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  1. Oncological organizations and institutions in Poland before the second World War.

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    Supady, Jerzy

    2008-01-01

    During the first four decades of the 20th century many oncological organizations and institutions were established in Poland. On 6 June, 1906 the Committee for Cancer Research and Control was founded. After the year 1918 when Poland regained its independence many more cancer control organizations came into being. The organizations created at that time were: the Polish Committee for Cancer Control (Warsaw 1921), the Cancer Control Society of Lódź (Lódź 1927), the Vilnius Committee for Cancer Control (Vilnius 1931), the Polish Cancer Control Institute Association in Lviv (Lviv 1929), the Polish Cancer Control Association (Warsaw 1938). These cancer control organizations undertook multiphase activities (prophylactic, educational, organizational, scientific and research) by creating outpatient and inpatient oncological care institutions, on which base numerous scientific and research papers were produced. The effect of that work was the creation of the Radium Treatment Institute in Lódź and the Research and Therapeutic Institute for Cancer Control in Vilnius, as well as founding oncological hospital wards and clinics. The most important achievement was building and opening the very modern Radium Institute in Warsaw. The initiator of the Institute, which in 1939 had 90 beds on its disposal, was Maria Skłodowska-Curie herself. Cancer control organizations members and activists conducted many propaganda actions on malignant diseases, shared they observations and research findings during meetings, conferences and assemblies in Poland and abroad.

  2. A Research Agenda for Radiation Oncology: Results of the Radiation Oncology Institute's Comprehensive Research Needs Assessment

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    Jagsi, Reshma, E-mail: rjagsi@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bekelman, Justin E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Brawley, Otis W. [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Emory University, and American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Deasy, Joseph O. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Le, Quynh-Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Michalski, Jeff M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Movsas, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Thomas, Charles R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oregon Health and Sciences University, Portland, OR (United States); Lawton, Colleen A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To promote the rational use of scarce research funding, scholars have developed methods for the systematic identification and prioritization of health research needs. The Radiation Oncology Institute commissioned an independent, comprehensive assessment of research needs for the advancement of radiation oncology care. Methods and Materials: The research needs assessment used a mixed-method, qualitative and quantitative social scientific approach, including structured interviews with diverse stakeholders, focus groups, surveys of American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) members, and a prioritization exercise using a modified Delphi technique. Results: Six co-equal priorities were identified: (1) Identify and develop communication strategies to help patients and others better understand radiation therapy; (2) Establish a set of quality indicators for major radiation oncology procedures and evaluate their use in radiation oncology delivery; (3) Identify best practices for the management of radiation toxicity and issues in cancer survivorship; (4) Conduct comparative effectiveness studies related to radiation therapy that consider clinical benefit, toxicity (including quality of life), and other outcomes; (5) Assess the value of radiation therapy; and (6) Develop a radiation oncology registry. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this prioritization exercise is the only comprehensive and methodologically rigorous assessment of research needs in the field of radiation oncology. Broad dissemination of these findings is critical to maximally leverage the impact of this work, particularly because grant funding decisions are often made by committees on which highly specialized disciplines such as radiation oncology are not well represented.

  3. Spermatocytic seminoma at the National Institute of Oncology in Morocco

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    Raiss Ghizlane G

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spermatocytic seminoma (SS is a distinct testicular germ cell tumor, representing less than 1% of testicular cancers. The clinical features that distinguish ss from classical seminoma are an older age at presentation and a reduced propensity to metastasize. The aim of our work is to underline the epidemiological, clinical, histological, therapeutical and prognostic features of this tumor. Findings A retrospective analysis of patients referred to the national institute of oncology with seminoma, identified from the institutional tumor registry, between January 1996 and February 2009, was performed. Information reviewed included demographics, clinical, pathological staging, surgical management, adjuvant treatment and last follow-up. We studied four cases of spermatocytic seminoma, which represented 1% of testicular tumor and 6,4% of all seminoma treated at our institution during the study period. Median age at diagnosis was 45 years (range: 42-48. Mean delay before consulting was 9 months and the mean tumor size was 13,75 cm (10-18 cm. No patient had a history of maldescended testis. The main clinical complaint was unilateral testis mass with low progression. Pathology showed that tumors had a polymorphic appearance with small, intermediate and large cells. In all cases, the tumor was limited to the testis. immunohistochemical studies showed that tumors were negative for all the classical antibodies tested (LCA, cytokeratins, PLAP, lymphoid markers, CD117. Thoraco-abdomino-pelvic CT scan and tumor markers (AFP and hCG were normal. All patients were Stage I. Treatment consisted on an orchidectomy associated with adjuvant radiotherapy in one patient. After a median follow-up of 6 years ranging from 2 to 15 years, we did not note any relapse or metastasis. Conclusion The diagnosis of spermatocytic seminoma must be considered in all patients aged of more than 50 with testicular tumor. With only three cases of metastatic disease

  4. Lutetium-177 Labeled Peptides: The European Institute of Oncology Experience.

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    Carollo, Angela; Papi, Stefano; Chinol, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) using radiolabeled somatostatin analogues has shown encouraging results in various somatostatin receptor positive tumors. Partial remission rates up to 30% have been documented as well as significant improvements in quality of life and survival. This treatment takes advantage of the high specific binding of the radiolabeled peptide to somatostatin receptors overexpressed by the tumors thus being more effective on the tumor cells with less systemic side-effects. The development of macrocyclic chelators conjugated to peptides made possible the stable binding with various radionuclides. In particular 177Lu features favourable physical characteristics with a half-life of 6.7 days, emission of β- with energy of 0.5 MeV for treatment and γ-emissions suitable for imaging. The present contribution describes the learning process achieved at the European Institute of Oncology (IEO) since the first application of 90Y labeled peptides to the therapy of neuroendocrine tumors back in 1997. Continuous improvements led to the preparation of a safe 177Lu labeled peptide for human use. Our learning curve began with the identification of the optimal characteristics of the isotope paying attention to its chemical purity and specific activity along with the optimization of the parameters involved in the radiolabeling procedure. Also the radiation protection issues have been improved along the years and recently more and more attention has been devoted to the pharmaceutical aspects involved in the preparation. The overall issue of the quality has now been completed by drafting an extensive documentation with the goal to deliver a safe and reliable product to our patients.

  5. The National Cancer Institute's Physical Sciences - Oncology Network

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    Espey, Michael Graham

    In 2009, the NCI launched the Physical Sciences - Oncology Centers (PS-OC) initiative with 12 Centers (U54) funded through 2014. The current phase of the Program includes U54 funded Centers with the added feature of soliciting new Physical Science - Oncology Projects (PS-OP) U01 grant applications through 2017; see NCI PAR-15-021. The PS-OPs, individually and along with other PS-OPs and the Physical Sciences-Oncology Centers (PS-OCs), comprise the Physical Sciences-Oncology Network (PS-ON). The foundation of the Physical Sciences-Oncology initiative is a high-risk, high-reward program that promotes a `physical sciences perspective' of cancer and fosters the convergence of physical science and cancer research by forming transdisciplinary teams of physical scientists (e.g., physicists, mathematicians, chemists, engineers, computer scientists) and cancer researchers (e.g., cancer biologists, oncologists, pathologists) who work closely together to advance our understanding of cancer. The collaborative PS-ON structure catalyzes transformative science through increased exchange of people, ideas, and approaches. PS-ON resources are leveraged to fund Trans-Network pilot projects to enable synergy and cross-testing of experimental and/or theoretical concepts. This session will include a brief PS-ON overview followed by a strategic discussion with the APS community to exchange perspectives on the progression of trans-disciplinary physical sciences in cancer research.

  6. Radiation Oncology Medical Student Clerkship: Implementation and Evaluation of a Bi-institutional Pilot Curriculum

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    Golden, Daniel W., E-mail: dgolden@radonc.uchicago.edu [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Spektor, Alexander [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Rudra, Sonali; Ranck, Mark C. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Krishnan, Monica S.; Jimenez, Rachel B.; Viswanathan, Akila N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Koshy, Matthew; Howard, Andrew R.; Chmura, Steven J. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a structured didactic curriculum to complement clinical experiences during radiation oncology clerkships at 2 academic medical centers. Methods and Materials: A structured didactic curriculum was developed to teach fundamentals of radiation oncology and improve confidence in clinical competence. Curriculum lectures included: (1) an overview of radiation oncology (history, types of treatments, and basic clinic flow); (2) fundamentals of radiation biology and physics; and (3) practical aspects of radiation treatment simulation and planning. In addition, a hands-on dosimetry session taught students fundamentals of treatment planning. The curriculum was implemented at 2 academic departments in 2012. Students completed anonymous evaluations using a Likert scale to rate the usefulness of curriculum components (1 = not at all, 5 = extremely). Likert scores are reported as (median [interquartile range]). Results: Eighteen students completed the curriculum during their 4-week rotation (University of Chicago n=13, Harvard Longwood Campus n=5). All curriculum components were rated as extremely useful: introduction to radiation oncology (5 [4-5]); radiation biology and physics (5 [5-5]); practical aspects of radiation oncology (5 [4-5]); and the treatment planning session (5 [5-5]). Students rated the curriculum as “quite useful” to “extremely useful” (1) to help students understand radiation oncology as a specialty; (2) to increase student comfort with their specialty decision; and (3) to help students with their future transition to a radiation oncology residency. Conclusions: A standardized curriculum for medical students completing a 4-week radiation oncology clerkship was successfully implemented at 2 institutions. The curriculum was favorably reviewed. As a result of completing the curriculum, medical students felt more comfortable with their specialty decision and better prepared to begin radiation oncology residency.

  7. "Burnout in Medical Oncology Fellows: a Prospective Multicenter Cohort Study in Brazilian Institutions".

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    Cubero, Daniel I G; Fumis, Renata Rego Lins; de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Dettino, Aldo; Costa, Felipe Osório; Van Eyll, Brigitte M R H Adam; Beato, Carlos; Peria, Fernanda Maris; Mota, Augusto; Altino, José; Azevedo, Sérgio Jobim; da Rocha Filho, Duílio Reis; Moura, Melba; Lessa, Álvaro Edson Ramos; Del Giglio, Auro

    2016-09-01

    Burnout syndrome is a common occurrence among oncologists. Doctors enrolled in residency programs in clinical oncology are exposed to similar risk factors; however, few data are available in this population. This study assessed the occurrence of burnout and associated factors among first-year residents at Brazilian institutions. The present prospective, multicenter, cohort study was conducted with doctors enrolled in residency programs in clinical oncology at Brazilian institutions affiliated with the public health system. The participants answered a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Lipp's Stress Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), upon admission to the program and 6 and 12 months later. Of 37 eligible residency programs in 2009, 11 (30.6 %) agreed to participate in the study. Fifty-four residents, representing 100 % of new admissions to the participating institutions, were included. Most of the participants met the criteria for severe burnout upon admission to the residency programs (emotional exhaustion in 49.0 % and depersonalization in 64.7 %). The scores on MBI domains emotional exhaustion and depersonalization increased significantly (p burnout increased to 88 % at the end of that first year. The present study found a high prevalence of burnout among doctors enrolled in residency programs in clinical oncology at Brazilian institutions. A large fraction of the participants met the criteria for burnout syndrome upon admission to the program, which suggests that the problem began during the course of the previous residency program in internal medicine.

  8. Thirty years since foundation of the department of gynaecology at the Institute of Clinical Oncology in Bratislava

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    Manka, I. (Komenskeho Univerzita, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Gynaecological Dept.)

    1980-09-01

    In 1949, the department of gynaecology was set up. After a brief historical draft describing the development of the oncological center, we draw attention to the advantages of its multidisciplinary structure demonstrated in our cooperation with that of radiotherapy. The kinds of treatment and their results are reported with regard to the carcinomas of the cervix, corpus and vulva. Radiotherapy of the carcinoma of the cervix using a modified Stockholm method covers two sessions, with an interval of two to three weeks during which 60 mg radium (= 1600 mgh) intrauterine and twice 30 mg radium (= 1600 mgh) intravaginal are applied for 26.5 hours combined with a percutaneous irradiation of the parametries with 3500 to 4000 rad (gammatron, /sup 60/Co; betatron, 42 MeV). We prefer surgical therapy for the carcinoma of the cervix in the Ia, Ib and IIa stages up to the age of 65. We operated on 604 patients between 1957 and 1978, all of them receiving additional radiotherapy, a third preoperative irradiation. Carcinoma of the corpus has rarely been treated surgically in account of the negative selection of our patients. The radiotherapeutic procedure mostly applied is the tamponade of the uterine cavum whereby twelfe 10-mg radium tubes are applied in two sessions for 25 hours, 6000 mgh in all, plus a vaginal implant of 1500 mgh in stage-I cases, and in stage-II cases 3000 mgh intravaginally and a percutaneous telecobalt-dose of 3000 to 4000 rad. Carcinoma of the vulva is, if possible, primarily to be treated surgically by radical vulvectomy and lymphadenectomy of the inguinal and subinguinal lymphodes. Postoperative radiotherapy is carried out, when the lymphodes are positive.

  9. Radium, Marie Curie and modern science.

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    Langevin-Joliot, H

    1998-11-01

    In 1898, the discovery of two new elements, polonium and radium, reawakened interest in the topic of uranic rays discovered 2 years before by H. Becquerel. Radioactivity, a name coined by Marie Curie, became a major research field for decades. The contrasting personalities of Pierre Curie, already a first-rank physicist, and of the young Marie Curie-Sklodowska as they undertook their common work are described. It is shown how a well-chosen quantitative method and a systematic approach combining physics and chemistry led to the discovery within less than 1 year. The special role of radium and the determination of its atomic weight by Marie Curie followed by her long-term program for accumulating pure radium salts are emphasized. The first woman with a full professorship at a French University, Marie Curie created and managed the Radium Institute.

  10. Chemotherapy for elderly patients with advanced cancer: A pilot study in Institute of Oncology Bucharest

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    Grigorescu, Alexandru C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives First objective was better understanding of the indications of chemotherapy in elderly with advanced cancer, tolerability and toxicity of chemotherapy in this age group. The second objective was to define current practice in chemotherapy for elderly people with advanced cancer for a selected group of patients treated in Institute of Oncology Bucharest (IOB). Materials and Methods The study makes a clinical analysis of medical records of 27 patients from the archive of Institute of Oncology Bucharest treated by the same doctor. Patients were selected according to: age ≥ 65 years, ECOG performance status 0–1, normal blood counts and blood biochemistry, histological confirmation of the diagnosis of cancer, patients should received at least 3 cycles of chemotherapy. We extract characteristics of the patients to see if they were a homogeneous group of patients and to compare them with data from the literature. Overall survival was calculated by the Kaplan Meyer curve. Results 295 patients more then 65 years were treated in our site in 2 years 2011, 2012. 93 patients received chemotherapy and only 27 patients were enrolled in this study following inclusion criteria. Common sites of cancer were lung and breast. The most used cytostatics for lung cancer was gemcitabine and carboplatine and cyclophosphamide, metotrexat and 5 fluorouracil for breast cancer. Toxicity was mild with the prevalence of hematologic toxicity. Overall survival without taking into account the type of cancer was 27.7 month. Conclusions For selected patients, chemotherapy was well tolerated and appears to prolong survival regardless of the location of cancer. The relatively small number of elderly patients who received chemotherapy is probably due to lack of compliance to treatment, the increased number of co-morbidities and evaluation of performance status only by the ECOG index known not to be good enough to establish the indication of chemotherapy. PMID:27847881

  11. Spectroscopy of neutral radium

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    Mol, Aran; De, Subhadeep; Jungmann, Klaus; Wilschut, Hans; Willmann, Lorenz [KVI, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2008-07-01

    The heavy alkaline earth atoms radium is uniquely sensitive towards parity and time reversal symmetry violations due to a large enhancement of an intrinsic permanent electric dipole moment of the nucleous or the electron. Furthermore, radium is sensitive to atomic parity violation and the nuclear anapole moment. To prepare such experiments spectroscopy of relevant atomic states need to be done. At a later stage we will build a neutral atom trap for radium. We have built an atomic beam of the short lived isotope {sup 225}Ra with a flux of several 10{sup 4} atoms/sec. We are preparing the laser spectroscopy using this beam setup. In the preparation for efficient laser cooling and trapping we have successfully trapped barium, which is similar in it's requirements for laser cooling. The techniques which we have developed with barium can be used to trap rare radium isotopes. We report on the progress of the experiments.

  12. OECI accreditation at Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV -- IRCCS, general framework and multidisciplinary approach.

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    Chiusole, Daniela; Cioffredi, Piero; Basso, Umberto; Bortolami, Alberto; Crivellari, Gino; Gennaro, Gisella; Spina, Romina; Opocher, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the accreditation process of the Veneto Institute of Oncology (IOV-IRCCS) according to the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) model, with particular reference to the standards for the multidisciplinary approach. Through the analysis of the process and the activities of each multidisciplinary team (MDT) and the development, at a regional level, of diagnostic, therapeutic, and care pathways (PDTA), all the necessary steps to meet the OECI standards have been determined. Adjustment is ongoing. We are working on the inclusion of the MDT registration forms in the electronic medical records and on the possibility to extend the OECI model to the MDT not based at IOV, but participated in by IOV professionals. The sarcoma MDT has achieved results demonstrating that the OECI framework has allowed the professionals involved in the multidisciplinary meeting to systematically share the clinical information of the patient, who can benefit from better continuity of care. The model has also provided greater clarity in the management of patients who are enrolled in clinical trials and deviate from Guide Lines (GL)/PDTA. The accreditation process according to the OECI model has added value to the IOV's already well-developed multidisciplinary activities.

  13. [The first 25 years of oncopsychology at the National Institute of Oncology: antecedents and events (1988-2013)].

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    Riskó, Ágnes

    2015-09-01

    The first oncopsychological department was established in National Institute of Oncology by Sándor Eckhardt in 1988. At an early stage the specialists who were interested in mental hygiene made a united effort with Katalin Muszbek's oncopsychologic group. Ágnes Riskó was the first specialist who seceded from this group, and she became a permanent member of the onco-hematology group in 1992. Due to the universalized approach, the psyhcologist would become a permanent member of onco-team. The overhand and increasing multidisciplinary cooperation enable to use this accepted method in the daily medical treatment. When necessary, patients' relatives may come in for treatment and this method can help for medical stuff to avoid burnout. As a result of oncopsychology techniques and cooperation of oncologic teamwork the integration of psychosocial intervention into a complex oncologic treatment has already begun. The attendance of supervised onco-psychological specialists is being increased. Our activity contributes to improve our patients' psychosocial standard of living, their cooperation with the medical staff and the atmosphere of oncologic departments. The integration of the approach and methods of psychosocial rehabilitation into the new oncologic professional guideline has also begun.

  14. Do pyrotechnics contain radium?

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    Steinhauser, Georg; Musilek, Andreas

    2009-07-01

    Many pyrotechnic devices contain barium nitrate which is used as an oxidizer and colouring agent primarily for green-coloured fireworks. Similarly, strontium nitrate is used for red-coloured pyrotechnic effects. Due to their chemical similarities to radium, barium and strontium ores can accumulate radium, causing a remarkable activity in these minerals. Radium in such contaminated raw materials can be processed together with the barium or strontium, unless extensive purification of the ores was undertaken. For example, the utilization of 'radiobarite' for the production of pyrotechnic ingredients can therefore cause atmospheric pollution with radium aerosols when the firework is displayed, resulting in negative health effects upon inhalation of these aerosols. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of gamma-photon-emitting radionuclides in several pyrotechnic devices. The highest specific activities were due to K-40 (up to 20 Bq g-1, average value 14 Bq g-1). Radium-226 activities were in the range of 16-260 mBq g-1 (average value 81 mBq g-1). Since no uranium was found in any of the samples, indeed, a slight enrichment of Ra-226 in coloured pyrotechnics can be observed. Radioactive impurities stemming from the Th-232 decay chain were found in many samples as well. In the course of novel developments aiming at the 'greening' of pyrotechnics, the potential radioactive hazard should be considered as well.

  15. [Radiotherapy for endometrial cancer: experience of the national institute of oncology with 52 cases].

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    Mezouri, Imane; Berhili, Soufiane; Mouhajir, Nawal; Bellefqih, Sara; Elkacemi, Hanan; Kebdani, Tayeb; Benjaafar, Noureddine

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological cancer in the Western world. It affects mainly postmenopausal women. The aim of our study is to report the experience of the radiotherapy department of the National Oncology Institute (INO) in the treatment of endometrial cancer. We retrospectively analyzed 52 cases of endometrial cancer treated in the INO radiotherapy department between 2007-2009. Data obtained from the patient medical records were related to the epidemiologic, clinical, therapeutic and evolutionary aspects of this cancer. The median age of the patients was 57 years, 87% were postmenopausal. The median of consultation time was six months. The main symptom was metrorrhagia (51 patients). Histological diagnosis was based on biopsic curettage of uterine endometrium in 51% of the cases. Anatomo-pathological examination showed an endometrioid adenocarcinoma in 92% of the cases. After the assessment, 27% of the patients were stage I, 30% stage II, 20% stage III and 1% stage IVA, according to the International Federation of Gynecological and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage classification. After surgery, 51% of the patients received postoperative external radiotherapy. The delivered dose was 46 Gray (Gy). All patients received internal vaginal brachytherapy. From an evolutionary perspective, 83% of the patients had no recurrences during the follow-up period, 8% of patients had a local recurrence and 4% of patients had distant metastases. Therefore, surgery is the main treatment for endometrial cancer. Radiotherapy is the primary adjuvant treatment.

  16. Inferior vena cava filter placement in the gynecologic oncology patient: A 15-year institutional experience.

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    Dewdney, Summer B; Benn, Teri; Rimel, B J; Gao, Feng; Saad, Nael; Vedantham, Suresh; Mutch, David G; Zighelboim, Israel

    2011-05-01

    Venous thrombosis is a frequent complication of gynecologic cancer. Data regarding the use of inferior vena cava (IVC) filters in this population is limited. The aim of this study was to review our experience with gynecologic oncology patients who received an IVC filter, specifically to evaluate indications for filter placement and survival outcomes. This was a retrospective, single-institution study of patients who had an IVC filter placed after a histologically confirmed gynecologic malignancy. Patients were identified from a prospectively collected interventional radiology (IR) database. Clinicopathologic characteristics, procedure details, and outcome data were obtained from outpatient and inpatient medical records. Survival after IVC filter placement was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier product limit method and compared by log-rank test. A total of 128 patients were identified and 103 were found to be eligible for analysis. Most patients had ovarian cancer (52%), followed by cervical cancer (25%) and endometrial cancer (21%). Two-thirds had advanced stage disease (III/IV). The procedure complication rate was 2%. Median survival after IVC filter placement was 7.8months (95% CI, 4.1-13.6). The most common indication for IVC filter placement was contraindication to anticoagulation secondary to hemorrhage (44%), followed by perioperative indications (30%) and failed anticoagulation (14%). There was no difference in survival by IVC filter placement indication (p=0.18). The majority of the IVC filters placed were permanent (90.5%) and in an infrarenal position (95.8%). There was no difference in survival according to specific thromboembolic event (DVT vs. PE vs. both). Patients able to receive anticoagulation after IVC filter placement had improved survival (HR 0.45, 95%CI 0.45-0.27, p=0.003). We present the largest series of gynecologic oncology patients treated with IVC filters. Long-term survival after IVC filter placement is uncommon. Patients who receive

  17. ExCEL in Social Work: Excellence in Cancer Education & Leadership: An Oncology Social Work Response to the 2008 Institute of Medicine Report.

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    Otis-Green, Shirley; Jones, Barbara; Zebrack, Brad; Kilburn, Lisa; Altilio, Terry A; Ferrell, Betty

    2015-09-01

    ExCEL in Social Work: Excellence in Cancer Education & Leadership was a multi-year National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded grant for the development and implementation of an innovative educational program for oncology social workers. The program's curriculum focused upon six core competencies of psychosocial-spiritual support necessary to meet the standard of care recommended by the 2008 Institute of Medicine (IOM) Report: Cancer Care for the Whole Patient: Meeting Psychosocial Health Needs. The curriculum was delivered through a collaborative partnership between the City of Hope National Medical Center and the two leading professional organizations devoted exclusively to representing oncology social workers--the Association of Oncology Social Work and the Association of Pediatric Oncology Social Workers. Initial findings support the feasibility and acceptability of this tailored leadership skills-building program for participating oncology social workers.

  18. Radium uptake in utero

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    Schlenker, R.A.; Keane, A.T.

    1986-01-01

    A summary of information on a stillborn girl and her mother who had been a radium watch dial painter is provided. Although many dial painters bore children, this is the only example we have of simultaneous radioactivity determinations in mother and child prior to normal delivery. This case provides an opportunity to assess the degree of transfer of radium to the fetus in utero and may be unique in the study of the placental transfer of radium in humans. The mother (Case 00-009) worked at the US Radium Corporation, Orange, New Jersey, for 5 to 7 years beginning in 1918. She accumulated a substantial body burden of /sup 226/Ra and /sup 228/Ra by mouth tipping of brushes, as was then the custom in the American dial painting industry. Years later, her husband recalled that tissues inside her mouth glowed brightly in the dark and that the front of her clothing often glowed too; he described her as a rapid worker. The child (Case 01-579) was stillborn after a gestation period listed as six months on the certificate of stillbirth. The cause of death is listed as placenta previa. The mother died on the day of birth, February 24, 1928. She was 26 years old. Mother and daughter were buried in the same casket and exhumed together August 9, 1968. 12 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. Survival of children with neuroblastoma treated at the Institute of oncology in Ljubljana in two periods

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    Jasna Perković

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuroblastoma is a malignant tumor of the sympathetic nervous system, representning about 5 % of all childhood malignancies. The aim of our study was to compare the survival of neuroblastoma patients treated in Slovenia in two time periods, 1994–2007 and 1980–1993, and analyze the influence of different factors on survival. The hypothesis was that there has been an improvement in the survival of neuroblastoma patients treated after 1994.Methods: Seventy-eight neuroblastoma patients, treated at the Department of Pediatrics and at the Institute of Oncology in Ljubljana in the period 1980–2007 were included in the retrospective study. The list of patients and their basic data were collected from the Cancer Registry of Slovenia. Furtjer data about the patients, tumor characteristics and treatment were collected from patients’ records.Results: Thirty-nine (50 % out of seventy-eight neuroblastoma patients included in the study are alive; of the 39 (50 % dead, 23 (29.5 % died during primary tumor treatment, 15 (19.2 % died after recurrent disease, and the cause of death in one (1.3 % patient remained unknown. The survival rates according to stage of disease, site of primary tumor and tumor size have improved in children treated after 1994, as compared to those treated before 1994. The most important factors influencing the prognosis in both time periods were stage of disease, patients’ age and tumor size at diagnosis while there was no statistical difference in survival according to age at diagnosis and the extent of surgery.Conclusions: The retrospective study confirmed our hypothesis that the survival of our patients treated after 1994 was better than the survival of those treated before. The most important prognostic factors in both periods were stage of the disease, age at diagnosis and tumor size.

