exact few-body calculations could be tested in experiments.

  19. Photonic band gap of one-dimensional periodic structure containing dispersive left-handed metamaterials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhanshan Wang; Tian Sang; Fengli Wang; Yonggang Wu; Lingyan Chen

    2008-01-01

    Band structures of one-dimensional(1D)photonic crystals(PCs)containing dispersive left-handed metamaterials are studied theoretically.The results show that the structure possesses a type of photonic band gap originating from total internal reflection(TIR).In contrast to photonic band gaps corresponding to zero average refractive index and zero phase.the TIR gap exhibits sharp angular effect and has no polarization effect.It should also be noted that band structures of transverse electric(TE) and transverse magnetic(TM) mode waves are exactly the same in the PCs we studied.

  20. Rydberg dressing of a one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate

    CERN Document Server

    Płodzień, Marcin; van Druten, N J; Kokkelmans, Servaas

    2016-01-01

    We study the influence of Rydberg dressed interactions in a one-dimensional (1D) Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC). We show that 1D is advantageous over 3D for observing BEC Rydberg dressing. The effects of dressing are studied by investigating collective BEC dynamics after a rapid switch-off of the Rydberg dressing interaction. The results can be interpreted as an effective modification of the $s$-wave scattering length. We include this modification in an analytical model for the 1D BEC, and compare it to numerical calculations of Rydberg dressing under realistic experimental conditions.

  1. Full counting statistics of laser excited Rydberg aggregates in a one-dimensional geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Schempp, H; Robert-de-Saint-Vincent, M; Hofmann, C S; Breyel, D; Komnik, A; Schönleber, D W; Gärttner, M; Evers, J; Whitlock, S; Weidemüller, M

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally study the full counting statistics of few-body Rydberg aggregates excited from a quasi-one-dimensional Rydberg gas. We measure asymmetric excitation spectra and increased second and third order statistical moments of the Rydberg number distribution, from which we determine the average aggregate size. Direct comparisons with numerical simulations reveal the presence of liquid-like spatial correlations, and indicate sequential growth of the aggregates around an initial grain. These findings demonstrate the importance of dissipative effects in strongly correlated Rydberg gases and introduce a way to study spatio-temporal correlations in strongly-interacting many-body quantum systems without imaging.

  2. ASYMPTOTIC LIMITS OF ONE-DIMENSIONAL HYDRODYNAMIC MODELS FOR PLASMAS AND SEMICONDUCTORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the zero-electron-mass limit, the quasi-neutral limit and the zerorelaxation-time limit in one-dimensional hydrodynamic models of Euler-Poisson system for plasmas and semiconductors. For each limit in the steady-state models, the author proves the strong convergence of the sequence of solutions and gives the corresponding convergence rate. In the time-dependent models, the author shows some useful estimates for the quasi-neutral limit and the zero-electron-mass limit. This study completes the analysis made in [11,12,13,14,19].

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of One-dimensional and Two-Dimensional Porphyrin Polymers* (

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Xiang-qing

    2001-01-01

    Porphyrin polymers are of interest in relation to conductive materials[1, 2], catalysts for  photosynthetic charge separation[3], or the fundamental features in biological systems[4].There have been many versatile studies about them[5,6]. The one-dimensional “Shish Kebab”porphyrin polymers synthesized with a new method different from those reported and Schiff base porphyrin polymers with two-dimensional nano-structure have provided a new field of study. The present paper covers highly ordered porphyrin polymers.……

  4. Study on the properties of tunable prohibited band gaps for one-dimensional ternary magnetized plasma photonic crystals%可调谐—维三元磁化等离子体光子晶体禁带特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章海锋; 郑建平; 朱荣军

    2012-01-01

    The transfer matrix method was applied to study on the properties of tunable prohibited band gaps for one-dimensional ternary magnetized plasma photonic crystals with TE wave arbitrary incident under ideal conditions. TE wave would be divided into left-handed circularly polarized wave and right-handed circularly polarized wave after propagation through one-dimensional ternary magnetized plasma photonic crystals. The calculated transmission coefficients were used to analyze the effects of parameter of plasma, plasma filling factor, incident angle and relative dielectric constant for dielectric layer on the properties of tunable prohibited band gap. The results illustrate that the width of band gaps can not be broadened by increasing plasma collision frequency, the numbers and width of band gaps can be tuned by changing plasma frequency, plasma filling factor and relative dielectric constant for dielectric layer. The band gaps for right-handed circularly polarized wave can be tuned by the plasma gyro frequency, but band gaps for the left-handed circularly polarized wave can't influenced. Low-frequency region of band gaps will be broadened, while high-frequency region of band gaps will be firstly narrow and then broaden with increasing incident angle.%在理想条件下,为了研究等离子体参数、填充率、入射角度和介质层相对介电常数对一维三元磁化等离子体光子晶体的禁带特性的影响,用由传输矩阵法计算得到的TE波任意角度入射时的左旋极化波(LCP)和右旋极化波(RCP)的透射系数来研究其禁带特性.结果表明,仅增加等离子体碰撞频率不能实现禁带宽度的拓展,改变等离子体频率、填充率和介质层的相对介电常数能实现对禁带宽度和数目的调谐.改变等离子体回旋频率能实现对右旋极化波的禁带的调谐,但对左旋极化波的禁带几乎无影响.入射角度的增大使得禁带低频区域带宽变大,而高频区域带宽则是将先减小再增大.

  5. Communication: HK propagator uniformized along a one-dimensional manifold in weakly anharmonic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocia, Lucas, E-mail: lkocia@fas.harvard.edu; Heller, Eric J. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2014-11-14

    A simplification of the Heller-Herman-Kluk-Kay (HK) propagator is presented that does not suffer from the need for an increasing number of trajectories with dimensions of the system under study. This is accomplished by replacing HK’s uniformizing integral over all of phase space by a one-dimensional curve that is appropriately selected to lie along the fastest growing manifold of a defining trajectory. It is shown that this modification leads to eigenspectra of quantum states in weakly anharmonic systems that can outperform the comparatively computationally cheap thawed Gaussian approximation method and frequently approach the accuracy of spectra obtained with the full HK propagator.

  6. Communication: HK propagator uniformized along a one-dimensional manifold in weakly anharmonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocia, Lucas; Heller, Eric J.

    2014-11-01

    A simplification of the Heller-Herman-Kluk-Kay (HK) propagator is presented that does not suffer from the need for an increasing number of trajectories with dimensions of the system under study. This is accomplished by replacing HK's uniformizing integral over all of phase space by a one-dimensional curve that is appropriately selected to lie along the fastest growing manifold of a defining trajectory. It is shown that this modification leads to eigenspectra of quantum states in weakly anharmonic systems that can outperform the comparatively computationally cheap thawed Gaussian approximation method and frequently approach the accuracy of spectra obtained with the full HK propagator.

  7. Atom-light interactions in quasi-one-dimensional nanostructures: A Green's-function perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asenjo-Garcia, A.; Hood, J. D.; Chang, D. E.; Kimble, H. J.

    2017-03-01

    Based on a formalism that describes atom-light interactions in terms of the classical electromagnetic Green's function, we study the optical response of atoms and other quantum emitters coupled to one-dimensional photonic structures, such as cavities, waveguides, and photonic crystals. We demonstrate a clear mapping between the transmission spectra and the local Green's function, identifying signatures of dispersive and dissipative interactions between atoms. We also demonstrate the applicability of our analysis to problems involving three-level atoms, such as electromagnetically induced transparency. Finally we examine recent experiments, and anticipate future observations of atom-atom interactions in photonic band gaps.

  8. ONE-DIMENSIONAL CONSOLIDATION OF LAYERED SOILS WITH IMPEDED BOUNDARIES UNDER TIME- DEPENDENT LOADINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡袁强; 梁旭; 吴世明

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of Terzaghi's one-dimensional consolidation theory, the variation of effective stress ratio in layered saturated soils with impeded boundaries under timedependent loading was studied. By the method of Laplace transform, the solution was presented. Influences of different kinds of cyclic loadings and impeded boundaries conditions were discussed. Through numerical inversion of Laplace transform, useful illustrations were given considering several common time-dependent loadings. Pervious or impervious boundary condition is just the special case of the problem considered here. Compared with average index method, the results from the method illustrated are more accurate.

  9. Fourier's law on a one-dimensional optical random lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platini, T [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Harris, R J [School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Karevski, D [Institut Jean Lamour, Departement Physique de la Matiere et des Materiaux, Groupe de Physique Statistique, Nancy-Universite CNRS, BP 70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy Cedex (France)

    2010-04-02

    We study the transport properties of a one-dimensional hard-core bosonic lattice gas coupled to two particle reservoirs at different chemical potentials which generate a current flow through the system. In particular, the influence of random fluctuations of the underlying lattice on the stationary-state properties is investigated. We show analytically that the steady-state density presents a linear profile. The local steady-state current obeys the Fourier law j = -{kappa}({tau}){nabla}n where {tau} is a typical timescale of the lattice fluctuations and {nabla}n is the density gradient imposed by the reservoirs.

  10. Quantum simulations of a particle in one-dimensional potentials using NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankar, Ravi; Hegde, Swathi S.; Mahesh, T.S.

    2014-01-03

    A quantum computer made up of a controllable set of quantum particles has the potential to efficiently simulate other quantum systems. In this work we studied quantum simulations of single particle Shrödinger equation for certain one-dimensional potentials. Using a five-qubit NMR system, we achieve space discretization with four qubits, and the other qubit is used for preparation of initial states as well as measurement of spatial probabilities. The experimental relative probabilities compare favourably with the theoretical expectations, thus effectively mimicking a small scale quantum simulator.

  11. Generalized Hasimoto Transform of One-Dimensional Dispersive Flows into Compact Riemann Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Onodera

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the structure of differential equations of one-dimensional dispersive flows into compact Riemann surfaces. These equations geometrically generalize two-sphere valued systems modeling the motion of vortex filament. We define a generalized Hasimoto transform by constructing a good moving frame, and reduce the equation with values in the induced bundle to a complex valued equation which is easy to handle. We also discuss the relationship between our reduction and the theory of linear dispersive partial differential equations.

  12. Classical Lie Point Symmetry Analysis of a Steady Nonlinear One-Dimensional Fin Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Moitsheki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the one-dimensional steady fin problem with the Dirichlet boundary condition at one end and the Neumann boundary condition at the other. Both the thermal conductivity and the heat transfer coefficient are given as arbitrary functions of temperature. We perform preliminary group classification to determine forms of the arbitrary functions appearing in the considered equation for which the principal Lie algebra is extended. Some invariant solutions are constructed. The effects of thermogeometric fin parameter and the exponent on temperature are studied. Also, the fin efficiency is analyzed.

  13. Antiresonance Effect in Electronic Tunnelling through a One-Dimensional Quantum Dot Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Pu-Nan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Electronic tunnelling through a one-dimensional quantum dot chain is theoretically studied, when two leads couple to the individual component quantum dots of the chain arbitrarily. If there are some dangling quantum dots in the chain outside the leads, the electron tunnelling through the quantum dot chain is wholly forbidden while the energy of the incident electron is just equal to the molecular energy levels of the dangling quantum dots,which is known as the antiresonance effect. In addition, the influence of electron interaction on the antiresonance effect is discussed within the Hartree-Fock approximation.

  14. The effect of magnetic frustrations in a structure of Quasi-One-Dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, L.; Wang, F. [Suqian College, Fundamental Department, Suqian 223800 (China); Zhang, S.J. [Hubei University of Automotive Technology, Shiyan 442002 (China); Hu, Y.J., E-mail: eric8222@126.com [Hubei University of Automotive Technology, Shiyan 442002 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Using exact numerical diagonalization and density-matrix renormalization group method, we study the effect of magnetic frustrations due to next-nearest-neighbor bonds in a structure of periodically doping spins beside every spin side of the same sublattice of the 1D HAF linear chain, which is popularly known as Quasi-One-Dimensional Heisenberg Antiferromagnetic chain. As a result of the frustrations, the quantum disordered phase (gapped) also appears in the quantum case, except that the ferrimagnetic state in the non-frustrations case and the caned phase appeared in the classical case. For quantum disordered phase, tetramer–dimmer state is predominant and the spin gap is opened.

  15. Instability Criterion of One-Dimensional Detonation Wave with Three-Step Chain Branching Reaction Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG Hong-Hui; JIANG Zong-Lin

    2011-01-01

    @@ One-dimensional detonation waves are simulated with the three-step chain branching reaction model, and the instability criterion is studied.The ratio of the induction zone length and the reaction zone length may be used to decide the instability, and the detonation becomes unstable with the high ratio.However, the ratio is not invariable with different heat release values.The critical ratio, corresponding to the transition from the stable detonation to the unstable detonation, has a negative correlation with the heat release.An empirical relation of the Chapman-Jouguet Mach number and the length ratio is proposed as the instability criterion.

