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Sample records for oncomelania hupensis intermediate

  1. Distinct genetic diversity of Oncomelania hupensis, intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum in mainland China as revealed by ITS sequences.

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    Qin Ping Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oncomelania hupensis is the unique intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, which causes schistosomiasis endemic in the Far East, and especially in mainland China. O. hupensis largely determines the parasite's geographical range. How O. hupensis's genetic diversity is distributed geographically in mainland China has never been well examined with DNA sequence data. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we investigate the genetic variation among O. hupensis from different geographical origins using the combined complete internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 and ITS2 regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA. 165 O. hupensis isolates were obtained in 29 localities from 7 provinces across mainland China: lake/marshland and hill regions in Anhui, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi and Jiangsu provinces, located along the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, and mountainous regions in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces. Phylogenetic and haplotype network analyses showed distinct genetic diversity and no shared haplotypes between populations from lake/marshland regions of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and populations from mountainous regions of Sichuan and Yunnan provinces. The genetic distance between these two groups is up to 0.81 based on Fst, and branch time was estimated as 2-6 Ma. As revealed in the phylogenetic tree, snails from Sichuan and Yunnan provinces were also clustered separately. Geographical separation appears to be an important factor accounting for the diversification of the two groups of O. hupensis in mainland China, and probably for the separate clades between snails from Sichuan and Yunnan provinces. In lake/marshland and hill regions along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, three clades were identified in the phylogenetic tree, but without any obvious clustering of snails from different provinces. CONCLUSIONS: O. hupensis in mainland China may have considerable genetic diversity, and a more

  2. [Advances in researches of molluscicidal microorganisms against Oncomelania hupensis].

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    Cheng, Wan-ting; Zhou, Yi-biao; Pan, Xiang; Song, Xiu-xia; Jiang, Qing-wu

    2016-02-01

    The elimination of Oncomelania hupensis snails is important to schistosomiasis control. Recently, the application of molluscicidal organisms is considered as a safe and efficient method for snail elimination. In order to provide scientific evidences for effective control of O. hupensis and schistosomiasis, this paper summarizes the researches of molluscicidal microorganisms against O. hupensis.

  3. Stirred, not shaken: genetic structure of the intermediate snail host Oncomelania hupensis robertsoni in an historically endemic schistosomiasis area

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    Hauswald Anne-Kathrin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oncomelania hupensis robertsoni is the sole intermediate host for Schistosoma japonicum in western China. Given the close co-evolutionary relationships between snail host and parasite, there is interest in understanding the distribution of distinct snail phylogroups as well as regional population structures. Therefore, this study focuses on these aspects in a re-emergent schistosomiasis area known to harbour representatives of two phylogroups - the Deyang-Mianyang area in Sichuan Province, China. Based on a combination of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, the following questions were addressed: 1 the phylogeography of the two O. h. robertsoni phylogroups, 2 regional and local population structure in space and time, and 3 patterns of local dispersal under different isolation-by-distance scenarios. Results The phylogenetic analyses confirmed the existence of two distinct phylogroups within O. h. robertsoni. In the study area, phylogroups appear to be separated by a mountain range. Local specimens belonging to the respective phylogroups form monophyletic clades, indicating a high degree of lineage endemicity. Molecular clock estimations reveal that local lineages are at least 0.69-1.58 million years (My old and phylogeographical analyses demonstrate that local, watershed and regional effects contribute to population structure. For example, Analyses of Molecular Variances (AMOVAs show that medium-scale watersheds are well reflected in population structures and Mantel tests indicate isolation-by-distance effects along waterways. Conclusions The analyses revealed a deep, complex and hierarchical structure in O. h. robertsoni, likely reflecting a long and diverse evolutionary history. The findings have implications for understanding disease transmission. From a co-evolutionary standpoint, the divergence of the two phylogroups raises species level questions in O. h. robertsoni and also argues for future studies relative to the

  4. Assessment of the molluscicidal activities of Tribromosalan, Cartap and Chlorothalonil against Oncomelania hupensis.

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    Xia, Q; Tan, P; Feng, X; Chen, M; Kajihara, N; Minai, M; Hosaka, Y

    1992-04-01

    Molluscicidal activities of Tribromosalan, Cartap and Chlorothalonil were evaluated in the laboratory and the field against Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum in China. The three chemicals were very effective against O. hupensis in the laboratory. The molluscicidal activities found in the field trials suggest that Tribromosalan and Cartap may be used as practical molluscicides. Dosage of 10 g/m2 of Tribromosalan in spring only and 20 g/m2 of Cartap in both spring and autumn would be recommendable as practical mollusciciding doses for the control of O. hupensis.

  5. [Extraction and morphological observation of Oncomelania hupensis haemocytes].

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    Xu, Yong; Huang, Chun-Lan; Zhou, Shu-Lin; Liu, Hui

    2013-06-01

    Haemocytes were collected from Oncomelania hupensis snails by using tissue disruption and filtration method, stained by Giemsa and methylene blue, respectively, and observed under microscope. Number of haemocytes from one snail was counted. Out of 54 haemocytes, 3 types of cells were found: big round cells with particles, small round cells with oval nuclei and spindle cells with oblong nuclei. The diameter of big round cells with particles and small round cells with oval nuclei was (21.59-31.97) and (13.24-20.77) microm, respectively. Spindle cells with oblong nuclei was about (17.60-25.47) microm x (27.19-30.25) microm. The nucleocytoplasmic ratio of the above three type cells was 0.38, 0.44 and 0.38, and occupied 35.95% (19/54), 12.42% (28/54) and 51.63% (7/54), respectively. About 194 600 haemocytes were filtered from one single snail. It means that this filtration method is an effective one to extract haemocytes from O. hupensis.

  6. [An observation on the histological structure of Oncomelania hupensis soft tissue by agar-paraffin double-embedding method].

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    Tan, Ping; Zhang, Jie; Li, Qing; Yu, Zhi-jun

    2014-12-01

    In order to study the histological structure of Oncomelania hupensis soft tissue, the fixed soft tissues of O. hupensis were pre-embedded in the agar and made blocks, then dehydrated, transparentized, immersed in paraffin, sectioned, and stained with haematoxylin-eosin (HE). Permanent slides of O. hupensis soft tissue were obtained. The histological structure of soft tissues was clear under the microscope.

  7. PERCOBAAN PEMBERANTASAN HOSPES PERANTARA SCHISTOSOMIASIS (ONCOMELANIA HUPENSIS LINDOENSIS DENGAN BAYLUSCIDE DAN KOMBINASI PENGERINGAN DENGAN BAYLUSCIDE DI DATARAN LINDU, SULAWESI TENGAH

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    Barodji Barodji

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Two trials were conducted in the Anca and Paku areas of the Lindu valley, Central Sulawesi against the schistosomiasis intermediate host Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis. The trials were conducted in sequence. Application of bayluscide monthly at 10-40 ppm for one year suppressed 50% of the snail population density in Anca and 23% in Paku. Application of bayluscide monthly at 10-40 ppm com­bined with installing drainage canals following the above mentioned trials reduced the snail population density in Anca 61% and 94% in Paku.

  8. Remote sensing for predicting potential habitats of Oncomelania hupensis in Hongze, Baima and Gaoyou lakes in Jiangsu province, China.

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    Yang, Guo-Jing; Vounatsou, Penelope; Tanner, Marcel; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Utzinger, Jürg

    2006-11-01

    Political and health sector reforms, along with demographic, environmental and socio-economic transformations in the face of global warming, could cause the re-emergence of schistosomiasis in areas where transmission has been successfully interrupted and its emergence in previously non-endemic areas in China. In the present study, we used geographic information systems and remote sensing techniques to predict potential habitats of Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum. Focussing on the Hongze, Baima and Gaoyou lakes in Jiangsu province in eastern China, we developed a model using the normalized difference vegetation index, a tasseled-cap transformed wetness index, and flooding areas to predict snail habitats at a small scale. Data were extracted from two Landsat images, one taken during a typical dry year and the other obtained three years later during a flooding event. An area of approximately 163.6 km2 was predicted as potential O. hupensis habitats around the three lakes, which accounts for 4.3% of the estimated snail habitats in China. In turn, these predicted snail habitats are risk areas for transmission of schistosomiasis, and hence illustrate the scale of the possible impact of climate change and other ecological transformations. The generated risk map can be used by health policy makers to guide mitigation policies targetting the possible spread of O. hupensis, and with the aim of containing the transmission of S. japonicum.

  9. Remote sensing for predicting potential habitats of Oncomelania hupensis in Hongze, Baima and Gaoyou lakes in Jiangsu province, China

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    Guo-Jing Yang

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Political and health sector reforms, along with demographic, environmental and socio-economic transformations in the face of global warming, could cause the re-emergence of schistosomiasis in areas where transmission has been successfully interrupted and its emergence in previously non-endemic areas in China. In the present study, we used geographic information systems and remote sensing techniques to predict potential habitats of Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum. Focussing on the Hongze, Baima and Gaoyou lakes in Jiangsu province in eastern China, we developed a model using the normalized difference vegetation index, a tasseled-cap transformed wetness index, and flooding areas to predict snail habitats at a small scale. Data were extracted from two Landsat images, one taken during a typical dry year and the other obtained three years later during a flooding event. An area of approximately 163.6 km2 was predicted as potential O. hupensis habitats around the three lakes, which accounts for 4.3% of the estimated snail habitats in China. In turn, these predicted snail habitats are risk areas for transmission of schistosomiasis, and hence illustrate the scale of the possible impact of climate change and other ecological transformations. The generated risk map can be used by health policy makers to guide mitigation policies targetting the possible spread of O. hupensis, and with the aim of containing the transmission of S. japonicum.

  10. Generalized negative binomial distribution: a promising statistical distribution for Oncomelania hupensis in the lake- and marsh-land regions of China.

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    Zhang, Z J; Ong, S H; Lynn, H S; Peng, W X; Zhou, Y B; Zhao, G M; Jiang, Q W

    2008-09-01

    A new generalization of the negative binomial distribution (GNBD) is introduced and fitted to counts of Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, made, in areas of Chinese lakeland and marshland, early in the winter of 2005 and late in the spring of 2006. The GNBD was found to fit the snail data better than the standard negative binomial distribution (NBD) that has previously been widely used to model the distribution of O. hupensis. With two more parameters than the NBD, the GNBD can integrate many discrete distributions and is more flexible than the NBD in modelling O. hupensis. It also provides a better theoretical distribution for the quantitative study of O. hupensis, especially in building an accurate prediction model of snail density. The justification for adopting the GNBD is discussed. The GNBD allows researchers to broaden the field in the quantitative study not only of O. hupensis and schistosomiasis japonica but also of other environment-related helminthiases and family-clustered diseases that have, traditionally, been modelled using the NBD.

  11. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of mechanical and manual soil-buried methods for Oncomelania hupensis control].

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    Jiang, Neng-ming; Ye, Xiao-dong; Huang, Li-lan; Wang, Song-bo; Zheng, Shou-gui

    2014-06-01

    To explore a high molluscicidal efficient method in special Oncomelania hupensis snail environments. In 2005 and 2006, in large special environments (rubble creek beaches and seepage barren hills with snails), the mechanical soil-buried method (excavator digging to bury deep snails) and manual soil-buried method were used respectively, and the results were compared for the cost-effectiveness. With the mechanical soil-buried method in 2006, the investment was 0.78 yuan/m2, and the compression rate of snail areas was 100%; with the manual soil-buried method in 2005, the investment was 1.34 yuan/m2, and the compression rate of snail areas was 20.26%. The former was much better than the latter. In the large special environments with snails, the mechanical soil-buried method is superior to manual soil-buried method.

  12. Phylogenetic performance of mitochondrial protein-coding genes of Oncomelania hupensis in resolving relationships between landscape populations

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    Shi-Zhu LI; Li ZHANG; Lin MA; Wei HU; Shan LV; Qin LIU; Ying-Jun QIAN

    2013-01-01

    Oncomelania hupensis is the unique intermediate host of Schistosomajaponicum,which plays a key role in the transmission of human blood fluke Schistosoma.The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of O.hupensis has been characterized; however,the phylogenetic performance of mt protein-coding genes (PCGs) of the snail remain unclear.In this study,11 whole mt genomes of snails collected from four different ecological settings in China and the Philippines were sequenced.The mt genome sizes ranged from 15 183 to 15 216 bp,with the G + C contents from 32.4% to 33.4%.A total of 15 251 characters were generated from the multiple sequence alignment.Of 2711 (17.8%)polymorphic sites,56.22% (1524) were parsimony sites.The mt genomes' phylogenetic trees were reconstructed using minimum evolution,neighbor joining,maximum likelihood,maximum parsimony,and Bayesian tree estimate methods,and two main distinct clades were identified:(i) the isolate from mountainous regions; (ii) the remaining isolate which included three inner branches.All phylogenetic trees of the 13 PCGs were generated by running 1000 bootstrap replicates and compared with the complete mtDNA tree,the classification accuracy ranging from 21.23% to 87.87%,the topological distance of phylogenetic trees between PCGs ranging from 5 to 14.Therefore,the performance of PCGs can be divided into good condition (COⅠ,ND2,ND5,and ND3),medium (COⅡ,ATP6,ND1,ND6,Cytb,ND4,and COⅢ),poor (ATP8 and ND4L).This study represents the first analysis ofmt genome diversity of the O.hupensis snail and phylogenetic performance of mt PCGs.It presents clear evidence that the snail populations can be separated into four landscape genetic populations in mainland China based on whole mt genomes.The identification of the phylogenetic performance of PCGs provides new insight into the intensive genetic diversity study using mtDNA markers for the snail.

  13. De Novo transcriptome analysis of Oncomelania hupensis after molluscicide treatment by next-generation sequencing: implications for biology and future snail interventions.

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    Qin Ping Zhao

    Full Text Available The freshwater snail Oncomelania hupensis is the only intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, which causes schistosomiasis. This disease is endemic in the Far East, especially in mainland China. Because niclosamide is the only molluscicide recommended by the World Health Organization, 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN, the only chemical molluscicide available in China, has been widely used as the main snail control method for over two decades. Recently, a novel molluscicide derived from niclosamide, the salt of quinoid-2',5-dichloro-4'-nitro-salicylanilide (Liu Dai Shui Yang An, LDS, has been developed and proven to have the same molluscicidal effect as WPN, with lower cost and significantly lower toxicity to fish than WPN. The mechanism by which these molluscicides cause snail death is not known. Here, we report the next-generation transcriptome sequencing of O. hupensis; 145,008,667 clean reads were generated and assembled into 254,286 unigenes. Using GO and KEGG databases, 14,860 unigenes were assigned GO annotations and 4,686 unigenes were mapped to 250 KEGG pathways. Many sequences involved in key processes associated with biological regulation and innate immunity have been identified. After the snails were exposed to LDS and WPN, 254 unigenes showed significant differential expression. These genes were shown to be involved in cell structure defects and the inhibition of neurohumoral transmission and energy metabolism, which may cause snail death. Gene expression patterns differed after exposure to LDS and WPN, and these differences must be elucidated by the identification and annotation of these unknown unigenes. We believe that this first large-scale transcriptome dataset for O. hupensis will provide an opportunity for the in-depth analysis of this biomedically important freshwater snail at the molecular level and accelerate studies of the O. hupensis genome. The data elucidating the molluscicidal mechanism

  14. Linalool, derived from Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl leaf extracts, possesses molluscicidal activity against Oncomelania hupensis and inhibits infection of Schistosoma japonicum.

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    Yang, Fan; Long, Erping; Wen, Juhua; Cao, Lei; Zhu, Chengcheng; Hu, Huanxin; Ruan, Ying; Okanurak, Kamolnetr; Hu, Huiling; Wei, Xiaoxia; Yang, Xiangyun; Wang, Chaofan; Zhang, Limei; Wang, Xiaoying; Ji, Pengyu; Zheng, Huanqin; Wu, Zhongdao; Lv, Zhiyue

    2014-08-29

    Schistosomiasis japonicum remains a considerable economic and public health concern in China, the Philippines and Indonesia. Currently available measures to control the unique intermediate host Oncomelania hupensis are frequently associated with severe side effects. Previous studies have demonstrated that linalool-rich extracts from various plants exhibited promising biological activities including cytotoxic, anti-microbial and anti-parasitic properties. We identified the components of leaf extracts from Cinnamomum camphora by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and investigated molluscicidal and larvicidal effects of linalool against O. hupensis and Schistosoma japonicium. The ultrastructural alterations in gills, salivary gland, stomach and hepatopancreas of snails were observed under the light microscope and transmission electron microscope, and lesions to tegument of cercaria were examined under a light microscope and fluorescence microscope. We then evaluated the effects of linalool on skin penetration and migration of schistosomula and adult survival by measurement of worm burden and egg counts in Balb/C mice infected with linalool-treated cercariae. In the present work, 44 components were identified from the leaf extracts of C. camphora, of which linalool was the most abundant constituent. Linalool exhibited the striking molluscicidal and larvicidal effects with LC50 = 0.25 mg/L for O. hupensis and LC50 = 0.07 mg/L for cercaria of S. japonicium. After exposure to linalool, damage to the gills and hepatopancreas of the snails, and to the tegument and body-tail joint of cercariae was apparent. In addition, linalool markedly reduced the recovered schistosomulum from mouse skin after challenge infection, and therefore decreased the worm burden in infected animals, but not fecundity of female adults of the parasite. Our findings indicated that linalool might be a novel chemotherapeutic agent against S. japonicium and the snail

  15. A new surveillance and response tool: risk map of infected Oncomelania hupensis detected by Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) from pooled samples.

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    Tong, Qun-Bo; Chen, Rui; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Guo-Jing; Kumagai, Takashi; Furushima-Shimogawara, Rieko; Lou, Di; Yang, Kun; Wen, Li-Yong; Lu, Shao-Hong; Ohta, Nobuo; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-01-01

    Although schistosomiasis remains a serious health problem worldwide, significant achievements in schistosomiasis control has been made in the People's Republic of China. The disease has been eliminated in five out of 12 endemic provinces, and the prevalence in remaining endemic areas is very low and is heading toward elimination. A rapid and sensitive method for monitoring the distribution of infected Oncomelania hupensis is urgently required. We applied a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting 28S rDNA for the rapid and effective detection of Schistosoma japonicum DNA in infected and prepatent infected O. hupensis snails. The detection limit of the LAMP method was 100 fg of S. japonicum genomic DNA. To promote the application of the approach in the field, the LAMP assay was used to detect infection in pooled samples of field-collected snails. In the pooled sample detection, snails were collected from 28 endemic areas, and 50 snails from each area were pooled based on the maximum pool size estimation, crushed together and DNA was extracted from each pooled sample as template for the LAMP assay. Based on the formula for detection from pooled samples, the proportion of positive pooled samples and the positive proportion of O. hupensis detected by LAMP of Xima village reached 66.67% and 1.33%, while those of Heini, Hongjia, Yangjiang and Huangshan villages were 33.33% and 0.67%, and those of Tuanzhou and Suliao villages were 16.67% and 0.33%, respectively. The remaining 21 monitoring field sites gave negative results. A risk map for the transmission of schistosomiasis was constructed using ArcMap, based on the positive proportion of O. hupensis infected with S. japonicum, as detected by the LAMP assay, which will form a guide for surveillance and response strategies in high risk areas.

  16. Three Gorges Dam: Impact of Water Level Changes on the Density of Schistosome-Transmitting Snail Oncomelania hupensis in Dongting Lake Area, China.

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    Wu, Jin-Yi; Zhou, Yi-Biao; Chen, Yue; Liang, Song; Li, Lin-Han; Zheng, Sheng-Bang; Zhu, Shao-ping; Ren, Guang-Hui; Song, Xiu-Xia; Jiang, Qing-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis remains an important public health issue in China and worldwide. Oncomelania hupensis is the unique intermediate host of schistosoma japonicum, and its change influences the distribution of S. japonica. The Three Gorges Dam (TGD) has substantially changed the ecology and environment in the Dongting Lake region. This study investigated the impact of water level and elevation on the survival and habitat of the snails. Data were collected for 16 bottomlands around 4 hydrological stations, which included water, density of living snails (form the Anxiang Station for Schistosomiasis Control) and elevation (from Google Earth). Based on the elevation, sixteen bottomlands were divided into 3 groups. ARIMA models were built to predict the density of living snails in different elevation areas. Before closure of TGD, 7 out of 9 years had a water level beyond the warning level at least once at Anxiang hydrological station, compared with only 3 out of 10 years after closure of TGD. There were two severe droughts that happened in 2006 and 2011, with much fewer number of flooding per year compared with other study years. Overall, there was a correlation between water level changing and density of living snails variation in all the elevations areas. The density of living snails in all elevations areas was decreasing after the TGD was built. The relationship between number of flooding per year and the density of living snails was more pronounced in the medium and high elevation areas; the density of living snails kept decreasing from 2003 to 2014. In low elevation area however, the density of living snails decreased after 2003 first and turned to increase after 2011. Our ARIMA prediction models indicated that the snails would not disappear in the Dongting Lake region in the next 7 years. In the low elevation area, the density of living snails would increase slightly, and then stabilize after the year 2017. In the medium elevation region, the change of the density of

  17. 湖北钉螺分类和鉴定技术的研究进展%PROGRESS IN THE RESEARCH ON TAXONOMY AND DISCRIMINATION TECHNIQUES OF ONCOMELANIA HUPENSIS

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    许静; 郑江; 周晓农

    2002-01-01

    @@ 钉螺属软体动物门(Phylum Mollusca)、腹足纲(Class Gastropoda)、前鳃亚纲(Subclass Prosobranchia)、麂眼螺超科(Superfamily Rissocea)、圆口螺科(Family Pomatiopsidae)、圆口螺亚科(Subclass Pomatiopsinae).根据形态学上的特征,钉螺属又分为两个种:湖北钉螺(Oncomelania hupensis)和微小钉螺(Oncomelania minima)[1].

  18. 氯化镧对湖北钉螺的急性毒性研究%Acute Toxicity of Lanthanum Chloride on the Snail Oncomelania Hupensis

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    张云; 刘国栋; 欧峰; 李川

    2014-01-01

    Rare earth compounds are widely used in industry and agriculture ,which may have an impact on the environment of water. In this paper, using laboratory immersion tests of acute toxicity of lanthanum chloride seven hydrate on noninfectious Oncomelania hupensis, regarding the snail movement to suppress as the EC value, the results showed:EC50=152.14mg/L, LC50=160.92mg/L (72h, 20℃). The noninfectious snails O.hupensis are excellent compounds toxicity test animal.%在工业农业上广泛运用的稀土化合物进入水体中可能对环境产生影响。本文运用室内浸杀法测试七水氯化镧对阴性湖北钉螺的急性毒性,以抑制钉螺运动为EC值,结果显示:EC50=152.14mg/L,LC50=160.92mg/L(72h,20℃)。阴性钉螺是优良的化合物毒性测试动物。

  19. Identifying Determinants of Oncomelania hupensis Habitats and Assessing the Effects of Environmental Control Strategies in the Plain Regions with the Waterway Network of China at the Microscale

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    Juan Qiu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the landscape ecological determinants related to Oncomelania hupensis distribution, map the potential high risk of O. hupensis habitats at the microscale, and assess the effects of two environmental control strategies. Sampling was performed on 242 snail sites and 726 non-snail sites throughout Qianjiang City, Hubei Province, China. An integrated approach of landscape pattern analysis coupled with multiple logistic regression modeling was applied to investigate the effects of environmental factors on snail habitats. The risk probability of snail habitats positively correlated with patch fractal dimension (FD, paddy farm land proportion, and wetness index but inversely correlated with categorized normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and elevation. These findings indicate that FD can identify irregular features (e.g., irrigation ditches in plain regions and that a moderate NDVI increases the microscale risk probability. Basing on the observed determinants, we predicted a map showing high-risk areas of snail habitats and simulated the effects of conduit hardening and paddy farming land rotation to dry farming land. The two approaches were confirmed effective for snail control. These findings provide an empirical basis for health professionals in local schistosomiasis control stations to identify priority areas and promising environmental control strategies for snail control and prevention.

  20. Advances on Genetics and Biological Characteristics of Oncomelania hupensis%钉螺遗传学及其生物学特性的研究进展

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    周晓农; 李石柱; 刘琴; 张仪

    2009-01-01

    This review focused on the research progress in genetic features of Oncomelania hupensis, including its relation to the snail distribution, susceptibility to Schisotsoma japonic um. Series studies were done on genetic characteristics for snail distribution and its infectivity with S. japonicum by using population genetics and molecular biology approaches to explore the new avenue to block the transmission of schistosomiasis. However, limited progress has been achieved in this field inside in China comparing with global achievements. It is therefore recommended that future studies have to be focused on genetic features related to schistosome infections by referencing the study model of Bwmphataria gtabraia I S. mansoni, and with assistance of modem technology on biomics, in order to improve investigations on genetics of Oncomelania hupensis in the country.%钉螺的生物学研究一直受到研究者关注,近年来许多研究者运用种群遗传学、分子生物学等方法对钉螺遗传学特性,及其与钉螺分布和对血吸虫易感性等开展了系列研究,旨在探索阻断血吸虫生活史的新方法.但国内就钉螺遗传学研究特别是与日本血吸虫相容性的遗传特性方面的研究仍较簿弱,今后研究重点应借鉴国际上对曼氏血吸虫中间宿主--光滑双脐螺的大量研究结果与方法,特别是借助基因组学、转录组学和蛋白组学等现代研究方法,开展钉螺遗传特性及其与血吸虫关系的研究,以提升我国钉螺遗传学的研究水平.

  1. Poison effect of plant granules on Oncomelania hupensis%植物颗粒剂对钉螺毒杀效果的研究

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    马安宁; 王万贤; 王慧平; 杨毅; 柯文山; 傅运生

    2001-01-01

    Plant granules (φ2~3mm) made of starch, gelatin and medicine plant powder were used to kill Oncomelania hupensis.The results showed that after eating the plant granules, the mortality of the snail was 92.5%~100% within 24hrs. The poison effect of the plant granules was much better than that of others, e.g., they could kill snails 12~24h earlier than Niclosamidum (1×10-3g·L-1). In a field experiment, the snail mortality was up to 61.5% by using plant granules.%将3种药用植物材料分别粉碎后与淀粉、明胶配合制成直径2~3mm的植物颗粒剂用于灭钉螺试验,结果表明,钉螺取食3种颗粒剂后,24h死亡率分别达到92.5%~100%.其毒杀效果明显优于相同植物的其它灭螺方法,对钉螺的致死时间比氯硝柳胺化学灭螺剂(1×10-3g·L-1)提前12~24h.用3种植物颗粒灭螺剂进行野外灭螺实验,钉螺死亡率最高可达61.5%.

  2. Seasonal changes of glucose levels in Oncomelania hupensis%湖北钉螺软体葡萄糖含量的季节性变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婷; 黄春兰; 杨进孙; 周书林

    2014-01-01

    目的:探索湖北钉螺体内单位体重软体组织葡萄糖含量的季节性变化。方法于2012年2月-2013年1月每月初,采集安徽省芜湖市青弋江滩的湖北钉螺若干,并置于-80℃冰箱冷冻保存。采用常规方法压碎螺壳,鉴别雌雄,分别收集雌雄螺软体组织,己糖激酶法测定葡萄糖含量,并对结果进行统计学分析。结果2-7月,钉螺体内葡萄糖含量总体呈下降趋势。雌螺和雄螺的葡萄糖含量分别在3月和7月降至全年最低值,分别为1.87μg/mg和3.70μg/mg,并均于8月出现回升,9月时葡萄糖含量达到全年最高值,分别为57.38μg/mg和44.39μg/mg,之后又出现持续下降,至翌年1~2月葡萄糖含量再次出现回升。结论湖北钉螺体内葡萄糖含量随着季节变化而出现有规律的变化。%Objective To study the seasonal changes of glucose levels per unit soft tissue of Oncomelania hupensis. Meth-ods O. hupensis snails were collected from the beach of the Qingyi River in Wuhu City,Anhui Province from August 2012 to July 2013. They were kept in minus 80℃refrigerator immediately. The male snails were distinguished from female,and their soft tissues were collected separately after crushing their shells. The hexokinase method was used to measure the glucose concen-trations,and the results were analyzed statistically. Results The contents of glucose decreased from March to July. The lowest glucose content in the female was 1.87μg/mg in March,and that in male was 3.70μg/mg in July. Both of them increased from August and reached peak levels in September(♀=57.38μg/mg,♂=44.39μg/mg),and then gradually decreased from Octo-ber to next January and increased in February. Conclusion The contents of glucose have seasonal changes regularly in O. hu-pensis.

  3. Molluscicidal effect and mechanism of Melia azedarach L.leaves against Oncomelania hupensis%苦楝叶杀螺效果及机制初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晨光; 陈钧; 韩邦兴; 房伟伟; 杨学娟

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究苦楝叶石油醚提取物杀螺活性及对湖北钉螺软体组织糖原和蛋白质的生理生化影响,并进行鱼毒的测定.方法 采用系统分离法分离苦楝叶不同极性部位,按照WHO”杀螺剂实验室终筛法”中的浸杀法筛选苦楝叶杀螺活性部位;采用蒽酮显色法、考马斯亮蓝法分别测定苦楝叶杀螺活性部位对钉螺软体组织糖原和蛋白质含量的影响;用斑马鱼急性毒性试验考察其对非靶生物的毒性.结果 苦楝叶杀螺活性部位集中于石油醚提取物,经72 h处理的LC50为101.6 mg/L,并能显著降低钉螺软体组织糖原的含量,减少量为75.61%,且对斑马鱼毒性很小,72 h的LC50为285.6 mg/L.结论 苦楝叶中可能含有安全有效的植物杀螺成分.%Objective To identify the molluscicidal effect and mechanism of Melia azedarach L. Leaves against Oncomelania hupensis. Methods Different polar parts of M, azedarach L. Leaves were isolated to screen for active compounds. The molluscicidal effects of M. Azedarach L. Leaves at different concentrations were detected using the laboratory screening methods recommended by WHO. The glycogen and protein contents of 0. Hupensis treated with light petroleum extract of M. Azedarach L. Leaves were determined by Anthrone and Coomassie reactions, respectively. Acute toxicity on non-target organisms was determined using Zebrafish as a bioindicator. Results The light petroleum extract of M. Azedarach L. Leaves was the most active component with snail-killing effects. The Lcso values of the light petroleum extract was 101.6 mg/L after 72 h treatment. The snail glycogen content decreased remarkably (by 75.61%) after treatment with the light petroleum extract. The LC? Value of the zebrafish extract was as small as 285.6 mg/L after 72 h treatment. Conclusion M. Azedarach L. Leaves may contain safe and effective molluscicidal ingredients.

  4. THE POPULATION DYNAMICS OF ONCOMELANIA HUPENSIS AFTER SNAILS CONTROL IN MARSHLANDS IN CHANGSHA SECTION OF XIANG RIVER%湘江长沙段洲滩钉螺防治后的种群动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘年猛; 黄琼瑶; 胡自强; 彭飞; 孙慧

    2009-01-01

    Schistosomiasis brings heaps of harmful effects to hosts. It was more widespread in Changjiang drainage basin and Southern China. Oncomelania hupensis, the only intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, plays a vital role in the transmission and prevalence of Schistosomiasis. The urban section of Xiang River was considered to be an area without snails. Due to a variety of factors, snails have been found in many marshlands in Changsha section of Xiang River since snails were found in fujiazhou in 1997. To investigate the distribution and quantitative changes of Oncomelania snails in each marshland of Changsha section of Xiang River, and to evaluate the effectiveness of snail control in recent years, we have made a consecutive investigation of snail distribution in marshlands from 2003 to 2008 by using the systematic and environmental sampling according to the methods mentioned in "Handbook of Schistosomiasis Control". Twenty-four marshlands were investigated continuously from 2003 to 2008. The total number of marshlands with snails were 20 which accounted for 83. 3% of all marshlands investigated, and four marshlands had no snails. The number of marshland with living snails accounted for 62.50, 66.67 , 66.6, 70.83 , 33.33 and 37.50% of the year investigated respectively. Compared with 2008 , the number of marshlands with living snails, the rate of frame with snails, the average density of snails and the rate of living snails decreased 40.00, 99.10, 99.74 and 51.09% respectively in 2003. Processed by SAS 9. 1. 3 Cochran-Armitage Trend Chi-Square Test, the rate of frames with snails(Z= 91.56, P < 0.01) and the rate of living snails( Z = 65.13, P<0.01) were different in each marshland, and the downward trend was significant Among the 20 marshlands with snails, 5 marshlands have infected snails, occupying 25.00% of the whole. The number of marshlands with infected snails has declined year by year, so have the average density of infected snails and the infection rate

  5. Sequencing on products of Oncomelania hupensis through simple sequence repeat anchored polymerase chain reaction amplification%湖北钉螺微卫星锚定PCR产物序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭俊涛; 周艺彪; 韦建国; 赵根明

    2008-01-01

    目的 分析4个种群湖北钉螺中微卫星序列及其两侧序列的特点.方法 以(CA)8RY为引物对湖北钉螺基因组DNA进行微卫星锚定PCR(SSR-PCR)扩增,对全部159个扩增产物进行T克隆并测定其中82个片段的核苷酸序列.结果 SSR-PCR的扩增产物是湖北钉螺基因组DNA上的散在区域,不是微卫星序列,但扩增产物中含有微卫星序列,测序的82个片段中36个克隆片段含有微卫星序列.微卫星序列其侧翼序列有一定的保守性,同一个微卫星的侧翼序列多数情况下是相同的.(GA/CT)n、(TTAGGG/CCCTAA)n两类微卫星在4个钉螺种群中均有发现,(CAA)n仅在福建福清种群中发现,(TCTCTG)n仅在安徽贵池种群中发现,(GAA~TTC)n、(CAA/TTG)n、(CAT)n三种微卫星序列仅在四川普格种群中发现.结论 SSR-PCR扩增的不是微卫星,其结果的分析应当类似于随机扩增多态性DNA.因此SSR-PCR不能十分有效体现微卫星作为分子标记的优势,应当根据微卫星的侧翼序列设计针对微卫星的引物,对微卫星进行PCR扩增并进行分析.%Objective To analyze the sequence of microsatellite and the flanking sequence from four populations of Oncomelania hupensis. Methods We cloned 159 SSR-PCR amplification products of a commonly used primer, (CA)8RY, using O. hupensis genomie DNA as template, and sequenced 82 products Results The sequences obtained were novel O. hupensis genomic sequences but not repeat simple sequence. It was observed that 36 out of 82 clones contained microsatellites between priming sites.The flanking sequences of certain microsatellite were invariant. Both (GA/CT). and (TTAGGG/CCCAA)n were found in four populations of O. hupensis. However, (CAA)n were found only in O. hupensis from Fuqing,Fujian province and (TCTCTG), were found only in O. hupensis from Guichi,Anhui province and (GAA/TTC)n, (CAA/TTG)n, (CAT), were found only in O.hupensis from Puge,Sichuan province. Conclusion The results obtained by

  6. Biology and Control of Snail Intermediate Host of Schistosoma japonicum in The People's Republic of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Z.J.; Ge, J; Dai, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma japonicum is a severe parasitic disease in The People's Republic of China and imposed considerable burden on human and domestic animal health and socioeconomic development. The significant achievement in schistosomiasis control has been made in last 60years. ....... Oncomelania hupensis as the only intermediate host of S. japonicum plays a key role in disease transmission. The habitat complexity of the snails challenges to effective control. In this review we share the experiences in control and research of O. hupensis....

  7. 湖北钉螺凝集素的提取及其活性研究红细胞凝集活性%Extraction of Agglutinin from Oncomelania hupensis and its Haemagglutination Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭怀明; 李朝品; 刘辉; 赵劲松; 周书林

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the extraction methods of agglutinin from Oncomelania hupensis snail and study its haemagglutination activity. Methods Protein obtained by ammonium sulfate fractionation precipitation with 20%-100% saturation of ammonium sulfate. Its haemagglutination activity was determined by rabbit erythrocytes. The precipitation which could agglutinate rahbit erythrocytes was diluted with 2.5 mg/ml D-galactose, D-fructose, D-glucose, saccharose,maltose and lactose, respectively, and then their haemagglutination activity was tested. Snail agglutinin were incubated at different temperatures (25-90℃) and assayed for agglutinating activity. The effect of pH on the haemagglutination activity was determined by using the PBS buffer at different pH values (3.0-10.0). Results Oncomelania snail agglutinin exhibited high haemagglutination activity in 20%-40% saturated ammonium sulfate pellet. Lactose and galactose could inhibit the haemagglutination activity of snail agglutinin. The agglutinin showed maximum activity at pH 7.0. In temperature range of 30-70℃, the haemagglutination activity decreased with increasing temperature, and all activity lost beyond 80℃.Conclusion Galactose/lactose specific agglutinin exists in Oncomelania snail, its haemagglutination activitv is affected by pH and temperature.%目的 探讨湖北钉螺(Oncomelania hupensis)体内凝集素的提取方法 及其凝集活性.方法 用20%~100% 硫酸铵对钉螺蛋白进行梯度分级沉淀,检测不同沉淀对兔红细胞的凝集活性.分别用2.5 mg/ml D-半乳糖、D-果糖、D-葡萄糖、蔗糖、麦芽糖和乳糖等6种糖溶液对有凝集活性的沉淀进行倍比稀释,测定其红细胞凝集活性的变化.并测定不同温度(25~90 ℃)和pH值(3.0~10.0)对钉螺凝集素凝集活性的影响.结果 硫酸铵分级沉淀法提取钉螺凝集素时,20%~40%饱和梯度所得的沉淀具有较高的凝集活性.其凝集活性能被半乳糖

  8. Experimental study on quick determination of viability of Oncomelania hu-pensis by staining%染色法快速鉴别湖北钉螺死活的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶品凯; 唐雪; 吴丹; 王少圣; 周书林

    2014-01-01

    Objective To find out a quick,simple and convenient method of determining the viability of Oncomelania hupen-sis. Methods O. hupensis snails were stained for 30 minutes by 0.05%water soluble dye neutral red,0.5%methylene blue,red ink,methylene blue-eosin-borax(MEB)and 0.4%trypan blue,respectively. The soft tissue samples of the snails were observed by a stereoscopic microscope after crushing their shells. Results The vital snails were stained and the dead were unstained in the neutral red. The vital and dead snails were unstained in methylene blue. However,the vital and dead snails were stained in red ink. The partial vital and dead snails were stained in MEB. The vital snails were stained and the partial dead were stained in trypan blue. Conclusion The use of 0.05%water soluble dye neutral red is simple,rapid and accurate in determination of the viability of O. hupensis.%目的:寻找一种快速准确、简便易行的鉴别湖北钉螺死活的方法。方法分别用0.05%中性红水溶性染液、0.5%甲基蓝染液、红墨水、伊红亚甲基蓝(MEB)染液、0.4%台盼蓝对活、死钉螺进行染色,染色30 min后压碎螺壳,体视显微镜下观察软体组织着色情况。结果0.05%中性红可将活钉螺均染成红色,死钉螺均未着色;0.5%甲基蓝染色后,活、死钉螺均不着色;红墨水可将活、死钉螺均染成红色;MEB染液可使部分活、死钉螺着色;0.4%台盼蓝可将活钉螺和部分死钉螺均染成蓝色。结论使用0.05%中性红水溶性染色液对钉螺进行染色处理,可快速、准确、客观地鉴别钉螺死活。

  9. Molluscicidal effect of Phytolacca americana Linn leaf against Oncomelania hupensis and its acute toxicity%垂序商陆叶灭螺活性及其毒性的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房伟伟; 陈钧; 韩邦兴; 李晨光; 杨学娟; 张春晓; 姚虎

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the molluscicidal activity, the influence on glycogen content of Oncomelania hupensis and the acute toxicity to zebra fish of the extract from Phytolacca americana Linn leaf. Methods The different polar factions of the extract of Phytolacca americana Linn leaf were separated by using the systemic solvent segregation method, and then the molluscicidal activity of the fractions was detected according to the Laboratory Final MiUuscicides Screening Method issued by WHO. The glycogen content of soft tissues of Oncomelania hupensis treated by the ethyl acetate polar fraction was determined by the anthrone method. Finally, the acute toxicity of the ethyl acetate polar fraction to non-targets was studied with zebra fish. Results The ethyl acetate polar fraction was the best active components against the snails. Its 48 h LC? And LC? Were 6.0 mg/100 ml and 26.1 mg/ 100 ml, respectively. The glycogen content of soft tissues of the snails decreased by 20% after treated with the fraction. The fish treated by the concentration of LC? (48 h) of the ethyl acetate polar fraction survived for 12 h. Conclusion The Phytolacca americana linn leaf possesses an adequate molluscicidal activity and a significant acute toxicity to the zebra fish.%目的 探讨垂序商陆叶杀灭钉螺效果、对钉螺糖原的影响及其对斑马鱼的急性毒性.方法 用系统分离法分离垂序商陆叶的各极性部位,采用WHO推荐的"杀螺剂实验室终筛法"中的浸泡法进行浸杀灭螺试验,筛选垂序商陆叶的灭螺活性部位;用蒽酮比色法测定灭螺活性部位对钉螺糖原的影响;测定垂序商陆叶极性部位对斑马鱼的急性毒性.结果 垂序商陆叶灭螺活性部位集中在乙酸乙酯极性部位,对钉螺48 h LC_50和LC_90值分别为6.0 mg/100 ml和26.1 mg/100 ml;垂序商陆叶乙酸乙酯极性部位可使钉螺糖原含量降低20%;在近LC_50浓度(48 h)的垂序商陆叶乙酸乙酯极性部

  10. Effects of immunostimulants on phenoloxidase activity in Oncomelania hupensis%免疫刺激剂对湖北钉螺酚氧化酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周书林; 赵磊; 杨进孙; 赵劲松; 李朝品

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of several regular immunostimulants on the phenoloxidase (PO) activity in Oncomelania hupensis. Methods The snails were divided into four treatment groups and one control group. In the treatment groups, the snails were soaked in phytic acid, vitamin C, β-glucan, or lipopolysaccharid for 60 min, while in the control group, the snails were soaked in dechlorinated water for 60 min. After the shells were removed, the soft tissues of the snails were homogenized and centrifugated to obtain crude enzyme liquid. The PO activity in each group was measured by colorimetry with catechol as the substrate, and statistical analysis was performed on the measurement results. Results The PO activity at different time points showed no significant difference from that at 0 h in the control group (F=2.10, P>0.05). Compared with the control group, the phytic acid and vitamin C treatment groups showed significantly decreased PO activity at different time points after being soaked in phytic acid and vitamin C (P<0.05), and the PO activity decreased over time; the β-glucan and lipopolysaccharid treatment groups showed significantly increased PO activity after treatment (P<0.05), and the PO activity increased over time. Conclusion As immunostimulants, phytic acid and vitamin C can decrease the PO activity in O. Hupensis, while β-glucan and lipopolysaccharid can increase the PO activity.%目的 实验研究几种常见的免疫抑制剂与激动剂对湖北钉螺酚氧化酶活性的影响.方法 将实验钉螺置于4组免疫刺激剂植酸、维生素C、β-葡聚糖、脂多糖及去氯水对照组中浸泡60 min,去壳,取软体组织通过匀浆、离心分别获取粗制酶液,以邻苯二酚为底物用比色法测定各组酶活力,结果进行统计学分析.结果 对照组各时间段与0h间比较,差异均无统计学意义(F=2.10,P>0.05);植酸和维生素浸泡后各时间段与对照组比较酚氧化酶(PO)活力下降(P<0.05),

  11. 山东微山湖区子代钉螺壳形变异的研究%Study on shell shape changes of filial generation Oncomelania hupensis snails in Weishan Lake region,Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪峰; 刘新; 王利磊; 邓绪礼; 陈锡欣; 付兆义; 王用斌

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the shape change characteristics of Oncomelania hupensis snail shell after the snails being passively migrated into Shandong intake area of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project. Methods The snails raised on the Dushan island in Weishan Lake region were captured,and 115 the first filial generation snails and 107 the second filial generation ones were selected. The length and width of shells and apertures,and the labial ridge thickness of those snails were measured,the longitudinal rib number of snail spiral was counted,and 107 parental snails were chosen as controls. Results The labial ridge thickness of the filial generation snail was significantly reduced with the increase of algebras,and the labial ridge thickness among the 3 generations had a significant difference(P<0.01). Both the length of snail shell and the width of snail apertures were de-creased,while the width of snail shell,the length of snail apertures,the multiplication product of snail aperture’s length and width and the longitudinal rib number of snail spiral were all increased. Conclusion The body size of Oncomelania snails in Weishan Lake region becomes smaller,and their shells become thinner,which indicates that the environment of the lake region is not suitable for snail breeding,and the snails have natural decay tendency with the extension of time.%目的:探讨钉螺被人为迁移至南水北调山东受水区后其子代钉螺壳形变化特点。方法取微山湖区独山岛饲养的钉螺,以亲代钉螺107只为对照组,同时测量子1代螺115只、子2代螺107只,收集螺体壳长(L)、壳宽(W)、壳口宽(AW)、壳口长(AL)、唇脊厚度(LIT)等数据,并计数体螺旋纵肋数。结果子代钉螺LIT明显减少,并随子代数增加呈递减状态,三代螺两两比较,LIT差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);同时,子代螺L和AL降低,W和AW增加,壳口长与宽之积增加,体螺旋纵肋数增

  12. 5%杀螺胺乙醇胺盐颗粒剂江滩现场灭螺纹效果%Molluscicidal effect of 5%niclosamide ethanolamine granules against Onco-melania hupensis in a marshland field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴荣凤; 肖敏; 戴建荣

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the molluscicidal effect of 5%niclosamide ethanolamine granules against Oncomela-nia hupensis in a marshland field. Methods The 5%niclosamide ethanolamine granules were sprayed at a dose of 40 g/m2 on 3 snail-breeding marshlands in Yangzhong City of Jiangsu Province to assess its field molluscicidal actions while 26%suspension concentrate of metaldehyde and niclosamide MNSC) at a dose of 4 g/m2 and fresh water served as controls. Results After seven days spraying, 5%niclosamide ethanolamine granules resulted in a of snail mortal85.42%ity while the mortality rates of snails were 82.35% and 2.86% in the MNSC and water control groups respectively. Conclusion 5% niclosamide ethanol-amine granules exhibit a high molluscicidal activity which is suitable to be used in the mashland.%目的:观察5%杀螺胺乙醇胺盐颗粒剂的江滩现场杀螺效果。方法在江苏省扬中市选择3块有螺江滩,采用5%杀螺胺乙醇胺盐颗粒剂40 g/m2喷撒法灭螺,以26%四聚·杀螺胺悬浮剂4 g/m2和清水为对照进行对比观察,统计比较现场杀螺效果。结果喷撒7 d后,5%杀螺胺乙醇胺盐颗粒剂组钉螺死亡率为85.42%,26%四聚·杀螺胺悬浮剂组为82.35%,清水组为2.86%。结论5%杀螺胺乙醇胺盐颗粒剂杀螺效果较好,适合在江滩现场应用。

  13. 鄱阳湖湖北钉螺日本血吸虫和外睾吸虫尾蚴逸出模式及其流行病学的初步调查%Preliminary investigation on the prevalence and cercarial rhythm pattern of Schistosoma japonicum and Exorchis sp.in Oncomelania hupensis (Gastropoda) populations in marshlands of Poyang Lake, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yassir Sulieman; Theerakamol Pengsakul; 黄帅钦; 彭午弦

    2013-01-01

    Digenean trematodes are a widespread group of parasitic flatworms that use snails somewhat exclusively as their first intermediate host and one species can competitively exclude other species in a single individual snail. In this study, prevalence of the trematodes, Schistosoma japonicum and Exorchis sp., among populations of Oncomelania hupensis and population density of the snail in four different marshland locations around Poyang Lake, China, was studied during spring (April) and autumn (October) of 2012, by using a 0.11 m2 frame sampler. Also, the rhythm of cercarial liberation of the two trematodes from this area was investigated. Results showed that the prevalence of Exorchis sp. infection among O. hupensis populations was high (2.01%), compared to S. japonicum (0.15%) over the four investigated sites during the spring- and autumn-collected samples. The mean density of live snails in spring was 12.2 per 0.11 m2 with overall infection of 0.3 snail per 0.11 m2;while in autumn, the mean density of live snails was 6.7 per 0.11 m2 with infection rate of 0.2 snail per 0.11 m2. Cercarial release pattern from S. japonicum was circadian, with a single peak of emergence between 12:00 and 14:00 pm, whereas that of Exorchis sp. displayed a bimodal peak of emergence: an early emergence peak between 06:00 and 08:00 am, and a late emergence peak between 16:00 and 18:00 pm. Finaly, the higher prevalence of Exorchis sp. infection among O. hupensis populations compared to S. japonicum at different sites and seasons in this study necessitates further investigation concerning interaction among trematode infections within O. hupensis populations, especially in regard to Exorchis sp., due to its importance in schistosomiasis biological control.%目的 复殖吸虫是一种广泛分布的寄生性扁形动物,它们专一性地利用贝类作为第一中间宿主.自然环境中常见到一种贝类是数种吸虫的中间宿主,但该贝类的每一个体通常只存在一

  14. Oncomelania hupensis snail control effects of molluscicides with different formulations in field in marshland and lake regions%湖沼地区不同剂型灭螺药现场灭螺效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭先玉; 崔彩霞; 田荣; 洪敏; 何亮才; 王加松; 荣先兵; 袁梅枝; 胡合华; 田克卿; 刘雄; 张瑕

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察不同剂型灭螺药在湖沼地区水位不稳定沟渠的现场灭螺效果,为制定防治对策提供科学依据。方法选择荆州市江陵县一条有螺排水渠作为试验现场,分为6段;除一段为空白对照组,仅观察钉螺自然死亡率外,其余5段作为观察组,分别施用4%杀螺胺乙醇胺盐粉剂、5%杀螺胺乙醇胺盐颗粒剂、25%杀螺胺乙醇胺盐悬浮剂、26%四聚·杀螺胺乙醇胺盐悬浮剂、50%杀螺胺乙醇胺盐可湿性粉剂。施药前后均采用系统抽样法查螺,观察灭螺药物近期和远期效果,并比较水位线上坡面与水位线下沿边水体钉螺死亡率。结果各观察组水位线上坡面施药后7d钉螺死亡率为79.52%~97.87%,施药后15 d为90.43%~96.30%,与灭螺前比较,差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.01)。各观察组水位线下水体施药后7 d钉螺死亡率为17.11%~50.00%,均低于各组水位线上坡面钉螺死亡率,差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.05);施药后15 d,钉螺死亡率为9.43%~95.24%,25%杀螺胺乙醇胺盐悬浮剂、26%四聚·杀螺胺乙醇胺盐悬浮剂、50%杀螺胺乙醇胺盐可湿性粉剂组钉螺死亡率低于水位线上坡面,差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.01)。与灭前比较,灭螺后6个月各观察组活螺平均密度下降率为70.21%~78.98%。结论粉剂与颗粒剂适用于无水或有水环境灭螺,悬浮剂与可湿性粉剂适用于有水环境灭螺。%Objective To observe the Oncomelania hupensis snail control effects of molluscicides with different formula⁃tions in the ditch with unstable water level in field of marshland and lake areas,so as to provide the evidence for formulating the prevention strategies. Methods A drainage channel with O. hupensis snails in Jiangling County,Jingzhou City were selected as the study field,then it was divided into 6 segments,except 1 segment was treated as the blank control group for

  15. 6种木本植物叶浸液对钉螺驱杀作用及其生殖器官解剖结构的影响%Expelling and Killing Effects of Leaf Extracts of 6 Woody Plant Species on Oncomelania hupensis and the Impact of the Extracts on the Anatomical Structures of Its Reproductive Organs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏尚光; 张仪; 刘和香; 苗婷婷; 丁增发; 吴缨

    2012-01-01

    This paper studied the expelling and killing effects of leaf extracts of 6 woody plant species including Triadica sebifera, Nerium oleander, llex latifolia, Celtis julianae, Carya illinoensis and Melia azedarach on Oncomelania hupensis and the impact of the extracts on the anatomical structures of its reproductive organs. The results showed: 1. The leaf extracts of Carya illinoensis and Celtis julianae had nearly no short-time poisonous killing effects on Oncomelania hupensis and those of Melia azedaroch had the most significant poisonous killing effects, followed by Nerium oleander, Triadica sebifera and Llex lotifolia. The leaf extracts of the 6 plant species all had 100% poisonous killing effects over time. 2. The poisonous killing effects of the mixed leaf extracts of different plant species are significantly greater than those of single species leaf extracts. Under the 5-to-30min-long treatments with mixed leaf extracts of llex latifolia ~ Carya iUinoensis, Nerium oleander ~ Melia azedarach, llex latifolia x Triadica sebifera, and Celtis julianae x Triadica sebifera, the escape rate and feign death rate were 10-12% and 90-88% respectively for the treatment group of Ilex latifolia x Carya illinoensis, 0% and 100% respectively for that of Nerium oleander x Melia azedarach, 0-2% and 100-98% respectively for that of llex latifolia x Triadica sebifera, and 8-24% and 92-76% respectively for that of Celtis julianae x Triadica sebifera. 3. After the respective treatments with leaf extracts of Celtis julianae, Carya illinoensis, Triadica sebifera, Nerium oleander, Ilex latifolia and Melia azedarach for 24 hours, the anatomical structures of both the male penises and female ovaries of Oncomelania hupensis showed no significant changes compared with the control group. Consequently, mixed afforestation with llex latifolia, Triadica sebifera, Nerium oleander and Melia azedarach should be considered in the construction of schistosomasis-prevention forests, which would

  16. Cloning, Expression and Activity Analysis of Full-length Gene Encoding Thioredoxin Peroxidase from Oncomelania hupensis%湖北钉螺硫氧还蛋白过氧化物酶全长基因克隆、表达与蛋白活性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宪亮; 刘琴; 张仪