  20. Spectroscopy of radium

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    Mol, Aran; De, Subhadeep; Dammalapati, Umakanth; Jungmann, Klaus; Willmann, Lorenz [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands)

    2007-07-01

    Radium has been identified as a potential candidate for experiment al searches for violations of fundamental symmetries like parity (P), time reversal (T) and charge conjugation. In particular is shows a high sensitivity to T a nd P violating permanent electric dipole moments and also to atomic parity viola tion effects. This sensitivity arises from the unique atomic level scheme of rad ium. In the course of the setup of such experiments we need to improve the experimental data on radium. Within the TRI{mu}P (Trapped Radioactive Isotopes: microlaboratories for fundamental Physics) facility at KVI, we are setting up an radioactive atomic beam of {sup 225}Ra and the laser system for performing the spectroscopy. This is guided closely by the requirements for experimental searches for symmetry violating effect.

  1. Comparison of oncologic outcomes for open and laparoscopic nephroureterectomy: a multi-institutional analysis of 1249 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanio, Umberto; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Isbarn, Hendrik; Weizer, Alon; Remzi, Mesut; Roscigno, Marco; Kikuchi, Eiji; Raman, Jay D; Bolenz, Christian; Bensalah, Karim; Koppie, Theresa M; Kassouf, Wassim; Fernández, Mario I; Ströbel, Philipp; Wheat, Jeffrey; Zigeuner, Richard; Langner, Cord; Waldert, Matthias; Oya, Mototsugu; Guo, Charles C; Ng, Casey; Montorsi, Francesco; Wood, Christopher G; Margulis, Vitaly; Karakiewicz, Pierre I

    2009-07-01

    Data regarding the oncologic efficacy of laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (LNU) compared to open nephroureterectomy (ONU) are scarce. We compared recurrence and cause-specific mortality rates of ONU and LNU. Thirteen centers from three continents contributed data on 1249 patients with nonmetastatic upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Univariable and multivariable survival models tested the effect of procedure type (ONU [n=979] vs LNU [n=270]) on cancer recurrence and cancer-specific mortality. Covariables consisted of institution, age, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status score, pT stage, pN stage, tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion, tumor location, concomitant carcinoma in situ, ureteral cuff management, previous urothelial bladder cancer, and previous endoscopic treatment. Median follow-up for censored cases was 49 mo (mean: 62). Relative to ONU, LNU patients had more favorable pathologic stages (pT0/Ta/Tis: 38.1% vs 20.8%, pONU was associated with higher cancer recurrence and mortality rates compared to LNU (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.1 [pONU and LNU had no residual effect on cancer recurrence and mortality (p=0.1 for both). Short-term oncologic data on LNU are comparable to ONU. Since LNU was selectively performed in favorable-risk patients, we cannot state with certainty that ONU and LNU have the same oncologic efficacy in poor-risk patients. Long-term follow-up data and morbidity data are necessary before LNU can be considered as the standard of care in patients with muscle-invasive or high-grade UTUC.

  2. Laser spectroscopy of radium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santra, Bodhaditya; Dammalapati, Umakanth; Jungmann, Klaus; Willmann, Lorenz [KVI, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-07-01

    Searches for permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs) of fundamental particles are sensitive probes of physics beyond the Standard Model. Fundamental EDMs can experience enhancements in atomic and molecular systems. In particular, isotopes of the heavy alkaline earth element radium exhibit the largest known enhancement factors for any atomic systems due to their atomic and nuclear structure. A sensitive search for EDMs will require an efficient use of the rare isotopes, which are available from radioactive sources or at rare isotope facilities like TRI{mu}P at KVI. Here, laser cooling and trapping methods play a crucial role. The main transitions from the ground state have been identified by laser spectroscopy. Nevertheless, the strongest cooling transitions 7s{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sub 0}-7s7p {sup 1}P{sub 1} suffers from strong leakage to metastable states, similar to the case of barium. We describe the experimental approach to determine the wavelength of the three needed repump transitions, which then will permit an efficient capture of radium atoms into a magneto optical trap.

  3. Japanese structure survey of radiation oncology in 2005 based on institutional stratification of patterns of care study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshima, Teruki; Numasaki, Hodaka; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Nishio, Masamichi; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Ito, Hisao; Sekiguchi, Kenji; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Koizumi, Masahiko; Tago, Masao; Nagata, Yasushi; Masaki, Hidekazu; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Yamada, Shogo

    2008-09-01

    To evaluate the structure of radiation oncology in Japan in terms of equipment, personnel, patient load, and geographic distribution to identify and improve any deficiencies. A questionnaire-based national structure survey was conducted between March 2006 and February 2007 by the Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. These data were analyzed in terms of the institutional stratification of the Patterns of Care Study. The total numbers of new cancer patients and total cancer patients (new and repeat) treated with radiotherapy in 2005 were estimated at approximately 162,000 and 198,000, respectively. In actual use were 765 linear accelerators, 11 telecobalt machines, 48 GammaKnife machines, 64 60Co remote-controlled after-loading systems, and 119 192Ir remote-controlled after-loading systems. The linear accelerator systems used dual-energy function in 498 systems (65%), three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in 462 (60%), and intensity-modulated radiotherapy in 170 (22%). There were 426 Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology-certified radiation oncologists, 774 full-time equivalent radiation oncologists, 117 medical physicists, and 1,635 radiation therapists. Geographically, a significant variation was found in the use of radiotherapy, from 0.9 to 2.1 patients/1,000 population. The annual patient load/FTE radiation oncologist was 247, exceeding the Blue Book guidelines level. Patterns of Care Study stratification can clearly discriminate the maturity of structures according to their academic nature and caseload. The Japanese structure has clearly improved during the past 15 years in terms of equipment and its use, although the shortage of manpower and variations in maturity disclosed by this Patterns of Care Study stratification remain problematic. These constitute the targets for nationwide improvement in quality assurance and quality control.

  4. The centenary of discovery of radium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazeron, J J; Gerbaulet, A

    1998-12-01

    Henri Becquerel presented the discovery of radium by Pierre and Marie Curie at the Paris Academy of Science on 26th December 1898. One century later, radium has been abandoned, mainly for radiation protection difficulties. It is, however, likely that modern techniques of brachytherapy have inherited to those designed for radium sources, and that radium has cured thousands and thousands patients all over the world for about eighty years. The history of discovery and medical use of radium is summarised.

  5. Genetic Testing and Tissue Banking for Personalized Oncology: Analytical and Institutional Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, George; Rae, James; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Pfeifer, John

    2015-10-01

    Personalized oncology, or more aptly precision oncogenomics, refers to the identification and implementation of clinically actionable targets tailored to an individual patient's cancer genomic information. Banking of human tissue and other biospecimens establishes a framework to extract and collect the data essential to our understanding of disease pathogenesis and treatment. Cancer cooperative groups in the United States have led the way in establishing robust biospecimen collection mechanisms to facilitate translational research, and combined with technological advances in molecular testing, tissue banking has expanded from its traditional base in academic research and is assuming an increasingly pivotal role in directing the clinical care of cancer patients. Comprehensive screening of tumors by DNA sequencing and the ability to mine and interpret these large data sets from well-organized tissue banks have defined molecular subtypes of cancer. Such stratification by genomic criteria has revolutionized our perspectives on cancer diagnosis and treatment, offering insight into prognosis, progression, and susceptibility or resistance to known therapeutic agents. In turn, this has enabled clinicians to offer treatments tailored to patients that can greatly improve their chances of survival. Unique challenges and opportunities accompany the rapidly evolving interplay between tissue banking and genomic sequencing, and are the driving forces underlying the revolution in precision medicine. Molecular testing and precision medicine clinical trials are now becoming the major thrust behind the cooperative groups' clinical research efforts.

  6. Robotic-assisted prostatectomy and open radical retropubic prostatectomy for locally-advanced prostate cancer: multi-institution comparison of oncologic outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup A. Vora

    2013-03-01

    Conclusions: Up to 2 out of 3 men undergoing RALP for locally-advanced PCa had positive margins during our initial experience. However, with increasing surgeon experience the overall positive margin rate decreased significantly and was comparable to the positive margin rate for patients with locally advanced disease undergoing ORRP over four academic institutions. We also noted a lower incidence of biochemical recurrence with increasing RALP experience, suggesting better oncologic outcomes with higher volume. Given this data, RALP has comparable oncologic outcomes compared to ORRP, especially with higher volume surgeons.

  7. Quality Improvement in the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program: The Quality Oncology Practice Initiative Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Robert D.; Castro, Kathleen M.; Eisenstein, Jana; Stallings, Holley; Hegedus, Patricia D.; Bryant, Donna M.; Kadlubek, Pam J.; Clauser, Steven B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Community Cancer Centers Program (NCCCP) began in 2007; it is a network of community-based hospitals funded by the NCI. Quality of care is an NCCCP priority, with participation in the American Society of Clinical Oncology Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI) playing a fundamental role in quality assessment and quality improvement (QI) projects. Using QOPI methodology, performance on quality measures was analyzed two times per year over a 3-year period to enhance our implementation of quality standards at NCCCP hospitals. Methods: A data-sharing agreement allowed individual-practice QOPI data to be electronically sent to the NCI. Aggregated data with the other NCCCP QOPI participants were presented to the network via Webinars. The NCCCP Quality of Care Subcommittee selected areas in which to focus subsequent QI efforts, and high-performing practices shared voluntarily their QI best practices with the network. Results: QOPI results were compiled semiannually between fall 2010 and fall 2013. The network concentrated on measures with a quality score of ≤ 0.75 and planned voluntary group-wide QI interventions. We identified 13 measures in which the NCCCP fell at or below the designated quality score in fall 2010. After implementing a variety of QI initiatives, the network registered improvements in all parameters except one (use of treatment summaries). Conclusion: Using the NCCCP as a paradigm, QOPI metrics provide a useful platform for group-wide measurement of quality performance. In addition, these measurements can be used to assess the effectiveness of QI initiatives. PMID:25538082

  8. Mirror Therapy for Phantom Limb Pain at a Pediatric Oncology Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghelescu, Doralina L; Kelly, Cassandra N; Steen, Brenda D; Wu, Jianrong; Wu, Huiyun; DeFeo, Brian M; Scobey, Kristin; Burgoyne, Laura

    2016-07-01

    Mirror therapy has not been reported for phantom limb pain (PLP) in pediatric oncology. Our aims are to describe the incidence and duration of PLP post-amputation, the duration of follow-up, pain scores and pain medications, and the differences between a group that received mirror therapy (MT) in addition to the standard treatment and a group that received only the standard treatment (non-MT). A retrospective review of patients' medical records from June 2009 to March 2015 was completed. The demographic characteristics, diagnoses and types of surgery were collected. The incidence and duration of PLP, duration of pain service follow-up, pain medications and pain scores were collected and analyzed using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Of 21 patients who underwent amputations (median age 13 years, range, 8-24 years), most common primary diagnosis osteosarcoma), 18 (85.7%) experienced PLP; 38.9% of them experienced PLP at 1 year post-amputation (11.1% of the MT group and 66.7% of the non-MT group). The MT group and non-MT groups experienced PLP for a mean (± SD) of 246 (± 200) days, and 541 (± 363) days, respectively (p=0.08). The mean (SD) opioid doses (mg/kg/day) in the MT and non-MT groups were 0.81 (± 0.99) and 0.33 (± 0.31), respectively; the mean (SD) gabapentin doses (mg/kg/day) were 40.1 (± 21) for the MT group and 30.5 (± 11.5) for the non-MT group. MT in children with cancer-related amputations is associated with lower incidence of PLP at 1 year and shorter duration of PLP.

  9. [The centenary of the discovery of radium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazeron, J J; Gerbaulet, A

    1999-01-01

    Henri Becquerel presented the discovery of radium by Pierre and Marie Curie at the Paris Académie des Sciences on 26th December 1898. One century later, radium has been abandoned, mainly for the reason of radiation safety concerns. It is, however, likely that modern techniques of brachytherapy are the successors of those designed for radium sources, and that radium has cured thousands and thousands patients all over the word for about 80 years. The history of discovery and medical use of radium is summarised.

  10. [Breast cancer care quality analysis of the National Institute of Oncology in Hungary according to the requirements of European Society of Breast Cancer Specialists (EUSOMA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Újhelyi, Mihály; Pukancsik, Dávid; Kelemen, Péter; Sávolt, Ákos; Gődény, Mária; Kovács, Eszter; Udvarhelyi, Nóra; Bak, Mihály; Polgár, Csaba; Rubovszky, Gábor; Kásler, Miklós; Mátrai, Zoltán

    2016-10-01

    The European Society of Breast Cancer Specialists has created quality indicators for breast units to establish minimum standards and to ensure specialist multimodality care with the conscious aim of improving outcomes and decreasing breast cancer mortality. The aim of this study was to analyse the breast cancer care in the National Institute of Oncology according to the European Society of Breast Cancer Specialists requirements and in a large number of cases in order to present representative clinico-pathological data on the incidence of breast cancer in Hungary. According to the European Society of Breast Cancer Specialists uniformed criteria clinico-pathological data of multimodality treated breast cancer cases were retrospectively analysed between June 1, 2011 and May 31, 2012. During the period of interest 906 patients underwent breast surgery for malignant or benign lesions. According to the European Society of Breast Cancer Specialists quality indicators the breast cancer care of the National Institute of Oncology is eligible. The diagnostic modalities and multimodality care of breast cancer of the National Institute of Oncology breast unit meets the critical mass and minimum standards of the European Society of Breast Cancer Specialists criteria. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(42), 1674-1682.

  11. Prognostic relevance of DNA flow cytometry in breast cancer revisited: The 25-year experience of the Portuguese Institute of Oncology of Lisbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, António E.; Pereira, Teresa; Silva, Giovani L.; André, Saudade

    2017-01-01

    The potential prognostic significance of DNA flow cytometric measurements (DNA ploidy and S-phase fraction) in breast cancer remains in dispute. Inconclusive data, primarily due to the lack of consistent standardization and quality control programs, have limited its translation into clinical practice. The aim of the present review, based on the 25-year experience of the Portuguese Institute of Oncology of Lisbon, is to assess the clinical relevance and application of DNA flow cytometry for the prognosis of breast cancer. Overall, data from Portuguese Institute of Oncology of Lisbon indicate that DNA flow cytometry provides significant prognostic information that is biologically relevant and clinically useful for the management of patients with breast cancer. Furthermore, this data has demonstrated the independent value of DNA aneuploidy as a prognostic indicator of poor clinical outcome in various subgroups of patients with early or locally advanced breast cancer at short- and long-term follow-up. Notably, aneuploidy identifies subsets of patients with grade (G)1 or G2 tumours who exhibit a poor clinical outcome. These patients may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy, particularly those with luminal A and luminal B/human epidermal growth factor-2-negative endocrine-responsive breast cancer. In conclusion, data from Portuguese Institute of Oncology of Lisbon reinforces the clinical importance and utility of DNA flow cytometric analysis, particularly DNA ploidy, in the prognostic assessment and therapeutic planning for patients with breast cancer. PMID:28454358

  12. Liver lesions in children post-oncologic therapy: Review of case reports and institutional observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Gologorsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH, a benign hepatic tumor with ill-defined etiology, has been increasingly reported in children treated for extra-hepatic malignancies. Serial imaging or biopsy may be needed when survivors present with liver lesions. This study aims to review the literature, compare them with our institution’s cohort and propose a less invasive diagnostic imaging modality for FNH utilizing Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with gadoxetate disodium. Methods: We reviewed 13 case reports/series published over the last 20 years and compared them to our retrospective review of 16 childhood cancer survivors (CCS found to have liver lesions on various imaging studies. Several patients underwent biopsy for diagnosis. Results: No specific generalizations could be made in terms of which specific chemotherapeutic agents cause FNH. Seven out of 11 patients underwent radiotherapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Additionally, 36% (4/11 had been treated for neuroblastoma. From the literature review, the use of MRI with gadoxetate disodium was difficult to evaluate. Imaging was mainly accomplished using ultrasound, computerized tomography and MRI with gadolinium. The results were often indeterminate and resulted in biopsy in 6 cases in our institution. In contrast, 5 patients underwent initial MRI with gadoxetate disodium, which confirmed the diagnosis of FNH. Conclusion: CCS have an increased risk of developing liver lesions. Consistent with previously published literature, patients exposed to radiotherapy or cytoreductive agents used for hematopoietic stem cell transplants appeared to be at higher risk. A significant proportion (36%, 4/11 of our patients with FNH was previously treated for neuroblastoma. With the introduction of MRI with gadoxetate disodium, imaging may be a viable alternative to biopsy. 

  13. Radium/Barium Waste Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, Allen K.; Ellefson, Mark D.; McDonald, Kent M.

    2015-06-25

    The treatment, shipping, and disposal of a highly radioactive radium/barium waste stream have presented a complex set of challenges requiring several years of effort. The project illustrates the difficulty and high cost of managing even small quantities of highly radioactive Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)-regulated waste. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) research activities produced a Type B quantity of radium chloride low-level mixed waste (LLMW) in a number of small vials in a facility hot cell. The resulting waste management project involved a mock-up RCRA stabilization treatment, a failed in-cell treatment, a second, alternative RCRA treatment approach, coordinated regulatory variances and authorizations, alternative transportation authorizations, additional disposal facility approvals, and a final radiological stabilization process.

  14. Why are chemotherapy administration errors not reported? Perceptions of oncology nurses in a Nigerian tertiary health institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinomso Ugochukwu Nwozichi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The administration of chemotherapy forms a major part of the clinical role of oncology nurses. When a mistake is made during chemotherapy administration, admitting and reporting the error timely could save the lives of cancer patients. The main objective of this study was to assess the perceptions of oncology nurses about why chemotherapy administration errors are not reported. Methods: This is a descriptive study that surveyed a convenient sample of 128 oncology nurses currently practicing in the Ogun State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. The tool for data collection was a structured questionnaire that consisted of two sections. The first section was for the demographic data of participants and the second section consisted of questions constructed based on the Medication Administration Error (MAE reporting survey developed by Wakefield and his team. Results: Findings showed that majority of the nurses (89.8% have made at least one MAE in the course of their professional practice. Fear (mean = 3.63 and managerial response (mean = 2.87 were the two major barriers to MAE reporting perceived among oncology nurses. Conclusion: Critically analyzing why medication errors are not reported among oncology nurses is crucial to identifying strategic interventions that would promote reporting of all errors, especially those related to chemotherapy administration. It is therefore recommended that nurse managers and health care administrators should create a favorable atmosphere that does not only prevent medication errors but also supports nurses′ voluntary reporting of MAEs. Education, information and communication strategies should also be put in place to train nurses on the need to report, if possible prevent, all medication errors.

  15. Radium in baggerspecie afkomstig uit het Rijnmondgebied

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijwaard H; Overwater RMW; Glastra P; Nissan LA; LSO

    2003-01-01

    The radium concentration was measured in 25 samples of harbour sludge taken from the Rijnmond area (Rotterdam harbours and the Nieuwe Waterweg) in 2002. High radium levels were found near the former discharge points of the phosphate ore processing plants, confirming the results of previous campaigns

  16. Radium-223 chloride: a potential new treatment for castration-resistant prostate cancer patients with metastatic bone disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison MR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael R Harrison, Terence Z Wong, Andrew J Armstrong, Daniel J GeorgeDuke Cancer Institute, Durham, NC, USABackground: Radium-223 chloride (223Ra; Alpharadin is an alpha-emitting radioisotope that targets areas of osteoblastic metastasis and is excreted by the small intestine. When compared with beta-emitters (eg, strontium-89, samarium-153, 223Ra delivers a high quantity of energy per track length with short tissue penetration.Objective: This review describes the mechanism, radiobiology, and preclinical development of 223Ra and discusses the clinical data currently available regarding its safety and efficacy profile.Methods: Data from clinical trials including abstracts were collected and reviewed using the PubMed Database, as well as the American Society of Clinical Oncology abstract database.Conclusion: Current bone-targeted therapies fall into two main categories: antiresorptive agents (eg, zoledronic acid, denosumab, which have been shown to delay skeletal-related events, and radiopharmaceuticals (eg, samarium-153, which may have a role in pain palliation. Historically, neither antiresorptive agents nor radiopharmaceuticals have shown definitive evidence of improved overall survival or other antitumor effects in metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC. Radiopharmaceuticals are limited by myelosuppresion, thrombocytopenia, and renal excretion. In a recently reported randomized Phase III trial in men with symptomatic bone-metastatic CRPC who had received or were ineligible for docetaxel chemotherapy, 223Ra treatment resulted in improved overall survival and delayed skeletal-related events. Toxicity consisted of minor gastrointestinal side effects and mild neutropenia and thrombocytopenia that were rarely severe. Pending regulatory approval, 223Ra may represent a unique and distinct option for an important subgroup of patients with mCRPC; future trials should address its use in combination or in sequence with existing and novel

  17. Occurrence of radium-224, radium-226, and radium-228 in water of the unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, southern New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Zoltan; dePaul, Vincent T.; Kraemer, Thomas F.; Parsa, Bahman

    2005-01-01

    Water in the unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in the New Jersey Coastal Plain contains elevated concentrations (above 3 pCi/L (picocuries per liter)) of the alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide radium-224. Previously, water from the aquifer system had been found to contain radium-226 and radium-228. This observation is of concern because the previously undetected presence of radium-224 may pose an additional, quantifiable health risk that currently is not accounted for by the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 5 pCi/L for combined radium (the sum of radium-226 plus radium-228 is termed 'combined radium') in drinking water. Water samples were collected from a regional network of 88 wells for determination of concentrations of radium-224, radium-226, and radium-228; gross alpha-particle activity; and concentrations of major ions and selected trace elements. Both gamma and alpha spectroscopic techniques were used to determine concentrations of radium-224, which ranged from activity of about 15 pCi/L (the MCL) 36 to 48 hours, respectively, after sample collection when ingrowth of radium-224 progeny radionuclides is considered, even with the unlikely assumption that no other alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide is present in the water. Concentrations of 3.4 to 3.7 pCi/L radium-224 result in a gross alpha-particle activity of 10 pCi/L 36 to 48 hours, respectively, after sample collection when ingrowth of Ra-224 progeny radionuclides is considered. In this latter case, it is possible that the summed alpha-particle activity from radium-226 present at a concentration less than or equal to 5 pCi/L (the MCL for combined radium) and from radium-224 present at a concentration about 3.4 pCi/L or greater may exceed the 15-pCi/L MCL for gross alpha-particle activity. In this study, gross alpha-particle activities were measured within 48 hours after sample collection and were found to exceed the MCL of 15 pCi/L in nearly half (43) of the 88 samples collected. The

  18. Determining the Oncologic Safety of Autologous Fat Grafting as a Reconstructive Modality: An Institutional Review of Breast Cancer Recurrence Rates and Surgical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Oriana; Lam, Gretl; Karp, Nolan; Choi, Mihye

    2017-09-01

    The increasing use of autologous fat grafting in breast cancer patients has raised concerns regarding its oncologic safety. This study evaluated patient outcomes and tumor recurrence following mastectomy reconstruction and autologous fat grafting. Retrospective chart review identified patients who underwent mastectomy followed by breast reconstruction from 2010 to 2015. Eight hundred twenty-nine breasts met inclusion criteria: 248 (30.0 percent) underwent autologous fat grafting, whereas 581 (70.0 percent) breasts did not. Patient demographics, cancer characteristics, oncologic treatment, surgical treatment, surgical complications, local recurrence, and distant metastases were analyzed. Autologous fat grafting patients and control patients were of similar body mass index, smoking status, and BRCA status. Patients who underwent fat grafting were significantly younger than control patients and were less likely to have diabetes, hypertension, or hyperlipidemia. The two groups represented similar distributions of BRCA status, Oncotype scores, and hormone receptor status. Patients underwent one to four grafting procedures: one procedure in 83.1 percent, two procedures in 13.7 percent, three in 2.8 percent, and four in 0.4 percent. Mean follow-up time from initial surgery was 45.6 months in the fat grafting group and 38.8 months in controls. The overall complication rate following fat grafting was 9.4 percent. Among breasts undergoing surgery for therapeutic indications, there were similar rates of local recurrence (fat grafting group, 2.5 percent; controls, 1.9 percent; p = 0.747). Interestingly, mean time to recurrence was significantly longer in the fat grafting group (52.3 months versus 22.8 months from initial surgery; p = 0.016). Autologous fat grafting is a powerful tool in breast reconstruction. This large, single-institution study provides valuable evidence-based support for its oncologic safety. Therapeutic, III.

  19. Oncologic outcomes and complication rates after laparoscopic-assisted cryoablation: a EuRECA multi-institutional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tommy Kjaergaard; Lagerveld, Brunolf W; Keeley, Francis;

    2016-01-01

    -30) mm. The transperitoneal approach was used in 77.7% of the patients. The median postoperative hospital stay was 2 days. In all, 514 patients with a biopsy-confirmed renal cell carcinoma (RCC) were available for survival analyses. The median (IQR) follow-up for the RCC-cohort was 36 (14-56) months......OBJECTIVE: To assess complication rates and intermediate oncological outcomes of laparoscopic-assisted cryoablation (LCA) in patients with small renal masses (SRMs). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of 808 patients treated with LCA for T1a SRMs from 2005 to 2015 at eight European...

  20. Preliminary study of radium-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, J.W.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1978-10-01

    A preliminary study was made of the potential radiation exposures to people from radium-226 contamination in the soil in order to provide guidance on limits to be applied in decontaminating land. Pathways included were inhalation of radium from resuspension; ingestion of radium with foods; external gamma radiation from radium daughters; inhalation of radon and daughter, both in the open air and in houses; and the intake of /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po from both inhalation and ingestion. The depth of the contaminated layer is of importance for external exposure and especially for radon emanation. The most limiting pathway was found to be emanation of the radon into buildings with limiting values comparable to those found naturally in many areas.