  16. Photonic properties of one-dimensionally-ordered cold atomic vapors under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Schilke, Alexander; Guerin, William

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally study the photonic properties of a cold-atom sample trapped in a one-dimensional optical lattice under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency. We show that such a medium has two photonic band gaps. One of them is in the transparency window and gives rise to a Bragg mirror, which is spectrally very narrow and dynamically tunable. We discuss the advantages and the limitations of this system. As an illustration of a possible application we demonstrate a two-port all-optical switch.

  17. Phase transitions in a one-dimensional multibarrier potential of finite range

    CERN Document Server

    Bar, D

    2002-01-01

    We have previously studied properties of a one-dimensional potential with $N$ equally spaced identical barries in a (fixed) finite interval for both finite and infinite $N$. It was observed that scattering and spectral properties depend sensitively on the ratio $c$ of spacing to width of the barriers (even in the limit $N \\to \\infty$). We compute here the specific heat of an ensemble of such systems and show that there is critical dependence on this parameter, as well as on the temperature, strongly suggestive of phase transitions.

  18. Time-dependent Bragg diffraction and short-pulse reflection by one-dimensional photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    André, Jean-michel

    2015-01-01

    The time-dependence of the Bragg diffraction by one-dimensional photonic crystals and its influence on the short pulse reflection are studied in the framework of the coupled- wave theory. The indicial response of the photonic crystal is calculated and it appears that it presents a time-delay effect with a transient time conditioned by the extinction length. A numerical simulation is presented for a Bragg mirror in the x-ray domain and a pulse envelope modelled by a sine-squared shape. The potential consequences of the time-delay effect in time-dependent optics of short-pulses are emphasized.

  19. Dynamics of laser ablative shock waves from one dimensional periodic structured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelikani, Leela; Pinnoju, Venkateshwarlu; Paturi, Prem Kiran

    2017-01-01

    Laser ablative shock waves (LASWs) from one dimensional periodic structured surfaces (1D-PSS) on Aluminum metal is studied using time resolved shadowgraphy technique. 1D-PSS of triangular and sinusoidal periodic density profiles consisting of 288 lines per laser focal spot diameter (lp2ω0) with periodicity of 0.83 μm are used as targets. The SW properties such as propagation distance, velocity and pressure behind the shock front were compared with flat Aluminum surface of the target under the same experimental conditions. The possibility of tailoring the nature of LASWs with varying density profile on the surface is presented.

  20. Analysis of cutoff frequency in a one-dimensional superconductor-metamaterial photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Arafa H.; Aghajamali, Alireza; Elsayed, Hussein A.; Mobarak, Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, using the two-fluid model and the characteristic matrix method, we investigate the transmission characteristics of the one-dimensional photonic crystal. Our structure composed of the layers of low-temperature superconductor material (NbN) and double-negative metamaterial. We target studying the effect of many parameters such as the thickness of the superconductor material, the thickness of the metamaterial layer, and the operating temperature. We show that the cut-off frequency can be tuned efficiently by the operating temperature as well as the thicknesses of the constituent materials.

  1. Impurity-induced localization of Bose-Einstein condensates in one-dimensional optical lattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jian-Jun; Zhang Ai-Xia; Xue Ju-Kui

    2011-01-01

    The impurity-induced localization of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates loaded into deep one-dimensional optical lattices is studied both analytically and numerically.It is shown that,the analytical criteria for self-trapping and moving soliton/breather of the primary-component condensate are modified significantly by an admixture of an impurity component(the second component).The realization of the self-trapped state and the moving soliton/breather states of the primary-component becomes more easy with the minor admixture of the impurity-component,even if the two components are partly overlapped.

  2. One-dimensional plate impact experiments on the cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX) based explosive EDC32

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Malcolm J.; Gustavsen, Richard L.; Bartram, Brian D.

    2012-09-01

    Eight one-dimensional plate impact experiments have been performed to study both the Shock to Detonation Transition and Hugoniot state in the cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX) based explosive EDC32. The experiments covered shock pressures ranging from 0.59 to 7.5 GPa with sustained shocks, double shocks, and short pulse shocks. Experiments were instrumented with embedded magnetic particle velocity gauges. Results include; (1) wave profiles of particle velocity vs. time vs. depth in the explosive, (2) time-distance coordinates for onset of detonation vs. initial shock pressure (aka the Pop-plot), (3) a reactants Hugoniot, and (4) measurement of the Hugoniot Elastic Limit of 0.22.GPa.

  3. Entanglement in the quantum one-dimensional integer spin S Heisenberg antiferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, L. S.

    2017-10-01

    We use the modified spin wave theory of Takahashi to study the entanglement entropy in the quantum one-dimensional integer spin Heisenberg antiferromagnet. We calculate the entanglement entropy of this spin system that is well known to be a quantum wire, in the classical limit (N → ∞). We obtain a decreasing the entanglement entropy with the temperature and we obtain none change in the entanglement in the point Δ = 1 at T = 0 where the system presents a quantum phase transition from a gapless phase in the spectrum Δ < 1 to a gapped phase Δ ≥ 1.

  4. Quantum electron plasma in one-dimensional metallic-dielectric photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zverev, N. V.; Yushkanov, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    The interaction of the electromagnetic radiation with one-dimensional photonic crystal consisting of metal and transparent dielectric medium is studied numerically. Dielectric permeabilities of the electron plasma in the metal are considered both in the quantum Mermin and in the classical Drude-Lorentz approaches. It is shown that the reflection, transmission and absorption-frequency zones of electromagnetic radiation appear in the photonic crystal. In addition, the reflectance, transmittance and absorptance optical coefficients for such photonic crystal in the quantum approach differ from those coefficients in the Drude-Lorentz approach.

  5. A one-dimensional model for the quantum efficiency of front-surface-field solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yernaux, M. I.; Battochio, C.; Verlinden, P.; van de Wiele, F.

    1984-11-01

    A one-dimensional analytical model is proposed to calculate the photocurrent generated in interdigitated back contact solar cells with a high-low junction at the front illuminated surface. The high-low junction is simulated by constant doping levels, mobilities and lifetimes. A study of the quantum efficiency of front-surface-field (FSF) solar cells is made and the computer results are compared with experimental results. A method of determining the real and the effective surface recombination velocity of FSF solar cells is proposed.

  6. One-Dimensional Contact Mode Interdigitated Center of Pressure Sensor (CMIPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing; Kang, Jinho; Park, Cheol; Harrison, Joycelyn S.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Hubbard, James E.

    2009-01-01

    A one dimensional contact mode interdigitated center of pressure sensor (CMIPS) has been developed. The experimental study demonstrated that the CMIPS has the capability to measure the overall pressure as well as the center of pressure in one dimension, simultaneously. A theoretical model for the CMIPS is established here based on the equivalent circuit of the configuration of the CMIPS as well as the material properties of the sensor. The experimental results match well with theoretical modeling predictions. A system mapped with two or more pieces of the CMIPS can be used to obtain information from the pressure distribution in multi-dimensions.

  7. Mesoscopic fluctuations of Coulomb drag between quasiballistic one-dimensional wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Asger; Flensberg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2002-01-01

    Quasiballistic one-dimensional quantum wires are known to have a conductance of the order of 2e(2)/h, with small sample-to-sample fluctuations. We present a study of the transconductance G(12) Of two Coulomb-coupled quasiballistic wires; i.e., we consider the Coulomb drag geometry. We show...... that the fluctuations in G(12) differ dramatically from those of the diagonal conductance G(ii): the fluctuations are large and can even exceed the mean value, thus implying a possible reversal of the induced drag current. We report extensive numerical simulations elucidating the fluctuations for both correlated...

  8. Effect of ice-albedo feedback on global sensitivity in a one-dimensional radiative-convective climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.-C.; Stone, P. H.

    1980-01-01

    The feedback between the ice albedo and temperature is included in a one-dimensional radiative-convective climate model. The effect of this feedback on global sensitivity to changes in solar constant is studied for the current climate conditions. This ice-albedo feedback amplifies global sensitivity by 26 and 39%, respectively, for assumptions of fixed cloud altitude and fixed cloud temperature. The global sensitivity is not affected significantly if the latitudinal variations of mean solar zenith angle and cloud cover are included in the global model. The differences in global sensitivity between one-dimensional radiative-convective models and energy balance models are examined. It is shown that the models are in close agreement when the same feedback mechanisms are included. The one-dimensional radiative-convective model with ice-albedo feedback included is used to compute the equilibrium ice line as a function of solar constant.

  9. Stationary point analysis of the one-dimensional lattice Landau gauge fixing functional, aka random phase XY Hamiltonian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Dhagash; Kastner, Michael

    2011-06-01

    We study the stationary points of what is known as the lattice Landau gauge fixing functional in one-dimensional compact U(1) lattice gauge theory, or as the Hamiltonian of the one-dimensional random phase XY model in statistical physics. An analytic solution of all stationary points is derived for lattices with an odd number of lattice sites and periodic boundary conditions. In the context of lattice gauge theory, these stationary points and their indices are used to compute the gauge fixing partition function, making reference in particular to the Neuberger problem. Interpreted as stationary points of the one-dimensional XY Hamiltonian, the solutions and their Hessian determinants allow us to evaluate a criterion which makes predictions on the existence of phase transitions and the corresponding critical energies in the thermodynamic limit.

  10. Analysis and Design of One Dimensional Periodic Foundations for Seismic Base Isolation of Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witarto Witarto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodic foundationis a new type of seismic base isolation system. It is inspired by the periodic material crystal lattice in the solid state physics. This kind of material has a unique property, which is termed as frequency band gap that is capable of blocking incoming waves having frequencies falling within the band gap. Consequently, seismic waves having frequencies falling within the frequency band gap are blocked by the periodic foundation. The ability to block the seismic waveshas put this kind of foundation as a prosperous next generation of seismic base isolators. This paper provides analytical study on the one dimensional (1D type periodic foundations to investigate their seismic performance. The general idea of basic theory of one dimensional (1D periodic foundations is first presented.Then, the parametric studies considering infinite and finite boundary conditions are discussed. The effect of superstructure on the frequency band gap is investigated as well. Based on the analytical study, a set of equations is proposed for the design guidelines of 1D periodic foundations for seismic base isolation of structures.

  11. Thermodynamic anomaly above the superconducting critical temperature in the quasi-one-dimensional superconductor Ta4Pd3Te16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, T.; Flicker, F.; Kealhofer, R.; Moll, P. J. W.; Hayes, I. M.; Breznay, N. P.; Li, Z.; Louie, S. G.; Zhang, Q. R.; Balicas, L.; Moore, J. E.; Analytis, J. G.

    2017-02-01

    We study the intrinsic electronic anisotropy and fermiology of the quasi-one-dimensional superconductor Ta4Pd3Te16 . Below T*=20 K, we detect a thermodynamic phase transition that predominantly affects the conductivity perpendicular to the quasi-one-dimensional chains. The transition relates to the presence of charge order that precedes superconductivity. Remarkably, the Fermi surface pockets detected by de Haas-van Alphen oscillations are unaffected by this transition, suggesting that the ordered state does not break any translational symmetries but rather alters the scattering of the quasiparticles themselves.

  12. Spectroscopic signatures of spin-charge separation in the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor TTF-TCNQ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claessen, R.; Sing, M.; Schwingenschlogl, U.;

    2002-01-01

    The electronic structure of the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor TTF-TCNQ is studied by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES). The experimental spectra reveal significant discrepancies to band theory. We demonstrate that the measured dispersions can be consistently mapped onto...... the one-dimensional Hubbard model at finite doping. This interpretation is further supported by a remarkable transfer of spectral weight as a function of temperature. The ARPES data thus show spectroscopic signatures of spin-charge separation on an energy scale of the conduction bandwidth....

  13. Delocalization of relativistic dirac particles in disordered one-dimensional systems and its implementation with cold atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shi-Liang; Zhang, Dan-Wei; Wang, Z D

    2009-05-29

    We study theoretically the localization of relativistic particles in disordered one-dimensional chains. It is found that the relativistic particles tend to delocalization in comparison with the nonrelativistic particles with the same disorder strength. More intriguingly, we reveal that the massless Dirac particles are entirely delocalized for any energy due to the inherent chiral symmetry, leading to a well-known result that particles are always localized in one-dimensional systems for arbitrary weak disorders to break down. Furthermore, we propose a feasible scheme to detect the delocalization feature of the Dirac particles with cold atoms in a light-induced gauge field.

  14. Band structure of one-dimensional plasma photonic crystals using the Fresnel coefficients method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, A.; Rahmat, A.

    2016-11-01

    The current study has examined the band structures of two types of photonic crystals (PCs). The first is a one-dimensional metamaterial photonic crystal (1DMMPC) composed of double-layered units for which both layers of each unit are dielectric. The second type is a very similar one-dimensional plasma photonic crystal (1DPPC) also composed of double-layered units in which the first layer is a dielectric material but the second is a plasma layer. This study compares the band structures of the 1DMMPC with specific optical characteristics of the 1DPPC using the Fresnel coefficients method and also compares the results of this method with the results of the transfer matrix method. It is concluded that the dependency of the electric permittivity of the plasma layer on the incident field frequency causes differences in the band structures in 1DMMPC and 1DPPC for both TE and TM polarizations and their gaps reside in different frequencies. The band structures of the 1DMMPC and 1DPPC are confirmed by the results of the transfer matrix method.