    2012-01-01

    Objective To clone and express full-length thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx) gene of Oncomelania hupensis and study on the peroxidase activity of the recombinant protein. Methods Total RNA was obtained from the cultivated O. hupensis and a cDNA sequence of the TPx gene was cloned by RT-PCR. The TPx cDNA ends were amplified by the SMARTer RACE cDNA Amplification Kit. After sequencing, blasting and matching, the full-length cDNA of the TPx gene was obtained. The TPx cDNA was ligated with the pGEM-Teasy and transformed into E. coli DH5α. After sequencing and blasting, the characteristics of biological information of the TPx gene was analyzed. The positive recombinants with pGEM-Teasy/TPx and expression vector pET-28a were digested by the double restriction enzymes, ligated each other, transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3), and induced by IPTG for expression. The recombinant TPx was expressed as a histidine fusion protein and was purified with Ni chromatography and NTA cation exchange chromatography. The expressed and purified TPx was analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The different concentrations of TPx recombinant protein (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 μg/ml) were added into hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) reduction test in vitro to calculate the clearance rate of H2O2, each concentration with parallel control of dithiothreitol sugar alcohol (DTT). In the protection test of super-coiled DNA, the TPx protein was added with a concentration of 2.5,5.0, and 10 μg/ml, respectively, to observe the protective effect of super-coiled DNA in metal-catalyzed oxidation (MCO). Results The complate cDNA encoding TPx was 992 bp. ORF was 747 bp with GenBank accession number of JN831437. The ORF encoded 249 amino acids, and the relative molecular weight {Mr) of predicted protein was 27 000. The recombinant plasmid pET28a/T'Px was built, and the soluble recombinant protein was obtained by induction and purification. The results of SDS-PAGE showed that the M, was 27 000. H2O2 reduction test in vitro showed that the H

  17. 基于微卫星标记的不同壳型湖北钉螺小尺度景观群体遗传结构研究%Fine-scale population genetic structure of Oncomelania hupensis based on microsatellite DNA markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔斌; 官威; 尤平; 李石柱

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析湖北松滋地区湖北钉螺小尺度景观群体的遗传结构。方法选择 T 6-17、P101、D11、B14、T 4-33和C22等6对微卫星位点对松滋地区10个生境的湖北钉螺群体进行基因扫描,计算各群体的等位基因数(Na)、有效等位基因数(Ne)、期望杂合度(He)、观察杂合度(Ho)、多态信息含量(PIC)、群体间的遗传分化系数(FST )和遗传距离,根据遗传距离进行聚类分析,并进行分子变异方差分析(AMOVA)。结果10个钉螺群体经鉴定螺壳分为光壳和肋壳(包括浅肋和深肋),10个群体共检测到141个等位基因,各位点20-34个不等,平均每个位点检测到23.5个;6个微卫星位点的平均有效等位基因数为1.575,各位点的有效等位基因数并不平衡,且数值差异较大,范围从0.445至3.060。群体的平均 H o范围为0.438-0.698,在光壳的团山村群体中最低,在深肋型的马木口村群体中最高;群体的平均H e范围为0.589-0.892,在浅肋型的德胜村群体中最低,在深肋型的马木口村群体中最高;成对群体间的Fst为-0.01564-0.25247,各群体的PIC为0.528-0.857,显示出高度多态性;AMOVA 分析结果显示,变异主要存在于个体间,占总变异的88.4%;聚类分析结果显示,肋壳的马木口村、横堤村、义兴村三个群体与光壳的马狮子咀村、民主村、土桥村三个群体先聚为一支后,与浅肋的德胜村、木天河村两个群体与光壳的团山村、夹马槽村聚的一支合聚。结论松滋地区不同景观环境下湖北钉螺呈现不同螺壳形态,尽管遗传多样性较为丰富,但遗传变异主要来自个体间,不同螺壳形态的湖北钉螺群体间并未体现出明显的遗传分化。%The genetic structure of small-scale landscape groups of Oncomelania hupensis in Songzi City ,Hubei Province was identify in this study .O

  18. Phylogenetic analysis on CO Ⅰ gene of two Oncomelania hupensis isolates from Guangxi and comparison with isolates from four neighboring provinces%广西两地理株钉螺COⅠ基因分析及其与邻近四省钉螺亲缘关系的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芳芳; 张小娟; 林睿; 王鸽; 黎学铭; 欧阳颐

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the genetic difference of cytochrome oxidase Ⅰ (CO Ⅰ ) of two isolates of Oncomelania hupensis collected from Guangxi, and analyze the phylogenic relationship with isolates from 4 neighboring provinces. Methods Ribbed-shelled and smooth-shelled snails were collected from Jingxi County and Hengxian County of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region respectively. Genomic DNA was extracted from the snails. CO Ⅰ gene fragments were amplified by PCR,then purified and sequenced. The data of CO Ⅰgene sequences of Yunnan,Sichuan,Hunan,and Hubei isolates were obtained from the GenBank. Sequence of each isolate was edited by using Clustal X software. The CO Ⅰ gene of Tricia was used as the reference of exogenous gene. The genetic distance was computed with Kimura method. The phylogenetic tree was constructed by the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) as well as the methods of neighbor-joining (NJ) and minimum evolution (ME) with the MEGA (3.1) software. Results The genetic distance and homology of CO Ⅰ between Jingxi isolates (ribbed-shelled) and Hengxian isolates (smooth-shelled) was 0. 0505 and 95% ,respectively. The genetic distances of Hengxian isolate with other isolates from Yunnan, Sichuan, Hunan ,and Hubei Province were 0. 0102,0. 0171,0. 1401 and 0. 1421 ,with the homology of 99% ,98% ,87% and 86% respectively. Correspondingly,the genetic distances of Jingxi isolate with isolates from Yunnan,Sichuan,Hunan,and Hubei province were 0. 0451,0. 0505,0. 1382,and 0. 1421 ,while the homology was 95% ,95%,88% and 87% respectively. Conclusion No significant genetic difference was found between the ribbedshelled and smooth-shelled Oncomelania hupensis isolates from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. They were phylogenetically closer,and more homologous to the isolates from Hunan and Hubei Province. However,they showed longer genetic distance and less homologous to the isolates from Sichuan and Yunnan Province.%目的 了解广

  19. Decline and growth trend analysis of Oncomelania hupensis distribution in hilly mountain areas of Ji-angning District from 2004 to 2013%2004~2013年南京市江宁区丘陵地区钉螺消长分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢德兵; 周云; 陶亢; 张俊; 陈东辉; 王志美; 张标

    2015-01-01

    目的:调查与分析江宁丘陵型血吸虫病流行区钉螺分布特点,为本地区制订实现血吸虫病传播阻断目标的策略和措施提供参考依据。方法采取回顾性调查方法,收集江宁区2004~2013年血吸虫病防治工作报表资料,分析不同年份钉螺面积的变化趋势,比较丘陵型血吸虫病流行区钉螺指标的10年间变化。结果江宁丘陵地区历史有螺面积760.46hm2,2004~2013年江宁丘陵地区查出有螺面积从2004年的23.38hm2减少到10.30hm2,平均年降幅为5.59%,平均钉螺密度从2004年的0.74只/框下降到2013年的0.03只/框,无阳性钉螺,新发现螺点1处,有2处钉螺复现,总面积0.56hm2。结论江宁山区钉螺面积、钉螺密度呈下降趋势,为达到实现血吸虫病传播阻断目标,控制山区型钉螺面积仍是下阶段血防工作的重点。%Objective To investigate and analyze the characteristics of Oncomelania hupensis distribution in the hilly and mountain areas in Jiangning district for the evidence to plan the strategy for transmission inter⁃ruption in this area. Methods Retrospective analysis was performed on the data summarized from the work re⁃ports on schistosomiasis control in Jiangning district between 2004 and 2013, with respect to the changes of in⁃fected areas with snails in different years and the snail index in mountainous endemic region in 10 years. Re⁃sults The snail-ridden areas in the hilly mountain areas in Jiangning district were 760.4562 hm2 in history, and were decreased from . The areas were decreased gradually, from 23.3765hm2 in 2004 to 10.3025hm2 in 2013, and the average annual decline was 5.59%. The average density of snails was decreased from 23.38hm2 in 2004 to 10.30hm2 in 2013, with an average decrease of 5.59% by each year. Snail density was also decreased from 0.7362 snail/frame in 2004 to 0.03 snail/frame in 2013. No infected snails were found except for one emerging snail region

  20. Survival and reproduction of Oncomelania hupensis robertsoni in water network regions in Hubei Province, China%湖北钉螺滇川亚种在湖北省水网地区生存繁殖及期望寿命研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄重峰; 邹节新; 李枢强; 周宪民

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the possibility of the survival and reproduction of Oncomelartia hupensis robertsoni snails in water network regions in Hubei Province, as well as their expected lifespan after leaving the original propagating environment, so as to provide the basic data and precondition for reducing the infection rates of O. H. Hupensis in the lake regions. Methods The 0. H. Robertsoni snails, smooth-shell, were collected from Danling County, Sichuan Province, and raised in the cages in Bai-masi Town of Jiangling County, Hubei Province. The survival and reproduction abilities of the snails were observed on regular time. The 0. H. Hupensis from Jiangling County, Hubei Province was studied as a control group. The expected lifespan of snails was calculated by using the animal life table. Results After 3-, 6-month, the survival rates of 0. H. Robertsoni were maintained more than 75% in the homogeneous and mixed living conditions, still above 20% after 9-month. Compared with the control group, there was a statistically significant difference in the 3-month group (X2three months =38. 641, P 0.05 ;x2nemonth, =5.017, P>0.05). Filial generation snails were found after nine months in each group. The expected lifespan of 0. H. Hupensis was 41. 16 d and that of 0. H. Robertsoni was 35. 84 d in the laboratory. Conclusions The 0. H. Robertsoni snails from foreign lands can continually survive and reproduce in water network regions in Hubei. 0. H. Robertsoni snails have enough survival time to passive remote diffusion after leaving the original propagating environments.%目的 探讨湖北钉螺滇川亚种在垸内水网地区生存繁殖的可能性和期望生存时间.方法 采用笼养法,将采自四川省丹棱县的湖北钉螺滇川亚种、湖北省江陵县实验区内的湖北钉螺指名亚种进行雌雄鉴定分离,分别以雌雄比1∶1配对后,放养在江陵县实验区的螺笼内,分别于3、6个月和9个月后,定期观察其生存和繁殖情况

  1. 应用同工酶技术研究我国湖北钉螺(腹足纲:麂眼螺超科:圆口螺科)不稳定螺群体内的遗传变异%ALLOZYME-BASED GENETIC VARIATION WITHIN AN UNSTABLE"POPULATION" OF CHINESE ONCOMELANIA HUPENSIS(GASTROPODA: RISSOACEA: POMATIOPSIDAE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    [Objective] To answer the following questions:① For Oncomelania snails collected two years apart from the same locality,has there been genetic divergence?②How much experimental error has there been in studying subsets of these populations? ③As this is an unstable population,what has the net effect been on Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium(Hwe)?[Methods] Allozymes were studied using horizontal starch gel electrophoresis.Data collected from numbers of experiments were conapiled.Data from each collection were divided into two equal subsets based on chronology of the experiments.Thirty-four loci were studied using 72 to 180 snails per subset.[Results] The mean number of alleles per locus ranged frcra 1.5~1.9.With each consecutive subset,the 96 polymorphic loci dropped from 38.2 to 17.6.The mean heterozygosity was very low:0.033 to 0.049 and not significantly different from Hardy-Weinberg expectations.Ten loci and 11 alleles exclusive to the first group were eliminated from the overall study reducing the number of polymorphic loci from 19 to 10.There were significant departures from Hwe at five loci having a substantial number of individuals for each allele.Nei's and Wright's D were 0.003±0.001 and 0.054±0.006 respectively.[Conclusion] ①There were significant errors seen primarily in the results scored' in the earliest experiments.②These earlier errors involving scoring difficult to resolve loci,and interpretation of rare alleles that were not found in later experiment had no significant effect on overall genetic distance.③The use of Wright's D for closely related populations is explained.Results with Nei's D indicated no significant difference among the four subunits; Wright's D yielded significant difference between the collections made two years apart,attributed to the annual flooding of the Yangtze River mixing snails from different localities.④ Major polymorphic loci were not in Hwe as predicted using the unstable population model.⑤One must study 25 or

  2. Technique for Controlling Spread of Limnotic Oncomelania

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Damei(李大美); WANG Xiangsan(王祥三); LAI Yonggen

    2003-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease mostly found in areas along the Changjiang River of China. The disease is spread solely through an intermediary named oncomelania, so its spread of schistosomiasis can be controlled by properly designing water intakes which prevent oncomelania from entering fanning land or residential areas. This paper reports a successful design process and a new oncomelania-free intake device. The design of the new intake is based on a sound research program in which extensive experimental studies were carried out to gain knowledge of oncomelania eco-hydraulic behavior and detailed flow field information through CFD simulation.

  3. Single- or mixed-sex Schistosoma japonicum infections of intermediate host snails in hilly areas of Anhui, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hui-Ping; Lu, Da-Bing; Shen, Lei; Shi, Tan; Gu, Jian

    2014-02-01

    Schistosomiasis japonicum is one of the most serious communicable diseases, and the transmission of the parasite is dependent of its complex life cycle on which many factors can have an impact. Multiple infections comprising both male and female schistosome within snail intermediate hosts, for example, would facilitate parasite transmission. However, no research on Schistosoma japonicum communities in field-collected Oncomelania hupensis hupensis in relation to schistosome sex has been reported. Therefore, snail survey was performed in a hilly region of Anhui, China, and single- or mixed-sex schistosome infections of snails were detected with final host mouse infection. A total of 8,563 snails were sampled in the field, and 67 were identified with schistosome infections. Of these infected snails, 46 were selected for final host infection. From this, 21 snails were infected with female schistosome, 23 with males and 2 with both males and females. More worms were recovered for snails with mixed-sex infections than with single-sex infection and for snails with male schistosome infection than with female infection (Psnails was significantly higher than would be expected if randomly distributed (Psnails was nearly equal and up to 95.65 % (44/46) of infected snails were single-sex infection. Schistosome infections in snails collected from the hilly area of Anhui Province were not randomly distributed but over-dispersed.

  4. Molluscicidal Activity of Nerium indicum Mill, Pterocarya stenoptera DC, and Rumex japonicum Houtt on Oncomelania hupensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG WANG; WEI-MIN CAI; WAN-XIAN WANG; JIAN-MIN YANG

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the molluscicidal activities of three Chinese plants N. Indicum Mill, P. Stenoptera DC, and R.japonicum Houtt, and to clarify the molluscicidal mechanism. Methods N-butanol extracts and water extracts of the three plants were obtained. The reactions of EST isozyme, glycogen and total protein of snails to the plant extracts were studied.Results EST electrophoresis showed that EST was an important antidotal enzyme system and reacted strongly to environment.EST changed greatly during the whole exposure period so that it could be viewed as a pathological index of toxicity. Extracts decreased the glycogen content of the snails'soft tissues greatly, and also the protein content. Conclusion All extracts show strong molluscicidal activity. The LD50 value of the water extract of N. Indicum Mill is as low as 13.2 mg/L. EST can be viewed as a pathological index of toxicity. The energy metabolism abnormity is the key reason for the molluscicidal activities. The biochemical mechanism needs further research.

  5. Study of water intakes for oncomelania control based on information of oncomelania behavior and CFD results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease. They propagate in the Yangtze River valley of Chi-na. The spread of the disease is solely through a middle-agent named oncomelania, so the spread ofschistosomiasis by oncomelania can be controlled by properly designing water intakes which preventoncomelania from entering the farming land or residential areas. In this paper, a successful design pro-cess is reported and a new oncomelania-free intake device is demonstrated in the laboratory. The de-sign of the new intake is based on a sound research program in which an extensive experimental stud-ies have been carried out to gain knowledge of oncomelania eco-hydraulic behaviors and a detailed flowfield information is obtained through CFD simulation.

  6. The simple laboratory maintenance of a highly productive Schistosoma japonicum life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, N A; Hinchcliffe, P; Webbe, G

    1987-01-01

    The maintenance and infection of Oncomelania hupensis hupensis, the intermediate host of the Chinese strain of Schistosoma japonicum, is described. 60% of the snails exposed to miracidia became patent, and 5000 patent snails can be produced which yield over 250,000 cercariae per week. The maintenance and infection of snails require less than 8 man-hours per week.

  7. Effect of habitat fragmentation on the schistosome-transmitting snail Oncomelania hupensis in a mountainous area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi-Biao; Yang, Mei-Xia; Yihuo, Wu-li; Liu, Gang-ming; Wang, Hai-yin; Wei, Jian-Guo; Jiang, Qing-Wu

    2011-04-01

    The effect of habitat fragmentation on schistosome-transmitting snails was assessed in an intervention village and a control village in Sichuan Province, China. Snail habitats were fragmented by environmental management. After 2 years, the proportions of quadrats with snails in the fragmented habitats decreased from 9.35% to 2.41% in one patch (c3) and from 12.20% to 6.57% in another patch (c12), whilst the proportions in habitats without fragmentation did not alter significantly. Mean snail density decreased from 0.246 to 0.063 snails/0.11 m2 in patch c3 and from 0.356 to 0.177 snails/0.11 m2 in patch c12, whilst the mean snail density of other patches did not alter significantly. Most snails from the same patch and/or its remaining patches after fragmentation clustered together in the phylogenetic tree, except for c1, c3 and its remaining patches (c5, c6 and c11). Snail habitats in the study zone exhibited visible fragmentation. Habitat fragmentation could decrease the snail population size and limit migration and dispersal of snails between patches. Copyright © 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Secrets Behind Vegetation Control on Snail Fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Oncomelania (Oncomelania hupensis), a dioecian, ovoviviparous, and amphibious snail, is the sole intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, the most wide-spread snail fever in the world. Chemical eliminating the host proved unacceptable for there was severe contamination to water and soil. The river beaches and the delta areas of five provinces in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River in China provide the most favorable habitats for Oncomelania. Our studies have revealed that the occurrence of ...

  9. Genetic Evidence of Contemporary Dispersal of the Intermediate Snail Host of Schistosoma japonicum: Movement of an NTD Host Is Facilitated by Land Use and Landscape Connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R Head

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available While the dispersal of hosts and vectors-through active or passive movement-is known to facilitate the spread and re-emergence of certain infectious diseases, little is known about the movement ecology of Oncomelania spp., intermediate snail host of the parasite Schistosoma japonicum, and its consequences for the spread of schistosomiasis in East and Southeast Asia. In China, despite intense control programs aimed at preventing schistosomiasis transmission, there is evidence in recent years of re-emergence and persistence of infection in some areas, as well as an increase in the spatial extent of the snail host. A quantitative understanding of the dispersal characteristics of the intermediate host can provide new insights into the spatial dynamics of transmission, and can assist public health officials in limiting the geographic spread of infection.Oncomelania hupensis robertsoni snails (n = 833 were sampled from 29 sites in Sichuan, China, genotyped, and analyzed using Bayesian assignment to estimate the rate of recent snail migration across sites. Landscape connectivity between each site pair was estimated using the geographic distance distributions derived from nine environmental models: Euclidean, topography, incline, wetness, land use, watershed, stream use, streams and channels, and stream velocity. Among sites, 14.4% to 32.8% of sampled snails were identified as recent migrants, with 20 sites comprising >20% migrants. Migration rates were generally low between sites, but at 8 sites, over 10% of the overall host population originated from one proximal site. Greater landscape connectivity was significantly associated with increased odds of migration, with the minimum path distance (as opposed to median or first quartile emerging as the strongest predictor across all environmental models. Models accounting for land use explained the largest proportion of the variance in migration rates between sites. A greater number of irrigation channels

  10. Control efficacy of cashew nut shell liquid against Oncomelania hupensis%腰果壳油的灭螺活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶田田; 吴向阳; 仰榴青; 何丽丹; 陈杰

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究腰果壳油及其中银杏酸的灭螺作用,为腰果壳油的应用提供基础.方法 腰果壳油经硅胶柱色谱分离,得银杏酸混合物,按WHO"杀螺剂实验室终筛方法 "测定腰果壳油及其银杏酸混合物的灭螺作用.结果 硅胶柱分离制得银杏酸混合物的纯度为89.32%,腰果壳油及其银杏酸混合物48 h时对钉螺的LC50分别为0.831、0.523 mg/L,LC90分别为2.180、1.439 mg/L.腰果壳油药液和银杏酸混合物药液为2 mg/L时钉螺的上爬率分别为16.7%和13.3%,≥4 mg/L钉螺上爬率为0.结论 腰果壳油具有较好的灭螺效果,银杏酸是其主要的灭螺活性成分,腰果壳油有望成为一种有广阔应用前景的植物灭螺药.

  11. Histological and morphological changes of Oncomelania hupensis snails by calcium cyanamide%氰胺化钙对钉螺组织形态学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏蒙; 丁良; 魏望远; 李广平; 郭凤英; 陈祥麟; 郭家钢

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察氰胺化钙(荣宝)作用于钉螺引起的组织学改变,探讨其杀螺机理.方法 经氰胺化钙浸提液处理,在不同时间取钉螺进行固定并行病理切片,分析杀螺剂对钉螺的组织学影响.结果 经氰胺化钙浸提液处理48 h后钉螺外套膜上皮细胞、呼吸系统鳃条的上皮细胞、肝细胞、腹足的肌细胞等都受到严重损伤,直接导致钉螺的死亡.48 h钉螺死亡率96.70%,72 h达100%.结论 荣宝对钉螺多个组织均有损害,为一种有效的杀螺剂.

  12. SNAIL GENERA VARIATION IN FOCUS AREA OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS INTERMEDIATE SNAIL IN LINDU PLATEAU, CENTRAL SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Nurwidayati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Beberapa penyakit parasitik pada manusia yang disebabkan oleh cacing trematoda seperti schistomiasis, echinostomiasis, paragonimiasis, dan sebagai hospes perantara adalah oleh beberapa anggota famili keong air tawar. Schistosomiasis merupakan penyakit parasitik yang endemis di Indonesia, khususnya di Dataran Tinggi Napu, Lindu dan Bada, Sulawesi Tengah. Informasi mengenai genus keong yang ditemukan di daerah fokus keong perantara schistosomiasis diperlukan dalam menentukan potensi terjadinya penularan penyakit akibat cacing trematoda yang lain. Survei dilakukan di dalam kawasan Taman Nasional Lore Lindu, Sulawesi Tengah pada Bulan Juli 2013. Identifikasi keong dilakukan menggunakan kunci determinasi keong air tawar di Laboratorium Parasitologi, Balai Litbang P2B2 Donggala. Jenis keong yang ditemukan meliputi Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis, Melanoides sp., Helicorbis sp., Indoplanorbis sp. yang merupakan hospes perantara trematoda parasit. Berdasarkan hasil tersebut dapat dilihat bahwa selain berpotensi dalam penularan schistosomiasis daerah tersebut juga berpotensi untuk terjadinya penularan penyakit akibat cacing trematoda lain, seperti Echinostomiasis dan Paragonimiasis. Kata kunci: variasi, keong, schistosomiasis

  13. SNAIL GENERA VARIATION IN FOCUS AREA OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS INTERMEDIATE SNAIL IN LINDU PLATEAU, CENTRAL SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Nurwidayati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Beberapa penyakit parasitik pada manusia yang disebabkan oleh cacing trematoda seperti schistomiasis, echinostomiasis, paragonimiasis, dan sebagai hospes perantara adalah oleh beberapa anggota famili keong air tawar. Schistosomiasis merupakan penyakit parasitik yang endemis di Indonesia, khususnya di Dataran Tinggi Napu, Lindu dan Bada, Sulawesi Tengah. Informasi mengenai genus keong yang ditemukan di daerah fokus keong perantara schistosomiasis diperlukan dalam menentukan potensi terjadinya penularan penyakit akibat cacing trematoda yang lain. Survei dilakukan di dalam kawasan Taman Nasional Lore Lindu, Sulawesi Tengah pada Bulan Juli 2013. Identifikasi keong dilakukan menggunakan kunci determinasi keong air tawar di Laboratorium Parasitologi, Balai Litbang P2B2 Donggala. Jenis keong yang ditemukan meliputi Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis, Melanoides sp., Helicorbis sp., Indoplanorbis sp. yang merupakan hospes perantara trematoda parasit. Berdasarkan hasil tersebut dapat dilihat bahwa selain berpotensi dalam penularan schistosomiasis daerah tersebut juga berpotensi untuk terjadinya penularan penyakit akibat cacing trematoda lain, seperti Echinostomiasis dan Paragonimiasis. Kata kunci: variasi, keong, schistosomiasis

  14. A quantitative sampling method for Oncomelania quadrasi by filter paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, H; Santos, M J; Matsuda, H; Yasuraoka, K; Santos, A T

    1975-08-01

    Filter paper was found to attract Oncomelania quadrasi in waters the same way as fallen dried banana leaves, although less number of other species of snails was collected on the former than on the latter. Snails were collected in limited areas using a tube (85 cm2 area at cross-section) and a filter paper (20 X 20 CM) samplers. The sheet of filter paper was placed close to the spot where a tube sample was taken, and recovered after 24 hours. At each sampling, 30 samples were taken by each method in an area and sampling was made four times. The correlation of the number of snails collected by the tube and that by filter paper was studied. The ratio of the snail counts by the tube sampler to those by the filter paper was 1.18. A loose correlation was observed between snail counts of both methods as shown by the correlation coefficient r = 0.6502. The formulas for the regression line were Y = 0.77 X + 1.6 and X = 0.55 Y + 1.35 for 3 experiments where Y is the number of snails collected by tube sampling and X is the number of snails collected in the sheet of filter paper. The type of snail distribution was studied in the 30 samples taken by each method and this was observed to be nearly the same in both sampling methods. All sampling data were found to fit the negative binomial distribution with the values of the constant k varying very much from 0.5775 to 5.9186 in (q -- p)-k. In each experiment, the constant k was always larger in tube sampling than in filter paper sampling. This indicates that the uneven distribution of snails on the soil surface becomes more conspicuous by the filter paper sampling.

  15. Molluscicidal Effect of Endophyte LL3026 from Buddleia lindleyana against Oncomelania hupensis%醉鱼草内生真菌LL3026杀螺作用实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩邦兴; 陈钧; 郝蕾; 周晓坤; 韩方岸; 李龙根

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究醉鱼草(Buddleia lindleyana)内生真菌LL3026(Colletotrichum sp.)发酵液的杀螺作用、活性部位及其热稳定性和光照稳定性.方法 采用烧杯浸杀法,观察不同时间、不同浓度LL3026发酵液醇浸膏水溶液对湖北钉螺的杀灭作用,同时设1 mg/L氯硝柳胺水溶液和去氯离子水为对照.采用溶剂系统分离法分离LL3026发酵液的不同极性部位,并比较各极性部位的杀螺活性.该菌发酵液醇浸膏水溶液于不同温度(30~100 ℃)、不同时间(30~150 min)处理后,进行杀螺试验,检测其热稳定性.在25 ℃、不同光照强度(分别照射1~9 d)条件下,测定其光照稳定性.结果 施药后24、48和72 h的半数致死浓度(LC50)分别为50.11、3.43和1.55 mg/L.分离LL3026发酵液,获得石油醚、乙醚、乙酸乙酯、正丁醇和水相等不同极性部位,其低极性部位的乙醚相杀螺效果最好,24、48和72 h杀螺率均为100%.在80 ℃加热120 min后,发酵液活性物质热稳定性好,杀螺率为100%.3 600 lx强度光照9 d的发酵液的杀螺活性较强,其48 h杀螺率为86.7%.结论 醉鱼草内生真菌LL3026具有较好的杀螺活性.

  16. Effect of Nic and SX-Ⅰ Exposure on the Soluble Protein of the Oncomelania hupensis%氯硝柳胺和SX-Ⅰ染毒对钉螺可溶性蛋白的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕勇; 王新石; 李文新; 朱隽; 刘实

    2010-01-01

    用HPLC和分光光度法研究灭螺药物染毒对钉螺可溶性蛋白组分及其活性的作用.1.5 mg/L Nic和100 mg/LSX-Ⅰ分别浸泡染毒钉螺96 h,色谱分析其可溶性蛋白分别有20种和21种,与对照组的(22种)相近,其中诱导或抑制表达蛋白数分别为8种和5种;酶活力测定表明Nic和SX-Ⅰ染毒均抑制钉螺AchE、GOT、GPT活性.但Nic的抑制活性大于SX-Ⅰ,分别达47.34%、59.56%、81.39%.GPT对Nic的敏感性最高.

  17. Preliminary study on The activity of Phenoloxidase in Oncomelania snails%钉螺酚氧化酶活性的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨进孙; 周书林; 唐小牛; 陈文魁

    2007-01-01

    目的 初步探讨日本血吸虫惟一中间宿主钉螺体内酚氧化酶的生化活性.方法 解剖健康成年钉螺,剔除外壳,将其分为雄性组、雌性组及雌雄混合组(雌雄重量相等),匀浆离心取上清为待检酶液.以邻苯二酚为底物通过比色法检测钉螺酚化酶在pH 6.8、28℃条件下三组酶活力并予比较;用同法分别测定三组在不同pH(恒温28℃)及不同温度(pH 6.8)下的酚氧化酶活力,绘制变化曲线,确定该酶活性最适pH和最适温度.通过Lineweaver-Burk双倒数作图法和Arrhenius公式求得各组酶活化能并以比较.结果 在pH 6.8、28℃条件下,雄性组、雌性组及混合组的酶活力分别为188.2±5.7、183.8±5.5及185.2±6.7(U/g),经方差分析,三组酶活力无显著差异.三组酚氧化酶的活性在不同pH及温度下的变化趋势无显著差异;pH为6.0、温度为40℃时,三组的酚氧化酶活性均最高.三组活化能分别为32.6±5.1、31.7±2.9及32.1±3.3(kJ/mo1),经方差分析亦无显著差异.结论 钉螺酚氧化酶活性及活化能均无性别差异,其催化邻苯二酚的最适pH及最适温度分别为6.0和40℃.%Objective To research biochemical activity of phenoloxidase (PO) extracted from Oncomelania snails, the unique intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum. Methods Healthy adult Oncomelania snails were dissected and their shells were discarded. Then the snails were divided into three groups as follows: male group, female group and mixed group. PO was obtained through halogenations and centrifugation. By using colorimetric method with catechol as substrate, phenoloxidasic activity in the groups was detected under the circumstance of pH 6.8 and at the temperature of 28℃, and the results were compared .The activity was detected under the circumstances of different pH ( at the temperature of 28℃ ) and different temperatures ( at pH 6.8 ), respectively. Then their changing tendency were drew,and the optimum pH and the

  18. Exploiting Dragon Envisat Times Series and Other Earth Observation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Tiphanie; Lai, Xijun; Huber, Claire; Chen, Xiaoling; Uribe, Carlos; Huang, Shifeng; Lafaye, Murielle; Yesou, Herve

    2010-10-01

    Earth Observation data were used for mapping potential Schistosomiasis japonica distribution, within Poyang Lake (Jiangxi Province, PR China). In the first of two steps, areas suitable for the development of Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum, were derived from submersion time parameters and vegetation community indicators. Y early maps from 2003 to 2008 indicate five principally potential endemic areas: Poyang Lake National Nature Reserve, Dalianzi Hu, Gan Delta, Po Jiang and Xi He. Monthly maps showing the annual dynamic of potential O. hupensis presence areas were obtained from December 2005 to December 2008. In a second step human potential transmission risk was handled through the mapping of settlements and the identification of some human activities. The urban areas and settlements were mapped all around the lake and fishing net locations in the central part of Poyang Lake were identified. Finally, data crossing of the different parameters highlight the potential risk of transmission in most of the fishing nets areas.

  19. 南水北调东线工程防止钉螺扩散技术研究Ⅲ.湖区拦网防止钉螺扩散效果观察%Techniques to prevent the spread of Oncomelania snails in the eastern route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project Ⅲ The effectiveness of netting to block the spread of Oncomelania snails in lake regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙道宽; 李倩; 王全峰; 蔡守仁; 贾从英; 杭德荣; 黄轶昕

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine how effectively netting blocked the spread of Oncomelania snails in lake regions.Methods The aquatic area where a purse seine was used was Lake GaoYou in Jinhu County,Jiangsu Province.Netting was installed to stop Oncomelania snails at the mid-water level.A regular purse seine served as a control.Reeds marked with red paint and rice hulls served as simulated floaters.The marked reeds were cut to lengths of 5 cm,10 cm,or 20 cm.Simulated floaters were thrown in the lake 50 meters from the seine or netting.The number of simulated floaters of different sizes that passed through the seine or netting was counted after 30 minutes.Previous use of purse seines in the lake area was studied,along with the prevalence/distribution of Oncomelania.The snail-intercepting action of the purse seine was analyzed.Results The netting intercepted 100% of simulated floaters of all sizes.The regular purse seine al so intercepted 100% of the marked reeds but only 89.50% of the rice hulls.No purse seines were found on shoals or on the lakefront where Oncomelania had spread,and no Oncomelania were found on shoals where purse seines had been used.Conclusion Netting can effectively prevent the landing of drifting Oncomelania in a lake area.This technique can be used as a back-up technique to prevent the spread of Oncomelania in the eastern route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project.It can also be combined with aquaculture to prevent the spread of Oncomelania in lake areas.%目的 观察湖区拦网防止钉螺扩散效果.方法 选择江苏省金湖县高邮湖施尖滩养殖围网水域为试验现场;按照中层取水防螺原理设置湖区拦螺网,同时以普通围网为对照;分别以长5、10、20 cm标记芦苇杆和稻壳为模拟漂浮物,在拦网前50 m处投放30 min后分别观察并计数不同大小标记漂浮物通过拦网和围网的数量.调查湖区养殖围网、钉螺及历史钉螺分布情况,分析养

  20. Establishing the Intermediate Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    The State of Pennsylvania Act 102 establishes a system of 29 intermediate units, creates intermediate unit boards of directors, spells out their duties and functions, and provides a system of financing their operations. This handbook has been prepared by the Pennsylvania Department of Education to provide intermediate unit boards of directors,…

  1. Schistosomiasis: Geospatial Surveillance and Response Systems in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, John; Bergquist, Robert; Rinaldi, Laura; Xiao-nong, Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) from Earth-observing satellites offer opportunities for rapid assessment of areas endemic for vector-borne diseases including estimates of populations at risk and guidance to intervention strategies. This presentation deals with GIS and RS applications for the control of schistosomiasis in China and the Philippines. It includes large-scale risk mapping including identification of suitable habitats for Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum. Predictions of infection risk are discussed with reference to ecological transformations and the potential impact of climate change and the potential for long-term temperature increases in the North as well as the impact on rivers, lakes and water resource developments. Potential integration of geospatial mapping and modeling in schistosomiasis surveillance and response systems in Asia within Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) guidelines in the health societal benefit area is discussed.

  2. Bacterial intermediate filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Cabeen, M.; Jacobs-Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Crescentin, which is the founding member of a rapidly growing family of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins, was previously proposed to resemble eukaryotic intermediate filament (IF) proteins based on structural prediction and in vitro polymerization properties. Here, we demonstrate that crescentin...

  3. Intermediate algebra & analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gondin, William R

    1967-01-01

    Intermediate Algebra & Analytic Geometry Made Simple focuses on the principles, processes, calculations, and methodologies involved in intermediate algebra and analytic geometry. The publication first offers information on linear equations in two unknowns and variables, functions, and graphs. Discussions focus on graphic interpretations, explicit and implicit functions, first quadrant graphs, variables and functions, determinate and indeterminate systems, independent and dependent equations, and defective and redundant systems. The text then examines quadratic equations in one variable, system

  4. Intermediate algebra a textworkbook

    CERN Document Server

    McKeague, Charles P

    1985-01-01

    Intermediate Algebra: A Text/Workbook, Second Edition focuses on the principles, operations, and approaches involved in intermediate algebra. The publication first takes a look at basic properties and definitions, first-degree equations and inequalities, and exponents and polynomials. Discussions focus on properties of exponents, polynomials, sums, and differences, multiplication of polynomials, inequalities involving absolute value, word problems, first-degree inequalities, real numbers, opposites, reciprocals, and absolute value, and addition and subtraction of real numbers. The text then ex

  5. Mobile communication and intermediality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helles, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    The article argues the importance of intermediality as a concept for research in mobile communication and media. The constant availability of several, partially overlapping channels for communication (texting, calls, email, Facebook, etc.) requires that we adopt an integrated view of the various...... communicative affordances of mobile devices in order to understand how people choose between them for different purposes. It is argued that mobile communication makes intermediality especially central, as the choice of medium is detached from the location of stationary media and begins to follow the user across...

  6. MATERIALS FOR INTERMEDIATE TELUGU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KELLEY, GERALD B.

    ONE OF THE FOUR DRAVIDIAN LANGUAGES RECOGNIZED BY THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION OF 1950 AS OFFICIAL LANGUAGES OF THE COUNTRY, TELUGU IS SPOKEN BY 42 MILLION PEOPLE IN ANDHRA PRADESH. THESE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ARE DESIGNED FOR THE INTERMEDIATE STUDENT OF TELUGU AND ARE DIVIDED INTO NEWSPAPER READINGS AND DIALOGUES OF EVERYDAY CONVERSATION. SUBJECTS…

  7. Survival of Oncomelania Snails from Lake Regions and Mountain Regions and Their Susceptibility to Schistosoma Japonicum under Simulated Field Conditions%模拟自然条件下湖沼型和山区型钉螺存活率及其血吸虫易感性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚珍强; 李传昌; 汪雁; 黄重峰; 刘大仁; 陶波; 周宪民; 邹节新

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the 4-month survive rates of ribbed shell Oncomelania snails from lake regions of Xingzi County of Jiangxi Province,ribbed shell Oncomelania snails from mountain regions of Yushan County of Jiangxi Province and smooth shell Oncomelania snails from mountain regions of Pengshan County of Sichuan Province and their susceptibility to Schis-tosoma japonicum under simulated natural conditions.Methods Lake-region ribbed shell On-comelania snails,mountain-region ribbed shell Oncomelania snails and mountain-region smooth shell Oncomelania snails were collected from Xingzi County of Jiangxi Province,Yushan County of Jiangxi Province and Pengshan County of Sichuan Province,respectively.The infected and un-infected snails were screened using the cercariae escaping method.The Schistosoma japonicum-in-fected snails from Xingzi County were used to infect a rabbit.The liver was removed and miracidia were obtained after 45 days.Then snails were infected with the miracidia at a ratio of 120 at 26-30 ℃ under fluorescent lamp irradiation.These infected snails were fed for 4 months in Schistoso-miasis Control Station of Xingzi County under simulated natural conditions,and the survival rate and infection rate were determined.Results Oncomelania snails from mountain regions of Yushan County of Jiangxi Province and mountain regions of Pengshan County of Sichuan Province could survive under simulated natural conditions in Xingzi County of Jiangxi Province.But their survival rates were significantly lower than those from lake regions of Xingzi County of Jiangxi Province (P < 0.001 ).Furthermore,Oncomelania snails from lake regions of Xingzi County of Jiangxi Province and mountain regions of Yushan County of Jiangxi Province,but not those from moun-tain regions of Pengshan County of Sichuan Province,were easily infected with Schistosoma ja-ponicum miracidia from Xingzi County of Jiangxi Province.In addition,the infection rate of snails from lake regions of Xingzi

  8. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, C.; et al.

    2015-03-23

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summarizes discussion and conclusions from the workshop.

  9. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, C.; Ankowski, A.M.; Asaadi, J.A.; Ashenfelter, J.; Axani, S.N.; Babu, K.; Backhouse, C.; Band, H.R.; Barbeau, P.S.; Barros, N.; Bernstein, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bishai, M.; Blucher, E.; Bouffard, J.; Bowden, N.; Brice, S.; Bryan, C.; Camilleri, L.; Cao, J.; Carlson, J.; Carr, R.E.; Chatterjee, A.; Chen, M.; Chen, S.; Chiu, M.; Church, E.D.; Collar, J.I.; Collin, G.; Conrad, J.M.; Convery, M.R.; Cooper, R.L.; Cowen, D.; Davoudiasl, H.; de Gouvea, A.; Dean, D.J.; Deichert, G.; Descamps, F.; DeYoung, T.; Diwan, M.V.; Djurcic, Z.; Dolinski, M.J.; Dolph, J.; Donnelly, B.; Dwyer, D.A.; Dytman, S.; Efremenko, Y.; Everett, L.L.; Fava, A.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Fleming, B.; Friedland, A.; Fujikawa, B.K.; Gaisser, T.K.; Galeazzi, M.; Galehouse, D.C.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Garvey, G.T.; Gautam, S.; Gilje, K.E.; Gonzalez-Garcia, M.; Goodman, M.C.; Gordon, H.; Gramellini, E.; Green, M.P.; Guglielmi, A.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Hackenburg, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hans, S.; Harris, D.; Heeger, K.M.; Herman, M.; Hill, R.; Holin, A.; Huber, P.; Jaffe, D.E.; Johnson, R.A.; Joshi, J.; Karagiorgi, G.; Kaufman, L.J.; Kayser, B.; Kettell, S.H.; Kirby, B.J.; Klein, J.R.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kriske, R.M.; Lane, C.E.; Langford, T.J.; Lankford, A.; Lau, K.; Learned, J.G.; Ling, J.; Link, J.M.; Lissauer, D.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B.R.; Lockwitz, S.; Lokajicek, M.; Louis, W.C.; Luk, K.; Lykken, J.; Marciano, W.J.; Maricic, J.; Markoff, D.M.; Martinez Caicedo, D.A.; Mauger, C.; Mavrokoridis, K.; McCluskey, E.; McKeen, D.; McKeown, R.; Mills, G.; Mocioiu, I.; Monreal, B.; Mooney, M.R.; Morfin, J.G.; Mumm, P.; Napolitano, J.; Neilson, R.; Nelson, J.K.; Nessi, M.; Norcini, D.; Nova, F.; Nygren, D.R.; Orebi Gann, G.D.; Palamara, O.; Parsa, Z.; Patterson, R.; Paul, P.; Pocar, A.; Qian, X.; Raaf, J.L.; Rameika, R.; Ranucci, G.; Ray, H.; Reyna, D.; Rich, G.C.; Rodrigues, P.; Romero, E.Romero; Rosero, R.; Rountree, S.D.; Rybolt, B.; Sanchez, M.C.; Santucci, G.; Schmitz, D.; Scholberg, K.; Seckel, D.; Shaevitz, M.; Shrock, R.; Smy, M.B.; Soderberg, M.; Sonzogni, A.; Sousa, A.B.; Spitz, J.; St. John, J.M.; Stewart, J.; Strait, J.B.; Sullivan, G.; Svoboda, R.; Szelc, A.M.; Tayloe, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Toups, M.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Van de Water, R.G.; Vogelaar, R.B.; Weber, M.; Weng, W.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; White, B.R.; Whitehead, L.; Whittington, D.W.; Wilking, M.J.; Wilson, R.J.; Wilson, P.; Winklehner, D.; Winn, D.R.; Worcester, E.; Yang, L.; Yeh, M.; Yokley, Z.W.; Yoo, J.; Yu, B.; Yu, J.; Zhang, C.

    2015-01-01

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summ...

  10. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, C; Ankowski, A M; Asaadi, J A; Ashenfelter, J; Axani, S N; Babu, K; Backhouse, C; Band, H R; Barbeau, P S; Barros, N; Bernstein, A; Betancourt, M; Bishai, M; Blucher, E; Bouffard, J; Bowden, N; Brice, S; Bryan, C; Camilleri, L; Cao, J; Carlson, J; Carr, R E; Chatterjee, A; Chen, M; Chen, S; Chiu, M; Church, E D; Collar, J I; Collin, G; Conrad, J M; Convery, M R; Cooper, R L; Cowen, D; Davoudiasl, H; De Gouvea, A; Dean, D J; Deichert, G; Descamps, F; DeYoung, T; Diwan, M V; Djurcic, Z; Dolinski, M J; Dolph, J; Donnelly, B; Dwyer, D A; Dytman, S; Efremenko, Y; Everett, L L; Fava, A; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Fleming, B; Friedland, A; Fujikawa, B K; Gaisser, T K; Galeazzi, M; Galehouse, D C; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Garvey, G T; Gautam, S; Gilje, K E; Gonzalez-Garcia, M; Goodman, M C; Gordon, H; Gramellini, E; Green, M P; Guglielmi, A; Hackenburg, R W; Hackenburg, A; Halzen, F; Han, K; Hans, S; Harris, D; Heeger, K M; Herman, M; Hill, R; Holin, A; Huber, P; Jaffe, D E; Johnson, R A; Joshi, J; Karagiorgi, G; Kaufman, L J; Kayser, B; Kettell, S H; Kirby, B J; Klein, J R; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kriske, R M; Lane, C E; Langford, T J; Lankford, A; Lau, K; Learned, J G; Ling, J; Link, J M; Lissauer, D; Littenberg, L; Littlejohn, B R; Lockwitz, S; Lokajicek, M; Louis, W C; Luk, K; Lykken, J; Marciano, W J; Maricic, J; Markoff, D M; Caicedo, D A Martinez; Mauger, C; Mavrokoridis, K; McCluskey, E; McKeen, D; McKeown, R; Mills, G; Mocioiu, I; Monreal, B; Mooney, M R; Morfin, J G; Mumm, P; Napolitano, J; Neilson, R; Nelson, J K; Nessi, M; Norcini, D; Nova, F; Nygren, D R; Gann, G D Orebi; Palamara, O; Parsa, Z; Patterson, R; Paul, P; Pocar, A; Qian, X; Raaf, J L; Rameika, R; Ranucci, G; Ray, H; Reyna, D; Rich, G C; Rodrigues, P; Romero, E Romero; Rosero, R; Rountree, S D; Rybolt, B; Sanchez, M C; Santucci, G; Schmitz, D; Scholberg, K; Seckel, D; Shaevitz, M; Shrock, R; Smy, M B; Soderberg, M; Sonzogni, A; Sousa, A B; Spitz, J; John, J M St; Stewart, J; Strait, J B; Sullivan, G; Svoboda, R; Szelc, A M; Tayloe, R; Thomson, M A; Toups, M; Vacheret, A; Vagins, M; Van de Water, R G; Vogelaar, R B; Weber, M; Weng, W; Wetstein, M; White, C; White, B R; Whitehead, L; Whittington, D W; Wilking, M J; Wilson, R J; Wilson, P; Winklehner, D; Winn, D R; Worcester, E; Yang, L; Yeh, M; Yokley, Z W; Yoo, J; Yu, B; Yu, J; Zhang, C

    2015-01-01

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summ...

  11. Welding. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Kenneth

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of nine terminal objectives for an intermediate welding course. The materials were developed for a 36-week (3 hours daily) course designed to prepare the student for employment in the field of welding. Electric welding and specialized (TIG & MIG)…

  12. Dee-Mack Intermediate School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Frank Reliford, the Principal at Dee-Mack Intermediate since 2005, is familiar to almost every child in the community. 260 Students attend Reliford's school, and their status is a point of pride: Dee-Mack Intermediate is consistently one of the highest performing schools in the state. The change in student performance correlates to the…

  13. Intermediate dosimetric quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerer, A M; Hahn, K; Rossi, H H

    1992-04-01

    The transfer of energy from ionizing radiation to matter involves a series of steps. In wide ranges of their energy spectra photons and neutrons transfer energy to an irradiated medium almost exclusively by the production of charged particles which ionize and thereby produce electrons that can ionize in turn. The examination of these processes leads to a series of intermediate quantities. One of these is kerma, which has long been employed as a measure of the energy imparted in the first of the interactions. It depends only on the fluence of uncharged particles and is therefore--unlike absorbed dose and electron fluence--insensitive to local differences of receptor geometry and composition. An analogous quantity for charged-particle fields, cema (converted energy per unit mass), is defined, which quantifies the energy imparted in terms of the interactions of charged particles, disregarding energy dissipation by secondary electrons. Cema can be expressed as an integral over the fluence of ions times their stopping power. However, complications arise when the charged particles are electrons, and when their fluence cannot be separated from that of the secondaries. The resulting difficulty can be circumvented by the definition of reduced cema. This quantity corresponds largely to the concept employed in the cavity theory of Spencer and Attix. In reduced cema not all secondary electrons but all electrons below a chosen cutoff energy, delta, are considered to be absorbed locally. When the cutoff energy is reduced, cema approaches absorbed dose and thereby becomes sensitive to highly local differences in geometry or composition. With larger values of delta, reduced cema is a useful parameter to specify the dose-generating potential of a charged-particle field 'free in air' or in vacuo. It is nearly equal to the mean absorbed dose in a sphere with radius equal to the range of electrons of energy delta. Reduced cema is a function of the fluence at the specified location at

  14. 氢溴酸槟榔碱对钉螺足平滑肌收缩活动的影响%The Role of Calcium Ion in Effects of Arecoline Hydrobromide on Contractive Activities of the Smooth Muscles in Oncomelania Foot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓静萍; 夏涛; 王宏翔; 吴世玉; 夏国瑾

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the effects of arecoline hydrobromide on contraction of the smooth muscles in oncomelania foot, and explore the mechanism of arecoline hydrobromide in decreasing climbing adhesion and increasing snail-killing.  Method: The in vitro experiment was used to observe the effects of arecoline hydrobromide on contraction activitive of foot smooth muscles of oncomelania.  Results: With a concentration of 3×10-6mol*L-1, arecoline hydrobromide strengthened the contraction and increased the frequency of the contraction of the foot smooth muscles of oncomelania, which was antagonized by verapamil. The same concentration of arecoline hydrobromide enhanced the contraction of smooth muscles in Ringer's solution with ECTA but Ca2+, and this effect was antagonized by caffeine. The concentrations of 10-5 and 3×10-5mol*L-1 of arecolin hydrobromide blocked the effect of Bay K8644 in enhancing foot smooth muscle contraction, with a characteristic of concentration-dependence.  Conclusion:Arecoline hydrobromide may block the calcium channel of the smooth muscles in oncomelania foot. This could provide an explanation why arecoline hydrobromide decreases the rate of oncomelania climbing adhesion and enhances snail-killing.%目的:研究氢溴酸槟榔碱对钉螺足平滑肌的收缩活动与Ca2+的关系,探讨其降低钉螺附壁上爬、增强灭螺效果的作用机制。方法:采用离体平滑肌实验方法,观察氢溴酸槟榔碱对足平滑肌收缩活动的影响。结果:3×10-6mol*L-1氢溴酸槟榔碱可使收缩力增加,频率加快,其收缩活动可被维拉帕米所拮抗;同等浓度的氢溴酸槟榔碱,在无Ca2+含EGTA的Ringer's液中,亦可增强平滑肌的收缩活动,且能被咖啡因拮抗。1×10-5和3×10-5mol*L-1氢溴酸槟榔碱,均能显著地阻滞Bay K8644,增强足平滑肌的收缩活动,且阻滞作用呈浓度依赖性。结论:氢溴酸槟榔碱可能具

  15. Gulf of Maine intermediate water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, T.S. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY); Garfield, N. III

    1979-01-01

    The thermohaline dynamics of the Gulf of Maine are analyzed from the two year, eight cruise, data set of Colton, Marak, Nickerson, and Stoddard (1968). Six water masses are described: the Maine Surface Water, Maine Intermediate Water, and the Maine Bottom Water as interior water masses; and the Scotian Shelf Water, the Slope Water, and the Georges Bank Water as exterior water masses. Particular attention is given to the formation and disposition of the Maine Intermediate Water. Salt balance, T-S volume, and T-S drift analyses are used to provide transport and mixing estimates for the year 1966. The Slope Water entered at depth through the Northeast Channel at a rate of 2600 km/sup 3//yr; while the Scotian Shelf Water entered the surface and intermediate layers, mostly during winter intrusions, at a rate of 5200 km/sup 3//yr. The surface and intermediate layers exported a total of 7900 km/sup 3//yr in a 3:5 ratio, respectively. The Maine Intermediate Water tends to collect over the Wilkinson Basin during the stratified season, to exit via the Great South Channel during early spring, and to exit via the Northeast Channel during spring and summer. Comparisons are made between the estimated winter heat loss of 280 Ly/d and the observed heat losses of 230 Ly/d (surface layers) and 360 Ly/d (surface and intermediate layers). A limit for the Scotian Shelf Water contribution is about -70 Ly/d. It is concluded that the Maine Intermediate Water is produced locally and that it is exported in significant quantities.

  16. Organophosphate Poisoning and Intermediate Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yilmaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxic effects that occur after acute organophosphate poisoning (OP can manifest three phases, namely, acute cholinergic crisis, intermediate syndrome and delayed-type polyneuropathy. Clinical signs and symptoms of organophosphate poisoning depend on the accumulation of acetylcholine at the nerve junction. Organophosphate poisoning causes three main clinical findings; acute cholinergic crisis consisting of muscarinic, nicotinic and central nervous system symptoms, intermediate syndrome with recurrence of cholinergic symptoms or muscle weakness without fasciculation 24-96 hours after poisoning and delayed-type polyneuropathy that can usually occur several days or weeks after acute exposure to organic phosphorus compounds. In this article, intermediate syndrome, which is a late complication, has been reviewed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(1.000: 70-83

  17. Nuclear reactions at intermediate energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Radhey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the domain of Nuclear reactions at intermediate energies, the QCD coupling constant αs is large enough (~ 0.3 - 0.5 to render the perturbative calculational techniques inapplicable. In this regime the quarks are confined into colorless hadrons and it is expected that effective field theories of hadron interactions via exchange of hadrons, provide useful tools to describe such reactions. In this contribution we discuss the application of one such theory, the effective Lagrangian model, in describing the hadronic reactions at intermediate energies whose measurements are the focus of a vast international experimental program.