  1. Información sobre antimicrobianos en una muestra de profesionales de la salud en el Instituto de Oncología Information on presence of antimicrobial agents in a cohort of health professionals in Oncology Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Antonieta Arbesú Michelena

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available En el éxito de un tratamiento antimicrobiano influyen diversos factores objetivos y subjetivos que en los distintos informes del Comité de Farmacia y Terapéutica del Instituto Nacional de Oncología y Radiobiología, durante el 2006, se describieron problemas relacionados con el cumplimiento de la política de antibióticos, lo cual ha sido justificado, por parte del personal afectado, por la imposibilidad de utilización de las técnicas de la microbiología. De igual forma, estos profesionales plantean que la política antimicrobiana es incorrecta por no contar con el mapa microbiológico" actualizado; sin embargo, se conoce la existencia de otros factores, como la información de cada profesional en la terapéutica a prescribir, que pueden influir en el resultado del uso de los antimicrobianos. Con el objetivo de determinar hasta donde se recuerdan los conocimientos adquiridos en la formación profesional del personal escogido, a partir de la literatura de pregrado, relacionada con la terapéutica y que pueden o no influir en la prescripción de antimicrobianos fue que se realizó el presente estudio. Se diseñó una encuesta de 5 preguntas con opción múltiple y 4 opciones, a señalar solo una, como correcta, y se validó por expertos, la cual se les aplicó a médicos y técnicos o tecnólogos de Farmacia. Los resultados obtenidos demostraron un cierto grado de olvido de algunos conceptos importantes que pueden influir negativamente en el éxito de una terapéutica antiinfecciosa en los pacientes oncológicos, fundamentalmente los que recibirán como tratamiento oncoespecífico la cirugía, por lo que se recomienda a la dirección de docencia la realización de actualizaciones al personal de la institución.Success of an antimicrobial treatment is influenced by several objective and subjective factors that in different reports from Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee of National Institute of Oncology and Radiology during 2006, problems

  2. Evolving treatment approaches for the management of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer – role of radium-223

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherji D

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Deborah Mukherji,1 Imane El Dika,1 Sally Temraz,1 Mohammed Haidar,2 Ali Shamseddine11Department of Hematology/Oncology, 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, LebanonAbstract: Radium-223 is a first-in-class alpha particle-emitting radiopharmaceutical approved for the treatment of bone metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Radium-223 is administered intravenously with no requirement for complex shielding and specifically targets areas of bone metastasis. In a randomized placebo-controlled Phase III study, treatment with radium-223 was shown to improve overall survival, time to skeletal-related events, and health-related quality of life. Apart from radium-223, the cytotoxic chemotherapy agents docetaxel and cabazitaxel, androgen biosynthesis inhibitor abiraterone acetate, novel anti-androgen enzalutamide, and immunotherapy sipuleucel-T have also been shown to improve survival of men with advanced prostate cancer in Phase III trials. This review will outline current treatment approaches for advanced prostate cancer with a focus on the role of radium-223 in changing treatment paradigms.Keywords: Alpharadin, alpha-emitting radionuclide, bone metastasis

  3. The European Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology-European Institute of Radiotherapy (ESTRO-EIR) report on 3D CT-based in-room image guidance systems: a practical and technical review and guide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine; Rasch, Coen; McNair, Helen

    2010-01-01

    The past decade has provided many technological advances in radiotherapy. The European Institute of Radiotherapy (EIR) was established by the European Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) to provide current consensus statement with evidence-based and pragmatic guidelines on topics...

  4. Laser spectroscopy of atomic radium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, Alexander; Jungmann, Klaus; Santra, Bodhaditya; Willmann, Lorenz; Wilschut, Hans W. [KVI, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    The heavy alkaline earth elements radium (Ra) offers a unique sensitivity to a parity and time reversal violating permanent electric dipole moments (EDM). In particular, Ra exhibits the largest known atomic enhancements factors for EDMs. The intrinsic sensitivity arises from the specific atomic and nuclear structure of Ra. All Ra isotopes with nuclear spin I are radioactive. The lifetimes are shorter than 15 d. Several Ra isotopes are available at the TRI{mu}P facility at KVI. For the exploitation of the sensitivity Ra atoms have to be collected in a neutral atom trap. The main laser cooling is done on the strong {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 1}P{sub 1} transition at 482.7 nm, similar to the laser cooling and trapping of the chemical homologue barium. Laser spectroscopy of the strong {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 1}P{sub 1} transitions is presented. The light at this wavelength is provided by frequency doubling of a Ti:sapphire laser in a KNbO{sub 3} crystal. Of particular interest is the decay branching of the excited state to the metastable D-states. Such measurements are indispensable input for current atomic structure calculations, which are necessary for the analysis of a EDM measurement using Ra.

  5. The business case for provider participation in clinical trials research: an application to the National Cancer Institute's community clinical oncology program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Paula H; Reiter, Kristin L; Weiner, Bryan J; Minasian, Lori; McAlearney, Ann Scheck

    2013-01-01

    Provider-based research networks (PBRNs) make clinical trials available in community-based practice settings, where most people receive their care, but provider participation requires both financial and in-kind contributions. The aim of this study was to explore whether providers believe there is a business case for participating in PBRNs and what factors contribute to the business case. We use a multiple case study methodology approach to examine the National Cancer Institute's community clinical oncology program, a long-standing federally funded PBRN. Interviews with 41 key informants across five sites, selected on the basis of organizational maturity, were conducted using a semistructured interview guide. We analyzed interview transcripts using an iterative, deductive process to identify themes and subthemes in the data. We found that a business case for provider participation in PBRNs may exist if both direct and indirect financial benefits are identified and included in the analysis and if the time horizon is long enough to allow those benefits to be realized. We identified specific direct and indirect financial benefits that were perceived as important contributors to the business case and the perceived length of time required for a positive return to accrue. As the lack of a business case may result in provider reluctance to participate in PBRNs, knowledge of the benefits we identified may be crucial to encouraging and sustaining participation, thereby preserving patient access to innovative community-based treatments. The results are also relevant to federally funded PBRNs outside of oncology or to providers considering participation in any clinical trials research.

  6. New Jersey Radium Research Project: final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    Cancers among dead New Jersey subjects were almost three times the expected number. Their radiation experience apparently acted as a generalized carcinogen. Conventional clinical, laboratory and roentgenographic tests neither correlated with calculated radiation exposure nor predicted which subjects subsequently developed cancer. More subjects than expected were deaf and enough of the subjects had increased erythrocyte sedimentation rates and decreased alpha-1 serum globulin levels that both hearing tests and tests of immune competence should be undertaken among asymptomatic exposed populations at regular intervals to see whether these may indicate radiation effects prior to a fatal cancer or blood dyscrasia. If pre-terminal radium-226 burdens validly express total irradiation experience, and past exposure to shorter-lived radium-228 (mesothorium) makes it unlikely that this is so, the distribution of radium osteitis among our subjects suggests that anatomically demonstrable radiation injury occurs in the vast majority of subjects with any radium-226 burden that can be measured above background levels after twenty-five years, and in almost half of those exposed whose measured radium-226 burdens are indistinguishable from background levels. Modification of the occupational exposure standard is recommended. (PCS)

  7. Precision spectroscopy of trapped radium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J.E. van den; Giri, G.S.; Hoek, D.J. van der; Hoekman, S.M.; Hoekstra, S.; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W.L.; Nunez-Portela, M.; Onderwater, C.J.G.; Prinsen, E.B.; Sahoo, B.K.; Santra, B.; Sohani, M.; Shidling, P.D.; Timmermans, R.G.E.; Versolato, O.O.; Wansbeek, L.W.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H.W. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-07-01

    Radium ion is an ideal candidate for high precision experiments. Atomic Parity Violation (APV) can be measured in a single trapped and laser cooled Ra{sup +}, enabling a precise measurement of the electroweak mixing angle in the Standard Model of particle physics at the lowest possible momentum transfer. Ultra-narrow transitions in this system can also be exploited to realize a high stability frequency standard. As an important step towards such high precision experiments, excited-state laser spectroscopy is being performed with trapped short-lived {sup 209-214}Ra{sup +} ions. The results on hyperfine structure, isotope shift and lifetime provide benchmark for the required atomic theory. The experimental set up to perform laser cooling of the trapped radium ions and trapping of a single radium ion is under way.

  8. Towards an EDM Measurement in Radium-225

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Matthew; Bailey, K.; Greene, J.; Holt, R.; Kalita, M.; Korsch, W.; Lu, Z.-T.; Mueller, P.; O'Connor, T.; Parker, R.; Singh, J.

    2012-06-01

    The existence of an atomic electric dipole moment (EDM) would violate both the time and parity symmetries of nature, and so the measurement of one would give a valuable window into physics beyond the standard model. Here we describe recent progress towards measurement of the EDM of radium-225, which is expected to be abnormally large compared to other species. Neutral cold radium atoms are loaded from a magneto-optic trap into an optical dipole trap (ODT), which is mechanically translated to move the radium into the science region. We then transfer the atoms to a second, standing wave ODT suitable for the EDM measurement. In the near future, we plan to optically pump and observe nuclear spin precession. This research is supported by DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  9. The Cuban Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology experience on the beliefs and opinions about digital rectal exam in urological patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel García Figueredo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen OBJETIVO Describir las creencias, los conocimientos y opiniones sobre el examen dígito rectal en un grupo de pacientes urológicos. MÉTODOS Se desarrolló un estudio descriptivo transversal donde se evaluó un cuestionario anónimo con 15 preguntas, dividido en tres bloques: 1 variables socio-demográficas; 2 retraso en ir a la consulta de urología y su inconformidad con la práctica del examen dígito rectal; 3 percepción de dolor y malestar durante el examen dígito rectal. El cuestionario fue aplicado a una muestra de conveniencia. RESULTADOS Se analizaron 84 encuestas aplicadas en el Instituto de Oncología y Radiobiología de Cuba. Los resultados mostraron que 70,24% de los participantes conocían en cierta medida sobre el cáncer de próstata y 64,29%, sobre el uso del antígeno prostático específico. Sólo 27% encontró útil realizarse el examen digito rectal. Los mayores impedimentos para asistir a la consulta del urólogo fueron: no someterse a una biopsia (79,76% y evadir la práctica del examen dígito rectal (66,66%. Además, se observó que 52,39% y 36,90% de los hombres se quejaron de dolor moderado y severo respectivamente, siendo traumático el examen dígito rectal en 61,9%. Sin embargo, 88,09% de los pacientes respondió que repetirían el examen al siguiente año y el 94,05% animaría a un amigo para someterse al él. CONCLUSIONES En la muestra de individuos estudiados, más de la mitad afirmó conocer sobre el cáncer de próstata y el antígeno prostático específico, sin embargo, no consideró provechoso someterse a un examen dígito rectal. Evitar someterse a una biopsia o al examen dígito rectal fueron los principales impedimentos para su asistencia al urólogo. A pesar de que en la mayoría de los pacientes, realizarse el examen dígito rectal fue traumático, estos consintieron en repetírselo en el futuro.

  10. Microbial accumulation of uranium, radium, and cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II; Parrott, J.R. Jr.; North, S.E.

    1981-05-01

    Diverse microbial species varied considerably in their ability to accumulate uranium, cesium, and radium. Mechanistic differences in uranium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were indicated. S. serevisiae exhibited a slow (hours) surface accumulation of uranium which was subject to environmental factors, while P. aeruginosa accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense intracellular deposits and did not appear to be affected by environmental parameters. Metabolism was not required for uranium uptake by either organism. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several species tested.

  11. Computational oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefor, Alan T

    2011-08-01

    Oncology research has traditionally been conducted using techniques from the biological sciences. The new field of computational oncology has forged a new relationship between the physical sciences and oncology to further advance research. By applying physics and mathematics to oncologic problems, new insights will emerge into the pathogenesis and treatment of malignancies. One major area of investigation in computational oncology centers around the acquisition and analysis of data, using improved computing hardware and software. Large databases of cellular pathways are being analyzed to understand the interrelationship among complex biological processes. Computer-aided detection is being applied to the analysis of routine imaging data including mammography and chest imaging to improve the accuracy and detection rate for population screening. The second major area of investigation uses computers to construct sophisticated mathematical models of individual cancer cells as well as larger systems using partial differential equations. These models are further refined with clinically available information to more accurately reflect living systems. One of the major obstacles in the partnership between physical scientists and the oncology community is communications. Standard ways to convey information must be developed. Future progress in computational oncology will depend on close collaboration between clinicians and investigators to further the understanding of cancer using these new approaches.

  12. Radium Disposition Options for the Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, D. L.; Thiel, E. C.; Seidel, B. R.

    2002-02-26

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed plans to disposition its excess nuclear materials, including radium-containing materials. Within DOE, there is no significant demand for radium at this time. However, DOE is exploring reuse options, including uses that may not exist at this time. The Nonactinide Isotopes and Sealed Sources Management Group (NISSMG) has identified 654 radium-containing items, and concluded that there are no remaining radium items that do not have a pathway to disposition. Unfortunately, most of these pathways end with disposal, whereas reuse would be preferable. DOE has a number of closure sites that must remove the radium at their sites as part of their closure activities. NISSMG suggests preserving the larger radium sources that can easily be manufactured into targets for future reuse, and disposing the other items. As alternatives to disposal, there exist reuse options for radium, especially in nuclear medicine. These options were identified by NISSMG. The NISSMG recommends that DOE set up receiver sites to store these radium materials until reuse options become available. The NISSMG recommends two pathways for dispositioning radium sources, depending on the activity and volume of material. Low activity radium sources can be managed as low level radioactive waste per DOE Order 5820.2A. Higher activity radium sources are more appropriate for reuse in nuclear medicine applications and other applications.

  13. Radium single-ion optical clock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versolato, O. O.; Wansbeek, L. W.; Jungmann, K.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2011-01-01

    We explore the potential of the electric quadrupole transitions $7s\\,^2S_{1/2}$ - $6d\\,^2D_{3/2}$, $6d\\,^2D_{5/2}$ in radium isotopes as single-ion optical frequency standards. The frequency shifts of the clock transitions due to external fields and the corresponding uncertainties are calculated.

  14. Neutron Resonance Parameters for Ra-226 (Radium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Volume 24 `Neutron Resonance Parameters' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides the neutron resonance parameters for the isotope Ra-226 (Radium).

  15. Conditioning technology of spent radium sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il Sik; Kim, K. J.; Jang, K. D

    2001-03-01

    In order to avoid accidents that could be resulted from improper storage of spent radium sources, it is necessary to condition and store them safely. The program for safe conditioning of spent radium sources by IAEA has been established to assist the developing countries. The main object of this report is to understand well and apply the technology that was applied in conditioning the national inventory of Ra-226 sources in Myanmar, as a part of IAEA's project by the Korean expert team. The report is the result that the Korean expert team carried out in Myanmar under the project title 'Radium Conditioning Service in Myanmar(INT4131-06646C)'. As a result of the mission, a whole inventory, 1,429.5 mCi of spent radium sources was safely conditioned by the Korean expert team according to the manual under the supervision of IAEA's technical officer, Mr. Al-Mughrabi, and under the control of DAE authority. These sources were encapsuled in 27 small capsules and 3 large capsules, and conditioned in 3 lead shields, producing 3 packages. The inventories were distributed into 3 shielding devices, holding 500, 459.5, and 470 mCi.

  16. Insufficiency Fractures After Pelvic Radiation Therapy for Uterine Cervical Cancer: An Analysis of Subjects in a Prospective Multi-institutional Trial, and Cooperative Study of the Japan Radiation Oncology Group (JAROG) and Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokumaru, Sunao, E-mail: tokumaru@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Saga University, Saga (Japan); Toita, Takafumi [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Oguchi, Masahiko [Radiation Oncology Department, Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan); Ohno, Tatsuya [Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Maebashi (Japan); Kato, Shingo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University, International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Niibe, Yuzuru [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Kitasato University, Sagamihara (Japan); Kazumoto, Tomoko [Department of Radiology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Kodaira, Takeshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan); Kataoka, Masaaki [Department of Radiology, National Shikoku Cancer Center, Matsuyama (Japan); Shikama, Naoto [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University, International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Kenjo, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Yamauchi, Chikako [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shiga Medical Center for Adults, Moriyama (Japan); Suzuki, Osamu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer, Osaka (Japan); Sakurai, Hideyuki [Proton Medical Research Center and Tsukuba University, Tuskuba (Japan); Teshima, Teruki [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita (Japan); Kagami, Yoshikazu [Department of Radiology, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Nakano, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University, Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan); Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); and others

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate pelvic insufficiency fractures (IF) after definitive pelvic radiation therapy for early-stage uterine cervical cancer, by analyzing subjects of a prospective, multi-institutional study. Materials and Methods: Between September 2004 and July 2007, 59 eligible patients were analyzed. The median age was 73 years (range, 37-84 years). The International Federation of Gynecologic Oncology and Obstetrics stages were Ib1 in 35, IIa in 12, and IIb in 12 patients. Patients were treated with the constant method, which consisted of whole-pelvic external-beam radiation therapy of 50 Gy/25 fractions and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy of 24 Gy/4 fractions without chemotherapy. After radiation therapy the patients were evaluated by both pelvic CT and pelvic MRI at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Diagnosis of IF was made when the patients had both CT and MRI findings, neither recurrent tumor lesions nor traumatic histories. The CT findings of IF were defined as fracture lines or sclerotic linear changes in the bones, and MRI findings of IF were defined as signal intensity changes in the bones, both on T1- and T2-weighted images. Results: The median follow-up was 24 months. The 2-year pelvic IF cumulative occurrence rate was 36.9% (21 patients). Using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0, grade 1, 2, and 3 IF were seen in 12 (21%), 6 (10%), and 3 patients (5%), respectively. Sixteen patients had multiple fractures, so IF were identified at 44 sites. The pelvic IF were frequently seen at the sacroileal joints (32 sites, 72%). Nine patients complained of pain. All patients' pains were palliated by rest or non-narcotic analgesic drugs. Higher age (>70 years) and low body weight (<50 kg) were thought to be risk factors for pelvic IF (P=.007 and P=.013, Cox hazard test). Conclusions: Cervical cancer patients with higher age and low body weight may be at some risk for the development of pelvic IF after pelvic radiation therapy.

  17. Geriatric Oncology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Helen Hughes; Vikram Swaminathan; Alice Pellegrini; Riccardo Audisio

    2014-01-01

    .... In this article, we review the current field of geriatric oncology. We highlight that age is not a contradiction to cancer treatment but geriatric assessment is needed to identify which treatment a patient may tolerate and benefit from.

  18. Intention-to-Treat Analysis of Radical Trachelectomy for Early-Stage Cervical Cancer With Special Reference to Oncologic Failures: Single-Institutional Experience in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Póka, Robert; Molnár, Szabolcs; Daragó, Péter; Lukács, János; Lampé, Rudolf; Krasznai, Zoárd; Hernádi, Zoltán

    2017-09-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate clinical and pathological data in order to draw eligibility criteria for oncologically sufficient radical trachelectomy (RT) in early-stage cervical cancer. Reviewing all cases of attempted RT performed at our unit, we focused attention on prognostic indicators of the need for additional oncologic treatment following RT. The analysis was extended by extensive literature review to include previously published cases of oncologic failures. The authors retrospectively analyzed data of patients who underwent RT at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Debrecen. Electronic records and case notes of RT cases were reviewed to determine the incidence of abdominal and vaginal route, distribution of clinicopathologic data, and follow-up results of individual cases. Individual procedures were categorized as oncologically insufficient if additional oncologic treatment was necessary following RT. Theoretical eligibility criteria for RT in early-stage cervical cancer were determined retrospectively by selecting prognostic features that were associated with oncologic insufficiency from clinicopathologic indicators of the complete series. Twenty-four cases of RT were performed by the authors, 15 vaginal RTs with laparoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy and 9 abdominal RTs with open pelvic lymphadenectomy. Fifteen of 24 cases proved oncologically sufficient. Three cases required immediate conversion to radical hysterectomy because of positive sentinel nodes and/or positive isthmic disc on frozen section. In further 5 cases, final pathology results indicated additional oncologic treatment, that is, radical hysterectomy (n = 2), chemoradiotherapy (n = 2), or chemotherapy (n = 1). One patient among immediately converted cases and another 3 among those who required additional oncologic treatment died of their disease later. There were no other cases of recurrences over a median follow-up of 34 months (range, 12-188 months). Factors

  19. Improvement of pain related self management for oncologic patients through a trans institutional modular nursing intervention: protocol of a cluster randomized multicenter trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoke-Colberg Anette

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain is one of the most frequent and distressing symptoms in cancer patients. For the majority of the patients, sufficient pain relief can be obtained if adequate treatment is provided. However, pain remains often undertreated due to institutional, health care professional and patient related barriers. Patients self management skills are affected by the patients' knowledge, activities and attitude to pain management. This trial protocol is aimed to test the SCION-PAIN program, a multi modular structured intervention to improve self management in cancer patients with pain. Methods 240 patients with diagnosed malignancy and pain > 3 days and average pain ≥ 3/10 will participate in a cluster randomized trial on 18 wards in 2 German university hospitals. Patients from the intervention wards will receive, additionally to standard pain treatment, the SCION-PAIN program consisting of 3 modules: pharmacologic pain management, nonpharmacologic pain management and discharge management. The intervention will be conducted by specially trained oncology nurses and includes components of patient education, skills training and counseling to improve self care regarding pain management beginning with admission followed by booster session every 3rd day and one follow up telephone counseling within 2 to 3 days after discharge. Patients in the control group will receive standard care. Primary endpoint is the group difference in patient related barriers to management of cancer pain (BQII, 7 days after discharge. Secondary endpoints are: pain intensity & interference, adherence, coping and HRQoL. Discussion The study will determine if the acquired self management skills of the patients continue to be used after discharge from hospital. It is hypothesized that patients who receive the multi modular structured intervention will have less patient related barriers and a better self management of cancer pain. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials NCT

  20. [History of Oncology in Slovakia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondruš, D; Kaušitz, J

    2016-01-01

    The history of oncology in Slovakia is closely linked to the history of St. Elizabeth Hospital, which was set up in the mid-18th century by nuns of the St. Elizabeth Order in Bratislava. In the first half of the 20th century, a unit was set up in the hospital dedicated to diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Shortly after World War II, the unit was turned into the Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment. In 1950, St. Elizabeth Hospital was nationalized, and the Cancer Research Institute of the Slovak Academy of Science and the Institute of Clinical Oncology were located there as centers for oncological diagnosis and treatment. After the restitution of church property in the early 1990s, the hospital was returned to the Order of St. Elizabeth, which set up the St. Elisabeth Cancer Institute in the hospital premises in January of 1996. This year marks the 20th anniversary of this institute in its new premises and the 85th anniversary of the Institute of Radiumtherapy founded in Bratislava, and thus the establishment of institutional healthcare for cancer patients in Slovakia is the reason for balancing. We present a view of the consecutive changes in the organization, space and staff of the Institute and evaluate the impact of celebrities on medicine who developed oncology as a clinical, scientific and educational discipline in Bratislava and in other cities and regions of Slovakia.

  1. Dosimetry of radium-223 and progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, D.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Sgouros, G. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Radium-223 is a short-lived (11.4 d) alpha emitter with potential applications in radioimmunotherapy of cancer. Radium-223 can be complexed and linked to protein delivery molecules for specific tumor-cell targeting. It decays through a cascade of short-lived alpha- and beta-emitting daughters with emission of about 28 MeV of energy through complete decay. The first three alpha particles are essentially instantaneous. Photons associated with Ra-223 and progeny provide the means for tumor and normal-organ imaging and dosimetry. Two beta particles provide additional therapeutic value. Radium-223 may be produced economically and in sufficient amounts for widescale application. Many aspects of the chemistry of carrier-free isotope preparation, complexation, and linkage to the antibody have been developed and are being tested. The radiation dosimetry of a Ra-223-labeled antibody shows favorable tumor to normal tissue dose ratios for therapy. The 11.4-d half-life of Ra-223 allows sufficient time for immunoconjugate preparation, administration, and tumor localization by carrier antibodies before significant radiological decay takes place. If 0.01 percent of a 37 MBq (1 mCi) injection deposits in a one gram tumor mass, and if the activity is retained with a typical effective half-time (75 h), the absorbed dose will be 163 mGy MBq{sup {minus}1} (600 rad mCi{sup {minus}1}) administered. 49 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Radium isotopes in the lower Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, T. F.; Curwick, P. B.

    1991-02-01

    Radium isotopes have been measured in Mississippi River water at several locations between St. Francisville and Venice, Louisiana. Measured activities averaged 11.1 dpm/100 L (disintegrations per minute per 100 L) for dissolved 226Ra with a 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio of 1.04 and a 224Ra/228Ra activity ratio of 1.06 for the section of river above a phosphogypsum waste-discharge input. Down river from this site, the dissolved 226Ra activity averaged 22.4 dpm/100 L with a 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio of 0.55 and a 224Ra/228Ra activity ratio of 0.87. Chemical and isotopic reequilibration of the radium in the waste with that in the river water and suspended sediments occurs very rapidly. Fluxes of 226Ra are calculated to be 2.44×1014 dpm/yr (disintegrations per minute per year) for the main stem of the Mississippi during phosphogypsum disposal compared to 0.98×1014 dpm/yr when no phosphogypsum disposal is occurring. 28Ra flux is calculated to be 1.06×1014 dpm/yr during disposal and 1.01×1014 dpm/yr in the absence of disposal. The radium flux is estimated to be 45% in the dissolved state and 55% in the adsorbed state.

  3. Radon emanation from radium specific adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabdula'aly, Abdulrahman I; Maghrawy, Hamed B

    2010-01-01

    Pilot studies were undertaken to quantify the total activity of radon that is eluted following no-flow periods from several Ra-226 adsorbents loaded to near exhaustion. The adsorbents studied included two types of barium sulphate impregnated alumina (ABA-8000 and F-1) and Dowex MSC-1 resin treated by either barium hydroxide or barium chloride. In parallel, radium loaded plain activated aluminas and Dowex MSC-1 resin were similarly investigated. The results revealed that radon was quantitatively eluted during the first few bed volumes of column operation after no-flow periods. Although similar radon elution profiles were obtained, the position of the radon peak was found to vary and depended on the adsorbent type. Radon levels up to 24 and 14 kBq dm(-3) were measured after a rest period of 72h from radium exhausted Dowex MSC-1 treated with barium chloride and F-1 impregnated alumina with barium sulphate, respectively. The eluted radon values measured experimentally were compared to those calculated theoretically from accumulated radium quantities for the different media. For plain adsorbents, an agreement better than 10% was obtained. For treated resin-types a consistency within 30% but for impregnated alumina-types high discrepancy between respective values were obtained.