  15. Significant improvement in one-dimensional cursor control using Laplacian electroencephalography over electroencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudria, Yacine; Feltane, Amal; Besio, Walter

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on electroencephalography (EEG) have been shown to accurately detect mental activities, but the acquisition of high levels of control require extensive user training. Furthermore, EEG has low signal-to-noise ratio and low spatial resolution. The objective of the present study was to compare the accuracy between two types of BCIs during the first recording session. EEG and tripolar concentric ring electrode (TCRE) EEG (tEEG) brain signals were recorded and used to control one-dimensional cursor movements. Approach. Eight human subjects were asked to imagine either ‘left’ or ‘right’ hand movement during one recording session to control the computer cursor using TCRE and disc electrodes. Main results. The obtained results show a significant improvement in accuracies using TCREs (44%-100%) compared to disc electrodes (30%-86%). Significance. This study developed the first tEEG-based BCI system for real-time one-dimensional cursor movements and showed high accuracies with little training.

  16. Korteweg de Vries Description of One-Dimensional Superfluid Fermi Gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐艳霞; 段文山

    2011-01-01

    We study one-dimensional matter-wave pulses in cigar-shaped superfluid Fermi gases, including the linear and nonlinear waves of the system. A Korteweg de Vries (KdV) solitary wave is obtained for the superfluid Fermi gases in the limited case of a BEC regime, a BCS regime and unitarity. The dependences of the propagation velocity, amplitude and the width of the solitary wave on the dimensionless interaction parameter y = 1/{kFasc) are given for the limited cases of BEC and unitarity.%We study one-dimensional matter-wave pulses in cigar-shaped superfluid Fermi gases,including the linear and nonlinear waves of the system.A Korteweg de Vries(KdV)solitary wave is obtained for the superfluid Fermi gases in the limited case of a BEC regime,a BCS regime and unitarity.The dependences of the propagation velocity,amplitude and the width of the solitary wave on the dimensionless interaction parameter y =1 /(kFasc)are given for the limited cases of BEC and unitarity.

  17. Characterizing localization properties of two spinless electrons in a one-dimensional Harper model with concurrence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Long-Yan; Tong Pei-Qing

    2008-01-01

    By mapping the Fock space of many local fermionic modes isomorphically onto a many-qubit space and using the measure of concurrence,this paper studies numerically the mode entanglement of two spinless electrons with on-site interaction U moving in the one-dimensional Harper model.Generally speaking,for electrons in extended regimes (potential parameter λ< 2),the spectrum-averaged concurrence N first decreases slowly as λ increases until its local minimum,then increases with λ until its peak at λ = 2,while for electrons in localized regimes (λ> 2),Ndecreases drastically as λ increases.The functions of N versus λ are different for electrons in extended and localized regimes.The maximum of Noccurs at the point λ = 2,which is the critical value in the one-dimensional singleparticle Harper model.From these studies it can distinguish extended,localized and critical regimes for the two-particle system.It is also found for the same λ that the interaction U always induce the decreases of concurrence,i.e.,the concurrence can reflect the localization effect due to the interaction.All these provide us a new quantity to understand the localization properties of eigeustates of two interacting particles.

  18. Structural and magnetic properties of quasi-one-dimensional doped LiCuVO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Abhishek [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221 005 (India); Kumari, Poonam; Das, A. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhaba Atomic Research Center, Mumbai (India); Dwivedi, G.D. [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India); Shahi, P.; Shukla, K.K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221 005 (India); Ghosh, A.K. [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India); Nigam, A.K. [Department of CMP and MS, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Chattopadhyay, K.K. [Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Chatterjee, Sandip, E-mail: schatterji.app@iitbhu.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221 005 (India)

    2013-12-15

    The Neutron diffraction, X-ray photoemission and Magnetic properties of Zn, Co and Mn-doped LiCuVO{sub 4} were investigated. Both with Zn and Co doping the antiferromagnetic correlation increase. On the other hand Mn-doping induces the short range ferromagnetic ordering. Neutron diffraction study does not show any phase transition down to 5 K i.e., there is no indication of long range magnetic ordering. Neutron diffraction study also indicates that with Zn, Co and Mn doping the V–O lengths are changed. Maximum change in the V–O distances is observed for Mn-doped sample. On the other hand, X-ray photoemission spectroscopic data indicates Mn doping converts some Cu{sup 2+} ions into Cu{sup 3+} ions. - Graphical abstract: LiCuVO{sub 4} is a quasi-one-dimensional spin magnet. It shows antiferromagnetic ordering. It is observed when Mn is doped in the Cu site of LiCuVO{sub 4} a short range ferromagnetic ordering occurs. - Highlights: • LiCuVO{sub 4} is an one-dimensional spin chain system. • Mn ion is doped in Cu site to induce ferromagnetism. • Doping of Mn ion changes the Cu–O–Cu bond angle which in effect induces ferromagnetism.

  19. One-dimensional Array Grammars and P Systems with Array Insertion and Deletion Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Freund

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider the (one-dimensional array counterpart of contextual as well as insertion and deletion string grammars and consider the operations of array insertion and deletion in array grammars. First we show that the emptiness problem for P systems with (one-dimensional insertion rules is undecidable. Then we show computational completeness of P systems using (one-dimensional array insertion and deletion rules even of norm one only. The main result of the paper exhibits computational completeness of one-dimensional array grammars using array insertion and deletion rules of norm at most two.

  20. Free cooling of the one-dimensional wet granular gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaburdaev, V Yu; Brinkmann, M; Herminghaus, S

    2006-07-07

    The free cooling behavior of a wet granular gas is studied in one dimension. We employ a particularly simple model system in which the interaction of wet grains is characterized by a fixed energy loss assigned to each collision. Macroscopic laws of energy dissipation and cluster formation are studied on the basis of numerical simulations and mean-field analytical calculations. We find a number of remarkable scaling properties which may shed light on earlier unexplained results for related systems.

  1. One Dimensional Time-Dependent Tunnelling of Excitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcullen, Patrick; Salayka-Ladouceur, Logan; Malmgren, Kevin; Reid, Matthew; Shegelski, Mark R. A.

    2017-03-01

    We study the time-dependent tunnelling of excitons in one dimension using numerical integration based on the Crank-Nicholson method. A complete development of the time-dependent simulator is provided. External barriers studied include single and double delta barriers. We find that the appearance of transmission resonances depends strongly on the dielectric constant, relative effective masses, and initial spatial spread of the wavefunction. A discussion regarding applications to realistic systems is provided.

  2. One-dimensional Schrödinger operators with singular potentials: A Schwartz distributional formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Nuno Costa; Jorge, Cristina; Prata, João Nuno

    2016-04-01

    Using an extension of the Hörmander product of distributions, we obtain an intrinsic formulation of one-dimensional Schrödinger operators with singular potentials. This formulation is entirely defined in terms of standard Schwartz distributions and does not require (as some previous approaches) the use of more general distributions or generalized functions. We determine, in the new formulation, the action and domain of the Schrödinger operators with arbitrary singular boundary potentials. We also consider the inverse problem, and obtain a general procedure for constructing the singular (pseudo) potential that imposes a specific set of (local) boundary conditions. This procedure is used to determine the boundary operators for the complete four-parameter family of one-dimensional Schrödinger operators with a point interaction. Finally, the δ and δ‧ potentials are studied in detail, and the corresponding Schrödinger operators are shown to coincide with the norm resolvent limit of specific sequences of Schrödinger operators with regular potentials.

  3. Predicted Realization of Cubic Dirac Fermion in Quasi-One-Dimensional Transition-Metal Monochalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qihang; Zunger, Alex

    2017-04-01

    We show that the previously predicted "cubic Dirac fermion," composed of six conventional Weyl fermions including three with left-handed and three with right-handed chirality, is realized in a specific, stable solid state system that has been made years ago, but was not appreciated as a "cubically dispersed Dirac semimetal" (CDSM). We identify the crystal symmetry constraints and find the space group P 63/m as one of the two that can support a CDSM, of which the characteristic band crossing has linear dispersion along the principle axis but cubic dispersion in the plane perpendicular to it. We then conduct a material search using density functional theory, identifying a group of quasi-one-dimensional molybdenum monochalcogenide compounds AI(MoXVI)3 (AI=Na , K, Rb, In, Tl; XVI=S , Se, Te) as ideal CDSM candidates. Studying the stability of the A (MoX) 3 family reveals a few candidates such as Rb (MoTe) 3 and Tl (MoTe) 3 that are predicted to be resilient to Peierls distortion, thus retaining the metallic character. Furthermore, the combination of one dimensionality and metallic nature in this family provides a platform for unusual optical signature—polarization-dependent metallic vs insulating response.

  4. One-dimensional chiral copper (II) complexes with novel nano-structures and superior antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei Chuan; Tang, Xue; Lu, Xiaoming

    2016-03-01

    Three novel copper(II) compounds of formulas {[Cu(Phen)(Ala)]·NO3·H2O}n (1), {[Cu(Phen)(Ala)]·NO3}n (2) and [Cu(Ala)2]n (3) have been synthesized and determined by X-ray diffraction. 1 and 2 are shown in one dimensional long-chain chiral structures, and 3 is a two dimensional checkerboard-type structure. Both 1 and 2 displayed a higher anticancer activity than 3 against various cancer cells, even higher than the similar mononuclear complexes and clinical anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil. The noncancerous cell lines (CCC-HEL-1) have showed that complexes 1-3 have hardly any cytotoxicity. Transmission electron microscopy was studied to show the nano-structure and π function of two complexes. The ligand 1,10-phenanthroline inserted into its enantiomer lead complex 1 stable, and the π-π interaction outside the chain made complex 2 active, which is easy to crack and pile up together. In addition, the energy gaps, UV-vis, luminescent and cyclic voltammetry were experimented to show the stable one dimensional long-chain chiral structure and the π function of two complexes.

  5. Wind Farm Siting and Protected Areas in Catalonia: Planning Alternatives or Reproducing 'One-Dimensional Thinking'?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine N. Farrell

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is an emblem of sustainability with the potential to promote a qualitative alternative to current energy systems and nuclear options for CO2 reduction. However, wind farm siting often conflicts with aspirations to conserve traditional landscapes and wildlife habitats. In this paper we adopt a Critical Theory perspective, informed by Herbert Marcuse`s work, to study the discourse concerning wind energy siting in Catalonia, Spain. We give particular attention to how tensions between potentially conflicting sustainability objectives are addressed and by whom. Based on a review of this siting discourse and the application of Marcuse’s theory, we find that the Catalan wind energy siting discourse is both influenced by and reproducing what Marcuse referred to as the ‘one-dimensional thinking’ of technology as ideology: erasing the possibility of critical dialectical thought by subsuming the question of “what should be” under the question of “what is”. This has implications both for how these conflicts are investigated and for the sustainability of decisions taken. We conclude that closer attention to the role of ‘one-dimensional thinking’ in wind energy siting discourses could improve not only the understanding of their logic but might also have the potential to help make them more democratic.

  6. Single-photon switch: Controllable scattering of photons inside a one-dimensional resonator waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Gong, Z. R.; Liu, Y. X.; Sun, C. P.; Nori, F.

    2010-03-01

    We analyze the coherent transport of a single photon, which propagates in a one-dimensional coupled-resonator waveguide and is scattered by a controllable two-level system located inside one of the resonators of this waveguide. Our approach, which uses discrete coordinates, unifies low and high energy effective theories for single-photon scattering. We show that the controllable two-level system can behave as a quantum switch for the coherent transport of a single photon. This study may inspire new electro-optical single-photon quantum devices. We also suggest an experimental setup based on superconducting transmission line resonators and qubits. References: L. Zhou, Z.R. Gong, Y.X. Liu, C.P. Sun, F. Nori, Controllable scattering of photons inside a one-dimensional resonator waveguide, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 100501 (2008). L. Zhou, H. Dong, Y.X. Liu, C.P. Sun, F. Nori, Quantum super-cavity with atomic mirrors, Phys. Rev. A 78, 063827 (2008).

  7. Effect of disorders on topological phases in one-dimensional optical superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhizhou, Wang; Yidong, Wu; Huijing, Du; Xili, Jing

    2016-07-01

    In a recent paper, Lang et al. proposed that edge states and topological phases can be observed in one-dimensional optical superlattices. They showed that the topological phases can be revealed by observing the density profile of a trapped fermion system, which displays plateaus with their positions. However, disorders are not considered in their model. To study the effect of disorders on the topological phases, we introduce random potentials to the model for optical superlattcies. Our calculations show that edge states are robust against the disorders. We find the edge states are very sensitive to the number of the sites in the optical superlattice and we propose a simple rule to describe the relationship between the edge states and the number of sites. The density plateaus are also robust against weak disorders provided that the average density is calculated over a long interval. The widths of the plateaus are proportional to the widths of the bulk energy gaps when there are disorders. The disorders can diminish the bulk energy gaps. So the widths of the plateaus decrease with the increase of disorders and the density plateaus disappear when disorders are too strong. The results in our paper can be used to guide the experimental detection of topological phases in one-dimensional systems. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41174116), the Graduate Student Education Teaching Reform Project, China (Grant No. JG201512), and the Young Teachers’ Research Project of Yanshan University, China (Grant No. 13LGB028).