  18. Cestina pro Pokrocile (Intermediate Czech).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Grazyna; And Others

    The textbook in intermediate Czech is designed for second-year students of the language and those who already have a basic knowledge of Czech grammar and vocabulary. It is appropriate for use in a traditional college language classroom, the business community, or a government language school. It can be covered in a year-long conventional…

  19. Material Voices: Intermediality and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimingham, Melissa; Shaughnessy, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Autism continues to be regarded enigmatically; a community that is difficult to access due to perceived disruptions of interpersonal connectedness. Through detailed observations of two children participating in the Arts and Humanities Research Council funded project "Imagining Autism: Drama, Performance and Intermediality as Interventions for…

  20. Learning through Literature: Geography, Intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Mary Ellen

    This resource book provides specific strategies and activities for integrating the intermediate geography curriculum with related children's literature selections. The book includes the following sections: (1) "World Geography Overview"; (2) "Oceans"; (3) "Polar Regions"; (4) "Islands"; (5) "Rain Forests"; (6) "Mountains"; (7) "Forests"; (8)…

  1. Relationship between environmental remote sensing alternate indexes and Oncomelania snail distribution in hilly and mountainous areas%环境遥感替代指标与山丘地区钉螺分布的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董毅; 李朝晖; 冯锡光; 董兴齐

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relationship between Oncomelania snail distribution and environmental remote sensing indexes in hilly and mountainous areas. Method The normalized different vegetation index (NDVI), land surface temperature (LST), humidity index (Wetness) of 85 snail spots in Dali City were extracted for statistical analysis by TM image, and the land-use types were classified. LST, NDVI, Wetness, snail density and land-use types were overlaid and analyzed by using a weight of suitability model of ArcGIS 9.2, and snail appropriate distribution range in Dali City was calculated. Results The distribution of LST, NDVI, Wetness values of the investigated snail points were approximately normal, and most of the snail points distributed nearby the average values of the remote sensing alternate indexes, then gradually reduced to the ends. More than 90% of the snail spots were distributed in the land type with crops and grassland. The environments in Dali City were divided into unsuitable snail environment (0-14 points), suitable snail environment (15-21 points), and optimum snail environment (22-26 points) by the weight suitability mode. Conclusions Environmental remote sensing indicators can reflect the environmental factors affecting snail distribution directly. Combining remote sensing with GIS and field survey can describe, judge and forecast the distribution of snails.%目的 探讨影响山丘地区钉螺分布的常用环境遥感指标.方法 使用TM遥感图像提取云南省大理市85个螺点的植被指数(NDVI)、地表温度(LST)和湿度指数(Wetness)并进行统计分析,同时进行土地利用的分类;利用ArcGIS 9.2的权重适宜性模型将LST、NDVI、Wetness、钉螺密度、土地利用类型赋值后叠加分析,并计算大理市钉螺适宜分布范围.结果 提取的LST、NDVI、Wetness值均呈近似正态分布,螺点大部分分布在各遥感替代指标均数附近,并向两端逐渐减少,90%以上的螺点分布在代表庄

  2. Larval helminths in intermediate hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Poulin, R

    2005-01-01

    a reduction in size, caused by crowding, virtually nothing is known about longer-lasting effects after transmission to the definitive host. This study is the first to use in vitro cultivation with feeding of adult trematodes to investigate how numbers of parasites in the intermediate host affect the size......Density-dependent effects on parasite fitness have been documented from adult helminths in their definitive hosts. There have, however, been no studies on the cost of sharing an intermediate host with other parasites in terms of reduced adult parasite fecundity. Even if larval parasites suffer...... and fecundity of adult parasites. For this purpose, we examined two different infracommunities of parasites in crustacean hosts. Firstly, we used experimental infections of Maritrema novaezealandensis in the amphipod, Paracalliope novizealandiae, to investigate potential density-dependent effects in single...

  3. PERIPHERAL RETINOSCHISIS IN INTERMEDIATE UVEITIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichi, Francesco; Srivastava, Sunil K; Nucci, Paolo; Baynes, Kimberly; Neri, Piergiorgio; Lowder, Careen Y

    2017-01-11

    To examine cases of intermediate uveitis complicated by retinoschisis and review the pathogenetic hypothesis. A retrospective chart review of patients with intermediate uveitis. Data were collected at three uveitis referral centers on sex, age, best-corrected visual acuity, degree of vitritis, extent and location of snowbanking, presence of hard exudates, neovascularization, vitreous hemorrhage, and extent and nature of retinal elevations. A series of 23 eyes of 20 patients were examined; patient's age ranged from 10 years to 70 years and follow-up period from 8 months to 6 years. Twenty-two eyes had retinoschisis (95.6%), and 1 had retinoschisis associated with serous retinal detachment (4.3%). Extensive inferior pars plana exudates with snowbanking were present in 12 eyes (52.2%), whereas 3 eyes had inferior snowballs over the elevated retina. Neovascularization of the vitreous base accompanied by vitreous hemorrhage occurred in one eye. There was no coexisting macular pathology in 16 eyes, whereas 4 eyes had cystoid macular edema. The appearance of peripheral retinoschisis in this series of uncontrolled intermediate uveitis patients seems to be secondary to a complex balance between the persistent fluorescein leakage, a subclinical peripheral ischemia, and the constant low-grade vitreous inflammation that causes vitreous shrinkage and traction. The results of this study suggest that the absence of macroscopic changes in the retina does not preclude ischemic peripheral abnormalities, and the detection of a peripheral retinoschisis in an intermediate uveitis patient with active fluorescein leakage must suggest the need for a more aggressive form of treatment despite the good visual acuity.

  4. Branching of keratin intermediate filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafeey, Soufi; Martin, Ines; Felder, Tatiana; Walther, Paul; Felder, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) are crucial to maintain mechanical stability in epithelial cells. Since little is known about the network architecture that provides this stiffness and especially about branching properties of filaments, we addressed this question with different electron microscopic (EM) methods. Using EM tomography of high pressure frozen keratinocytes, we investigated the course of several filaments in a branching of a filament bundle. Moreover we found several putative bifurcations in individual filaments. To verify our observation we also visualized the keratin network in detergent extracted keratinocytes with scanning EM. Here bifurcations of individual filaments could unambiguously be identified additionally to bundle branchings. Interestingly, identical filament bifurcations were also found in purified keratin 8/18 filaments expressed in Escherichia coli which were reassembled in vitro. This excludes that an accessory protein contributes to the branch formation. Measurements of the filament cross sectional areas showed various ratios between the three bifurcation arms. This demonstrates that intermediate filament furcation is very different from actin furcation where an entire new filament is attached to an existing filament. Instead, the architecture of intermediate filament bifurcations is less predetermined and hence consistent with the general concept of IF formation.

  5. PENULARAN SCHISTOSOMIASIS DI DESA DODOLO DAN MEKARSARI DATARAN TINGGI NAPU SULAWESI TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmini Rosmini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of schistosomiasis is still ongoing in Dodolo and Mekarsari Villages ofNapu highland, Poso District. The people who infected with Schistosoma japonicum, intermediate host. Oncomelania hnpensis lindoensis snails that infected by cercaria. infective stage of S. japonicum and reservoir host, rats, which infected by S. japonicum were still (bund. The purpose of this study was to identify the transmission of schistosomiasis at Dodolo and Mekarsari Villages, Napu highland. The epidemiological investigation was analyzed using observational study with cross sectional design. Data collections were conducted, including stool, snail and rat suryeys. Stool samples were examined by the Kato-Katz method and rats were dissected to identify the prevalence rate of schistosomiasis in human and rats. Snails were examined using crushing method to identify the infection rate of the snails. Prevalence rate of schistosomiasis in human, rats (Rattus exulans and infection rate O. hnpensis lindoensis snails in Dodolo were 6,9%, 8,3%, 2,8% and in Mekarsari were 6,1%, 10% 2,6% respectively. Prevalence of schistosomiasis in Dodolo and Mekarsari villages is still high, so we need continuous surveillance.   Keywords: Schistosomiasis, Schistosoma japonicum, O. hupensis lindoensis, Dodolo, Mekarsari

  6. 环境因子对钉螺生长发育与分布的影响%The influence of environmental factors on snail growth and distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玉梅; 张世清

    2011-01-01

    Oncomelania hupensis is the only intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum. The growth and distribution of the snails are closely related to many environmental factors. Environmental changes can affect the survival and distribution of snails, and get to control snails effectively. In this paper, we review the temperature, humidity, vegetation, soil, climate, hydrological factors, light and other environmental factors that affect the ecology of snails.%钉螺是日本血吸虫的唯一中间宿主,钉螺的生长发育和分布与多种环境因素密切相关,改变环境因素可影响钉螺的生存、繁殖及其分布,从而达到有效控制钉螺的目的.该文系统介绍了温度、湿度、植被、土壤、气候、水文、光线等环境因子对钉螺生态的影响.

  7. Co-dispersal of the blood fluke Schistosoma japonicum and Homo sapiens in the Neolithic Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Mingbo; Zheng, Hong-Xiang; Su, Jing; Feng, Zheng; McManus, Donald P; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Jin, Li; Hu, Wei

    2015-12-21

    The global spread of human infectious diseases is of considerable public health and biomedical interest. Little is known about the relationship between the distribution of ancient parasites and that of their human hosts. Schistosoma japonicum is one of the three major species of schistosome blood flukes causing the disease of schistosomiasis in humans. The parasite is prevalent in East and Southeast Asia, including the People's Republic of China, the Philippines and Indonesia. We studied the co-expansion of S. japonicum and its human definitive host. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on complete mitochondrial genome sequences showed that S. japonicum radiated from the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River to the mountainous areas of China, Japan and Southeast Asia. In addition, the parasite experienced two population expansions during the Neolithic agriculture era, coinciding with human migration and population growth. The data indicate that the advent of rice planting likely played a key role in the spread of schistosomiasis in Asia. Moreover, the presence of different subspecies of Oncomelania hupensis intermediate host snails in different localities in Asia allowed S. japonicum to survive in new rice-planting areas, and concurrently drove the intraspecies divergence of the parasite.

  8. Role of Intermediate Filaments in Vesicular Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzurra Margiotta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate filaments are an important component of the cellular cytoskeleton. The first established role attributed to intermediate filaments was the mechanical support to cells. However, it is now clear that intermediate filaments have many different roles affecting a variety of other biological functions, such as the organization of microtubules and microfilaments, the regulation of nuclear structure and activity, the control of cell cycle and the regulation of signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, a number of intermediate filament proteins have been involved in the acquisition of tumorigenic properties. Over the last years, a strong involvement of intermediate filament proteins in the regulation of several aspects of intracellular trafficking has strongly emerged. Here, we review the functions of intermediate filaments proteins focusing mainly on the recent knowledge gained from the discovery that intermediate filaments associate with key proteins of the vesicular membrane transport machinery. In particular, we analyze the current understanding of the contribution of intermediate filaments to the endocytic pathway.

  9. Intermedial Strategies of Memory in Contemporary Novels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Sara

    2014-01-01

    In her article "Intermedial Strategies and Memory in Contemporary Novels" Sara Tanderup discusses a tendency in contemporary literature towards combining intermedial experiments with a thematic preoccupation with memory and trauma. Analyzing selected works by Steven Hall, Jonathan Safran Foer...

  10. Pelamis WEC - intermediate scale demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yemm, R.

    2003-07-01

    This report describes the successful building and commissioning of an intermediate 1/7th scale model of the Pelamis Wave Energy Converter (WEC) and its testing in the wave climate of the Firth of Forth. Details are given of the design of the semi-submerged articulated structure of cylindrical elements linked by hinged joints. The specific programme objectives and conclusions, development issues addressed, and key remaining risks are discussed along with development milestones to be passed before the Pelamis WEC is ready for full-scale prototype testing.

  11. ESL intermediate/advanced writing

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz Page, Mary Ellen; Jaskiewicz, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Master ESL (English as a Second Language) Writing with the study guide designed for non-native speakers of English. Skill-building lessons relevant to today's topics help ESL students write complete sentences, paragraphs, and even multi-paragraph essays. It's perfect for classroom use or self-guided writing preparation.DETAILS- Intermediate drills for improving skills with parallel structure, mood, correct shifting errors & dangling participles- Advanced essay drills focusing on narrative, descriptive, process, reaction, comparison and contrast- Superb preparation for students taking the TOEFL

  12. Intermediate Filaments in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuela, Noam; Gruenbaum, Yosef

    2016-01-01

    More than 70 different genes in humans and 12 different genes in Caenorhabditis elegans encode the superfamily of intermediate filament (IF) proteins. In C. elegans, similar to humans, these proteins are expressed in a cell- and tissue-specific manner, can assemble into heteropolymers and into 5-10nm wide filaments that account for the principal structural elements at the nuclear periphery, nucleoplasm, and cytoplasm. At least 5 of the 11 cytoplasmic IFs, as well as the nuclear IF, lamin, are essential. In this chapter, we will include a short review of our current knowledge of both cytoplasmic and nuclear IFs in C. elegans and will describe techniques used for their analyses.

  13. 34 CFR 200.17 - Intermediate goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermediate goals. 200.17 Section 200.17 Education... Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.17 Intermediate goals. Each State must establish intermediate goals that increase in equal increments over the period...

  14. Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, M C

    2004-01-01

    The mathematical simplicity of black holes, combined with their links to some of the most energetic events in the universe, means that black holes are key objects for fundamental physics and astrophysics. Until recently, it was generally believed that black holes in nature appear in two broad mass ranges: stellar-mass (roughly 3-20 solar masses), which are produced by the core collapse of massive stars, and supermassive (millions to billions of solar masses), which are found in the centers of galaxies and are produced by a still uncertain combination of processes. In the last few years, however, evidence has accumulated for an intermediate-mass class of black holes, with hundreds to thousands of solar masses. If such objects exist they have important implications for the dynamics of stellar clusters, the formation of supermassive black holes, and the production and detection of gravitational waves. We review the evidence for intermediate-mass black holes and discuss future observational and theoretical work t...

  15. Intermediate view synthesis from stereoscopic images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Chaohui; An Ping; Zhang Zhaoyang

    2005-01-01

    A new method is proposed for synthesizing intermediate views from a pair of stereoscopic images. In order to synthesize high-quality intermediate views, the block matching method together with a simplified multi-window technique and dynamic programming is used in the process of disparity estimation. Then occlusion detection is performed to locate occluded regions and their disparities are compensated. After the projecton of the left-to-right and right-to-left disparities onto the intermediate image, intermediate view is synthesized considering occluded regions. Experimental results show that our synthesis method can obtain intermediate views with higher quality.

  16. Displays for future intermediate UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel; Metzler, James; Blakesley, David; Rister, Courtney; Nuhu, Abdul-Razak

    2008-04-01

    The Dedicated Autonomous Extended Duration Airborne Long-range Utility System (DAEDALUS) is a prototype Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that won the 2007 AFRL Commander's Challenge. The purpose of the Commander's Challenge was to find an innovative solution to urgent warfighter needs by designing a UAV with increased persistence for tactical employment of sensors and communication systems. DAEDALUS was chosen as a winning prototype by AFRL, AFMC and SECAF. Follow-on units are intended to fill an intermediate role between currently fielded Tier I and Tier II UAV's. The UAV design discussed in this paper, including sensors and displays, will enter Phase II for Rapid Prototype Development with the intent of developing the design for eventual production. This paper will discuss the DAEDALUS UAV prototype system, with particular focus on its communications, to include the infrared sensor and electro-optical camera, but also displays, specifically man-portable.

  17. Intermediate Jacobians of moduli spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Arapura, D; Arapura, Donu; Sastry, Pramathanath

    1996-01-01

    Let $SU_X(n,L)$ be the moduli space of rank n semistable vector bundles with fixed determinant L on a smooth projective genus g curve X. Let $SU_X^s(n,L)$ denote the open subset parametrizing stable bundles. We show that if g>3 and n > 1, then the mixed Hodge structure on $H^3(SU_X^s(n, L))$ is pure of type ${(1,2),(2,1)}$ and it carries a natural polarization such that the associated polarized intermediate Jacobian is isomorphic J(X). This is new when deg L and n are not coprime. As a corollary, we obtain a Torelli theorem that says roughly that $SU_X^s(n,L)$ (or $SU_X(n,L)$) determines X. This complements or refines earlier results of Balaji, Kouvidakis-Pantev, Mumford-Newstead, Narasimhan-Ramanan, and Tyurin.

  18. Intermediate inflation from rainbow gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D

    2013-01-01

    It is possible to dualize theories based on deformed dispersion relations and Einstein gravity so as to map them into theories with trivial dispersion relations and rainbow gravity. This often leads to "dual inflation" without the usual breaking of the strong energy condition. We identify the dispersion relations in the original frame which map into "intermediate" inflationary models. These turn out to be particularly simple: power-laws modulated by powers of a logarithm. The fluctuations predicted by these scenarios are near, but not exactly scale-invariant, with a red running spectral index. These dispersion relations deserve further study within the context of quantum gravity and the phenomenon of dimensional reduction in the ultraviolet.

  19. A New Vaccinia Virus Intermediate Transcription Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz, Patrick; Moss, Bernard

    1998-01-01

    Transcription of the vaccinia virus genome is mediated by a virus-encoded multisubunit DNA-dependent RNA polymerase in conjunction with early-, intermediate-, and late-stage-specific factors. Previous studies indicated that two virus-encoded proteins (capping enzyme and VITF-1) and one unidentified cellular protein (VITF-2) are required for specific transcription of an intermediate promoter template in vitro. We have now extensively purified an additional virus-induced intermediate transcript...

  20. Experiments in intermediate energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehnhard, D.

    2003-02-28

    Research in experimental nuclear physics was done from 1979 to 2002 primarily at intermediate energy facilities that provide pion, proton, and kaon beams. Particularly successful has been the work at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) on unraveling the neutron and proton contributions to nuclear ground state and transition densities. This work was done on a wide variety of nuclei and with great detail on the carbon, oxygen, and helium isotopes. Some of the investigations involved the use of polarized targets which allowed the extraction of information on the spin-dependent part of the triangle-nucleon interaction. At the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) we studied proton-induced charge exchange reactions with results of importance to astrophysics and the nuclear few-body problem. During the first few years, the analysis of heavy-ion nucleus scattering data that had been taken prior to 1979 was completed. During the last few years we created hypernuclei by use of a kaon beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and an electron beam at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The data taken at BNL for a study of the non-mesonic weak decay of the A particle in a nucleus are still under analysis by our collaborators. The work at JLab resulted in the best resolution hypernuclear spectra measured thus far with magnetic spectrometers.

  1. THE MEDICALLY IMPORTANT MOLLUSCS OF INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machfudz Djajasasmita

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available At present in Indonesia 32 species of non-marine molluscs which belong to IS families have been known to be potentially of medicalor veterinary importance, since they are suspected to be capable in transmitting human and animal diseases. The brackish water family Potamididae comprises of 1 species; whereas the freshwater snails are : Viviparidae (3 sp., Ampullariidae (3 sp., Bythiniidae (1 sp.. Pomatiopsidae (1 sp., Thiaridae (7 sp., Lymnaeidae(l sp. and Planorbidae (5 sp.; freshwater bivalve are: Corbiculidae (4 sp.; land snails are: Subulinidae (2 sp., Achatinidae (1 sp. and Bradybaenidae (1 sp.; land slug: Veronicelidae (2 sp. Philomycidae (1 sp. and Limacidae (1 sp.. All are common species which can be found in the vicinity of human habitation (ponds, rice-field, ditches, gardens etc. The parasitological studies on these molluscs are rather limited, only 9 species have been studied and confirmed to be the intermediate host of parasitic nematodes and nematodes; i.e. Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis, the intermediate host of the blood fluke Schistosoma japonica in Central Sulawesi: Pila suctata, Achatina fulica and Laevicaulis alte from several places in Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi and Flores have been found to be harbouring the larvae of the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the causative agent of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis; Bellamy a rudipelis, Gyraulus sarasinorum and Corbicula lindoensis were recorded as the intermediate host of the intestinal fluke Echinostoma lindoensis in Central Sulawesi; Lymnaea rubiginosa plays an important role in the life-cycle of the cattle liver fluke Fasciola gigantica and F.hepatica, which may reduce the national meat production; and Digoniostoma truncatum from Bali has been recorded naturally infected with radiae and cercariae of Paramphistoma sp., the causative agent of the fatal paramphistomiasis of cattle. Gyraulus convexiusculus is considered to be the most likely first intermediate host of

  2. Some Intermediate-Level Violin Concertos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Contends that many violin students attempt difficult concertos before they are technically or musically prepared. Identifies a variety of concertos at the intermediate and advanced intermediate-level for students to study and master before attempting the advanced works by Bach and Mozart. Includes concertos by Vivaldi, Leclair, Viotti, Haydn,…

  3. 19 CFR 122.84 - Intermediate airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intermediate airport. 122.84 Section 122.84... Intermediate airport. (a) Application. The provisions of this section apply at any U.S. airport to which an... aircraft arrives at the next airport, the aircraft commander or agent shall make entry by filing the:...

  4. Air Conditioning. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, William

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of seven terminal objectives for an intermediate air conditioning course. The titles of the seven terminal objectives are Refrigeration Cycle, Job Requirement Skills, Air Conditioning, Trouble Shooting, Performance Test, Shop Management, and S.I.E.…

  5. Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marion

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of six terminal objectives presented in this curriculum guide for an intermediate gasoline engine mechanics course at the secondary level. (For the beginning course guide see CE 010 947.) The materials were developed for a two-semester (2 hour…

  6. Air Conditioning. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, William

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of seven terminal objectives for an intermediate air conditioning course. The titles of the seven terminal objectives are Refrigeration Cycle, Job Requirement Skills, Air Conditioning, Trouble Shooting, Performance Test, Shop Management, and S.I.E.…

  7. Effect of Intermediate Hosts on Emerging Zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing-An; Chen, Fangyuan; Fan, Shengjie

    2017-08-01

    Most emerging zoonotic pathogens originate from animals. They can directly infect humans through natural reservoirs or indirectly through intermediate hosts. As a bridge, an intermediate host plays different roles in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens. In this study, we present three types of pathogen transmission to evaluate the effect of intermediate hosts on emerging zoonotic diseases in human epidemics. These types are identified as follows: TYPE 1, pathogen transmission without an intermediate host for comparison; TYPE 2, pathogen transmission with an intermediate host as an amplifier; and TYPE 3, pathogen transmission with an intermediate host as a vessel for genetic variation. In addition, we established three mathematical models to elucidate the mechanisms underlying zoonotic disease transmission according to these three types. Stability analysis indicated that the existence of intermediate hosts increased the difficulty of controlling zoonotic diseases because of more difficult conditions to satisfy for the disease to die out. The human epidemic would die out under the following conditions: TYPE 1: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]; TYPE 2: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text]; and TYPE 3: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] Simulation with similar parameters demonstrated that intermediate hosts could change the peak time and number of infected humans during a human epidemic; intermediate hosts also exerted different effects on controlling the prevalence of a human epidemic with natural reservoirs in different periods, which is important in addressing problems in public health. Monitoring and controlling the number of natural reservoirs and intermediate hosts at the right time would successfully manage and prevent the prevalence of emerging zoonoses in humans.

  8. INTERMEDIATE-ENERGY LIGHT SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, William

    2002-11-25

    from each port can be subdivided into several separate beams, each of which can serve an independent experimental station. All told, 50 or more scientific teams can simultaneously and independently conduct research using intense photon beams from a single intermediate-energy synchrotron radiation facility.

  9. Language in use intermediate : classroom book

    CERN Document Server

    Doff, Adrian

    1995-01-01

    ach of the four levels comprises about 80 hours of class work, with additional time for the self-study work. The Teacher's Book contains all the pages from the Classroom Book, with interleaved teaching notes including optional activities to cater for different abilities. There is a video to accompany the Beginner, Pre-intermediate and Intermediate levels. Each video contains eight stimulating and entertaining short programmes, as well as a booklet of photocopiable activities. Free test material is available in booklet and web format for Beginner and Pre-intermediate levels. Visit www.cambridge.org/elt/liu or contact your local Cambridge University Press representative.

  10. Language in use intermediate : teacher's book

    CERN Document Server

    Doff, Adrian

    1998-01-01

    Each of the four levels comprises about 80 hours of class work, with additional time for the self-study work. The Teacher's Book contains all the pages from the Classroom Book, with interleaved teaching notes including optional activities to cater for different abilities. There is a video to accompany the Beginner, Pre-intermediate and Intermediate levels. Each video contains eight stimulating and entertaining short programmes, as well as a booklet of photocopiable activities. Free test material is available in booklet and web format for Beginner and Pre-intermediate levels. Visit www.cambridge.org/elt/liu or contact your local Cambridge University Press representative.

  11. Biocatalysis: synthesis of chiral intermediates for drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ramesh N

    2006-11-01

    Chirality is a key factor in the safety and efficacy of many drug products and thus the production of single enantiomers of drug intermediates has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. Chiral intermediates and fine chemicals are in high demand for the bulk preparation of drug substances and agricultural products. There has been an increasing awareness of the enormous potential of the use of microorganisms and microorganism-derived enzymes for the transformation of synthetic chemicals with high chemo-, regio- and enantioselectivities. In this article, biocatalytic processes are described for the synthesis of chiral intermediates for drugs.

  12. Intermediate/Advanced Research Design and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this module is To provide Institutional Researchers (IRs) with an understanding of the principles of advanced research design and the intermediate/advanced statistical procedures consistent with such designs

  13. Simplifying biochemical models with intermediate species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feliu, Elisenda; Wiuf, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    canonical model that characterizes crucial dynamical properties, such as mono- and multistationarity and stability of steady states, of all models in the class. We show that if the core model does not have conservation laws, then the introduction of intermediates does not change the steady...... techniques, we study systematically the effects of intermediate, or transient, species in biochemical systems and provide a simple, yet rigorous mathematical classification of all models obtained from a core model by including intermediates. Main examples include enzymatic and post-translational modification...... systems, where intermediates often are considered insignificant and neglected in a model, or they are not included because we are unaware of their existence. All possible models obtained from the core model are classified into a finite number of classes. Each class is defined by a mathematically simple...

  14. The second national audit of intermediate care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, John; Gladman, John R F; Forsyth, Duncan R; Holditch, Claire

    2015-03-01

    Intermediate care services have developed internationally to expedite discharge from hospital and to provide an alternative to an emergency hospital admission. Inconsistencies in the evidence base and under-developed governance structures led to concerns about the care quality, outcomes and provision of intermediate care in the NHS. The National Audit of Intermediate Care was therefore established by an interdisciplinary group. The second national audit reported in 2013 and included crisis response teams, home-based and bed-based services in approximately a half of the NHS. The main findings were evidence of weak local strategic planning, considerable under-provision, delays in accessing the services and lack of mental health involvement in care. There was a very high level of positive patient experience reported across all types of intermediate care, though reported involvement with care decisions was less satisfactory.

  15. Partially folded intermediates during trypsinogen denaturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins N.F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The equilibrium unfolding of bovine trypsinogen was studied by circular dichroism, differential spectra and size exclusion HPLC. The change in free energy of denaturation was = 6.99 ± 1.40 kcal/mol for guanidine hydrochloride and = 6.37 ± 0.57 kcal/mol for urea. Satisfactory fits of equilibrium unfolding transitions required a three-state model involving an intermediate in addition to the native and unfolded forms. Size exclusion HPLC allowed the detection of an intermediate population of trypsinogen whose Stokes radii varied from 24.1 ± 0.4 Å to 26.0 ± 0.3 Å for 1.5 M and 2.5 M guanidine hydrochloride, respectively. During urea denaturation, the range of Stokes radii varied from 23.9 ± 0.3 Å to 25.7 ± 0.6 Å for 4.0 M and 6.0 M urea, respectively. Maximal intrinsic fluorescence was observed at about 3.8 M urea with 8-aniline-1-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS binding. These experimental data indicate that the unfolding of bovine trypsinogen is not a simple transition and suggest that the equilibrium intermediate population comprises one intermediate that may be characterized as a molten globule. To obtain further insight by studying intermediates representing different stages of unfolding, we hope to gain a better understanding of the complex interrelations between protein conformation and energetics.

  16. Outflow forces in intermediate mass star formation

    CERN Document Server

    van Kempen, T A; van Dishoeck, E F; Kristensen, L E; Belloche, A; Klaassen, P D; Leurini, S; Jose-Garcia, I San; Aykutalp, A; Choi, Y; Endo, A; Frieswijk, W; Harsono, D; Karska, A; Koumpia, E; van der Marel, N; Nagy, Z; Perez-Beaupuits, J P; Risacher, C; van Weeren, R J; Wyrowski, F; Yildiz, U A; Guesten, R; Boland, W; Baryshev, A

    2015-01-01

    Intermediate mass protostarsprovide a bridge between theories of low- and high-mass star formation. Emerging molecular outflows can be used to determine the influence of fragmentation and multiplicity on protostellar evolution through the correlation of outflow forces of intermediate mass protostars with the luminosity. The aim of this paper is to derive outflow forces from outflows of six intermediate mass protostellar regions and validate the apparent correlation between total luminosity and outflow force seen in earlier work, as well as remove uncertainties caused by different methodology. By comparing CO 6--5 observations obtained with APEX with non-LTE radiative transfer model predictions, optical depths, temperatures, densities of the gas of the molecular outflows are derived. Outflow forces, dynamical timescales and kinetic luminosities are subsequently calculated. Outflow parameters, including the forces, were derived for all sources. Temperatures in excess of 50 K were found for all flows, in line wi...

  17. The ARES High-level Intermediate Representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Nicholas David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-03

    The LLVM intermediate representation (IR) lacks semantic constructs for depicting common high-performance operations such as parallel and concurrent execution, communication and synchronization. Currently, representing such semantics in LLVM requires either extending the intermediate form (a signi cant undertaking) or the use of ad hoc indirect means such as encoding them as intrinsics and/or the use of metadata constructs. In this paper we discuss a work in progress to explore the design and implementation of a new compilation stage and associated high-level intermediate form that is placed between the abstract syntax tree and when it is lowered to LLVM's IR. This highlevel representation is a superset of LLVM IR and supports the direct representation of these common parallel computing constructs along with the infrastructure for supporting analysis and transformation passes on this representation.

  18. Intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, G.W.; Giesler, G.C.; Liu, L.C.; Dropesky, B.J.; Knight, J.D.; Lucero, F.; Orth, C.J.

    1981-05-01

    This report contains the proceedings of the LAMPF Intermediate-Energy Nuclear Chemistry Workshop held in Los Alamos, New Mexico, June 23-27, 1980. The first two days of the Workshop were devoted to invited review talks highlighting current experimental and theoretical research activities in intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry and physics. Working panels representing major topic areas carried out indepth appraisals of present research and formulated recommendations for future research directions. The major topic areas were Pion-Nucleus Reactions, Nucleon-Nucleus Reactions and Nuclei Far from Stability, Mesonic Atoms, Exotic Interactions, New Theoretical Approaches, and New Experimental Techniques and New Nuclear Chemistry Facilities.

  19. Blue outliers among intermediate redshift quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Marziani, P; Stirpe, G M; Dultzin, D; Del Olmo, A; Martínez-Carballo, M A

    2015-01-01

    [Oiii]{\\lambda}{\\lambda}4959,5007 "blue outliers" -- that are suggestive of outflows in the narrow line region of quasars -- appear to be much more common at intermediate z (high luminosity) than at low z. About 40% of quasars in a Hamburg ESO intermediate-z sample of 52 sources qualify as blue outliers (i.e., quasars with [OIII] {\\lambda}{\\lambda}4959,5007 lines showing large systematic blueshifts with respect to rest frame). We discuss major findings on what has become an intriguing field in active galactic nuclei research and stress the relevance of blue outliers to feedback and host galaxy evolution.

  20. Governance-Default Risk Relationship and the Demand for Intermediated and Non-Intermediated Debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husam Aldamen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of corporate governance on the demand for intermediated debt (asset finance, bank debt, non-bank private debt and non-intermediated debt (public debt in the Australian debt market. Relative to other countries the Australian debt market is characterised by higher proportions of intermediated or private debt with a lower inherent level of information asymmetry in that private lenders have greater access to financial information (Gray, Koh & Tong 2009. Our firm level, cross-sectional evidence suggests that higher corporate governance impacts demand for debt via the mitigation of default risk. However, this relationship is not uniform across all debt types. Intermediated debt such as bank and asset finance debt are more responsive to changes in governance-default risk relationship than non-bank and non-intermediated debt. The implication is that a firm’s demand for different debt types will reflect its governance-default risk profile.

  1. [Epidemic situation and prevention strategy of schistosomiasis in Ya' an City after Lushan Earthquake on April 20, 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bao-hua; Zhou, Qi-fui; Wu, Zi-song; Yang, Ya-kang; Xiao, Zhi-yong; Wang, Cheng-xiang; Xie, Ming-kang; Wang, Yan-xia; Zhang, Yi-mei; Xu, Liang; Zhong, Bo

    2014-04-01

    This paper analyzes the recently epidemic status of schistosomiasis, the change of natural and social factors, and field survey and evaluation data of schistosomiasis in Ya'an City after Lushan Earthquake on April 20, 2013, and proposes that it is necessary to strengthen the conventional schistosomiasis control measures, the control of exogenous infection sources, the control of Oncomelania hupensis snails and health education for ensuring no major epidemics after the disaster. This paper also recommends the direction and suggestions for future schistosomiasis control in Ya' an City.

  2. What Should be Taught in Intermediate Macroeconomics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Pedro; O'Sullivan, Roisin; Simpson, Nicole B.

    2013-01-01

    A lack of consensus remains on what should form the theoretical core of the undergraduate intermediate macroeconomic course. In determining how to deal with the Keynesian/classical divide, instructors must decide whether to follow the modern approach of building macroeconomic relationships from micro foundations, or to use the traditional approach…

  3. The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mawji, Edward; Schlitzer, Reiner; Dodas, Elena Masferrer; Abadie, Cyril; Abouchami, Wafa; Anderson, Robert F.; Baars, Oliver; Bakker, Karel; Baskaran, Mark; Bates, Nicholas R.; Bluhm, Katrin; Bowie, Andrew; Bown, Johann; Boye, Marie; Boyle, Edward A.; Branellec, Pierre; Bruland, Kenneth W.; Brzezinski, Mark A.; Bucciarelli, Eva; Buesseler, Ken; Butler, Edward; Cai, Pinghe; Cardinal, Damien; Casciotti, Karen; Chaves, Joaquin; Cheng, Hai; Chever, Fanny; Church, Thomas M.; Colman, Albert S.; Conway, Tim M.; Croot, Peter L.; Cutter, Gregory A.; de Souza, Gregory F.; Dehairs, Frank; Deng, Feifei; Huong Thi Dieu, [Unknown; Dulaquais, Gabriel; Echegoyen-Sanz, Yolanda; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Fahrbach, Eberhard; Fitzsimmons, Jessica; Fleisher, Martin; Frank, Martin; Friedrich, Jana; Fripiat, Francois; Galer, Stephen J. G.; Gamo, Toshitaka; Solsona, Ester Garcia; Gerringa, Loes J. A.; Godoy, Jose Marcus; Gonzalez, Santiago; Grossteffan, Emilie; Hatta, Mariko; Hayes, Christopher T.; Heller, Maija Iris; Henderson, Gideon; Huang, Kuo-Fang; Jeandel, Catherine; Jenkins, William J.; John, Seth; Kenna, Timothy C.; Klunder, Maarten; Kretschmer, Sven; Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Laan, Patrick; Labatut, Marie; Lacan, Francois; Lam, Phoebe J.; Lannuzel, Delphine; le Moigne, Frederique; Lechtenfeld, Oliver J.; Lohan, Maeve C.; Lu, Yanbin; Masque, Pere; McClain, Charles R.; Measures, Christopher; Middag, Rob; Moffett, James; Navidad, Alicia; Nishioka, Jun; Noble, Abigail; Obata, Hajime; Ohnemus, Daniel C.; Owens, Stephanie; Planchon, Frederic; Pradoux, Catherine; Puigcorbe, Viena; Quay, Paul; Radic, Amandine; Rehkaemper, Mark; Remenyi, Tomas; Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.; Rintoul, Stephen; Robinson, Laura F.; Roeske, Tobias; Rosenberg, Mark; van der Loeff, Michiel Rutgers; Ryabenko, Evgenia; Saito, Mak A.; Roshan, Saeed; Salt, Lesley; Sarthou, Geraldine; Schauer, Ursula; Scott, Peter; Sedwick, Peter N.; Sha, Lijuan; Shiller, Alan M.; Sigman, Daniel M.; Smethie, William; Smith, Geoffrey J.; Sohrin, Yoshiki; Speich, Sabrina; Stichel, Torben; Stutsman, Johnny; Swift, James H.; Tagliabue, Alessandro; Thomas, Alexander; Tsunogai, Urumu; Twining, Benjamin S.; van Aken, Hendrik M.; van Heuven, Steven; van Ooijen, Jan; van Weerlee, Evaline; Venchiarutti, Celia; Voelker, Antje H. L.; Wake, Bronwyn; Warner, Mark J.; Woodward, E. Malcolm S.; Wu, Jingfeng; Wyatt, Neil; Yoshikawa, Hisayuki; Zheng, Xin-Yuan; Xue, Zichen; Zieringer, Moritz; Zimmer, Louise A.; de Baar, Henricus

    2015-01-01

    The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2014 (IDP2014) is the first publicly available data product of the international GEOTRACES programme, and contains data measured and quality controlled before the end of 2013. It consists of two parts: (1) a compilation of digital data for more than 200 trace

  4. Intermediate Amharic Cultural Reader. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslau, Wolf

    This reader is intended to provide material for the intermediate-level student of Amharic, as well as to introduce the student to the cultural and social life of Ethiopia. The 39 texts were each prepared by a different student at Haile Selassie I University, thus providing the reader with a variety of language styles. The Amharic texts are…

  5. Bismuth phosphates as intermediate temperature proton conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yunjie; Christensen, Erik; Shuai, Qin

    2017-01-01

    Proton conducting electrolyte materials operational in the intermediate temperature range of 200-400 °C are of special interest for applications in fuel cells and water electrolysers. Bismuth phosphates in forms of polycrystalline powders and amorphous glasses are synthesized and investigated...

  6. Modern Persian: Intermediate Level, Vol. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windfuhr, Gernot; And Others

    The second of three volumes of an intergrated course in intermediate Persian is presented. This volume encompasses material appropriate for students entering the second year of Persian studies who have strong preparation in elementary Persian. Verbal skills should be on a level which will allow comprehensive discussion of a topic using simple,…

  7. Multiphase Gas in Intermediate Redshift Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Churchill, C W; Charlton, J; Januzzi, B; Churchill, Chris; Mellon, Rick; Charlton, Jane

    2000-01-01

    We present 40 quasar absorption line systems at intermediate redshifts (z~1), with focus on one of the most kinematically complex known, as examples of how the unique capabilities of space-based and ground-based facilities can be combined to glean much broader insights into astrophysical systems.

  8. Intermediality and politics in theatre and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dapp, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation applies the concepts of intermediality and politics to five performances by Rimini Protokoll, Christoph Schlingensief, and Igneous, and analyzes the implications that emerge on both a significational and a theoretical level. Based on the specific mediality involved, it argues that

  9. Trusted intermediating agents in electronic trade networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.B. Klos (Tomas); F. Alkemade (Floortje)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstract Electronic commerce and trading of information goods significantly impact the role of intermediaries: consumers can bypass intermediating agents by forming direct links to producers. One reason that traditional intermediaries can still make a profit, is that they have more knowledge of

  10. Teaching Vocabulary and Morphology in Intermediate Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Anthony; Kramer-Vida, Louisa; Hunt, Carolyn V.

    2015-01-01

    Direct vocabulary instruction of Tier 2 and Tier 3 words in intermediate-grade curricula is an important tool of literacy instruction because English is a language grafted from many roots and has not developed a one-to-one phoneme-grapheme correspondence. In addition to knowing graphemes and phonemes, students must formally learn words that cross…

  11. On financial equilibrium with intermediation costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markeprand, Tobias Ejnar

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the set of competitive equilibria in financial economies with intermediation costs. We consider an arbitrary dividend structure, which includes options and equity with limited liabilities.We show a general existence result and upper-hemi continuity of the equilibrium correspond...

  12. Essays in corporate finance and financial intermediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempf, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters in corporate finance and financial intermediation. The first two chapters explore sources of incentives and learning for finance professionals. Specifically, the first chapter studies how the option to go work for an investment bank affects the incentives of cr

  13. Korean Intermediate Course. Selected Newspaper Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    The purpose of this material is to provide reading matter for the last phase of the Defense Language Institute's extended and intermediate courses in Korean. (See ED 024 943 for the Korean Basic Course, Lesson Units 1-112.) The content of this volume is current, introduces important vocabulary not encountered elsewhere in the courses, and calls…

  14. What Should be Taught in Intermediate Macroeconomics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Pedro; O'Sullivan, Roisin; Simpson, Nicole B.

    2013-01-01

    A lack of consensus remains on what should form the theoretical core of the undergraduate intermediate macroeconomic course. In determining how to deal with the Keynesian/classical divide, instructors must decide whether to follow the modern approach of building macroeconomic relationships from micro foundations, or to use the traditional approach…

  15. Intermediate Tamil: A Self-Instructional Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Harold

    This self-instructional method for learning an intermediate level of Tamil is designed to follow an elementary level such as "Conversational Tamil." The material in this text concentrates on grammatical constructions not covered in that elementary text, particularly negatives of all kinds; in addition, this text uses the same transcription and the…

  16. Changes to the Intermediate Accounting Course Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Lesley H.; Francisco, William H.

    2009-01-01

    There is an ever-growing amount of information that must be covered in Intermediate Accounting courses. Due to recent accounting standards and the implementation of IFRS this trend is likely to continue. This report incorporates the results of a recent survey to examine the trend of spending more course time to cover this additional material.…

  17. Synthesis of the key intermediate of ramelteon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Bao Yu; Hao Min Liu; Yu Luo; Wei Lu

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetric conjugated addition of allylcopper reagents derived from an allyl Grignard reagent and CuBr·Me2S to chiral α,β-unsaturated N-acyl oxazolidinones has been achieved. The synthetic procedure was applied to the preparation of the key intermediate of the novel nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic drug, ramelteon.

  18. Using Drosophila for Studies of Intermediate Filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnekamp, Jens; Cryderman, Diane E; Thiemann, Dylan A; Magin, Thomas M; Wallrath, Lori L

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a useful organism for determining protein function and modeling human disease. Drosophila offers a rapid generation time and an abundance of genomic resources and genetic tools. Conservation in protein structure, signaling pathways, and developmental processes make studies performed in Drosophila relevant to other species, including humans. Drosophila models have been generated for neurodegenerative diseases, muscular dystrophy, cancer, and many other disorders. Recently, intermediate filament protein diseases have been modeled in Drosophila. These models have revealed novel mechanisms of pathology, illuminated potential new routes of therapy, and make whole organism compound screens feasible. The goal of this chapter is to outline steps to study intermediate filament function and model intermediate filament-associated diseases in Drosophila. The steps are general and can be applied to study the function of almost any protein. The protocols outlined here are for both the novice and experienced Drosophila researcher, allowing the rich developmental and cell biology that Drosophila offers to be applied to studies of intermediate filaments.

  19. C and C* among intermediate rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Sack; S. Watson

    2013-01-01

    Given a completely regular Hausdorff space X, an intermediate ring A(X) is a ring of real valued continuous functions between C*(X) and C(X). We discuss two correspondences between ideals in A(X) and z-filters on X, both reviewing old results and introducing new results. One correspondence, ZA, exte

  20. C and C* among intermediate rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sack, J.; Watson, S.

    2014-01-01

    Given a completely regular Hausdorff space X, an intermediate ring A(X) is a ring of real valued continuous functions between C*(X) and C(X). We discuss two correspondences between ideals in A(X) and z-filters on X, both reviewing old results and introducing new results. One correspondence, ZA, exte

  1. MNE Entrepreneurial Capabilities at Intermediate Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoenen, Anne K.; Nell, Phillip Christopher; Ambos, Björn

    2014-01-01

    and on the heterogeneous information that is generated through dissimilar markets within the region. Our study opens up for an interesting discussion of the independence of these mechanisms. In sum, we contribute to the understanding of the entrepreneurial role of intermediate units in general and RHQs in particular....

  2. Software Testing An ISEB Intermediate Certificate

    CERN Document Server

    Hambling, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Covering testing fundamentals, reviews, testing and risk, test management and test analysis, this book helps newly qualified software testers to learn the skills and techniques to take them to the next level. Written by leading authors in the field, this is the only official textbook of the ISEB Intermediate Certificate in Software Testing.

  3. Intermediates and Generic Convergence to Equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freitas, Michael Marcondes de; Wiuf, Carsten; Feliu, Elisenda

    2016-01-01

    Known graphical conditions for the generic or global convergence to equilibria of the dynamical system arising from a reaction network are shown to be invariant under the so-called successive removal of intermediates, a systematic procedure to simplify the network, making the graphical conditions...

  4. Bridge: Intelligent Tutoring with Intermediate Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    Research and Development Center and Psychology Department University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA. 15260 The Artificial Intelligence and Psychology...problem never introduces more than one unfamiliar plan. Inteligent Tutoring With Intermediate Representations - Bonar and Cunniigbam 4 You must have a... Inteligent Tutoring With ntermediate Representations - Bonar and Cunningham 7 The requirements are specified at four differcnt levels, corresponding to

  5. Trusted intermediating agents in electronic trade networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klos, T.B.; Alkemade, F.

    2005-01-01

    Electronic commerce and trading of information goods significantly impact the role of intermediaries: consumers can bypass intermediating agents by forming direct links to producers. One reason that traditional intermediaries can still make a profit, is that they have more knowledge of the market, s

  6. Isoporphyrin Intermediate in Heme Oxygenase Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John P.; Niemevz, Fernando; Buldain, Graciela; de Montellano, Paul Ortiz

    2008-01-01

    Human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) catalyzes the O2- and NADPH-dependent oxidation of heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron. The first step involves regiospecific insertion of an oxygen atom at the α-meso carbon by a ferric hydroperoxide and is predicted to proceed via an isoporphyrin π-cation intermediate. Here we report spectroscopic detection of a transient intermediate during oxidation by hHO-1 of α-meso-phenylheme-IX, α-meso-(p-methylphenyl)-mesoheme-III, and α-meso-(p-trifluoromethylphenyl)-mesoheme-III. In agreement with previous experiments (Wang, J., Niemevz, F., Lad, L., Huang, L., Alvarez, D. E., Buldain, G., Poulos, T. L., and Ortiz de Montellano, P. R. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 42593–42604), only the α-biliverdin isomer is produced with concomitant formation of the corresponding benzoic acid. The transient intermediate observed in the NADPH-P450 reductase-catalyzed reaction accumulated when the reaction was supported by H2O2 and exhibited the absorption maxima at 435 and 930 nm characteristic of an isoporphyrin. Product analysis by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of the product generated with H2O2 identified it as an isoporphyrin that, on quenching, decayed to benzoylbiliverdin. In the presence of H218O2, one labeled oxygen atom was incorporated into these products. The hHO-1-isoporphyrin complexes were found to have half-lives of 1.7 and 2.4 h for the p-trifluoromethyl- and p-methyl-substituted phenylhemes, respectively. The addition of NADPH-P450 reductase to the H2O2-generated hHO-1-isoporphyrin complex produced α-biliverdin, confirming its role as a reaction intermediate. Identification of an isoporphyrin intermediate in the catalytic sequence of hHO-1, the first such intermediate observed in hemoprotein catalysis, completes our understanding of the critical first step of heme oxidation. PMID:18487208

  7. Evolutionary Characteristics of China's Intermediate Manufactures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minsung Kang; Jeong-Dong Lee

    2007-01-01

    China's economic development is characterized by progressive integration with international production chains as an assembly producer. Japan and South Korea are the major partners providing intermediate products to China. The present paper analyzes the Chinese intermediate sector's present condition and evolutionary characteristics revealed in bilateral trade with Japan and South Korea. The analysis uses the framework of new trade theory represented by "intra-industry trade". Trade statistics from 1997 to 2004 are analyzed using the database published by the OECD. Results show that China's inter-industrial evolution is characterized by its expanding positioning in the manner of the flying geese development paradigm of Asian countries. Furthermore, intra-industrial evolution is characterized by a concentration on price competitiveness. The framework and results of the industrial analysis presented in this paper assist in the understanding of China's manufacturing evolution and of the policy-making decisions taken in the process.

  8. Being back home after intermediate care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Bente; Harder, Ingegerd; Norlyk, Annelise

    2015-01-01

    Older people may face many challenges and experience insecurity after discharge from hospital to home. To bridge the potential gap between general hospital and home, the concept ‘Intermediate Care’ (IC) was developed at the beginning of 2000. IC aims to safeguard older people from being discharged....... Transcripts were analysed using a phenomenological approach. The essential meaning of being back home after a stay in an IC unit was characterised by ‘uncertainty’. Four constituents emerged: ‘in a state of shock about coming home’, ‘dependence on informal helpers’, ‘a sense of isolation’, and ‘fear of losing...... functional ability permanently’. Key words: intermediate care, older people, discharge, interview, phenomenology...

  9. Is TW Pictoris really an intermediate polar?

    CERN Document Server

    Norton, A J

    1998-01-01

    We present the results of a long ROSAT HRI observation of the candidate intermediate polar TW Pic. The power spectrum shows no sign of either the previously proposed white dwarf spin period or the proposed binary orbital period (1.996 hr and 6.06 hr respectively). The limits to the X-ray modulation are less than 0.3% in each case. In the absence of a coherent X-ray pulsation, the credentials of TW Pic for membership of the intermediate polar subclass must be suspect. We further suggest that the true orbital period of the binary may be the shorter of the two previously suggested, and that the longer period may represent a quasi-periodic phenomenon associated with the accretion disc.

  10. Emission of intermediate mass fragments during fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S. L.; de Souza, R. T.; Cornell, E.; Davin, B.; Hamilton, T. M.; Hulbert, D.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Lou, Y.; Viola, V. E.; Korteling, R. G.; Wile, J. L.

    1996-11-01

    Ternary fission in the reaction 4He + 232Th at Elab=200 MeV has been observed. Intermediate mass fragments (IMF: 3fission. The widths of the energy spectra are relatively constant for neck fragments with Z>=4, suggesting little variability in the scission configurations. A linear dependence of on Z is observed for the neck IMFs. The observed trend is compared with a Coulomb trajectory model.

  11. Intermedial Strategies of Memory in Contemporary Novels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Sara

    2014-01-01

    , and Judd Morrissey and drawing on the theoretical perspectives of N. Katherine Hayles (media studies) and Andreas Huyssen (cultural memory studies), Tanderup argues that recent intermedial novels reflect a certain nostalgia celebrating and remembering the book as a visual and material object in the age...... of digital media while also highlighting the influence of new media on our cultural understanding and representation of memory and the past....

  12. Essays in corporate finance and financial intermediation

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters in corporate finance and financial intermediation. The first two chapters explore sources of incentives and learning for finance professionals. Specifically, the first chapter studies how the option to go work for an investment bank affects the incentives of credit rating analysts, and shows that this "revolving door" strengthens analysts' incentives to issue accurate ratings. The second chapter analyzes the value of experience for mutual fund managers a...

  13. International express student's book : pre-intermediate

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Liz

    1996-01-01

    The New Edition of International Express Pre-Intermediate retains all the keys features of this popular and successel four-level course. It combines engaging, up-to-date topics with a time-efficient and student-centred approach to language work, and clearly focused activities that reflect learner's real communicative needs - the ideal course for professional adults who use English for work, travel, and socializing.

  14. Discovery of the intermediate W boson

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    Press conference on 25 January 1983 when the announcement was made of the discovery of the intermediate W boson at CERN. From right to left: Carlo Rubbia, spokesman of the UA1 experiment; Simon van der Meer, responsible for developing the stochastic cooling technique; Herwig Schopper, Director- General of CERN; Erwin Gabathuler, Research Director at CERN, and Pierre Darriulat, spokesman of the UA2 experiment, whose results confirmed those from Carlo Rubbia's experiment.

  15. Element Yields of Intermediate-Mass Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Henry, R B C

    2003-01-01

    Intermediate mass stars occupy the mass range between 0.8-8 solar masses. In this review, evolutionary models of these stars from numerous sources are compared in terms of their input physics and predicted yields. In particular, the results of Renzini & Voli, van den Hoek & Groenewegen, and Marigo are discussed. Generally speaking, it is shown that yields of He-4, C-12, and N-14 decrease with increasing metallicity, reduced mass loss rate, and increased rotation rate. Integrated yields and recently published chemical evolution model studies are used to assess the relative importance of intermediate mass and massive stars in terms of their contributions to universal element buildup. Intermediate mass stars appear to play a major role in the chemical evolution of N-14, a modest role in the case of C-12, and a small role for He-4. Furthermore, the time delay in their release of nuclear products appears to play an important part in explaining the apparent bimodality in the distribution of damped Lyman alp...

  16. Capturing a flavivirus pre-fusion intermediate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bärbel Kaufmann

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available During cell entry of flaviviruses, low endosomal pH triggers the rearrangement of the viral surface glycoproteins to a fusion-active state that allows the release of the infectious RNA into the cytoplasm. In this work, West Nile virus was complexed with Fab fragments of the neutralizing mAb E16 and was subsequently exposed to low pH, trapping the virions in a pre-fusion intermediate state. The structure of the complex was studied by cryo-electron microscopy and provides the first structural glimpse of a flavivirus fusion intermediate near physiological conditions. A radial expansion of the outer protein layer of the virion was observed compared to the structure at pH 8. The resulting approximately 60 A-wide shell of low density between lipid bilayer and outer protein layer is likely traversed by the stem region of the E glycoprotein. By using antibody fragments, we have captured a structural intermediate of a virus that likely occurs during cell entry. The trapping of structural transition states by antibody fragments will be applicable for other processes in the flavivirus life cycle and delineating other cellular events that involve conformational rearrangements.

  17. Evaluating the Effect of a Novel Molluscicide in the Endemic Schistosomiasis Japonica Area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Oncomelania hupensis is the sole intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum in China. Snail control by molluscicide remains one of the most effective measures of schistosomiasis japonica control. A 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN is widely used for snail control in China. However, WPN is costly and toxic to fish. A novel molluscicide named LDS, the salt of quinoid-2′, 5-dichloro-4′-nitrosalicylanilide from niclosamide, has been developed. To evaluate the effects of large-scale field application of LDS on field snail control, tests were conducted in 15 counties of Hubei Province, China. Active adult snails, were immersed in 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 g/m3 of 10% LDS, 1.0 g/m3 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were investigated after 1, 2, and 3 days. In addition, four active concentrations of 10% LDS (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 g/m2 were applied by spraying and powdering in the field. 1.0 g/m2 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were observed after 1, 3, and 7 days. The results indicated that 0.4 g/m3 LDS applied by the immersion or 0.6 g/m2 LDS applied by spraying and powdering achieved the same molluscicidal effect as that of WPN, regardless of exposure time. By using different methods, the snail mortality rates in the molluscicide groups were related to exposure time and concentration, respectively. LDS costs less than WPN; thus, LDS is suitable and applicable for use as a molluscicide in schistosomiasis japonica epidemic areas.

  18. Intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Daniel J L; Atkinson, Alan; Brandon, Nigel P; Skinner, Stephen J

    2008-08-01

    High temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), typified by developers such as Siemens Westinghouse and Rolls-Royce, operate in the temperature region of 850-1000 degrees C. For such systems, very high efficiencies can be achieved from integration with gas turbines for large-scale stationary applications. However, high temperature operation means that the components of the stack need to be predominantly ceramic and high temperature metal alloys are needed for many balance-of-plant components. For smaller scale applications, where integration with a heat engine is not appropriate, there is a trend to move to lower temperatures of operation, into the so-called intermediate temperature (IT) range of 500-750 degrees C. This expands the choice of materials and stack geometries that can be used, offering reduced system cost and, in principle, reducing the corrosion rate of stack and system components. This review introduces the IT-SOFC and explains the advantages of operation in this temperature regime. The main advances made in materials chemistry that have made IT operation possible are described and some of the engineering issues and the new opportunities that reduced temperature operation affords are discussed. This tutorial review examines the advances being made in materials and engineering that are allowing solid oxide fuel cells to operate at lower temperature. The challenges and advantages of operating in the so-called 'intermediate temperature' range of 500-750 degrees C are discussed and the opportunities for applications not traditionally associated with solid oxide fuel cells are highlighted. This article serves as an introduction for scientists and engineers interested in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells and the challenges and opportunities of reduced temperature operation.