  4. Radium: a miracle cure{exclamation_point} (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genet, M

    1998-07-01

    In 1896, the general population had little enthusiasm for the recent discovery of radioactivity by Henri Becquerel. There was certainly much less than for X rays which had appeared, 3 months earlier, as a 'magic radiation'. However, polonium and radium, discovered by the Curies in 1898, aroused new interest in 'uranic rays'. The first weighable amounts of radium, prepared at the beginning of this century, were used for medical applications. Immediately, the therapeutic properties of radium rays against cancer were recognised. The use of radium in medicine became so common that every kind of disease was treated by radium therapy: not only breast cancer, but also, diabetes, sciatica, uraemia, rheumatism, and even impotence{exclamation_point} As a consequence of this tremendous success, the radium industry grew rapidly during the 1920s and numerous goods, especially cosmetics, doped with radium were on sale. It was even considered that in order to be in good health, one should drink a glass of radioactive water every day, prepared by using a radium percolator. This period lasted for more than 25 years, then, just before World War II radium use was considered dangerous and the number of its applications decreased. (author)

  5. DETERMINATION OF RADIUM AND RADON CONCENTRATIONS IN SOME ROCK SAMPLES

    OpenAIRE

    BAYKARA, Oktay

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations of radium (226Ra), radon (222Rn) and radon exhalation rate in nine rock samples have been determined using solid-state nuclear track detectors (CR-39). The measured maximum values of radium, radon and radon exhalation rate in rock samples were found to be 24.62 Bq/kg, 4911.32 Bq/m3 and 4,86 Bqm-2h-1, respectively. Linear correlation was observed among radon concentration, radon exhalation and radium concentration. The linear correlation coefficient between radium content an...

  6. Effective radium-226 concentration in meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Frédéric; Perrier, Frédéric; Moreira, Manuel; Zanda, Brigitte; Rochette, Pierre; Teitler, Yoram

    2017-07-01

    The analysis of noble gases in meteorites provides constraints on the early solar system and the pre-solar nebula. This requires a better characterization and understanding of the capture, production, and release of noble gases in meteorites. The knowledge of transfer properties of noble gases for each individual meteorite could benefit from using radon-222, radioactive daughter of radium-226. The radon-222 emanating power is commonly quantified by the effective radium-226 concentration (ECRa), the product of the bulk radium-226 concentration and of the emanation coefficient E, which represents the probability of one decaying radium-226 to inject one radon-222 into the free porous network. Owing to a non-destructive, high-sensitivity accumulation method based on long photomultiplier counting sessions, we are now able to measure ECRa of meteorite samples, which usually have mass smaller than 15 g and ECRa rocks, but comparable with those from Archean rocks (mean of ca. 0.18 Bq kg-1), an end-member of terrestrial rocks. Using uranium concentration from the literature, E is inferred from ECRa for all the meteorite samples. Values of E for meteorites (mean 40 ± 4%) are higher than E values for Archean rocks and reported values for lunar and Martian soils. Exceptionally large E values likely suggest that the 238U-226Ra pair would not be at equilibrium in most meteorites and that uranium and/or radium are most likely not uniformly distributed. ECRa of meteorites is correlated with E and seems to mainly reflect the gas permeability of the meteorite, which could be one important property, preserved in the meteorite, of its parent body, characterizing its history in space, possibly modified by alteration, shock metamorphism, and eventually weathering on Earth. Larger radon emanation values are associated with larger concentrations of the heaviest noble gases (argon, krypton, xenon), and larger 20Ne/22Ne and 36Ar/38Ar ratios, suggesting Earth's atmosphere contamination or

  7. Radium in Humans: A Review of U.S. Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, R. E.

    1994-09-01

    This document was originally conceived as a description of the radium studies that took place at Argonne National Laboratory. It soon became evident, however, that to document the widespread use of radium, a brief review of the application of radium in medicine and in the US dial painting industry is required. Further, because the Argonne studies were not the only such efforts, brief overviews of the other radium programs are included. Even so, much material has been omitted. The extensive references included will allow the interested reader to find additional information. The effects of internally deposited radium in humans have been studied in this country for more than 75 years. Some 2,400 subjects have had their body contents of radium measured, and a majority of them have been followed for most of their adult lives, to understand and quantify the effects of radium. Many more individuals acquired radium internally but were never measured. Some of this group have been located and followed until death; in these cases the cause of death is known without a body content measurement. As a consequence of the efforts made to locate, measure, and follow exposed individuals, a great deal of information about the effects of radium is available. Nevertheless, great gaps remain in the knowledge of radium toxicity. The Argonne study is the largest every undertaken of the effects on humans of an internally deposited radioelement, in which the insult has been quantitated by actual measurements of the retained radioisotope. The study has now been terminated, even though more than 1,000 subjects with measured radium burdens are still alive. This document is written as a brief summary of current knowledge accumulated in this incomplete study.

  8. Report from the OECI Oncology Days 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harten, van W.H.; Stanta, G.; Bussolati, G.; Riegman, P.; Hoefler, G.; Becker, K.F.; Folprecht, G.; Truini, M.; Haybaeck, J.; Buiga, R.; Dono, M.; Bagg, A.; Lopez Guerrero, J.A.; Zupo, S.; Lemare, F.; Lorenzo, de F.; Goedbloed, N.; Razavi, D.; Lovey, J.; Cadariu, P.A.; Rollandi, G.A.; Paparo, F.; Pierotti, M.; Ciuleanu, T.; de Paoli, P.; Weiner, G.; Saghatchian, M.; Lombardo, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 OECI Oncology Days was held at the ‘Prof. Dr. Ion Chiricuta’ Oncology Institute in Cluj, Romania, from 12 to 13 June. The focus of this year’s gathering was on developments in personalised medicine and other treatment advances which have made the cost of cancer care too high for many region

  9. [Radium in pharmacies! First Part : Pharmaceutical used of radium before the first World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynal, Cécile; Lefebvre, Thierry

    2012-02-01

    The authors present in this part the creation of first radioactiv drugs, since the discovery of radium to the first World War. They present the industrial and chemist Emile Armet de Lisle and the pharmacist Alexandre Antonin Jaboin, first manufacturers of those new way of treatment.

  10. Radium in humans: A review of U.S. studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, R.E.

    1994-09-01

    This document was originally conceived as a compilation of activities at Argonne National Laboratory that were directed toward the study of radium in humans. However, it soon became obvious that this was a very limited approach, because such a compilation would include no background on the widespread uses of radium in industry and in the medical profession, nor would it address the early history of the discovery of the hazards of radium. Such an approach would also ignore contributions to the study of radium effects made at other laboratories. This document now addresses these topics, in order to give an overall picture of what might be called the radium era, that period from the early part of this century, when radium was rapidly exploited as a tool and a medication, to the present time, when radium is not generally used and the study of its effects has been terminated. The appendix to this review lists all of the measured radium cases, a total of 2,403 individuals whose records were in the files at the end of 1990. For each case the route of exposure, the dates of exposure, the years of birth and death, the measured body content, the calculated intake and dose, and the cause of death have been listed. 165 refs.

  11. EVALUATING ION EXCHANGE FOR REMOVING RADIUM FROM GROUNDWATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article, the second in a series, focuses on the results of bench- and pilot-scale studies of ion exchange processes for radium removal from groundwater in Lemont, Ill. Batch and column studies indicated a very high resin selectivity for radium compared with common cations. E...

  12. Marie and Pierre Curie and radium: history, mystery, and discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mould, R F

    1999-09-01

    Commencing with Marie Curie's early life in Poland and the discovery of radium in the rue l'Homond "shed" in Paris in 1898, this paper includes some little known facts. It ends with some unusual uses of and claims for radium, and finally, because Medical Physics is an American journal, details are included of Marie Curie's two visits to the USA.

  13. Radium in baggerspecie afkomstig uit het Rijnmondgebied. Resultaten over 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lembrechts J; Glastra P; Nissan LA; Overwater RMW; LSO

    2002-01-01

    The radium concentration was measured in 25 samples of harbour sludge taken in 2001 from the Rijnmond area (Rotterdam harbours and the Nieuwe Waterweg). High radium levels were found near the former discharge points of the phosphate ore processing plants, confirming the results of previous campaigns

  14. Radium Ra 223 dichloride in castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, J Y; Ha, Y S; Kim, I Y

    2013-08-01

    Radium Ra 223 dichloride (Xofigo®, formerly Alpharadin) is one of the representative α-particle-emitting isotopes that delivers radiation with a higher biological effect to a more localized area. Preclinical studies in mouse, rat and canine models have demonstrated that radium Ra 223 dichloride has a definite skeletal affinity and antitumor effect with a relatively low toxicity on bone marrow. More recently, in a large randomized phase III trial (ALSYMPCA), patients with bone metastasis and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) received six cycles of 50 kBq/kg of radium Ra 223 dichloride in 4-week intervals. In these men, radium Ra 223 dichloride improved the median overall survival by 3.6 months when compared to the placebo group. Collectively, these results suggest that radium Ra 223 dichloride is a promising candidate for managing bone metastases in patients with CRPC. Copyright 2013 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  15. Causal relationship between background radium burdens and osteonecrosis questioned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.H. [Schmeltzer, Aptaker and Shepard, P.C., Northwest WA, D.C. (United States); Gannon, F.H. [Dept. of Orthopedic Pathology, Armed Forces Inst. of Pathology, WA, D.C. (United States)

    2005-07-01

    A pathologist's 1974 publication reported medical information for 42 radium workers, including identification of a variety of systemic diseases and other conditions putatively associated with osteonecrosis. In 1983, the same author prepared another article concluding that 6 of the 42 radium workers with background or below-background radium burdens had radium-induced osteonecrosis. The pathologist based this conclusion on the premise that none of the workers had the systemic diseases that had previously been reported in the 1974 publication. In 1992, the pathologist testified as an expert witness in civil litigation and acknowledged that the systemic diseases and other conditions reported in his 1974 article caused or could have caused the 6 workers' osteonecrosis. The purpose of this document is to reconcile the confusion created by the foregoing publications concerning the relationship between background radium burdens and osteonecrosis. (orig.)

  16. Controls on radium transport by adsorption to iron minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Wang, T.; Kocar, B. D.

    2015-12-01

    Radium is a naturally occurring radioactive metal found in many subsurface environments. Radium isotopes are generated by uranium and thorium decay, and are particularly abundant within groundwaters where minimal porewater flux leads to accumulation. These isotopes are used as natural tracers for estimating submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) [1], allowing for large scale estimation of GW fluxes into and out of the ocean [2]. They also represent a substantial hazard in wastewater produced after hydraulic fracturing for natural gas extraction [3], resulting in a significant risk of environmental release to surface and near-surface waters, and increased cost for water treatment or disposal. Adsorption to mineral surfaces represents a dominant pathway of radium retention in subsurface environments. For SGD studies, adsorption processes impact estimates of GW fluxes, while in hydraulic fracturing, radium adsorption to aquifer solids mediates wastewater radium activities. Analysis of past sorption studies revealed large variability in partition coefficients [4], while examination of radium adsorption kinetics and surface complexation have only recently started [5]. Accordingly, we present the results of sorption and column experiments of radium with a suite of iron minerals representative of those found within deep saline and near-surface (freshwater) aquifers, and evaluate impacts of varying salinity solutions through artificial waters. Further, we explore the impacts of pyrite oxidation and ferrihydrite transformation to other iron-bearing secondary minerals on the transport and retention of radium. These results will provide critical information on the mineralogical controls on radium retention in subsurface environments, and will therefore improve predictions of radium groundwater transport in natural and contaminated systems. [1] Charette, M.A., Buesseler, K.O. & Andrews, J.E., Limnol. Oceanogr. (2001). [2] Moore, W.S., Ann. Rev. Mar. Sci. (2010). [3] Vengosh, A

  17. [Precarious matters. The radium economy, episteme of risk and the emergence of tracer technique in national socialism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schwerin, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Following the traces of radioactive material is--as scholars have recently shown--a valuable historical approach in order to evaluate the material 'factor' of science in action. Even though the origins of materials like radium and artificial isotopes are quite different, their circulation is interconnected. A material pathway can be drawn from the radium industry to the scientific rise of artificial isotopes as indicator substances in the 1930s, continuing to the building of networks by German scientists working for the war efforts. Also, this pathway reveals the role of radiation protection in establishing that material culture. Finally, the dynamics of material traces and institutional linkages is shown by the tracer work of biophysicists and radiation biologists working at the Genetic Department of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Brain Research in Berlin and at the Institut de Chimie Nucléaire at Paris, which at that time was occupied by German troops.

  18. Radium Adsorption to Iron Bearing Minerals in Variable Salinity Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Kocar, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    Radium is a common, naturally occurring radioactive metal found in many subsurface environments. Radium isotopes are a product of natural uranium and thorium decay, and are particularly abundant within groundwaters where minimal flux leads to accumulation within porewaters. Radium has been used as a natural tracer to estimate submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) [1], where the ratios of various radium isotopes are used to estimate total groundwater flux to and from the ocean [2]. Further, it represents a substantial hazard in waste water produced after hydraulic fracturing for natural gas extraction [3], resulting in a significant risk of environmental release and increased cost for water treatment or disposal. Adsorption to mineral surfaces represents a primary pathway of radium retention within subsurface environments. For SGD studies, it is important to understand adsorption processes to correctly estimate GW fluxes, while in hydraulic fracturing, radium adsorption to aquifer solids will mediate the activities of radium within produced water. While some studies of radium adsorption to various minerals have been performed [4], there is a limited understanding of the surface chemistry of radium adsorption, particularly to iron-bearing minerals such as pyrite, goethite and ferrihydrite. Accordingly, we present the results of sorption experiments of radium to a suite of iron-bearing minerals representative of those found within deep saline and near-surface (freshwater) aquifers, and evaluate impacts of varying salinity solutions through the use of artificial groundwater, seawater, and shale formation brine. Further, we explore the impacts of pyrite oxidation and ferrihydrite transformation to other iron-bearing secondary minerals on the retention of radium. This work lays the groundwork for further study of radium use as a tracer for SGD, as well as understanding mechanisms of radium retention and release from deep aquifer materials following hydraulic fracturing

  19. Collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy of radium ions

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study the neutron-deficient radium isotopes with high-resolution collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy. Probing the hyperfine structure of the $7{s}\\,^2\\!{S}\\!_{1/2}\\,\\rightarrow\\,7{p}\\,^{2}\\!{P}\\!_{1/2}$ and $7{s}\\,^{2}\\!{S}\\!_{1/2}\\,\\rightarrow\\,7{p}\\,^{2}\\!{P}\\!_{3/2}$ transitions in Ra II will provide atomic-structure measurements that have not been achieved for $^{{A}<208}$Ra. Measurement of the $7{s}\\,^{2}\\!{S}\\!_{1/2}\\,\\rightarrow\\,7{p}\\,^{2}\\!{P}\\!_{3/2}$ transition in $^{{A}<214}$Ra will allow the spectroscopic quadrupole moments to be directly measured for the first time. In addition, the technique will allow tentative spin assignments to be confirmed and the magnetic dipole moments measured for $^{\\textit{A}<208}$Ra. Measurement of the hyperfine structure (in particular the isotope shifts) of the neutron-deficient radium will provide information to further constrain the nuclear models away from the N=126 shell closure.

  20. Early radium experiments in Guadalajara, M'exico

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alba Martínez, Durruty Jesús

    2005-04-01

    In April 01, 1904, two catholic lay priests, Severo D'iaz Galindo and Jos'e Mar'ia Arreola Mendoza, performed firsts Radium experiments in Guadalajara, M'exico, just after Radium experiments realized in Mexico City by Prof. Luis G. Le'on. Results of such experiences where published in the Bolet'in Eclesi'astico y Cient'ifico del Arzobispado de Guadalajara/ (Eclesiastic and Scientific Bulletin of the Guadalajara Archbishopric), here is show this paper and some of the first Radium plates obtained. Scientific and educational situation in Guadalajara is described and how both persons became founders of the modern scientific activity in the city.

  1. Educating medical students about radiation oncology: initial results of the oncology education initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Ariel E; Singh, Deeptej; Ozonoff, Al; Slanetz, Priscilla J

    2007-10-01

    Multidisciplinary cancer care requires the integration of teaching across established educational boundaries. Because exposure to oncology and radiation oncology is limited in the undergraduate medical curriculum, the authors introduced an oncology education initiative at their institution. They report on the addition of structured multidisciplinary oncology education to the required radiology core clerkship. An institutional-based cohort study of fourth-year medical students rotating through a required clerkship in radiology at Boston University School of Medicine was conducted, beginning with the class of 2007. An educational questionnaire measuring the perceived quality of oncology education before and after exposure to a structured didactic program was administered. Of the 149 fourth-year students, 121 (81%) have completed the didactics of the initiative. Although 68 of 121 (56%) students reported having limited exposure to cancer care in the clinical years, 107 of 121 (88%) were motivated to learn more about the subject, and 100 of 121 (83%) reported a better understanding of the multidisciplinary nature of cancer care after this oncology education initiative. One hundred ten of 121 (91%) felt that the radiology clerkship was an opportune time to receive oncology and radiation oncology teaching. As a result of the initiative, 32% of the students pursued advanced training in radiation oncology. Of students who before the initiative were not planning on taking oncology electives, 70 of 99 (71%) agreed or strongly agreed that the lecture motivated them to learn more about the subject, and 43 of 99 (43%) agreed or strongly agreed that the lecture motivated them to take oncology electives. Systematic exposure to multidisciplinary oncology education as part of a radiology core clerkship provides an excellent opportunity for the integrated teaching of oncologic principles and patient management. This type of experience addresses an important yet underrepresented

  2. Prediction of pathological and oncological outcomes based on extended prostate biopsy results in patients with prostate cancer receiving radical prostatectomy: a single institution study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishizaki Fumio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prediction of pathological outcomes prior to surgery remains a challenging problem for the appropriate surgical indication of prostate cancer. This study was performed to identify preoperative values predictive of pathological and oncological outcomes based on standardized extended prostate biopsies with core histological results diagrammed/mapped in patients receiving radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer clinically diagnosed as localized or locally advanced disease. Methods In 124 patients with clinically localized or locally advanced prostate cancer (cT1c–cT3a without prior treatment, pathological outcomes on the surgical specimen including seminal vesicle involvement (SVI, positive surgical margin (PSM, and perineural invasion (PNI were studied in comparison with clinical parameters based on the results of 14-core prostate biopsies comprising sextant, laterally-directed sextant, and bilateral transition zone (TZ sampling. Results Concerning the association of pathological outcomes with oncological outcomes, patients with PSM and PNI on surgical specimens had poorer biochemical-progression-free survival than those without PSM (logrank p = 0.002 and PNI (p = 0.003; it was also poorer concerning SVI, although the difference was not significant (p = 0.120. Concerning the impact of clinical parameters on these pathological outcomes, positive TZ and multiple positive biopsy cores in the prostatic middle were independent values predictive of SVI with multivariate analyses (p = 0.020 and p = 0.025, respectively; both positive TZ and multiple positive prostatic middle biopsies were associated with larger tumor volume (p  Conclusions %positive cores and Gleason score in extended biopsies were independent values predictive of PSM and PNI in prostate cancer clinically diagnosed as localized or locally advanced disease, respectively, which were associated with poorer oncological outcomes. When

  3. Procedures for sampling radium-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischhauer, H.L.

    1985-10-01

    Two procedures for sampling the surface layer (0 to 15 centimeters) of radium-contaminated soil are recommended for use in remedial action projects. Both procedures adhere to the philosophy that soil samples should have constant geometry and constant volume in order to ensure uniformity. In the first procedure, a ''cookie cutter'' fashioned from pipe or steel plate, is driven to the desired depth by means of a slide hammer, and the sample extracted as a core or plug. The second procedure requires use of a template to outline the sampling area, from which the sample is obtained using a trowel or spoon. Sampling to the desired depth must then be performed incrementally. Selection of one procedure over the other is governed primarily by soil conditions, the cookie cutter being effective in nongravelly soils, and the template procedure appropriate for use in both gravelly and nongravelly soils. In any event, a minimum sample volume of 1000 cubic centimeters is recommended. The step-by-step procedures are accompanied by a description of the minimum requirements for sample documentation. Transport of the soil samples from the field is then addressed in a discussion of the federal regulations for shipping radioactive materials. Interpretation of those regulations, particularly in light of their application to remedial action soil-sampling programs, is provided in the form of guidance and suggested procedures. Due to the complex nature of the regulations, however, there is no guarantee that our interpretations of them are complete or entirely accurate. Preparation of soil samples for radium-226 analysis by means of gamma-ray spectroscopy is described.

  4. Lead-Radium Activity Ratios From Otoliths of Regional Bottomfishes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set contains lead-radium dating of opakapaka (Pristipomoides filamentosus) otoliths from recent and archival collections (1987-2009).

  5. The European Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology-European Institute of Radiotherapy (ESTRO-EIR) report on 3D CT-based in-room image guidance systems: a practical and technical review and guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korreman, Stine; Rasch, Coen; McNair, Helen; Verellen, Dirk; Oelfke, Uwe; Maingon, Philippe; Mijnheer, Ben; Khoo, Vincent

    2010-02-01

    The past decade has provided many technological advances in radiotherapy. The European Institute of Radiotherapy (EIR) was established by the European Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) to provide current consensus statement with evidence-based and pragmatic guidelines on topics of practical relevance for radiation oncology. This report focuses primarily on 3D CT-based in-room image guidance (3DCT-IGRT) systems. It will provide an overview and current standing of 3DCT-IGRT systems addressing the rationale, objectives, principles, applications, and process pathways, both clinical and technical for treatment delivery and quality assurance. These are reviewed for four categories of solutions; kV CT and kV CBCT (cone-beam CT) as well as MV CT and MV CBCT. It will also provide a framework and checklist to consider the capability and functionality of these systems as well as the resources needed for implementation. Two different but typical clinical cases (tonsillar and prostate cancer) using 3DCT-IGRT are illustrated with workflow processes via feedback questionnaires from several large clinical centres currently utilizing these systems. The feedback from these clinical centres demonstrates a wide variability based on local practices. This report whilst comprehensive is not exhaustive as this area of development remains a very active field for research and development. However, it should serve as a practical guide and framework for all professional groups within the field, focussed on clinicians, physicists and radiation therapy technologists interested in IGRT.

  6. Oncology in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eav, S; Schraub, S; Dufour, P; Taisant, D; Ra, C; Bunda, P

    2012-01-01

    Cambodia, a country of 14 million inhabitants, was devastated during the Khmer Rouge period and thereafter. The resources of treatment are rare: only one radiotherapy department, renovated in 2003, with an old cobalt machine; few surgeons trained to operate on cancer patients; no hematology; no facilities to use intensive chemotherapy; no nuclear medicine department and no palliative care unit. Cervical cancer incidence is one of the highest in the world, while in men liver cancer ranks first (20% of all male cancers). Cancers are seen at stage 3 or 4 for 70% of patients. There is no prevention program - only a vaccination program against hepatitis B for newborns - and no screening program for cervical cancer or breast cancer. In 2010, oncology, recognized as a full specialty, was created to train the future oncologists on site at the University of Phnom Penh. A new National Cancer Center will be built in 2013 with modern facilities for radiotherapy, medical oncology, hematology and nuclear medicine. Cooperation with foreign countries, especially France, and international organizations has been established and is ongoing. Progress is occurring slowly due to the shortage of money for Cambodian institutions and the lay public.

  7. The metabolism of radium-226 during pregnancy in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kshirsagar, S.G. (Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Bombay (India))

    1990-06-01

    Metabolism of radium including the transfer to the fetus through the placenta was studied during three successive pregnancies 92, 155, and 213 days after injection of 226Ra in young female rats. The cumulative fecal and urinary excretions of 226Ra in a 213-day period following injection were about 30 and 15% injected dose (%ID), respectively, most of them occurring during the first 42 days. The excretions were similar in both the pregnant and control (unmated) rats. The whole-body burden of radium (mostly in the skeleton) determined by actual analysis of the entire body was similar in the two groups and was about 53, 48, and 44 %ID at the first, second, and third pregnancy, respectively. Pregnancy alone, therefore, did not significantly affect metabolism of radium. At 20 days of gestation the mean placental content of radium was 0.005, 0.0045, and 0.0036 %ID in the first, second, and third litter, respectively; the corresponding mean fetal content was 0.01, 0.008, and 0.005 %ID. The radium burden of the full-term neonate (21-22 days) was 0.014 and 0.011 %ID for the first and second delivery, respectively. The total amount calculated of radium transferred from the mother to the 8-10 fetuses in a litter did not exceed about 0.3% of the maternal content per each pregnancy. Comparison of the ratio of radium and calcium in the fetus and maternal skeleton shows that there is a Ra-Ca discrimination during their passage from the mother to the fetus.

  8. Radium single-ion optical clock

    CERN Document Server

    Versolato, O O; Jungmann, K; Timmermans, R G E; Willmann, L; Wilschut, H W

    2011-01-01

    We explore the potential of the electric quadrupole transitions $7s\\,^2S_{1/2}$ - $6d\\,^2D_{3/2}$, $6d\\,^2D_{5/2}$ in radium isotopes as single-ion optical frequency standards. The frequency shifts of the clock transitions due to external fields and the corresponding uncertainties are calculated. Several competitive $^A$Ra$^+$ candidates with $A=$ 223 - 229 are identified. In particular, we show that the transition $7s\\,^2S_{1/2}\\,(F=2,m_F=0)$ - $6d\\,^2D_{3/2}\\,(F=0,m_F=0)$ at 828 nm in $^{223}$Ra$^+$, with no linear Zeeman and electric quadrupole shifts, stands out as a relatively simple case, which could be exploited as a compact, robust, and low-cost atomic clock operating at a fractional frequency uncertainty of $10^{-17}$. With more experimental effort, the $^{223,225,226}$Ra$^+$ clocks could be pushed to a projected performance reaching the $10^{-18}$ level.