  8. Cigarette smoke extract (CSE) induces RAGE-mediated inflammation in the Ca9-22 gingival carcinoma epithelial cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Nolan T; Dutson, Derek J; Durrant, Justin W; Lewis, Joshua B; Wilcox, Shalene H; Winden, Duane R; Arroyo, Juan A; Bikman, Benjamin T; Reynolds, Paul R

    2017-08-01

    The oral environment is anatomically positioned as a significant gateway for exposure to environmental toxicants. Cigarette smoke exposure compromises oral health by orchestrating inflammation. The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) has been implicated in smoke-induced inflammatory effects; however, its role in the oral cavity is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine RAGE expression by immortalized gingival carcinoma cells and the degree to which RAGE-mediated signaling influences inflammation. Gingival epithelia cells (Ca9-22) were exposed to 10% cigarette smoke extract (CSE) for six hours and screened for RAGE expression and inflammatory mediators. Quantitative PCR and immunoblotting revealed increased RAGE expression following exposure. Furthermore, exposure activated RAGE signaling intermediates including Ras and NF-κB. IL-6 and IL-1β were also elevated in cell culture medium from CSE-exposed cells when compared to controls. A family of anionic, partially lipophilic sulfated polysaccharide derivatives known as semi-synthetic glycosaminoglycan ethers (SAGEs) were used in an effort to block RAGE signaling. Co-treatment of CSE and SAGEs ameliorated inflammatory responses. These results provide a new perspective on a mechanism of cigarette smoke induced oral inflammation. Further work may show RAGE signaling as a potential target in the treatment of diseases of the oral cavity exacerbated by tobacco smoke exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Optical properties of one-dimensional disordered multilayer photonic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotognella, Francesco; Chiasera, Alessandro; Criante, Luigino; Varas, Stefano; Kriegel, Ilka; Bellingeri, Michele; Righini, Giancarlo C.; Ramponi, Roberta; Ferrari, Maurizio

    2014-03-01

    The investigation of the differences between ordered and disordered materials (in the hundreds of nanometer lengthscale) is a crucial topic for a better understanding of light transport in photonic media. Here we study the light transmission properties of 1D photonic structures in which disorder is introduced in two different ways. In the first study, we have grouped the high refractive index layers in layer clusters, randomly distributed among layers of low refractive index. We have controlled the maximum size of such clusters and the ratio of the high-low refractive index layers (here called dilution). We studied the total transmission of the disordered structure within the photonic band gap of the ordered structure as a function of the maximum cluster size, and we have observed a valley in trend of the total transmission for a specific maximum cluster size. This value increases with increasing dilution. Furthermore, within one dilution we observe oscillations of the total transmission with increasing cluster size. In the second study, we have realized photonic structures with a random variation of the layer thickness. The structures were fabricated by radio-frequency (RF) sputtering technique. The transmission spectrum of the disordered structure was simulated by taking into account the refractive index dispersion of the materials, resulting in a good agreement between the experimental data and the simulations. We found that the transmission of the photonic structure in the range 300- 1200 nm is lower with respect the corresponding periodic photonic crystal. The studied disordered 1D photonic structures are very interesting for the modelization and realization of broad band filters and light harvesting devices.

  10. Aharonov-Casher Effect in One-Dimensional Wigner Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Kindermann, Markus

    2010-03-01

    We theoretically study the effects of spin-orbit coupling on spin exchange in a low-density Wigner crystal. In addition to the familiar antiferromagnetic Heisenberg exchange, we find general anisotropic interactions in spin space if the exchange paths allowed by the crystal structure form loops in real space. In particular, it is shown that the two-electron exchange interaction can acquire ferromagnetic character. Tserkovnyak and Kindermann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 (2009) 126801.

  11. Electronic States in Quasi-one-Dimensional Copolymeric Sandwich Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德胜; 王鹿霞; 魏建华; 郑斌; 解士杰; 韩圣浩; 梅良模

    2001-01-01

    The electronic properties of xPA/nPPP/yPA sandwiched copo]ymers with a well-barrier-well structure have been studied by using a tight-binding calculation. It was found that the electronic properties of the neutral states of these sandwiched copolymers are sensitive to the constitutions of PPP and PA monomers and the interface coupling between PA and PPP. It is verified that the quantum tunnelling effect will occur at the lowest conductive state of xPA/nPPP/xPA copolymers.

  12. Magnetization plateaux in one-dimensional random quantum magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hida, Kazuo

    2003-05-01

    The effect of randomness on the magnetization plateaux in frustrated S=1/2 Heisenberg chains is studied by the DMRG method. It is shown that the random mixture of two kinds of chains with plateaux due to spontaneous translational symmetry breakdown at M{sub s}/2 (M{sub s}: the full magnetization) does not show a plateaux at M{sub s}/2. In the S=1/2 frustrated Heisenberg chains with bond alternation and random sign strong bonds, the plateau at M{sub s}/2 splits by randomness while an additional plateau is generated at M=(1-p)M{sub s}.

  13. Polarons on one-dimensional lattice. II. Moving polaron

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we revise the possible polaron contribution to the charge and energy transfer over long distances in biomolecules like DNA. The harmonic and the simple inharmonic ($U(x) = x^2/2 - \\beta x^3/3$) lattices are considered. The systems of PDEs are derived in the continuum approximation. The PDEs have the one-soliton solution for polarons on the harmonic lattice. It describes a moving polaron, the polaron velocity lies in the region from zero to the sound velocity and depends o...

  14. Mechanical properties of bimetallic one-dimensional structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelova, Ekaterina M.; Sitnikov, Ivan I.; Zelensky, Vladimir S.; Tsysar, Kseniya M.; Andreev, Valery G.; Vdovin, Vladimir A.; Saletsky, Alexander M.

    2016-12-01

    Mechanical properties of freestanding Au-Mn nanowires and Au-Mn nanowire on a Cu (110) substrate are studied with ab initio theoretical approach. The calculations were carried out using the software package Vienna Ab-initio Simulation Package (VASP), which is based on the density functional theory (DFT). It was shown that the breaking force (0.45nN) as well as the interatomic distance at a breaking point in bimetallic nanowire (3.0 Å) are higher than in one component Au wire (0.4 nN and 2.6Å respectively). Relative elongation of 15 % results in a fracture of bimetallic nanowire. We studied the mechanical response of the nanojunction in a form of three-atomic Au chain aligned vertically between two pyramidal gold electrodes and demonstrated that the breaking of nanocontact depends only the interaction between Au atoms in the chain and dependents slightly on the structure and properties of the atomic structure of the electrodes.

  15. A simple one-dimensional model for urban canopy flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wai Chi; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    In urban canopy parameterizations, an urban canopy is usually modelled as a drag force on the flow, and the turbulent shear stress is parametrized by various methods. One of the most common methods to parametrize the turbulent shear stress in urban canopies is to use a mixing length (lm) model. Different mixing length models have been proposed in the literature, and recent direct numerical simulation and large-eddy simulation (LES) studies have shown that these models underpredict the value of lm in urban canopies. The high value of lm in the canopies is in fact related to the turbulence generated at the high-shear region near the top of the canopy, which is similar to that in a plane mixing layer. By considering this effect, a new simple mixing length model is proposed based on physical arguments. The results of the new lm model and the previous models are compared with the LES results of flows within and above uniform cube arrays of different densities. The comparison clearly demonstrates the better performance of the new model in predicting the wind profiles especially near the top of the urban canopies. For the drag coefficient (Cd) representing an urban canopy, previous studies found that its value depends on the building density. Here, a simple model for Cd is suggested by considering the spatial distribution of mean wind within canopies of different building densities. The model prediction is found to agree reasonably well with the LES results.

  16. Spontaneously stochastic solutions in one-dimensional inviscid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mailybaev, Alexei A

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the inviscid limit of the Sabra shell model of turbulence, which is considered as a particular case of a viscous conservation law in one space dimension with a nonlocal quadratic flux function. We present a theoretical argument (with a detailed numerical confirmation) showing that a classical deterministic solution before a finite-time blowup, $t t_b$, representing a unique physically relevant description in the inviscid limit. This theory is based on the dynamical system formulation written for the logarithmic time $\\tau = \\log(t-t_b)$, which features a stable traveling wave solution for the inviscid Burgers equation, but a stochastic traveling wave for the Sabra model. The latter describes a universal onset of stochasticity immediately after the blowup.

  17. Physics of zero- and one-dimensional nanoscopic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Maiti, Santanu; Chowdhury, Jayeeta

    2007-01-01

    In recent years submicron and nanoscale systems have featured strongly on the research agenda due to the technological progress and new physics that have emerged from studies of ultra-small systems. A fundamental understanding of basic physical phenomena on the mesoscopic and nanoscopic scales is required to exploit the technological potential offered by these exotic materials. The present book contains review-like chapters by some of the leading experts in the field, covering topics such as the Kondo effect, electron transport, disorder and quantum coherence with electron-electron interaction, persistent current, thermoelectric phenomena, etc. in quantum dots, quantum wires, carbon nanotubes and more. This book will be valuable to researchers and students in condensed matter physics.

  18. Phonon scattering in quasi-one-dimensional structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourahla, B., E-mail: bourahla_boualem@yahoo.f [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Universite de Tizi Ouzou, BP 17 RP 15000 (Algeria); Laboratoire de Physique de l' etat Condense, UMR 6087, Universite du Maine, 72085 Le Mans (France); Nafa, O. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Universite de Tizi Ouzou, BP 17 RP 15000 (Algeria); Tigrine, R. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Universite de Tizi Ouzou, BP 17 RP 15000 (Algeria); Laboratoire de Physique de l' etat Condense, UMR 6087, Universite du Maine, 72085 Le Mans (France)

    2011-02-15

    We introduce a model to study a symmetric nanocontact, whereby its mechanical properties can be analyzed via the vibration spectra. The model system consists of two groups of triple semi-infinite atomic chains joined by atoms in between. The matching method theoretical approach is used to calculate the coherent reflection and transmission scattering probabilities, the characteristic vibration Green functions and densities of states (DOS), for the vibration components of the individual atomic sites that constitute a complete representation of the nanocontact domain boundaries. The nanocontact observables are numerically calculated for different cases of elastic hardening and softening, to investigate how the local dynamics can respond to changes in the microscopic environment on the nanocontact domain. The analysis of the vibration spectra and the DOS demonstrate the fluctuations, related to Fano resonances, due to the coherent coupling between traveling phonons and the localized vibration modes in the nanocontact domain.

  19. Spontaneously stochastic solutions in one-dimensional inviscid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailybaev, Alexei A.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we study the inviscid limit of the Sabra shell model of turbulence, which is considered as a particular case of a viscous conservation law in one space dimension with a nonlocal quadratic flux function. We present a theoretical argument (with a detailed numerical confirmation) showing that a classical deterministic solution before a finite-time blowup, t    t b , representing a unique physically relevant description in the inviscid limit. This theory is based on the dynamical system formulation written for the logarithmic time τ =log ≤ft(t-{{t}b}\\right) , which features a stable traveling wave solution for the inviscid Burgers equation, but a stochastic traveling wave for the Sabra model. The latter describes a universal onset of stochasticity immediately after the blowup.

  20. Comparison of one-dimensional and two-dimensional least-squares strain estimators for phased array displacement data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopata, R.G.P.; Hansen, H.H.G.; Nillesen, M.M.; Thijssen, J.M.; Korte, C.L. de

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the performances of one-dimensional and two-dimensional least-squares strain estimators (LSQSE) are compared. Furthermore, the effects of kernel size are examined using simulated raw frequency data of a widely-adapted hard lesion/soft tissue model. The performances of both methods are

  1. Effects of temperature and pressure on morphologies of quasi-one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures fabricated via thermal evaporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wen-cheng; CAI Wei; MENG Xiang-long

    2006-01-01

    Quasi one-dimensional zinc oxide nanomaterials were synthesized by thermal evaporation. The structure,morphologies and composition of ZnO nanomaterials prepared under different conditions were studied by XRD,TEM,SEM and EDX. The morphologies are strongly sensitive to the temperature and the pressure during growth,including nanowires,nanobelts,nanocombs and pyramidal-like nanomaterials.

  2. One-dimensional lattice of oscillators coupled through power-law interactions: Continuum limit and dynamics of spatial Fourier modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, S.; Potters, M.G.; Ruffo, S.

    2012-01-01

    We study synchronization in a system of phase-only oscillators residing on the sites of a one-dimensional periodic lattice. The oscillators interact with a strength that decays as a power law of the separation along the lattice length and is normalized by a size-dependent constant. The exponent α of

  3. One-dimensional phenomenological model for liquid water flooding in cathode gas channel of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, C.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.; Rensink, D.; Fell, S.