  19. Nitrene Radical Intermediates in Catalytic Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijpers, Petrus; van der Vlugt, Jarl Ivar; Schneider, Sven; de Bruin, Bas

    2017-07-04

    Nitrene radical complexes are reactive intermediates with discrete spin density at the nitrogen-atom of the nitrene moiety. These species have become important intermediates for organic synthesis, being invoked in a broad range of C-H functionalization and aziridination reactions. Nitrene radical complexes have intriguing electronic structures, and are best described as one-electron reduced Fischer-type nitrenes. They can be generated by intramolecular single electron transfer to the 'redox non-innocent' nitrene moiety at the metal. Nitrene radicals generated at open-shell cobalt(II) have thus far received most attention in terms of spectroscopic characterization, reactivity screening, catalytic application and (computational and experimental) mechanistic studies, but some interesting iron and precious metal catalysts have also been employed in related reactions involving nitrene radicals. In some cases, redox-active ligands are used to facilitate intramolecular single electron transfer from the complex to the nitrene moiety. Organic azides are among the most attractive nitrene precursors in this field, typically requiring pre-activated organic azides (e.g. RSO2N3, (RO)2P(=O)N3, ROC(=O)N3 and alike) to achieve efficient and selective catalysis. Challenging, non-activated aliphatic organic azides were recently added to the palette of synthetically useful reactions proceeding via nitrene radical intermediates. This concept article describes the electronic structure of nitrene radical complexes, emphasizes on their usefulness in the catalytic synthesis of various organic products, and highlights the important developments in the field. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Elangovan; Scott Barnett; Sossina Haile

    2008-06-30

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency energy conversion devices. Present materials set, using yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, limit the cell operating temperatures to 800 C or higher. It has become increasingly evident however that lowering the operating temperature would provide a more expeditious route to commercialization. The advantages of intermediate temperature (600 to 800 C) operation are related to both economic and materials issues. Lower operating temperature allows the use of low cost materials for the balance of plant and limits degradation arising from materials interactions. When the SOFC operating temperature is in the range of 600 to 700 C, it is also possible to partially reform hydrocarbon fuels within the stack providing additional system cost savings by reducing the air preheat heat-exchanger and blower size. The promise of Sr and Mg doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM) electrolyte materials, based on their high ionic conductivity and oxygen transference number at the intermediate temperature is well recognized. The focus of the present project was two-fold: (a) Identify a cell fabrication technique to achieve the benefits of lanthanum gallate material, and (b) Investigate alternative cathode materials that demonstrate low cathode polarization losses at the intermediate temperature. A porous matrix supported, thin film cell configuration was fabricated. The electrode material precursor was infiltrated into the porous matrix and the counter electrode was screen printed. Both anode and cathode infiltration produced high performance cells. Comparison of the two approaches showed that an infiltrated cathode cells may have advantages in high fuel utilization operations. Two new cathode materials were evaluated. Northwestern University investigated LSGM-ceria composite cathode while Caltech evaluated Ba-Sr-Co-Fe (BSCF) based pervoskite cathode. Both cathode materials showed lower polarization losses at temperatures as low as 600

  1. Intermediate Bandgap Solar Cells From Nanostructured Silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Marcie [Bandgap Engineering, Lincoln, MA (United States)

    2014-10-30

    This project aimed to demonstrate increased electronic coupling in silicon nanostructures relative to bulk silicon for the purpose of making high efficiency intermediate bandgap solar cells using silicon. To this end, we formed nanowires with controlled crystallographic orientation, small diameter, <111> sidewall faceting, and passivated surfaces to modify the electronic band structure in silicon by breaking down the symmetry of the crystal lattice. We grew and tested these silicon nanowires with <110>-growth axes, which is an orientation that should produce the coupling enhancement.

  2. Intermediate filaments: from cell architecture to nanomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Harald; Bär, Harald; Kreplak, Laurent; Strelkov, Sergei V; Aebi, Ueli

    2007-07-01

    Intermediate filaments (IFs) constitute a major structural element of animal cells. They build two distinct systems, one in the nucleus and one in the cytoplasm. In both cases, their major function is assumed to be that of a mechanical stress absorber and an integrating device for the entire cytoskeleton. In line with this, recent disease mutations in human IF proteins indicate that the nanomechanical properties of cell-type-specific IFs are central to the pathogenesis of diseases as diverse as muscular dystrophy and premature ageing. However, the analysis of these various diseases suggests that IFs also have an important role in cell-type-specific physiological functions.

  3. q-Gamow States for intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Plastino, A; Zamora, D J

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper [Nuc. Phys. A {\\bf 948}, (2016) 19] we have demonstrated the possible existence of Tsallis' q-Gamow states. Now, accelerators' experimental evidence for Tsallis' distributions has been ascertained only at very high energies. Here, instead, we develop a different set of q-Gamow states for which the associated q-Breit-Wigner distribution could easily be found at intermediate energies, for which accelerators are available at many locations. In this context, it should be strongly emphasized [Physica A {\\bf 388} (2009) 601] that, empirically, one never exactly and unambiguously "detects" pure Gaussians, but rather q-Gaussians. A prediction is made via Eq.(3.30)

  4. The intermediate age open cluster NGC 2660

    CERN Document Server

    Sandrelli, S; Tosi, M P; Marconi, G

    1999-01-01

    We present CCD UBVI photometry of the intermediate old open cluster NGC2660, covering from the red giants region to about seven magnitudes below the main sequence turn-off. Using the synthetic Colour - Magnitude Diagram method, we estimate in a self-consistent way values for distance modulus ((m-M)0 ~= 12.2), reddening (E(B-V) ~= 0.40), metallicity ([Fe/H] about solar), and age (age ~ 1 Gyr). A 30% population of binary stars turns out to be probably present.

  5. Organophosphate poisoning: Diagnosis of intermediate syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poojara L

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate compound (OPC poisoning with suicidal intent is common in Indian ICUs. The effect of OPCs is to produce a persistent depolarization of the neuromuscular junction leading to muscle weakness. After initial recovery from cholinergic crisis, some patients have resurgence of respiratory muscle paralysis requiring continued ventilatory support. This is termed intermediate syndrome (IMS. This could be due to a change in the type of neuromuscular block to a non depolarisation block characterized by a fade on tetanic stimulation. However peripheral nerve stimulation using train-of-four ratio (TOF and/tetanus have failed to consistently show such a change. We elected to study whether electro physiological monitoring using repetitive nerve stimulation might show a decremental response during IMS. Material & Methods: This was a prospective blinded study done from April 2002 to March 2003 in our ICU. 45 consecutive patients of OPC poisoning admitted during this period were included in this study. Repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS using a train of ten at 3Hz 10Hz and 30Hz (slow , intermediate and fast speeds respectively at the median nerve was done on all patients on day 1, 4, 7 and every 4th day thereafter until discharge. Patients were ventilated until ready to wean as per our usual protocol. The results of the RNS study were not revealed to the intensivist. Results: 9 out of 45 patients required ventilation for more than 6 days and showed overt signs of intermediate syndrome - proximal muscle weakness, twitching and respiratory weakness. Only 2 patients out of the 9 had a decremental response on RNS at 3Hz indicating a post-junctional dysfunction at the motor end-plate, Both patients had consumed a very large quantity of OPC and were deeply comatose for >4 days and required ventilation for >12 days. All other patients with IMS showed no changes on RNS. The exact type of poison consumed varied with each individual patient. Conclusion: RNS

  6. Photofissility of heavy nuclei at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deppman, A.; Arruda Neto, J.D.T.; Likhachev, V.P. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Tavares, O.A.P.; Duarte, S.B.; Oliveira, E.C. de [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2002-10-01

    We use the recently developed MCMC/MCEF (Multi Collisional Monte Carlo plus Monte Carlo for Evaporation-Fission calculations) model to calculate the photo fissility and the photofission cross section at intermediate energies for the {sup 243} Am and for {sup 209} Bi, and compare them to results obtained for other actinides and to available experimental data. As expected, the results for {sup 243} Am are close to those for {sup 237} Np. The fissility for pre actinide nuclei is nearly one order of magnitude lower than that for the actinides. Both fissility and photofission cross section for {sup 209} Bi are in good agreement with the experimental data. (author)

  7. Observational constraints on dual intermediate inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D; Magueijo, João

    2014-01-01

    We explore the observational implications of models of intermediate inflation driven by modified dispersion relations, specifically those representing the phenomenon of dimensional reduction in the ultraviolet limit. These models are distinct from the standard ones because they do not require violations of the strong energy condition, and this is reflected in their structure formation properties. We find that they can naturally accommodate deviations from exact scale-invariance. They also make clear predictions for the running of the spectral index and tensor modes, rendering the models straightforwardly falsifiable. We discuss the observational prospects for these models and the implications these may have for quantum gravity scenarios.

  8. Thermoelectric power generator with intermediate loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2013-05-21

    A thermoelectric power generator is disclosed for use to generate electrical power from heat, typically waste heat. An intermediate heat transfer loop forms a part of the system to permit added control and adjustability in the system. This allows the thermoelectric power generator to more effectively and efficiently generate power in the face of dynamically varying temperatures and heat flux conditions, such as where the heat source is the exhaust of an automobile, or any other heat source with dynamic temperature and heat flux conditions.

  9. Ligand Intermediates in Metal-Catalyzed Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladysz, John A.

    1999-07-31

    The longest-running goal of this project has been the synthesis, isolation, and physical chemical characterization of homogeneous transition metal complexes containing ligand types believed to be intermediates in the metal-catalyzed conversion of CO/H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and similar raw materials to organic fuels, feedstocks, etc. In the current project period, complexes that contain unusual new types of C{sub x}(carbide) and C{sub x}O{sub y} (carbon oxide) ligands have been emphasized. A new program in homogeneous fluorous phase catalysis has been launched as described in the final report.

  10. Opening the Black Box of Intermediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowinska, Agnieszka

    ) and at the interfirm level (between partners and within alliances and associations).The tentative results show that both of these levels are important in defining the intermediating firms' business models and in answering their environmental threats and in building up competitive advantage. The paper ends with a short...... dynamics. This paper draws on qualitative data originating with interviews with industry representatives and can also be regarded as a preliminary approach to a broader project. The analysis distinguishes between relational capital at the intrafirm level (the network among the company's employees...

  11. 49 CFR 37.201 - Intermediate and rest stops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Intermediate and rest stops. 37.201 Section 37.201... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.201 Intermediate and rest stops. (a) Whenever an OTRB makes an intermediate or rest stop, a passenger with a disability, including an individual using a...

  12. Intermediate product selection and blending in the food processing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilic, Onur A.; Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a capacitated intermediate product selection and blending problem typical for two-stage production systems in the food processing industry. The problem involves the selection of a set of intermediates and end-product recipes characterising how those selected intermediates...

  13. Surface Intermediate Zone of Submerged Turbulent Buoyant Jet in Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, H. B.; Larsen, Torben

    1995-01-01

    This paper deals with the intermediate zone between the jet and plume stages of a submerged buoyant discharge from sea outfall in current. The stability criteria, plume width and height after the intermediate zone and the dilution within the intermediate region have been studied theoretically...

  14. Financial Intermediation, Monetary Uncertainty, and Bank Interest Margins Financial Intermediation, Monetary Uncertainty, and Bank Interest Margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Hernández

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Financial Intermediation, Monetary Uncertainty, and Bank Interest Margins This paper studies a simple model of financial intermediation in order to understand how the lending-borrowing spread or interest margin charged by financial intermediaries is determined in equilibrium in a monetary economy. The main conclusion of the paper concerns the effect on the spread of changes in the distribution of monetary innovations. Thus, changes in the monetary-policy-rule followed by the Central Bank which alter the volatility of inflation will have important effects on the interest margin and also on the amount of credit available to investors. A crosssection empirical analysis strongly supports our hypothesis:

  15. Keto-Enol Thermodynamics of Breslow Intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Mathias; Breugst, Martin; Neudörfl, Jörg-Martin; Sunoj, Raghavan B; Berkessel, Albrecht

    2016-04-20

    Breslow intermediates, first postulated in 1958, are pivotal intermediates in carbene-catalyzed umpolung. Attempts to isolate and characterize these fleeting amino enol species first met with success in 2012 when we found that saturated bis-Dipp/Mes imidazolidinylidenes readily form isolable, though reactive diamino enols with aldehydes and enals. In contrast, triazolylidenes, upon stoichiometric reaction with aldehydes, gave exclusively the keto tautomer, and no isolable enol. Herein, we present the synthesis of the "missing" keto tautomers of imidazolidinylidene-derived diamino enols, and computational thermodynamic data for 15 enol-ketone pairs derived from various carbenes/aldehydes. Electron-withdrawing substituents on the aldehyde favor enol formation, the same holds for N,N'-Dipp [2,6-di(2-propyl)phenyl] and N,N'-Mes [2,4,6-trimethylphenyl] substitution on the carbene component. The latter effect rests on stabilization of the diamino enol tautomer by Dipp substitution, and could be attributed to dispersive interaction of the 2-propyl groups with the enol moiety. For three enol-ketone pairs, equilibration of the thermodynamically disfavored tautomer was attempted with acids and bases but could not be effected, indicating kinetic inhibition of proton transfer.

  16. Fission in intermediate energy heavy ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelmy, J.B.; Begemann-Blaich, M.; Blaich, T.; Boissevain, J.; Fowler, M.M.; Gavron, A.; Jacak, B.V.; Lysaght, P.S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Britt, H.C.; Fields, D.J.; Hansen, L.F.; Lanier, R.G.; Massoletti, D.J.; Namboodiri, M.M.; Remington, B.A.; Sangster, T.C.; Struble, G.L.; Webb, M.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Chan, Y.D.; Dacai, A.; Harmon, A.; Leyba, J.; Pouliot, J.; Stokstad, R.G. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Hansen, O.; Levine, M.J.; Thorn, C.E.; Trautmann, W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Dichter, B.; Kaufman, S.; Videbaek, F. (Argonne National Lab. (USA)); Fraenkel, Z.; Mamane, G. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel)); Cebra, D.; Westfall, G.D. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1989-10-09

    A systematic study of reaction mechanisms at intermediate energies (50-100 MeV/A) has been performed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's BeValac using medium weight projectiles on medium and heavy element targets. A gas and plastic phoswich detector system was employed which gave large geometric coverage and a wide dynamic response. The particles identified with the gas detectors could be characterized into three components - intermediate mass fragments (IMF), fission fragments (FF) and heavy residues (HR). Major observed features are: The reaction yields are similar in the 50 to 100 MeV/A range, central collisions have high multiplicty of IMF's with broad angular correlations consistent with a large participant region, effects of final state Coulomb interactions are observed and give information on the size and temporal behavior of the source, true fission yields are dependent on target fissility and correlated with relatively peripheral collisions. Analysis of fission and evaporation yields implies limiting conditions for which fission decay remains a viable deexcitation channel. (orig.).

  17. Intermediate energy neutron beams from the MURR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, R M; Herleth, W H

    1990-01-01

    Several reactors in the United States are potential candidates to deliver beams of intermediate energy neutrons for NCT. At this time, moderators, as compared to filters, appear to be the more effective means of tailoring the flux of these reactors. The objective is to sufficiently reduce the flux of fast neutrons while producing enough intermediate energy neutrons for treatments. At the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), the code MCNP has recently been used to calculate doses in a phantom. First, "ideal" beams of 1, 35, and 1000 eV neutrons were analyzed to determine doses and advantage depths in the phantom. Second, a high quality beam that had been designed to fit in the thermal column of the MURR, was reanalyzed. MCNP calculations of the dose in phantom in this beam confirmed previous calculations and showed that this beam would be a nearly ideal one with neutrons of the desired energy and also a high neutron current. However, installation of this beam will require a significant modification of the thermal column of the MURR. Therefore, a second beam that is less difficult to build and install, but of lower neutron current, has been designed to fit in MURR port F. This beam is designed using inexpensive A1, S, and Pb. The doses calculated in the phantom placed in this beam show that it will be satisfactory for sample tests, animal tests, and possible initial patient trials. Producing this beam will require only modest modifications of the existing tube.

  18. Slab tears and intermediate-depth seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meighan, Hallie E.; Ten Brink, Uri; Pulliam, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Active tectonic regions where plate boundaries transition from subduction to strike slip can take several forms, such as triple junctions, acute, and obtuse corners. Well-documented slab tears that are associated with high rates of intermediate-depth seismicity are considered here: Gibraltar arc, the southern and northern ends of the Lesser Antilles arc, and the northern end of Tonga trench. Seismicity at each of these locations occurs, at times, in the form of swarms or clusters, and various authors have proposed that each marks an active locus of tear propagation. The swarms and clusters start at the top of the slab below the asthenospheric wedge and extend 30–60 km vertically downward within the slab. We propose that these swarms and clusters are generated by fluid-related embrittlement of mantle rocks. Focal mechanisms of these swarms generally fit the shear motion that is thought to be associated with the tearing process.

  19. Intermediate thinnings as a source of energywood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sammallahti, K.; Laespae, O.; Nurmi, J. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Kannus (Finland)), e-mail: kati.sammallahti@metla.fi, e-mail: otto.laspa@metla.fi, e-mail: juha.nurmi@metla.fi

    2010-07-01

    During 2008 and 2009 10 hectares of spruce stand was harvested with an energy wood method and 3,8 hectares with a conventional method. Average DBH was 21 cm, length 19 m and the number of stems per hectare was 674. The harvester productivity was in this study 10 % higher with the conventional method (36,2 m3 / ha) than with the energy wood method (32,6 m3 / ha). The second part of the study consisted baling with a Timberjack 1490D residue baler on an intermediate thinning. In 2008 residues were baled from a total area of 8,7 hectares. Total yield was 218 bales and yield per hectare was 26 bales. Yield per hour was 19,7 bales and the average time consumption per bale was 3,18 minutes. (orig.)

  20. Turned Back: Mad Men as Intermedial Melodrama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Rooney

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay draws on definitions of gesture (Giorgio Agamben and Peter Brooks and catachresis (Peter Brooks, Jacques Derrida to examine the primacy of non-verbal signifiers as communicators of meaning in AMC’s Mad Men. Beginning with an analysis of Mad Men’s credit sequence, it draws attention to Mad Men’s use of gesture and catachresis in relation to melodrama’s privileging of non-verbal and naturalistic expression and its persistence as an intermedial mode that has moved back and forth between various media (theatre, novel, cinema, television and now digital formats. It argues that Mad Men’s melodramatic aesthetic is one that obliquely, and via a gestural and rhetorical ‘turned back’, communicates its relation to the past and the present.

  1. Simulations of Oligomeric Intermediates in Prion Diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Mobley, D L; Singh, R R P; Kulkarni, R V; Slepoy, A; Mobley, David L.; Cox, Daniel L.; Singh, Rajiv R. P.; Kulkarni, Rahul V.; Slepoy, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    We extend our previous stochastic cellular automata based model for areal aggregation of prion proteins on neuronal surfaces. The new anisotropic model allow us to simulate both strong beta-sheet and weaker attachment bonds between proteins. Constraining binding directions allows us to generate aggregate structures with the hexagonal lattice symmetry found in recently observed in vitro experiments. We argue that these constraints on rules may correspond to underlying steric constraints on the aggregation process. We find that monomer dominated growth of the areal aggregate is too slow to account for some observed doubling time-to-incubation time ratios inferred from data, and so consider aggregation dominated by relatively stable but non-infectious oligomeric intermediates. We compare a kinetic theory analysis of oligomeric aggregation to spatially explicit simulations of the process. We find that with suitable rules for misfolding of oligomers, possibly due to water exclusion by the surrounding aggregate, th...

  2. [The intermediate syndrome during organophosphorus pesticide poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benslama, A; Moutaouakkil, S; Charra, B; Menebhi, L

    2004-04-01

    Acute intoxication by organophosphate pesticides is frequent in Morocco. We report two cases of malathion poisoning complicated by intermediate syndrome. The purpose of this work is to describe distinctive features of this syndrome, it arises 48-96 h after the cholinergic crisis and it is characterized by respiratory paresis with difficulties of weaning from the assisted respiratory, deficit of proximal limbs, neck flexors, and cranial nerves. This syndrome coincides with the prolonged inhibition of the acetylcholinesterase, and is not due to the necrosis of muscular fiber's necrosis. Both clinical and electromyographic features are explained by a combined pre- and postsynaptic dysfunction of the neuromuscular transmission. The difficulty of this syndrome lies in its rarity and also its severity, because of the respiratory failure, which justifies medical supervision in intensive care unit, for at least 96 h, in expectation for the respiratory distress, all the more cholinergic syndrome is intense.

  3. Intermediate state trapping of a voltage sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacroix, Jérôme J; Pless, Stephan Alexander; Maragliano, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Voltage sensor domains (VSDs) regulate ion channels and enzymes by undergoing conformational changes depending on membrane electrical signals. The molecular mechanisms underlying the VSD transitions are not fully understood. Here, we show that some mutations of I241 in the S1 segment of the Shaker...... Kv channel positively shift the voltage dependence of the VSD movement and alter the functional coupling between VSD and pore domains. Among the I241 mutants, I241W immobilized the VSD movement during activation and deactivation, approximately halfway between the resting and active states......, and drastically shifted the voltage activation of the ionic conductance. This phenotype, which is consistent with a stabilization of an intermediate VSD conformation by the I241W mutation, was diminished by the charge-conserving R2K mutation but not by the charge-neutralizing R2Q mutation. Interestingly, most...

  4. Intermediate Care Unit - defining substituyable admissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Hanne; Ekmann, Anette Addy

    Background: Elderly patients have excess risk of functional decline and development of delirium. Studies have shown that 14-27 % of hospitalizations among elderly patients are substitutable. To lower the risk of unwanted consequences of hospitalizations, we implemented an Intermediate Care Unit...... (TUE). TUE was established in collaboration between Bispebjerg Hospital and the City of Copenhagen and took in patients whose hospitalization was regarded as substitutable. TUE offered a quick diagnostic assessment by a cross sectoral team of hospital doctors and community nurses. Home care was offered...... Care Unit.' Methods: From September 17, 2012 - June 24, 2014, 969 patients were treated at TUE. We registered both demographic-, treatment- and medical data and furthermore functional related variables. We used logistic regression to test the association between a combined graded variable of EWS...

  5. Picornavirus uncoating intermediate captured in atomic detail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jingshan; Wang, Xiangxi; Hu, Zhongyu; Gao, Qiang; Sun, Yao; Li, Xuemei; Porta, Claudine; Walter, Thomas S.; Gilbert, Robert J.; Zhao, Yuguang; Axford, Danny; Williams, Mark; McAuley, Katherine; Rowlands, David J.; Yin, Weidong; Wang, Junzhi; Stuart, David I.; Rao, Zihe; Fry, Elizabeth E.

    2013-01-01

    It remains largely mysterious how the genomes of non-enveloped eukaryotic viruses are transferred across a membrane into the host cell. Picornaviruses are simple models for such viruses, and initiate this uncoating process through particle expansion, which reveals channels through which internal capsid proteins and the viral genome presumably exit the particle, although this has not been clearly seen until now. Here we present the atomic structure of an uncoating intermediate for the major human picornavirus pathogen CAV16, which reveals VP1 partly extruded from the capsid, poised to embed in the host membrane. Together with previous low-resolution results, we are able to propose a detailed hypothesis for the ordered egress of the internal proteins, using two distinct sets of channels through the capsid, and suggest a structural link to the condensed RNA within the particle, which may be involved in triggering RNA release. PMID:23728514

  6. q-Gamow states for intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plastino, A. [La Plata National University and Argentina' s National Research Council, (IFLP-CCT-CONICET)-C. C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Rocca, M.C., E-mail: mariocarlosrocca@gmail.com [La Plata National University and Argentina' s National Research Council, (IFLP-CCT-CONICET)-C. C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Ferri, G.L. [Fac. de C. Exactas, National University La Pampa, Peru y Uruguay, Santa Rosa, La Pampa (Argentina); Zamora, D.J. [La Plata National University and Argentina' s National Research Council, (IFLP-CCT-CONICET)-C. C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2016-11-15

    In a recent paper Plastino and Rocca (2016) [18] we have demonstrated the possible existence of Tsallis' q-Gamow states. Now, accelerators' experimental evidence for Tsallis' distributions has been ascertained only at very high energies. Here, instead, we develop a different set of q-Gamow states for which the associated q-Breit–Wigner distribution could easily be found at intermediate energies, for which accelerators are available at many locations. In this context, it should be strongly emphasized Vignat and Plastino (2009) [2] that, empirically, one never exactly and unambiguously “detects” pure Gaussians, but rather q-Gaussians. A prediction is made via Eq. (3.4).

  7. Flow angle from intermediate mass fragment measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rami, F.; Crochet, P.; Dona, R.; De Schauenburg, B.; Wagner, P.; Alard, J.P.; Andronic, A.; Basrak, Z.; Bastid, N.; Belyaev, I.; Bendarag, A.; Berek, G.; Best, D.; Caplar, R.; Devismes, A.; Dupieux, P.; Dzelalija, M.; Eskef, M.; Fodor, Z.; Gobbi, A.; Grishkin, Y.; Herrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K.D.; Hong, B.; Kecskemeti, J.; Kirejczyk, M.; Korolija, M.; Kotte, R.; Lebedev, A.; Leifels, Y.; Merlitz, H.; Mohren, S.; Moisa, D.; Neubert, W.; Pelte, D.; Petrovici, M.; Pinkenburg, C.; Plettner, C.; Reisdorf, W.; Schuell, D.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Simion, V.; Siwek-Wilczynska, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stockmeir, M.; Vasiliev, M.; Wisniewski, K.; Wohlfarth, D.; Yushmanov, I.; Zhilin, A

    1999-02-15

    Directed sideward flow of light charged particles and intermediate mass fragments was measured in different symmetric reactions at bombarding energies from 90 to 800 A MeV. The flow parameter is found to increase with the charge of the detected fragment up to Z = 3-4 and then turns into saturation for heavier fragments. Guided by simple simulations of an anisotropic expanding thermal source, we show that the value at saturation can provide a good estimate of the flow angle, {theta}{sub flow}, in the participant region. It is found that {theta}{sub flow} depends strongly on the impact parameter. The excitation function of {theta}{sub flow} reveals striking deviations from the ideal hydrodynamical scaling. The data exhibit a steep rise of {theta}{sub flow} to a maximum at around 250 - 400 A MeV, followed by a moderate decrease as the bombarding energy increases further.

  8. Fission dynamics with systems of intermediate fissility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Vardaci; A Di Nitto; P N Nadtochy; A Brondi; G La Rana; R Moro; M Cinausero; G Prete; N Gelli; E M Kozulin; G N Knyazheva; I M Itkis

    2015-08-01

    A 4 light charged particle spectrometer, called 8 LP, is in operation at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Italy, for studying reaction mechanisms in low-energy heavy-ion reactions. Besides about 300 telescopes to detect light charged particles, the spectrometer is also equipped with an anular PPAC system to detect evaporation residues and a two-arm time-of-flight spectrometer to detect fission fragments. The spectrometer has been used in several fission dynamics studies using as a probe light charged particles in the fission and evaporation residues (ER) channels. This paper proposes a journey within some open questions about the fission dynamics and a review of the main results concerning nuclear dissipation and fission time-scale obtained from several of these studies. In particular, the advantages of using systems of intermediate fissility will be discussed.

  9. On the Intermediate Line Region in AGNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tek P. Adhikari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore the intermediate line region (ILR by using the photoionisation simulations of the gas clouds present at different radial distances from the center, corresponding to the locations from BLR out to NLR in four types of AGNs. We let for the presence of dust whenever conditions allow for dust existence. All spectral shapes are taken from the recent multi-wavelength campaigns. The cloud density decreases with distance as a power law. We found that the slope of the power law density profile does not affect the line emissivity radial profiles of major emission lines: Hβ, He II, Mg II, C III, and O III. When the density of the cloud at the sublimation radius is as high as 1011.5 cm−3, the ILR should clearly be seen in the observations independently of the shape of the illuminating radiation. Moreover, our result is valid for low ionization nuclear emission regions of active galaxies.

  10. [Intermediate care units and noninvasive ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Heinrich F; Schönhofer, Bernd; Vogelmeier, Claus

    2006-04-15

    Intermediate care units (IMC) have been introduced to provide optimal patient management according to disease severity and to bridge the gap between intensive care (ICU) and general wards. Most patients that are referred to an IMC need monitoring and intensive analgetic treatment. Over the past years noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and weaning have emerged as important new forms of active treatment in the IMC. Most studies that have been published so far demonstrate that an IMC improves patient outcome and lowers costs, although randomized controlled trials are missing. NIV reduces mortality, the need for intubation as well as ICU and hospital length of stay in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other disorders that cause respiratory failure. In many cases NIV can be performed in the IMC, a fact that reduces the number of ICU admissions, lowers costs and improves patient care. The high prevalence of pulmonary diseases and NIV emphasizes the importance of pneumologists as directors of both ICU and IMC.

  11. Precalibrating an intermediate complexity climate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Neil R. [The Open University, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom); Cameron, David [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Rougier, Jonathan [University of Bristol, Department of Mathematics, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Credible climate predictions require a rational quantification of uncertainty, but full Bayesian calibration requires detailed estimates of prior probability distributions and covariances, which are difficult to obtain in practice. We describe a simplified procedure, termed precalibration, which provides an approximate quantification of uncertainty in climate prediction, and requires only that uncontroversially implausible values of certain inputs and outputs are identified. The method is applied to intermediate-complexity model simulations of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and confirms the existence of a cliff-edge catastrophe in freshwater-forcing input space. When uncertainty in 14 further parameters is taken into account, an implausible, AMOC-off, region remains as a robust feature of the model dynamics, but its location is found to depend strongly on values of the other parameters. (orig.)

  12. A traditional intermediate moisture meat: Beef cecina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Cano, R; Dorantes-Alvarez, L; Hernandez-Sanchez, H; Gutierrez-Lopez, G F

    1994-01-01

    Cecina is an intermediate moisture meat produced and consumed to a large extent in Mexico. Four samples of cecina coming from different States of this country, were tested for water activity, colour, texture, fat, protein, moisture and chloride content. Sensory and microbiological analyses were also performed. Different fabrication methods for producing cecina were identified, involving large variations in the formulation of the product. There was a significant difference (P < 0·05) among samples regarding fat and chloride content, colour and texture. Differences in colour and saltiness were recorded through sensory analysis. Microbiological analysis showed higher counts than those recommended in the Mexican Official Standard for chopped and raw meat, due to poor sanitary conditions during production and marketing.

  13. Melting of metallic intermediate level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huutoniemi, Tommi; Larsson, Arne; Blank, Eva [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    This report presents a feasibility study of a melting facility for core components and reactor internals. An overview is given of how such a facility for treatment of intermediate level waste might be designed, constructed and operated and highlights both the possibilities and challenges. A cost estimate and a risk analysis are presented in order to make a conclusion of the technical feasibility of such a facility. Based on the authors' experience in operating a low level waste melting facility, their conclusion is that without technical improvements such a facility is not feasible today. This is based on the cost of constructing and operating such a facility, in conjunction with the radiological risks associated with operation and the uncertain benefits to disposal and long term safety.

  14. Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Brian H; Sluder, Scott; Knoll, Keith; Orban, John; Feng, Jingyu

    2012-02-01

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends (also known as mid-level blends) on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program was to develop information important to assessing the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals for the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20 - gasoline blended with 15% and 20% ethanol - on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This report provides the results of the catalyst durability study, a substantial part of the overall test program. Results from additional projects will be reported separately. The principal purpose of the catalyst durability study was to investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the durability of catalysts and other aspects of the emissions control systems of vehicles. Section 1 provides further information about the purpose and context of the study. Section 2 describes the experimental approach for the test program, including vehicle selection, aging and emissions test cycle, fuel selection, and data handling and analysis. Section 3 summarizes the effects of the ethanol blends on emissions and fuel economy of the test vehicles. Section 4 summarizes notable unscheduled maintenance and testing issues experienced during the program. The appendixes provide additional detail about the statistical models used in the analysis, detailed statistical analyses, and detailed vehicle specifications.

  15. Connectomic intermediate phenotypes for psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eFornito

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are phenotypically heterogeneous entities with a complex genetic basis. To mitigate this complexity, many investigators study so-called intermediate phenotypes that putatively provide a more direct index of the physiological effects of candidate genetic risk variants than overt psychiatric syndromes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a particularly popular technique for measuring such phenotypes because it allows interrogation of diverse aspects of brain structure and function in vivo. Much of this work however, has focused on relatively simple measures that quantify variations in the physiology or tissue integrity of specific brain regions in isolation, contradicting an emerging consensus that most major psychiatric disorders do not arise from isolated dysfunction in one or a few brain regions, but rather from disturbed interactions within and between distributed neural circuits; i.e., they are disorders of brain connectivity. The recent proliferation of new MRI techniques for comprehensively mapping the entire connectivity architecture of the brain, termed the human connectome, has provided a rich repertoire of tools for understanding how genetic variants implicated in mental disorder impact distinct neural circuits. In this article, we review research using these connectomic techniques to understand how genetic variation influences the connectivity and topology of human brain networks. We highlight recent evidence from twin and imaging genetics studies suggesting that the penetrance of candidate risk variants for mental illness, such as those in SLC6A4, MAOA, ZNF804A and APOE, may be higher for intermediate phenotypes characterised at the level of distributed neural systems than at the level of spatially localised brain regions. The findings indicate that imaging connectomics provides a powerful framework for understanding how genetic risk for psychiatric disease is expressed through altered structure and function of

  16. Covalent functionalization of graphene with reactive intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaehyeung; Yan, Mingdi

    2013-01-15

    Graphene, a material made exclusively of sp(2) carbon atoms with its π electrons delocalized over the entire 2D network, is somewhat chemically inert. Covalent functionalization can enhance graphene's properties including opening its band gap, tuning conductivity, and improving solubility and stability. Covalent functionalization of pristine graphene typically requires reactive species that can form covalent adducts with the sp(2) carbon structures in graphene. In this Account, we describe graphene functionalization reactions using reactive intermediates of radicals, nitrenes, carbenes, and arynes. These reactive species covalently modify graphene through free radical addition, CH insertion, or cycloaddition reactions. Free radical additions are among the most common reaction, and these radicals can be generated from diazonium salts and benzoyl peroxide. Electron transfer from graphene to aryl diazonium ion or photoactivation of benzoyl peroxide yields aryl radicals that subsequently add to graphene to form covalent adducts. Nitrenes, electron-deficient species generated by thermal or photochemical activation of organic azides, can functionalize graphene very efficiently. Because perfluorophenyl nitrenes show enhanced bimolecular reactions compared with alkyl or phenyl nitrenes, perfluorophenyl azides are especially effective. Carbenes are used less frequently than nitrenes, but they undergo CH insertion and C═C cycloaddition reactions with graphene. In addition, arynes can serve as a dienophile in a Diels-Alder type reaction with graphene. Further study is needed to understand and exploit the chemistry of graphene. The generation of highly reactive intermediates in these reactions leads to side products that complicate the product composition and analysis. Fundamental questions remain about the reactivity and regioselectivity of graphene. The differences in the basal plane and the undercoordinated edges of graphene and the zigzag versus arm-chair configurations

  17. Efficient short step synthesis of Corey's tamiflu intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipassa, Nsiama Tienabe; Okamura, Hiroaki; Kina, Kengo; Hamada, Toshiyuki; Iwagawa, Tetsuo

    2008-03-01

    Corey's tamiflu intermediate was synthesized from a bicyclolactam adduct obtained by base-catalyzed Diels-Alder reaction of N-nosyl-3-hydroxy-2-pyridone with ethyl acrylate. A compound that has the same array of functional groups with the Corey's intermediate was obtained in four steps from the DA adduct in 47% overall yield. The intermediate itself was also prepared efficiently by simply changing the protective group.

  18. Structure Characterization of the Folding Intermediates of Proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Although the native state and the fully unfolded state of proteins have been extensively studied, the folding pathway and intermediates in the protein folding process have not been thoroughly investigated.To understand the mechanisms of protein folding, the early intermediates in the protein folding process must be clearly characterized.The present paper is a mini review containing 20 references involving studies on folding intermediates of several proteins.

  19. Structure and Mechanistic Implications of a Tryptophan Synthase Quinonoid Intermediate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barends,T.; Domratcheva, T.; Kulik, V.; Blumenstein, L.; Niks, D.; Dunn, M.; Schlichting, I.

    2008-01-01

    Quinonoid intermediates play a key role in the catalytic mechanism of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes. Whereas structures of other PLP-bound reaction intermediates have been determined, a high-quality structure of a quinonoid species has not been reported. We present the crystal structure of the indoline quinonoid intermediate of tryptophan synthase (see figure) and discuss its implications for the enzymatic mechanism and allosteric regulation.

  20. Intergalactic stellar populations in intermediate redshift clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Melnick, J; Toledo, I; Selman, F J; Quintana, H

    2012-01-01

    A substantial fraction of the total stellar mass in rich clusters of galaxies resides in a diffuse intergalactic component usually referred to as the Intra-Cluster Light (ICL). Theoretical models indicate that these intergalactic stars originate mostly from the tidal interaction of the cluster galaxies during the assembly history of the cluster, and that a significant fraction of these stars could have formed in-situ from the late infall of cold metal-poor gas clouds onto the cluster. The models make predictions about the age distribution of the ICL stars, which may provide additional observational constraints. However, these models also over-predict the fraction of stellar mass in the ICL by a substantial margin. Here we present population synthesis models for the ICL of a dumb-bell dominated intermediate redshift (z=0.29) X-ray cluster for which we have deep MOS data obtained with the FORS2 instrument. In a previous paper we have proposed that the dumbell galaxy act as a grinding machine tearing to pieces t...

  1. La escritura intermedial en la escena actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Thenon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Las escrituras artísticas actuales integran, en el marco determinado por las realidades intermediales de la escena tecnológica, el concepto de diseño como manipulación perceptiva del espacio, lo que constituye uno de los instrumentos determinantes en la puesta en marcha de un cuadro compositivo de resonancias transformacionales. Podríamos en este sentido hablar de una nueva ecología artística y en especial, teatral. En la renovación del pensamiento teatral actualizado, fuertemente influenciado por la estructura discursiva cinematográfica y por los universos sensoriales de la cultura tecnológica de la imagen y del sonido, está la base de la multiplicación diegética, de la superposición, de la fragmentación de los discursos y de la praxis inter-relacional en la que radica, en gran medida, la potencia intermedial de la escena actual.

  2. Corrosion inhibitors for intermediate cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, I.; Suhr, L.

    1985-04-01

    The selected inhibitors were tested for heat and radiation stability and corrosion protection on the bench scale. Based on the results from these tests two of the products were selected, Bycoguard 81 and Bycoguard MP4S for continuing corrosion tests in an autoclave loop at 90 degrees C and 120 degrees C. Oxygen saturated deionized water with an addition of 1 ppm chloride was recirculated in the loop. Samples of copper and carbon steel were exposed to the water in the autoclave for periods up to 10 weeks. The purpose of this project was to find a substitute for hydrazine and chromates. Besides good corrosion protection qualities the toxic and environmental effect of the inhibitors should be minimal. The investigation has shown that the copper inhibitor BTA (benzotriazole) loses its corrosion protection qualities at a water temperature of 120 degrees C. The protection effects at 90 degrees C were satisfactory for both of the materials. The corrosion rates measured were 0.01 mm/y or less for the copper and carbon steel samples. The environment in the autoclave during the testing was more corrosive than is to be found in intermediate cooling systems. Due to the low corrosion rates measured the two inhibitors are to be recommended as alternatives to hydrazine and chromates.

  3. Molecular phylogeny of metazoan intermediate filament proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erber, A; Riemer, D; Bovenschulte, M; Weber, K

    1998-12-01

    We have cloned cytoplasmic intermediate filament (IF) proteins from a large number of invertebrate phyla using cDNA probes, the monoclonal antibody IFA, peptide sequence information, and various RT-PCR procedures. Novel IF protein sequences reported here include the urochordata and nine protostomic phyla, i.e., Annelida, Brachiopoda, Chaetognatha, Echiura, Nematomorpha, Nemertea, Platyhelminthes, Phoronida, and Sipuncula. Taken together with the wealth of data on IF proteins of vertebrates and the results on IF proteins of Cephalochordata, Mollusca, Annelida, and Nematoda, two IF prototypes emerge. The L-type, which includes 35 sequences from 11 protostomic phyla, shares with the nuclear lamins the long version of the coil 1b subdomain and, in most cases, a homology segment of some 120 residues in the carboxyterminal tail domain. The S-type, which includes all four subfamilies (types I to IV) of vertebrate IF proteins, lacks 42 residues in the coil 1b subdomain and the carboxyterminal lamin homology segment. Since IF proteins from all three phyla of the chordates have the 42-residue deletion, this deletion arose in a progenitor prior to the divergence of the chordates into the urochordate, cephalochordate, and vertebrate lineages, possibly already at the origin of the deuterostomic branch. Four phyla recently placed into the protostomia on grounds of their 18S rDNA sequences (Brachiopoda, Nemertea, Phoronida, and Platyhelminthes) show IF proteins of the L-type and fit by sequence identity criteria into the lophotrochozoic branch of the protostomia.

  4. Mechanical Properties of Intermediate Filament Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, Elisabeth E; Janmey, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Purified intermediate filament (IF) proteins can be reassembled in vitro to produce polymers closely resembling those found in cells, and these filaments form viscoelastic gels. The cross-links holding IFs together in the network include specific bonds between polypeptides extending from the filament surface and ionic interactions mediated by divalent cations. IF networks exhibit striking nonlinear elasticity with stiffness, as quantified by shear modulus, increasing an order of magnitude as the networks are deformed to large strains resembling those that soft tissues undergo in vivo. Individual IFs can be stretched to more than two or three times their resting length without breaking. At least 10 different rheometric methods have been used to quantify the viscoelasticity of IF networks over a wide range of timescales and strain magnitudes. The mechanical roles of different classes of cytoplasmic IFs on mesenchymal and epithelial cells in culture have also been studied by an even wider range of microrheological methods. These studies have documented the effects on cell mechanics when IFs are genetically or pharmacologically disrupted or when normal or mutant IF proteins are exogenously expressed in cells. Consistent with in vitro rheology, the mechanical role of IFs is more apparent as cells are subjected to larger and more frequent deformations.

  5. Is T Leonis a superoutbursting intermediate polar?

    CERN Document Server

    Vrielmann, S; Schmitt, J H M M

    2004-01-01

    We present an XMM-Newton analysis of the cataclysmic variable T Leo. The X-ray light curve shows sinusoidal variation on a period P_x equal to 0.89^{+0.14}_{-0.10} times the previously spectroscopically determined orbital period. Furthermore, we find a signal in the power spectrum at 414 sec that could be attributed to the spin period of the white dwarf. If true, T Leo would be the first confirmed superoutbursting intermediate polar IP). The spin profile is double-peaked with a peak separation of about 1/3 spin phases. This appears to be a typical feature for IPs with a small magnetic field and fast white dwarf rotation. An alternative explanation is that the 414 sec signal is a Quasi-periodic Oscillation (QPO) that is caused by mass transfer variation from the secondary, a bright region (``blob'') rotating in the disc at a radius of approximately ~9 Rwd or - more likely - a travelling wave close to the inner disc edge of a dwarf nova with a low field white dwarf. The XMM-Newton RGS spectra reveal double peak...

  6. Fluorine production in intermediate-mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Mowlavi, N; Arnould, M

    1996-01-01

    The 19F production during the first dozen thermal pulses of AGB stars with (M=3,Z=0.02), (M=6,Z=0.02) and (M=3,Z=0.001) is investigated on grounds of detailed stellar models and of revised rates for 15N(a,g)19F and 18O(a,g)22Ne. These calculations confirm an early expectation that 19F {\\it is} produced in AGB thermal pulses. They also enlarge substantially these previous results by showing that the variations of the level of 19F production during the evolution is very sensitive to the maximum temperature reached at the base of the pulse. These variations are analyzed in detail, and are shown to result from a subtle balance between different nuclear effects (mainly 19F production or destruction in a pulse, and 15N synthesis during the interpulse), possibly super-imposed on dilution effects in more or less extended pulse convective tongues. Our calculations, as most others, do not predict the third dredge-up self- consistently. When parametrized, it appears that our models of intermediate-mass AGB stars are abl...

  7. Methanogenic toluene metabolism: community structure and intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, S Jane; Dong, Xiaoli; Sensen, Christoph W; Suflita, Joseph M; Gieg, Lisa M

    2012-03-01

    Toluene is a model compound used to study the anaerobic biotransformation of aromatic hydrocarbons. Reports indicate that toluene is transformed via fumarate addition to form benzylsuccinate or by unknown mechanisms to form hydroxylated intermediates under methanogenic conditions. We investigated the mechanism(s) of syntrophic toluene metabolism by a newly described methanogenic enrichment from a gas condensate-contaminated aquifer. Pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA revealed that the culture was comprised mainly of Clostridiales. The predominant methanogens affiliated with the Methanomicrobiales. Methane production from toluene ranged from 72% to 79% of that stoichiometrically predicted. Isotope studies using (13)C(7) toluene showed that benzylsuccinate and benzoate transiently accumulated revealing that members of this consortium can catalyse fumarate addition and subsequent reactions. Detection of a BssA gene fragment in this culture further supported fumarate addition as a mechanism of toluene activation. Transient formation of cresols, benzylalcohol, hydroquinone and methylhydroquinone suggested alternative mechanism(s) for toluene metabolism. However, incubations of the consortium with (18)O-H(2)O showed that the hydroxyl group in these metabolites did not originate from water and abiotic control experiments revealed abiotic formation of hydroxylated species due to reactions of toluene with sulfide and oxygen. Our results suggest that toluene is activated by fumarate addition, presumably by the dominant Clostridiales. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Intermediate frequency magnetic field and chick embryotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Izumi; Tanaka, Keiko; Negishi, Tadashi

    2013-09-01

    Intermediate frequency magnetic fields (MFs) have widely been used in industrial machines and home appliances, such as induction heating cookers, although toxicity studies to evaluate the potential health risks of such fields are insufficient. In induction heating cookers, the MF source (i.e. hobs), is located near the abdominal position of a person cooking. Hence, developmental effects on the fetus may be a concern in case the person is a pregnant woman. Fertile White Leghorn eggs (60/group) were either exposed to 20 kHz, 1.1 mT(rms) or 60 kHz, 0.11 mT(rms) sinusoidal MFs for 19 days during embryogenesis. The same number of eggs served as a control group. In addition, a sham-sham experiment was conducted to validate the equality between exposure and control facilities. After exposure, embryos were examined for mortality rate and stage. Live embryos were evaluated for developmental stage and gross and skeletal anomalies. Length of upper beak and leg digits was also measured. Examinations were conducted in a blinded fashion to ensure quality assurance; experiments were triplicated for each frequency to confirm the outcome reproducibility. Mortality rate and stage, incidence of malformed embryos, and developmental variables in live embryos were found to be similar between the MF-exposed and corresponding control group. Incidence of gross anomalies such as mandibular edema and skeletal anomalies such as coccyx defects were low across the experiments, and no significant group differences were noted. In conclusion, exposure to 20 kHz or 60 kHz MF did not produce any significant teratogenic developmental effects in chick embryos.

  9. "Affective Encounters": Live Intermedial Spaces in Sites of Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jo

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses live intermediality as a tool for creative learning in the context of workshops carried out with young people in the town of Terezin, in the Czech Republic, site of the Nazi concentration camp, Theresienstadt. Live intermediality, as a mode of live media practice, involves the real time mixing and merging of sound, image,…

  10. Incoherence in the South African Labour Market for Intermediate Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraak, Andre

    2008-01-01

    This article is concerned with the production and employment of technically skilled labour at the intermediate level in South Africa. Three differing labour market pathways to intermediate skilling are identified. These are: the traditional apprenticeship route, the new "Learnerships" pathway (similar to the "modern…

  11. 21 CFR 312.315 - Intermediate-size patient populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intermediate-size patient populations. 312.315... for Treatment Use § 312.315 Intermediate-size patient populations. Under this section, FDA may permit an investigational drug to be used for the treatment of a patient population smaller than...

  12. Visual dictionaries as intermediate features in the human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakrishnan, K.; Scholte, H.S.; Groen, I.I.A.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Ghebreab, S.

    2015-01-01

    The human visual system is assumed to transform low level visual features to object and scene representations via features of intermediate complexity. How the brain computationally represents intermediate features is still unclear. To further elucidate this, we compared the biologically plausible

  13. An architecture for recycling intermediates in a column-store

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, M.G.; Kersten, M.L.; Nes, N.J.; Goncalves, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Automatic recycling intermediate results to improve both query response time and throughput is a grand challenge for state-of-the-art databases. Tuples are loaded and streamed through a tuple-at-a-time processing pipeline, avoiding materialisation of intermediates as much as possible. This limits th

  14. Molecular diagnosis of intermediate and severe alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Nordestgaard, B G; Lange, P;

    2001-01-01

    We tested whether intermediate (MZ, SZ) and severe (ZZ) alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency affects lung function in the population at large.......We tested whether intermediate (MZ, SZ) and severe (ZZ) alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency affects lung function in the population at large....

  15. A highly efficient synthesis of itraconazole intermediates and their analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Chong Il; Myoung, Young Chan; Choi, Ha Young; Kim, Seung Jin [Agency for Technology and Standards, Gwacheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-01

    Itraconazole is an important drug for oral treatment of histoplasmosis and blastomycosis. Itraconazole has been the targets of many synthetic efforts due to their diverse antifungal activities. In this study, an efficient synthetic route for Itraconazole intermediates has been developed using new procedures. Also, Itraconazole analogues introducing 2- and 3-methoxy group instead of Itraconazole intermediates with 4-methoxy group were synthesized.

  16. "Affective Encounters": Live Intermedial Spaces in Sites of Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jo

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses live intermediality as a tool for creative learning in the context of workshops carried out with young people in the town of Terezin, in the Czech Republic, site of the Nazi concentration camp, Theresienstadt. Live intermediality, as a mode of live media practice, involves the real time mixing and merging of sound, image,…

  17. 29 CFR 452.81 - Rights in intermediate body elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rights in intermediate body elections. 452.81 Section 452... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.81 Rights in intermediate body elections. While the literal language in section 401(c) relating to distribution of campaign literature and...

  18. Visual dictionaries as intermediate features in the human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Ramakrishnan; H.S. Scholte; I.I.A. Groen; A.W.M. Smeulders; S. Ghebreab

    2015-01-01

    The human visual system is assumed to transform low level visual features to object and scene representations via features of intermediate complexity. How the brain computationally represents intermediate features is still unclear. To further elucidate this, we compared the biologically plausible HM

  19. Regional boreal biodiversity peaks at intermediate human disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, S J; Cahill, J F; He, F; Sólymos, P; Boutin, S

    2012-01-01

    The worldwide biodiversity crisis has intensified the need to better understand how biodiversity and human disturbance are related. The 'intermediate disturbance hypothesis' suggests that disturbance regimes generate predictable non-linear patterns in species richness. Evidence often contradicts intermediate disturbance hypothesis at small scales, and is generally lacking at large regional scales. Here, we present the largest extent study of human impacts on boreal plant biodiversity to date. Disturbance extent ranged from 0 to 100% disturbed in vascular plant communities, varying from intact forest to agricultural fields, forestry cut blocks and oil sands. We show for the first time that across a broad region species richness peaked in communities with intermediate anthropogenic disturbance, as predicted by intermediate disturbance hypothesis, even when accounting for many environmental covariates. Intermediate disturbance hypothesis was consistently supported across trees, shrubs, forbs and grasses, with temporary and perpetual disturbances. However, only native species fit this pattern; exotic species richness increased linearly with disturbance.

  20. Physical Mechanisms for Earthquakes at Intermediate Depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, H. W.; Green, H. W.

    2001-12-01

    Conventional brittle shear failure it is strongly inhibited by pressure because it relies on local tensile failure. In contrast, plastic flow processes are thermally activated, making them sensitive functions of temperature, but their pressure dependence is only moderate. As a consequence, in Earth, faulting by unassisted brittle failure is probably restricted to depths less than ~ 30 km because the rocks flow at lower stresses than they fracture. To enable faulting at greater depths, mineral reactions must occur that generate a fluid or fluid-like solid that is much weaker than the parent assemblage. Although a variety of plastic instabilities have been and continue to be proposed to explain earthquakes at depth, dehydration embrittlement remains the only experimentally verified faulting mechanism consistent with the pressures and compositions existing at depths of 50-300km within subducting lithosphere. However, low pressure hydrous phases potentially abundant in subducting lithosphere (e.g. chlorite and antigorite) exhibit a temperature maximum in their stability, implying that the bulk volume change at depths of more than 70-100 km. becomes negative, thereby raising questions about mechanical instability upon dehydration. Further, it is now well-accepted that intermediate-depth earthquakes occur within the descending slab (double seismic zones present in several slabs dramatically demonstrate this fact), in conflict with the maximum depth of 10-12 km accepted for hydration of the lithosphere at oceanic spreading centers. Thus, on the one hand these earthquakes may be evidence that hydrous phases exist deep within subducting slabs but on the other hand, a mechanism for hydration to such depths is not known. One possibility is that large earthquakes outboard of trenches break the surface and allow hydration of the fault zone that can later dehydrate to yield earthquakes at depth, but no mechanism is known for pumping H2O into such fault zones to depths of tens of

  1. Talassemia β intermediária em gestante Intermediate β thalassemia in a pregnant woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana M. Sakamoto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A talassemia β é a forma considerada clinicamente a mais importante dentre as talassemias, em virtude do grau de morbidade e mortalidade, em consequência da anemia hemolítica. O presente relato de caso refere-se a uma gestante portadora da talassemia β intermediária, identificada em programa de rastreamento de anemia hemolítica e tem como objetivo demonstrar a importância do diagnóstico precoce e adequado de uma anemia hereditária, durante o pré-natal. Ressalta também a necessidade de orientação aos portadores em relação aos seus descendentes e a eficiência do acompanhamento por uma equipe multidisciplinar especializada.β-thalassemia is clinically the most important form of thalassemia due to its high level of morbidity and mortality as a result of intense hemolytic anemia. The present case report describes the case a pregnant woman who is an intermediate β-thalassemia carrier identified in a screening program for hemolytic anemia. This work aims at showing the importance of correct and early diagnosis of inherited anemia during pregnancy. It also stresses the need of guidance for carriers in respect to their progeny and discusses the efficiency of follow ups by a multidisciplinary team during pregnancy.