  9. Online spectroscopy of trapped radium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Versolato, Oscar O.; Giri, Gouri S.; Berg, Joost van den; Hoek, Duurt Johan van der; Kruithof, Wilbert; Santra, Bodhaditya; Shidling, Praveen; Willmann, Lorenz; Wilschut, Hans W.; Jungmann, Klaus [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    Radium ions are of particular interest for a most precise measurement of Atomic Parity Violation. From a single cold and trapped ion one expects a significantly improved measurement of the weak mixing (Weinberg) angle through a determination of the light shift in the forbidden 7{sup 2}S{sub 1/2}-6{sup 2}D{sub 3/2} transition. In preparation of such precision measurements the transitions relevant for this (7S-7P, 6D-7P) were observed and measured in the isotopes {sup 212}Ra, {sup 213}Ra and {sup 214}Ra. The isotopes were produced at the TRI{mu}P facility of KVI, when a {sup 208}Pb beam hit a solid {sup 12}C target. The Ra isotopes were stopped and re-ionized to Ra{sup +} in a Thermal Ionizer, mass separated in a Wien Filter and cooled in a gas filled Radio Frequency Quadrupole. The ions were stored as a cloud in a Paul trap, where they also interacted with laser light. All necessary wavelengths were obtained by semiconductor lasers. The setup and the measurements will be discussed.

  10. [Dermato-oncological rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhles, N; Sander, C

    2005-07-01

    National insurance companies in Germany support health cures for patients with malignant tumors (malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, Merkel cell tumor, malignant cutaneous lymphoma). The clinical requirements are an invasively growing tumor, problems of self-assurance, and dis-integration of the patient regarding his social and/or professional environment. The decision for a health cure is made by the treating dermatologist in the hospital. In this context, the following sociomedical criteria should be applied: impairment, disability, and handicap. Usually, rehabilitation starts after the patient is discharged from the hospital. The inpatient rehabilitation program should be performed at an institution capable of providing dermatological and psychological treatment. The dermatologist acts as a manager for the members of the rehabilitation team (psychologists, physiotherapists, social workers, and ergo-therapists). In conclusion, dermato-oncologic rehabilitation plays an important role in re-integrating the patient into his professional life to avoid retirement.

  11. Intermittent Elevated Radium Concentrations in Coastal Plain Groundwater of South Carolina, U.S.A.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denham, Miles; Millings, Margaret; Noonkester, Jay

    2005-09-22

    To learn the cause of intermittent radium concentrations in groundwater of Coastal Plain aquifers, 31 groundwater wells in South Carolina, U.S.A. were sampled for radium and other geochemical parameters. Sediments cored from near the well screens were also sampled to examine any relationship between sediment properties and radium concentration in the groundwater. Elevated radium concentrations only occurred in groundwater with low electrical conductivity and pH values below 6.3. The adsorption edge for radium on hematite--a major surface active mineral in these aquifers--is at a pH value of about 6. Near this value, small changes in pH can result in significant adsorption or desorption of radium. In groundwater with initially low alkalinity, small intermittent decreases in partial pressure of carbon dioxide in groundwater cause decreases in pH and desorption of radium. The result is intermittent elevated radium concentrations.

  12. Nanotechnology in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Andrew Z; Tepper, Joel E

    2014-09-10

    Nanotechnology, the manipulation of matter on atomic and molecular scales, is a relatively new branch of science. It has already made a significant impact on clinical medicine, especially in oncology. Nanomaterial has several characteristics that are ideal for oncology applications, including preferential accumulation in tumors, low distribution in normal tissues, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and clearance, that differ from those of small molecules. Because these properties are also well suited for applications in radiation oncology, nanomaterials have been used in many different areas of radiation oncology for imaging and treatment planning, as well as for radiosensitization to improve the therapeutic ratio. In this article, we review the unique properties of nanomaterials that are favorable for oncology applications and examine the various applications of nanotechnology in radiation oncology. We also discuss the future directions of nanotechnology within the context of radiation oncology. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  13. Principal aquifers can contribute radium to sources of drinking water under certain geochemical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Zoltan; Fischer, Jeffrey M.; Hancock, Tracy Connell

    2012-01-01

    What are the most important factors affecting dissolved radium concentrations in principal aquifers used for drinking water in the United States? Study results reveal where radium was detected and how rock type and chemical processes control radium occurrence. Knowledge of the geochemical conditions may help water-resource managers anticipate where radium may be elevated in groundwater and minimize exposure to radium, which contributes to cancer risk. Summary of Major Findings: * Concentrations of radium in principal aquifers used for drinking water throughout the United States generally were below 5 picocuries per liter (pCi/L), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) for combined radium - radium-226 (Ra-226) plus radium-228 (Ra-228) - in public water supplies. About 3 percent of sampled wells had combined radium concentrations greater than the MCL. * Elevated concentrations of combined radium were more common in groundwater in the eastern and central United States than in other regions of the Nation. About 98 percent of the wells that contained combined radium at concentrations greater than the MCL were east of the High Plains. * The highest concentrations of combined radium were in the Mid-Continent and Ozark Plateau Cambro-Ordovician aquifer system and the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system. More than 20 percent of sampled wells in these aquifers had combined radium concentrations that were greater than or equal to the MCL. * Concentrations of Ra-226 correlated with those of Ra-228. Radium-226 and Ra-228 occur most frequently together in unconsolidated sand aquifers, and their presence is strongly linked to groundwater chemistry. * Three common geochemical factors are associated with the highest radium concentrations in groundwater: (1) oxygen-poor water, (2) acidic conditions (low pH), and (3) high concentrations of dissolved solids.

  14. Effect of duration of exposure to RaCl{sub 2} and a radium apatite from freshwater mussels on intestinal transport and bone deposition of radium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domel, R.U. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organsiation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Environment Division; Beal, A.M. [University of New South Wales, NSW (Australia). Biological Science

    1997-10-01

    Natural leaching of uranium ore bodies can result in {sup 226}Ra pollution of adjacent waterways and consequent incorporation of radium into the food chain. Mining has the potential to augment this effect. In the Magela flood plain, Northern Territory, the freshwater mussel (Velesunio angasi) concentrates radium in its tissues as a phosphate compound. The availability of mussel radium for uptake and tissue incorporation was assessed relative to radium chloride using rats. The results were compared for jejunal transport (in situ in vivo, ligated segment using anaesthetised animals) and feed trial experiments. In addition, the influence of age and duration of dosage (hours in the case of the jejunal transport and weeks in the feed trial studies) were investigated. Mussel radium transport across the jejunum of adults and juveniles (<0.3%) was very small when compared to radium chloride (50% injected dose). The amount of mussel radium available for intestinal uptake in the feed trials was also low (<0.5%) but significant when compared to the uptake of radium chloride (< 1.5%). Incorporation of mussel radium into bone was less than that of radium chloride (p=0.0001) for both adults and juveniles. Extrapolation of the data from the animal model to humans suggests that eating these mussels carries with it only a low risk of exceeding the Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) set for members of the public, even in juveniles 18 refs., 5 figs.

  15. 40 CFR 440.30 - Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for the extraction of uranium, radium and vanadium. Only vanadium byproduct production from uranium... uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory. 440.30 Section 440.30 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.30 Applicability; description of...

  16. Application of zeolites for radium removal from mine water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chałupnik, Stanisław; Franus, Wojciech; Wysocka, Małgorzata; Gzyl, Grzegorz

    2013-11-01

    For removal of radium from saline waters in Upper Silesian mines, several methods of purification have been developed. The most efficient one is based on application of barium chloride, which was implemented in full technical scale in two Polish coal mines several years ago. Very good results of purification have been achieved-the removal efficiency exceeding 95% of the initial activity. Another possibility for the removal of different ions from salty waters and brines is the application of zeolites. We found that technique as a very promising method for removal of not only radium isotopes from mine waters but also other ions (barium, iron, manganese). Treatment of several various water samples has been done to assess the removal efficiency for natural radionuclides. Preliminary results show very good effects for radium isotopes as well as for barium ions. In the paper, a short description of laboratory results of the purification of mine waters with application of synthetic zeolites is presented.

  17. Radium activity measurements in bottled mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Denyak, Valeriy; Reque, Marilson, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rocha, Paschuk; Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O., E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This work presents the preliminary results of {sup 226}Ra activity measurements of fifteen samples of bottled mineral water acquired at markets of Curitiba-PR, Brazil. The measurements were performed at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology - Parana (UTFPR) in collaboration with the Center of Nuclear Technology Development of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Committee (CNEN). The experimental setup was based on the electronic radon detector RAD7 (Durridge Company, Inc.). The measurements were carried out with a special kit of accessory vessels (vials) RAD7 H{sub 2}O, which allows one to identify the {sup 222}Rn activity concentration in small water samples of 40 mL and 250 mL in the range going from less than 30 pCi/L to greater than 10{sup 5} pCi/L. During each measurement a vial from RAD H{sub 2}O was poured with a sample of water. The air pump, included in the close loop aeration circuit and connected to the vial and RAD7 detector, operated for five minutes to snatch the sample of air maintained above the level of water sample and transporting it from the vial through the system. Evaluation of the concentration of soluble radium ({sup 226}Ra) salts in water and their activity was performed after 30 days when {sup 222}Rn in the water samples reached secular equilibrium. The background measurements were performed using the samples of the distilled water. Considering the importance of background measurements, it was found that the value suggested by user Manual protocol (RAD7) for the case of low activity radon measurements, has to be slightly modified. (author)

  18. Quantitatively and qualitatively augmenting medical student knowledge of oncology and radiation oncology: an update on the impact of the oncology education initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Ariel E; Handal, Roxane; Daniels, Janeen; Levin-Epstein, Rebecca; Denunzio, Nicholas J; Dillon, Johanne; Shaffer, Kitt; Bishop, Pauline Mulleady

    2012-02-01

    The Oncology Education Initiative was established in 2007 in an effort to advance oncology and radiation oncology education at the undergraduate level. As a continuation of the initiative, the aim of this study was to determine whether these structured didactics would continue to increase overall medical student knowledge about oncologic topics. Preclerkship and postclerkship tests examining concepts in general oncology, radiation oncology, breast cancer, and prostate cancer were administered. The 21-question, multiple-choice examination was administered at the beginning and end of the radiology clerkship, during which a 1.5-hour didactic session was given by an attending radiation oncologist. Changes in individual question responses, student responses, and overall categorical responses were analyzed. All hypothesis tests were two tailed with a significance level of .05. In the 2009-2010 academic year, 155 third-year and fourth-year students had average examination score improvements from 62% to 68.9% (P students and decreased among fourth-year students. In the successive years since its inception, the Oncology Education Initiative continues to show a significant improvement in medical students' knowledge of cancer. The initiative has also succeeded in providing radiation oncology education to all graduating medical students at the authors' institution. Dedicated oncology education in the undergraduate medical curriculum provides students with a better understanding of multidisciplinary oncology management. Copyright © 2012 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cost analysis of cetuximab (Erbitux) plus radiotherapy (ERT) versus concomitant cisplatin plus radiotherapy (CRT) within an NHS oncology unit (single institution): a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroline, Brammer; Sundus, Yahya; Dawn, Dawson; Carol, Glaister; Susan, Merrick

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this feasibility study is to define the resource effectiveness of cetuximab vs cisplatin given concomitantly with radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma within a National Health Service clinical oncology unit. 20 patients with Stage 3 or 4 head and neck squamous cell cancers were randomized to receive either cetuximab with radiotherapy (ERT) or cisplatin with radiotherapy concurrent with external beam radiotherapy 70 Gy in 35 fractions on a 1 : 1 basis over a 12-month duration. The study compared the resource utilization of ERT vs cisplatin with radiotherapy taking into account drug costs, clinical management and the costs of managing treatment-related toxicity from first fraction of radiotherapy to 6 months after the completion of therapy. Outcome measures were quality of life (recorded at the entry, end of radiotherapy, 6 weeks post treatment and 6 months post treatment), admissions to hospital, delays to radiotherapy, locoregional control and survival. Total drug costs including cost of nutritional supplements for patients treated with cetuximab were £7407.45 compared with £3959.07 for patients treated with cisplatin. Unscheduled admissions for toxicity management were significantly more common in the ERT arm. Healthcare personnel spent significantly more time delivering unscheduled outpatient care for patients receiving cisplatin than for those receiving cetuximab (p = 0.01). No significant difference in the quality of life was suggested at baseline, 6 weeks and 6 months. The mean time to removal of percutaneous gastrostomy (PEG) after completion of radiotherapy was 49.7 weeks in the cisplatin arm and 18.5 weeks in the cetuximab arm (p = 0.04). There was a statistically significant difference in patient-reported use of PEG between the cisplatin and cetuximab arms at 6 months following completion of treatment (p = 0.04). At 21 months, overall survival was 80% in the cisplatin arm vs 50% in the cetuximab (p = 0.332), with

  20. Accessibility and Barriers to Oncology Appointments at 40 National Cancer Institute-Designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers: Results of a Mystery Shopper Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlyn, Geoffrey S; Hutchins, Kathryn E; Johnston, Abby L; Thomas, Rishonda T; Tian, James; Kamal, Arif H

    2016-10-01

    Patients turn to National Cancer Institute (NCI) -designated comprehensive cancer centers because of perceived better quality and more timely access to care. However, recent studies have found that patients at various institutions may struggle to gain access to an appointment or obtain consistent information from attendants. Our study employs a mystery shopper format to identify and quantify barriers faced by patients seeking to make a first consultation appointment across a homogenous sample of 40 NCI-designated comprehensive cancer centers. Five mystery shoppers used a standardized call script to inquire about first available appointment times and service offerings. When inquiring about a date for a first available appointment, 29% of callers were unable to secure an estimated date without registering into the center's database, 51% were able to secure an estimated date, and 20% were provided with an actual date. Of estimated or actual dates for a first available appointment, 74% were greater than 1 week away. There was no statistically significant variation between appointment availability across insurance type or US region. Our study highlights the difficulty of accessing information about appointment availability. Although not statistically significant, inquiries regarding first available appointments for Medicaid patients resulted in longer estimated or actual wait times than those for patients with private insurance, and Medicaid shoppers noted qualitative differences. Although our study was limited by small sample size and imperfect analytic methods, our results suggest the need for more efficient and accessible care for patients at our nation's top cancer centers.

  1. Radium removal from mine waters in underground treatment installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnik, Stanislaw; Wysocka, Malgorzata

    2008-10-01

    The underground mining of hard coal is widespread in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (southern Poland). In deep mines, inflows of highly mineralised waters containing radium isotopes are numerous. These waters cause severe damage to the natural environment due to the salinity, but additionally radioactive pollution occurs. The region is densely populated, therefore mitigation methods are very important. The method of radium removal has been applied in full technical scale in two coal mines with very good results--in one of the mines radium-bearing waters are treated at the rate of approximately 0.1 m3 s(-1), while in another mine salty waters are purified at the rate of 0.1 m3 s(-1). The purification takes place in special underground galleries without any contact of the mining crew with the radioactive deposits produced during the process. As a result, release of radium is significantly lower, more than 200 MBq of 226Ra and 228Ra remains underground each day.

  2. High-precision experiments on a single trapped radium ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boell, O.; Giri, G.S.; Jungmann, K.; Sahoo, B.K.; Timmermans, R.G.E.; Versolato, O.O.; Wansbeek, L.W.; Willmann, L. [KVI, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    A single, trapped radium ion is an ideal candidate for high precision experiments. Two Ra{sup +} experiments are under construction at KVI. Ultra-narrow transitions in radium ions provide an excellent basis for an all-optical, high-stability frequency standard, i.e. a clock. The off-the-shelf availability of semiconductor lasers for all necessary transitions is highly advantageous. In certain odd isotopes of radium, the nuclear electric quadrupole shift is absent. The same system and experimental hardware will be used to search for physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics by measuring Atomic Parity Violation. This will serve as a low-energy test of the running of the electroweak mixing angle. Recent calculations have shown Ra{sup +} to be the superior candidate. Recently we have succeeded in the production and efficient slowing down of isotopes around {sup 213}Ra at the AGOR cyclotron and the TRI{mu}P facility of KVI. Progress has been made in the development of ion traps and in the laser set-up in a dedicated laser laboratory. Laser spectroscopy of the radium ion and the first ever trapping of this particle are planned in the near future.

  3. Production of short lived radioactive beams of radium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shidling, P. D.; Giri, G. S.; van der Hoek, D. J.; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Sohani, M.; Versolato, O. O.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2009-01-01

    Short lived (212,213,214)Ra isotopes have been produced at the TRI mu P facility in inverse kinematics via the fusion-evaporation reaction (206)Pb + (12)C at 8 MeV/u. Isotopes are separated from other reaction products online using the TRI mu P magnetic separator. The energetic radium (Ra) isotopes

  4. Radium-223 in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Winston Vuong; Oliver Sartor; Sumanta K Pal

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, docetaxel was approved for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). For the next several years, there was a lull in drug approvals. However, from 2010 onwards, 5 additional therapies have been approved on the basis of showing a survival beneift in phase III studies. These agents include sipuleucel-T, cabazitaxel, abiraterone, enzalutamide and (most recently) radium-223. Amongst radiopharmaceuticals currently used for advanced prostate cancer (e.g. samarium-153 and strontium-89), radium-223 possesses several unique properties. As an alpha-emitting compound, the agent produces a high-energy output over a short range, facilitating selective destruction of tissue within the bone in the region of osteoblastic lesions while sparing surrounding normal tissue. The current review will outline biological rationale for radium-223 and also provide an overview of preclinical and clinical development of the agent. Rational sequencing of radium-223 and combinations, in the increasingly complex landscape of mCRPC will be discussed, along with factors inlfuencing clinical implementation.

  5. Radium-223 in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston Vuong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, docetaxel was approved for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC. For the next several years, there was a lull in drug approvals. However, from 2010 onwards, 5 additional therapies have been approved on the basis of showing a survival benefit in phase III studies. These agents include sipuleucel-T, cabazitaxel, abiraterone, enzalutamide and (most recently radium-223. Amongst radiopharmaceuticals currently used for advanced prostate cancer (e.g. samarium-153 and strontium-89, radium-223 possesses several unique properties. As an alpha-emitting compound, the agent produces a high-energy output over a short range, facilitating selective destruction of tissue within the bone in the region of osteoblastic lesions while sparing surrounding normal tissue. The current review will outline biological rationale for radium-223 and also provide an overview of preclinical and clinical development of the agent. Rational sequencing of radium-223 and combinations, in the increasingly complex landscape of mCRPC will be discussed, along with factors influencing clinical implementation.

  6. Searches for permanent electric dipole moments in Radium isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willmann, L.; Jungmann, K.; Wilschut, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    Permanent electric dipole moments are uniquely sensitive to sources of T and P violation in fundamental interactions. In particular radium isotopes offer the largest intrinsic sensitivity. We want to explore the prospects for utilizing the high intense beams from HIE-ISOLDE to boost the statistical

  7. Survival times of pre-1950 US women radium dial workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehney, A.F.

    1994-05-01

    Survival times of US women radium dial workers to the end of 1989 were examined by life table methods. Included were 1301 women rust employed before 1930 and 1242 first employed in 1930-1949. Expected numbers of deaths were estimated from age- and time-specific death rates for US white females. In the early group, 85 deaths from the well-known radium-induced cancers - bone sarcomas and head carcinomas - were observed, but only 724 deaths from aH other causes were observed vs 755 expected. Life shortening ({plus_minus}S.E.) of 1.8 {plus_minus}0.5 y compared to the general population of US white females was calculated from the time distribution of all deaths in the pre-1930 group. In the 1930--1949 group, 350 deaths were observed vs 343 expected and no bone sarcomas or head carcinomas occurred. Among women who survived at least 2 y after rust measurement of body radium, a significant excess of observed vs expected deaths was found only for radium intakes greater than 1.85 MBq of {sup 226}Ra + {sup 228}Ra, and no trend of deaths or reduction of life expectancy was found with length of employment.

  8. SU-F-P-35: A Multi-Institutional Plan Quality Checking Tool Built On Oncospace: A Shared Radiation Oncology Database System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, M; Robertson, S; Moore, J; Wong, J [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Phillips, M [University Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Hendrickson, K; Evans, K [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); McNutt, T [Johns Hopkins University, Severna Park, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Late toxicity from radiation to critical structures limits the possible dose in Radiation Therapy. Perfectly conformal treatment of a target is not realizable, so the clinician must accept a certain level of collateral radiation to nearby OARs. But how much? General guidelines exist for healthy tissue sparing which guide RT treatment planning, but are these guidelines good enough to create the optimal plan given the individualized patient anatomy? We propose a means to evaluate the planned dose level to an OAR using a multi-institutional data-store of previously treated patients, so a clinician might reconsider planning objectives. Methods: The tool is built on Oncospace, a federated data-store system, which consists of planning data import, web based analysis tools, and a database containing:1) DVHs: dose by percent volume delivered to each ROI for each patient previously treated and included in the database.2) Overlap Volume Histograms (OVHs): Anatomical measure defined as the percent volume of an ROI within a given distance to target structures.Clinicians know what OARs are important to spare. For any ROI, Oncospace knows for which patients’ anatomy that ROI was harder to plan in the past (the OVH is less). The planned dose should be close to the least dose of previous patients. The tool displays the dose those OARs were subjected to, and the clinician can make a determination about the planning objectives used.Multiple institutions contribute to the Oncospace Consortium, and their DVH and OVH data are combined and color coded in the output. Results: The Oncospace website provides a plan quality display tool which identifies harder to treat patients, and graphically displays the dose delivered to them for comparison with the proposed plan. Conclusion: The Oncospace Consortium manages a data-store of previously treated patients which can be used for quality checking new plans. Grant funding by Elekta.

  9. Acute oncological emergencies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gabriel, J

    2012-01-01

    The number of people receiving systemic anti-cancer treatment and presenting at emergency departments with treatment-related problems is rising. Nurses will be the first point of contact for most patients and need to be able to recognise oncological emergencies to initiate urgent assessment of patients and referral to the acute oncology team so that the most appropriate care can be delivered promptly. This article discusses the role of acute oncology services, and provides an overview of the most common acute oncological emergencies.

  10. [To know to change: the nurses of the Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland (IOSI) and their relationship with the Evidence Based Practise (EBP) and Nursing Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcarenghi, Dario; Pedrazzani, Carla; Bianchi, Monica

    2013-01-01

    To promote the development of a culture and a professional practice based on "evidence of effectiveness", the IOSI Nursing Officer instituted a specific Unit which decided to establish its own lines of action based on the results of an internal investigation conducted among nurses employed within IOSI, with reference to the model of action research. In July 2010, a semi-structured questionnaire self compiled was sent to all nurses to find out their opinions and experiences on EBP and nursing research, to recognize their proposals, and willingness to be part of an internal network. 63 out of 98 questionnaire were filled in. Several nurses have knowledge and experience in these fields, but change their professional behavior especially under pressure from the external environment, rather than by autonomous choice. They consider EBP substantially useful, but difficult to implement especially without their direct involvement. Two third of the sample have felt the need of EBP during their professional activity and there is a general willingness to develop nursing research (56%) and/or play an active role of "referent" on these issues within own Unit (35%). The survey showed that at IOSI there is a favorable substrate for EBP and nursing research (for basic knowledge and availability). The data collected have served to define internal lines of action in a narrow relationship with the clinical areas, according to the model of action research. It is a process that requires vision, coordinated efforts, perseverance and time.

  11. Occurrence of Radium-224, Radium-226 and Radium-228 in Water from the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel Aquifers, the Englishtown Aquifer System, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands, Southwestern and South-Central New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    dePaul, Vincent T.; Szabo, Zoltan

    2007-01-01

    This investigation is the first regionally focused study of the presence of natural radioactivity in water from the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers, Englishtown aquifer system, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands. Geologic materials composing the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands previously have been reported to contain radioactive (uranium-enriched) phosphatic strata, which is common in deposits from some moderate-depth coastal marine environments. The decay of uranium and thorium gives rise to natural radioactivity and numerous radioactive progeny, including isotopes of radium. Naturally occurring radioactive isotopes, especially those of radium, are of concern because radium is a known human carcinogen and ingestion (especially in water used for drinking) can present appreciable health risks. A regional network in southwestern and south-central New Jersey of 39 wells completed in the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers, the Englishtown aquifer system, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands was sampled for determination of gross alpha-particle activity; concentrations of radium radionuclides, major ions, and selected trace elements; and physical properties. Concentrations of radium-224, radium-226, and radium-228 were determined for water from 28 of the 39 wells, whereas gross alpha-particle activity was determined for all 39. The alpha spectroscopic technique was used to determine concentrations of radium-224, which ranged from less than 0.5 to 2.7 pCi/L with a median concentration of less than 0.5pCi/L, and of radium-226, which ranged from less than 0.5 to 3.2 pCi/L with a median concentration of less than 0.5 pCi/L. The beta-counting technique was used to determine concentrations of radium-228. The concentration of radium-228 ranged from less than 0.5 to 4.3 pCi/L with a median of less than 0.5. Radium-228, when quantifiable, had the greatest concentration of the three radium

  12. Assessment of technological solutions for removal of radium discharged to sea from offshore oil and gas installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksen, Dag Oeistein [Primus.inter.pares AS, Kongsberggata 20, NO-0468 Oslo (Norway); Hylland, Ketil [University of Oslo (Norway); Andersen, Knut Inge [Statoil ASA (Norway); Sidhu, Rajdeep Singh [Institute for Energy Technology - IFE (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    On the Norwegian sector of the North-Sea the oil- and gas-producing fields Troll B and C are the main contributors to radium discharged to the sea (190 GBq/a {sup 226}Ra and 150 GBq/a {sup 228}Ra). Thus, to observe effects caused by the emission of radioactivity and to consider remedial action one should focus on these two installations. Both installations are now operated by Statoil. In a previous comprehensive study of the speciation of discharged radium the conclusion was that it is impossible to detect any effect from radiation doses. The incremental doses due to the emissions were found to be in the nSv-range. The study covered precipitation by sulfate in the sea water, absorption on organic and inorganic materials, uptake in cod eggs and in juvenile cod, effect on sediment living organisms, background levels of pelagic fish and in sediments, and modeling of the distribution in the water column as well the distribution along the coastal stream. Despite the lack of radiation effects, an assessment of possible technological solution for removal of the radium has been undertaken. Such methods must meet the severe requirements imposed by the oil recovery process at Troll B and C: High produced water rates (>1000 m{sup 3}/h), high salinity and content of water soluble carboxylic acids originating from the crude oil, in addition to a relatively high content of barium (3 550 tonnes/a). For implementation on an offshore installation the footprint and weight of the equipment would have to be as low as possible. It is also imperative that the radiation doses to operators are as low as possible. This puts strict requirements on the shielding of the absorbents accumulating {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra. No commercially available methods were identified, but one new conceptual method based on absorption of radium on barite has been proposed. Barite is also a good shielding material. Tests performed at Institute for Energy Technology show, however, that the kinetics of the

  13. [The influence of radium therapie on the yeast contamination of the vagina (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendling, W; Schnell, J D; Spiecker, R

    1979-12-01

    Before the beginning of radium therapy a vaginal yeast contamination of 9,7% was found of 113 patients with different genital carcinomas. However, the incidence of vaginal yeast contamination increased suddenly to 30,9% under the contac irradiation therapy with radium. The radiation effect of radium is not sufficient for a "selfsterilisation" of the radium-carrier in the case of yeast contamination. Therefore, a chemic desinfection of the radium-carriers is principly necessary. The significance of radium therapy with respect to vaginal yeast contamination is discussed and the recommendation is made that routine mycological supervision be carried out on all patients with gynaecological carcinomas and appropriate antimycotic therapy initiated where necessary.