    2012-01-01

    The mathematical description of liquid water flooding in the gas channel (GC) of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) at the macro scale has remained a challenge up to now. The mist flow assumption in the GC has been commonly used in previous numerical studies. In this work, a one-dimensional (dow

  4. Finite-size effects for the gap in the excitation spectrum of the one-dimensional Hubbard model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colomé-Tatché, M.; Matveenko, S.I.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.

    2010-01-01

    We study finite-size effects for the gap of the quasiparticle excitation spectrum in the weakly interacting regime one-dimensional Hubbard model with on-site attraction. Two types of corrections to the result of the thermodynamic limit are obtained. Aside from a power law (conformal) correction due

  5. Low-energy expansion formula for one-dimensional Fokker-Planck and Schr\\"odinger equations with periodic potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Miyazawa, Toru

    2011-01-01

    We study the low-energy behavior of the Green function for one-dimensional Fokker-Planck and Schr\\"odinger equations with periodic potentials. We derive a formula for the power series expansion of reflection coefficients in terms of the wave number, and apply it to the low-energy expansion of the Green function.

  6. Finite-size effects for the gap in the excitation spectrum of the one-dimensional Hubbard model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colomé-Tatché, M.; Matveenko, S.I.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.

    2010-01-01

    We study finite-size effects for the gap of the quasiparticle excitation spectrum in the weakly interacting regime one-dimensional Hubbard model with on-site attraction. Two types of corrections to the result of the thermodynamic limit are obtained. Aside from a power law (conformal) correction due

  7. Localized surface plasmon of quasi-one-dimensional metallic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingzhao

    2007-05-01

    The plasmon resonance of noble metal nanoparticles provides interesting optical properties in the visible and near-infrared region, and is highly tunable by varying the shape and the composition of the nanoparticles. The rod-like gold nanostructures can be synthesized by a seed-mediated method in aqueous surfactant solutions. Starting from different types of gold seeds, either single crystalline gold nanorods or penta-fold twinned gold bipyramids can be synthesized in decent yield with silver(I) added into the growth solution. These nanostructures have pronounced plasmon resonance varying in the 1˜2 eV range. The bipyramids are strikingly monodisperse in shape, which leads to the sharpest ensemble longitudinal plasmon resonance reported so far for metal colloid solutions. A mechanism based on the underpotential deposition of silver was thus suggested to explain the essential role of Ag(I) in the growth process. The optical spectra of the gold colloids were simulated with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The results show excellent agreement with recent experimental optical spectra. The local field enhancement (|E|/|E0|) was studied at the plasmon resonance. Sharper structural features produce more significant enhancement and the largest enhancement of more than a factor of 200 is seen around the poles of the bipyramid. A large internal field enhancement by more than a factor of 30 is found for the bipyramids, which suggests that they will exhibit very strong optical nonlinearities. The plasmon can be further tuned by introducing the core/shell nanostructures such as metal/metal or metal/semiconductor nanorods. Following a simple procedure, a homogeneous layer of silver with 1-4 nm thickness can be plated onto the gold nanorods, which shifts the longitudinal plasmon mode of the nanorods toward blue. The silver layer can be converted to semiconductors silver sulfide or selenide, with the longitudinal plasmon resonance tuned toward red. The metal

  8. Phononic crystals with one-dimensional defect as sensor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Arafa H.; Mehaney, Ahmed

    2017-09-01

    Recently, sensor technology has attracted great attention in many fields due to its importance in many engineering applications. In the present work, we introduce a study using the innovative properties of phononic crystals in enhancing a new type of sensors based on the intensity of transmitted frequencies inside the phononic band gaps. Based on the transfer matrix method and Bloch theory, the expressions of the reflection coefficient and dispersion relation are presented. Firstly, the influences of filling fraction ratio and the angle of incidence on the band gap width are discussed. Secondly, the localization of waves inside band gaps is discussed by enhancing the properties of the defected phononic crystal. Compared to the periodic structure, localization modes involved within the band structure of phononic crystals with one and two defect layers are presented and compared. Trapped localized modes can be detected easily and provide more information about defected structures. Such method could increase the knowledge of manufacturing defects by measuring the intensity of propagated waves in the resonant cavities and waveguides. Moreover, several factors enhance the role of the defect layer on the transmission properties of defected phononic crystals are presented. The acoustic band gap can be used to detect or sense the type of liquids filling the defect layer. The liquids make specific resonant modes through the phononic band gaps that related to the properties of each liquid. The frequency where the maximum resonant modes occur is correlated to material properties and allows to determine several parameters such as the type of an unknown material.

  9. One-dimensional Arterial Network Model for Bypass Grafts Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Ghigo, Arthur; Wang, Xiaofei; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves; Fullana, Jose-Maria

    2016-01-01

    We propose an arterial network model based on 1D blood hemodynamic equations to study the behavior of different vascular surgical bypass grafts in case of an arterial occlusive pathology: an obliteration or stenosis of the iliac artery. We investigate the performances of three different bypass grafts (Aorto-Femoral, Axillo-Femoral and cross-over Femoral) depending on the degree of obliteration of the stenosis. Numerical simulations show that all bypass grafts are efficient since we retrieve in all cases the normal hemodynamics in the stenosed region while ensuring at the same time a global healthy circulation. We analyze in particular the Axillo-Femoral bypass graft by performing hundreds of simulations by varying the values of the Young's modulus [0.1--50 MPa] and the radius [0.01--5 cm] of the bypass graft. We show that the Young's modulus and radius of commercial bypass grafts are optimal in terms of hemodynamic considerations. The numerical findings prove that this approach could be used to optimize or pl...

  10. Spin interference in silicon one-dimensional rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagraev, N T [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute RAS, 194021, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Galkin, N G [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute RAS, 194021, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gehlhoff, W [Technische Universitaet Berlin, D-10623, Berlin (Germany); Klyachkin, L E [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute RAS, 194021, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Malyarenko, A M [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute RAS, 194021, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Shelykh, I A [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-15

    We present the first findings of the spin transistor effect in the Rashba gate-controlled ring embedded in the p-type self-assembled silicon quantum well that is prepared on the n-type Si (100) surface. The coherence and phase sensitivity of the spin-dependent transport of holes are studied by varying the value of the external magnetic field and the top gate voltage that are applied perpendicularly to the plane of the double-slit ring and revealed by the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) and Aharonov-Casher (AC) conductance oscillations, respectively. Firstly, the amplitude and phase sensitivity of the 0.7.(2e{sup 2}/h) feature of the hole quantum conductance staircase revealed by the quantum point contact inserted in the one of the arms of the double-slit ring are found to result from the interplay of the spontaneous spin polarization and the Rashba spin-orbit interaction (SOI). Secondly, the values of the AC conductance oscillations caused by the Rashba SOI are found to take the fractional form with both the plateaus and steps as a function of the top gate voltage.

  11. Phononic crystals with one-dimensional defect as sensor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Arafa H.; Mehaney, Ahmed

    2017-04-01

    Recently, sensor technology has attracted great attention in many fields due to its importance in many engineering applications. In the present work, we introduce a study using the innovative properties of phononic crystals in enhancing a new type of sensors based on the intensity of transmitted frequencies inside the phononic band gaps. Based on the transfer matrix method and Bloch theory, the expressions of the reflection coefficient and dispersion relation are presented. Firstly, the influences of filling fraction ratio and the angle of incidence on the band gap width are discussed. Secondly, the localization of waves inside band gaps is discussed by enhancing the properties of the defected phononic crystal. Compared to the periodic structure, localization modes involved within the band structure of phononic crystals with one and two defect layers are presented and compared. Trapped localized modes can be detected easily and provide more information about defected structures. Such method could increase the knowledge of manufacturing defects by measuring the intensity of propagated waves in the resonant cavities and waveguides. Moreover, several factors enhance the role of the defect layer on the transmission properties of defected phononic crystals are presented. The acoustic band gap can be used to detect or sense the type of liquids filling the defect layer. The liquids make specific resonant modes through the phononic band gaps that related to the properties of each liquid. The frequency where the maximum resonant modes occur is correlated to material properties and allows to determine several parameters such as the type of an unknown material.

  12. One-dimensional Topological Edge States of Bismuth Bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdov, Ilya; Alexandradinata, Aris; Jeon, Sangjun; Nadj-Perge, Stevan; Ji, Huiwen; Cava, Robert; Bernevig, B. Andrei; Yazdani, Ali

    2014-03-01

    The hallmark of a time-reversal symmetry protected topologically insulating state of matter in two-dimensions (2D) is the existence of chiral edge modes propagating along the perimeter of the sample. Bilayers of bismuth (Bi), an elemental system theoretically predicted to be a Quantum Spin Hall (QSH) insulator1, has been studied with Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and the electronic structure of its bulk and edge modes has been experimentally investigated. Spectroscopic mapping with STM reveals the presence of the state bound to the edges of the Bi-bilayer. By visualizing quantum interference of the edge state quasi-particles in confined geometries we characterize their dispersion and demonstrate that their properties are consistent with the absence of backscattering. Hybridization of the edge modes to the underlying substrate will be discussed. [1] Shuichi Murakami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 236805 (2006). The work at Princeton and the Princeton Nanoscale Microscopy Laboratory was supported by ARO MURI program W911NF-12-1-0461, DARPA-SPWAR Meso program N6601-11-1-4110, NSF-DMR1104612, and NSF-MRSEC programs through the Princeton Center for Complex Materials (DMR-0819860)

  13. The seasonal effect in one-dimensional Daisyworld.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biton, Eli; Gildor, Hezi

    2012-12-07

    We have studied the effects of seasonal Solar Radiation Forcing (SRF) on the climate self-regulatory capability of life, using a latitudinal-dependent Daisyworld model. Because the seasonal polarity of SRF increases poleward, habitable conditions exist in the equatorial regions year round, whereas, in the high latitudes, harsh winters cause annual extinction of life, and only the summers are inhabited or regulated by life. Seasonality affects climate regulation by two major mechanisms: (1) the cold winter conditions in the high latitudes reduce the global temperature below the optimal temperature; (2) during summer, life experiences higher SRF anomalies and, therefore, shifts to higher albedo when compared to annual mean SRF. In turn, a full capacity for temperature regulation is reached at lower SRF, and the range of SRF over which life regulates climate is significantly reduced. Lastly, initiation/extinction of life at low/highly-perturbed SRF occurs at the poles. Therefore, an irreversible global extinction occurs once life passes its regulatory capacity in the poles. We conduct extensive sensitivity analyses on various model parameters (latitudinal heat diffusion, heat capacity, and population death rate), strengthening the generality/robustness of the above net seasonal effects. Applications to other SRF fluctuation, as Milankovitch cycles are discussed.

  14. Stationary bottom generated velocity fluctuations in one-dimensional open channel flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Bartele

    1993-01-01

    Statistical characteristics are calculated for stationary velocity fluctuations in a one-dimensional open channel flow with a given vertical velocity profile and with one-dimensional irregular bottom waves, characterized by a spectral density function. The calculations are based on an approximate ca

  15. Synthesis and magneticproperties of one-dimensional Mn(Ⅱ) complexes linked bydithiooxalato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Three dithiooxalato (Dto) bridging one-dimensional Mn(Ⅱ) complexes [Mn(L)Dto](L = Phen (1), Bpy (2) and en (3)) were synthesized. All of the complexes have the similar one-dimensional structure through Dto bridge. The measurement of the variable temperature magnetic susceptibility of complex 1 showed that there are weak antiferromag- netic interactions between the Mn(Ⅱ) ions.

  16. Critical Behaviors in a Stochastic Local Limited One-Dimensional Rice-Pile Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hong-Zhang; TANG Zheng-Xin

    2008-01-01

    A stochastic local fimited one-dimensional rice-pile model is numerically investigated. The distributions for ayalanche sizes have a clear power-law behavior and it displays a simple finite size scaling. We obtain the avalanche exponents Ts = 1.54±0.10, βs = 2.17±0.10 and τT = 1.80±0.10, βT = 1.46±0.10. This self-organized critical model belongs to the same universality class with the Oslo rice-pile model studied by K. Christensen et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 (1996) 107], a rice-pile model studied by L.A.N. Amaral et al. [Phys. Rev. E 54 (1996) 4512], and a simple deterministic self-organized critical model studied by M.S. Vieira [Phys. Rev. E 61 (2000) 6056].