  2. Status of art report on intermediate energy nuclear data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Ouk; Chang, Jong Hwa

    1997-06-01

    Nuclear reaction data of intermediate energy ranging above 20 MeV upto a few GeV form an important ingredient of several nuclear energy application, such as medical research, astrophysics, transmutation of radioactive waste and accelerator-driven reactor. Current status of the intermediate energy nuclear data cannot satisfy the requirements of these applications. Despite the fact that theories and models with suitable parameterization and fitting to the experimental data can be used for filling gaps in the available experimental database, current theories and models for intermediate nuclear energy nuclear reaction are still under development. This report summarizes required intermediate energy nuclear data and their physical quantities for the relevant research fields. Theories/models and codes developed up to now for the intermediate nuclear reaction are also outlined and transport codes based on these models are briefly introduced in this report. Available experimental facilities and data libraries are filed and trend of activities in the foreign countries on intermediate energy nuclear data are summarized. It is hoped that this report provide a part of information for the research activity on intermediate energy nuclear data in Korea to establish its long-term plan. (author). 14 tabs., 6 figs

  3. Language in use intermediate : self-study workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Doff, Adrian

    1994-01-01

    Each of the four levels comprises about 80 hours of class work, with additional time for the self-study work. The Teacher's Book contains all the pages from the Classroom Book, with interleaved teaching notes including optional activities to cater for different abilities. There is a video to accompany the Beginner, Pre-intermediate and Intermediate levels. Each video contains eight stimulating and entertaining short programmes, as well as a booklet of photocopiable activities. Free test material is available in booklet and web format for Beginner and Pre-intermediate levels. Visit www.cambridge.org/elt/liu or contact your local Cambridge University Press representative.

  4. Microbial/enzymatic synthesis of chiral pharmaceutical intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ramesh N

    2003-11-01

    Chirality is a key factor in the efficacy of many drugs; thus, the production of single enantiomers of drug intermediates has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. Chiral intermediates and fine chemicals are in high demand from the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries for the preparation of bulk drug substances and agricultural products. There has been an increasing awareness of the enormous potential of microorganisms and enzymes for the transformation of synthetic chemicals with high chemo-, regio- and enantioselectivity. In this article, biocatalytic processes for the synthesis of chiral pharmaceutical intermediates are described.

  5. Parameters of the Disk Loaded Waveguide structure for intermediate particles acceleration in the intermediate energy range

    CERN Document Server

    Paramonov, V

    2013-01-01

    The Disk Loaded Waveguide (DLW) is the mostly used high frequency structure for acceleration of lightweight particles - electrons in the high energy range. In some physical experiments acceleration of more heavy particles - muons to medium energies is required. DLW parameters are considered for particle velocity 0.04 < \\beta < 1 both for the fundamental and the nearest backward spatial harmonics. Physical and technical restrictions for DLW application in the low \\beta range and lower frequency (the L-band range) are analyzed. Basing on particularities of acceleration with Traveling Wave (TW), deep optimization of DLW cells dimensions, the choice of optimal operating phase advance for each DLW section and combination of forward and backward TW modes, it is possible to create simple, cost effective acceleration system for acceleration in the velocity range 0.2 < \\beta < 1 intermediate particles, in some parameters overcoming accelerating system with RF cavities in Standing Wave (SW) mode. Design cri...

  6. Semiannually alternating exchange of intermediate waters east of the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Song, Lina; Li, Yuanlong; Liu, Chuanyu; Wang, Jianing; Lin, Pengfei; Yang, Guang; Zhao, Jun; Diao, Xinyuan; Zhang, Dongxiao; Hu, Dunxin

    2016-07-01

    Intermediate water exchange in the northwest tropical Pacific is explored with the temperature, salinity, and current measurements of a mooring system deployed at 8°N, 127.05°E during 2010-2014. For the first time, prominent semiannual variability (SAV; with the maximum power at ~ 187 days) of subthermocline meridional flow along the Mindanao coast is revealed. A significant correlation between meridional flow and salinity is found at intermediate depths. This provides direct evidence for the alternating transports of South Pacific and North Pacific Intermediate Waters by northward and southward undercurrents, respectively. Further analysis with an eddy-resolving ocean general circulation model demonstrates that the SAV is generated locally near the western boundary, manifesting as large-scale subthermocline recirculation and leading to alternating northward and southward flows near the Mindanao coast, which plays an efficient role in the intermediate water exchange of the northwest tropical Pacific. Mechanisms underlying the observed SAV are discussed.

  7. Neck Emission of Intermediate Mass Fragments During Fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, R. T.; Chen, S. L.; Cornell, E. W.; Davin, B.; Hamilton, T. M.; Hulburt, D.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Lou, Y.; Viola, V. E.; Wile, J. L.; Korteling, R.

    1996-05-01

    Ternary fission of heavy nuclei provides a unique opportunity to constrain models of the dissipative forces which occur during fission. We have measured neck emission of Intermediate mass fragments (IMF:3 model are made.

  8. Detection of low-populated reaction intermediates with hyperpolarized NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Pernille R; Meier, Sebastian; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan H; Duus, Jens Ø; Karlsson, Magnus; Lerche, Mathilde H

    2009-09-14

    Hyperpolarized (13)C NMR spectroscopy can provide the sensitivity and spectral resolution to detect, identify and quantify low-populated reaction intermediates, thus yielding direct chemical information on reaction mechanisms in real-time assays.

  9. Functionalization of the corrole ring: the role of isocorrole intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Luca; Nardis, Sara; Fronczek, Frank R; Smith, Kevin M; Paolesse, Roberto

    2011-04-14

    Bromination of 3-nitro-5,10,15-triarylcorrole selectively provides two regioisomers, depending on the reaction pathway. An isocorrole species is the key intermediate to drive the reaction towards the 2-Br-17-nitro regioisomer.

  10. Improved enzymatic production of phenolated glycerides through alkyl phenolate intermediate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Feddern, Vivian; Glasius, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This work reported a novel approach for synthesis of dihydrocaffoylated glycerides, consisting of 2 steps: enzymatic synthesis of octyl dihydrocaffeate (as a synthetic intermediate) from octanol and dihydrocaffeic acid (DHCA), and enzymatic interesterification of triglycerides with octyl dihydroc...

  11. Proteomics characterization of intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium) flour proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinopyrum intermedium, commonly known as intermediate wheatgrass (IWG), is a perennial crop with favorable agronomic characteristics and nutritional benefits. IWG lines are deficient in high molecular weight glutenins (HMWG), responsible for dough strength. A detailed characterization of IWG flou...

  12. Intermediate product selection and blending in the food processing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilic, Onur A.; Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a capacitated intermediate product selection and blending problem typical for two-stage production systems in the food processing industry. The problem involves the selection of a set of intermediates and end-product recipes characterising how those selected intermediates...... are blended into end products to minimise the total operational costs under production and storage capacity limitations. A comprehensive mixed-integer linear model is developed for the problem. The model is applied on a data set collected from a real-life case. The trade-offs between capacity limitations...... and operational costs are analysed, and the effects of different types of cost parameters and capacity limitations on the selection of intermediates and end-product recipes are investigated....

  13. Analysis of Preference Data Using Intermediate Test Statistic Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... Intermediate statistic is a link between Friedman test statistic and the multinomial statistic. The statistic is ... The null hypothesis Ho .... [7] Taplin, R.H., The Statistical Analysis of Preference Data, Applied Statistics, No. 4, pp.

  14. Banking on fewer children: financial intermediation, fertility and economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, C S

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the influence of financial intermediation on fertility rate and labor allocation decisions. A panel Vector Autoregression model using three variables of interest, specifically, financial intermediation, fertility, and industrial employment data in 87 countries, was estimated. This convenient methodology allows the relationship between the variables to change over time. Findings indicate that the increase in wages led some households to shift from traditional labor intensive methods of production to modern sector firms. Since it is optimal for households in the modern sector to have fewer children then the labor allocation decision leads to a lower national fertility. Furthermore, results imply that the emergence and development of the financial intermediation sector will enhance modern sector employment and lower total fertility rates. Thus, the financial intermediation process is an important part of the overall developmental process.

  15. Assembly characteristics of plant keratin intermediate filaments in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵光伟; 杨澄; 佟向军; 翟中和

    1999-01-01

    After selective extraction and purification, plant keratin intermediate filaments were reassembled in vitro. Scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) micrographs showed that acidic keratins and basic keratins can assemble into dimers and further into 10 nm filaments in vitro. In higher magnification images, it can be seen that fully assembled plant keratin intermediate filaments consist of several thinner filaments of 3 nm in diameter, which indicates the formation of protofilaments in the assembly processes. One of the explicit features of plant keratin intermediate filaments is a 24—25 nm periodic structural repeat alone the axis of beth the 10 nm filaments and protofilaments. The periodic repeat is one of the fundamental characteristic of all intermediate filaments, and demonstrates the half staggered arrangement of keratin molecules within the filaments.

  16. 22 CFR 140.10 - Intermediate credit institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... as a foreign government entity. Intermediate credit institutions (“ICIs”) shall be subject to either... included in agreements with all ICIs requiring that any loan greater than $1,000 provided by the ICI to...

  17. An intermediate distribution between Gaussian and Cauchy distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Tong; Dai, Wu-Sheng; Xie, Mi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we construct an intermediate distribution linking the Gaussian and the Cauchy distribution. We provide the probability density function and the corresponding characteristic function of the intermediate distribution. Because many kinds of distributions have no moment, we introduce weighted moments. Specifically, we consider weighted moments under two types of weighted functions: the cut-off function and the exponential function. Through these two types of weighted functions, we can obtain weighted moments for almost all distributions. We consider an application of the probability density function of the intermediate distribution on the spectral line broadening in laser theory. Moreover, we utilize the intermediate distribution to the problem of the stock market return in quantitative finance.

  18. The Intermediate Impossible: A Prewriting Activity for Creative Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karloff, Kenneth

    1985-01-01

    Adapts Edward de Bono's "Intermediate Impossible" strategy--for considering ideas that normally would be discarded as stepping-stones to new ideas--for use as a prewriting activity to enhance creative problem solving. (HTH)

  19. Control of nonenzymatic browning in intermediate-moisture foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, K. A.; Labruza, T. P.; Warmbier, H. C.

    1975-01-01

    Series of compounds called humectants were found to decrease rate of browning when added to intermediate-moisture foods. Twenty percent level of humectant can increase shelf life of foods by factor of 5 or 6.

  20. On the Representation of Intermediate States in the Velocity Basis

    CERN Document Server

    Tay, B A

    2002-01-01

    We explore the implication of applying the "minimally complex" representation to study intermediate states. We propose an interpretation of the "velocity variables" used in the "minimally complex" representation so as to make the construction consistent with the kinematics of the underlying scattering process under consideration. We also show that this choice of representation advocates the use of velocity basis over momentum basis in studying intermediate states.

  1. Responding to diversity: workforce intermediation in a transitioning regional economy

    OpenAIRE

    Nichola J. Lowe

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I examine workforce intermediation as a tool for regional economic transition. While most studies of workforce intermediation in the United States focus on targeted programs that work with less-advantaged socioeconomic groups, I examine strategies adopted by state-funded community colleges that have a more encompassing or universalistic mandate. Through a case study of North Carolina’s BioWork initiative I examine college-level strategies for assisting two distinct groups of job...

  2. Superlattice Intermediate Band Solar Cell on Gallium Arsenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-09

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2015-0048 TR-2015-0048 SUPERLATTICE INTERMEDIATE BAND SOLAR CELL ON GALLIUM ARSENIDE Alexandre Freundlich...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9453-13-1-0232 Superlattice Intermediate Band Solar Cell on Gallium Arsenide 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...band solar cell incorporating low dimensional structures made with dilute nitrogen alloys of III-V semiconductors is investigated theoretically and

  3. Intermediate energy light sources and the SSRF project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Advances in insertion device technology, top-up operation and superconducting RF cavities make it possible to generate high brightness X-ray with intermediate energy light sources, which leads a new trend in designing and constructing third generation light sources around the world. The development status and the remarkable technical features of intermediate energy light sources are reviewed, and the main SSRF properties are described in this paper.

  4. On Physical and Mechanical Behavior of Natural Marine Intermediate Deposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Ming-lei; DENG Xue-jun

    2005-01-01

    Coastal structures may be built on natural sedimentary intermediate grounds, which mainly consist of silty soils and fine sandy soils. In this study, extensive field and laboratory tests were performed on the natural marine intermediate deposits to demonstrate the difference in behavior between natural marine clayey soils and natural marine intermediate deposits. The natural intermediate deposits have almost the same ratios of natural water content to liquid limit as those of the soft natural marine clays, but the former have much higher in-situ strength and sensitivity than the latter. The research results indicate that grain size distributions of soils affect significantly tip resistance obtained in field cone penetration tests. The mechanical parameters of natural marine intermediate deposits are also significantly affected by sample disturbance due to their high sensitivity and relatively large permeability. Unconfined compression shear tests largely underestimate the strength of natural marine intermediate soils. The triaxial consolidated compression shear tests with simulated in-situ confined pressure give results much better than those of uncomfined compression shear tests.

  5. Analysis of dynein intermediate chains, light intermediate chains and light chains in a cohort of hereditary peripheral neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Shelisa; Ahmad-Annuar, Azlina; Drew, Alexander P; Shahrizaila, Nortina; Nicholson, Garth A; Kennerson, Marina L

    2014-10-01

    The cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain (DYNC1H1) gene has been increasingly associated with neurodegenerative disorders including axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT2), intellectual disability and malformations of cortical development. In addition, evidence from mouse models (Loa, catabolite repressor-activator (Cra) and Sprawling (Swl)) has shown that mutations in Dync1h1 cause a range of neurodegenerative phenotypes with motor and sensory neuron involvement. In this current study, we examined the possible contribution of other cytoplasmic dynein subunits that bind to DYNC1H1 as a cause of inherited peripheral neuropathy. We focused on screening the cytoplasmic dynein intermediate, light intermediate and light chain genes in a cohort of families with inherited peripheral neuropathies. Nine genes were screened and ten variants were detected, but none was identified as pathogenic, indicating that cytoplasmic dynein intermediate, light intermediate and light chains are not a cause of neuropathy in our cohort.

  6. Perspective: Spectroscopy and kinetics of small gaseous Criegee intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yuan-Pern, E-mail: yplee@mail.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Applied Chemistry and Institute of Molecular Science, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan and Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2015-07-14

    The Criegee intermediates, carbonyl oxides proposed by Criegee in 1949 as key intermediates in the ozonolysis of alkenes, play important roles in many aspects of atmospheric chemistry. Because direct detection of these gaseous intermediates was unavailable until recently, previous understanding of their reactions, derived from indirect experimental evidence, had great uncertainties. Recent laboratory detection of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH{sub 2}OO and some larger members, produced from ultraviolet irradiation of corresponding diiodoalkanes in O{sub 2}, with various methods such as photoionization, ultraviolet absorption, infrared absorption, and microwave spectroscopy opens a new door to improved understanding of the roles of these Criegee intermediates. Their structures and spectral parameters have been characterized; their significant zwitterionic nature is hence confirmed. CH{sub 2}OO, along with other products, has also been detected directly with microwave spectroscopy in gaseous ozonolysis reactions of ethene. The detailed kinetics of the source reaction, CH{sub 2}I + O{sub 2}, which is critical to laboratory studies of CH{sub 2}OO, are now understood satisfactorily. The kinetic investigations using direct detection identified some important atmospheric reactions, including reactions with NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, water dimer, carboxylic acids, and carbonyl compounds. Efforts toward the characterization of larger Criegee intermediates and the investigation of related reactions are in progress. Some reactions of CH{sub 3}CHOO are found to depend on conformation. This perspective examines progress toward the direct spectral characterization of Criegee intermediates and investigations of the associated reaction kinetics, and indicates some unresolved problems and prospective challenges for this exciting field of research.

  7. Optimization of intermediate cooling and intermediate heating in the gas turbine process; Optimierung der Zwischenkuehlung und der Zwischenerhitzung beim Gasturbinenprozess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woerrlein, K.

    1998-07-01

    The author investigated how the thermal efficiency of the gas turbine process can be improved by intermediate cooling, intermediate heating, or combined intermediate cooling and heating. The focus was on the pressure ratios of low-pressure compressors and high-pressure turbines. The numeric calculations were carried out using real gas characteristics. The findings suggest that intermediate coling inside the compressor has much more influence on the thermal efficiency than intermediate heating inside the turbine. However, the latter is advantageous in the case of gas turbines for combined cycle operation, as the off-gas temperatures required for steam generation are reached even at relatively low turbine inlet temperatures, so that NOx emissions of the gas turbine combustion chamber will be low. It is recommended that solitary gas turbines should be operated with intermediate cooling and gas turbines in combined cycle operation with intermediate heating. [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit soll untersucht werden, in welcher Weise sich der thermische Wirkungsgrad des Gasturbinen-Prozesses durch Zwischenkuehlung, Zwischenerhitzung bzw. Zwischenkuehlung und Zwischenerhitzung verbessern laesst. Dabei sollen in erster Linie die Druckverhaeltnisse von ND-Verdichter bzw. HD-Turbine bestimmt werden, bei denen Zwischenkuehlung und Zwischenerhitzung vorgenommen werden sollen, um eine optimale Verbesserung des thermischen Wirkungsgrades zu erreichen. Die numerische Durchrechnung soll mit den Stoffwerten des realen Gases durchgefuehrt werden. Die numerischen Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Zwischenkuehlung im Verdichter einen weit groesseren Einfluss auf den thermischen Wirkungsgrad hat als die Zwischenerhitzung in der Turbine. Letztere ist aber bei Gasturbinen fuer den Kombibetrieb von Vorteil, erreicht man doch die fuer die Dampferzeugung notwendigen Abgastemperaturen der Gasturbine schon bei relativ niedrigen Turbineneintrittstemperaturen, so dass die NO{sub x}-Emission der

  8. Neutrino Oscillations in Intermediate States.II -- Wave Packets

    CERN Document Server

    Asahara, A; Shimomura, T; Yabuki, T

    2004-01-01

    We analyze oscillations of intermediate neutrinos in terms of scattering of particles described by Gaussian wave packets. We study a scalar model as in the previous paper (I) but in realistic situations, where two particles of the initial state and final state are wave packets and neutrinos are in the intermediate state. The oscillation of the intermediate neutrino is found from the time evolution of the total transition probability between the initial state and final state. The effect of a finite lifetime and a finite relaxation time $\\tau$ are also studied. We find that the oscillation pattern depends on the magnitude of wave packet sizes of particles in the initial state and final state and the lifetime of the initial particle. For $\\Delta m^2=10^{-2}$ eV$^2$, the oscillation probability deviates from the standard formula, if the wave packet sizes are around $10^{-13}$ m for 0.4 MeV neutrino.

  9. Intermediate electrostatic field for the generalized elongation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Korchowiec, Jacek; Aoki, Yuriko

    2015-05-18

    An intermediate electrostatic field is introduced to improve the accuracy of fragment-based quantum-chemical computational methods by including long-range polarizations of biomolecules. The point charge distribution of the intermediate field is generated by a charge sensitivity analysis that is parameterized for five different population analyses, namely, atoms-in-molecules, Hirshfeld, Mulliken, natural orbital, and Voronoi population analysis. Two model systems are chosen to demonstrate the performance of the generalized elongation method (ELG) combined with the intermediate electrostatic field. The calculations are performed for the STO-3G, 6-31G, and 6-31G(d) basis sets and compared with reference Hartree-Fock calculations. It is shown that the error in the total energy is reduced by one order of magnitude, independently of the population analyses used. This demonstrates the importance of long-range polarization in electronic-structure calculations by fragmentation techniques.

  10. Replicative intermediates of maize streak virus found during leaf development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Julia B; Shepherd, Dionne N; Martin, Darren P; Varsani, Arvind; Rybicki, Edward P; Jeske, Holger

    2010-04-01

    Geminiviruses of the genera Begomovirus and Curtovirus utilize three replication modes: complementary-strand replication (CSR), rolling-circle replication (RCR) and recombination-dependent replication (RDR). Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we now show for the first time that maize streak virus (MSV), the type member of the most divergent geminivirus genus, Mastrevirus, does the same. Although mastreviruses have fewer regulatory genes than other geminiviruses and uniquely express their replication-associated protein (Rep) from a spliced transcript, the replicative intermediates of CSR, RCR and RDR could be detected unequivocally within infected maize tissues. All replicative intermediates accumulated early and, to varying degrees, were already present in the shoot apex and leaves at different maturation stages. Relative to other replicative intermediates, those associated with RCR increased in prevalence during leaf maturation. Interestingly, in addition to RCR-associated DNA forms seen in other geminiviruses, MSV also apparently uses dimeric open circular DNA as a template for RCR.

  11. Intermediation in Open Development: A Knowledge Stewardship Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M. A. Reilly

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Open Development (OD is a subset of ICT4D that studies the potential of IT-enabled openness to support social change among poor or marginalized populations. Early OD work examined the potential of IT-enabled openness to decentralize power and enable public engagement by disintermediating knowledge production and dissemination. However, in practice, intermediaries have emerged to facilitate open data and related knowledge production activities in development processes. We identify five models of intermediation in OD work: decentralized, arterial, ecosystem, bridging, and communities of practice and examine the implications of each for stewardship of open processes. We conclude that studying OD through these five forms of intermediation is a productive way of understanding whether and how different patterns of knowledge stewardship influence development outcomes. We also offer suggestions for future research that can improve our understanding of how to sustain openness, facilitate public engagement, and ensure that intermediation contributes to open development.

  12. Characterization of the Partially Folded Monomeric Intermediate of Creatine Kinase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴龙斗; 周海梦

    2002-01-01

    The importance of understanding the protein folding pathway and intermediates is well recognized on the basis of extensive studies of protein folding in vitro and in vivo. Creatine kinase (CK) is a typical model for studying unfolding and refolding of proteins due to several interesting properties. Recent studies on the folding of CK show that its partially folded monomeric intermediate is present kinetically and is stable at equilibrium. The present paper contains 33 References as a mini review to characterize the properties of CK from studies on the CK folding pathway. Characterization of these intermediates is an essential step toward understanding the mechanism of protein folding. Some well-determined schemes are suggested as protein folding models.

  13. Intermediate filament transcription in astrocytes is repressed by proteasome inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middeldorp, Jinte; Kamphuis, Willem; Sluijs, Jacqueline A.; Achoui, Dalila; Leenaars, Cathalijn H. C.; Feenstra, Matthijs G. P.; van Tijn, Paula; Fischer, David F.; Berkers, Celia; Ovaa, Huib; Quinlan, Roy A.; Hol, Elly M.

    2009-01-01

    Increased expression of the astrocytic intermediate filament protein glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a characteristic of astrogliosis. This process occurs in the brain during aging and neurodegeneration and coincides with impairment of the ubiquitin proteasome system. Inhibition of the proteasome impairs protein degradation; therefore, we hypothesized that the increase in GFAP may be the result of impaired proteasomal activity in astrocytes. We investigated the effect of proteasome inhibitors on GFAP expression and other intermediate filament proteins in human astrocytoma cells and in a rat brain model for astrogliosis. Extensive quantitative RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and Western blot analysis resulted unexpectedly in a strong decrease of GFAP mRNA to Hol, E. M. Intermediate filament transcription in astrocytes is repressed by proteasome inhibition. PMID:19332645

  14. Deglacial intermediate water reorganization: new evidence from the Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Romahn

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of intermediate water masses in climate change and ocean circulation has been emphasized recently. In particular, Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW is thought to have acted as an active interhemispheric transmitter of climate anomalies. Here we reconstruct changes in AAIW signature and spatial and temporal evolution based on a 40 kyr time series of oxygen and carbon isotopes as well as planktic Mg/Ca based thermometry from a site in the western Indian Ocean. Our data suggest that AAIW transmitted Antarctic temperature trends to the equatorial Indian Ocean via the "oceanic tunnel" mechanism. Moreover, our results reveal that deglacial AAIW carried a signature of aged Southern Ocean deep water. We find no evidence of increased formation of intermediate waters during the deglaciation.

  15. Intermediate distance correlators in hot Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Laine, M; Vuorinen, A

    2010-01-01

    Lattice measurements of spatial correlation functions of the operators FF and FF-dual in thermal SU(3) gauge theory have revealed a clear difference between the two channels at "intermediate" distances, x ~ 1/(pi T). This is at odds with the AdS/CFT limit which predicts the results to coincide. On the other hand, an OPE analysis at short distances (x 1/(pi T)) as well as effective theory methods at long distances (x 1/(pi T)) suggest differences. Here we study the situation at intermediate distances by determining the time-averaged spatial correlators through a 2-loop computation. We do find unequal results, however the numerical disparity is small. Apart from theoretical issues, a future comparison of our results with time-averaged lattice measurements might also be of phenomenological interest in that understanding the convergence of the weak-coupling series at intermediate distances may bear on studies of the thermal broadening of heavy quarkonium resonances.

  16. Receptor- and reactive intermediate-mediated mechanisms of teratogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Peter G; Lee, Crystal J J; McCallum, Gordon P; Perstin, Julia; Harper, Patricia A

    2010-01-01

    Drugs and environmental chemicals can adversely alter the development of the fetus at critical periods during pregnancy, resulting in death, or in structural and functional birth defects in the surviving offspring. This process of teratogenesis may not be evident until a decade or more after birth. Postnatal functional abnormalities include deficits in brain function, a variety of metabolic diseases, and cancer. Due to the high degree of fetal cellular division and differentiation, and to differences from the adult in many biochemical pathways, the fetus is highly susceptible to teratogens, typically at low exposure levels that do not harm the mother. Insights into the mechanisms of teratogenesis come primarily from animal models and in vitro systems, and involve either receptor-mediated or reactive intermediate-mediated processes. Receptor-mediated mechanisms involving the reversible binding of xenobiotic substrates to a specific receptor are exemplified herein by the interaction of the environmental chemical 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD or "dioxin") with the cytosolic aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), which translocates to the nucleus and, in association with other proteins, binds to AH-responsive elements (AHREs) in numerous genes, initiating changes in gene transcription that can perturb development. Alternatively, many xenobiotics are bioactivated by fetal enzymes like the cytochromes P450 (CYPs) and prostaglandin H synthases (PHSs) to highly unstable electrophilic or free radical reactive intermediates. Electrophilic reactive intermediates can covalently (irreversibly) bind to and alter the function of essential cellular macromolecules (proteins, DNA), causing developmental anomalies. Free radical reactive intermediates can enhance the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in oxidative damage to cellular macromolecules and/or altered signal transduction. The teratogenicity of reactive intermediates is determined to a large extent

  17. IMPORTANT TREMATODES IN MAN IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinardi Hadidjaja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Trematode infections are considered to be a non public health problem in Indonesia, with the excep­tion of the two species namely Schistosoma japonicum and Fasciolopsis buski which are still assumed to be the most important trematodes of Indonesia. Other trematode infections reported occasionally were caused by: Echinostoma spp, Haplorchis yokogawai, Haplorchis taichui, Paralecithodendrium molenkampi, Phaneropsolus bonnei and Plachiorchis javensis. Schistosoma japonicum infection has been known to be endemic among the inhabitants of Lake Lindu since 1937. Surveys carried out since that time revealed prevalence rates which varied from 8-55%. Further studies proved that the species at Lindu were similar to the species found in Asia. Resurvey initiated in 1971 gave almost a similar prevalence rate followed by the discovery of the molluscan intermediate host namely Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis. In 1972 a new focus of schistosomiasis was discovered at Napu Valley. Other survey did not reveal any other endemic foci. The result of a biological study carried out since 1976 reconfirmed the diagnosis of the species. Clinical study showed that the significant signs and symptoms of schistosomiasis found among the Lindu inhabitants were : dermatitis, diarrhea, dysentry, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, weakness, distention of the abdomen, melaena. hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. Control of schistosomiasis was initiated in 1981, using praziquantel for mass treatment. Twelve cycles of treatment at Lake Lindu area and 10 cycles at Napu Valley resulted in a reduction of overall prevalence rate from 15,80 % at Lindu area in 1981 to 1,14 % in 1987 whereas in Napu Valley the reduction was from 35,8 % in 1982 to 1,00 % in 1987. Fasciolopsis buski infection was first reported in 1982 from the Regency of Babirik, Hulu Sungai Utara in South Kalimantan Province. The following survey in that area in 1986 revealed a prevalence rate of 27

  18. Surface Intermediates on Metal Electrodes at High Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; Jacobsen, Torben; Bay, Lasse

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms widely suggested for the O2-reduc-tion or H2-oxidation SOFC reactions involve inter-mediate O/H species adsorbed on the electrode surface. The presence of these intermediates is investigated by linear sweep voltammetry. In airat moderate temperatures (500øC) Pt in contact with YSZ ...... is covered with adsorbed oxygen which vanishes at high temperature (1000øC). On Ni (YSZ) a specific layer of NiO is observed abovethe equilibrium potential while no surface species can identified at SOFC anode conditions....

  19. On the polarization of fermion in an intermediate state

    CERN Document Server

    Kaloshin, A E

    2016-01-01

    We show that calculation of a scattered fermion polarization (for a pure initial state) is equivalent to the problem of looking for complete polarization axis of bispinor. This gives the method for calculation of polarization applicable for both final and intermediate state fermions. We suggest to use fermion propagator (bare or dressed) in form of spectral representation, which gives the orthogonal off-shell energy projectors. This representation leads to covariant separation of particle and antiparticle contributions and gives a natural definition for polarization of intermediate state fermion.

  20. Surface intermediates on metal electrodes at high temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; Jacobsen, Torben; Bay, Lasse;

    1998-01-01

    in contact with YSZ is covered with adsorbed oxygen which vanishes at high temperature (1000 degrees C). On Ni (YSZ) a specific layer of NiO is observed above the equilibrium potential while no surface species involving hydrogen can be identified at SOFC anode conditions. (C) 1998 Published by Elsevier......The mechanisms widely conceived for the O(2)-reduction or H(2)-oxidation reactions in SOFC's involve intermediate O/H species adsorbed on the electrode surface. The presence of these intermediates is investigated by linear sweep voltammetry. In air at moderate temperatures (500 degrees C) Pt...

  1. THE CASE FOR AN INTERMEDIATE EXCHANGE RATE REGIME

    OpenAIRE

    JOHN WILLIAMSON

    2007-01-01

    The argument that any exchange rate regimes other than firmly fixed and freely floating rates were infeasible — the so-called bipolarity thesis — acquired great popularity in the wake of the Asian crisis of a decade ago, but it has almost vanished today. One reason is surely the unkind empirical evidence, which shows that intermediate regimes — measured as those where both reserve and exchange rate changes lie in an intermediate range — are not in fact tending to disappear (Levy Yeyati and St...

  2. Gravitational Radiation of Binaries Coalescence into Intermediate Mass Black Holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑾; 仲元红; 潘宇

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the gravitation waveforms of binaries coalescence into intermediate mass black holes (about 30 times of the solar mass). We focus on the non-spinning intermediate mass black hole located less than 100 Mpc from earth. By comparing two simulation waveforms (effective one body numerical relativity waveform (EOBNR), phenomenological waveform), we discuss the relationship between the effective distance and frequency; and through analyzing large amounts of data in event, we find that the phenomenological waveform is much smoother than EOBNR waveform, and has higher accuracy at the same effective distance.

  3. Intermediate Mass Fragments Emission in Peripheral Heavy-Ion Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, M.; Casini, G.; Maurenzig, P. R.; Olmi, A.; Pasquali, G.; Piantelli, S.; Poggi, G.; Stefanini, A. A.; Taccetti, N.

    The collision 116Sn + 93Nb at 29.5 AMeV in direct and reverse kinematics has been studied at LNS in Catania. In particular the emission pattern in the νperp - νpar plane of Intermediate Mass Fragments with Z=3-7 (IMF's) shows that for peripheral reactions most of IMF's are emitted at velocities intermediate between those of the projectile- and target-like products. From coulomb trajectory calculations one can infere that these IMF's are produced mainly in the interaction zone, in a short time interval at the end of the target-projectile interaction.

  4. Reactive intermediates in the gas phase generation and monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Setser, D W

    2013-01-01

    Reactive Intermediates in the Gas Phase: Generation and Monitoring covers methods for reactive intermediates in the gas phase. The book discusses the generation and measurement of atom and radical concentrations in flow systems; the high temperature flow tubes, generation and measurement of refractory species; and the electronically excited long-lived states of atoms and diatomic molecules in flow systems. The text also describes the production and detection of reactive species with lasers in static systems; the production of small positive ions in a mass spectrometer; and the discharge-excite

  5. Do observations reveal accretion discs in intermediate polars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellier, C. (University Coll., London (UK). Mullard Space Science Lab.)

    1991-08-15

    It has been proposed that intermediate polars do not accrete through discs and that they may not possess discs. Observations of eclipses and emission lines provide strong evidence that discs are present in many intermediate polars, although it is less clear whether the accretion flows through these discs. An analysis of the EXOSAT database shows that many systems have orbital and beat period modulations which are small compared to the spin-pulses, suggesting disc accretion. There are, though, exceptions, notably TX Col where dominant orbital and beat period modulations indicate discless accretion. (author).

  6. Isomerization Intermediates In Solution Phase Photochemistry Of Stilbenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doany, F. E.; Hochstrasser, R. M.; Greene, B. I.

    1985-04-01

    Picosecond and subpicosecond spectroscopic studies have revealed evidence for an isomerization intermediate between cis and trans in the photoinduced isomerism of both stilbene and biindanyledene ("stiff" stilbene). In stiff stilbene, a transient absorption at 351 nm displays time evolution and viscosity dependence consistent with absorption by a twisted intermediate ("phantom" state) with a lOps lifetime. An analagous bottleneck state with a life-time of 4ps is also consistent with the ground state recovery dynamics of t-stilbene following excitation of c-stilbene when monitored with 0.1ps resolution.

  7. Sobre o teorema do valor intermediário

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, Fabio Maia de [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    In this work we study the Intermediate Value Theorem and we present some applications. This kind of theorem is typical from Calculus in graduation courses. But it is easy to understand and it can be used to solve problems related to topics from high school, for example, to guarantee the existence of solutions for certain equations Neste trabalho estudamos o Teorema do Valor Intermediário e apresentamos várias aplica ções. Embora seja um teorema visto em cursos universitários, o teorema e d...

  8. Study of glycolytic intermediates in hereditary elliptocytosis with thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavri Roshan

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycolytic intermediates like ATP, DPG and GSH have been studied in a family with. hereditary elliptocytosis and thalassemia. Results indicate a fall in ATP with a concomitant rise in DPG in the Patient. Findings are discussed in relation to other data.

  9. The INTEGRAL view of intermediate long X-ray bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    CONCLUSIONS Most intermediate bursts are observed from low luminosity sources and are interpreted as long pure He bursts. If no H is accreted, they are consistent with the burning of a slowly accreted, thick He layer, in Ultra Compact X-ray Binaries (UCXB) where the donor star is probably a degen...

  10. An Evaluation of An Intermediate Course in Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜佳婧

    2012-01-01

      Courrsebooks are important in teaching and education. An e-valuation of a coursebook cal ed An Intermediate Course in Writing is made from the aspects of background, fitness to the curriculum, physical characters, logical characters and teachability.

  11. Optimizing the marketing interventions mix in intermediate-term CRM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rust, RT; Verhoef, PC

    2005-01-01

    W e provide a fully personalized model for optimizing multiple marketing interventions in intermediate-term customer relationship management (CRM). We derive theoretically based propositions on the moderating effects of past customer behavior and conduct a longitudinal validation test to compare the

  12. Teaching New Keynesian Open Economy Macroeconomics at the Intermediate Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bofinger, Peter; Mayer, Eric; Wollmershauser, Timo

    2009-01-01

    For the open economy, the workhorse model in intermediate textbooks still is the Mundell-Fleming model, which basically extends the investment and savings, liquidity preference and money supply (IS-LM) model to open economy problems. The authors present a simple New Keynesian model of the open economy that introduces open economy considerations…

  13. Bibliografia Especializada: Educacion Media (Specialized Bibliography: Intermediate Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boletin del Centro Nacional de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa, 1969

    1969-01-01

    This specialized international bibliography on various issues in intermediate education lists almost 70 articles and books, written between 1957 and 1969, in Argentina, Brazil, Belgium, Chile, Spain, France, Mexico, and the United States. Articles appear in Spanish, French, Portuguese, and English. Several articles were sponsored by international…

  14. The Intermediate Piano Stage: Exploring Teacher Perspectives and Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Ryan; Bowden, Julia

    2013-01-01

    While many piano students successfully progress beyond beginner status to reach what is commonly referred to as the intermediate stage, there is minimal research specific to this area of practice. This is despite the fact that there is a high drop-out rate at this stage. This research study therefore set out to develop an in-depth understanding of…

  15. Association between intermediate uveitis and toxocariasis in the Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jin-Woo; Sim, Yoonseob; Jee, Donghyun

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the characteristics of ocular toxocariasis (OT) presenting with intermediate uveitis in the Korean population.We studied intermediate uveitis patients using ocular and systemic evaluations and a Toxocara IgG serology test.Of 50 intermediate uveitis patients, 19 were seropositive for Toxocara IgG. Of the 19 OT patients, 4 presented with recurrence within 6 months and were significantly younger than nonrecurrence patients (P = 0.009). Thirteen patients had a history of eating raw cow liver.There were 14 males and 5 females in the OT group, and 11 males and 20 females in the non-OT group (P = 0.009). There was bilateral involvement in 7 out of 19 patients in the OT group, and 20 out of 31 patients in non-OT group (P = 0.033).Intermediate uveitis patients in OT were predominately male and had more unilateral presentation than non-OT patients.

  16. The impact of liquidity regulation on bank intermediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonner, Clemens; Eijffinger, Sylvester C. W.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the impact of a requirement similar to the Basel III Liquidity Coverage Ratio on the bank intermediation applying Regression Discontinuity Designs. Using a unique dataset on Dutch banks, we show that a liquidity requirement causes long-term borrowing and lending rates as well as demand fo

  17. N-Acyliminium Intermediates in Solid-Phase Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quement, Sebastian Thordal le; Petersen, Rico; Meldal, M.

    2010-01-01

    N-Acyliminium ions are powerful intermediates in synthetic organic chemistry. Examples of their use are numerous in solution-phase synthesis, but there are unmerited few reports on these highly reactive electrophiles in solid-phase synthesis. The present review covers the literature to date and i...

  18. An Overview of the The Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellm, Eric Christopher; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) has conducted a range of time-domain surveys since 2013. As iPTF concludes, I will review the these goals of surveys, their on-sky performance, and implications for next-generation surveys such as the Zwicky Transient Facility and LSST. Finally, I will describe the public data products being released.

  19. Diet, intermediate risk markers and risk of type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, I.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis aimed to study the relation of diet with risk of type 2 diabetes and intermediate risk markers of diabetes. We investigated the effect of cis9, trans11 conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11 CLA) supplementation on pulse wave velocity and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized, controlled

  20. Error Analysis in Composition of Iranian Lower Intermediate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Learners make errors during the process of learning languages. This study examines errors in writing task of twenty Iranian lower intermediate male students aged between 13 and 15. A subject was given to the participants was a composition about the seasons of a year. All of the errors were identified and classified. Corder's classification (1967)…

  1. Population synthesis for low and intermediate mass binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Yungelson, L. R.

    2004-01-01

    A review of the basic principles of the population synthesis for binary stars is presented. We discuss the break-up of low and intermediate mass close binaries over different evolutionary scenarios and, as an example, briefly consider results of the population synthesis for SN Ia.

  2. Optimizing the marketing interventions mix in intermediate-term CRM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rust, RT; Verhoef, PC

    2005-01-01

    W e provide a fully personalized model for optimizing multiple marketing interventions in intermediate-term customer relationship management (CRM). We derive theoretically based propositions on the moderating effects of past customer behavior and conduct a longitudinal validation test to compare the

  3. An intermediate targets method for time parallelization in optimal control

    CERN Document Server

    Maday, Yvon; Riahi, Kamel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method that enables to solve in parallel the Euler-Lagrange system associated with the optimal control of a parabolic equation. Our approach is based on an iterative update of a sequence of intermediate targets and gives rise independent sub-problems that can be solved in parallel. Numerical experiments show the efficiency of our method.

  4. The utility of Earth system Models of Intermediate Complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, S.L.

    2010-01-01

    Intermediate-complexity models are models which describe the dynamics of the atmosphere and/or ocean in less detail than conventional General Circulation Models (GCMs). At the same time, they go beyond the approach taken by atmospheric Energy Balance Models (EBMs) or ocean box models by

  5. 40 CFR 86.246-94 - Intermediate temperature testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermediate temperature testing. 86.246-94 Section 86.246-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.246-94...

  6. On the Use of Writing Assignments in Intermediate Microeconomic Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Patrick B.

    2009-01-01

    A typical writing assignment in upper level required courses is a term paper. However many economics majors, particularly those in business schools, need to develop skill at writing shorter pieces. In this paper I describe numerous examples of shorter writing assignments that I have incorporated into an Intermediate Microeconomic Theory course.…

  7. Deriving the Dividend Discount Model in the Intermediate Microeconomics Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Stephen; Schlaudraff, Jonathan; White, Karianne; Wills, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors show that the dividend discount model can be derived using the basic intertemporal consumption model that is introduced in a typical intermediate microeconomics course. This result will be of use to instructors who teach microeconomics to finance students in that it demonstrates the value of utility maximization in…

  8. An Exploratory Comparison of Novice, Intermediate, and Expert Orchestral Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergee, Martin J.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared novice, "intermediate" (graduate student), and expert orchestral conductors. Two novice conductors, one graduate student in orchestral conducting, and one expert conductor led a university symphony orchestra in part of the first movement of Brahms's Symphony No. 2. Wired for sound, conductors attempted to verbalize their…

  9. Neutrino interactions with nucleons and nuclei at intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Ruso, L; Mosel, U

    2006-01-01

    We investigate neutrino-nucleus collisions at intermediate energies incorporating quasielastic scattering and Delta(1232) excitation as elementary processes, together with Fermi motion, Pauli blocking and mean-field potentials in the nuclear medium. A full coupled-channel treatment of final state interactions is achieved with a semiclassical BUU transport model. Results for inclusive reactions and nucleon knockout are presented.

  10. Vocabulary Learning Strategies of Iranian Upper-Intermediate EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Mohammad; Hassanzadeh, Mohammad; Rezaei, Saeed

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the preferred vocabulary learning strategies of Iranian upper-intermediate EFL learners. In order to identify the aforementioned group in terms of language proficiency, a TOEFL test was administered to a population of 146 undergraduate EFL students at the university of Vali-e-Asr in Rafsanjan, Iran. Those scoring above 480 were…

  11. The Intermediate Piano Stage: Exploring Teacher Perspectives and Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Ryan; Bowden, Julia

    2013-01-01

    While many piano students successfully progress beyond beginner status to reach what is commonly referred to as the intermediate stage, there is minimal research specific to this area of practice. This is despite the fact that there is a high drop-out rate at this stage. This research study therefore set out to develop an in-depth understanding of…

  12. Transmission of intermediate data rates - The Mercury experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, M. W.

    1988-12-01

    The process by which a company with no existing earth stations procured equipment which would comply with the latest specifications for intermediate data rate digital services is discussed. The various operational needs and engineering design considerations that were necessary in order for earth-station equipment to meet the requirements are described.

  13. A Memetic Algorithm for the Orienteering Problem with Intermediate Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Divsalar, Ali; Vansteenwegen, Pieter; Cattrysse, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The Orienteering Problem with Intermediate facilities (OPIF) is a new variant of the orienteering problem. In this variant, the objective is to find a given number of connected trips while maximizing the sum of collected scores. OPIF has been introduced by us in a recent publication under the name of orienteering problem with hotel selection.

  14. A critique on the theory of financial intermediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wensveen, D.M.N.; Scholtens, Bert

    This comment discusses the review by Franklin Alien and Anthony Santomero of the theory of financial intermediation in the 20th anniversary special issue of the Journal of Banking and Finance. We do not fully agree with their view that risk management is only of recent importance to the financial

  15. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION OF COMMERCIAL INTERMEDIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAN-ALEXANDRU SITARU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The commercial intermediation is a complex juridical operation which includes a different number of juridical relationships that takes place between contractual partners either on a national or international level. These partners bare different naming due to their different set of rights and obligations set forth by the law or by the parties, and it is from this that the classification of the intermediation can be set forth. The commercial intermediation represents the activity that one person executes either in the name and on behalf of another person, or using its own name but on behalf of another person, or, finally, using its own name but on behalf of acting towards a common goal with the person who mandated her (the principal, in relation with who it is either a proxy or an independent intermediary, only negotiating or both negotiating and binding the principal. The purpose of the paper is to strictly define and set in order the various variations of the juridical operation that is the commercial intermediation, presented both in the light of the actual legal framework and also by reference to the New Civil Code. Also, the purpose is to highlight and systematize the contractual relationships from which the parties involved in a commercial intermediary operation may choose and the rights and obligations specific to each contract.

  16. Optimizing the marketing interventions mix in intermediate-term CRM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.T. Rust (Roland); P.C. Verhoef (Peter)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe provide a fully personalized model for optimizing multiple marketing interventions in intermediate-term customer relationship management (CRM). We derive theoretically based propositions on the moderating effects of past customer behavior and conduct a longitudinal validation test to

  17. Elimination of intermediate species in multiscale stochastic reaction networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappelletti, Daniele; Wiuf, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    We study networks of biochemical reactions modelled by continuoustime Markov processes. Such networks typically contain many molecular species and reactions and are hard to study analytically as well as by simulation. Particularly, we are interested in reaction networks with intermediate species ...

  18. Resource Unit on Egypt for the Intermediate Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husbands, Kenneth; Taylor, Bob

    Resources for teaching about modern and ancient Egypt are provided in this guide for intermediate grade social studies teachers. Material includes: a detailed outline for a unit on Egypt which contains a geographic overview followed by sections on the Nile River Valley, agriculture, the pharaohs, religion, architecture, science, hieroglyphics,…

  19. A critique on the theory of financial intermediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wensveen, D.M.N.; Scholtens, Bert

    2000-01-01

    This comment discusses the review by Franklin Alien and Anthony Santomero of the theory of financial intermediation in the 20th anniversary special issue of the Journal of Banking and Finance. We do not fully agree with their view that risk management is only of recent importance to the financial in

  20. Intermediate scattering function of an anisotropic active Brownian particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzthaler, Christina; Leitmann, Sebastian; Franosch, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Various challenges are faced when animalcules such as bacteria, protozoa, algae, or sperms move autonomously in aqueous media at low Reynolds number. These active agents are subject to strong stochastic fluctuations, that compete with the directed motion. So far most studies consider the lowest order moments of the displacements only, while more general spatio-temporal information on the stochastic motion is provided in scattering experiments. Here we derive analytically exact expressions for the directly measurable intermediate scattering function for a mesoscopic model of a single, anisotropic active Brownian particle in three dimensions. The mean-square displacement and the non-Gaussian parameter of the stochastic process are obtained as derivatives of the intermediate scattering function. These display different temporal regimes dominated by effective diffusion and directed motion due to the interplay of translational and rotational diffusion which is rationalized within the theory. The most prominent feature of the intermediate scattering function is an oscillatory behavior at intermediate wavenumbers reflecting the persistent swimming motion, whereas at small length scales bare translational and at large length scales an enhanced effective diffusion emerges. We anticipate that our characterization of the motion of active agents will serve as a reference for more realistic models and experimental observations.

  1. Teaching Inflation Targeting: An Analysis for Intermediate Macro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Carl E.

    2002-01-01

    States many central banks have adopted policies known as inflation targeting. Declares that students need experience with the implications of these policies. Provides a simple graphical device involving the output gap and the inflation rate to overcome these problems that can be used to teach intermediate macroeconomics students about inflation…

  2. Computer Literacy: Intermediate and Secondary Grades, Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY.

    This curriculum guide outlines a course on computer literacy for junior or senior high school students reflecting the technology of the early 1980s. A chart shows computer literacy scope and sequence for students in kindergarten, grades 1-2, grades 3-6, and grades 7-9. Forty lessons for the intermediate grades and high school are then presented,…

  3. Experimental Studies of Few-nucleon Systems at Intermediate Energies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stephan, E.; Kistryn, St.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.

    2014-01-01

    Systems composed of 3 nucleons are a subject of precise experimental studies for many years. At the first stage the investigations were mainly focused on elastic nucleon-deuteron scattering, slowly extending to systematic measurements of the deuteron breakup reaction. Intermediate energies, below th

  4. The critical iron-oxygen intermediate in human aromatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Stephanie L; Denisov, Ilia G; Grinkova, Yelena V; Sligar, Stephen G

    2009-09-11

    Aromatase (CYP19) is the target of several therapeutics used for breast cancer treatment and catalyzes the three-step conversion of androgens to estrogens, with an unusual C-C cleavage reaction in the third step. To better understand the CYP19 reaction, the oxy-ferrous complex of CYP19 with androstenedione substrate was cryotrapped, characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, and cryoreduced to generate the next reaction cycle intermediate. EPR analysis revealed that the initial intermediate observed following cryoreduction is the unprotonated g(1)=2.254 peroxo-ferric intermediate, which is stable up to 180K. Upon gradual cryoannealing, the low-spin (g(1)=2.39) product complex is formed, with no evidence for accumulation of the g(1)=2.30 hydroperoxo-ferric intermediate. The relative stabilization of the peroxo-ferric heme and the lack of observed hydroperoxo-ferric heme distinguish CYP19 from other P450s, suggesting that the proton delivery pathway is more hindered in CYP19 than in most other P450s.

  5. Optimizing the marketing interventions mix in intermediate-term CRM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.T. Rust (Roland); P.C. Verhoef (Peter)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe provide a fully personalized model for optimizing multiple marketing interventions in intermediate-term customer relationship management (CRM). We derive theoretically based propositions on the moderating effects of past customer behavior and conduct a longitudinal validation test to

  6. Lifetime enhancement for multiphoton absorption in intermediate band solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Anibal T.; Studart, Nelson

    2017-08-01

    A semiconductor structure consisting of two coupled quantum wells embedded into the intrinsic region of a p-i-n junction is proposed as an intermediate band solar cell with a photon ratchet state, which would lead to increasing the cell efficiency. The conduction subband of the right-hand side quantum well works as the intermediated band, whereas the excited conduction subband of the left-hand side quantum well operates as the ratchet state. The photoelectrons in the intermediate band are scattered through the thin wells barrier and accumulated into the ratchet subband. A rate equation model for describing the charge transport properties is presented. The efficiency of the current generation is analyzed by studying the occupation of the wells subbands, taking into account the charge dynamic behavior provided by the electrical contacts connected to the cell. The current generation efficiency depends essentially from the relations between the generation, recombination rates and the scattering rate to the ratchet state. The inclusion of the ratchet states led to both an increase and a decrease in the cell current depending on the transition rates. This suggests that the coupling between the intermediate band and the ratchet state is a key point in developing an efficient solar cell.

  7. Intermediate coupling vibrational descriptions of odd mass gold isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Vieu, C; Paar, V

    1976-01-01

    The theoretical analysis of /sup 193-195/Au levels is semi qualitatively performed in the frame of the intermediate coupling vibrational models of Kisslinger-Sorensen and Alaga. From the comparison between the experimental data and the corresponding predictions of the two models, conclusions are drawn on the influence of the clusters and broken pairs.

  8. Mitigating TCP Degradation over Intermittent Link Failures using Intermediate Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    buffering strategy, retransmission strategy, TCP state management, intermediate ac- knowledgment, custody considerations, and leader election considerations...availability are all ripe for research in strategic buffering. One final custodial area open for pursuit is a leader election protocol. Along a route with

  9. Selective insertion of sulfur dioxide reduction intermediates on graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humeres, Eduardo; Debacher, Nito A; Smaniotto, Alessandra; de Castro, Karen M; Benetoli, Luís O B; de Souza, Eduardo P; Moreira, Regina de F P M; Lopes, Cristiane N; Schreiner, Wido H; Canle, Moisés; Santaballa, J Arturo

    2014-04-22

    Graphite microparticles (d50 6.20 μm) were oxidized by strong acids, and the resultant graphite oxide was thermally exfoliated to graphene oxide sheets (MPGO, C/O 1.53). Graphene oxide was treated with nonthermal plasma under a SO2 atmosphere at room temperature. The XPS spectrum showed that SO2 was inserted only as the oxidized intermediate at 168.7 eV in the S 2p region. Short thermal shocks at 600 and 400 °C, under an Ar atmosphere, produced reduced sulfur and carbon dioxide as shown by the XPS spectrum and TGA analysis coupled to FTIR. MPGO was also submitted to thermal reaction with SO2 at 630 °C, and the XPS spectrum in the S 2p region at 164.0 eV showed that this time only the nonoxidized episulfide intermediate was inserted. Plasma and thermal treatment produced a partial reduction of MPGO. The sequence of thermal reaction followed by plasma treatment inserted both sulfur intermediates. Because oxidized and nonoxidized intermediates have different reactivities, this selective insertion would allow the addition of selective types of organic fragments to the surface of graphene oxide.

  10. Modified Methods for the Synthesis of Triazinyl Fluorescent Brightener Intermediates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Parach

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of triazinyl fluorescent brightener intermediates in high yields is described. The method involves a simplified work-up for the preparation of 4-nitro-toluene-2-sulfonic acid and the use of diethylene glycol instead of water in the preparation of 4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid.

  11. Intermediate- and extended-range order in phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuya, Kentaro [Japan Atomic Research Institute, Ako, Hyogo (Japan)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Price, D.L.; Loong, Chun-Keung [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Martin, S.W. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1997-08-01

    The structure of sodium ultraphosphate glasses, (Na{sub 2}O){sub x}(P{sub 2}O{sub 5}){sub 100-x} (x = 0, 10, 20), and alkali metaphosphate glasses, MePO{sub 3} (Me = Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs) have been studied by neutron diffraction. Structural features in the neutron structure factors S(Q) characteristic of intermediate-range (Q {approx_lt} 3 {angstrom}{sup -1}) order were identified. The feature of intermediate-range order in the pure phosphate glass (v-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is accounted for by the P{sub 4}O{sub 10} molecule packing model. The addition of the alkali metal modifier, Na, has drastic affect on the intermediate-range structure due to destruction of the PO{sub 4} network structure. Around x {approximately} 50 a new peak arises at lower Q than the intermediate-range order peak, which is found in the S(Q)`s of all alkali metaphosphate glasses, associated with extended-range order. The length scale of extended-range order increases with Me{sup +} size. These phenomena can be explained by the behavior of oxygen atoms. i.e. PO{sub 4} chain-like units ordering around the Me{sup +}.