  14. Online spectroscopy of trapped short-lived radium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J.E. van den; Giri, G.S.; Hoek, D.J. van der; Hoekman, S.M.; Hoekstra, S.; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W.; Nunez-Portela, M.; Onderwater, C.J.G.; Prinsen, E.B.; Sahoo, B.K.; Santra, B.; Sohani, M.; Shidling, P.D.; Timmermans, R.G.E.; Versolato, O.O.; Wansbeek, L.W.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H.W. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-07-01

    Radium ion is an ideal candidate for high precision experiments. Atomic Parity Non-Conservation (APNC) can be measured in a single trapped Ra{sup +}. This enables a precise measurement of the electroweak mixing angle (Weinberg angle) in the Standard Model of particle physics at the lowest possible momentum transfer. Ultra-narrow transitions in this system can also be exploited to realize a high stability frequency standard. As an important step towards such high precision experiments, excited-state laser spectroscopy has been performed with trapped short-lived {sup 209-214}Ra{sup +} ions. The results on hyperfine structures, isotope shifts and lifetimes are important input for the required atomic theory, the precision of which is indispensable to extract the Weinberg angle. The experimental set up for laser cooling and trapping a single radium ion is underway.

  15. The Radium Terrors. Science Fiction and Radioactivity before the Bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century the collective imagination was fascinated and terrified by the discovery of radium. A scientific imagery sprang up around radioactivity and was disseminated by public lectures and newspaper articles discussing the ambiguous power of this strange substance. It was claimed that radium could be used to treat cholera, typhus and tuberculosis, but at the same time there were warnings that it could be used for military purposes. The media and the scientists themselves employed a rich vocabulary influenced by religion, alchemy and magic. The ambivalent power of radioactive elements exerted a great influence on science fiction novelists. This paper will examine some significant works published in Europe, America and Russia during the first decades of the 20th century and their role in the creation of the complex imagery of radioactivity that seized the public imagination long before the invention of the atomic bomb.

  16. Application of zeolites for radium removal from mine water

    OpenAIRE

    Chałupnik, Stanisław; Franus, Wojciech; Wysocka, Małgorzata; Gzyl, Grzegorz

    2013-01-01

    For removal of radium from saline waters in Upper Silesian mines, several methods of purification have been developed. The most efficient one is based on application of barium chloride, which was implemented in full technical scale in two Polish coal mines several years ago. Very good results of purification have been achieved—the removal efficiency exceeding 95 % of the initial activity. Another possibility for the removal of different ions from salty waters and brines is the application of ...

  17. Internal emitter limits for iodine, radium and radon daughters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlenker, R.A.

    1984-08-15

    This paper identifies some of the issues which arise in the consideration of the derivation of new limits on exposure to internal emitters. Basic and secondary radiation protection limits are discussed. Terms are defined and applied to the limitation of risk from stochastic effects. Non-stochastic data for specific internal emitters (/sup 131/I and the radium isotopes) are presented. Emphasis is placed on the quantitative aspects of the limit setting problem. 65 references, 2 figures, 12 tables.

  18. Radionuclides, trace elements, and radium residence in phosphogypsum of Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, R.A.; Al-Hwaiti, M. S.; Budahn, J.R.; Ranville, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Voluminous stockpiles of phosphogypsum (PG) generated during the wet process production of phosphoric acid are stored at many sites around the world and pose problems for their safe storage, disposal, or utilization. A major concern is the elevated concentration of long-lived 226Ra (half-life = 1,600 years) inherited from the processed phosphate rock. Knowledge of the abundance and mode-of-occurrence of radium (Ra) in PG is critical for accurate prediction of Ra leachability and radon (Rn) emanation, and for prediction of radiation-exposure pathways to workers and to the public. The mean (??SD) of 226Ra concentrations in ten samples of Jordan PG is 601 ?? 98 Bq/kg, which falls near the midrange of values reported for PG samples collected worldwide. Jordan PG generally shows no analytically significant enrichment (age of PG. Water-insoluble residues from Jordan PG constitute <10% of PG mass but contain 30-65% of the 226Ra. 226Ra correlates closely with Ba in the water-insoluble residues. Uniformly tiny (< 10 ??m) grains of barite (barium sulfate) observed with scanning electron microscopy have crystal morphologies that indicate their formation during the wet process. Barite is a well-documented and efficient scavenger of Ra from solution and is also very insoluble in water and mineral acids. Radium-bearing barite in PG influences the environmental mobility of radium and the radiation-exposure pathways near PG stockpiles. ?? 2010 US Government.

  19. Oncology Advanced Practitioners Bring Advanced Community Oncology Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Wendy H

    2016-01-01

    Oncology care is becoming increasingly complex. The interprofessional team concept of care is necessary to meet projected oncology professional shortages, as well as to provide superior oncology care. The oncology advanced practitioner (AP) is a licensed health care professional who has completed advanced training in nursing or pharmacy or has completed training as a physician assistant. Oncology APs increase practice productivity and efficiency. Proven to be cost effective, APs may perform varied roles in an oncology practice. Integrating an AP into an oncology practice requires forethought given to the type of collaborative model desired, role expectations, scheduling, training, and mentoring.

  20. Radium and radium-daughter nuclides in carbonates: a brief overview of strategies for determining chronologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Sabine, E-mail: s.schmidt@epoc.u-bordeaux1.f [CNRS, UMR5805 EPOC, Avenue des Facultes, F-33405 Talence Cedex (France); Universite de Bordeaux, OASU, UMR5805 EPOC, F-33405 Talence Cedex (France); Cochran, J. Kirk [Marine Sciences Research Center, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-5000 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Radium isotopes have been used extensively to trace the movement of groundwater as well as oceanic water masses, but these radionuclides (and their daughters) are also useful chronometers for the determination of the time scales of other Earth and environmental processes. The purpose of this overview is to present the application of Ra and Ra daughters in the dating of carbonates. We show that the choice of dating method (decay of excess radionuclide or ingrowth of daughter) depends strongly on the parent/daughter activity ratios in the water in which the carbonate was precipitated. Thus freshly precipitated carbonates uniformly show excesses of {sup 226}Ra relative to its parent {sup 230}Th, and {sup 226}Ra decay can provide ages of carbonates over Holocene time scales. In contrast, carbonates are precipitated in waters of greatly varying {sup 210}Pb/{sup 226}Ra. Corals, deep-sea hydrothermal vent clams and the shelled cephalopod Nautilus live in waters with significant dissolved {sup 210}Pb and all show excesses of {sup 210}Pb in their carbonate. Bivalve molluscs from nearshore and coastal waters, and carbonates deposited from groundwater environments (e.g. travertines) in which {sup 210}Pb is efficiently scavenged from solution, show deficiencies of {sup 210}Pb relative to {sup 226}Ra. In contrast, fish otoliths strongly discriminate against {sup 210}Pb regardless of the environment in which the fish lives. Deficiencies of {sup 228}Th relative to {sup 228}Ra are common in all carbonates. Useful time ranges for the {sup 210}Pb/{sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Th/{sup 228}Ra chronometers are {approx}100 y and {approx}10 y, respectively.

  1. One single trapped and laser cooled radium ion: Towards an all-optical atomic clock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Versolato, Oscar; Wansbeek, Lotje; Willmann, Lorenz; Timmermans, Rob; Jungmann, Klaus [KVI, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2008-07-01

    One single trapped radium ion is an ideal candidate for an all-optical frequency standard (*clock*). This system provides a long coherence time and tractable systematics. If the ion is laser cooled to the Lamb-Dicke regime, first order Doppler shifts are eliminated. Ultra-narrow transitions in radium ions provide an excellent basis for such a high stability clock, using commercially available semiconductor lasers in the visible regime. In certain odd isotopes of radium, the nuclear electric quadrupole shift is absent. Further, the radium ion is an excellent candidate for a high sensitivity experiment to search for a time variation of the finestructure constant.

  2. Accumulation of radium in relation to some chemical analogues in Dicranopteris linearis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, J.H., E-mail: jhchao@mx.nthu.edu.t [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chuang, C.Y. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2011-01-15

    This study elucidates the uptake and accumulation of radium in the field-growing fern Dicranopteris linearis by relating the radium concentration to some potential chemical analogues, including alkaline earth metals, rare earth elements, and some important heavy metals. Time-dependent accumulation of radium and these chemical analogues for D. linearis were described by the {sup 228}Th/{sup 228}Ra activity ratio, an index for inferring plant age. The correlation between radium and these elements was assessed by statistical analysis and used as a reference to elucidate the uptake and accumulation of radium in relation to the chemical analogues. Analytical and statistical results showed that the concentrations of alkaline earth metals (except for Mg) rare earth elements and some heavy metals in D. linearis increased linearly with plant age. These elements, exhibiting a similar accumulation pattern to radium and significant correlation coefficients with radium, were considered as the chemical analogues to radium. Additionally, the plant/soil concentration ratios (CRs) for radium and most of these analogues in D. linearis exceeded 1, consistent with the definition of hyper-accumulator plants.

  3. Distribution of radium in oil and gas industry wastes from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, M; Ali, H M; Abu, M P; Kontol, K M; Ahmad, Z; Ahmad, S H S S; Sulaiman, I; Hamzah, R

    2004-05-01

    Radium concentrations in 470 samples of the various types of waste from oil and gas industries were analysed using gamma spectrometers. The results showed that the radium concentration varied within a wide range. The highest mean 226Ra and 228Ra concentrations of 114,300 and 130,120 Bq/kg, respectively, were measured in scales. Overall, 75% of the waste, mostly sludge and extraction residue lies within the normal range of radium concentration in soils of Malaysia. However, some platform sludge can have radium concentration up to 560 Bq/kg.

  4. Identifying oncological emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guddati, Achuta K; Kumar, Nilay; Segon, Ankur; Joy, Parijat S; Marak, Creticus P; Kumar, Gagan

    2013-01-01

    Prompt identification and treatment of life-threatening oncological conditions is of utmost importance and should always be included in the differential diagnosis. Oncological emergencies can have a myriad of presentations ranging from mechanical obstruction due to tumor growth to metabolic conditions due to abnormal secretions from the tumor. Notably, hematologic and infectious conditions may complicate the presentation of oncological emergencies. Advanced testing and imaging is generally required to recognize these serious presentations of common malignancies. Early diagnosis and treatment of these conditions can significantly affect the patient's clinical outcome.

  5. Medical Student Knowledge of Oncology and Related Disciplines: a Targeted Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskvarek, Jonathan; Braunstein, Steve; Farnan, Jeanne; Ferguson, Mark K; Hahn, Olwen; Henderson, Tara; Hong, Susan; Levine, Stacie; Rosenberg, Carol A; Golden, Daniel W

    2016-09-01

    Despite increasing numbers of cancer survivors, non-oncology physicians report discomfort and little training regarding oncologic and survivorship care. This pilot study assesses medical student comfort with medical oncology, surgical oncology, radiation oncology, hospice/palliative medicine, and survivorship care. A survey was developed with input from specialists in various fields of oncologic care at a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center. The survey included respondent demographics, reports of experience with oncology, comfort ratings with oncologic care, and five clinical vignettes. Responses were yes/no, multiple choice, Likert scale, or free response. The survey was distributed via email to medical students (MS1-4) at two US medical schools. The 105 respondents were 34 MS1s (32 %), 15 MS2s and MD/PhDs (14 %), 26 MS3s (25 %), and 30 MS4s (29 %). Medical oncology, surgical oncology, and hospice/palliative medicine demonstrated a significant trend for increased comfort from MS1 to MS4, but radiation oncology and survivorship care did not. MS3s and MS4s reported the least experience with survivorship care and radiation oncology. In the clinical vignettes, students performed the worst on the long-term chemotherapy toxicity and hospice/palliative medicine questions. Medical students report learning about components of oncologic care, but lack overall comfort with oncologic care. Medical students also fail to develop an increased self-assessed level of comfort with radiation oncology and survivorship care. These pilot results support development of a formalized multidisciplinary medical school oncology curriculum at these two institutions. An expanded national survey is being developed to confirm these preliminary findings.

  6. Student Perspectives on Oncology Curricula at United States Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeley, Brandon C; Golden, Daniel W; Brower, Jeffrey V; Braunstein, Steve E; Hirsch, Ariel E; Mattes, Malcolm D

    2017-08-07

    Delivering a cohesive oncology curriculum to medical students is challenging due to oncology's multidisciplinary nature, predominantly outpatient clinical setting, and lack of data describing effective approaches to teaching it. We sought to better characterize approaches to oncology education at US medical schools by surveying third and fourth year medical students who serve on their institution's curriculum committee. We received responses from students at 19 schools (15.2% response rate). Key findings included the following: (1) an under-emphasis of cancer in the curriculum relative to other common diseases; (2) imbalanced involvement of different clinical subspecialists as educators; (3) infrequent requirements for students to rotate through non-surgical oncologic clerkships; and (4) students are less confident in their knowledge of cancer treatment compared to basic science/natural history or workup/diagnosis. Based on these findings, we provide several recommendations to achieve robust multidisciplinary curriculum design and implementation that better balances the clinical and classroom aspects of oncology education.

  7. Nine-year change in statistical design, profile, and success rates of Phase II oncology trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Anastasia; Paul, Barry; Marchenko, Olga; Song, Guochen; Patel, Neerali; Moschos, Stergios J

    2016-01-01

    We investigated nine-year trends in statistical design and other features of Phase II oncology clinical trials published in 2005, 2010, and 2014 in five leading oncology journals: Cancer, Clinical Cancer Research, Journal of Clinical Oncology, Annals of Oncology, and Lancet Oncology. The features analyzed included cancer type, multicenter vs. single-institution, statistical design, primary endpoint, number of treatment arms, number of patients per treatment arm, whether or not statistical methods were well described, whether the drug was found effective based on rigorous statistical testing of the null hypothesis, and whether the drug was recommended for future studies.

  8. Low Interrater Reliability in Grading of Rectal Bleeding Using National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Toxicity Scales: A Survey of Radiation Oncologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh-Le, Minh-Phuong [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Zhang, Zhe [Department of Oncology Biostatistics, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Tran, Phuoc T.; DeWeese, Theodore L. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Song, Daniel Y., E-mail: dsong2@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To measure concordance among genitourinary radiation oncologists in using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (NCI CTC) and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grading scales to grade rectal bleeding. Methods and Materials: From June 2013 to January 2014, a Web-based survey was sent to 250 American and Canadian academic radiation oncologists who treat prostate cancer. Participants were provided 4 case vignettes in which patients received radiation therapy and developed rectal bleeding and were asked for management plans and to rate the bleeding according to NCI CTC v.4 and RTOG late toxicity grading (scales provided). In 2 cases, participants were also asked whether they would send the patient for colonoscopy. A multilevel, random intercept modeling approach was used to assess sources of variation (case, respondent) in toxicity grading to calculate the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Agreement on a dichotomous grading scale (low grades 1-2 vs high grades 3-4) was also assessed, using the κ statistic for multiple respondents. Results: Seventy-two radiation oncologists (28%) completed the survey. Forty-seven (65%) reported having either written or been principal investigator on a study using these scales. Agreement between respondents was moderate (ICC 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47-0.58) when using NCI CTC and fair using the RTOG scale (ICC 0.28, 95% CI 0.20-0.40). Respondents who chose an invasive management were more likely to select a higher toxicity grade (P<.0001). Using the dichotomous scale, we observed moderate agreement (κ = 0.42, 95% CI 0.40-0.44) with the NCI CTC scale, but only slight agreement with the RTOG scale (κ = 0.19, 95% CI 0.17-0.21). Conclusion: Low interrater reliability was observed among radiation oncologists grading rectal bleeding using 2 common scales. Clearer definitions of late rectal bleeding toxicity should be constructed to reduce this variability and avoid ambiguity in both

  9. Determination of natural uranium, thorium and radium isotopes in water and soil samples by alpha spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Le Cong; Tao, Chau Van; Thong, Luong Van; Linh, Duong Mong [University of Science Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Faculty of Physics and Engineering Physics; Dong, Nguyen Van [University of Science Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Faculty of Chemistry

    2011-08-15

    In this study, a simple procedure for the determination of natural uranium, thorium and radium isotopes in water and soil samples by alpha spectroscopy is described. This procedure allows a sequential extraction polonium, uranium, thorium and radium radionuclides from the same sample in two to three days. It was tested and validated with the analysis of certified reference materials from the IAEA. (orig.)

  10. Radionuclides, trace elements, and radium residence in phosphogypsum of Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Robert A; Al-Hwaiti, Mohammad S; Budahn, James R; Ranville, James F

    2011-04-01

    Voluminous stockpiles of phosphogypsum (PG) generated during the wet process production of phosphoric acid are stored at many sites around the world and pose problems for their safe storage, disposal, or utilization. A major concern is the elevated concentration of long-lived (226)Ra (half-life = 1,600 years) inherited from the processed phosphate rock. Knowledge of the abundance and mode-of-occurrence of radium (Ra) in PG is critical for accurate prediction of Ra leachability and radon (Rn) emanation, and for prediction of radiation-exposure pathways to workers and to the public. The mean (±SD) of (226)Ra concentrations in ten samples of Jordan PG is 601 ± 98 Bq/kg, which falls near the midrange of values reported for PG samples collected worldwide. Jordan PG generally shows no analytically significant enrichment (Phosphogypsum samples collected from two industrial sites with different sources of phosphate rock feedstock show consistent differences in concentration of (226)Ra and rare earth elements, and also consistent trends of enrichment in these elements with increasing age of PG. Water-insoluble residues from Jordan PG constitute <10% of PG mass but contain 30-65% of the (226)Ra. (226)Ra correlates closely with Ba in the water-insoluble residues. Uniformly tiny (<10 μm) grains of barite (barium sulfate) observed with scanning electron microscopy have crystal morphologies that indicate their formation during the wet process. Barite is a well-documented and efficient scavenger of Ra from solution and is also very insoluble in water and mineral acids. Radium-bearing barite in PG influences the environmental mobility of radium and the radiation-exposure pathways near PG stockpiles.

  11. Use of carriers for to electrodeposited radium 226; Utilizacion de portadores para electrodepositar radio 226

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iturbe, J.L

    1991-10-15

    The form of the energy distribution of a monoenergetic alpha particle starting from some emitting source of these particles, it depends on the quantity of material that its cross before being detected. Some authors deposit to the radium-226 by means of direct evaporation of the solution on metallic supports, on millipore paper and by electrodeposition. Some other ones place the radium solution in scintillation liquid, to quantify it by this technique. The objective of the present work is using carriers with the same oxidation state of the radium, that is to say of 2{sup +}, for treating to be electrodeposited to the radium-226 with the biggest possible percentage for later use the alpha spectroscopy technique to quantify it. The carriers that have been used until its they are barium and zinc in form of barium chloride, zinc nitrate and zinc sulfate. The first results indicate that with the zinc solution a yield of 40% of electrodeposited radium has been reached. (Author)

  12. [Therapeutic Aggressiveness and Liquid Oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barón Duarte, F J; Rodríguez Calvo, M S; Amor Pan, J R

    2017-01-01

    Aggressiveness criteria proposed in the scientific literature a decade ago provide a quality judgment and are a reference in the care of patients with advanced cancer, but their use is not generalized in the evaluation of Oncology Services. In this paper we analyze the therapeutic aggressiveness, according to standard criteria, in 1.001 patients with advanced cancer who died in our Institution between 2010 and 2013. The results seem to show that aggressiveness at the end of life is present more frequently than experts recommend. About 25% of patients fulfill at least one criterion of aggressiveness. This result could be explained by a liquid Oncology which does not prioritize the patient as a moral subject in the clinical appointment. Medical care is oriented to necessities and must be articulated in a model focused on dignity and communication. Its implementation through Advanced Care Planning, consideration of patient's values and preferences, and Limitation of therapeutic effort are ways to reduce aggressiveness and improve clinical practice at the end of life. We need to encourage synergic and proactive attitudes, adding the best of cancer research with the best clinical care for the benefit of human being, moral subject and main goal of Medicine.

  13. Mad on radium New Zealand in the atomic age

    CERN Document Server

    Priestley, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Although New Zealander Lord Rutherford was the first to split the atom, the country has since been known around the world for its nuclear-free stance. In this engaging and accessible book, an alternative history is revealed of ""nuclear New Zealand""-when there was much enthusiasm for nuclear science and technology. From the first users of X-rays and radium in medicine to the plans for a nuclear power station on the Kaipara Harbour, this account uncovers the long and rich history of New Zealanders' engagement with the nuclear world and the roots

  14. Production of short lived radioactive beams of radium

    CERN Document Server

    Shidling, P D; van der Hoek, D J; Jungmann, K; Kruithof, W; Onderwater, C J G; Sohani, M; Versolato, O O; Willmann, L; Wilschut, H W

    2009-01-01

    Short lived $^{212,213,214}$Ra isotopes have been produced at the TRI$\\mu$P facility in inverse kinematics via the fusion-evaporation reaction $^{206}$Pb+$^{12}$C at 8 MeV/u. Isotopes are separated from other reaction products online using the TRI$\\mu$P magnetic separator. The energetic radium (Ra) isotopes at the exit of the separator were converted into low energy ions with a thermal ionizer. Ra isotopes have been identified by observing their $\\alpha$ decay and life times.

  15. Production of short lived radioactive beams of radium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shidling, P.D. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, 9747AA Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: P.Shidling@rug.nl; Giri, G.S.; Hoek, D.J. van der; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W.; Onderwater, C.J.G.; Sohani, M.; Versolato, O.O.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H.W. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, 9747AA Groningen (Netherlands)

    2009-07-21

    Short lived {sup 212,213,214}Ra isotopes have been produced at the TRI{mu}P facility in inverse kinematics via the fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 206}Pb+{sup 12}C at 8MeV/u. Isotopes are separated from other reaction products online using the TRI{mu}P magnetic separator. The energetic radium (Ra) isotopes at the exit of the separator were converted into low-energy ions with a thermal ionizer. Ra isotopes have been identified by observing their {alpha} decay and half-lifes. An improved half-life of {sup 213}Ra has been measured to be 162.0{+-}1.7s.

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Ra-226 (Radium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Ra-226 (Radium, atomic number Z = 88, mass number A = 226).

  17. Radium originating in harbour sludge from the Dutch Rijnmond area. Results for 2001; Radium in baggerspecie afkomstig uit het Rijnmondgebied. Resultaten over 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lembrechts, J.; Glastra, P.; Nissan, L.A.; Overwater, R.M.W

    2002-07-01

    The radium concentration was measured in 25 samples of harbour sludge taken in 2001 from the Rijnmond area (Rotterdam harbours and the Nieuwe Waterweg). High radium levels were found near the former discharge points of the phosphate ore processing plants, confirming the results of previous campaigns. The highest concentration of about 150 Bq/kg was found in a sample from a section in the Nieuwe Maas (NM-2). The grain-size distribution of the samples was used to estimate the natural radium in the sample and the radium which may be from industrial origin. The average total amount of radium of industrial origin for the 1999-2001 period in the nine regularly probed sections showing the highest radium levels was found to be no more than half of the average for the 1995-1998 period. [Dutch] Van 25 havenspeciemonsters is het Ra-226-gehalte bepaald. De monsters zijn in 2001 verzameld in de Rotterdamse havens en in de Nieuwe Waterweg. Zoals ook in eerdere meetcampagnes is vastgesteld, worden hoge radiumgehaltes gevonden in de omgeving van de voormalige lozingspunten van de fosfaatertsverwerkende industrieen. Het hoogste Ra-226-gehalte, circa 150 Bq/kg, is gevonden in een mengmonster afkomstig uit een vak gelegen in de Nieuwe Maas (NM-2). Uit de korrelgrootteverdeling van de monsters is afgeleid hoeveel radium van nature in elk ervan verwacht wordt en dus hoeveel mogelijk van industriele oorsprong moet zijn. De totale hoeveelheid radium van industriele oorsprong, in negen frequent onderzochte vakken met hoogste radiumgehalte, blijkt gemiddeld over 1999-2001 nog slechts de helft te bedragen van het gemiddelde over de periode 1995-1998.

  18. Current management of surgical oncologic emergencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne R F Bosscher

    Full Text Available For some oncologic emergencies, surgical interventions are necessary for dissolution or temporary relieve. In the absence of guidelines, the most optimal method for decision making would be in a multidisciplinary cancer conference (MCC. In an acute setting, the opportunity for multidisciplinary discussion is often not available. In this study, the management and short term outcome of patients after surgical oncologic emergency consultation was analyzed.A prospective registration and follow up of adult patients with surgical oncologic emergencies between 01-11-2013 and 30-04-2014. The follow up period was 30 days.In total, 207 patients with surgical oncologic emergencies were included. Postoperative wound infections, malignant obstruction, and clinical deterioration due to progressive disease were the most frequent conditions for surgical oncologic emergency consultation. During the follow up period, 40% of patients underwent surgery. The median number of involved medical specialties was two. Only 30% of all patients were discussed in a MCC within 30 days after emergency consultation, and only 41% of the patients who underwent surgery were discussed in a MCC. For 79% of these patients, the surgical procedure was performed before the MCC. Mortality within 30 days was 13%.In most cases, surgery occurred without discussing the patient in a MCC, regardless of the fact that multiple medical specialties were involved in the treatment process. There is a need for prognostic aids and acute oncology pathways with structural multidisciplinary management. These will provide in faster institution of the most appropriate personalized cancer care, and prevent unnecessary investigations or invasive therapy.