  17. Diffusion related isotopic fractionation effects with one-dimensional advective–dispersive transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Bruce S. [Civil Engineering Department, University of Toronto, 35 St George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 1A4 (Canada); Lollar, Barbara Sherwood [Earth Sciences Department, University of Toronto, 22 Russell Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3B1 (Canada); Passeport, Elodie [Civil Engineering Department, University of Toronto, 35 St George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 1A4 (Canada); Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry Department, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3E5 (Canada); Sleep, Brent E., E-mail: sleep@ecf.utoronto.ca [Civil Engineering Department, University of Toronto, 35 St George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 1A4 (Canada)

    2016-04-15

    Aqueous phase diffusion-related isotope fractionation (DRIF) for carbon isotopes was investigated for common groundwater contaminants in systems in which transport could be considered to be one-dimensional. This paper focuses not only on theoretically observable DRIF effects in these systems but introduces the important concept of constraining “observable” DRIF based on constraints imposed by the scale of measurements in the field, and on standard limits of detection and analytical uncertainty. Specifically, constraints for the detection of DRIF were determined in terms of the diffusive fractionation factor, the initial concentration of contaminants (C{sub 0}), the method detection limit (MDL) for isotopic analysis, the transport time, and the ratio of the longitudinal mechanical dispersion coefficient to effective molecular diffusion coefficient (D{sub mech}/D{sub eff}). The results allow a determination of field conditions under which DRIF may be an important factor in the use of stable carbon isotope measurements for evaluation of contaminant transport and transformation for one-dimensional advective–dispersive transport. This study demonstrates that for diffusion-dominated transport of BTEX, MTBE, and chlorinated ethenes, DRIF effects are only detectable for the smaller molar mass compounds such as vinyl chloride for C{sub 0}/MDL ratios of 50 or higher. Much larger C{sub 0}/MDL ratios, corresponding to higher source concentrations or lower detection limits, are necessary for DRIF to be detectable for the higher molar mass compounds. The distance over which DRIF is observable for VC is small (less than 1 m) for a relatively young diffusive plume (< 100 years), and DRIF will not easily be detected by using the conventional sampling approach with “typical” well spacing (at least several meters). With contaminant transport by advection, mechanical dispersion, and molecular diffusion this study suggests that in field sites where D{sub mech}/D{sub eff} is

  18. Recognition of the centromere-specific histone Cse4 by the chaperone Scm3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Uhn-Soo; Harrison, Stephen C. (Harvard-Med)

    2011-09-20

    A specialized nucleosome is a component of all eukaryotic kinetochores. The core of this nucleosome contains a centromere-specific histone, CENP-A (the Cse4 gene product in budding yeast), instead of the usual H3. Assembly of a centromeric nucleosome depends on a specific chaperone, called Scm3 in yeast and HJURP in higher eukaryotes. We describe here the structure of a complex formed by an N-terminal fragment of Scm3 with the histone-fold domains of Cse4, and H4, all prepared as recombinant proteins derived from the budding yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. The contacts of Scm3 with Cse4 explain its selectivity for the centromere-specific histone; key residues at the interface are conserved in HJURP, indicating a common mechanism for centromeric-histone deposition. We also report the structure of a (Cse4 : H4)2 heterotetramer; comparison with the structure of the Scm3:Cse4:H4 complex shows that tetramer formation and DNA-binding require displacement of Scm3 from the nucleosome core. The two structures together suggest that specific contacts between the chaperone and Cse4, rather than an altered overall structure of the nucleosome core, determine the selective presence of Cse4 at centromeres.

  19. Collapse of the wave field in a one-dimensional system of weakly coupled light guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakin, A. A.; Litvak, A. G.; Mironov, V. A.; Skobelev, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    The analytical and numerical study of the radiation self-action in a system of coupled light guides is fulfilled on the basis of the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DNSE). We develop a variational method for qualitative study of DNSE and classify self-action modes. We show that the diffraction of narrow (in grating scale) wave beams weakens in discrete media and, consequently, the "collapse" of the one-dimensional wave field with power exceeding the critical value occurs. This results in the ability to self-channel radiation in the central fiber. Qualitative analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulation of DNSE, which also shows the stability of the collapse mode.

  20. Multipartite Entanglement in a One-Dimensional Time Dependent Ising Model

    CERN Document Server

    Lakshminarayan, A; Lakshminarayan, Arul

    2004-01-01

    We study multipartite entanglement measures for a one-dimensional Ising chain that is capable of showing both integrable and nonintegrable behaviour. This model includes the kicked transverse Ising model, which we solve exactly using the Jordan-Wigner transform, as well as nonintegrable and mixing regimes. The cluster states arise as a special case and we show that while one measure of entanglement is large, another measure can be exponentially small, while symmetrizing these states with respect to up and down spins, produces those with large entanglement content uniformly. We also calculate exactly some entanglement measures for the nontrivial but integrable case of the kicked transverse Ising model. In the nonintegrable case we begin on extensive numerical studies that shows that large multipartite entanglement is accompanied by diminishing two-body correlations, and that time averaged multipartite entanglement measures can be enhanced in nonintegrable systems.

  1. Heat Conductivity of One-Dimensional Carbon Chain in an External Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Yong; DONG Jin-Ming

    2007-01-01

    The heat transport in a one-dimensional (1D) carbon nanowire (CNW) lying in an external potential with different amplitudes and periods is studied by the non-equilibrium molecular dynamics method. It is found that the thermal conductivity of CNW is always anomalous, increasing with the CNW length and obeying the power law κ~ N, in which α decreases with the increasing external potential amplitude. The thermal conductivity could be enhanced by the external potential with rather larger amplitudes, which means that an applied external potential could be an efficient tool to improve the heat conductivity of a real 1D material. In addition, the effect of different periods of the external potential is studied, finding the external potential with an incommensurate period leads to the smaller α value.

  2. Optical properties of one-dimensional photonic crystals based on porous films of anodic aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, V. S.; Klimonsky, S. O.; Filatov, V. V.; Napolskii, K. S.

    2016-04-01

    The optical properties of one-dimensional photonic crystals based on porous anodic aluminum oxide films have been studied by measuring transmittance and specular reflectance spectra in the visible and UV spectral regions. Angular dependences of the spectral positions of optical stop bands are obtained. It is shown that the reflectance within the first stop band varies from point to point on the sample surface, reaching a level of 98-99% at some points. The dispersion relation for electromagnetic waves in the model of infinite periodic structure is calculated for the samples under study. The possibility of using models with an infinite or finite number of layers to calculate reflectance spectra near the first optical stop band is discussed.

  3. Anisotropic Heisenberg form of RKKY interaction in the one-dimensional spin-polarized electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, M. M.

    2016-09-01

    We study the indirect exchange interaction between two localized magnetic moments, known as Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction, in a one-dimensional (1D) spin-polarized electron gas. We find explicit expressions for each term of this interaction, study their oscillatory behaviors as a function of the distance between two magnetic moments, R, and compare them with the known results for RKKY interaction in the case of 1D standard electron gas. We show this interaction can be written in an anisotropic Heisenberg form, E(R) = λ2χ xx(S1xS2x + S1yS2y) + λ2χ zzS1zS2z, coming from broken time-reversal symmetry of the host material.

  4. Finite element method for one-dimensional rill erosion simulation on a curved slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Yan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rill erosion models are important to hillslope soil erosion prediction and to land use planning. The development of rill erosion models and their use has become increasingly of great concern. The purpose of this research was to develop mathematic models with computer simulation procedures to simulate and predict rill erosion. The finite element method is known as an efficient tool in many other applications than in rill soil erosion. In this study, the hydrodynamic and sediment continuity model equations for a rill erosion system were solved by the Galerkin finite element method and Visual C++ procedures. The simulated results are compared with the data for spatially and temporally measured processes for rill erosion under different conditions. The results indicate that the one-dimensional linear finite element method produced excellent predictions of rill erosion processes. Therefore, this study supplies a tool for further development of a dynamic soil erosion prediction model.

  5. Fermionization of two-component few-fermion systems in a one-dimensional harmonic trap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J. Lindgren, E.; Rotureau, J.; Forssén, C.

    2014-01-01

    The nature of strongly interacting Fermi gases and magnetism is one of the most important and studied topics in condensed-matter physics. Still, there are many open questions. A central issue is under what circumstances strong short-range repulsive interactions are enough to drive magnetic...... correlations. Recent progress in the field of cold atomic gases allows to address this question in very clean systems where both particle numbers, interactions and dimensionality can be tuned. Here we study fermionic few-body systems in a one dimensional harmonic trap using a new rapidly converging effective......-interaction technique, plus a novel analytical approach. This allows us to calculate the properties of a single spin-down atom interacting with a number of spin-up particles, a case of much recent experimental interest. Our findings indicate that, in the strongly interacting limit, spin-up and spin-down particles want...

  6. Levy-Feldgeim distributions for one-dimensional analysis of the Bose-Einstein correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Okorokov, V A

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the study of relations between parameters of the two central-symmetrical Levy - Feldgeim distributions which can be used for investigation of one-dimensional Bose - Einstein correlations (1D BEC). The systems of equations are suggested for femtoscopic 1D parameters, strength of correlations and radius, in the case of two general view stable distributions for the first time. The relations take into account possible various finite ranges of the Lorentz invariant four-momentum difference for two central-symmetrical Levy - Feldgeim distributions. The systems of transcendental equations are derived for specific case of general view stable distributions most used for experimental study of 1D BEC, namely, for Cauchy and Gauss parameterizations. The mathematical formalism is verified with help of available experimental results for 1D BEC in various processes of strong interaction. The estimations for 1D femtoscopic parameters agree well with experiments in cases of the pair of general central-symme...

  7. Spectral properties of a one-dimensional photonic crystal with a resonant defect nanocomposite layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetrov, S. Ya., E-mail: s.vetrov@inbox.ru; Avdeeva, A. Yu., E-mail: avdeeva-anstasiya@yandex.ru [Siberian Federal University (Russian Federation); Timofeev, I. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-15

    The spectral properties of a one-dimensional photonic crystal with a defect nanocomposite layer that consists of metallic nanoballs distributed in a transparent matrix and is characterized by an effective resonance permittivity are studied. The problem of calculating the transmission, reflection, and absorption spectra of p-polarized waves in such structures is solved for oblique incidence of light, and the spectral manifestation of defect-mode splitting as a function of the volume fraction of nanoballs and the structural parameters is studied. The splitting is found to depend substantially on the nanoball concentration in the defect, the defect layer thickness, and the angle of incidence. The angle of incidence is found at which the resonance frequency of the nanocomposite is located near the edge of the bandgap or falls in the frequency region of a continuous spectrum. The resonance situation appearing in this case results in an additional transmission band or an additional bandgap in the transmission spectrum.

  8. Magnon band structure and magnon density in one-dimensional magnonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Rong-ke; Huang, Te; Zhang, Zhi-dong

    2014-11-01

    By using Callen's Green's function method and the Tyablikov and Anderson-Callen decoupling approximations, we systematically study the magnon band structure and magnon density perpendicular to the superlattice plane of one-dimensional magnonic crystals, with a superlattice consisting of two magnetic layers with ferromagnetic (FM) or antiferromagnetic (AFM) interlayer exchange coupling. The effects of temperature, interlayer coupling, anisotropy and external magnetic field on the magnon-energy band and magnon density in the Kx-direction are investigated in three situations: a) the magnon band of magnetic superlattices with FM interlayer coupling, b) separate and c) overlapping magnon bands of magnetic superlattices with AFM interlayer coupling. In the present work, a quantum approach is developed to study the magnon band structure and magnon density of magnonic crystals and the results are beneficial for the design of magnonic-crystal waveguides or gigahertz-range spin-wave filters.

  9. Amplitude wave in one-dimensional complex Ginzburg-Landau equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Ling-Ling; Gao Jia-Zhen; Xie Wei-Miao; Gao Ji-Hua

    2011-01-01

    The wave propagation in the one-dimensional complex Ginzburg-Landau equation (CGLE) is studied by considering a wave source at the system boundary.A special propagation region,which is an island-shaped zone surrounded by the defect turbulence in the system parameter space,is observed in our numerical experiment.The wave signal spreads in the whole space with a novel amplitude wave pattern in the area.The relevant factors of the pattern formation,such as the wave speed,the maximum propagating distance and the oscillatory frequency,are studied in detail.The stability and the generality of the region are testified by adopting various initial conditions.This finding of the amplitude pattern extends the wave propagation region in the parameter space and presents a new signal transmission mode,and is therefore expected to be of much importance.