  12. Complexity of the Ibero-Magrhebian region: intermediate depth earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buforn, Elisa; Cesca, Simone; Del Fresno, Carmen; Udias, Agustin

    2010-05-01

    Complexity of the Ibero-Magrhebian region: intermediate depth earthquakes Buforn E. (1), Cesca S.(2), del Fresno C.(3), Udías, A. (1) (1) Dpt. Geofísica y Meteorología. Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain (2) Institute of Geophysics, University of Hamburg, Germany (3) Instituto Geográfico Nacional, Madrid (Spain) The Ibero-Magrhebian region is located at the plate boundary between Eurasia and Africa and it is a tectonically complex region. A sign of the complexity, is the occurrence of intermediate depth earthquakes (40Intermediate depth shocks are mostly confined within a relatively narrow region (50 km width) located East of Gibraltar, extending NNE-SSW from the Malaga (Spain) area to a region offshore the Moroccan coast. The moderate magnitude of the intermediate depth events (less than 5.5), the heterogeneity of the crustal structure in the region, and the strong influence of microseismic noise on seismic data represent significant challenges for the inversion of focal mechanism based on waveform modelling. We have estimated the focal mechanisms of 9 intermediate depth earthquakes (Mw 3.3 to 4.5) occurred in the period 2002-2009 from moment tensor inversion of broad-band data at regional distances, using the recently developed Kiwi tools. Moment tensor inversion is carried out by fitting body waves amplitude spectra, solving for strike, dip, rake, scalar moment and improving the original hypocentral depth. For each earthquake, we carry out a set of inversions, comparing results using different station subsets, seismic phases and earth models. The new obtained results, together with other selected solutions estimated previously using different methods, show a change on the stress pattern: to the west of 4.5°W, focal mechanisms show vertical tension axis, while to the east

  13. Intermediates in the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworowski, A; Hartman, F C; Rose, I A

    1984-06-10

    At least two intermediates of the D-ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (EC 4.1.1.39) reaction were liberated in detectable amounts when the functioning enzyme from Rhodospirillum rubrum was quenched in acid. Using substrate labeled with 32P in C-1, [32P]orthophosphate (Pi) was found when the quenched solution was rapidly processed for extraction of Pi as the acid molybdate complex. Reaction with sodium borohydride under mildly alkaline conditions immediately after acid quenching of the carboxylase reaction decreased the amount of 32Pi that was observed by 68%. The compound whose degradation to Pi was prevented by reaction with sodium borohydride decomposed under both acid and neutral conditions with a half-time of about 5 min at 25 degrees C and was assigned to the beta-keto acid recently demonstrated for the spinach enzyme ( Schloss , J.V., and Lorimer , G.H. (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 4691-4694). It was sufficiently stable upon neutralization to react productively with fresh enzyme. As substrate CO2 concentration was decreased below the steady state Km value, the proportion of the 32P that did not react with sodium borohydride increased, indicative of a second unstable intermediate that precedes the carboxylation step. The decomposition of the latter intermediate to Pi, which occurs with a t1/2 less than or equal to 6 ms, was prevented if I2 was present in the acid quench medium. These are properties expected of the 2,3- enediol form of ribulose bisphosphate. Both intermediates reach their maximum levels when product formation is most rapid and disappear when product formation is complete as expected of reaction intermediates.

  14. Thermal Runaway during Intermediate-Depth Earthquake Rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, German; Florez, Manuel; Barrett, Sarah; Beroza, Gregory; Pedraza, Patricia; Blanco, Jose; Poveda, Esteban

    2014-05-01

    Intermediate-depth earthquakes occur at depths of 50 to 300 km in subducting lithosphere. Despite their ubiquity in earthquake catalogs, their physical mechanism remains unclear because ambient temperatures and pressures are expected to lead to ductile, rather than brittle deformation. There are two leading explanations for the physical mechanism that enables these earthquakes. In the first, high pore pressure from metamorphic dehydration reactions in the subducting slab reduces the effective normal stress sufficiently to enable frictional failure. In the second, slow deformation generates heat, which leads to weakening, further deformation, and a self-localizing thermal shear runaway. We use the nest of intermediate-depth earthquakes under Bucaramanga, Colombia as recorded by the digital RSNC (Red Sísmica Nacional de Colombia) regional seismic network to explore these two possibilities. We observe a combination of high stress drop and low radiation efficiency for Mw 4-5 earthquakes in the Bucaramanga Nest that points to the importance of thermal effects. If we assume a cm-scale fault-zone width, this combination implies a temperature increase of 600-1,000ºC during earthquake failure, which suggests that substantial shear heating, and possibly partial melting, occurs during intermediate-depth earthquake failure. Our observations support thermal shear runaway as the mechanism for intermediate-depth earthquakes. This mechanism could help explain differences in their behavior, such as the paucity of aftershocks, compared to shallow earthquakes. Although we have inferred these mechanisms for intermediate depth earthquakes, it's likely that they would apply for rapid deformation on the deep extensions of fault zones as well - particularly during large earthquakes, such as the 2012 Mw 8.6 strike-slip event off Sumatra, which is inferred to have ruptured well into the oceanic mantle.

  15. Visual dictionaries as intermediate features in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandan eRamakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The human visual system is assumed to transform low level visual features to object and scene representations via features of intermediate complexity. How the brain computationally represents intermediate features is still unclear. To further elucidate this, we compared the biologically plausible HMAX model and Bag of Words (BoW model from computer vision. Both these computational models use visual dictionaries, candidate features of intermediate complexity, to represent visual scenes, and the models have been proven effective in automatic object and scene recognition. These models however differ in the computation of visual dictionaries and pooling techniques. We investigated where in the brain and to what extent human fMRI responses to short video can be accounted for by multiple hierarchical levels of the HMAX and BoW models. Brain activity of 20 subjects obtained while viewing a short video clip was analyzed voxel-wise using a distance-based variation partitioning method. Results revealed that both HMAX and BoW explain a significant amount of brain activity in early visual regions V1, V2 and V3. However BoW exhibits more consistency across subjects in accounting for brain activity compared to HMAX. Furthermore, visual dictionary representations by HMAX and BoW explain significantly some brain activity in higher areas which are believed to process intermediate features. Overall our results indicate that, although both HMAX and BoW account for activity in the human visual system, the BoW seems to more faithfully represent neural responses in low and intermediate level visual areas of the brain.

  16. Levantine Intermediate Water characteristics: an astounding general misunderstanding!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Millot

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW is a warm salty water formed in one out of four main zones of dense water formation in the Mediterranean Sea. LIW spreads as a density current and first appears on a ϴ-S diagram as a sharp peak that then smoothens out, often leading to the so-called “scorpion-tail” image with a ϴ (S maximum above (below the expected core. Both maxima have always been considered, somewhat fuzzily (even by us, as LIW characteristics without having ever been analysed theoretically. We question neither the “scorpion-tail” image nor the “core-method” nor qualitative analyses of either LIW or other waters characterized by similar extrema. But data from the Strait of Gibraltar demonstrate that characterizing and/or delimiting LIW by these maxima gives LIW a much greater importance than it actually merits so all quantitative analyses of LIW musts be reconsidered. Calculations made as simple as possible to simulate a warm salty layer of intermediate water (IW mixing with waters lying above and below suggest that these maxima i can be understood only when all three waters are considered together, ii can evolve in different ways, iii generally tend to move from the core of the IW layer outwards, and hence iv can neither characterize nor delimit the IW in any way. Actual simulations with more sophisticated parameterizations are obviously needed. In addition, we suggest that what has to date been called LIW in the western basin in fact represents all intermediate waters formed in all zones of dense water formation in the eastern basin, i.e. not only Levantine waters but also, in particular, Aegean/Cretan waters. To provide a logical counterpart to WIW (Western Intermediate Water, we therefore suggest that, from the Channel of Sicily downstream, LIW should be renamed Eastern Intermediate Water (EIW.

  17. Visual dictionaries as intermediate features in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Kandan; Scholte, H Steven; Groen, Iris I A; Smeulders, Arnold W M; Ghebreab, Sennay

    2014-01-01

    The human visual system is assumed to transform low level visual features to object and scene representations via features of intermediate complexity. How the brain computationally represents intermediate features is still unclear. To further elucidate this, we compared the biologically plausible HMAX model and Bag of Words (BoW) model from computer vision. Both these computational models use visual dictionaries, candidate features of intermediate complexity, to represent visual scenes, and the models have been proven effective in automatic object and scene recognition. These models however differ in the computation of visual dictionaries and pooling techniques. We investigated where in the brain and to what extent human fMRI responses to short video can be accounted for by multiple hierarchical levels of the HMAX and BoW models. Brain activity of 20 subjects obtained while viewing a short video clip was analyzed voxel-wise using a distance-based variation partitioning method. Results revealed that both HMAX and BoW explain a significant amount of brain activity in early visual regions V1, V2, and V3. However, BoW exhibits more consistency across subjects in accounting for brain activity compared to HMAX. Furthermore, visual dictionary representations by HMAX and BoW explain significantly some brain activity in higher areas which are believed to process intermediate features. Overall our results indicate that, although both HMAX and BoW account for activity in the human visual system, the BoW seems to more faithfully represent neural responses in low and intermediate level visual areas of the brain.

  18. Management of intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism: uncertainties and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klok, Frederikus Albertus; Meyer, Guy; Konstantinides, Stavros

    2015-12-01

    Current guidelines on the treatment of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) recommend stratification of hemodynamically stable patients in 'low risk' and 'intermediate risk'. Validated risk scores, cardiac biomarkers, and imaging of the right ventricle all help in distinguishing both patient categories. The relevance of this risk stratification lies in the determination of the most optimal treatment for the individual patient. In this clinical review, we will discuss how patients with 'intermediate-risk' PE can be identified as well as recent advances in their therapeutic management. Based on a clinical case, we will highlight the indications for reperfusion therapy and the current experience with non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulant (NOACs) in this specific patient's category.

  19. Intermediate scalings in holographic RG flows and conductivities

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Jyotirmoy; Goutéraux, Blaise

    2014-01-01

    We construct numerically finite density domain-wall solutions which interpolate between two $AdS_4$ fixed points and exhibit an intermediate regime of hyperscaling violation, with or without Lifshitz scaling. Such RG flows can be realized in gravitational models containing a dilatonic scalar and a massive vector field with appropriate choices of the scalar potential and couplings. The infrared $AdS_4$ fixed point describes a new ground state for strongly coupled quantum systems realizing such scalings, thus avoiding the well-known extensive zero temperature entropy associated with $AdS_2 \\times \\mathbb{R}^2$. We also examine the zero temperature behavior of the optical conductivity in these backgrounds and identify two scaling regimes before the UV CFT scaling is reached. The scaling of the conductivity is controlled by the emergent IR conformal symmetry at very low frequencies, and by the intermediate scaling regime at higher frequencies.

  20. Transport code and nuclear data in intermediate energy region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Odama, Naomitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Maekawa, F.; Ueki, K.; Kosaka, K.; Oyama, Y.

    1998-11-01

    We briefly reviewed the problems of intermediate energy nuclear data file and transport codes in connection with processing of the data. This is a summary of our group in the task force on JENDL High Energy File Integral Evaluation (JHEFIE). In this article we stress the necessity of the production of intermediate evaluated nuclear data file up to 3 GeV for the application of accelerator driven transmutation (ADT) system. And also we state the necessity of having our own transport code system to calculate the radiation fields using these evaluated files from the strategic points of view to keep our development of the ADT technology completely free from other conditions outside of our own such as imported codes and data with poor maintenance or unknown accuracy. (author)

  1. Metal — metal multiple bonded intermediates in catalysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    John F Berry

    2015-02-01

    Metal–metal bonded Rh2 and Ru2 complexes having a paddlewheel-type structure are exceptional catalysts for a broad range of organic transformations. I review here the recent efforts towards the observation and characterization of intermediates in these reactions that have previously eluded detection. Specifically, mechanistic investigations of carbenoid and nitrenoid reactions of Rh2(II,II)-tetracarboxylate compounds have led to the observation of a metastable Rh2(II,II) carbene complex as well as a mixed-valent Rh2(II,III)-amido intermediate. Related Ru2 nitrido compounds have been studied and found to undergo intramolecular C–H amination reactions as well as intermolecular reaction with triphenylphosphine

  2. VHTR engineering design study: intermediate heat exchanger program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-11-01

    The work reported is the result of a follow-on program to earlier Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) studies. The primary use of the VHTR is to provide heat for various industrial processes, such as hydrocarbon reforming and coal gasification. For many processes the use of an intermediate heat transfer barrier between the reactor coolant and the process is desirable; for some processes it is mandatory. Various intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) concepts for the VHTR were investigated with respect to safety, cost, and engineering design considerations. The reference processes chosen were steam-hydrocarbon reforming, with emphasis on the chemical heat pipe, and steam gasification of coal. The study investigates the critically important area of heat transfer between the reactor coolant, helium, and the various chemical processes.

  3. Intermediate-band Photometry of Type Ia Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, X; Zhang, T; Li, Z; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Xu; Zhang, Tianmeng; Li, Zongwei

    2004-01-01

    We present optical light curves of five Type Ia supernovae (2002er, 2002fk, 2003cg, 2003du, 2003fk). The photometric observations were performed in a set of intermediate-band filters. SNe 2002er, 2003du appear to be normal SN Ia events with similar light curve shapes, while SN 2003kf shows the behavior of a brighter SN Ia with slower decline rate after maximum. The light curves of SN 2003cg is unusual; they show a fast rise and dramatic decline near maximum and do not display secondary peak at longer wavelengths during 15-30 days after maximum light. This suggests that SN 2003cg is likely to be an intrinsically subluminous, 91bg-like SN Ia. Exploration of SN Ia feature lines through intermediate-band photometry is briefly discussed.

  4. Methods for Determining the Cellular Functions of Vimentin Intermediate Filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Karen M; Shumaker, Dale; Robert, Amélie; Hookway, Caroline; Gelfand, Vladimir I; Janmey, Paul A; Lowery, Jason; Guo, Ming; Weitz, David A; Kuczmarski, Edward; Goldman, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    The type III intermediate filament protein vimentin was once thought to function mainly as a static structural protein in the cytoskeleton of cells of mesenchymal origin. Now, however, vimentin is known to form a dynamic, flexible network that plays an important role in a number of signaling pathways. Here, we describe various methods that have been developed to investigate the cellular functions of the vimentin protein and intermediate filament network, including chemical disruption, photoactivation and photoconversion, biolayer interferometry, soluble bead binding assay, three-dimensional substrate experiments, collagen gel contraction, optical-tweezer active microrheology, and force spectrum microscopy. Using these techniques, the contributions of vimentin to essential cellular processes can be probed in ever further detail.

  5. Optimum intermediate fibers for reducing interconnection loss: exact solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yablon, Andrew D; Sumetsky, M

    2007-03-15

    We derive an exact analytical solution for a transmission line of N single-mode intermediate optical fibers that minimize the interconnection loss between any two dissimilar fiber modes that are well described by that paraxial scalar wave equation. Our solution shows that N optimum intermediate fibers reduce the original interconnection loss by a factor of least 1/(N+1) and that the total interconnection loss is only a function of N and the original direct interconnection loss. Our solution is not restricted to axisymmetric fibers or mode fields and therefore could be useful for reducing the interconnection loss between microstructured optical fibers, between certain slab waveguides, or between fibers and optical sources or detectors.

  6. Evidence for photogenerated intermediate hole polarons in ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezen, Hikmet; Shang, Honghui; Bebensee, Fabian; Yang, Chengwu; Buchholz, Maria; Nefedov, Alexei; Heissler, Stefan; Carbogno, Christian; Scheffler, Matthias; Rinke, Patrick; Wöll, Christof

    2015-04-01

    Despite their pronounced importance for oxide-based photochemistry, optoelectronics and photovoltaics, only fairly little is known about the polaron lifetimes and binding energies. Polarons represent a crucial intermediate step populated immediately after dissociation of the excitons formed in the primary photoabsorption process. Here we present a novel approach to studying photoexcited polarons in an important photoactive oxide, ZnO, using infrared (IR) reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) with a time resolution of 100 ms. For well-defined (10-10) oriented ZnO single-crystal substrates, we observe intense IR absorption bands at around 200 meV exhibiting a pronounced temperature dependence. On the basis of first-principles-based electronic structure calculations, we assign these features to hole polarons of intermediate coupling strength.

  7. Nitric oxide: an intermediate in nitrate reduction in Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Abdulla, J.M.; Aleem, M.I.H.

    1977-01-01

    When K. pneumoniae cells were grown anaerobically with nitrate as the final electron acceptor, there was a rapid reduction of nitrate to nitrite. The latter was further reduced to hydroxylamine and finally to ammonia. Nitrate, nitrite and nitric oxide, but not nitrous oxide, could accept electrons from the respiratory chain. During growth of the organism it was possible to trap nitric oxide with alkaline permanganate. The trapped gas represented only a small portion of the reduced electron acceptor. It would appear that a major portion of nitric oxide produced from nitrite reduction must be converted to an unknown nitrogenous intermediate with an oxidation state of +1 before its reduction to hydroxylamine. The possible nature of this elusive intermediate should be discussed.

  8. GPR91: expanding the frontiers of Krebs cycle intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro Fonseca, Matheus; Aguiar, Carla J; da Rocha Franco, Joao Antônio; Gingold, Rafael N; Leite, M Fatima

    2016-01-12

    Since it was discovered, the citric acid cycle has been known to be central to cell metabolism and energy homeostasis. Mainly found in the mitochondrial matrix, some of the intermediates of the Krebs cycle are also present in the blood stream. Currently, there are several reports that indicate functional roles for Krebs intermediates out of its cycle. Succinate, for instance, acts as an extracellular ligand by binding to a G-protein coupled receptor, known as GPR91, expressed in kidney, liver, heart, retinal cells and possibly many other tissues, leading to a wide array of physiological and pathological effects. Through GPR91, succinate is involved in functions such as regulation of blood pressure, inhibition of lipolysis in white adipose tissue, development of retinal vascularization, cardiac hypertrophy and activation of stellate hepatic cells by ischemic hepatocytes. Along the current review, these new effects of succinate through GPR91 will be explored and discussed.

  9. Composite intermediate case manufacturing scale-up for advanced engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecklund, Rowena H.

    1992-01-01

    This Manufacturing Technology for Propulsion Program developed a process to produce a composite intermediate case for advanced gas turbine engines. The method selected to manufacture this large, complex part uses hard tooling for surfaces in the airflow path and trapped rubber to force the composite against the mold. Subelements were manufactured and tested to verify the selected design, tools, and processes. The most significant subelement produced was a half-scale version of a composite intermediate case. The half-scale subelement maintained the geometry and key dimensions of the full-scale case, allowing relevant process development and structural verification testing to be performed on the subelement before manufacturing the first full-scale case.

  10. Intermediate Frequency Digital Receiver Based on Multi-FPGA System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengchang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at high-cost, large-size, and inflexibility problems of traditional analog intermediate frequency receiver in the aerospace telemetry, tracking, and command (TTC system, we have proposed a new intermediate frequency (IF digital receiver based on Multi-FPGA system in this paper. Digital beam forming (DBF is realized by coordinated rotation digital computer (CORDIC algorithm. An experimental prototype has been developed on a compact Multi-FPGA system with three FPGAs to receive 16 channels of IF digital signals. Our experimental results show that our proposed scheme is able to provide a great convenience for the design of IF digital receiver, which offers a valuable reference for real-time, low power, high density, and small size receiver design.

  11. Exact theory of intermediate phases in two dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delfino, Gesualdo, E-mail: delfino@sissa.it; Squarcini, Alessio, E-mail: alessio.squarcini@sissa.it

    2014-03-15

    We show how field theory yields the exact description of intermediate phases in the scaling limit of two-dimensional statistical systems at a first order phase transition point. The ability of a third phase to form an intermediate wetting layer or only isolated bubbles is explicitly related to the spectrum of excitations of the field theory. The order parameter profiles are determined and interface properties such as passage probabilities and internal structure are deduced from them. The theory is illustrated through the application to the q-state Potts model and the Ashkin–Teller model. The latter is shown to provide the first exact solution of a bulk wetting transition. -- Highlights: •Phase separation with appearance of a third phase is studied exactly. •Interfacial properties are derived from field theory. •Exact solution of bulk wetting transition is provided.

  12. Search for gravitational waves from intermediate mass binary black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M. C.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atkinson, D.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S.; Barayoga, J. C. B.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Bastarrika, M.; Basti, A.; Batch, J.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Bebronne, M.; Beck, D.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Bell, A. S.; Belletoile, A.; Belopolski, I.; Benacquista, M.; Berliner, J. M.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beveridge, N.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biswas, R.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Blom, M.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bogan, C.; Bondarescu, R.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bosi, L.; Bouhou, B.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Carbone, L.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chaibi, O.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, W.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, C. T. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, D. E.; Clark, J.; Clayton, J. H.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colacino, C. N.; Colas, J.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Conte, A.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordier, M.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M.; Coulon, J.-P.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M.; Coyne, D. C.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cruise, A. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Cutler, R. M.; Dahl, K.; Danilishin, S. L.; Dannenberg, R.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daudert, B.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; De Rosa, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Del Pozzo, W.; del Prete, M.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Paolo Emilio, M.; Di Virgilio, A.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edgar, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Endrőczi, G.; Engel, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, K.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Farr, B. F.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Feroz, F.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Flanigan, M.; Foley, S.; Forsi, E.; Forte, L. A.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franc, J.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Friedrich, D.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fujimoto, M.-K.; Fulda, P. J.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J.; Galimberti, M.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garcia, J.; Garufi, F.; Gáspár, M. E.; Gemme, G.; Geng, R.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L. Á.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gil, S.; Gill, C.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Gray, N.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Greverie, C.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C.; Gupta, R.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Ha, T.; Hallam, J. M.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hartman, M. T.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Hayau, J.-F.; Heefner, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hendry, M. A.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Herrera, V.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hong, T.; Hooper, S.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; James, E.; Jang, Y. J.; Jaranowski, P.; Jesse, E.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.

    2012-05-01

    We present the results of a weakly modeled burst search for gravitational waves from mergers of nonspinning intermediate mass black holes in the total mass range 100-450M⊙ and with the component mass ratios between 1∶1 and 4∶1. The search was conducted on data collected by the LIGO and Virgo detectors between November of 2005 and October of 2007. No plausible signals were observed by the search which constrains the astrophysical rates of the intermediate mass black holes mergers as a function of the component masses. In the most efficiently detected bin centered on 88+88M⊙, for nonspinning sources, the rate density upper limit is 0.13 per Mpc3 per Myr at the 90% confidence level.

  13. Intermediality and the Aesthetic of the Pastiche: "Little me"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fusillo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The pastiche is not strictly confined to the realm of comic or humour: sometimes it can be a pure exercise of rewriting or linguistic contamination in a total neutral way. Nevertheless, it is true that its dominant feature is usually a joking one, in all its possible shades, from aggressive laugh to the finest irony.  The present article will start from a theoretical definition of  pastiche, as usually opposed to parody, and will shed light on how the pastiche fits perfectly the new textual configurations of our contemporary era, expecially if we look at intermedial phenomena. In the last part, an example of an unknown example of intermedial pastiche (a camp rewrting of classic cinema will be provided.

  14. Simplification of Process Integration Studies in Intermediate Size Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgård, Henrik; Petersen, P. M.; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2002-01-01

    It can be argued that the largest potential for energy savings based on process integration is in the intermediate size industry. But this is also the industrial scale in which it is most difficult to make the introduction of energy saving measures economically interesting. The reasons...... associated with a given process integration study in an intermediate size industry. This is based on the observation that the systems that eventually result from a process integration project and that are economically and operationally most interesting are also quite simple. Four steps that may be used...... separately or in series ahead of or simultaneously with the conventional process integration procedures (for example, the pinch point method) are described and are applied to an industrial case study. It might be feared that the use of preselections and groupings would limit the "freedom of movement...

  15. The Value of Intermediate Targets in Implementing Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin M. Friedman

    1984-01-01

    This paper reports empirical results indicating that there is no compelling evidence in favor of singling outany one variable as "the intermediate target" of monetary policy. Of the variables considered here - including money (M1), credit, a long-term interest rate, and whichever of either reserves or a short-term interest rate the Federal Reserve System does not set directly by open market operations -- most do contain at least some statistically significant information about the future grow...

  16. Manifestation of intermediate meson loop effects in charmonium decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan-Jiang; Li, Gang; Zhao, Qiang

    2010-09-01

    We report the progress on understanding some of those existing puzzles in charmonium decays. We show that the intermediate meson loops (IML) as a long-distance transition mechanism will provide novel insights into these issues. In particular, we show that the IML mechanism would be essentially important for understanding the Ψ(3770) non-Dbar D decays. We also comment that such a mechanism is correlated with the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka (OZI) rule evasions in charmonium hadronic decays.

  17. Aromatic fluorine compounds. VIII. Plant growth regulators and intermediates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, G.C.; Gortatowski, M.J.; Shiley, R.H.; White, R.H.

    1959-01-01

    The preparation and properties of 41 fluorophenoxyacetic acids, 4 fluorophenoxypropionic acids, 2 fluorobenzoic acids, several indole derivatives, and a number of miscellaneous compounds are described. Data are given for many intermediates such as new fluorinated phenols, anisoles, anilines and nitrobenzenes. Most of the subject compounds are related to a number of well-known herbicides or plant growth regulators such as 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T and others.

  18. Identification of a Chemoreceptor for Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Intermediates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacal, Jesús; Alfonso, Carlos; Liu, Xianxian; Parales, Rebecca E.; Morel, Bertrand; Conejero-Lara, Francisco; Rivas, Germán; Duque, Estrella; Ramos, Juan L.; Krell, Tino

    2010-01-01

    We report the identification of McpS as the specific chemoreceptor for 6 tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates and butyrate in Pseudomonas putida. The analysis of the bacterial mutant deficient in mcpS and complementation assays demonstrate that McpS is the only chemoreceptor of TCA cycle intermediates in the strain under study. TCA cycle intermediates are abundantly present in root exudates, and taxis toward these compounds is proposed to facilitate the access to carbon sources. McpS has an unusually large ligand-binding domain (LBD) that is un-annotated in InterPro and is predicted to contain 6 helices. The ligand profile of McpS was determined by isothermal titration calorimetry of purified recombinant LBD (McpS-LBD). McpS recognizes TCA cycle intermediates but does not bind very close structural homologues and derivatives like maleate, aspartate, or tricarballylate. This implies that functional similarity of ligands, such as being part of the same pathway, and not structural similarity is the primary element, which has driven the evolution of receptor specificity. The magnitude of chemotactic responses toward these 7 chemoattractants, as determined by qualitative and quantitative chemotaxis assays, differed largely. Ligands that cause a strong chemotactic response (malate, succinate, and fumarate) were found by differential scanning calorimetry to increase significantly the midpoint of protein unfolding (Tm) and unfolding enthalpy (ΔH) of McpS-LBD. Equilibrium sedimentation studies show that malate, the chemoattractant that causes the strongest chemotactic response, stabilizes the dimeric state of McpS-LBD. In this respect clear parallels exist to the Tar receptor and other eukaryotic receptors, which are discussed. PMID:20498372

  19. Parareal in time intermediate targets methods for optimal control problem

    CERN Document Server

    Maday, Yvon; Salomon, Julien

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method that enables solving in parallel the Euler-Lagrange system associated with the optimal control of a parabolic equation. Our approach is based on an iterative update of a sequence of intermediate targets that gives rise to independent sub-problems that can be solved in parallel. This method can be coupled with the parareal in time algorithm. Numerical experiments show the efficiency of our method.

  20. Stingray-inspired robot with simply actuated intermediate motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Lincoln; Gaiennie, Jack; Noble, Nick; Erickson, Jonathan C.

    2016-04-01

    Batoids, or rays, utilize unique forms of locomotion that may offer more efficient techniques of motorized propulsion in various marine environments. We present a novel biomimetic engineering design and assembly of a stingray-inspired robot swimmer. The robots locomotion mimics the Dasyatis americana, or southern stingray, whose distinction among rays is its intermediate motion, characterized by sweeping strokes that propagate between 1/2-1 wavelength of the fin profile in the posterior direction. Though oscillatory ( wavelengths) ray-based robots have been created, this project demonstrates new engineering possibilities in what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first intermediately propelled batoid-based robot. The robots fins were made of silicone rubber, cast in a 3-D printed mold, with wingspan of 42 cm (1/2 - 1/5 scale for males and females, respectively, scale of model organism). Two anteriorly placed servomotors per fin were used, all controlled by one wirelessly enabled Arduino microcontroller. Each servomotor oscillated a flexible rod with cylindrical joint, whose frequency, speed, and front-back phase delay were user-programmed over wireless connection. During free-swimming tests, the fin profile developed about 0.8 wavelength, qualifying for successful mimicry of its biological inspiration. The robot satisfactorily maintained straight-line motion, reaching average peak velocity of 9.4+/-1.0 cm/s (0.27-0.03 body lengths/second) at its optimum flapping frequency of 1.4 Hz. This is in the same order of magnitude of speed normalized to body length achieved by others in two recent batoid-based projects. In summary, our robot performed intermediate stingray locomotion with relatively fewer components, which reveals robust potential for innovation of the simple intermediate batoid-based robot swimmer.

  1. Chimera microscopic approach to heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukasik, J.; Majka, Z. [Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland). Inst. Fizyki

    1993-12-01

    A microscopic model based on a molecular dynamics concept is presented. The model simulates some quantum effects and thus enables studies of large fermionic systems. It was devised to investigate the dynamics of heavy ion collision at intermediate energies. The model was applied to study an early phase of the {sup 84}Kr+{sup 159}Tb reaction at 45 MeV/nucleon. (author). 30 refs, 9 figs.

  2. International express student's book : intermediate : with pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Harding, Keith

    2005-01-01

    The New Edition of International Express Intermediate retains all the key features of this popular and successful four-level course. It combines engaging, up-to-date topics with a time-efficient and student-centred approach to language work, and clearly focused activities that reflect learners' real communicative needs - the ideal course for professional adults who use English for work, travel, and socializing.

  3. Isolation of the intermediate filament protein vimentin by chromatofocusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemendal, H; Willemsen, M; Groenewoud, G; Oomen, P

    1985-01-28

    A novel, simple and relatively rapid method is described for the isolation of the intermediate-sized filament protein vimentin from eye lens tissue. Chromatofocusing is applied as the sole purification step. The apparent isoelectric point of the protein in 6 M urea and at 22 degrees C is 4.9. Electrophoretic mobility on one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels, solubility in 6 M urea and amino acid composition were used for identification.

  4. Isotope analysis in central heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, E.; Abbondanno, U.; Bardelli, L.; Barlini, S.; Bini, M.; Bruno, M.; Cannata, F.; Casini, G.; Chiari, M.; D'Agostino, M.; de Sanctis, J.; Giussani, A.; Gramegna, F.; Kravchuk, V. L.; Lanchais, A. L.; Marini, P.; Moroni, A.; Nannini, A.; Olmi, A.; Ordine, A.; Pasquali, G.; Piantelli, S.; Poggi, G.; Vannini, G.; Nucl-Ex Collaboration

    2007-11-01

    Symmetry energy is a key quantity in the study of the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter. Heavy ion collisions at low and intermediate energies, performed at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, can be used to extract information on the symmetry energy coefficient Csym, which is currently poorly known but relevant both for astrophysics and for deeper knowledge of the structure of exotic nuclei.

  5. Nucleus-associated intermediate filaments from chicken erythrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Chicken erythrocyte nuclei prepared by isolation in isotonic KCl and Nonidet P-40 detergent were found to contain numerous attached filaments with a mean diameter of 11.0 nm. In polypeptide content and solubility properties, they resembled the vimentin type of intermediate filament found in cells of mesenchymal origin. Examination of their association with the nucleus suggests that more than a simple membrane attachment is involved.

  6. IGR J17303-0601 is a new intermediate polar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaensicke, B.T.; Marsh, T.R.; Edge, A.; Rodriguez-Gil, P.; Steeghs, D.; Araujo-Betancor, S.; Harlaftis, E.; Giannakis, O.; Pyrzas, S.; Morales-Rueda, L.; Aungwerojwit, A.

    2005-01-01

    We have identified IGR J17303-0601 (1RXS J173021.5-055933) as an intermediate polar (IP). The optical counterpart is USNOA2.0 0825_10606993 (RA=17h30m21.9s Dec=-05d59m31s). Using optical photometry obtained in 2003 at the JKT and at the OGS we determine the white dwarf spin period to be 120s, which

  7. Snapshot of a phosphorylated substrate intermediate by kinetic crystallography

    OpenAIRE

    Käck, Helena; Gibson, Katharine J.; Lindqvist, Ylva; Schneider, Gunter

    1998-01-01

    The ATP-dependent enzyme dethiobiotin synthetase from Escherichia coli catalyses the formation of dethiobiotin from CO2 and 7,8-diaminopelargonic acid. The reaction is initiated by the formation of a carbamate and proceeds through a phosphorylated intermediate, a mixed carbamic phosphoric anhydride. Here, we report the crystal structures at 1.9- and 1.6-Å resolution, respectively, of the enzyme–MgATP–diaminopelargonic acid and enzyme–MgADP–carbamic–phosphoric acid anhydride complexes, observe...

  8. Recent questions about the excitation mechanism at intermediate velocity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adoui, L.; Chabot, M.; Chetioui, A.; Despiney, I.; Guiraud, L.; L' Hoir, A.; Politis, M.F.; Rozet, J.P.; Schmaus, D.; Stephan, C.; Touati, A.; Vernhet, D.; Wohrer, K.; Cassimi, A.; Grandin, J.P.; Ramillon, J.M.; Macias, A.; Martin, F.; Riera, A.; Sanz, J.L.; Gayet, R. (G.P.S., Univ. Paris 7 et Paris 6, 75 Paris (France) CIRIL, 14 Caen (France) Dept. de Quimica, Faculdad de Ciencias, Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain) Lab. des Collisions Atomiques, Univ. de Bordeaux 1, 33 Talence (France))

    1994-04-01

    For both fundamental reasons and potential applications, the process of K-excitation by heavy ions at intermediate velocity has been re-investigated experimentally and theoretically and the main results are described here. The nature and the origin of the so-called saturation effect'' at high exciting charge is not yet elucidated. The importance of K-excitation is outlined in connection with problems of radiation damage. (orig.)

  9. Peripheral Vasculitis, Intermediate Uveitis and Interferon Use in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk Esgin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. A 40-year-old female patient with a 12-year history of MS was admitted to our clinic with blurred vision and floaters in her right eye for about 1 month. Here, we share the findings and the management of intermediate uveitis and retinal periphlebitis in an MS case being treated with interferon beta-1a for 7 years.

  10. Mode and Intermediate Waters in Earth System Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnanadesikan, Anand [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Sarmiento, Jorge L. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2015-12-22

    This report describes work done as part of a joint Princeton-Johns Hopkins project to look at the impact of mode and intermediate waters in Earth System Models. The Johns Hopkins portion of this work focussed on the role of lateral mixing in ventilating such waters, with important implications for hypoxia, the uptake of anthropogenic carbon, the dynamics of El Nino and carbon pumps. The Johns Hopkins group also collaborated with the Princeton Group to help develop a watermass diagnostics framework.

  11. Properties and Application of Intermediate Entangled State Representation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Qian-Jun

    2005-01-01

    @@ We introduce the intermediate entangled state |α> and discuss its properties of|α>λ,ν. We obtain the expression of the two-mode Wigner operator in the |α>λ,ν representation. We find that the projection operator |α>λ,νλ,ν λ,ν representation, we successfully obtain the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a bipartite system coupled in a quite complicated way.

  12. Intermediate-generalized Chaplygin gas inflationary universe model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Ramon; Olivares, Marco; Videla, Nelson [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Casilla, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2013-01-15

    An intermediate inflationary universe model in the context of a generalized Chaplygin gas is considered. For the matter we consider two different energy densities; a standard scalar field and a tachyon field, respectively. In general, we discuss the conditions of an inflationary epoch for these models. We also, use recent astronomical observations from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe seven year data for constraining the parameters appearing in our models. (orig.)

  13. Migration to Intermediate XML for Electronic Data(MIXED)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DIRK ROORDA

    2008-01-01

    MIXED is a digital preser vation project.It uses a strategy of converting data to intermediate XML.In this paperwe position this strategy with respect to the well-known emulation and migration strategies.Then we detail the MIXED strategy and explain why it is an optimized,economical way of migration.Finally,we describe how DANS is implementing a soft-ware tool that can perform the migrations needed for this strategy.

  14. DISPOSAL OF LOW AND INTERMEDIATE LEVEL WASTE IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint Nős

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There are two operating facilities for management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Hungary. Experience with radioactive waste has a relatively long history and from its legacy some problems are to be solved, like the question of the historical waste in the Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility (RWTDF. Beside the legacy problems the current waste arising from the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP has to be dealt with a safe and economically optimized way.

  15. Biologically produced succinic acid: A new route to chemical intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The national laboratory consortium has undertaken an R&D project with the Michigan Biotechnology Institute (MBI) to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a chemical intermediate, succinic acid, and various derivatives, from renewable agricultural resources. The projects near-term goal is to demonstrate an economically competetive process for producing 1,4-butanediol and other derivatives from biologically produced succinic acid without generating a major salt waste. The competitiveness to the petrochemical process must be demonstrated.

  16. Mechanism for the Suppression of Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Dokuchaev, V. I.; Eroshenko, Yu. N.; Rubin, S G; Samarchenko, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    A model for the formation of supermassive primordial black holes in galactic nuclei with the simultaneous suppression of the formation of intermediate-mass black holes is presented. A bimodal mass function for black holes formed through phase transitions in a model with a "Mexican hat" potential has been found. The classical motion of the phase of a complex scalar field during inflation has been taken into account. Possible observational manifestations of primordial black holes in galaxies an...

  17. The Value of Intermediate Targets in Implementing Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin M. Friedman

    1984-01-01

    This paper reports empirical results indicating that there is no compelling evidence in favor of singling outany one variable as "the intermediate target" of monetary policy. Of the variables considered here - including money (M1), credit, a long-term interest rate, and whichever of either reserves or a short-term interest rate the Federal Reserve System does not set directly by open market operations -- most do contain at least some statistically significant information about the future grow...

  18. Isotope analysis in central heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Geraci, E; Bardelli, L; Barlini, S; Bini, M; Bruno, M; Cannata, F; Casini, G; Chiari, M; D'Agostino, M; De Sanctis, J; Giussani, A; Gramegna, F; Kravchuk, V L; Lanchais, A L; Marini, P; Moroni, A; Nannini, A; Olmi, A; Ordine, A; Pasquali, G; Piantelli, S; Poggi, G; Vannini, G

    2006-01-01

    Symmetry energy is a key quantity in the study of the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter. Heavy ion collisions at low and intermediate energies, performed at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, can be used to extract information on the symmetry energy coefficient Csym, which is currently poorly known but relevant both for astrophysics and for structure of exotic nuclei.

  19. Effect of intermediate defense measures in voluntary vaccination games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamura, Yoshiro; Tanimoto, Jun; Fukuda, Eriko

    2016-09-01

    We build a model to reproduce the decision-making process of getting a vaccination based on the evolutionary game theory dovetailed with the SIR model for epidemic spreading. Unlike the two extreme options of whether or not getting a vaccination leads to perfect immunity, we consider whether ‘intermediate defense measures’ including masking, gargling, and hand-washing lead to imperfect effects of preventing infection. We consider introducing not only a ‘third strategy’ as a discrete intermediate measure but also a continuous strategy space connecting the cases of getting and not getting a vaccination. Interestingly, our evolutionary analysis suggests that the introduction of intermediate measures makes no difference for the case of a 2-strategy system in which only either getting or not getting a vaccination is allowed, even does not ameliorate, or say, gets worse to prevent spreading a disease. This seems quite different from what was observed in 2-player and 2-strategy (2  ×  2) prisoner’s dilemma (PD) games with relatively stronger chicken-type dilemma than the stag-hunt one in which the introduction of middle-course strategies significantly enhances cooperation.

  20. Efficacy of Ozurdex implant in treatment of noninfectious intermediate uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Palla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To report our experiences using Ozurdex, a biodegradable implant, containing 0.7 mg of dexamethasone in the treatment of noninfectious intermediate uveitis. Settings and Design: Retrospective study design. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of medical records of patients with noninfectious intermediate uveitis having either cystoid macular edema (CME or vitritis who were not responsive to standard treatment and subsequently received Ozurdex implant from March 2011 to April 2013. The outcomes measured were best-corrected visual acuity, central retinal thickness (CRT, and vitreous haze score. Statistical Analysis Used: Paired t-test was used to test the significance of difference between quantitative variables. A P < 0.05 is taken to denote significant relationship. Results: Twenty eyes of 15 patients with mean age of 39.8 years who received Ozurdex implant were included in the study. The mean baseline visual acuity improved from 0. 666 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR units to 0.479 logMAR units at 6 weeks after the implant. The mean CRT improved from 536.1 to 361.4 microns at 6 weeks postimplant both parameters were statistically significant. The ocular inflammation was controlled in almost all the patients. Cataract and raised intraocular pressure were documented complications. Conclusion: Ozurdex implant is a promising treatment option and efficient in controlling the inflammation and CME in cases of noninfectious intermediate uveitis not responding to standard treatment.

  1. Electron microscopic analysis of rotavirus assembly-replication intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreaux, Crystal E.; Kelly, Deborah F. [Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine and Research Institute, Roanoke, VA (United States); McDonald, Sarah M., E-mail: mcdonaldsa@vtc.vt.edu [Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine and Research Institute, Roanoke, VA (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia—Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Rotaviruses (RVs) replicate their segmented, double-stranded RNA genomes in tandem with early virion assembly. In this study, we sought to gain insight into the ultrastructure of RV assembly-replication intermediates (RIs) using transmission electron microscopy (EM). Specifically, we examined a replicase-competent, subcellular fraction that contains all known RV RIs. Three never-before-seen complexes were visualized in this fraction. Using in vitro reconstitution, we showed that ~15-nm doughnut-shaped proteins in strings were nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2) bound to viral RNA transcripts. Moreover, using immunoaffinity-capture EM, we revealed that ~20-nm pebble-shaped complexes contain the viral RNA polymerase (VP1) and RNA capping enzyme (VP3). Finally, using a gel purification method, we demonstrated that ~30–70-nm electron-dense, particle-shaped complexes represent replicase-competent core RIs, containing VP1, VP3, and NSP2 as well as capsid proteins VP2 and VP6. The results of this study raise new questions about the interactions among viral proteins and RNA during the concerted assembly–replicase process. - Highlights: • Rotaviruses replicate their genomes in tandem with early virion assembly. • Little is known about rotavirus assembly-replication intermediates. • Assembly-replication intermediates were imaged using electron microscopy.

  2. The Integral- and Intermediate-Screened Coupled-Cluster Method

    CERN Document Server

    Sørensen, L K

    2016-01-01

    We present the formulation and implementation of the integral- and intermediate-screened coupled-cluster method (ISSCC). The IISCC method gives a simple and rigorous integral and intermediate screening (IIS) of the coupled-cluster method and will significantly reduces the scaling for all orders of the CC hierarchy exactly like seen for the integral-screened configuration-interaction method (ISCI). The rigorous IIS in the IISCC gives a robust and adjustable error control which should allow for the possibility of converging the energy without any loss of accuracy while retaining low or linear scaling at the same time. The derivation of the IISCC is performed in a similar fashion as in the ISCI where we show that the tensor contractions for the nested commutators are separable up to an overall sign and that this separability can lead to a rigorous IIS. In the nested commutators the integrals are screened in the first tensor contraction and the intermediates are screened in all successive tensor contractions. The...

  3. Synthetic Routes to Methylerythritol Phosphate Pathway Intermediates and Downstream Isoprenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarchow-Choy, Sarah K; Koppisch, Andrew T; Fox, David T

    2014-01-01

    Isoprenoids constitute the largest class of natural products with greater than 55,000 identified members. They play essential roles in maintaining proper cellular function leading to maintenance of human health, plant defense mechanisms against predators, and are often exploited for their beneficial properties in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries. Most impressively, all known isoprenoids are derived from one of two C5-precursors, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) or dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). In order to study the enzyme transformations leading to the extensive structural diversity found within this class of compounds there must be access to the substrates. Sometimes, intermediates within a biological pathway can be isolated and used directly to study enzyme/pathway function. However, the primary route to most of the isoprenoid intermediates is through chemical catalysis. As such, this review provides the first exhaustive examination of synthetic routes to isoprenoid and isoprenoid precursors with particular emphasis on the syntheses of intermediates found as part of the 2C-methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. In addition, representative syntheses are presented for the monoterpenes (C10), sesquiterpenes (C15), diterpenes (C20), triterpenes (C30) and tetraterpenes (C40). Finally, in some instances, the synthetic routes to substrate analogs found both within the MEP pathway and downstream isoprenoids are examined. PMID:25009443

  4. Therapeutic options for intermediate-advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong-Ming Zhang; Jin-Xing Guo; Zi-Chao Zhang; Nan Jiang; Zhen-Ya Zhang; Li-Jie Pan

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies, ranking the sixth in the world, with 55% of cases occurring in China. Usually, patients withHCC did not present until the late stage of the disease,thus limiting their therapeutic options. Although surgical resection is a potentially curative modality for HCC,most patients with intermediate-advanced HCC are not suitable candidates. The current therapeutic modalities for intermediate-advanced HCC include: (1) surgical procedures,such as radical resection, palliative resection,intraoperative radiofrequency ablation or cryosurgical ablation, intraoperative hepatic artery and portal vein chemotherapeutic pump placement, two-stage hepatectomy and livertransplantation; (2) interventional treatment,such as transcatheter arterial chemoembolization,portal vein embolization and image-guided locoregional therapies; and (3) molecularly targeted therapies. So far, how to choose the therapeutic modalities remains controversial. Surgeons are faced with the challenge of providing the most appropriate treatment for patients with intermediate-advanced HCC. This review focuses on the optional therapeutic modalities for intermediateadvanced HCC.

  5. Source Analysis of Bucaramanga Nest Intermediate-Depth Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, G. A.; Pedraza, P.; Dionicio, V.; Levander, A.

    2016-12-01

    Intermediate-depth earthquakes are those that occur at depths of 50 to 300 km in subducting lithosphere and can occasionally be destructive. Despite their ubiquity in earthquake catalogs, their physical mechanism remains unclear because ambient temperatures and pressures at such depths are expected to lead to ductile flow, rather than brittle failure, as a response to stress. Intermediate-depth seismicity rates vary substantially worldwide, even within a single subduction zone having highly clustered seismicity in some cases (Vrancea, Hindu-Kush, etc.). One such places in known as the Bucaramanga Nest (BN), one of the highest concentration of intermediate-depth earthquakes in the world. Previous work on these earthquakes has shown 1) Focal mechanisms vary substantially within a very small volume. 2) Radiation efficiency is small for Mfamilies. For the larger events we will determine source parameters and radiation efficiencies. Preliminary results show that reverse polarity events are present and that two main focal mechanisms, with their corresponding reverse polarity events are dominant. Our results have significant implications in our understanding of intermedaite-depth earthquakes and the stress conditions that are responsible for this unusual cluster of seismicity.

  6. Intermediate probability lung scans (IPLS): retrospective review of 82 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, W Y; Ng, D C; Ang, E S; Goh, A S; Sundram, F X

    2001-10-01

    In the light of a reported 30-40% prevalence of pulmonary embolism (PE) in intermediate probability lung scans (IPLS) based on results of the Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PIOPED) study, we examined the frequency of documented PE in 82 patients with IPLS, the management strategy employed in these patients with regards to additional imaging (e.g. further evaluation with venous sonography or spiral computed tomographic angiography (CTA)), anticoagulation therapy, and subsequent follow-up outcomes. Retrospective review of the medical records of 82 patients with intermediate probability ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) lung scans from January 1998 to July 1999. 14.1% of V/Q scans were reported as having an intermediate probability of PE. 72% of IPLS were subject to further evaluation with venous Doppler ultrasound and/or CTA, and 39% of these patients had evidence of thrombo-embolic disease. All patients with imaging evidence of thromboembolic disease were started on anticoagulation therapy. In addition, 19 patients were treated based on clinical judgement. Amongst the 35 patients who were not treated, 17 (49%) were based on clinical findings without further imaging. There was no mortality on follow-up of 28 cases of untreated IPLS. The majority of IPLS will have further imaging, out of which over one-third will have thrombo-embolic disease. Approximately half of IPLS cases will receive anticoagulation therapy. No mortality or PE was found on follow-up of patients who were not treated.

  7. [Intermediate coronary care units: rationale, infrastructure, equipment, and referral criteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Joaquín J; Sanz, Ginés; Guindo, Josep; García-Moll, Xavier; Bardají, Alfredo; Bueno, Héctor

    2007-04-01

    The Spanish Working Group on Coronary Artery Disease of Spanish Society of Cardiology has considered to be necessary the development of this document on the need, structure and organization of Intermediate Cardiac Care Units (ICCU). Acute coronary syndrome registries show that an important percentage of patients receive a suboptimal care, due to an inadequate management of health resources or absence of them. Intermediate cardiac care units arise to solve these challenges and to manage in an efficient way these expensive and limited resources. Their aims are: a) to provide each patient the level of care required; b) to optimize the structural, technical and human resources, and c) to make easier continuous care and care gradient. As a result, ICCU should be established as an essential part of the cardiology department aim to cardiac patients requiring monitoring and medical care superior to those available in a regular cardiac ward but whose risk does not justify the technical and human costs of a Coronary Unit. This document describes the structure (equipment, human resources, management) required to reach the goals previously reported and includes recommendations about indications of admission in a ICCU. These indications include: a) patients with NSTE-ACS with intermediate or high risk but hemodynamically stable, and b) low risk STEAMI or high risk STEAMI stabilized after an initial admission at the Coronary Unit. The admission of some patients undergoing invasive procedures or suffering non-coronary acute cardiac diseases, is also considered.

  8. RXTE and XMM observations of intermediate polar candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Butters, O W; Mukai, K; Tomsick, J A

    2010-01-01

    Aims. To determine the credentials of nine candidate intermediate polars in order to confirm whether or not they are magnetic cataclysmic variables. Methods. Frequency analysis of RXTE and XMM data was used to search for temporal variations which could be associated with the spin period of the magnetic white dwarf. X-ray spectral analysis was carried out to characterise the emission and absorption properties of each target. Results. The hard X-ray light curve of V2069 Cyg shows a pulse period of 743.2 s, and its spectrum is fit by an absorbed bremsstrahlung model with an iron line, confirming this to be a genuine intermediate polar. The hard X-ray light curve of the previously confirmed intermediate polar IGR J00234+6141 is shown to be consistent with the previous low energy X-ray detection of a 563.5 s pulse period. The likely polar IGR J14536-5522 shows no coherent modulation at the previously identified period of 3.1 hr, but does exhibit a clear signal at periods likely to be harmonically related to it. Wh...

  9. Role of physical anthropology in intermediate and secondary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmore, Pamela C

    2005-01-01

    The role of physical anthropology in precollegiate education has been limited, but has the potential to play a vital and integral role in promoting students' understanding of themselves and others. This study describes the development, implementation, and results of a program constructed on an inquiry-based learning model that introduces middle and high school students to the content of physical anthropology. Demonstrated student learning indicates that intermediate and secondary students are capable of acquiring and applying complex content about human evolution and diversity. Program findings indicate that students frequently had previous knowledge about the hominid fossil record but little information about the significance of human biological diversity. Teaching intermediate and high school students about our common evolutionary heritage and the fact that humans exhibit clinal variation were found to be both powerful and effective content material. The fact that program participants lacked previous knowledge about the relationship between human biological diversity (illustrated in this program by light and dark skin color) and the erroneous sociocultural construction of this diversity confirmed the suspicion that this content is not being addressed in precollegiate education. Traditionally, intermediate and secondary students are taught about human variation within the context of social studies, reading, communication, and fine-arts classes. This program identifies a new paradigm for teaching about human variation. Providing students with scientific knowledge about human origins and diversity provides a constructive starting point, creating a common platform and knowledge base on which to then frame discussions about cultural variation. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Characterization of a structural intermediate of flavivirus membrane fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Stiasny

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Viral membrane fusion proceeds through a sequence of steps that are driven by triggered conformational changes of viral envelope glycoproteins, so-called fusion proteins. Although high-resolution structural snapshots of viral fusion proteins in their prefusion and postfusion conformations are available, it has been difficult to define intermediate structures of the fusion pathway because of their transient nature. Flaviviruses possess a class II viral fusion protein (E mediating fusion at acidic pH that is converted from a dimer to a trimer with a hairpin-like structure during the fusion process. Here we show for tick-borne encephalitis virus that exposure of virions to alkaline instead of acidic pH traps the particles in an intermediate conformation in which the E dimers dissociate and interact with target membranes via the fusion peptide without proceeding to the merger of the membranes. Further treatment to low pH, however, leads to fusion, suggesting that these monomers correspond to an as-yet-elusive intermediate required to convert the prefusion dimer into the postfusion trimer. Thus, the use of nonphysiological conditions allows a dissection of the flavivirus fusion process and the identification of two separate steps, in which membrane insertion of multiple copies of E monomers precedes the formation of hairpin-like trimers. This sequence of events provides important new insights for understanding the dynamic process of viral membrane fusion.

  11. Evolution of emission line activity in intermediate mass young stars

    CERN Document Server

    Manoj, P; Maheswar, G; Muneer, S

    2006-01-01

    We present optical spectra of 45 intermediate mass Herbig Ae/Be stars. Together with the multi-epoch spectroscopic and photometric data compiled for a large sample of these stars and ages estimated for individual stars by using pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks, we have studied the evolution of emission line activity in them. We find that, on average, the H_alpha emission line strength decreases with increasing stellar age in HAeBe stars, indicating that the accretion activity gradually declines during the PMS phase. This would hint at a relatively long-lived (a few Myr) process being responsible for the cessation of accretion in Herbig Ae/Be stars. We also find that the accretion activity in these stars drops substantially by ~ 3 Myr. This is comparable to the timescale in which most intermediate mass stars are thought to lose their inner disks, suggesting that inner disks in intermediate mass stars are dissipated rapidly after the accretion activity has fallen below a certain level. We, further find a r...