  19. Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Indrin J; Martel, Mary K; Jaffray, David A; Benedict, Stanley H; Hahn, Stephen M; Berbeco, Ross; Deye, James; Jeraj, Robert; Kavanagh, Brian; Krishnan, Sunil; Lee, Nancy; Low, Daniel A; Mankoff, David; Marks, Lawrence B; Ollendorf, Daniel; Paganetti, Harald; Ross, Brian; Siochi, Ramon Alfredo C; Timmerman, Robert D; Wong, John W

    2015-11-01

    Radiation therapy is an effective, personalized cancer treatment that has benefited from technological advances associated with the growing ability to identify and target tumors with accuracy and precision. Given that these advances have played a central role in the success of radiation therapy as a major component of comprehensive cancer care, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored a workshop entitled "Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology," which took place at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, on June 13 and 14, 2013. The purpose of this workshop was to discuss emerging technology for the field and to recognize areas for greater research investment. Expert clinicians and scientists discussed innovative technology in radiation oncology, in particular as to how these technologies are being developed and translated to clinical practice in the face of current and future challenges and opportunities. Technologies encompassed topics in functional imaging, treatment devices, nanotechnology, and information technology. The technical, quality, and safety performance of these technologies were also considered. A major theme of the workshop was the growing importance of innovation in the domain of process automation and oncology informatics. The technologically advanced nature of radiation therapy treatments predisposes radiation oncology research teams to take on informatics research initiatives. In addition, the discussion on technology development was balanced with a parallel conversation regarding the need for evidence of efficacy and effectiveness. The linkage between the need for evidence and the efforts in informatics research was clearly identified as synergistic.

  20. The radium legacy: Contaminated land and the committed effective dose from the ingestion of radium contaminated materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, A N; Dale, P; Copplestone, D; Bradley, S; Ewen, H; McGuire, C; Scott, E M

    2013-09-01

    The manufacture and use of radium in the early to mid-20th century within industrial, medicinal and recreational products have resulted in a large number of contaminated sites across a number of countries with notable examples in the USA and Europe. These sites, represent a significant number of unregulated sources of potential radiological exposure that have collectively and hitherto not been well characterised. In 2007, the Radioactive Contaminated Land (RCL) Regulations came into force in the UK, providing the statutory guidance for regulators to classify and deal with RCL. Here we report on results derived from digestion experiments to estimate committed effective dose, a key aspect of the RCL Regulations, from the ingestion of radium contaminated sources that can be found in the environment. This case study includes particles, clinker and artefacts that arise from past military activities on a site that was once an airfield at Dalgety Bay on the Firth of Forth, UK. Since 2011 the number of radium contaminated finds has increased by one order of magnitude on the foreshore areas of Dalgety Bay. The increase in finds may in large part be attributed to a change in monitoring practice. A subsample of sixty sources was selected, on the basis of their activity and dimensions, and subjected to digestion in simulated stomach and lower intestine solutions. The study demonstrated that more radium-226 ((226)Ra) and lead-210 ((210)Pb; driven by Polonium solubility) are dissolved from sources in artificial 'stomach' solutions compared with 'lower intestine' solutions. The combined 'gut' solubility for (226)Ra and apparent (210)Pb varied from less than 1% to up to 35% ICRP 72 conversion factors were used to convert the activities measured in solution to committed effective dose. A little over 10% of the sources tested dissolved sufficient radioactivity to result in 100mSv committed effective dose to an infant. Using the solubility of 35% as a worst case, minimum source

  1. Studies of Stable Octupole Deformations in the Radium Region

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present project is to locate and identify states in the atomic nuclei possessing stable pearshaped octupole deformation. Such states, formally related to the structures known in molecular physics, manifest themselves as families of parity doublets in odd nuclei.\\\\ \\\\ The best possibilities for observing stable octupole deformations are offered in the Ra-region. Both theoretical calculations and experimental indications support such expectations. Such indications are the non-observation of two-phonon octupole vibrational states in the ISOLDE studies of the even-even radium nuclei, and the reversed sign of the decoupling factor of the ground state band in |2|2|5Ra observed in the single-neutron transfer reactions. In order to establish the predicted strong E1 and E3-transitions between the parity doublets in odd nuclei with stable octupole deformations it is proposed to study conversion electrons in odd-mass francium radium and radon isotopes following the @b-decay of francium and astatine. \\...

  2. Distribution of radium-224 in the western Arctic Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Yusheng; CHEN Min; LI Yanping

    2005-01-01

    Radium-224 activities in the western Arctic Ocean were measured via ship-board 220Rn emanation technique during the Second Chinese National Arctic Expedition. The results showed that the 224Ra activities in the study areas ranged from being less than 0.08 to 3.58 Bq/m3, with an average of 0.23 Bq/m3. The low 224Ra concentration in the surface water was attributed to the influence of sea ice melted water. The horizontal distribution of surface 224Ra in the western Arctic Ocean showed a high 224Ra characteristics occurred along the slope around 160°W, providing evidence for the importance of ice-rafted sediments to controlling the distribution of radium isotopes in the Arctic Ocean. Mostly, 224Ra concentrations increased with the depth in the shelf region and reached a maximum at 75 m at the central Canada Basin, which further confirms the importance of the transport of shelf bottom water to maintaining the upper halocline layer in the Canada Basin.

  3. Laser trapping of radium for an electric dipole moment measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, P.; Sulai, I. A.; Trimble, W.; Ahmad, I.; Bailey, K.; Bishof, M.; Greene, J. P.; Guest, J. R.; Holt, R. J.; Lu, Z.-T.; O'Connor, T. P.; Gould, H. A.

    2008-05-01

    The best limits on time-reversal violation in the nuclear sector are currently set through electric dipole moment (EDM) searches on the neutron and Hg-199. Recent theoretical calculations predict that atomic EDM measurements of certain octupole-deformed nuclei, e.g., in the radium isotopic chain, are two to three orders of magnitude more sensitive to the underlying time-reversal violation than the one in Hg-199. Ra-225, with nuclear spin 1/2 and a radioactive half-life of 15 days, is a particularly attractive candidate for a tabletop EDM measurement based on a laser-cooling and trapping approach. Towards this end, we have successfully cooled and trapped atoms of Ra-225 and Ra-226 in a magneto-optical trap -- a first for this rare element -- and have identified black-body radiation as a beneficial source of optical repumping. We will present our laser cooling scheme and ongoing measurements of atomic level energies, lifetimes, isotope shifts and hyperfine structure in radium and discuss our progress towards an EDM measurement of Ra-225 based on an optical dipole trap. This work is supported by DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  4. American Society for Radiation Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for other cancer types View videos on radiation oncology Please Select an Action Read a news release ... This online career board is the premier radiation oncology recruitment tool, offering employers and job seekers an ...

  5. Design, development of water tank-type lung phantom and dosimetric verification in institutions participating in a phase I study of stereotactic body radiation therapy in patients with T2N0M0 non-small cell lung cancer: Japan Clinical Oncology Group trial (JCOG0702).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Teiji; Shirato, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Masayori; Miyabe, Yuki; Kito, Satoshi; Narita, Yuichirou; Onimaru, Rikiya; Ishikura, Satoshi; Ito, Yoshinori; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2014-05-01

    A domestic multicenter phase I study of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for T2N0M0 non-small cell lung cancer in inoperable patients or elderly patients who refused surgery was initiated as the Japan Clinical Oncology Group trial (JCOG0702) in Japan. Prior to the clinical study, the accuracy of dose calculation in radiation treatment-planning systems was surveyed in participating institutions, and differences in the irradiating dose between the institutions were investigated. We developed a water tank-type lung phantom appropriate for verification of the exposure dose in lung SBRT. Using this water tank-type lung phantom, the dose calculated in the radiation treatment-planning system and the measured dose using a free air ionization chamber and dosimetric film were compared in a visiting survey of the seven institutions participating in the clinical study. In all participating institutions, differences between the calculated and the measured dose in the irradiation plan were as follows: the accuracy of the absolute dose in the center of the simulated tumor measured using a free air ionization chamber was within 2%, the mean gamma value was ≤ 0.47 on gamma analysis following the local dose criteria, and the pass rate was >87% for 3%/3 mm from measurement of dose distribution with dosimetric film. These findings confirmed the accuracy of delivery doses in the institutions participating in the clinical study, so that a study with integration of the institutions could be initiated.

  6. Comparative oncology today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoloni, Melissa C; Khanna, Chand

    2007-11-01

    The value of comparative oncology has been increasingly recognized in the field of cancer research, including the identification of cancer-associated genes; the study of environmental risk factors, tumor biology, and progression; and, perhaps most importantly, the evaluation of novel cancer therapeutics. The fruits of this effort are expected to be the creation of better and more specific drugs to benefit veterinary and human patients who have cancer. The state of the comparative oncology field is outlined in this article, with an emphasis on cancer in dogs.

  7. Female Representation in the Academic Oncology Physician Workforce: Radiation Oncology Losing Ground to Hematology Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Awad A; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Holliday, Emma B; Chapman, Christina H; Jagsi, Reshma; Thomas, Charles R; Deville, Curtiland

    2017-05-01

    Our purpose was to assess comparative female representation trends for trainees and full-time faculty in the academic radiation oncology and hematology oncology workforce of the United States over 3 decades. Simple linear regression models with year as the independent variable were used to determine changes in female percentage representation per year and associated 95% confidence intervals for trainees and full-time faculty in each specialty. Peak representation was 48.4% (801/1654) in 2013 for hematology oncology trainees, 39.0% (585/1499) in 2014 for hematology oncology full-time faculty, 34.8% (202/581) in 2007 for radiation oncology trainees, and 27.7% (439/1584) in 2015 for radiation oncology full-time faculty. Representation significantly increased for trainees and full-time faculty in both specialties at approximately 1% per year for hematology oncology trainees and full-time faculty and 0.3% per year for radiation oncology trainees and full-time faculty. Compared with radiation oncology, the rates were 3.84 and 2.94 times greater for hematology oncology trainees and full-time faculty, respectively. Despite increased female trainee and full-time faculty representation over time in the academic oncology physician workforce, radiation oncology is lagging behind hematology oncology, with trainees declining in recent years in radiation oncology; this suggests a de facto ceiling in female representation. Whether such issues as delayed or insufficient exposure, inadequate mentorship, or specialty competitiveness disparately affect female representation in radiation oncology compared to hematology oncology are underexplored and require continued investigation to ensure that the future oncologic physician workforce reflects the diversity of the population it serves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative uptake of thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Souza, T.J.; Mistry, K.B.

    1970-01-01

    The entry and translocation of /sup 230/thorium, /sup 226/radium, /sup 210/lead, and /sup 210/polonium were examined in nutrient culture experiments. Strontium-89 was included for comparison. Red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were treated for a period of 15 days. Results indicate that accumulation of /sup 230/thorium, /sup 210/lead and /sup 210/polonium occurs predominantly in roots and only very small amounts of these nuclides are translocated to shoots. Over comparable periods, the accumulation of /sup 226/radium in roots is 2-3 times lower than that of the other nuclides of uranium series. However, the most significant difference between /sup 226/radium and other nuclides is in the extent of their upward transport which for radium is 50-200 times greater. The amount of radium translocated to shoots is comparable to that of strontium. The present evidence of rapid transfer of /sup 226/radium to shoots suggests that among the nuclides examined, /sup 226/radium is likely to make the major contribution to radioactivity in aerial tissues of plants grown under conditions where root absorption is the principal route of entry of the nuclides.

  9. Standardizing Naming Conventions in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santanam, Lakshmi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Hurkmans, Coen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Brame, Scott; Straube, William [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Galvin, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tripuraneni, Prabhakar [Department of Radiation Oncology, Scripps Clinic, LaJolla, CA (United States); Michalski, Jeff [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Bosch, Walter, E-mail: wbosch@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Advanced Technology Consortium, Image-guided Therapy QA Center, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to report on the development of a standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention for use in radiation therapy and to present the nomenclature for structure naming for interinstitutional data sharing, clinical trial repositories, integrated multi-institutional collaborative databases, and quality control centers. This taxonomy should also enable improved plan benchmarking between clinical institutions and vendors and facilitation of automated treatment plan quality control. Materials and Methods: The Advanced Technology Consortium, Washington University in St. Louis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, and the Clinical Trials RT QA Harmonization Group collaborated in creating this new naming convention. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements guidelines have been used to create standardized nomenclature for target volumes (clinical target volume, internal target volume, planning target volume, etc.), organs at risk, and planning organ-at-risk volumes in radiation therapy. The nomenclature also includes rules for specifying laterality and margins for various structures. The naming rules distinguish tumor and nodal planning target volumes, with correspondence to their respective tumor/nodal clinical target volumes. It also provides rules for basic structure naming, as well as an option for more detailed names. Names of nonstandard structures used mainly for plan optimization or evaluation (rings, islands of dose avoidance, islands where additional dose is needed [dose painting]) are identified separately. Results: In addition to its use in 16 ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trial protocols and several new European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer protocols, a pilot version of this naming convention has been evaluated using patient data sets with varying treatment sites. All structures in these data sets were

  10. Modeling radium distribution in coastal aquifers during sea level changes: The Dead Sea case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiro, Yael; Yechieli, Yoseph; Voss, Clifford I.; Starinsky, Abraham; Weinstein, Yishai

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach to studying the behavior of radium isotopes in a coastal aquifer. In order to simulate radium isotope distributions in the dynamic flow field of the Dead Sea aquifer, a multi-species density dependent flow model (SUTRA-MS) was used. Field data show that the activity of 226Ra decreases from 140 to 60 dpm/L upon entering the aquifer from the Dead Sea, and then further decreases linearly due to mixing with Ra-poor fresh water. On the other hand, an increase is observed in the activity of the shorter-lived isotopes (up to 52 dpm/L 224Ra and 31 dpm/L 223Ra), which are relatively low in Dead Sea water (up to 2.5 dpm/L 224Ra and 0.5 dpm/L 223Ra). The activities of the short lived radium isotopes also decrease with decreasing salinity, which is due to the effect of salinity on the adsorption of radium. The relationship between 224Ra and salinity suggests that the adsorption partition coefficient (K) is linearly related to salinity. Simulations of the steady-state conditions, show that the distance where equilibrium activity is attained for each radium isotope is affected by the isotope half-life, K and the groundwater velocity, resulting in a longer distance for the long-lived radium isotopes. K affects the radium distribution in transient conditions, especially that of the long-lived radium isotopes. The transient conditions in the Dead Sea system, with a 1 m/yr lake level drop, together with the radium field data, constrains K to be relatively low (226Ra cannot be explained by adsorption, and it is better explained by removal via coprecipitation, probably with barite or celestine.

  11. Survey of Medical Oncology Status in Korea (SOMOS-K): A National Survey of Medical Oncologists in the Korean Association for Clinical Oncology (KACO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Yeun; Lee, Yun Gyoo; Kim, Bong-Seog

    2017-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the current role of medical oncologists in cancer care with a focus on increasing the recognition of medical oncology as an independent specialty. Questionnaires modified from the Medical Oncology Status in Europe Survey dealing with oncology structure, resources, research, and patterns of care given by medical oncologists were selected. Several modifications were made to the questionnaire after feedback from the insurance and policy committee of the Korean Association for Clinical Oncology (KACO). The online survey was then sent to KACO members. A total of 214 medical oncologists (45.8% of the total inquiries), including 71 directors of medical oncology institutions, took the survey. Most institutions had various resources, including a medical oncology department (94.1%) and a department of radiation oncology (82.4%). There was an average of four medical oncologists at each institution. Medical oncologists were involved in various treatments from diagnosis to end-of-life care. They were also chemotherapy providers from a wide range of institutions that treated many types of solid cancers. In addition, 86.2% of the institutions conducted research. This is the first national survey in Korea to show that medical oncologists are involved in a wide range of cancer treatments and care. This survey emphasizes the contributions and proper roles of medical oncologists in the evolving health care environment in Korea.

  12. Quality Assessment in Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, Jeffrey M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Das, Prajnan, E-mail: prajdas@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The movement to improve healthcare quality has led to a need for carefully designed quality indicators that accurately reflect the quality of care. Many different measures have been proposed and continue to be developed by governmental agencies and accrediting bodies. However, given the inherent differences in the delivery of care among medical specialties, the same indicators will not be valid across all of them. Specifically, oncology is a field in which it can be difficult to develop quality indicators, because the effectiveness of an oncologic intervention is often not immediately apparent, and the multidisciplinary nature of the field necessarily involves many different specialties. Existing and emerging comparative effectiveness data are helping to guide evidence-based practice, and the increasing availability of these data provides the opportunity to identify key structure and process measures that predict for quality outcomes. The increasing emphasis on quality and efficiency will continue to compel the medical profession to identify appropriate quality measures to facilitate quality improvement efforts and to guide accreditation, credentialing, and reimbursement. Given the wide-reaching implications of quality metrics, it is essential that they be developed and implemented with scientific rigor. The aims of the present report were to review the current state of quality assessment in oncology, identify existing indicators with the best evidence to support their implementation, and propose a framework for identifying and refining measures most indicative of true quality in oncologic care.

  13. Nanomedicine in veterinary oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Yin; Rodriguez, Carlos O; Li, Yuanpei

    2015-08-01

    Nanomedicine is an interdisciplinary field that combines medicine, engineering, chemistry, biology and material sciences to improve disease management and can be especially valuable in oncology. Nanoparticle-based agents that possess functions such as tumor targeting, imaging and therapy are currently under intensive investigation. This review introduces the basic concept of nanomedicine and the classification of nanoparticles. Because of their favorable pharmacokinetics, tumor targeting properties, and resulting superior efficacy and toxicity profiles, nanoparticle-based agents can overcome several limitations associated with conventional diagnostic and therapeutic protocols in veterinary oncology. The two most important tumor targeting mechanisms (passive and active tumor targeting) and their dominating factors (i.e. shape, charge, size and nanoparticle surface display) are discussed. The review summarizes published clinical and preclinical studies that utilize different nanoformulations in veterinary oncology, as well as the application of nanoparticles for cancer diagnosis and imaging. The toxicology of various nanoformulations is also considered. Given the benefits of nanoformulations demonstrated in human medicine, nanoformulated drugs are likely to gain more traction in veterinary oncology.

  14. Active surveillance: Oncologic outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.D.F. Venderbos (Lionne); L.P. Bokhorst (Leonard); C.H. Bangma (Chris); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE OF REVIEW: To give insight into recent literature (during the past 12-18 months) reporting on oncologic outcomes of men on active surveillance. RECENT FINDINGS: From recent published trials comparing radical prostatectomy vs. watchful waiting, we learn that radical treatment only

  15. Compilation of spectroscopic data of Radium (Ra I and Ra II)

    CERN Document Server

    Dammalapati, U; Willmann, L

    2016-01-01

    Energy levels, wavelengths, lifetimes and hyperfine structure constants for the isotopes of the first and second spectra of radium, Ra I and Ra II have been compiled. Wavelengths and wave numbers are tabulated for 226Ra and for other Ra isotopes. Isotope shifts and hyperfine structure constants of even and odd-A isotopes of neutral radium atom and singly ionized radium are included. Experimental lifetimes of the states for both neutral and ionic Ra are also added, where available. The information is beneficial for present and future experiments aimed at different physics motivations using neutral Ra and singly ionized Ra.

  16. Molecular imaging in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schober, Otmar; Riemann, Burkhard (eds.) [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2013-02-01

    Considers in detail all aspects of molecular imaging in oncology, ranging from basic research to clinical applications in the era of evidence-based medicine. Examines technological issues and probe design. Discusses preclinical studies in detail, with particular attention to multimodality imaging. Presents current clinical use of PET/CT, SPECT/CT, and optical imagingWritten by acknowledged experts. The impact of molecular imaging on diagnostics, therapy, and follow-up in oncology is increasing significantly. The process of molecular imaging includes key biotarget identification, design of specific molecular imaging probes, and their preclinical evaluation, e.g., in vivo using small animal studies. A multitude of such innovative molecular imaging probes have already entered clinical diagnostics in oncology. There is no doubt that in future the emphasis will be on multimodality imaging in which morphological, functional, and molecular imaging techniques are combined in a single clinical investigation that will optimize diagnostic processes. This handbook addresses all aspects of molecular imaging in oncology, ranging from basic research to clinical applications in the era of evidence-based medicine. The first section is devoted to technology and probe design, and examines a variety of PET and SPECT tracers as well as multimodality probes. Preclinical studies are then discussed in detail, with particular attention to multimodality imaging. In the third section, diverse clinical applications are presented, and the book closes by looking at future challenges. This handbook will be of value to all who are interested in the revolution in diagnostic oncology that is being brought about by molecular imaging.

  17. Ação do radium sôbre o vírus da poliomielite Radium effect upon the poliomyelitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Guilherme Lacorte

    1959-10-01

    Full Text Available Em prosseguimento a trabalhos anteriores referentes à ação dos raios X e radium sôbre os vírus, especialmente o da gripe, verificaram os A.A. que o radium exerce, em certas doses, ação excitante sôbre o vírus da poliomielite, como acontecera com as doses fracas de raios X sôbre o vírus da gripe. As experiências que levaram a essas conclusões foram feitas ocm a aplicação de 4 mg de radim contidos em 4 tubinhos verificando-se que, após 127 e 159 dias o vírus testemunho tinha perdido tôda a atividade, que antes já se mostrara diminuida, ao passo que o submetido à ação do radium mostrou-se sempre mais ativo, assim se conservando integralmente após aquêlo prazo. Na prática, essa observação poderá conduzir a um meio destinado a aumentar a virulência do referido vírus.The authors refered the previous publication of the results obtained when the influenza virus in saline suspensios of mice lungs was irradiated with small doses of X rays. The irradiated vírus was more virulent for mice than the control one. The effect of the exposition to 1 mg of radium was not significant. In the present paper the authors refered the experiments made with the poliomyelits virus, MEF1 strain, after exposition to 1 needle of 1 mg of radium and to 4 tubes of 1 mg of radium. The virus suspension was put into the Carrel flask in a fluid layer of 0,1 cm. The titulations of the irradiated virus suspension activity were made in the first case (exposition to the radium needle after 7, 13, 20 and 30 days and, in other experiments, after 90, 120, 150 and 182 days of exposition. The results were not statistically significant. In the second case (exposition to the 4 tubes of 1 mg of radium each, after 60 and 90 days of exposition showed more activity than was shown in the control. After 127 and 139 days the control suspension completely lost the activity and the irradiated virus maintained the same infective title. In conclusion, the poliomyelitis

  18. 镭污染土壤比活度的快速模拟计算%Rapid calculation of radium specific activity in radium contaminated soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雪云

    2011-01-01

    以镭污染的低、高比活度的土壤样品为例,通过样品的(226)Ra比活度与贯穿辐射剂量率的相关性试验,得到样品贯穿辐射剂量率与其(226)Ra比活度之间关系的经验公式,从而快速模拟计算出镭污染土壤的比活度,满足退役治理工程的需要.%Taking radium contaminated soils with low and high speeific activity for example, a rapid calculation method for radium specific activity in the contaminated soils is presented. According to experiments on the correlation between radium specific activity in the soil samples and exposure dose rate, two empirical equations are obtained. The calculation method was validated in the disposal engineering of radium contaminated soil. The radium specific activity in the soil samples can be rapidly calculated by the empirical equations.

  19. Multiple Authorship in Two English-Language Journals in Radiation Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Edward C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study of multiple authorship in 1,908 papers in the "International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, and Physics" and "Radiotherapy and Oncology" from 1983-87 investigated patterns and trends in number of authors per article by journal, article type, country, author's institution, author gender, and order of listing of…

  20. A unique drug distribution process for radium Ra 223 dichloride injection and its implication for product quality, patient privacy, and delineation of professional responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansereau, Raymond N

    2014-11-01

    On May 15, 2013, Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals announced that it had received marketing approval for the therapeutic radioactive medication radium Ra 223 dichloride injection (Xofigo; Ra 223). The product acquisition and distribution process for hospital-based nuclear pharmacies and nuclear medicine services is unlike any other. The product is distributed as a low-risk compounded sterile preparation through a single compounding nuclear pharmacy located in Denver, Colorado, pursuant to a prescription. This model for drug distribution and delivery to the user institution has implications for product quality, patient privacy, and delineation of professional responsibilities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. The fantastic history of radium: when a radioactive element becomes a magic potion; La fantastique histoire du radium: Quand un element radioactif devient potion magique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosset, Jean-Marc; Huynh, Renaud

    2011-04-18

    More than a century after its discovery, radium has never lost its symbolic power: the symbol of scientific perseverance with Marie Curie handling quintals of ore to extract this 'fabulous metal', symbol of radiations efficiency against cancer, symbol of eternity and value - like diamond, and many more. The power of such a symbol led some mercantile minds to make radium a panacea capable to cure any illness. Then between the first and the second World war, radium became a society phenomenon: popular book writers held of the magic name to imagine wild stories and the advertisers started to link it to any type of product (beverages, shoe polish, razor blades, cigarettes, cheese, condoms..). This book relates the story of this symbol over more than a century, with its successes, its excesses and sometimes its dramas. (J.S.)

  2. Availability of radium isotopes and heavy metals from scales and tailings of Polish hard coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karsten Leopold; Boguslaw Michalik; Jens Wiegand [University Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany). Geology Department

    2007-05-15

    Radium and heavy metal contaminated tailings and scales resulting from Polish hard coal mining were investigated for their mobilisation potential by using leaching methods. The main focus is set on a three-step extraction procedure proposed by BCR (Bureau Communautaire de Reference, now Standards Measurements and Testing Programme) of the European Union, which was used for investigating the availability of radium isotopes. In addition, the results of a Polish extraction procedure for the heavy metals' water solubility are presented for rough comparison. After a special treatment, the BCR-reagents were measured by gamma-spectrometry to define their radium activity concentrations; the heavy metal content in the water soluble fractions was determined by ICP-AES. The samples were collected at two different sites influenced by the discharge of pit water from hard coal mining. The tailings were taken from a former tailing pond, which now is no longer in use, but the settled material is still present. At another abandoned and meanwhile flooded tailing pond, the scales were scraped from the inside of a discharge tube. The results obtained show that there is different leaching behaviour between the radium isotopes. The tailings being characterised by surface adsorbed radium provide up to 25% of the initial {sup 226}Ra content, {sup 228}Ra is altogether leached up to 15%. The scales comprise stable radiobaryte and can be considered as being unable to provide radium isotopes, since no trace of radium dissolution was observed. The leaching behaviour of heavy metals is similar to that of radium. Mn, Ni and Zn are dissolved by water from the tailings; the scales do not provide any.