  10. Numerical Simulation of Synthesis of One-Dimensional Molybdenum Oxide Nanostructures in Flame Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shubham

    The past few decades have seen a great amount of interest in the field of nanotechnology. As our world moves towards miniaturized devices nanotechnology is set to revolutionize the electronics, storage and sensing industry. Various methods for synthesis of different types of nanoparticles are being explored. A few of these processes that hold great promise for the future are the flame synthesis methods. These methods are highly efficient but at the same time it is difficult to control the morphology of the produced nanoparticles due to a high number of control parameters involved because of the complex flow processes. These issues demand a better understanding before these processes can be exploited to their maximum potential. Most numerical methods developed cater to the simulation of spherical nanoparticles. However, it is now being increasingly understood that the shape and structure of a nanoparticle plays critical role in determining its chemical, physical and electronic properties. Therefore a high level of control on the shape of nanoparticles is highly imperative. With this purpose in mind this work proposes a novel numerical scheme to simulate the synthesis of one-dimensional nanorods and further presents mathematical simulations based on it followed by validation with experimental results. The ability to predict the morphology of a nanoparticle formed by a synthesis process adds a distinct advantage. Therefore, intricate solutions have been found for the fluid flow and these have been coupled to each stage of nanoparticle development, namely monomer formation, nucleation, particle growth and particle transport. The numerical scheme takes into account all the details of the complex surface phenomena taking place on a nanorod. Later, factors are studied which transition the growth characteristics of a nanoparticle from one dimensional to a spherical structure, thus encompassing all the factors that influence the particle shape. Group characteristics of

  11. Conductance distribution at criticality: one-dimensional Anderson model with random long-range hopping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apartado Postal J-48, Puebla 72570 (Mexico); Gopar, V. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and Instituto de Biocomputacion y Fisica de Sistemas Complejos (BIFI), Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Varga, I. [Elmeleti Fizika Tanszek, Fizikai Intezet, Budapesti Mueszaki es Gazdasagtudomanyi Egyetem, 1521 Budapest (Hungary); Fachbereich Physik und Wissenschaftliches Zentrum fuer Materialwissenschaften, Philipps Universitaet Marburg, 35032 Marburg (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    We study numerically the conductance distribution function w(T) for the one-dimensional Anderson model with random long-range hopping described by the Power-law Banded Random Matrix model at criticality. We concentrate on the case of two single-channel leads attached to the system. We observe a smooth transition from localized to delocalized behavior in the conductance distribution by increasing b, the effective bandwidth of the model. Also, for b < 1 we show that w(ln T/T{sub typ}) is scale invariant, where T{sub typ} = exp left angle ln T right angle is the typical value of T. Moreover, we find that for T < T{sub typ}, w(ln T/T{sub typ}) shows a universal behavior proportional to (T/T{sub typ}){sup -1/2}. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. Exact solutions of the one-dimensional generalized modified complex Ginzburg-Landau equation

    CERN Document Server

    Yomba, E

    2003-01-01

    The one-dimensional (1D) generalized modified complex Ginzburg-Landau (MCGL) equation for the traveling wave systems is analytically studied. Exact solutions of this equation are obtained using a method which combines the Painleve test for integrability in the formalism of Weiss-Tabor-Carnevale and Hirota technique of bilinearization. We show that pulses, fronts, periodic unbounded waves, sources, sinks and solution as collision between two fronts are the important coherent structures that organize much of the dynamical properties of these traveling wave systems. The degeneracies of the 1D generalized MCGL equation are examined as well as several of their solutions. These degeneracies include two important equations: the 1D generalized modified Schroedinger equation and the 1D generalized real modified Ginzburg-Landau equation. We obtain that the one parameter family of traveling localized source solutions called 'Nozaki-Bekki holes' become a subfamily of the dark soliton solutions in the 1D generalized modif...

  13. Classical chaos in one-dimensional hydrogen in strong dc electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humm, D.C.; Nayfeh, M.H. (Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (US))

    1989-10-01

    We analyze the effect of a dc electric field on classical chaos in one-dimensional hydrogen in a microwave field in the {ital n} nonmixing regime and also in the inter-{ital n}-mixing regime where significant dc field-induced ionization occurs. We study the ac field-induced nonlinear classical resonances, the threshold of chaos, and the number of states trapped in the resonances. In the strong-{ital n}-mixing and ionizing regime (unclamping dc field), we find the chaotic dynamics depend sharply on the dc field and the number of states trapped in the resonances, allowing the system to undergo a transition from a regime of classical behavior to a regime of uniquely quantum behavior as the dc field is changed. We show that ionization by classical chaos competes favorably with ionization by tunneling in the transition region, and that tunneling allows very sensitive spectroscopy of this region.

  14. SUPERCONVERGENCE OF DG METHOD FOR ONE-DIMENSIONAL SINGULARLY PERTURBED PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ziqing Xie; Zhimin Zhang

    2007-01-01

    The convergence and superconvergence properties of the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method for a singularly perturbed model problem in one-dimensional setting are studied.By applying the DG method with appropriately chosen numerical traces, the existence and uniqueness of the DG solution, the optimal order L2 error bounds, and 2p+1-order superconvergence of the numerical traces are established. The numerical results indicate that the DG method does not produce any oscillation even under the uniform mesh. Numerical experiments demonstrate that, under the uniform mesh, it seems impossible to obtain the uniform superconvergence of the numerical traces. Nevertheless, thanks to the implementation of the so-called Shishkin-type mesh, the uniform 2p + 1-order superconvergence is observed numerically.

  15. Direct current hopping conductance in one-dimensional diagonal disordered systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Song-Shan; Xu Hui; Liu Xiao-Liang; Xiao Jian-Rong

    2006-01-01

    Based on a tight-binding disordered model describing a single electron band, we establish a direct current (dc) electronic hopping transport conductance model of one-dimensional diagonal disordered systems, and also derive a dc conductance formula. By calculating the dc conductivity, the relationships between electric field and conductivity and between temperature and conductivity are analysed, and the role played by the degree of disorder in electronic transport is studied. The results indicate the conductivity of systems decreasing with the increase of the degree of disorder, characteristics of negative differential dependence of resistance on temperature at low temperatures in diagonal disordered systems, and the conductivity of systems decreasing with the increase of electric field, featuring the non-Ohm's law conductivity.

  16. Exponential Tails Near the Band Edges of a One-Dimensional Exciton System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgin, I.; Boukahil, A.; Zettili, N.; Huber, D. L.

    2003-03-01

    We report the results of studies of the tails near the band edges of a one-dimensional Frenkel exciton system in the Coherent Potential Approximation (CPA). A Gaussian distribution of the transition frequencies with rms width σ (0.1 <= σ <= 2.0) is used. We found that the tails obey two different exponential power laws depending on the value of σ. In the weak disorder limit 0.1 <= σ <= 0.5, the tails of the density of states and the absorption line shape behave like expk|E|^3/2/σ^2 and in the strong disorder limit 0.5 <= σ <= 2.0 the tails behave like exp|E|^2/2σ^2\\. Our CPA results are in excellent agreement with our simulation data for the density of states over the entire range 0.1 <= σ <= 2.0, and with previous investigations for weak disorder.

  17. Dynamics of one-dimensional Heisenberg spin glasses in the high-field limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukahil, A.; Huber, D. L.

    1994-08-01

    This paper reports the results of a study of the distribution and localization of the magnon modes in one-dimensional Heisenberg spin glasses with nearest-neighbor interactions. The analysis is limited to high fields and frequencies near the precession frequency. Both symmetric and asymmetric distributions of exchange interactions of the form P(J)~||J||-α (α<1) are treated in detail. The results of approximate calculations based on the coherent-exchange approximation are shown to be in good agreement with numerical data obtained by applying mode-counting techniques to arrays of 107 spins. Particular emphasis is placed on the qualitative differences in the behavior that arise depending on whether the average values of J-1 and J-2 are zero, nonzero, or infinite.

  18. Existence and convergence to a propagating terrace in one-dimensional reaction-diffusion equations

    CERN Document Server

    Ducrot, Arnaud; Matano, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    We consider one-dimensional reaction-diffusion equations for a large class of spatially periodic nonlinearities (including multistable ones) and study the asymptotic behavior of solutions with Heaviside type initial data. Our analysis reveals some new dynamics where the profile of the propagation is not characterized by a single front, but by a layer of several fronts which we call a terrace. Existence and convergence to such a terrace is proven by using an intersection number argument, without much relying on standard linear analysis. Hence, on top of the peculiar phenomenon of propagation that our work highlights, several corollaries will follow on the existence and convergence to pulsating traveling fronts even for highly degenerate nonlinearities that have not been treated before.

  19. Harmonic response of multilayered one-dimensional quasicrystal plates subjected to patch loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waksmanski, Natalie; Pan, Ernian; Yang, Lian-Zhi; Gao, Yang

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic analyses of a multilayered one-dimensional quasicrystal plate subjected to a patch harmonic loading with simply supported lateral boundary conditions are presented. The pseudo-Stroh formulation and propagator matrix method are used to obtain the exact three-dimensional response of the plate. In order to avoid resonance, the frequency of the patch loading is chosen away from the natural frequencies by introducing a small imaginary part. The patch loading is expressed in the form of a double Fourier series expansion. Comprehensive numerical results are shown for a sandwich plate with two different stacking sequences. The results reveal the influence of layering, loading area, phonon-phason coupling coefficient and input frequency. This work is the first step towards understanding quasicrystals under intricate loading conditions such as indentation and impact, and the exact closed-form solution can serve as a reference in convergence studies of other numerical methods and for verification of existing or future plate theories.

  20. The ballistic dimer resonance in the one-dimensional disordered photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalfoun, H.; Bentata, S.; Bouamoud, M.; Henrard, L.; Vandenbem, C.

    2009-12-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic waves in one-dimensional disordered dielectric layer stack is studied theoretically using the transfer matrix formalism. The presence of the dimer unit cells inside a host photonic crystal, as the intentionally short range disorder correlation, provides predicted dimer resonances, leading to the break down of the Anderson localization. However while suitably adjusting the intrinsic defect unit cell parameters (i.e. the defect dielectric constants), the light can be transmitted on larger localization length through a ballistic canal, opening up possibilities for performing better tailored ballistic optical filters. Moreover, by increasing the rate of disorder (i.e. the defects concentration and/or the length of the system) the quality of the transmission around the ballistic resonance can be improved with the smoother corresponding allowed mini bands.

  1. One-dimensional unsteady solute transport along unsteady flow through inhomogeneous medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjay K Yadav; Atul Kumar; Dilip K Jaiswal; Naveen Kumar

    2011-04-01

    The one-dimensional linear advection–diffusion equation is solved analytically by using the Laplace integral transform. The solute transport as well as the flow field is considered to be unsteady, both of independent patterns. The solute dispersion occurs through an inhomogeneous semi-infinite medium. Hence, velocity is considered to be an increasing function of the space variable, linearly interpolated in a finite domain in which solute dispersion behaviour is studied. Dispersion is considered to be proportional to the square of the spatial linear function. Thus, the coefficients of the advection–diffusion equation are functions of both the independent variables, but the expression for each coefficient is considered in degenerate form. These coefficients are reduced into constant coefficients with the help of a new space variable, introduced in our earlier works, and new time variables. The source of the solute is considered to be a stationary uniform point source of pulse type.

  2. Heat conduction in one-dimensional oscillator lattices using Nose-Hoover chain thermostats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Bastida, M; Aguilar, J F [Centro de Investigacion en PolImeros, Marcos Achar Lobaton No. 2, Tepexpan, 55885 Acolman, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2006-09-08

    In this work, we numerically study the dynamical evolution and heat transport properties of a system that consists of two time-reversible thermostats connected either by a one-dimensional Fermi-Pasta-Ulam or a Frenkel-Kontorova oscillator lattice, which are representative models of momentum-conserving and nonconserving systems, respectively. The thermostats were described by a chain of variables, Nose-Hoover chains, which enhances the ergodicity of the thermostats in comparison to the Nose-Hoover method. The time evolution of both lattices is not significantly altered by the dynamics of the thermostats. The temperature profile and heat flux of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model are more sensitive to the dynamics of the extended variables than those corresponding to the Frenkel-Kontorova model. Nevertheless we reproduce the scaling properties of the thermal conductivity with system size obtained by other authors.

  3. Wide Range Temperature Sensors Based on One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal with a Single Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmission characteristics of one-dimensional photonic crystal structure with a defect have been studied. Transfer matrix method has been employed to find the transmission spectra of the proposed structure. We consider a Si/air multilayer system and refractive index of Si layer has been taken as temperature dependent. As the refractive index of Si layer is a function of temperature of medium, so the central wavelength of the defect mode is a function of temperature. Variation in temperature causes the shifting of defect modes. It is found that the average change or shift in central wavelength of defect modes is 0.064 nm/K. This property can be exploited in the design of a temperature sensor.

  4. Vectorial coupled-mode solitons in one-dimensional photonic crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱善华; 黄国翔; 崔维娜

    2002-01-01

    We study the dynamics of vectorial coupled-mode solitons in one-dimensional photonic crystals with quadraticand cubic nonlinearities. Starting from Maxwell's equations, the vectorial coupled-mode equations for the envelopesof two fundamental-frequency optical mode and one low-frequency mode components due to optical rectification arederived by means of the method of multiple scales. A set of coupled soliton solutions of the vectorial coupled-modeequations is provided. The results show that a modulation of the fundamental-frequency optical modes occurs due tothe optical rectification field resulting from the quadratic nonlinearity. The optical rectification field disappears whenthe frequency of the fundamental-frequency optical fields approaches the edge of the photonic bands.