  12. Dynamic Source Inversion of Intermediate Depth Earthquakes in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuto Sho Mirwald, Aron; Cruz-Atienza, Victor Manuel; Krishna Singh-Singh, Shri

    2017-04-01

    The source mechanisms of earthquakes at intermediate depth (50-300 km) are still under debate. Due to the high confining pressure at depths below 50 km, rocks ought to deform by ductile flow rather than brittle failure, which is the mechanism originating most earthquakes. Several source mechanisms have been proposed, but for neither of them conclusive evidence has been found. One of two viable mechanisms is Dehydration Embrittlement, where liberation of water lowers the effective pressure and enables brittle fracture. The other is Thermal Runaway, a highly localized ductile deformation (Prieto et. al., Tecto., 2012). In the Mexican subduction zone, intermediate depth earthquakes represent a real hazard in central Mexico due to their proximity to highly populated areas and the large accelerations induced on ground motion (Iglesias et. al., BSSA, 2002). To improve our understanding of these rupture processes, we use a recently introduced inversion method (Diaz-Mojica et. al., JGR, 2014) to analyze several intermediate depth earthquakes in Mexico. The method inverts strong motion seismograms to determine the dynamic source parameters based on a genetic algorithm. It has been successfully used for the M6.5 Zumpango earthquake that occurred at a depth of 62 km in the state of Guerrero, Mexico. For this event, high radiated energy, low radiation efficiency and low rupture velocity were determined. This indicates a highly dissipative rupture process, suggesting that Thermal Runaway could probably be the dominant source process. In this work we improved the inversion method by introducing a theoretical consideration for the nucleation process that minimizes the effects of rupture initiation and guarantees self-sustained rupture propagation (Galis et. al., GJInt., 2014). Preliminary results indicate that intermediate depth earthquakes in central Mexico may vary in their rupture process. For instance, for a M5.9 normal-faulting earthquake at 55 km depth that produced very

  13. Molluscicidal efficacies of different formulations of niclosamide: result of meta-analysis of Chinese literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guo-Jing

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The control efforts on Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate snail host of Schistosoma japonicum, cannot be easily excluded from the integrated approach of schistosomiasis control in China. Application of chemical compounds, molluscicides, in snail habitats is a common method for snail control in addition to environmental modification. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the molluscicidal effects of the currently recommended 50% niclosamide ethanolamine salt wettable powder and a new 4% niclosamide ethanolamine salt powder developed by Chinese researchers. Literature was searched from three Chinese databases, i.e. Chinese Biomedical Database, VIP Database and Wanfang Database, on field mollusciciding trials of niclosamide in China (from January 1, 1990 to April 1, 2010. Molluscicidal effects on reduction of snail population of the 50% or 4% niclosamide formulations in field trial were evaluated 3 days, 7 days or 15 days post-application. Out of 90 publications, 20 papers were eventually selected for analysis. Publication bias and heterogeneity tests indicated that no publication bias existed but heterogeneity between studies was present. Meta-analysis in a random effect model showed that the snail mortality of 3, 7 and 15 days after spraying the 50% niclosamide ethanolamine salt wettable powder were 77% [95%CI: 0.68-0.86], 83% [95%CI: 0.77-0.89], and 88% [95%CI: 0.82-0.92], respectively. For the 4% niclosamide ethanolamine salt powder, the snail mortality after 3, 7 and 15 days were 81% [95%CI: 0.65-0.93], 90% [95%CI: 0.83-0.95] and 94% [95%CI: 0.91-0.97], respectively. Both are good enough to be used as molluscicides integrated with a schistosomiasis control programme. The 4% niclosamide ethanolamine salt powder can be applied in the field without water supply as the surrogate of the current widely used 50% niclosamide ethanolamine salt wettable powder. However, to consolidate the schistosomiasis control

  14. Molluscicidal efficacies of different formulations of niclosamide: result of meta-analysis of Chinese literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guo-Jing; Li, Wei; Sun, Le-Ping; Wu, Feng; Yang, Kun; Huang, Yi-Xin; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2010-09-07

    The control efforts on Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate snail host of Schistosoma japonicum, cannot be easily excluded from the integrated approach of schistosomiasis control in China. Application of chemical compounds, molluscicides, in snail habitats is a common method for snail control in addition to environmental modification. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the molluscicidal effects of the currently recommended 50% niclosamide ethanolamine salt wettable powder and a new 4% niclosamide ethanolamine salt powder developed by Chinese researchers. Literature was searched from three Chinese databases, i.e. Chinese Biomedical Database, VIP Database and Wanfang Database, on field mollusciciding trials of niclosamide in China (from January 1, 1990 to April 1, 2010). Molluscicidal effects on reduction of snail population of the 50% or 4% niclosamide formulations in field trial were evaluated 3 days, 7 days or 15 days post-application. Out of 90 publications, 20 papers were eventually selected for analysis. Publication bias and heterogeneity tests indicated that no publication bias existed but heterogeneity between studies was present. Meta-analysis in a random effect model showed that the snail mortality of 3, 7 and 15 days after spraying the 50% niclosamide ethanolamine salt wettable powder were 77% [95%CI: 0.68-0.86], 83% [95%CI: 0.77-0.89], and 88% [95%CI: 0.82-0.92], respectively. For the 4% niclosamide ethanolamine salt powder, the snail mortality after 3, 7 and 15 days were 81% [95%CI: 0.65-0.93], 90% [95%CI: 0.83-0.95] and 94% [95%CI: 0.91-0.97], respectively. Both are good enough to be used as molluscicides integrated with a schistosomiasis control programme. The 4% niclosamide ethanolamine salt powder can be applied in the field without water supply as the surrogate of the current widely used 50% niclosamide ethanolamine salt wettable powder. However, to consolidate the schistosomiasis control achievement gained, it is

  15. Species composition and distribution of medical mollusca in Shanghai City%上海市医学贝类物种组成及其分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭云海; 吕山; 顾文彪; 刘和香; 吴缨; 张仪

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the species diversity and distribution of medical mollusca in Shanghai City. Methods From August 2012 to October 2013,all kinds of habitats in 8 districts and counties in Shanghai City,namely Jiading,Qingpu, Baoshan,Minhang,Songjiang,Jinshan,Chongming,Pudong,were selected for the field survey according to the distribution characteristics of the river system,and all the specimens of medical mollusca in the investigation sites were collected and classi⁃fied by morphological identification. Meanwhile,the species composition,habitats as well as the fauna of the medical mollusca collected were analyzed. Results A total of 5 211 specimens were collected,which belonged to 2 classes,14 families,18 gen⁃era and 25 species,including Oncomelania hupensis hupensis,Pomacea canaliculata,Parafossarulus striatulus,Alocinma longicornis,Physa acuta,Galba pervia,Hippeutis cantori,etc. The species numbers of medical mollusca in Chongming,Jin⁃shan,Pudong new area and Qingpu districts(counties)were 22,22,21 and 20,respectively,which were more than those of other areas. The habitat analysis suggested that the species numbers in the river and wetland were the most,both of which were 14 species. The main faunas of the medical mollusca in Shanghai were the cosmopolitan and oriental species. Conclusions The freshwater gastropod species are paucity in Shanghai City,but almost of them can be served as the intermediate hosts of certain parasites to transmit snail⁃related parasitic diseases,so the surveillance of medical mollusca should be strengthened.%目的:调查上海市医学贝类物种多样性及其分布。方法于2012年8月至2013年10月,根据水系分布特点,对上海市嘉定、青浦、宝山、闵行、松江、金山、崇明岛和浦东新区等8个区(县)各类生境进行现场抽样调查,采集医学贝类标本。所获标本经形态学鉴定分类,并对物种组成、生境及区系分布等进行

  16. 75 FR 33824 - Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates, Fourth Review: Advice Concerning the Addition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates, Fourth Review: Advice Concerning the Addition of Certain Products to the Pharmaceutical Appendix to the HTS AGENCY: United States International... (Commission) instituted investigation No. 332-520, Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates,...

  17. Intermediate species measurement during iso-butanol auto-ignition

    KAUST Repository

    Ji, Weiqi

    2015-10-01

    © 2015 The Combustion Institute.Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. This work presents the time histories of intermediate species during the auto-ignition of iso-butanol at high pressure and intermediate temperature conditions obtained using a rapid compression machine and recently developed fast sampling system. Iso-butanol ignition delays were acquired for iso-butanol/O2 mixture with an inert/O2 ratio of 7.26, equivalence ratio of 0.4, in the temperature range of 840-950 K and at pressure of 25 bar. Fast sampling and gas chromatography were used to acquire and quantify the intermediate species during the ignition delay of the same mixture at P = 25.3 bar and T = 905 K. The ignition delay times and quantitative measurements of the mole fraction time histories of methane, ethene, propene, iso-butene, iso-butyraldehyde, iso-butanol, and carbon monoxide were compared with predictions from the detailed mechanisms developed by Sarathy et al., Merchant et al., and Cai et al. It is shown that while the Sarathy mechanism well predicts the overall ignition delay time, it overpredicts ethene by a factor of 6-10, underpredicts iso-butene by a factor of 2, and overpredicts iso-butyraldehyde by a factor of 2. Reaction path and sensitivity analyses were carried out to identify the reactions responsible for the observed inadequacy. The rates of iso-butanol hydrogen atom abstraction by OH radical and the beta-scission reactions of hydroxybutyl radicals were updated based on recently published quantum calculation results. Significant improvements were achieved in predicting ignition delay at high pressures (25 and 30 bar) and the species concentrations of ethene and iso-butene. However, the updated mechanism still overpredicts iso-butyraldehyde concentrations. Also, the updated mechanism degrades the prediction in ignition delay at lower pressure (15 bar) compared to the original mechanism developed by Sarathy et al.

  18. Improving Staffing and Nurse Engagement in a Neuroscience Intermediate Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadolski, Charles; Britt, Pheraby; Ramos, Leah C

    2017-06-01

    The neuroscience intermediate unit is a 23-bed unit that was initially staffed with a nurse-to-patient ratio of 1:4 to 1:5. In time, the unit's capacity to care for the exceeding number of progressively acute patients fell short of the desired goals in the staff affecting the nurse satisfaction. The clinical nurses desired a lower nurse-patient ratio. The purpose of this project was to justify a staffing increase through a return on investment and increased quality metrics. This initiative used mixed methodology to determine the ideal staffing for a neuroscience intermediate unit. The quantitative section focused on a review of the acuity of the patients. The qualitative section was based on descriptive interviews with University Healthcare Consortium nurse managers from similar units. The study reviewed the acuity of 9,832 patient days to determine the accurate acuity of neuroscience intermediate unit patients. Nurse managers at 12 University Healthcare Consortium hospitals and 8 units at the Medical University of South Carolina were contacted to compare staffing levels. The increase in nurse staffing contributed to an increase in many quality metrics. There were an 80% decrease in controllable nurse turnover and a 75% reduction in falls with injury after the lowered nurse-patient ratio. These 2 metrics established a return on investment for the staffing increase. In addition, the staffing satisfaction question on the Press Ganey employee engagement survey increased from 2.44 in 2013 to 3.72 in 2015 in response to the advocacy of the bedside nurses.

  19. Improving interMediAte Risk management. MARK study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Gil Maria

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular risk functions fail to identify more than 50% of patients who develop cardiovascular disease. This is especially evident in the intermediate-risk patients in which clinical management becomes difficult. Our purpose is to analyze if ankle-brachial index (ABI, measures of arterial stiffness, postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, self-measured blood pressure and presence of comorbidity are independently associated to incidence of vascular events and whether they can improve the predictive capacity of current risk equations in the intermediate-risk population. Methods/Design This project involves 3 groups belonging to REDIAPP (RETICS RD06/0018 from 3 Spanish regions. We will recruit a multicenter cohort of 2688 patients at intermediate risk (coronary risk between 5 and 15% or vascular death risk between 3-5% over 10 years and no history of atherosclerotic disease, selected at random. We will record socio-demographic data, information on diet, physical activity, comorbidity and intermittent claudication. We will measure ABI, pulse wave velocity and cardio ankle vascular index at rest and after a light intensity exercise. Blood pressure and anthropometric data will be also recorded. We will also quantify lipids, glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in a fasting blood sample and postprandial capillary glucose. Eighteen months after the recruitment, patients will be followed up to determine the incidence of vascular events (later follow-ups are planned at 5 and 10 years. We will analyze whether the new proposed risk factors contribute to improve the risk functions based on classic risk factors. Discussion Primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases is a priority in public health policy of developed and developing countries. The fundamental strategy consists in identifying people in a high risk situation in which preventive measures are effective and efficient. Improvement of these predictions in our country

  20. Digital intermediate frequency QAM modulator using parallel processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, Hsueh-Yuan; Tran, Binh-Nien

    2008-05-27

    The digital Intermediate Frequency (IF) modulator applies to various modulation types and offers a simple and low cost method to implement a high-speed digital IF modulator using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The architecture eliminates multipliers and sequential processing by storing the pre-computed modulated cosine and sine carriers in ROM look-up-tables (LUTs). The high-speed input data stream is parallel processed using the corresponding LUTs, which reduces the main processing speed, allowing the use of low cost FPGAs.

  1. On the Analysis of Intermediate-Energy Coulomb Excitation Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Scheit, Heiko; Glasmacher, Thomas; Motobayashi, Tohru

    2008-01-01

    In a recent publication (Bertulani et al., PLB 650 (2007) 233 and arXiv:0704.0060v2) the validity of analysis methods used for intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation experiments was called into question. Applying a refined theory large corrections of results in the literature seemed needed. We show that this is not the case and that the large deviations observed are due to the use of the wrong experimental parameters. We furthermore show that an approximate expression derived by Bertulani et al. is in fact equivalent to the theory of Winther and Alder (NPA 319 (1979) 518), an analysis method often used in the literature.

  2. Radiative thermal escape in intermediate band solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Luque

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To achieve high efficiency, the intermediate band (IB solar cell must generate photocurrent from sub-bandgap photons at a voltage higher than that of a single contributing sub-bandgap photon. To achieve the latter, it is necessary that the IB levels be properly isolated from the valence and conduction bands. We prove that this is not the case for IB cells formed with the confined levels of InAs quantum dots (QDs in GaAs grown so far due to the strong density of internal thermal photons at the transition energies involved. To counteract this, the QD must be smaller.

  3. Joint enterprise and the role of the intermediator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Simonsen, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    Managing groupware technologies in global virtual teams is viewed as a process of integrating technology and collaboration. This involves a continual negotia-tion of the team’s goals, processes, and technology. We investigate organizational factors constraining this integration process......, by analyzing the failure of inte-grating groupware into two global virtual teams within industry. We present an empirically driven interpretive case study conducted in a large distributed global or-ganization. Based on the empirical observations, we reveal two organizational factors challenging the inte......-gration process: The importance of joint enterprise and the role of the intermediator....

  4. Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory: Realtime Image Subtraction Pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Yi; Kasliwal, Mansi M

    2016-01-01

    A fast-turnaround pipeline for realtime data reduction plays an essential role in discovering and permitting follow-up observations to young supernovae and fast-evolving transients in modern time-domain surveys. In this paper, we present the realtime image subtraction pipeline in the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory. By using high-performance computing, efficient database, and machine learning algorithms, this pipeline manages to reliably deliver transient candidates within ten minutes of images being taken. Our experience in using high performance computing resources to process big data in astronomy serves as a trailblazer to dealing with data from large-scale time-domain facilities in near future.

  5. Status and prospects of intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bangwu Liu; Yue Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Compared with conventional electric power generation systems, the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has many advantages because of its unique features. High temperature SOFC has been successfully developed to its commercial applications, but it still faces many problems which hamper large-scale commercial applications of SOFC. To reduce the cost of SOFC, intermediate tem-perature solid oxide fuel cell (IT-SOFC) is presently under rapid development. The status of IT-SOFC was reviewed with emphasis on discussion of their component materials.

  6. Wearable electronics formed on intermediate layer on textiles

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-07-27

    One manner of producing more desirable clothing with electronic capabilities is to manufacture electronics, such as the charging wires or devices themselves, directly onto the textile materials. Textile materials generally do not support the manufacturing of electronic devices, in part because the surface of the textile is too rough for electronic devices or the processes used to manufacturing electronic devices. An intermediate layer (204) may be placed on the textile material (202) to reduce the roughness of the surface of the textile material and provide other beneficial characteristics for the placement of electronic devices (206) directly on the textile material.

  7. The keratin intermediate filament—like system in maize protoplasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SuFei; GuWei; 等

    1990-01-01

    The application of Penman's method of cell fractionation to plant protoplasts leads to our finding of keratin intermediate filament(IF)-like system in maize protoplasts,which was identified by using immunogold labelling with monoclonal antibody of cytokeratin from animal cells.Many gold particles were found to be bound on filaments,linked by 3 nm filaments.After further digestion and extraction with DNase I and ammonium sulphate.IF-like framework-lamina-nuclear matrix system was shown under electron microscope.That IF system exists in plant protoplasts just like in animal cells,and their main component is keratin-like protein.

  8. Intermediate band solar cells. The transition metal supersaturated Silicon approach

    OpenAIRE

    González Díaz, Germán; García Hemme, Eric; García Hernansanz, Rodrigo; Olea Ariza, Javier; Pastor Pastor, David; Prado Millán, Alvaro del; Mártil de la Plaza, Ignacio; Wahnón Benarroch, Perla

    2013-01-01

    Within the framework of the third solar cell generation some new ideas to enlarge the spectral response of the solar cells toward the infrared have been proposed. Among them the inclusion of an Intermediate Band (IB) seems to be very promising. This paper will deal with one of the ways to generate the IB namely the deep level center approach. We will discuss not only its existence but also the carriers lifetime recovery which is necessary to obtain the expected increase of the solar cell effi...

  9. 3ds Max design architectural visualization for intermediate users

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Brian L

    2012-01-01

    Learn time-saving techniques and tested production-ready tips for maximum speed and efficiency in creating professional-level architectural visualizations in 3ds Max. Move from intermediate to an advanced level with specific and comprehensive instruction with this collaboration from nine different authors from around the world. Get their experience and skills in this full-color book, which not only teaches more advanced features, but also demonstrates the practical applications of those features to get readers ready for a real production environment. Fully updated for the most recent version o

  10. Metal Phosphates as Intermediate Temperature Proton Conducting Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yunjie; Li, Q.F.; Pan, Chao

    2012-01-01

    A series of metal phosphates were synthesized and screened as potential proton conductor electrolytes for fuel cells and electrolysers operational at intermediate temperatures. Among the selected, niobium and bismuth phosphates exhibited a proton conductivity of 10-2 and 10-7 S cm-1, respectively......, under the anhydrous atmosphere at 250 °C, showing close correlation with the presence of hydroxyl groups in the phosphate phases. At the water partial pressure of above 0.6 atm, both phosphates possessed a proton conductivity to a level of above 3 x 10-2 S cm-1. Reasonable stability of the proton...

  11. Passing the ITIL V3 intermediate exams the study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    This book helps people prepare for the ITIL® Intermediate qualification exams. It contains tips for selecting the appropriate course, preparation and finally what trainers and examiners expect you to achieve during pre-exam training sessions. Additionally, this book covers tips on reading and understanding the syllabi, scenarios, supplemental information, and sample question and the answers.Written by a respected ITIL trainer and reviewed by other global professionals this unique work provides clear and concise guidance for all those seeking to build on the ITIL training they have received at

  12. Carbonyl Sulfides as Possible Intermediates in the Photolysis of Oxathiiranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars; Snyder, J. P.; Holm, A.

    1981-01-01

    of sulfine to ketone via the oxathiirane and the subsequent blue intermediate implies the absence of triplet and biradical singlet transients. The unknown carbonyl sulfide functionality, R2C&z.dbnd;O&z.dbnd;S, thereby emerges as a strong candidate for producing the visible absorption. Comparison of the wave...... functions for CH2&z.dbnd;S&z.dbnd;O and CH2&z.dbnd;O&z.dbnd;S arising from MNDO limited CI geometry optimizations leads to the conclusion that the carbonyl sulfide structure is best described as a zwitterion rather than as a singlet biradical. The failure to observe cycloaddition products between the blue...

  13. The Pseudouridine Synthases Proceed through a Glycal Intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerareddygari, Govardhan Reddy; Singh, Sanjay K; Mueller, Eugene G

    2016-06-29

    The pseudouridine synthases isomerize (U) in RNA to pseudouridine (Ψ), and the mechanism that they follow has long been a question of interest. The recent elucidation of a product of the mechanistic probe 5-fluorouridine that had been epimerized to the arabino isomer suggested that the Ψ synthases might operate through a glycal intermediate formed by deprotonation of C2'. When that position in substrate U is deuterated, a primary kinetic isotope effect is observed, which indisputably indicates that the proposed deprotonation occurs during the isomerization of U to Ψ and establishes the mechanism followed by the Ψ synthases.

  14. Intermediate energy semileptonic probes of the hadronic neutral current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musolf, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)]|[Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[CEBAF Theory Group, Newport News, VA (United States); Donnelly, T.W. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Dubach, J. [Massachusetts Univ., Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Pollock, S.J. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Inst. for Nuclear Theory]|[Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica (NIKHEF), Amsterdam (Netherlands). Sectie K; Kowalski, S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Beise, E.J. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). W.K. Kellogg Radiation Lab.]|[Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1993-06-01

    The present status and future prospects of intermediate-energy semileptonic neutral current studies are reviewed. Possibilities for using parity-violating electron scattering from nucleons and nuclei to study hadron structure and nuclear dynamics are emphasized, with particular attention paid to probes of strangeness content in the nucleon. Connections are drawn between such studies and tests of the electroweak gauge theory using electron or neutrino scattering. Outstanding theoretical issues in the interpretation of semileptonic neutral current measurements are highlighted and the prospects for undertaking parity-violating electron or neutrino scattering experiments in the near future are surveyed.

  15. Strange particle production at low and intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, M Rafi; Athar, M Sajjad; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2011-01-01

    The weak kaon production off the nucleon induced by neutrinos and antineutrinos is studied at low and intermediate energies of interest for some ongoing and future neutrino oscillation experiments. We develop a microscopical model based on the SU(3) chiral Lagrangians. The studied mechanisms are the main source of kaon production for neutrino energies up to 2 GeV for the various channels and the cross sections are large enough to be amenable to be measured by experiments such as Minerva, T2K and NO$\

  16. Mechanism for the suppression of intermediate-mass black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokuchaev, V. I.; Eroshenko, Yu. N.; Rubin, S. G.; Samarchenko, D. A.

    2010-11-01

    A model for the formation of supermassive primordial black holes in galactic nuclei with the simultaneous suppression of the formation of intermediate-mass black holes is presented. A bimodal mass function for black holes formed through phase transitions in a model with a “Mexican hat” potential has been found. The classical motion of the phase of a complex scalar field during inflation has been taken into account. Possible observational manifestations of primordial black holes in galaxies and constraints on their number are discussed.

  17. Mechanism for the Suppression of Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Dokuchaev, V I; Rubin, S G; Samarchenko, D A; 10.1134/S1063773710110022

    2010-01-01

    A model for the formation of supermassive primordial black holes in galactic nuclei with the simultaneous suppression of the formation of intermediate-mass black holes is presented. A bimodal mass function for black holes formed through phase transitions in a model with a "Mexican hat" potential has been found. The classical motion of the phase of a complex scalar field during inflation has been taken into account. Possible observational manifestations of primordial black holes in galaxies and constraints on their number are discussed.

  18. Carbonyl Sulfides as Possible Intermediates in the Photolysis of Oxathiiranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars; Snyder, J. P.; Holm, A.

    1981-01-01

    of sulfine to ketone via the oxathiirane and the subsequent blue intermediate implies the absence of triplet and biradical singlet transients. The unknown carbonyl sulfide functionality, R2C&z.dbnd;O&z.dbnd;S, thereby emerges as a strong candidate for producing the visible absorption. Comparison of the wave...... functions for CH2&z.dbnd;S&z.dbnd;O and CH2&z.dbnd;O&z.dbnd;S arising from MNDO limited CI geometry optimizations leads to the conclusion that the carbonyl sulfide structure is best described as a zwitterion rather than as a singlet biradical. The failure to observe cycloaddition products between the blue...

  19. Language in use a pre-intermediate course : classroom book

    CERN Document Server

    Doff, Adrian

    1991-01-01

    This is part of a course specifically designed for pre-intermediate learners, allowing those who come from a broad range of previous learning situations to enter at this level and make progress, without presupposing knowledge from another coursebook. The entry level assumes that learners have completed about 100 hours of study, or may have studied English in the past, but with weak results. The course includes a dual syllabus, in which units containing topic, fluency and vocabulary work alternate with units focusing on grammar and accuracy, and course material comprises a self-study workbook with optional cassettes, and a teacher's text.

  20. Intermediate Field Representation for Positive Matrix and Tensor Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Lionni, Luca

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we introduce an intermediate field representation for random matrices and random tensors with positive (stable) interactions of degree higher than 4. This representation respects the symmetry axis responsible for positivity. It is non-perturbative and allows to prove that such models are Borel-Le Roy summable of the appropriate order in their coupling constant. However we have not been able yet to associate a convergent Loop Vertex Expansion to this representation, hence our Borel summability result is not of the optimal expected form when the size N of the matrix or of the tensor tends to infinity.

  1. Are EeV cosmic rays isotropic at intermediate scales?

    CERN Document Server

    Zotov, M Yu

    2014-01-01

    We study anisotropy of cosmic rays in the energy range 0.2-1.4 EeV at intermediate angular scales using the public data set of the Pierre Auger Observatory. At certain scales, the analysis reveals a number of deviations from the isotropic distribution with the statistical significance above three standard deviations. It also demonstrates that the anisotropy evolves with energy. If confirmed with the complete Auger or Telescope Array data sets, the result can shed new light on the structure of galactic magnetic fields and the problem of transition from galactic to extragalactic cosmic rays.

  2. Intermediate mass fragment emission in Fe + Au collisions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangster, T. C.; Britt, H. C.; Fields, D. J.; Hansen, L. F.; Lanier, R. G.; Namboodiri, M. N.; Remington, B. A.; Webb, M. L.; Begemann-Blaich, M.; Blaich, T.; Fowler, M. M.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Dacal, A.; Harmon, A.; Pouliot, J.; Stokstad, R. G.; Kaufman, S.; Videbaek, F.; Fraenkel, Z.; Peilert, G.; Stocker, H.; Greiner, W.; Physics; LLNL; LANL; LBL; Weizmann Inst. of Science; Inst. fur Theoretische Physik der Univ.

    1992-10-01

    Experimental results are presented on the charge, velocity, and angular distributions of intermediate mass fragments (IMFs) for the reaction Fe+Au at bombarding energies of 50 and 100 MeV/nucleon. Results are compared to the quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) model and a modified QMD which includes a Pauli potential and follows the subsequent statistical decay of excited reaction products. The more complete model gives a good representation of the data and suggests that the major source of IMFs at large angles is due to multifragmentation of the target residue.

  3. Intermediate Appellate Review of Commercial Law Decisions in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Berna Tepe

    2014-01-01

    The judiciary in Turkey is still preparing for the expected intermediate appellate review (istinaf) mechanism in Turkey although the official date for its functioning is yet to be specified. Under Turkish law, a first instance court decision can be appealed not because an assertion or a claim is rejected, but due to a substantive or procedural norm of law which should have been applied during the proceedings in an accurate manner. The scope of such review also covers the suitability of the fi...

  4. Intermedial performance aesthetics in Patricia Fagundes' A Midsummer Night's Dream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stegh Camati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In A Midsummer Night’s Dream (1594-1595, Shakespeare introduces elements borrowed from court masques, mainly music and dance. After a brief exploration of critical arguments claiming that Shakespeare’s play is the model for musical versions produced during and after the Restoration, this essay investigates the negotiations and shifts of meaning in the homonymous Brazilian adaptation (2006, staged by Cia. Rústica and directed by Patrícia Fagundes. The intermedial processes, articulated in the transposition from page to stage, will be analyzed in the light of contemporary theoretical perspectives.

  5. Intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation of Na30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettenauer, S.; Zwahlen, H.; Adrich, P.; Bazin, D.; Campbell, C. M.; Cook, J. M.; Davies, A. D.; Dinca, D.-C.; Gade, A.; Glasmacher, T.; Lecouey, J.-L.; Mueller, W. F.; Otsuka, T.; Reynolds, R. R.; Riley, L. A.; Terry, J. R.; Utsuno, Y.; Yoneda, K.

    2008-07-01

    The neutron-rich nucleus Na30 in the vicinity of the “Island of Inversion” was investigated using intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation. A single γ-ray transition was observed and attributed to the 31+→2gs+ decay. A transition probability of B(E2;2gs+→31+)=147(21)e2fm4 was determined and found in agreement with a previous experiment and with large-scale shell-model calculations. Evidence for the strong excitation of the 41+ state predicted by the shell-model calculations was not observed.

  6. The axial topographic high at intermediate and fast spreading ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbotte, Suzanne M.; MacDonald, Ken C.

    1994-12-01

    An axial topographic high is commonly observed at both fast spreading ridges and some segments of intermediate spreading ridges. At fast rates the axial high is primarily created by the buoyancy of hot rock and magma beneath the rise. As newly formed crust is transported off axis, little vestige of an axial high is observed on the ridge flanks. In contrast, at intermediate rates, a significant component of the positive topography may be a volcanic construction, preserved on the ridge flanks as abyssal hills, which are slit axial volcanoes. We suggest this difference in the nature of the axial high reflects a lithosphere strong enough to support construction of a volcanic crestal ridge at intermediate spreading rates, but only rarely at fast rates. Relict overlap ridges, found within the discordant zones left by overlapping spreading centers, is one class of ridge-flank topography which appears to have a significant volcanic constructional component even at fast spreading ridges. Unlike topography away from these discontinuities, the relief and shape of overlapping spreading centers is preserved as relict ridge tips are rafted onto the ridge flanks. Reduced magma supply at these discontinuities may give rise to an axial lithosphere strong enough to support volcanic construction of overlap ridges. Low axial lithospheric strength may also account for the lack of normal faults within the innermost 1-2 km of fast, and some intermediate, spreading ridges. With a thin/weak brittle layer at the ridge crest, tensile failure will predominate and few normal faults will form. Depths to the axial magma chamber reflector observed in multi-channel seismic data limit the thickness of the brittel layer on axis to less than 1-2 km for much of the East Pacific Rise (EPR). This depth is comparable to depths over which tensile failure within the oceanic crust will predominate, estimated from the Griffith criteria for fracture initiation (approx. 0.5-1.5 km). As the brittle layer

  7. Intermediate baseline appearance experiments and three-neutrino mixing schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Cardall, C Y; Cline, D; Cardall, Christian Y.; Fuller, George M.; Cline, David

    1997-01-01

    Three-neutrino mixing schemes suggested by Cardall \\& Fuller and Acker \\& Pakvasa are compared and contrasted. Both of these schemes seek to solve the solar and atmospheric neutrino problems {\\em and} to account for the possible neutrino oscillation signal in the LSND experiment. These neutrino oscillation schemes have different atmospheric and solar neutrino signatures that will be discriminated by Super-Kamiokande and SNO. They will also have different signatures in proposed long-baseline accelerator and reactor experiments. In particular, both of these schemes would give dramatic (and dramatically different) signals in an ``intermediate baseline'' experiment, such as the proposed ICARUS detector in the Jura mountains 17 km from CERN.

  8. Intermediate filaments: a dynamic network that controls cell mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenbaum, Yosef; Aebi, Ueli

    2014-01-01

    In humans the superfamily of intermediate filament (IF) proteins is encoded by more than 70 different genes, which are expressed in a cell- and tissue-specific manner. IFs assemble into approximately 10 nm-wide filaments that account for the principal structural elements at the nuclear periphery, nucleoplasm, and cytoplasm. They are also required for organizing the microtubule and microfilament networks. In this review, we focus on the dynamics of IFs and how modifications regulate it. We also discuss the role of nuclear IF organization in determining nuclear mechanics as well as that of cytoplasmic IFs organization in maintaining cell stiffness, formation of lamellipodia, regulation of cell migration, and permitting cell adhesion.

  9. Nitrenes, carbenes, diradicals, and ylides. Interconversions of reactive intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentrup, Curt

    2011-06-21

    Rearrangements of aromatic and heteroaromatic nitrenes and carbenes can be initiated with either heat or light. The thermal reaction is typically induced by flash vacuum thermolysis, with isolation of the products at low temperatures. Photochemical experiments are conducted either under matrix isolation conditions or in solution at ambient temperature. These rearrangements are usually initiated by ring expansion of the nitrene or carbene to a seven-membered ring ketenimine, carbodiimide, or allene (that is, a cycloheptatetraene or an azacycloheptatetraene when a nitrogen is involved). Over the last few years, we have found that two types of ring opening take place as well. Type I is an ylidic ring opening that yields nitrile ylides or diazo compounds as transient intermediates. Type II ring opening produces either dienylnitrenes (for example, from 2-pyridylnitrenes) or 1,7-(1,5)-diradicals (such as those formed from 2-quinoxalinylnitrenes), depending on which of these species is better stabilized by resonance. In this Account, we describe our achievements in elucidating the nature of the ring-opened species and unraveling the connections between the various reactive intermediates. Both of these ring-opening reactions are found, at least in some cases, to dominate the subsequent chemistry. Examples include the formation of ring-opened ketenimines and carbodiimides, as well as the ring contraction reactions that form five-membered ring nitriles (such as 2- and 3-cyanopyrroles from pyridylnitrenes, N-cyanoimidazoles from 2-pyrazinyl and 4-pyrimidinylnitrenes, N-cyanopyrazoles from 2-pyrimidinylnitrenes and 3-pyridazinylnitrenes, and so forth). The mechanisms of formation of the open-chain and ring-contraction products were unknown at the onset of this study. In the course of our investigation, several reactions with three or more consecutive reactive intermediates have been unraveled, such as nitrene, seven-membered cyclic carbodiimide, and open-chain nitrile ylide

  10. PHONON SOFTENING IN INTERMEDIATE VALENT SmB6

    OpenAIRE

    Mörke, I.; Wachter, P.

    1981-01-01

    We have measured the Raman spectrum of a SmB6 single crystal and compared it to LaB6 and EuB6. Beside the three high energy Raman active phonons we found additional excitations in these compounds. Most prominent is a peak at 172 cm-1 for SmB6, 214 cm-1 for LaB6 and 220 cm-1 for EuB6. The spectra are analysed in terms of defect induced phonon scattering. The softening of the line in intermediate valent (IV) SmB6 is explained in analogy with the phonon anomalies found in other IV compounds.

  11. Comparison of Three Schemes for Intermediate Data Rate Frame Synchronization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Based on the frame structure of intermediate data rate (IDR) modem for satellite communication, a new method for searching frame synchronization called group frame synchronization is proposed. At the same time, a candidate scheme in the classical frame synchronization and two candidate schemes in the group frame synchronization are presented, and the circuits for each scheme are designed in order to abstract the frame alignment signals from received data. Their implementation complexity and performances are also computed and given. Based on the analysis and performance comparison, a reasonable scheme is chosen and then verified through software simulation and hardware impletentation.

  12. 4,6-Dinitrobenzofuroxan, an Important Explosive Intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    KHCO 3/1420 .. N 0-’ IN+ c 02N N 0- 0- DNBF KDNBF DNBF is an explosive (5,6] but the main interest in this compound has been as an intermediate to the...the explosives literature as KDNBF **, We have chosen here to retain the name commonly used in the explosives literature. Chemical Abstracts lists DNBF...explosive materials, we have been studying the preparation of structural analogues of KDNBF . In these studies we have examined changes in the metal ion (from

  13. Intermediate band solar cells: Recent progress and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Y., E-mail: okada@mbe.rcast.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Tamaki, R.; Farrell, D. J.; Yoshida, K.; Ahsan, N.; Shoji, Y.; Sogabe, T. [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology (RCAST), The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Ekins-Daukes, N. J., E-mail: n.ekins-daukes@imperial.ac.uk; Yoshida, M.; Pusch, A.; Hess, O.; Phillips, C. C. [Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Kita, T. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Guillemoles, J.-F. [Institute of Research and Development of Energy from Photovoltaics (IRDEP-CNRS), Chatou 78401 (France); NextPV, Joint RCAST-CNRS Laboratory, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Extensive literature and publications on intermediate band solar cells (IBSCs) are reviewed. A detailed discussion is given on the thermodynamics of solar energy conversion in IBSCs, the device physics, and the carrier dynamics processes with a particular emphasis on the two-step inter-subband absorption/recombination processes that are of paramount importance in a successful implementation high-efficiency IBSC. The experimental solar cell performance is further discussed, which has been recently demonstrated by using highly mismatched alloys and high-density quantum dot arrays and superlattice. IBSCs having widely different structures, materials, and spectral responses are also covered, as is the optimization of device parameters to achieve maximum performance.

  14. Intermediate physical chemistry: Stationary properties of chemical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diestler, D.J.; Dence, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The authors treat the fundamentals of time-independent quantum and statistical mechanics as they apply to problems of interest to chemists. Stresses practical, computational side of physical chemistry rather than the theoretical. Emphasizing computations, it takes the reader step by step through various calculations, including a Hartree-Fock calculation of the ground-state energy of LiH and a calculation of stationary properties of real gases and liquids from virial expansions and distribution functions. Numerical work is intermediate in difficulty. The use of the microcomputer is integrated throughout the text.

  15. On Identifying which Intermediate Nodes Should Code in Multicast Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Tiago; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Médard, Muriel

    2013-01-01

    the data packets. Previous work has shown that in lossless wireline networks, the performance of tree-packing mechanisms is comparable to network coding, albeit with added complexity at the time of computing the trees. This means that most nodes in the network need not code. Thus, mechanisms that identify...... intermediate nodes that do require coding is instrumental for the efficient operation of coded networks and can have a significant impact in overall energy consumption. We present a distributed, low complexity algorithm that allows every node to identify if it should code and, if so, through what output link...

  16. The evolutionary properties of intermediate-mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cassisi, S

    2003-01-01

    We briefly review the main problems related to the computation of the evolution of intermediate-mass stars: the treatment of turbulent convection and the occurrence of blue loops during the core He-burning phase. It is shown that, in order to obtain more accurate and reliable stellar models for this class of stars, one has to consider all possible theoretical and observational constraints. This includes observations of low-mass stars to constrain the treatment of envelope convection, and the analysis of the pulsational behaviour of Cepheid stars.

  17. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Intermediate Marsh, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_intermediate_marsh_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) intermediate marshes data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which...

  18. File list: Unc.PSC.05.AllAg.iPSC_intermediates [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.PSC.05.AllAg.iPSC_intermediates mm9 Unclassified Pluripotent stem cell iPSC intermedia...tes http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.PSC.05.AllAg.iPSC_intermediates.bed ...

  19. File list: DNS.PSC.05.AllAg.iPSC_intermediates [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.PSC.05.AllAg.iPSC_intermediates mm9 DNase-seq Pluripotent stem cell iPSC intermedia...tes http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.PSC.05.AllAg.iPSC_intermediates.bed ...

  20. File list: Unc.PSC.10.AllAg.iPSC_intermediates [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.PSC.10.AllAg.iPSC_intermediates mm9 Unclassified Pluripotent stem cell iPSC intermedia...tes http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.PSC.10.AllAg.iPSC_intermediates.bed ...

  1. File list: DNS.PSC.10.AllAg.iPSC_intermediates [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.PSC.10.AllAg.iPSC_intermediates mm9 DNase-seq Pluripotent stem cell iPSC intermedia...tes http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.PSC.10.AllAg.iPSC_intermediates.bed ...

  2. File list: DNS.PSC.20.AllAg.iPSC_intermediates [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.PSC.20.AllAg.iPSC_intermediates mm9 DNase-seq Pluripotent stem cell iPSC intermedia...tes http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.PSC.20.AllAg.iPSC_intermediates.bed ...

  3. File list: Unc.PSC.50.AllAg.iPSC_intermediates [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.PSC.50.AllAg.iPSC_intermediates mm9 Unclassified Pluripotent stem cell iPSC intermedia...tes http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.PSC.50.AllAg.iPSC_intermediates.bed ...

  4. File list: DNS.PSC.50.AllAg.iPSC_intermediates [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.PSC.50.AllAg.iPSC_intermediates mm9 DNase-seq Pluripotent stem cell iPSC intermedia...tes http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.PSC.50.AllAg.iPSC_intermediates.bed ...

  5. File list: Unc.PSC.20.AllAg.iPSC_intermediates [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.PSC.20.AllAg.iPSC_intermediates mm9 Unclassified Pluripotent stem cell iPSC intermedia...tes http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.PSC.20.AllAg.iPSC_intermediates.bed ...

  6. Heterophobia: Subverting Heterosexual Hegemony through Intermedial Applied Performance for Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    This article responds to intermediality through a case study of an intermedial applied performance for young people. "Heterophobia," a hybrid fusion of live performance, digital technology, social media and urban street art, aimed to challenge homophobia in schools and online. Intermediality was used as a tool to enhance young people's…

  7. Alternatives generation and analysis for phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, M.D.

    1996-10-02

    This document provides; a decision analysis summary; problem statement; constraints, requirements, and assumptions; decision criteria; intermediate waste feed staging system options and alternatives generation and screening; intermediate waste feed staging system design concepts; intermediate waste feed staging system alternative evaluation and analysis; and open issues and actions.

  8. 29 CFR 452.27 - National, international organizations, and intermediate bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National, international organizations, and intermediate..., international organizations, and intermediate bodies. The officers of a national or international labor organization or of an intermediate body must be elected either directly by secret ballot among the members...

  9. Intermediate mass dilepton production in a chemically equilibrating quark-gluon matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    We find that in a chemically equilibrating baryon-rich quark-gluon matter, due to the slow cooling rate, high initial temperature, large gluon density as well as large fusion cross section ofin the intermediate mass region, the gluon fusion provides a dominant contribution to dileptons with intermediate masses, resulting in the significant enhancement of intermediate mass dileptons.

  10. Intermediality in early cinema studies: An interrogation of a widely used concept for research practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellmann, S.; Ruppin, D.; de Zwaan, K.

    2012-01-01

    The authors discuss the concept of intermediality for research in early cinema. After a general introduction to intermediality as research problem in media studies, the question is raised whether the concept of intermediality can be used in diachronic research designs and for media studies that deal

  11. 42 CFR 422.750 - Types of intermediate sanctions and civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Types of intermediate sanctions and civil money... § 422.750 Types of intermediate sanctions and civil money penalties. (a) The following intermediate... organization. (b) CMS may impose civil money penalties as specified in 422.760....

  12. An Empirical Look at Developmental Interventions and Student Performance in the First Intermediate Accounting Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Terry J.; Foote, Rebecca A.; Phillips, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Due to concerns about student performance in Intermediate Accounting I, our Department of Accounting established an Intermediate Readiness Committee in the spring of 2006 to create a developmental program for students entering Intermediate I, with the goal of improving performance in that course. Over the next two years, the Committee established…

  13. 27 CFR 17.185 - Requirements for intermediate products and unfinished nonbeverage products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... intermediate products and unfinished nonbeverage products. 17.185 Section 17.185 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... for intermediate products and unfinished nonbeverage products. (a) General. Self-manufactured ingredients made with taxpaid spirits may be accounted for either as intermediate products or as...

  14. Simulation of the X-Ray Lightcurves of Intermediate Polars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, A. J.

    1993-11-01

    A technique is presented for simulation of the X-ray light curves of intermediate polars. The model includes the effects of self-occultation of the emission regions by the body of the white dwarf, and variation of photoelectric absorption and electron scattering as the aspect angles of the emission regions change, and the effect of accretion occurring through a disc, directly via the accretion stream or by a combination of both. Both the variation of the rate of accretion on to a given emission region and its effective `migration' around the magnetic pole are taken into account. These features naturally arise in a system that is fed (at least in part) directly by the stream. Results are considered for two specific emission-region geometries, namely a filled circle and a semicircular arc, over a wide range of parameter space in each case. Disc-fed, non-accretion disc and discless accretion are each considered, both in the low and high X-ray energy regime and at a range of inclination angles and magnetic axis offset angles. The main conclusion of this work is that very complex pulse profiles can result from innately symmetrical geometrical and physical situations. The results obtained in the case of discless accretion feeding arc-shaped emission regions are compared with recent observational data and shown to produce qualitatively similar profiles. Finally, ways are considered in which this simple approach may be extended to include a more realistic description of the conditions that exist in intermediate polars.

  15. Intermediate-Level Crossings of a First-Passage Path

    CERN Document Server

    Bhat, Uttam

    2015-01-01

    We investigate some simple and surprising properties of a one-dimensional Brownian trajectory with diffusion coefficient $D$ that starts the the origin and reaches $X$ either: (i) at time $T$ or (ii) for the first time at time $T$. We determine the most likely location of the first-passage trajectory from $(0,0)$ to $(X,T)$ and its distribution at any intermediate time $tintermediate position $x

  16. Interruption Phenomenon in Intermediate-Frequency Vacuum Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuan; Wu, Jianwen

    2016-03-01

    In the condition of the 3 mm gap, experiments for 360 Hz intermediate-frequency vacuum arc are carried out in interrupters with the diameters being 41 mm and with the contact materials being CuCr50 and Cu-W-WC alloy respectively. The results indicate that the contacts material is closely related to the breaking capacity of the vacuum interrupters and characteristics of an intermediate-frequency vacuum arc. For contacts with the same diameter, the breaking capacity of CuCr50 is better than that of Cu-W-WC. When the current fails to be interrupted, the arcs overflow the gap and present irregular performances in the first half wave. Consequently a voltage spike appears. More macroscopic metal droplets can be seen in the arc column between CuCr50 contacts because of the lower melting point. It is observed that the droplet emission is much more severe during arc reignition than that in the first half wave. It is much more conspicuous that the high frequency arc voltage noises appear in Cu-W-WC contacts when the vacuum arcs reignite, for higher temperature and stronger electronic emission ability of Cu-W-WC contacts. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51377007), Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (No. 20131102130006), and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China

  17. On Estimating the Total Number of Intermediate Mass Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Daniel P.; de Vries, Nathan; Patruno, Alessandro; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Black holes have been detected with masses less than 102 and greater than 105 M⊙, but black holes with masses in the intermediate range are conspicuously absent. However, recent estimates of the mass of HLX-1, currently the strongest intermediate mass black hole (IMBH) candidate, suggest an approximate mass of 104 M⊙, and recent estimates of the mass of M82 X-1 suggest a mass of 4 × 102, placing them within the missing black hole range. This raises the question of whether these are unique objects or if many more of these objects should be expected. We estimate the number of HLX-1 like IMBHs expected within the distance of 100 Mpc to be within an order of ≈106, or ≈102 IMBHs within a galaxy, and about two orders of magnitude more when considering less massive IMBHs using M82 X-1 as a prototype. In the process of estimating this value we determine the form of the mass function within the sphere of influence of a newly formed IMBH to be a power law with a slope of -1.83. Furthermore, we find we are only able to fit both the period and luminosity of HLX-1 with a stellar companion with a mass between ≈10 - 11 M⊙, a result which is fairly robust to the mass of the IMBH between 103 and 105 M⊙.

  18. Hurricanes and coral reefs: The intermediate disturbance hypothesis revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, C. S.

    1993-11-01

    A review of research on the effects of hurricanes on coral reefs suggests that the intermediate disturbance hypothesis may be applicable to shallow reef zones dominated by branching or foliaceous coral species that are especially susceptible to mechanical damage from storms. Diversity ( H') increases because of an increase in evenness following destruction or removal of the species that was monopolizing the space. The intermediate disturbance hypothesis as presented by Connell focuses on changes in number of species, but should be expanded to include diversity ( H') and evenness. It should also be modified to incorporate changes in living cover and the time elapsed since disturbances of varying intensities. This hypothesis predicts that when cover is high, diversity will be low. However, research on coral reefs does not consistently demonstrate an inverse correlation of coral diversity, and coral cover. An increase in cover and decrease in diversity with depth would also be expected because deeper reef zones generally experience less disturbance. However, higher diversity (both H' and species richness) is often associated with deeper zones. The effects of hurricanes on coral reefs will depend on the temporal and spatial scales under consideration, the life history characteristics and morphology of the dominant species, the depth of the reef zone, the ecological history of the site, and the influence of any additional natural or human stresses.

  19. Intermediate transport in Southeast Asia. [Carts, cycles, mini-buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, A.K.

    1977-06-01

    Traffic flows through the streets of Southeast Asian countries even though they are used for almost all aspects of human and animal existence. The carts, bicycles, tricycles, and motorcycles, motorized three-wheelers, mini-buses are the so-called intermediate-transport vehicles. It is upon this group of vehicles that a culture--constrained by its own unique economic, environmental, and technological factors--exerts its influence most directly toward the solution of the transport problem. Transportation fills more service roles in Southeast Asian cities than in Western cities. Communication facilities such as telephones and postal services are notoriously unreliable. The personal encounter is all important in social and business interactions in Southeast Asia. Each of the transport modes is examined in view of design and use in a number of specific cultural settings for the countries in Southeast Asia. Present use of intermediate transport in developed countries is discussed briefly, and its further development predicted--pointing out the health and conservation advantages. (MCW)

  20. Tidal disruption of white dwarfs by intermediate mass black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bode T.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Modeling ultra-close encounters between a white dwarf and a spinning, intermediate mass black hole requires a full general relativistic treatment of gravity. This paper summarizes results from such a study. Our results show that the disruption process and prompt accretion of the debris strongly depend on the magnitude and orientation of the black hole spin. On the other hand, the late-time accretion onto the black hole follows the same decay, Ṁ ∝  t−5/3, estimated from Newtonian gravity disruption studies. The spectrum of the fallback material peaks in the soft X-rays and sustains Eddington luminosity for 1–3 yrs after the disruption. The orientation of the black hole spin has also a profound effect on how the outflowing debris obscures the central region. The disruption produces a burst of gravitational radiation with characteristic frequencies of ∼3.2 Hz and strain amplitudes of ∼10−18 for galactic intermediate mass black holes.

  1. Water activity reduction of intermediate moisture yellowstrip trevally (Selaroides leptolepis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phomajun, P.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Water activity reduction of intermediate moisture yellowstrip trevally was studied. The optimal time (8, 12, 16, 20 hrs. for curing marinade was investigated. The effects of different humectants (glycerol, sorbitol, lactitol, glucose syrup at 50% w/w of curing ingredients were compared. Results showed that moisture content and water activity of cured yellowstrip trevally decreased as curing time increased (p0.05. However, the hardness of intermediate moisture Yellowstrip trevally, determined by texture analyzer, decreased. Hardness, shear force, L a b value of sample added with various humectants were lower than those of the control (p0.05. The glycerol-added samples had the highest overall acceptability score and were higher than control, whereas the glucose syrup-added samples had the lowest score. Moisture content of the samples with the addition of various humectants was higher than that of the control (18.28 %. The samples added with glycerol retained the highest moisture (24.94%. The adsorption isotherm studies showed that the equilibrium moisture of sample added with glycerol was higher than that added with lactitol.

  2. Role of MGST1 in reactive intermediate-induced injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Courtney S Schaffert

    2011-01-01

    Microsomal glutathione transferase (MGST1, EC 2.5.1.18) is a membrane bound glutathione transferase extensively studied for its ability to detoxify reactive intermediates, including metabolic electrophile intermediates and lipophilic hydroperoxides through its glutathione dependent transferase and peroxidase activities. It is expressed in high amounts in the liver, located both in the endoplasmic reticulum and the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes. This enzyme is activated by oxidative stress. Binding of GSH and modification of cysteine 49 (the oxidative stress sensor) has been shown to increase activation and induce conformational changes in the enzyme. These changes have either been shown to enhance the protective effect ascribed to this enzyme or have been shown to contribute to cell death through mitochondrial permeability transition pore formation. The purpose of this review is to elucidate how one enzyme found in two places in the cell subjected to the same conditions of oxidative stress could both help protect against and contribute to reactive oxygen species-induced liver injury.

  3. Evaluation of Transportation Options for Intermediate Non-destructive Examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, Susan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hoggard, Gary [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) shipments of irradiated experiments from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) have historically been accomplished using the General Electric Model 2000 (GE 2000) Type B shipping container. Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) concerns regarding the future availability and leasing and handling costs associated with the GE 2000 cask have warranted an evaluation of alternative shipping options. One or more of these shipping options may be utilized to perform non-destructive examinations (NDE) such as neutron radiography and precision gamma scans of irradiated experiments at HFEF and then return the experiments to ATR for further irradiation, hereafter referred to as “intermediate NDE.” This evaluation includes transportation options for intermediate NDE using the GE 2000 cask, BEA Research Reactor (BRR) package, Dry Transfer Cubicle (DTC) insert, and the General Electric Model 100 (GE 100) cask. The GE 2000 cask is the only Type B shipping container currently in use for shipments of irradiated material (exceeding Type A quantities) from ATR to HFEF; therefore it is included as one of the four shipping options in this evaluation. Cost and schedule estimates are provided for performing neutron radiography and precision gamma scans of a five-capsule drop-in-type ATR experiment for each transportation option. All costs provided in this evaluation are rough order-of-magnitude costs based on input from knowledgeable vendor employees and individuals at INL facilities.

  4. GK Per and EX Hya: Intermediate polars with small magnetospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Suleimanov, V; Ducci, L; Zhukov, G V; Werner, K

    2016-01-01

    Observed hard X-ray spectra of intermediate polars are determined mainly by the accretion flow velocity at the white dwarf surface, which is normally close to the free-fall velocity. This allows to estimate the white dwarf masses as the white dwarf mass-radius relation M-R and the expected free-fall velocities at the surface are well known. This method is widely used, however, derived white dwarf masses M can be systematically underestimated because the accretion flow is stopped at and re-accelerates from the magnetospheric boundary R_m, and therefore, its velocity at the surface will be lower than free-fall.To avoid this problem we computed a two-parameter set of model hard X-ray spectra, which allows to constrain a degenerate M - R_m dependence. On the other hand, previous works showed that power spectra of accreting X-ray pulsars and intermediate polars exhibit breaks at the frequencies corresponding to the Keplerian frequencies at the magnetospheric boundary. Therefore, the break frequency \

  5. Sistem Penunjang Keputusan Pra Rancang Bangun Industri Intermediate Minyak Pala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Malik Gunawan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 A lot of industries such as pharmacy, food industry, cosmetics industries use nurmeg oil for their products. Demand of nutmeg oil is very high its abaut 3-4% every year. Indonesia can export nutmeg oil up to 75 % world demands. Nutmeg oil which was expoted by Indonesia was crude nutmeg oil how ever some times have inconsistency quality. In order to produce nutmeg oil with better quality, nutmeg oil intermediate industry is needed. Decision support system is used to suggest the most potential process based on expert opinions. Methodology used was system approach and it was support with Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP, Exponencial Comparison Method (MPE and financial feasibility analysis. The system was named SPKIMPA. This system consist four models there are selection model, election model, Institution model and financial feasibility model. From verification result it was know that the most potential process was fractionation. The intermediate industry is feasible to run with Net Present Value (NPV value Rp 426.627.432,83,- and Internal Rate Return (IRR value  45.28 %. Another result from verification system was created partnership with upperstream industry and also with downstream industry.