  5. Impurity effects on the band structure of one-dimensional photonic crystals: Experiment and theory

    CERN Document Server

    Luna-Acosta, G A; Kuhl, U; Stoeckmann, H -J

    2007-01-01

    We study the effects of single impurities on the transmission in microwave realizations of the photonic Kronig-Penney model, consisting of arrays of Teflon pieces alternating with air spacings in a microwave guide. As only the first propagating mode is considered, the system is essentially one dimensional obeying the Helmholtz equation. We derive analytical closed form expressions from which the band structure, frequency of defect modes, and band profiles can be determined. These agree very well with experimental data for all types of single defects considered (e. g. interstitial, substitutional) and shows that our experimental set-up serves to explore some of the phenomena occurring in more sophisticated experiments. Conversely, based on the understanding provided by our formulas, information about the unknown impurity can be determined by simply observing certain features in the experimental data for the transmission. Further, our results are directly applicable to the closely related quantum 1D Kronig-Penn...

  6. ONE-DIMENSIONAL CONSOLIDATION OF LAYERED AND VISCO-ELASTIC SOILS UNDER ARBITRARY LOADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡袁强; 徐长节; 袁海明

    2001-01-01

    Based on the layered visco-elastic soil model, according to the Terzaghi' s one dimensional consolidation theory, by the method of Laplace transform and matrix transfer technique, the problems about the consolidation of layered and saturated visco-elastic soils under arbitrary loading were solved. Through deductions, the general solution, in the terms of layer thickness, the modulus and the coefficients of permeability and Laplacian transform' s parameters was obtained. The strain and deformation of the layered and satu rated visco-elastic soils under arbitrary loading can be calculated by Laplace inversion. Ac cording to the results of several numerical examples, the consolidation of visco-elastic soils lags behind that of elastic soils. The development of effective stress and the displacement is vibrant process under cyclic loading. Finally, an engineering case is studied and the results prove that the methods are very effective.

  7. One_dimensional chains of gold clusters on the surface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated the growth of gold nanoclusters on thesurface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite in ultrahigh vacuum. Studies of ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy revealed that the size distribution of gold clusters was very narrow and quasi-one-dimensional chains of gold nanoclusters of approximately 2 nm diameter were produced after being annealed at 74℃. Unlike the results obtained by previous workers, these chains of gold clusters were not formed along steps on the substrate surface, and some of them could even go across monoatomic steps. The orientation of chains of gold clusters was also dependent on the size of gold nanoclusters. These results suggest the viability of a new route to the creation of ordered nanoscale structures.

  8. Contrasting vortex-gyration dispersions for different lattice bases in one-dimensional magnetic vortex arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong-Soo; Jeong, Han-Byeol; Kim, Sang-Koog

    2013-09-01

    We performed micromagnetic numerical and analytical calculations in studying the effects of change in the primitive unit cells of one-dimensional (1D) vortex arrays on collective vortex-gyration dispersion. As the primitive basis, we consider alternating constituent materials (NiMnSb vs. Permalloy) and alternating dimensions including constituent disk diameter and thickness. In the simplest case, that of one vortex-state disk of given dimensions and single material in the primitive cell, only a single branch of collective vortex-gyration dispersion appears. By contrast, two constituent disks' different alternating materials, thicknesses, and diameters yield characteristic two-branch dispersions, the band widths and gaps of which differ in each case. This work offers not only an efficient means of manipulating collective vortex-gyration band structures but also a foundation for the development of a rich variety of 1D or 2D magnonic crystals and their band structures based on dipolar-coupled-vortex arrays.

  9. Surface defect gap solitons in one-dimensional dual-frequency lattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Wei-Ling; Luo Li; He Ying-Ji; Wang He-Zhou

    2009-01-01

    We study the surface defect gap solitons in an interface between a defect of one-dimensional dual-frequency lattices and the uniform media. Some unique properties are revealed that such lattices can broaden the region of semi-finite gap, and the semi-finite gap exists not only in the positive and zero defects but also in the negative defect; unlike in the regular lattices, the semi-finite gap exists in the positive and zero defects but does not exist in the negative defect. In particular, stable solitons exist almost in the whole semi-finite gap for the positive and zero defects. These properties are different from other lattices with defects. In addition. it is found that the existence of surface dual-frequency lattice solitons does not need a threshold Power.

  10. An inverse problem for a one-dimensional time-fractional diffusion problem

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Bangti

    2012-06-26

    We study an inverse problem of recovering a spatially varying potential term in a one-dimensional time-fractional diffusion equation from the flux measurements taken at a single fixed time corresponding to a given set of input sources. The unique identifiability of the potential is shown for two cases, i.e. the flux at one end and the net flux, provided that the set of input sources forms a complete basis in L 2(0, 1). An algorithm of the quasi-Newton type is proposed for the efficient and accurate reconstruction of the coefficient from finite data, and the injectivity of the Jacobian is discussed. Numerical results for both exact and noisy data are presented. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  11. One dimensional simulation on stability of detached plasma in a tokamak divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, Shinji; Nakajima, Noriyoshi; Okamoto, Masao; Ohyabu, Nobuyoshi [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    The stability of radiation front in the Scrape-Off-Layer (SOL) of a tokamak is studied with a one dimensional fluid code; the time-dependent transport equations are solved in the direction parallel to a magnetic field line. The simulation results show that stable detached solutions exist, where the plasma temperature near the divertor target is {approx}2 eV. It is found that whenever such stable detached states are attained, the strong radiation front is contact with or at a small distance from the divertor target. When the energy externally injected into the SOL is decreased below a critical value, the radiation front starts to move towards the X-point, cooling the SOL plasma. In such cases, no stationary solutions such that the radiation front rests in the divertor channel are observed in our parameter space. This qualitatively corresponds to the results of tokamak divertor experiments which show the movement of radiation front. (author)

  12. Theory of Pulsed Four-Wave-Mixing in One-dimensional Silicon Photonic Crystal Slab Waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Lavdas, Spyros

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive theoretical analysis and computational study of four-wave mixing (FWM) of optical pulses co-propagating in one-dimensional silicon photonic crystal waveguides (Si-PhCWGs). Our theoretical analysis describes a very general set-up of the interacting optical pulses, namely we consider nondegenerate FWM in a configuration in which at each frequency there exists a superposition of guiding modes. We incorporate in our theoretical model all relevant linear optical effects, including waveguide loss, free-carrier (FC) dispersion and FC absorption, nonlinear optical effects such as self- and cross-phase modulation (SPM, XPM), two-photon absorption (TPA), and cross-absorption modulation (XAM), as well as the coupled dynamics of FCs and optical field. In particular, our theoretical analysis based on the coupled-mode theory provides rigorously derived formulae for linear dispersion coefficients of the guiding modes, linear coupling coefficients between these modes, as well as the nonlinear waveg...

  13. Variability and self-average of impurity-limited resistance in quasi-one dimensional nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Nobuyuki

    2017-02-01

    The impurity-limited resistance in quasi-one dimensional (quasi-1D) nanowires is studied under the framework of the Lippmann-Schwinger scattering theory. The resistance of cylindrical nanowires is calculated theoretically under various spatial configurations of localized impurities with a simplified short-range scattering potential. Then, the relationship between the phase interference and the variability in the impurity-limited resistances is clarified. We show that there are two different and independent mechanisms leading to the variability in impurity-limited resistances; incoherent and phase-coherent randomization processes. The latter is closely related to the so-called "self-average" and its physical origin under nanowire structures is clarified. We point out that the ensemble average also comes into play in the cases of long channel nanowires, which leads to the self-average resistance of multiple impurities.

  14. One-Dimensional Modeling of an Entrained Coal Gasification Process Using Kinetic Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moonkyeong Hwang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional reactor model was developed to simulate the performance of an entrained flow gasifier under various operating conditions. The model combined the plug flow reactor (PFR model with the well-stirred reactor (WSR model. Reaction kinetics was considered together with gas diffusion for the solid-phase reactions in the PFR model, while equilibrium was considered for the gas-phase reactions in the WSR model. The differential and algebraic equations of mass balance and energy balance were solved by a robust ODE solver, i.e., an semi-implicit Runge–Kutta method, and by a nonlinear algebraic solver, respectively. The computed gasifier performance was validated against experimental data from the literature. The difference in product gas concentration from the equilibrium model, and the underlying mechanisms were discussed further. The optimal condition was found after parameter studies were made for various operating conditions.

  15. One-dimensional nanostructure field-effect sensors for gas detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Cai, Bin; Tang, Qingxin; Tong, Yanhong; Liu, Yichun

    2014-07-31

    Recently; one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure field-effect transistors (FETs) have attracted much attention because of their potential application in gas sensing. Micro/nanoscaled field-effect sensors combine the advantages of 1D nanostructures and the characteristic of field modulation. 1D nanostructures provide a large surface area-volume ratio; which is an outstanding advantage for gas sensors with high sensitivity and fast response. In addition; the nature of the single crystals is favorable for the studies of the response mechanism. On the other hand; one main merit of the field-effect sensors is to provide an extra gate electrode to realize the current modulation; so that the sensitivity can be dramatically enhanced by changing the conductivity when operating the sensors in the subthreshold regime. This article reviews the recent developments in the field of 1D nanostructure FET for gas detection. The sensor configuration; the performance as well as their sensing mechanism are evaluated.

  16. A one-dimensional material transfer model for HECTR version 1. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, A.S.; Wong, C.C.

    1991-08-01

    HECTR (Hydrogen Event Containment Transient Response) is a lumped-parameter computer code developed for calculating the pressure-temperature response to combustion in a nuclear power plant containment building. The code uses a control-volume approach and subscale models to simulate the mass, momentum, and energy transfer occurring in the containment during a loss-of-collant-accident (LOCA). This document describes one-dimensional subscale models for mass and momentum transfer, and the modifications to the code required to implement them. Two problems were analyzed: the first corresponding to a standard problem studied with previous HECTR versions, the second to experiments. The performance of the revised code relative to previous HECTR version is discussed as is the ability of the code to model the experiments. 8 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. An Analytical Solution for One-Dimensional Water Infiltration and Redistribution in Unsaturated Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Quan-Jiu; R. HORTON; FAN Jun

    2009-01-01

    Soil infiltration and redistribution are important processes in field water cycle, and it is necessary to develop a simple model to describe the processes. In this study, an algebraic solution for one-dimensional water infiltration and redistribution without evaporation in unsaturated soil was developed based on Richards equation. The algebraic solution had three parameters, namely, the saturated water conductivity, the comprehensive shape coefficient of the soil water content distribution, and the soil suction allocation coefficient. To analyze the physical features of these parameters, a relationship between the Green-Ampt model and the algebraic solution was established. The three parameters were estimated based on experimental observations, whereas the soil water content and the water infiltration duration were calculated using the algebraic solution. The calculated soil water content and infiltration duration were compared with the experimental observations, and the results indicated that the algebraic solution accurately described the unsaturated soil water flow processes.

  18. One-dimensional longitudinal-torsional vibration converter with multiple diagonally slitted parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujino; Ueoka; Otoda; Fujimi

    2000-03-01

    For increasing the available vibration velocity of the one-dimensional longitudinal-torsional vibration converter, a new type of complex vibration converter with multiple slitted parts installed in the positions avoiding longitudinal nodal positions along the converter for decreasing the maximum vibration stress level at the vibration nodal part was studied. The free end of the converter vibrates in an elliptical or circular locus. Complex vibration systems with elliptical to circular or rectangular to square loci can be applied effectively for various high-power applications, including ultrasonic welding of metal or plastics, ultrasonic wire bonding of IC, LSI and electronic devices, and also ultrasonic motors. The converter with multiple slitted parts was improved in the vibration stress level and the quality factor compared with the converter with single slitted part.

  19. One-dimensional Incremental Constitutive Relation of SMA Wire Reinforced Smart Composites with Damages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zili HU; Wanlin ZHOU

    2008-01-01

    A new Martensitic transformation kinetic model for shape memory alloy (SMA) is proposed based on the phenomenological description of the Martensitic transformation heat flow-temperature curve and on the linear relationship between the partial derivatives of Martensite fraction and of Gbbis free energy with respect to the temperature. A meso-mechanical model is developed to describe the longitudinal stiffness reduction and thermo-dilatation variation of the composites caused by fiber breaking or fiber peeling off the base material.One-dimensional incremental constitutive relation is then established for SMA wire reinforced smart composites with damages by introducing three parameters to respectively describe the extent of fiber breaking, fiber peeling off the base material and interface weakening. The results presented herein may provide a theoretical basis for further studying on SMA smart composites with damages.

  20. Non-Bragg-gap solitons in one-dimensional Kerr-metamaterial Fibonacci heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Gómez, E; Cavalcanti, S B; Oliveira, L E

    2015-06-01

    A detailed study of non-Bragg-gap solitons in one-dimensional Kerr-metamaterial quasiperiodic Fibonacci heterostructures is performed. The transmission coefficient is numerically obtained by combining the transfer-matrix formalism in the metamaterial layers with a numerical solution of the nonlinear differential equation in the Kerr slabs, and by considering the loss effects in the metamaterial slabs. A switching from states of no transparency in the linear regime to high-transparency states in the nonlinear regime is observed for both zero-order and plasmon-polariton gaps. The spatial localization of the non-Bragg-gap solitons is also examined, and the symmetry properties of the soliton waves are briefly discussed.