  6. Peptide concentration alters intermediate species in amyloid β fibrillation kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvey, M., E-mail: megan.garvey@molbiotech.rwth-aachen.de [Max-Planck Research Unit for Enzymology of Protein Folding, Weinbergweg 22, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Morgado, I., E-mail: immorgado@ualg.pt [Max-Planck Research Unit for Enzymology of Protein Folding, Weinbergweg 22, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2013-04-12

    Highlights: ► Aβ(1–40) aggregation in vitro has been monitored at different concentrations. ► Aβ(1–40) fibrillation does not always follow conventional kinetic mechanisms. ► We demonstrate non-linear features in the kinetics of Aβ(1–40) fibril formation. ► At high Aβ(1–40) concentrations secondary processes dictate fibrillation speed. ► Intermediate species may play significant roles on final amyloid fibril development. -- Abstract: The kinetic mechanism of amyloid aggregation remains to be fully understood. Investigations into the species present in the different kinetic phases can assist our comprehension of amyloid diseases and further our understanding of the mechanism behind amyloid β (Aβ) (1–40) peptide aggregation. Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been used in combination to monitor Aβ(1–40) aggregation in vitro at both normal and higher than standard concentrations. The observed fibrillation behaviour deviates, in several respects, from standard concepts of the nucleation–polymerisation models and shows such features as concentration-dependent non-linear effects in the assembly mechanism. Aβ(1–40) fibrillation kinetics do not always follow conventional kinetic mechanisms and, specifically at high concentrations, intermediate structures become populated and secondary processes may further modify the fibrillation mechanism.

  7. Effects of intermediate load on performance limitations in excitation control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichai Aree

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The stability of excitation control systems is of great concern in power system operations. In this paper, the effects of intermediate load on performance limitation in excitation control are studied. The results reveal that the open-loop characteristic of synchronous machine’s flux linkage can be changed from minimum to non-minimum phase at a high level of intermediate load. This change leads to instability of synchronous machines under manual excitation control. A particular emphasis is also given to investigate the fundamental limitations in excitation control, imposed by non-minimum phases with regard to the open-loop right-half-plane (ORHP pole. The study demonstrates the difficulties of excitation control tuning to achieve the desired performance and robustness under the ORHP pole occurrence. Moreover, this paper shows the conditional stability in excitation control loop, where either an increase or decrease of the exciter gain causes a destabilization of the system’s stability. Frequency response techniques are used for these investigations.

  8. The intermediate line region in active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Adhikari, T P; Czerny, B; Hryniewicz, K; Ferland, G J

    2016-01-01

    We show that the recently observed suppression of the gap between the broad line region (BLR) and the narrow line region (NLR) in some AGN can be fully explained by an increase of the gas density in the emitting region. Our model predicts the formation of the intermediate line region (ILR) that is observed in some Seyfert galaxies by the detection of emission lines with intermediate velocity full width half maximum (FWHM) $\\sim$ 700 - 1200 km s$^{-1}$. These lines are believed to be originating from an ILR located somewhere between the BLR and NLR. As it was previously proved, the apparent gap is assumed to be caused by the presence of dust beyond the sublimation radius. Our computations with the use of {\\sc cloudy} photoionization code, show that the differences in the shape of spectral energy distribution (SED) from the central region of AGN, do not diminish the apparent gap in the line emission in those objects. A strong discontinuity in the line emission vs radius exists for all lines at the dust sublimat...

  9. Catalytic Ozonation of Phenolic Wastewater: Identification and Toxicity of Intermediates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Farzadkia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new strategy in catalytic ozonation removal method for degradation and detoxification of phenol from industrial wastewater was investigated. Magnetic carbon nanocomposite, as a novel catalyst, was synthesized and then used in the catalytic ozonation process (COP and the effects of operational conditions such as initial pH, reaction time, and initial concentration of phenol on the degradation efficiency and the toxicity assay have been investigated. The results showed that the highest catalytic potential was achieved at optimal neutral pH and the removal efficiency of phenol and COD is 98.5% and 69.8%, respectively. First-order modeling demonstrated that the reactions were dependent on the initial concentration of phenol, with kinetic constants varying from 0.038 min−1  ([phenol]o = 1500 mg/L to 1.273 min−1 ([phenol]o = 50 mg/L. Bioassay analysis showed that phenol was highly toxic to Daphnia magna (LC50 96 h=5.6 mg/L. Comparison of toxicity units (TU of row wastewater (36.01 and the treated effluent showed that TU value, after slightly increasing in the first steps of ozonation for construction of more toxic intermediates, severely reduced at the end of reaction (2.23. Thus, COP was able to effectively remove the toxicity of intermediates which were formed during the chemical oxidation of phenolic wastewaters.

  10. The intermediate-age open cluster NGC 2158

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, G; Marigo, P; Carraro, Giovanni; Girardi, Leo; Marigo, Paola

    2002-01-01

    We report on $UBVRI$ CCD photometry of two overlapping fields in the region of the intermediate-age open cluster NGC 2158 down to V=21. By analyzing Colour-Colour (CC) and Colour-Magnitude Diagrams (CMD) we infer a reddening $E_{B-V}= 0.55\\pm0.10$, a distance of $3600 \\pm 400$ pc, and an age of about 2 Gyr. Synthetic CMDs performed with these parameters (but fixing $E_{B-V}=0.60$ and $[{\\rm Fe/H}]=-0.60$), and including binaries, field contamination, and photometric errors, allow a good description of the observed CMD. The elongated shape of the clump of red giants in the CMD is interpreted as resulting from a differential reddening of about $\\Delta E_{B-V}=0.06$ across the cluster, in the direction perpendicular to the Galactic plane. NGC 2158 turns out to be an intermediate-age open cluster with an anomalously low metal content. The combination of these parameters together with the analysis of the cluster orbit, suggests that the cluster belongs to the old thin disk population.

  11. Initial mass function of intermediate mass black hole seeds

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, A; Yue, B; Schleicher, D R G

    2014-01-01

    We study the Initial Mass Function (IMF) and host halo properties of Intermediate Mass Black Holes (IMBH, 10^{4-6} Msun) formed inside metal-free, UV illuminated atomic cooling haloes (virial temperature T_vir > 10^4 K) either via the direct collapse of the gas or via an intermediate Super Massive Star (SMS) stage. We achieve this goal in three steps: (a) we derive the gas accretion rate for a proto-SMS to undergo General Relativity instability and produce a direct collapse black hole (DCBH) or to enter the ZAMS and later collapse into a IMBH; (b) we use merger-tree simulations to select atomic cooling halos in which either a DCBH or SMS can form and grow, accounting for metal enrichment and major mergers that halt the growth of the proto-SMS by gas fragmentation. We derive the properties of the host halos and the mass distribution of black holes at this stage, and dub it the "Birth Mass Function"; (c) we follow the further growth of the DCBH due to accretion of leftover gas in the parent halo and compute the...

  12. Neutrino mass as the probe of intermediate mass scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senjanovic, G.

    1980-01-01

    A discussion of the calculability of neutrino mass is presented. The possibility of neutrinos being either Dirac or Majorana particles is analyzed in detail. Arguments are offered in favor of the Majorana case: the smallness of neutrino mass is linked to the maximality of parity violation in weak interactions. It is shown how the measured value of neutrino mass would probe the existence of an intermediate mass scale, presumably in the TeV region, at which parity is supposed to become a good symmetry. Experimental consequences of the proposed scheme are discussed, in particular the neutrino-less double ..beta.. decay, where observation would provide a crucial test of the model, and rare muon decays such as ..mu.. ..-->.. e..gamma.. and ..mu.. ..-->.. ee anti e. Finally, the embedding of this model in an O(10) grand unified theory is analyzed, with the emphasis on the implications for intermediate mass scales that it offers. It is concluded that the proposed scheme provides a distinct and testable alternative for understanding the smallness of neutrino mass. 4 figures.

  13. Reactive nitrogen intermediates suppress the primary immunologic response to Listeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, S H; Wing, E J; Hoffman, R A; Simmons, R L

    1993-04-01

    Reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI), e.g., nitric oxide derived from a terminal guanido nitrogen atom of L-arginine, exhibit potent antimicrobial activity in vitro. The function of these intermediates in host defenses in vivo, however, is presently unclear. Experiments were undertaken to determine the role of RNI in the resolution of primary listerial infections of the liver. Serum RNI levels were elevated significantly in mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes. Moreover, a marked increase in RNI production was found in cultures of the parenchymal, as well as the nonparenchymal, liver cells obtained from Listeria-infected mice. RNI did not kill Listeria treated directly, however, nor were they a factor in the listericidal activity exhibited by hepatic cells. Rather, the elevated production of RNI during primary infection appeared to promote the replication of Listeria in vivo. Mice administered NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, a competitive inhibitor of RNI production, exhibited a 10- and a 100-fold reduction in the number of Listeria in their lives on days 3 and 7 postinfection, respectively. In vitro, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine stimulated the Ag-specific proliferation of T lymphocytes derived from Listeria-infected mice at concentrations that inhibited RNI production. These latter findings suggest that the elevated production of RNI during primary listerial infections suppresses host defenses by diminishing the proliferation and, consequently, the biologic response of immune cell populations.

  14. Intermediate-luminosity events : bridge between CCSNe and SLSNe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Rupak

    2016-07-01

    Development on supernova research in last decade has confirmed that there is a distinct class of events which are more luminous (~ -21 mag) with broad peak than canonical core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). These are superluminous supernovae (SLSNe). The powering mechanism of SLSNe are yet not resolved. Interaction of SN-shock with circumstellar medium (CSM), presence of a spin-down magnetar or pair-instability (PISNe) are the proposed theories. Although photometric and spectroscopic behaviors of SLSNe differ from those of CCSNe to some extent; the recent un-targeted surveys have found several events which fall in between these two classes, both in terms of peak luminosity and broadness of lightcurve. Study of these intermediate-luminosity events are important to understand the differences and similarities in powering mechanisms of CCSNe and SLSNe and hence the natures of their progenitors. In this contribution, we will discuss about the lightcurve and spectral behaviors of few such intermediate-luminosity events to explore the connection between powering mechanisms of CCSNe and SLSNe as well as the natures of their progenitors.

  15. Detailed balance limit efficiency of silicon intermediate band solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Quan; Ma Zhi-Hua; Xue Chun-Lai; Zuo Yu-Hua; Wang Qi-Ming

    2011-01-01

    The detailed balance method is used to study the potential of the intermediate band solar cell (IBSC),which can improve the efficiency of the Si-based solar cell with a bandgap between 1.1 eV to 1.7 eV. It shows that a crystalline silicon solar cell with an intermediate band located at 0.36 eV below the conduction band or above the valence band can reach a limiting efficiency of 54% at the maximum light concentration,improving greatly than 40.7% of the Shockley-Queisser limit for the single junction Si solar cell. The simulation also shows that the limiting efficiency of the siliconbased solar cell increases as the bandgap increases from 1.1 eV to 1.7 eV,and the amorphous Si solar cell with a bandgap of 1.7 eV exhibits a radiative limiting efficiency of 62.47%,having a better potential.

  16. Microbial/enzymatic synthesis of chiral drug intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, R N

    2000-01-01

    Biocatalytic processes were used to prepare chiral intermediates for pharmaceuticals. These include the following processes. Enzymatic synthesis of [4S-(4a,7a,10ab)]1-octahydro-5-oxo-4-[[(phenylmethoxy) carbonyl]amino]-7H-pyrido-[2,1-b] [1,3]thiazepine-7-carboxylic acid methyl ester (BMS-199541-01), a key chiral intermediate for synthesis of a new vasopeptidase inhibitor. Enzymatic oxidation of the epsilon-amino group of lysine in dipeptide dimer N2-[N[[(phenylmethoxy)carbonyl] L-homocysteinyl] L-lysine)1,1-disulfide (BMS-201391-01) to produce BMS-199541-01 using a novel L-lysine epsilon-aminotransferase from S. paucimobilis SC16113 was demonstrated. This enzyme was overexpressed in E. coli, and a process was developed using recombinant enzyme. The aminotransferase reaction required alpha-ketoglutarate as the amine acceptor. Glutamate formed during this reaction was recycled back to alpha-ketoglutarate by glutamate oxidase from S. noursei SC6007. Synthesis and enzymatic conversion of 2-keto-6-hydroxyhexanoic acid 5 to L-6-hydroxy norleucine 4 was demonstrated by reductive amination using beef liver glutamate dehydrogenase. To avoid the lengthy chemical synthesis of ketoacid 5, a second route was developed to prepare the ketoacid by treatment of racemic 6-hydroxy norleucine (readily available from hydrolysis of 5-(4-hydroxybutyl) hydantoin, 6) with D-amino acid oxidase from porcine kidney or T. variabilis followed by reductive amination to convert the mixture to L-6-hydroxynorleucine in 98% yield and 99% enantiomeric excess. Enzymatic synthesis of (S)-2-amino-5-(1,3-dioxolan-2-yl)-pentanoic acid (allysine ethylene acetal, 7), one of three building blocks used for synthesis of a vasopeptidase inhibitor, was demonstrated using phenylalanine dehydrogenase from T. intermedius. The reaction requires ammonia and NADH. NAD produced during the reaction was recycled to NADH by oxidation of formate to CO2 using formate dehydrogenase. Efficient synthesis of chiral

  17. On Estimating the Total Number of Intermediate Mass Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Daniel P.; de Vries, Nathan; Patruno, Alessandro; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2017-07-01

    Black holes have been detected with masses less than 102 and greater than 105 M⊙, but black holes with masses in the intermediate range are conspicuously absent. However, recent estimates of the mass of HLX-1, currently the strongest intermediate mass black hole (IMBH) candidate, suggest an approximate mass of 104 M⊙, and recent estimates of the mass of M82 X-1 suggest a mass of 4 × 102, placing them within the missing black hole range. This raises the question of whether these are unique objects or if many more of these objects should be expected. We estimate the number of HLX-1 like IMBHs expected within the distance of 100 Mpc to be within an order of ≈106, or ≈102 IMBHs within a galaxy, and about two orders of magnitude more when considering less massive IMBHs using M82 X-1 as a prototype. In the process of estimating this value, we determine the form of the mass function within the sphere of influence of a newly formed IMBH to be a power law with a slope of -1.83. Furthermore, we find that we are only able to fit both the period and luminosity of HLX-1 with a stellar companion with a mass between ≈10 and 11 M⊙, a result that is fairly robust to the mass of the IMBH between 103 and 105 M⊙.

  18. Spin-resolved spectroscopy of the intermediate polar DQ Her

    CERN Document Server

    Bloemen, S; Steeghs, D; Østensen, R H

    2010-01-01

    We present high-speed spectroscopic observations of the intermediate polar DQ Herculis. Doppler tomography of two He I lines reveals a spiral density structure in the accretion disc around the white dwarf primary. The spirals look very similar to the spirals seen in dwarf novae during outburst. DQ Her is the first well established intermediate polar in which spirals are seen, that are in addition likely persistent because of the system's high mass transfer rate. Spiral structures give an alternative explanation for sidebands of the WD spin frequency that are found in IP light curves. The Doppler tomogram of He II 4686 indicates that a large part of the emission is not disc-like. Spin trails of spectra reveal a pulsation in the He II 4686 emission that is believed to result from reprocessing of X-rays from the white dwarf's magnetic poles in the accretion flow close to the WD. We confirm the previous finding that the pulsation is only visible in the red-shifted part of the line when the beam points to the back...

  19. Spectral Mapping of the Intermediate Polar DQ Herculis

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Roberto K; Horne, Keith; Martell, Phillip; 10.1088/0004-6256/139/6/2542

    2010-01-01

    We report an eclipse mapping study of the intermediate polar DQ Her based on time-resolved optical spectroscopy (~3800-5000A) covering 4 eclipses. Eclipse maps of the HeII 4686 line indicate that an azimuthally-and vertically-extended bright spot at disk rim is important source of reprocessing of x-rays from the magnetic poles. The disk spectrum is flat with no Balmer or Helium lines in the inner regions, and shows double-peaked emission lines in the intermediate and outer disk regions while the slope of the continuum becomes progressively redder with increasing radius. The inferred disk temperatures are in the range T~13500-5000K and can be reasonably well described by a steady-state disk with mass accretion rate of dM/dt=(2.7+/-1.0)x10^-9 Msun/yr. A comparison of the radial intensity distribution for the Balmer lines reveals a linear correlation between the slope of the distribution and the transition energy. The spectrum of the uneclipsed light is dominated by Balmer and HeI lines in emission with narrow a...

  20. Intermediate filament genes as differentiation markers in the leech Helobdella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Dian-Han; Weisblat, David A

    2011-10-01

    The intermediate filament (IF) cytoskeleton is a general feature of differentiated cells. Its molecular components, IF proteins, constitute a large family including the evolutionarily conserved nuclear lamins and the more diverse collection of cytoplasmic intermediate filament (CIF) proteins. In vertebrates, genes encoding CIFs exhibit cell/tissue type-specific expression profiles and are thus useful as differentiation markers. The expression of invertebrate CIFs, however, is not well documented. Here, we report a whole-genome survey of IF genes and their developmental expression patterns in the leech Helobdella, a lophotrochozoan model for developmental biology research. We found that, as in vertebrates, each of the leech CIF genes is expressed in a specific set of cell/tissue types. This allows us to detect earliest points of differentiation for multiple cell types in leech development and to use CIFs as molecular markers for studying cell fate specification in leech embryos. In addition, to determine the feasibility of using CIFs as universal metazoan differentiation markers, we examined phylogenetic relationships of IF genes from various species. Our results suggest that CIFs, and thus their cell/tissue-specific expression patterns, have expanded several times independently during metazoan evolution. Moreover, comparing the expression patterns of CIF orthologs between two leech species suggests that rapid evolutionary changes in the cell or tissue specificity of CIFs have occurred among leeches. Hence, CIFs are not suitable for identifying cell or tissue homology except among very closely related species, but they are nevertheless useful species-specific differentiation markers.

  1. Solar photocatalytic treatment of quinolones: intermediates and toxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirtori, Carla; Zapata, Ana; Malato, Sixto; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R; Agüera, Ana

    2009-05-01

    In this study, degradation of Flumequine (FLU) and nalidixic acid (NXA) in distilled water by two solar photocatalytic processes, TiO(2) and photo-Fenton, was evaluated. Intermediates and acute toxicity of the photoproducts generated were also studied. Degradation efficiency by heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO(2) was similar for NXA and FLU, which were completely degraded after 25 min of illumination. Less NXA mineralisation was reached after 80 min of illumination. Photo-Fenton degradation of both substances was very quick (<25 min of illumination time), and the same mineralisation was reached in both cases. The kinetic parameters of the two substances were calculated for comparison of their photocatalytic degradation. In all cases, photocatalytic processes were associated with a reduction in toxicity, as evaluated by Vibrio fischeri bioassay. Furthermore, a sharp decrease in inhibition was observed from the beginning of the treatment, even when FLU and NXA were still present in the reaction solution (first samples). These results demonstrate that in both photocatalytic processes studied, toxicity decreases significantly, producing a phototreated sample within safe toxicity limits. The intermediates formed during photocatalytic degradation were studied by liquid chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS).

  2. Propagating phase interface with intermediate interfacial phase: Phase field approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Kasra; Levitas, Valery I.

    2014-05-01

    An advanced three-phase phase field approach (PFA) is suggested for a nonequilibrium phase interface that contains an intermediate phase, in particular, a solid-solid interface with a nanometer-sized intermediate melt (IM). A thermodynamic potential in the polar order parameters is developed that satisfies all thermodynamic equilibrium and stability conditions. The special form of the gradient energy allowed us to include the interaction of two solid-melt interfaces via an intermediate melt and obtain a well-posed problem and mesh-independent solutions. It is proved that for stationary 1D solutions to two Ginzburg-Landau equations for three phases, the local energy at each point is equal to the gradient energy. Simulations are performed for β ↔δ phase transformations (PTs) via IM in an HMX energetic material. The obtained energy IM width dependence is described by generalized force-balance models for short- and long-range interaction forces between interfaces but not far from the melting temperature. A force-balance model is developed that describes phase field results even 100 K below the melting temperature. The effects of the ratios of width and energies of solid-solid and solid-melt interfaces, temperature, and the parameter characterizing interaction of two solid-melt interfaces, on the structure, width, energy of the IM and interface velocity are determined by finite element method. Depending on parameters, the IM may appear by continuous or discontinuous barrierless disordering or via critical nucleus due to thermal fluctuations. The IM may appear during heating and persist during cooling at temperatures well below than it follows from sharp-interface approach. On the other hand, for some parameters when IM is expected, it does not form, producing an IM-free gap. The developed PFA represents a quite general three-phase model and can be extended to other physical phenomena, such as martensitic PTs, surface-induced premelting and PTs, premelting

  3. Conductivities of epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue at intermediate frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, K.; Sasaki, K.; Watanabe, S.

    2016-06-01

    Novel data for the conductivities of the tissues composing the skin, which are the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue, were obtained at intermediate frequencies by in vitro measurement. The conductivity of the epidermis was determined from those of the dermis and bulk skin. The conductivities of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue were almost constant from 10 kHz to 1 MHz. On the other hand, a frequency dependence was observed for the epidermis; the conductivity decreases with decreasing frequency. It was found that the conductivity of bulk skin is not determined by that of the dermis but by that of the epidermis. The presented data are expected to contribute to the assessment of safety and to the research and development of medical applications.

  4. Pion Form Factor in QCD at Intermediate Momentum Transfers

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, V M; Maul, M

    1999-01-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of the electromagnetic pion form factor in the light-cone sum rule approach, including radiative corrections and higher-twist effects. The comparison to the existing data favors the asymptotic profile of the pion distribution amplitude and allows to estimate the deviation: $(\\int du/u \\phi_\\pi(u))/ (\\int du/u \\phi^{\\rm as}_\\pi(u))=$ 1.1$\\pm$ 0.1 at the scale 1 GeV. Special attention is payed to the precise definition and interplay of soft and hard contributions at intermediate momentum transfer, and to matching of the sum rule to the perturbative QCD prediction. We observe a strong numerical cancellation between the soft (end point) contribution and power suppressed hard contributions of higher twist, so that the total nonperturbative correction to the usual pQCD result turns out to be of order 30% for $Q^2\\sim 1$ GeV$^2$.

  5. Hipse: an event generator for nuclear collisions at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, D.; Van Lauwe, A.; Durand, D

    2003-11-01

    An event generator, HIPSE (Heavy-Ion Phase-Space Exploration), dedicated to the description of nuclear collisions in the intermediate energy range is presented. Based on the sudden approximation and on geometrical hypothesis, it can conveniently simulate heavy-ion interactions at all impact parameters and thus can constitute a valuable tool for the understanding of processes such as neck emission or multifragmentation in peripheral or/and central collisions. After a detailed description of the ingredients of the model, first comparisons with experimental data collected by the INDRA collaboration are shown. Special emphasis is put on the kinematical characteristics of fragments and light particles observed at all impact parameters for Xe+Sn reactions at 25 and 50 MeV/u and Ni + Ni at 82 MeV/u. (authors)

  6. Emergence and transmission of arbovirus evolutionary intermediates with epidemic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleford, Kenneth A; Coffey, Lark L; Lay, Sreyrath; Bordería, Antonio V; Duong, Veasna; Isakov, Ofer; Rozen-Gagnon, Kathryn; Arias-Goeta, Camilo; Blanc, Hervé; Beaucourt, Stéphanie; Haliloğlu, Türkan; Schmitt, Christine; Bonne, Isabelle; Ben-Tal, Nir; Shomron, Noam; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Buchy, Philippe; Vignuzzi, Marco

    2014-06-11

    The high replication and mutation rates of RNA viruses can result in the emergence of new epidemic variants. Thus, the ability to follow host-specific evolutionary trajectories of viruses is essential to predict and prevent epidemics. By studying the spatial and temporal evolution of chikungunya virus during natural transmission between mosquitoes and mammals, we have identified viral evolutionary intermediates prior to emergence. Analysis of virus populations at anatomical barriers revealed that the mosquito midgut and salivary gland pose population bottlenecks. By focusing on virus subpopulations in the saliva of multiple mosquito strains, we recapitulated the emergence of a recent epidemic strain of chikungunya and identified E1 glycoprotein mutations with potential to emerge in the future. These mutations confer fitness advantages in mosquito and mammalian hosts by altering virion stability and fusogenic activity. Thus, virus evolutionary trajectories can be predicted and studied in the short term before new variants displace currently circulating strains.

  7. Biomarkers of intermediate endpoints in environmental and occupational health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Hansen, Ase M

    2007-01-01

    The use of biomarkers in environmental and occupational health is increasing due to increasing demands on information about health risks from unfavourable exposures. Biomarkers provide information about individual loads. Biomarkers of intermediate endpoints benefit in comparison with biomarkers...... of exposure from the fact that they are closer to the adverse outcome in the pathway from exposure to health effects and may provide powerful information for intervention. Some biomarkers are specific, e.g., DNA and protein adducts, while others are unspecific like the cytogenetic biomarkers of chromosomal...... health effect from the result of the measurement has been performed for the cytogenetic biomarkers showing a predictive value of high levels of CA and increased risk of cancer. The use of CA in future studies is, however, limited by the laborious and sensitive procedure of the test and lack of trained...

  8. Photodissociation dynamics and spectroscopy of free radical combustion intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, D.L.

    1996-12-01

    The photodissociation spectroscopy and dynamics of free radicals is studied by the technique of fast beam photofragment translational spectroscopy. Photodetachment of internally cold, mass-selected negative ions produces a clean source of radicals, which are subsequently dissociated and detected. The photofragment yield as a function of photon energy is obtained, mapping out the dissociative and predissociative electronic states of the radical. In addition, the photodissociation dynamics, product branching ratios, and bond energies are probed at fixed photon energies by measuring the translational energy, P(E{sub T}), and angular distribution of the recoiling fragments using a time- and position-sensitive detector. Ab initio calculations are combined with dynamical and statistical models to interpret the observed data. The photodissociation of three prototypical hydrocarbon combustion intermediates forms the core of this work.

  9. Role of near threshold resonances in intermediate energy nuclear physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B K Jain; N J Upadhyay

    2014-11-01

    The presence of a resonance close to the threshold strongly effects the dynamics of the interacting particles at low energies. Production of 12C, the element for life, in 4He burning in Sun is a classic example of such a situation. In intermediate energy nuclear physics, this situation arises in the interactions of an -meson with a nucleon and that of a −-meson with a proton at low energies, where both these systems have a resonance or a bound state near their thresholds, resulting in a strong attractive interaction. If putting these mesons in nuclear environment produces a strong attraction, it is possible that, in nature there may exist - and −-nuclear bound states. Such a tantalizing possibility has led to experimental and theoretical programmes to search for them. These efforts have produced positive results. This paper gives a brief critical overview of these studies, emphasizing especially the efforts led by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC).

  10. The ultraviolet spectra of intermediate-redshift quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, A. L.; Huggins, P. J.; Bregman, J. N.; Glassgold, A. E.

    1985-01-01

    In the present sample of 21 intermediate redshift quasars, for which IUE Lyman-alpha line flux and UV continuum observations have been conducted, an extrapolation of the continuum to the X-ray region is noted to fall at least 2-sigma above the measured X-ray flux, at 2 keV, for two-thirds of the sample. The strength of Lyman-alpha is well correlated with the luminosity at 1450 A, and an estimate of the covering factor on the basis of the ratio of the number of Lyman-alpha to ionizing protons yields a value for the sample which, at about 0.17, is consistent with the number of observed Lyman discontinuities.

  11. Adaptive optics imaging of low and intermediate redshift quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Márquez, I; Theodore, B; Bremer, M; Monnet, G; Beuzit, J L

    2001-01-01

    We present the results of adaptive-optics imaging in the H and K bands of 12 low and intermediate redshift (z15.0) themselves as reference for the correction, have typical spatial resolution of FWHM~0.3 arcsec before deconvolution. The deconvolved H-band image of PG1700+514 has a spatial resolution of 0.16 arcsec and reveals a wealth of details on the companion and the host-galaxy. Four out of the twelve quasars have close companions and obvious signs of interactions. The two-dimensional images of three of the host-galaxies unambiguously reveal bars and spiral arms. The morphology of the other objects are difficult to determine from one dimensional surface brightness profile and deeper images are needed. Analysis of mocked data shows that elliptical galaxies are always recognized as such, whereas disk hosts can be missed for small disk scale lengths and large QSO contributions.

  12. Spectral signatures for swash on reflective, intermediate and dissipative beaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Michael G; Aagaard, Troels; Baldock, Tom E

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we synthesise a large data set gathered from a wide variety of field deployments and integrate it with previously published results to identify the spectral signatures of swash from contrasting beach types. The field data set includes the full range of micro-tidal beach types...... the three beach types. Swash energy at short-wave frequencies is dominant on reflective and intermediate beaches and swash at long-wave frequencies is dominant on dissipative beaches; consistent with previously reported spectral signatures for the surf zone on these beach types. The available swash spectra...... were classified using an automated algorithm (CLARA) into five different classes. The ordered classes represent an evolution in the spectrum shape, described by a frequency downshifting of the energy peak from the short-wave into the long-wave frequency band and an increase in the long-wave swash...

  13. Minimum-fuel rocket trajectories involving intermediate-thrust arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakwell, J. V.; Dixon, J. F.

    1975-01-01

    The optimal trajectories in the neighborhood of an optimal intermediate-thrust arc are investigated for the minimum-fuel orbit rendezvous problem with fixed specific impulse. Since such an arc is singular, the thrust acceleration magnitude being the singular control component, a second-variation analysis leads to the identification of a field of neighboring, singular arcs in a state space of dimension four rather than six, provided that a suitable Jacobi condition is met. A given neighboring initial six-dimensional state vector does not generally lie on a neighboring singular arc, and junction onto the appropriate singular arc must be accomplished by a short period of strong variations in the acceleration. The neighboring singular arc meets the final condition in 4 dimensions, rather than 6 dimensions, and rendezvous must be completed by another, terminal short period of strong variations in the acceleration. Implications for midcourse guidance near a singular arc are discussed.

  14. Search for Gravitational Waves from Intermediate Mass Binary Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, L.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Stroeer, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a weakly modeled burst search for gravitational waves from mergers of non-spinning intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in the total mass range 100-450 solar Mass and with the component mass ratios between 1:1 and 4:1. The search was conducted on data collected by the LIGO and Virgo detectors between November of 2005 and October of 2007. No plausible signals were observed by the search which constrains the astrophysical rates of the IMBH mergers as a function of the component masses. In the most efficiently detected bin centered on 88 + 88 solar Mass , for non-spinning sources, the rate density upper limit is 0.13 per Mpc(exp 3) per Myr at the 90% confidence level.

  15. Corrosion behavior of construction materials for intermediate temperature steam electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey; Petrushina, Irina; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    2013-01-01

    Different corrosion resistant stainless steels, nickel-based alloys, pure nickel, Ta-coated stainless steel (AISI 316L), niobium, platinum and gold rods were evaluated as possible materials for use in the intermediate temperature (200-400 °C) acidic water electrolysers. The corrosion resistance...... was measured under simulated conditions (molten KH2PO4) corresponding to the proton-conducting solid acids or transition metal phosphates as electrolytes. It was shown that, unlike at temperatures below 200 °C, gold is unstable with respect to corrosion in molten KH2PO4. Platinum demonstrated high corrosion...... resistance and the anodic and cathodic limits were for the first time found for the electrolyte. Nickel, niobium, Inconel®625, Hastelloy®C-276 and Ta-coated stainless steel (AISI 316L) demonstrated high corrosion stability and can be recommended as construction materials for bipolar plates. © (2013) Trans...

  16. On the Blue Loops of Intermediate-Mass Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Walmswell, J J; Eldridge, J J

    2015-01-01

    We consider the blue loops in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram that occur when intermediate-mass stars begin core helium burning. It has long been known that the excess of helium above the burning shell, the result of the contraction of the convective core during core hydrogen burning, has the effect of making such stars redder and larger than they would be otherwise. The outward motion of the burning shell in mass removes this excess and triggers the loop. Hitherto nobody has attempted to demonstrate why the excess helium has this effect. We consider the effect of the local opacity, which is reduced by excess helium, the shell fuel supply, which is also reduced, and the local mean molecular weight, which is increased. We demonstrate that the mean molecular weight is the decisive reddening factor. The opacity has a much smaller effect and a reduced fuel supply actually favours blueward motion.

  17. Intermediate-Size Inducer Pump design report. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, T.J.

    1979-06-15

    This report summarizes the mechanical, structural, and hydrodynamic design of the Intermediate-Size Inducer Pump (ISIP). The design was performed under Atomics International's DOE Base Technology Program by the Atomics International and Rocketdyne Divisions of Rockwell International. The pump was designed to utilize the FFTF prototype pump frame as a test vehicle to test the inducer, impeller, and diffuser plus necessary adapter hardware under simulated Large Scale Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor service conditions. The report describes the design requirements including the purpose and objectives, and discusses those design efforts and considerations made to meet the requirements. Included in the report are appendices showing calculative methods and results. Also included are overall assembly and layout drawings plus some details used as illustrations for discussion of the design results and the results of water tests performed on a model of the inducer.

  18. The Rheology of the Earth in the Intermediate Time Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. SCHEIDEGGER

    1970-06-01

    Full Text Available The evidence bearing upon the rheology of the " tectonically
    significant layers" of the Earth (" tectonosphere " in the intermediate
    time range (4 hours to 15000 years is analyzed. This evidence is
    based upon observations of rock-behavior in the laboratory, of seismic
    aftershock sequences, of Earth tides and of the decay of the Chandler wobble.
    It is shown that of the rheological models (Maxwell-material, Kelvin-material,
    and logarithmically creeping material advocated in the literature, only that
    based on logarithmic creep does not contradict any of the observational
    evidence available to date. In addition, a strength limit may be present.

  19. Elastic proton-deuteron scattering at intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Ramazani-Moghaddam-Arani, A; Bacher, A D; Bailey, C D; Biegun, A; Eslami-Kalantari, M; Gašparić, I; Joulaeizadeh, L; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kistryn, St; Kozela, A; Mardanpour, H; Messchendorp, J G; Micherdzinska, A M; Moeini, H; Shende, S V; Stephan, E; Stephenson, E J; Sworst, R

    2008-01-01

    Observables in elastic proton-deuteron scattering are sensitive probes of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and three-nucleon force effects. The present experimental data base for this reaction is large, but contains a large discrepancy between data sets for the differential cross section taken at 135 MeV/nucleon by two experimental research groups. This paper reviews the background of this problem and presents new data taken at KVI. Differential cross sections and analyzing powers for the $^{2}{\\rm H}(\\vec p,d){p}$ and ${\\rm H}(\\vec d,d){p}$ reactions at 135 MeV/nucleon and 65 MeV/nucleon, respectively, have been measured. The data differ significantly from previous measurements and consistently follow the energy dependence as expected from an interpolation of published data taken over a large range at intermediate energies.

  20. Elastic proton-deuteron scattering at intermediate energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazani-Moghaddam-Arani, A.; Amir-Ahmadi, H. R.; Bacher, A. D.; Bailey, C. D.; Biegun, A.; Eslami-Kalantari, M.; Gašparić, I.; Joulaeizadeh, L.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kistryn, St.; Kozela, A.; Mardanpour, H.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Micherdzinska, A. M.; Moeini, H.; Shende, S. V.; Stephan, E.; Stephenson, E. J.; Sworst, R.

    2008-07-01

    Observables in elastic proton-deuteron scattering are sensitive probes of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and three-nucleon force effects. The present experimental database for this reaction is large, but contains a large discrepancy between data sets for the differential cross section taken at 135 MeV/nucleon by two experimental research groups. This article reviews the background of this problem and presents new data taken at Kernfysisch Versneller Instituute (KVI). Differential cross sections and analyzing powers for the 2H(p→,d)p and 1H(d→,d)p reactions at 135 MeV/nucleon and 65 MeV/nucleon, respectively, have been measured. The differential cross-section data differ significantly from previous measurements and consistently follow the energy dependence as expected from an interpolation of published data taken over a large range at intermediate energies.

  1. Short- and intermediate-range order in levitated liquid aluminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennet, L [Centre de Recherche sur les Materiaux a Haute Temperature, 1d avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Pozdnyakova, I [Centre de Recherche sur les Materiaux a Haute Temperature, 1d avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Cristiglio, V [Centre de Recherche sur les Materiaux a Haute Temperature, 1d avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Cuello, G J [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP48 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Jahn, S [GFZ, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Krishnan, S [KLA-Tencor, San Jose, CA 95134 (United States); Saboungi, M-L [Centre de Recherche sur la Matiere Divisee, 1b rue de la Ferollerie, 45071 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Price, D L [Centre de Recherche sur les Materiaux a Haute Temperature, 1d avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orleans cedex 2 (France)

    2007-11-14

    We have used the aerodynamic levitation technique combined with CO{sub 2} laser heating to study the structures of liquid CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} with x-ray and neutron diffraction. We determined the structure factors and corresponding pair correlation functions describing the short- and intermediate-range order in the liquids. The combination of the two scattering techniques makes it possible to derive information not accessible with a single measurement. In the case of the glass-forming liquid CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} we have made sequential measurements during free cooling to study the structural evolution during supercooling from the stable liquid phase to the cold glass below T{sub g}.

  2. Electron scattering by O2 at intermediate and high energies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deheng Shi; Jinfeng Sun; Xiangdong Yang; Zunlue Zhu; Yufang Liu

    2005-01-01

    @@ A complex optical model potential correlated by the concept of bonded atoms, which considers the overlapping effect of electron clouds between two atoms in a molecule, is firstly employed to calculate the absolute differential cross sections, the integrated and momentum transfer cross sections for electrons scattered by O2 at intermediate and high energies by using additivity rule model at Hartree-Fock level. In the study,the complex optical model potential is composed of static, exchange, correlation polarization plus absorption contributions. The quantitative absolute differential cross sections, the integrated and momentum transfer cross sections are obtained. Compared with available experimental data, this approach presents good results. It is shown that the additivity rule model together with the complex optical model potential correlated by the concept of bonded atoms is completely suitable for the calculations of the absolute differential cross sections, the integrated and momentum transfer cross sections.

  3. Elemental abundances of intermediate age open cluster NGC 3680

    CERN Document Server

    Mitschang, A W; Zucker, D B

    2012-01-01

    We present a new abundance analysis of the intermediate age Galactic open cluster NGC 3680, based on high resolution, high signal-to-noise VLT/UVES spectroscopic data. Several element abundances are presented for this cluster for the first time, but most notably we derive abundances for the light and heavy s-process elements Y, Ba, La, and Nd. The serendipitous measurement of the rare-earth r-process element Gd is also reported. This cluster exhibits a significant enhancement of Na in giants as compared to dwarfs, which may be a proxy for an O to Na anti-correlation as observed in Galactic globular clusters but not open clusters. We also observe a step-like enhancement of heavy s-process elements towards higher atomic number, contrary to expectations from AGB nucleosynthesis models, suggesting that the r-process played a significant role in the generation of both La and Nd in this cluster

  4. Storage Stability and Improvement of Intermediate Moisture Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuza, T. P.

    1976-01-01

    Shelf life tests are used to estimate the rate of nonenzymatic browning; however, controlling the reducing sugar levels below 23:1 molar ratio to amines, slows the rate. In addition, liquid glycols surpress browning. The protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis W can be used to estimate nutrition losses during browning. At high temperatures (80 to 120 C) used in processing intermediate moisture foods (IMF), vitamin C destruction shifts to a zero order mechanism. BHA and BHT are the most effective antioxidants against rancidity. In shelf life testing however, 45 C should be the maximum temperature used. Water binding agents are studied. The five isotherms of thirteen humectants were determined. The results show that neither the method of addition nor sequence of addition affects the a sub u lowering ability of these humectants. Results were used to formulate shelf stable IMF processed cheese foods with at least four months shelf life.

  5. Experimental Studies of Toxicity on HNIW and Its Intermediates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying; CHEN Shu-sen; JIN Shao-hua; CUI Zhao-kuan

    2006-01-01

    The polycyclic nitramine hexanitrohexaazaisowurtane(HNIW) is a compound of high energy density. HNIW can replace 1, 3, 5-trinitro-1, 3, 5-triazacyclohexane(RDX)or HMX, but its toxicity is unknown. In this paper,HNIW, hexabenzylhexaazaisowurtzitane ( HBIW ), tetraacetyldibenzulhexaazaisowurtzitane ( TADBIW ), tetraacetyldiformylhexaazaisowurtzitane(TADFIW) and tetraacetylhexaazaisowurtzitane(TAIW), which are intermediates of the synthesis of the HNIW, were selected as the tested objects in acute toxicity test, acute eye stimulation test and skin irritation test according to the standards of "chemical product testing method-401: acute oral toxicity test", "chemical product testing means-405: acute eye irritation/corrosion test" and "chemical product testing means-404: acute dermal irritation/corrosion test" of National Circumstance Protect Bureau. The results show that all of the five objects have no toxicity, no stimulation to eye and skin under the tested conditions.

  6. Assays for Posttranslational Modifications of Intermediate Filament Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Natasha T; Omary, M Bishr

    2016-01-01

    Intermediate filament (IF) proteins are known to be regulated by a number of posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Phosphorylation is the best-studied IF PTM, whereas ubiquitination, sumoylation, acetylation, glycosylation, ADP-ribosylation, farnesylation, and transamidation are less understood in functional terms but are known to regulate specific IFs under various contexts. The number and diversity of IF PTMs is certain to grow along with rapid advances in proteomic technologies. Therefore, the need for a greater understanding of the implications of PTMs to the structure, organization, and function of the IF cytoskeleton has become more apparent with the increased availability of data from global profiling studies of normal and diseased specimens. This chapter will provide information on established methods for the isolation and monitoring of IF PTMs along with the key reagents that are necessary to carry out these experiments.

  7. Assays for Post-translational Modifications of Intermediate Filament Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omary, M. Bishr

    2016-01-01

    Intermediate filament (IF) proteins are known to be regulated by a number of post-translational modifications (PTMs). Phosphorylation is the best studied IF PTM, whereas ubiquitination, sumoylation, acetylation, glycosylation, ADP-ribosylation, farnesylation and transamidation are less understood in functional terms but are known to regulate specific IFs under various contexts. The number and diversity of IF PTMs is certain to grow along with rapid advances in proteomic technologies. Therefore, the need for a greater understanding of the implications of PTMs to the structure, organization, and function of the IF cytoskeleton has become more apparent with the increased availability of data from global profiling studies of normal and diseased specimens. This chapter will provide information on established methods for the isolation and monitoring of IF PTMs along with the key reagents that are necessary to carry out these experiments. PMID:26795469

  8. DHIGLS: DRAO H I Intermediate Galactic Latitude Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Blagrave, K; Joncas, G; Kothes, R; Stil, J; Miville-Deschenes, M -A; Lockman, Felix J; Taylor, A R

    2016-01-01

    Observations of Galactic H I gas for seven intermediate Galactic latitude fields are presented at 1' angular resolution using data from the DRAO Synthesis Telescope (ST) and the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The DHIGLS data are the most extensive arcminute resolution measurements of the diffuse atomic interstellar medium beyond those in the Galactic plane. The acquisition, reduction, calibration, and mosaicking of the DRAO ST data and the cross calibration and incorporation of the short-spacing information from the GBT are described. The high quality of the DHIGLS data enables a variety of new studies in directions of low Galactic column density. We find evidence for dramatic changes in the structures in channel maps over even small changes in velocity. This narrow line emission has counterparts in absorption spectra against bright background radio sources, quantifying that the gas is cold and dense and can be identified as the cold neutral medium phase. We analyze the angular power spectra of maps of the integ...

  9. Switching between dynamic states in intermediate-length Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagano, S.; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Parmentier, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    The appearance of zero-field steps (ZFS’s) in the current-voltage characteristics of intermediate-length overlap-geometry Josephson tunnel junctions described by a perturbed sine-Gordon equation (PSGE) is associated with the growth of parametrically excited instabilities of the McCumber background...... curve (MCB). A linear stability analysis of a McCumber solution of the PSGE in the asymptotic linear region of the MCB and in the absence of magnetic field yields a Hill’s equation which predicts how the number, locations, and widths of the instability regions depend on the junction parameters....... A numerical integration of the PSGE in terms of truncated series of time-dependent Fourier spatial modes verifies that the parametrically excited instabilities of the MCB evolve into the fluxon oscillations characteristic of the ZFS’s. An approximate analysis of the Fourier mode equations in the presence...

  10. Sonolytic degradation of dimethoate: kinetics, mechanisms and toxic intermediates controlling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Juan-Juan; Hoffmann, Michael R; Gao, Nai-Yun; Zhang, Zhi; Li, Lei

    2011-11-15

    The sonolytic degradation of aqueous solutions of dimethoate, O,O-dimethyl S-[2-(methylamino)-2-oxoethyl]dithiophosphate, was examined. Optimal degradation rates were obtained at 619 kHz for continuous sonolysis and 406 kHz for pulse sonolysis. The primary pathways for degradation include hydroxyl radical oxidation, hydrolysis and pyrolysis on collapsing cavitation bubble interfaces. Reaction mechanisms coupled with the corresponding kinetic models are proposed to reproduce the observed concentration versus time profiles for dimethoate, omethoate and N-(methyl) mercaptoacetamide during sonolysis. The oxidation and hydrolysis of dimethoate and omethoate occurred at the water-bubble interface was the rate-determining step for sonolytic overall degradation of dimethoate. More than 90% toxicity of dimethoate was reduced within 45 min ultrasonic irradiation. Ferrous ion at micro molar level can significantly enhance the sonolytic degradation of dimethoate and effectively reduce the yields of toxic intermediate omethoate.

  11. An absence of fast radio bursts at intermediate galactic latitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Petroff, E; Johnston, S; Bailes, M; Barr, E D; Bates, S D; Bhat, N D R; Burgay, M; Burke-Spolaor, S; Champion, D; Coster, P; Flynn, C; Keane, E F; Keith, M J; Kramer, M; Levin, L; Ng, C; Possenti, A; Stappers, B W; Tiburzi, C; Thornton, D

    2014-01-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are an emerging class of bright, highly dispersed radio pulses. Recent work by Thornton et al. (2013) has revealed a population of FRBs in the High Time Resolution Universe (HTRU) survey at high Galactic latitudes. A variety of progenitors have been proposed including cataclysmic events at cosmological distances, Galactic flare stars, and terrestrial radio frequency interference. Here we report on a search for FRBs at intermediate Galactic latitudes ($-15^{\\circ}$ $< b <$ 15$^{\\circ}$) in data taken as part of the HTRU survey. No FRBs were discovered in this region. Several effects such as dispersion, scattering, sky temperature and scintillation decrease the sensitivity by more than 3$\\sigma$ in $\\sim$20\\% of survey pointings. Including all of these effects, we exclude the hypothesis that FRBs are uniformly distributed on the sky with 99\\% confidence. This low probability implies that additional factors -- not accounted for by standard Galactic models -- must be included to eas...

  12. Herpesviruses and Intermediate Filaments: Close Encounters with the Third Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Hertel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate filaments (IF are essential to maintain cellular and nuclear integrity and shape, to manage organelle distribution and motility, to control the trafficking and pH of intracellular vesicles, to prevent stress-induced cell death, and to support the correct distribution of specific proteins. Because of this, IF are likely to be targeted by a variety of pathogens, and may act in favor or against infection progress. As many IF functions remain to be identified, however, little is currently known about these interactions. Herpesviruses can infect a wide variety of cell types, and are thus bound to encounter the different types of IF expressed in each tissue. The analysis of these interrelationships can yield precious insights into how IF proteins work, and into how viruses have evolved to exploit these functions. These interactions, either known or potential, will be the focus of this review.

  13. Intermediation in Foreign Trade: When do Exporters Rely on Intermediaries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Trabold, H.; Trübswetter, P.

    2005-01-01

    The paper explores the question of why trade intermediaries (TIs) are frequently used as agents for exports to some countries but not to others. First, we adapt a standard intra-industry trade model with variable export costs (e.g. transport) and fixed export costs (e.g. market access) to include...... a TI that is able to pool market access cost. This framework suggests explanatory factors for the TI share in a country's exports, which are largely in line with the literature. Second, we test these explanatory factors with a new data set based on French customs information. The paper finds that: (i......) higher market access costs increase the TI share, (ii) smaller export markets feature a larger TI share, (iii) network effects are important determinants of trade intermediation....

  14. Electrolytes For Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rękas M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid electrolytes for construction of the intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells, IT-SOFC, have been reviewed. Yttrium stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals, YTZP, as a potential electrolyte of IT-SOFC have been highlighted. The experimental results involving structural, microstructural, electrical properties based on our own studies were presented. In order to study aluminum diffusion in YTZP, aluminum oxide was deposited on the surface of 3 mol.% yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (3Y-TZP. The samples were annealed at temperatures from 1523 to 1773 K. Diffusion profiles of Al in the form of mean concentration vs. depth in B-type kinetic region were investigated by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS. Both the lattice (DB and grain boundary (DGB diffusion were determined.

  15. Slit scan radiographic system for intermediate size rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Richard T.; Waters, David D.

    1992-12-01

    The development of slit-scan radiography capability for the NASA Advanced Computed Tomography Inspection System (ACTIS) computed tomography (CT) scanner at MSFC is discussed. This allows for tangential case interface (bondline) inspection at 2 MeV of intermediate-size rocket motors like the Hawk. Motorized mounting fixture hardware was designed, fabricated, installed, and tested on ACTIS. The ACTIS linear array of x-ray detectors was aligned parallel to the tangent line of a horizontal Hawk motor case. A 5 mm thick x-ray fan beam was used. Slit-scan images were produced with continuous rotation of a horizontal Hawk motor. Image features along Hawk motor case interfaces were indicated. A motorized exit cone fixture for ACTIS slit-scan inspection was also provided. The results of this SBIR have shown that slit scanning is an alternative imaging technique for case interface inspection. More data is required to qualify the technique for bondline inspection.

  16. The on-off network traffic model under intermediate scaling

    CERN Document Server

    Dombry, Clément

    2010-01-01

    The result provided in this paper helps complete a unified picture of the scaling behavior in heavy-tailed stochastic models for transmission of packet traffic on high-speed communication links. Popular models include infinite source Poisson models, models based on aggregated renewal sequences, and models built from aggregated on-off sources. The versions of these models with finite variance transmission rate share the following pattern: if the sources connect at a fast rate over time the cumulative statistical fluctuations are fractional Brownian motion, if the connection rate is slow the traffic fluctuations are described by a stable L\\'evy process, while the limiting fluctuations for the intermediate scaling regime are given by fractional Poisson motion.

  17. Intermediate-age globular clusters in four galaxy merger remnants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trancho, Gelys [Giant Magellan Telescope Organization, 251 South Lake Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Miller, Bryan W. [Gemini Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Schweizer, François [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Burdett, Daniel P. [The University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Palamara, David, E-mail: gtrancho@gmto.org [Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2014-08-01

    We present the results of combining Hubble Space Telescope optical photometry with ground-based K{sub s} -band photometry from the Gemini imagers NIRI and FLAMINGOS-I to study the globular cluster (GC) populations in four early-type galaxies that are candidate remnants of recent mergers (NGC 1700, NGC 2865, NGC 4382, and NGC 7727). These galaxies were chosen based on their blue colors and fine structure, such as shells and ripples that are indicative of past interactions. We fit the combined VIK{sub s} GC data with simple toy models of mixed cluster populations that contain three subpopulations of different age and metallicity. The fits, done via chi-squared mapping of the parameter space, yield clear evidence for the presence of intermediate-age clusters in each galaxy. We find that the ages of ∼1-2 Gyr for these GC subpopulations are consistent with the previously estimated merger ages for the host galaxies.

  18. Biologically produced succinic acid: A new route to chemical intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Alternative Feedstocks (AF) program is forging new links between the agricultural community and the chemicals industry through support of research and development (R & D) that uses `green` feedstocks to produce chemicals. The program promotes cost-effective industrial use of renewable biomass as feedstocks to manufacture high-volume chemical building blocks. Industrial commercialization of such processes would stimulate the agricultural sector by increasing the demand of agricultural and forestry commodities. New alternatives for American industry may lie in the nation`s forests and fields. The national laboratory consortium has undertaken a joint R&D project with the Michigan Biotechnology Institute to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a chemical intermediate, succinic acid, and various derivatives, from renewable agricultural resources.

  19. Gilbert Gottlieb: intermediator between psychology and evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Jay S

    2007-12-01

    This article describes and evaluates Gilbert Gottlieb's role as an intermediator between psychology and evolutionary biology. He proposed that altered developmental conditions gave rise to new behavioral phenotypes (behavioral neophenotypes) that could provide the basis for initiating speciation. As an example, Gottlieb cited sympatric speciation of two species of fruit flies (Rhageletis pomella), which he believed was based on an ontogenetic shift in pupal feeding on apples or hawthorn fruit which determined their adult selection of apple or hawthorn trees for ovipositing. Recent evidence has provided additional links in the process of speciation of these fruit flies. Unlike other efforts to incorporate evolution in psychology, Gottlieb's theoretical contribution was based on actual evolutionary processes including recent developments in the field of evo-devo.

  20. Retrieval of Intermediate Level Waste at Trawsfyndd Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, S.; Shaw, I.

    2002-02-25

    In 1996 RWE NUKEM Limited were awarded two contracts by BNFL Magnox Generation as part of the decommissioning programme for the Trawsfynydd power station. From the normal operations of the two Magnox reactors, intermediate level waste (ILW) had accumulated on site, this was Miscellaneous Activated Components (MAC) and Fuel Element Debris (FED). The objective of these projects is retrieval of the waste from storage vaults, monitoring, packaging and immobilization in a form suitable for on site storage in the medium term and eventual disposal to a waste repository. The projects involve the design, supply, commissioning and operation of equipment to retrieve, pack and immobilize the waste, this includes recovery from vaults in both reactor and pond locations and final decommissioning and removal of plant from site after completion of waste recovery.