  3. Availability of radium isotopes and heavy metals from scales and tailings of Polish hard coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karsten Leopold; Boguslaw Michalik; Jens Wiegand [University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    Radium and heavy metal contaminated tailings and scales resulting from Polish hard coal mining were investigated for their mobilisation potential by using leaching methods. The main focus is set on a three-step extraction procedure proposed by BCR (Bureau Communautaire de Reference, now Standards Measurements and Testing Programme) of the European Union, which was used for investigating the availability of radium isotopes. In addition, the results of a Polish extraction procedure for the heavy metals' water solubility are presented for rough comparison. After a special treatment, the BCR-reagents were measured by gamma-spectrometry to define their radium activity concentrations; the heavy metal content in the water soluble fractions was determined by ICP-AES. The samples were collected at two different sites influenced by the discharge of pit water from hard coal mining. The tailings were taken from a former tailing pond, which now is no longer in use, but the settled material is still present. At another abandoned and meanwhile flooded tailing pond, the scales were scraped from the inside of a discharge tube. The results obtained show that there is different leaching behaviour between the radium isotopes. The tailings being characterised by surface adsorbed radium provide up to 25% of the initial 226Ra content, 228Ra is altogether leached up to 15%. The scales comprise stable radiobaryte (Ba(Ra)SO{sub 4}) and can be considered as being unable to provide radium isotopes, since no trace of radium dissolution was observed. The leaching behaviour of heavy metals is similar to that of radium. Mn, Ni and Zn are dissolved by water from the tailings; the scales do not provide any.

  4. Availability of radium isotopes and heavy metals from scales and tailings of Polish hard coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leopold, Karsten [University Duisburg-Essen, Geology Department, Universitaetsstrasse 5, D-45117 Essen (Germany)]. E-mail: karsten.leopold@uni-due.de; Michalik, Boguslaw [Central Mining Institute, Laboratory of Radiometry, Pl. Gwarkow 1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland)]. E-mail: b.michalik@gig.katowice.pl; Wiegand, Jens [University of Wuerzburg, Geological Institute, Pleicherwall 1, D-97070 Wuerzburg (Germany)]. E-mail: jens.wiegand@geologie.uni-wuerzburg.de

    2007-05-15

    Radium and heavy metal contaminated tailings and scales resulting from Polish hard coal mining were investigated for their mobilisation potential by using leaching methods. The main focus is set on a three-step extraction procedure proposed by BCR (Bureau Communautaire de Reference, now Standards Measurements and Testing Programme) of the European Union, which was used for investigating the availability of radium isotopes. In addition, the results of a Polish extraction procedure for the heavy metals' water solubility are presented for rough comparison. After a special treatment, the BCR-reagents were measured by gamma-spectrometry to define their radium activity concentrations; the heavy metal content in the water soluble fractions was determined by ICP-AES. The samples were collected at two different sites influenced by the discharge of pit water from hard coal mining. The tailings were taken from a former tailing pond, which now is no longer in use, but the settled material is still present. At another abandoned and meanwhile flooded tailing pond, the scales were scraped from the inside of a discharge tube. The results obtained show that there is different leaching behaviour between the radium isotopes. The tailings being characterised by surface adsorbed radium provide up to 25% of the initial {sup 226}Ra content, {sup 228}Ra is altogether leached up to 15%. The scales comprise stable radiobaryte (Ba[Ra]SO{sub 4}) and can be considered as being unable to provide radium isotopes, since no trace of radium dissolution was observed. The leaching behaviour of heavy metals is similar to that of radium. Mn, Ni and Zn are dissolved by water from the tailings; the scales do not provide any.

  5. Radium-223 Improves Survival in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation Oncology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, noted that there are no “validated methods to quantify the [radiation] dose delivered to the body and to each [metastatic] lesion.” Comment “This well-executed study shows a clear ...

  6. Integrative oncology: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gary; Cassileth, Barrie

    2014-01-01

    Integrative oncology, the diagnosis-specific field of integrative medicine, addresses symptom control with nonpharmacologic therapies. Known commonly as "complementary therapies" these are evidence-based adjuncts to mainstream care that effectively control physical and emotional symptoms, enhance physical and emotional strength, and provide patients with skills enabling them to help themselves throughout and following mainstream cancer treatment. Integrative or complementary therapies are rational and noninvasive. They have been subjected to study to determine their value, to document the problems they ameliorate, and to define the circumstances under which such therapies are beneficial. Conversely, "alternative" therapies typically are promoted literally as such; as actual antitumor treatments. They lack biologic plausibility and scientific evidence of safety and efficacy. Many are outright fraudulent. Conflating these two very different categories by use of the convenient acronym "CAM," for "complementary and alternative therapies," confuses the issue and does a substantial disservice to patients and medical professionals. Complementary and integrative modalities have demonstrated safety value and benefits. If the same were true for "alternatives," they would not be "alternatives." Rather, they would become part of mainstream cancer care. This manuscript explores the medical and sociocultural context of interest in integrative oncology as well as in "alternative" therapies, reviews commonly-asked patient questions, summarizes research results in both categories, and offers recommendations to help guide patients and family members through what is often a difficult maze. Combining complementary therapies with mainstream oncology care to address patients' physical, psychologic and spiritual needs constitutes the practice of integrative oncology. By recommending nonpharmacologic modalities that reduce symptom burden and improve quality of life, physicians also enable

  7. Neurologic complications in oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pace

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurologic side effects related to cancer therapy are a common problem in oncology practice. These complications can negatively affect the management of the patient, because they can inhibit treatment and diminish quality of life. Therefore specific skills are required to recognise symptoms and clinical manifestations. This review focuses on the most common neurologic complications to improve physician’s familiarity in determining the aetiology of these symptoms.

  8. Requirements for radiation oncology physics in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, L; Fitchew, R; Drew, J

    2001-03-01

    to maintaining a satisfactory standard of practice in radiation oncology physics. Appropriate on-going education of radiation oncology physicists as well as the educating of registrar physicists is essential. Institutional management and the ACPSEM must both play a key role in providing a means for satisfactory staff tuition on the safe and expert use of existing and new radiotherapy equipment.

  9. Quality Indicators in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, Jeffrey M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Das, Prajnan, E-mail: prajdas@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Oncologic specialty societies and multidisciplinary collaborative groups have dedicated considerable effort to developing evidence-based quality indicators (QIs) to facilitate quality improvement, accreditation, benchmarking, reimbursement, maintenance of certification, and regulatory reporting. In particular, the field of radiation oncology has a long history of organized quality assessment efforts and continues to work toward developing consensus quality standards in the face of continually evolving technologies and standards of care. This report provides a comprehensive review of the current state of quality assessment in radiation oncology. Specifically, this report highlights implications of the healthcare quality movement for radiation oncology and reviews existing efforts to define and measure quality in the field, with focus on dimensions of quality specific to radiation oncology within the “big picture” of oncologic quality assessment efforts.

  10. The Impact of a Radiation Oncologist led Oncology Curriculum on Medical Student Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ankit; Shah, Aishwarya; Shah, Bhartesh; Koottappillil, Brian; Hirsch, Ariel E

    2017-05-09

    Medical students at our institution all take a pre-clinical oncology course as well as a clinical radiation oncology didactic session during their clinical curriculum. The objective of this analysis is to demonstrate the impact of the radiation oncology didactic on medical student knowledge of core oncology concepts. All students received a standardized didactic lecture introducing students to core concepts of general oncology and radiation. We administered an 18-question pretest and a posttest examining student knowledge between 2012 and 2015. Changes in student responses between pre-test and post-tests were analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of the didactic session. Over the course of three years, 319 (64.4%) of 495 students who completed the Radiology block completed both the pre-test and post-test. The average student test grade improved from 62.0% on the pretest to 69.6% on the posttest (p students increased their score from 81.4% to 89.8% (p breast oncology, from 43.0% to 51.0% (p Students showed increases in knowledge across general oncology, prostate oncology, breast oncology, and radiation oncology.

  11. [Shared web-based data center for multi-institutional clinical trials: evaluation of UMIN-INDICE (university hospital medical information network-internet data and information center for medical research)in clinical trials of JIVROSG (Japan interventional radiology in oncology study group)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Miyuki; Arai, Yasuaki; Kiuchi, Takahiro; Ishikawa, Hirono; Aoki, Noriaki; Inaba, Yoshitaka; Yoshioka, Tetsuya; Aramaki, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Anai, Hiroshi; Tanigawa, Noboru; Osuga, Keigo; Takeuchi, Yoshito; Okusaka, Takushi; Kanazawa, Susumu; Matsui, Osamu; Endo, Keigo

    2012-04-01

    A patient registration system is mandatory for establishing the scientific credibility of the multi-center clinical trials. The Japan Interventional Radiology in Oncology Study Group (JIVROSG) was organized in 2002 to establish evidence supporting the procedures used in interventional radiology. The Internet Data and Information Center for Medical Research (INDICE), provided by the University Hospital Medical Information Network(UMIN), has been utilized for patient registration in the clinical trials of JIVROSG. In this study, the safety and efficacy of UMIN-INDICE were evaluated. From 2002 to 2010, 18 clinical trials, including one international trial, were conducted. A total of 736 patients were enrolled from 51 institutions. No significant trouble was encountered during this period. A questionnaire survey demonstrated that 90% of participating researchers could use this system without difficulties. UMIN-INDICE may contribute to promoting clinical trials as an infrastructure of multicenter studies.

  12. NCI Community Oncology Research Program Approved | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    On June 24, 2013, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Board of Scientific Advisors approved the creation of the NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP). NCORP will bring state-of-the art cancer prevention, control, treatment and imaging clinical trials, cancer care delivery research, and disparities studies to individuals in their own communities. |

  13. Clinical neuro-oncology formal education opportunities for medical students in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Karan S; Nicholas, Martin Kelly; Lukas, Rimas V

    2014-12-01

    To develop an understanding of the availability of the formal clinical neuro-oncology educational opportunities for medical students. The curriculum websites of all medical schools accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education were reviewed for the presence of clinical neuro-oncology electives as well as other relevant data. Ten (6.8%) of medical schools accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education offer formal neuro-oncology electives. Half are clustered in the Midwest. Forty percent are at institutions with neuro-oncology fellowships. All are at institutions with neurosurgery and neurology residency programs. Formal clinical neuro-oncology elective opportunities for medical students in the United States and Canada are limited. Additional such opportunities may be of value in the education of medical students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Lead isotopic evidence for selective uptake of radium in illite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidaka, H.; Horie, K. [Department of Earth and Planetary Systems Science, Hiroshima University Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Gauthier-Lafaye, F. [Centre de Geochimie de la Surface, UMR7517-CNRS-ULP, 67084 Strasbourg (France)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Radium has no stable isotopes. {sup 226}Ra having the longest half-life (T{sub 1/2} = 1600 year) among radium radioisotopes exists as a precursor of decay product from {sup 238}U in nature, and finally decays to the stable isotope {sup 206}Pb. Long-lived nuclides such as {sup 226}Ra may be profoundly fractionated from their parents in association with intense geochemical events in the terrestrial environments. Enrichment of Ra resulted from vegetation cycle and selective uptake into clay minerals has been reported [1,2]. It is of particular interest to understand the geochemical behaviors of Ra from the viewpoint of long-termed repository safety of radio-nuclear waste. We report here geochemical evidence of selective uptake of Ra ({sup 226}Ra) into clay minerals studied from the Pb isotopic compositions. The sample from sandstone layer at underground drift close to natural reactor zone 13 at the Oklo uranium deposits, Gabon. Several tiny illite grains sized about 100 {mu}m were found in fine calcite veins with 0.1 to 2 mm width in quartz matrix texture. Isotopic analyses of Pb and some related elements (U, Rb, Sr, Cs and Ba) in individual minerals were carried out by a Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP) at Hiroshima University. The Pb isotopic data of quartz and calcite in the sample provide the geochronological information corresponding to the formation of 2.15 billion year-old basement rocks and the occurrence of later hydrothermal activity in this region at 0.88 billion years, respectively. On the other hand, illite shows high enrichment of {sup 206}Pb, which cannot be explained simply from normal U decays. {sup 206}Po-enriched illite grains also show a strong enrichment of Ba. Such an enrichment of Ba is not observed in the neighboring minerals of illite grains. Considering that Ba has been used as a chemical tracer of {sup 226}Ra because of the chemical similarities between Ba and Ra, our result strongly

  15. [The role of emotional labour in oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szluha, Kornélia; Lazányi, Kornélia; Molnár, Péter

    2007-01-01

    Oncologists and related health care professionals (HCPs) do not only have to follow professional protocols in their everyday work, but also have to communicate proper attitudes towards patients suffering from malignant diseases. This task is often a heavier load than the implementation of professional activities themselves. The present article is based on a survey on HCP work motivation, employment parameters and correlations with emotional labour. Fifty oncology HCPs at Debrecen University Medical Health Sciences Centre volunteered to participate in this survey containing 20 simple-choice questions. More than 90 percent of HCPs make an effort to hide their emotional state, giving way to possible negative side effects. The survey showed significant differences between the level of emotional labour of those working in the field of oncology longer or shorter than ten years. Surface and deep emotional labour is more frequent among professionals already working in oncology for a longer period of time. This can serve us with explanation to the burn-out syndrome so frequent in this profession. To diminish the load of emotional labour, healthcare institutes have to aim at hiring employees that spontaneously fit the emotional and behavioural norms facing them, and do not need officially prescribed behavioural norms for everyday work. Their constant need for respect and appreciation of their values must be kept in mind, because the capability of genuine emotional labour diminishes parallel to the number of years spent in work.

  16. Medicinal cannabis in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Frederike K; de Jong, Floris A; Mathijssen, Ron H J; Erkens, Joëlle A; Herings, Ron M; Verweij, Jaap

    2007-12-01

    In The Netherlands, since September 2003, a legal medicinal cannabis product, constituting the whole range of cannabinoids, is available for clinical research, drug development strategies, and on prescription for patients. To date, this policy, initiated by the Dutch Government, has not yet led to the desired outcome; the amount of initiated clinical research is less than expected and only a minority of patients resorts to the legal product. This review aims to discuss the background for the introduction of legal medicinal cannabis in The Netherlands, the past years of Dutch clinical experience in oncology practice, possible reasons underlying the current outcome, and future perspectives.

  17. Radium contact therapy of vocal cord carcinomas: Is it still indicated today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chilla, R.; Hoelscher, U.; Krefting, E.; Eysholdt, U.

    1981-12-01

    In 148 patients treated between 1965 and 1975 by irradiation therapy because of a carcinoma of the vocal cords, the course of the disease could be elucidated. Irradiation was performed predominantly by radium contact therapy (105 patients) and less by conventional X-ray therapy (21 patients) or telecobalt irradiation (22 patients). A comparison between the tumors of the T/sub 1/ stage shows that the determinate survival rates are much more favorable (97,7% after 5, and 93,3% after 10 years) in patients receiving radium contact therapy than after telecobalt irradiation (75% after 5 and 10 years) or orthovolt therapy (81.8% after 5, and 80% after 10 years). As judged by the extent of severe paraphonia and laryngeal edema, function of the larynx is much better after radium contact therapy than after application of the other two forms of irradiation therapy. Of a total of 71 patients, only one patient who had received radium contact therapy according to the 'classical indication' developed a tumor recurrence. In comparison the rate of recurrence observed in 'extended indication' (30 patients) is 36,6% and thus reaches similar values as after telecobalt (31.8%) and orthovolt irradiation (33.3%). The undifferentiated carcinoma type is found in higher numbers among the recurrent carcinomas. Four late recurrences were detected after radium contact therapy, and two after orthovolt irradiation. The 4 late recurrences after radium contact therapy were exclusively observed after a previous 'extended indication' for this type of therapy; they were located at places where the primary tumor had gone beyond the range for 'classical indication'. Based on these results an attempt is made to establish guidelines for the application of radium contact therapy to carcinomas of the vocal cords.

  18. Specific activities of radium-226 in vegetables grown in Na Mom District, Songkhla Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angkunrat, S.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Specific activity of radium-226 in 13 types of vegetables grown in Namom district, Songkhla province, were analyzed using a low background gamma-ray spectrometer. The analyzed vegetables included Ivy Gourd, Yellow Cassia, White Popinac, Yard Long Bean, Rice, Peanut, Egg Plant, Spineless Amaranth, Swamp Cabbage, Mustart, Chinese Cabbage, Collards and Cucumbers. The control vegetables were taken from Bangklum district, 40 km south of Namom district. The samples were weighed, dried in an oven and finally burnt to ash in a furnace before being analyzed for a gamma ray of 186.2 keV emitted from Radium-226. The results showed that the geometrical means of specific activity of radium-226 of vegetables grown in Pijit, Namom, Klongrang and Thungkamin sub-district and over the Namom district were 1082, 1220, 1457, 1253 and 1250 mBq/kg, respectively. The highest and lowest values were 7882 and 26 mBq/kg, found in Ivy Gourd and Yard Long Bean, respectively. The high specific activities of radium-226 in vegetables were found to be distributed uniformly in the area. This probably indicated the source of radium-226 was also distributed uniformly in the shallow granitic bedrock throughout the area. We concluded that the radium-226 contents in vegetables grown in Namom district depended on the absorbability of alkaline earth metals in vegetables themselves, geographic features and radium content in natural water in the area. The estimated annual effective dose averaged over Namom district was 21 μSv. Consumption of Ivy Gourd may receive the maximum annual effective dose of 132 μSv.

  19. Behaviour of Radium in coastal marine water of India - Behaviour of Radium in coastal marine environment of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, S.K.; Sartandel, S.; Tripathi, R.M. [Environmental Radioactivity measurement Section, Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2014-07-01

    In the recent years, there has also been an increased recognition of the radiological significance of non-nuclear process of natural radioactivity in particular {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb produced, for example by Phosphate processing plants, offshore oil and gas installations and ceramic industries etc. Keeping this in mind, special distribution of radium was carried out to generate region specific values of Radium. The Indian Ocean differs from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans in its limited northward extent, to only 25 deg. N. Indian subcontinent divides the Indian ocean in the north into two tropical basin namely Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal both being located within same latitude and being under the direct influence of monsoon. For measurements of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra concentration in the coastal marine waters of India, MnO{sub 2} impregnated cartridge based in-situ pre-concentration technique was applied by passing 1000 liters of seawater at thirty locations covering Arabian Sea in the west of India and Bay of Bengal in the east. {sup 226}Ra was estimated using gamma ray peak of its daughter radionuclides {sup 214}Bi and {sup 214}Pb while {sup 228}Ra was estimated from its daughter {sup 228}Ac. {sup 214}Pb emissions occur at 295 and 352 keV; {sup 214}Bi has an emission at 609 keV. For {sup 228}Ac gamma emissions at 911 keV, 968 keV and 338 keV were used. In the coastal waters, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra concentration was observed to be in the range of 0.69 to 4.10 mBql{sup -1} and 0.70 to 8 Bq m{sup -3} respectively with an average of 1.52 and 4.53 Bq m{sup -3}. The concentration of {sup 228}Ra was observed to be more than {sup 226}Ra in all the locations. The activity ratio of {sup 228}Ra/{sup 226}Ra in coastal marine water from the Bay of Bengal showed a ratio varying from 0.8 to 2.4 with a mean of 2.1.In the present study, activity ratio varies from 1.9 to 2.4 at Karaikkal. But the regions of Rameswaram and

  20. [Conceptual issues of standartization of the special medical care rendered to oncological patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalimov, S O; Lishchyshyna, O M

    2005-01-01

    Legislative documents of Ukraine as well as manuals of international organizations dealing with state regulation and social guaranties in Health Care have been analyzed. The use of standards in oncology institution in Ukraine has been studied. It was established that there is discrepancy in standards being used, lack of financing directed to oncology institutions. Controversial points concerning theoretical aspects were found as follows: the regulation of negative figures and selection of the complex of diagnostic and treatment procedures. The requirements to branch standards and principles of standardization of medical care provided to oncological patients.

  1. Radium needle used to calibrate germanium gamma-ray detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamboj, S; Lovett, D; Kahn, B; Walker, D

    1993-03-01

    A standard platinum-iridium needle that contains 374 MBq 226Ra was tested as a source for calibrating a portable germanium detector used with a gamma-ray spectrometer for environmental radioactivity measurements. The counting efficiencies of the 11 most intense gamma rays emitted by 226Ra and its short-lived radioactive progeny at energies between 186 and 2,448 keV were determined, at the full energy peaks, to construct a curve of counting efficiency vs. energy. The curve was compared to another curve between 43 and 1,596 keV obtained with a NIST mixed-radionuclide standard. It was also compared to the results of a Monte Carlo simulation. The 226Ra source results were consistent with the NIST standard between 248 and 1,596 keV. The Monte Carlo simulation gave a curve parallel to the curve for the combined radium and NIST standard data between 250 and 2,000 keV, but at higher efficiency.

  2. Fine structure in the cluster decay of radium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhosh, K P [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Kannur University, Payyanur Campus, Payyanur 670 327 (India)], E-mail: kpsanthosh@eth.net

    2010-01-15

    Half-life times for {sup 14}C cluster emission from various radium isotopes are computed taking interacting potential as the sum of Coulomb and proximity potentials. The half-life time values are compared with experimental data and with the values reported by Poenaru et al using the analytical super-asymmetric fission model (ASAFM). The lowest half-life time for {sup 222}Ra stresses the role of the doubly magic {sup 208}Pb daughter in the exotic decay process. It is found that neutron excess in the parent nucleus slows down the exotic decay process. The high hindrance factor (HF) of the {sup 14}C branch to the ground state (9/2{sup +}) and the low HF to the first excited state (11/2{sup +}) of the {sup 209}Pb daughter are in good agreement with the experimental result. The fine structure from {sup 223}Ra gives direct evidence of the presence of a spherical component in the deformed parent nucleus.

  3. Molecular radio-oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Michael; Krause, Mechthild; Cordes, Nils (eds.) [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital

    2016-07-01

    This book concisely reviews our current understanding of hypoxia, molecular targeting, DNA repair, cancer stem cells, and tumor pathophysiology, while also discussing novel strategies for putting these findings into practice in daily clinical routine. Radiotherapy is an important part of modern multimodal cancer treatment, and the past several years have witnessed not only substantial improvements in radiation techniques and the use of new beam qualities, but also major strides in our understanding of molecular tumor biology and tumor radiation response. Against this backdrop, the book highlights recent efforts to identify reasonable and clinically applicable biomarkers using broad-spectrum tissue microarrays and high-throughput systems biology approaches like genomics and epigenomics. In particular, it describes in detail how such molecular information is now being exploited for diagnostic imaging and imaging throughout treatment using the example of positron emission tomography. By discussing all these issues in the context of modern radiation oncology, the book provides a broad, up-to-date overview of the molecular aspects of radiation oncology that will hopefully foster its further optimization.

  4. Industry Funding Among Leadership in Medical Oncology and Radiation Oncology in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Stella K; Ahmed, Awad A; Ileto, Jan; Zaorsky, Nicholas G; Deville, Curtiland; Holliday, Emma B; Wilson, Lynn D; Jagsi, Reshma; Thomas, Charles R

    2017-10-01

    To quantify and determine the relationship between oncology departmental/division heads and private industry vis-à-vis potential financial conflict of interests (FCOIs) as publicly reported by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Open Payments database. We extracted the names of the chairs/chiefs in medical oncology (MO) and chairs of radiation oncology (RO) for 81 different institutions with both RO and MO training programs as reported by the Association of American Medical Colleges. For each leader, the amount of consulting fees and research payments received in 2015 was determined. Logistic modeling was used to assess associations between the 2 endpoints of receiving a consulting fee and receiving a research payment with various institution-specific and practitioner-specific variables included as covariates: specialty, sex, National Cancer Institute designation, PhD status, and geographic region. The majority of leaders in MO were reported to have received consulting fees or research payments (69.5%) compared with a minority of RO chairs (27.2%). Among those receiving payments, the average (range) consulting fee was $13,413 ($200-$70,423) for MO leaders and $6463 ($837-$16,205) for RO chairs; the average research payment for MO leaders receiving payments was $240,446 ($156-$1,234,762) and $295,089 ($160-$1,219,564) for RO chairs. On multivariable regression when the endpoint was receipt of a research payment, those receiving a consulting fee (odds ratio [OR]: 5.34; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.22-13.65) and MO leaders (OR: 5.54; 95% CI: 2.62-12.18) were more likely to receive research payments. Examination of the receipt of consulting fees as the endpoint showed that those receiving a research payment (OR: 5.41; 95% CI: 2.23-13.99) and MO leaders (OR: 3.06; 95% CI: 1.21-8.13) were more likely to receive a consulting fee. Leaders in academic oncology receive consulting or research payments from industry. Relationships between oncology leaders and

  5. Retention of radium from thermal waters on sand filters and adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elejalde, C. [Dpto. de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)]. E-mail: inpelsac@bi.ehu.es; Herranz, M. [Dpto. de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R. [Dpto. de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Legarda, F. [Dpto. de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Romero, F. [Dpto. de Ingenieria Quimica y del Medio Ambiente, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Baeza, A. [Dpto. de Fisica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain)

    2007-06-18

    This study was focussed on laboratory experiences of retention of radium from one thermal water on sand filters and adsorbents, trying to find an easy method for the elimination in drinkable waters polluted with this natural radio-nuclide. A thermal water from Cantabria (Spain) was selected for this work. Retention experiences were made with columns of 35 mm of diameter containing 15 cm layers of washed river sand or 4 cm layers of zeolite A3, passing known volumes of thermal water at flows between 4 and 40 ml/min with control of the retained radium by determining the amount in the water after the treatment. The statistical analysis of data suggests that retention depends on the flow and the volume passed through the columns. As additional adsorbents were used kaolin and a clay rich in illite. Jar-test experiences were made agitating known weights of adsorbents with the selected thermal water, with addition of flocculants and determination of radium in filtrated water after the treatment. Data suggest that retention is related to the weight of adsorbent used, but important quantities of radium seem remain in solution for higher amounts of adsorbents, according to the statistical treatment of data. The elution of retained radium from columns or adsorbents, previously used in experiences, should be the aim of a future research.

  6. Natural radium and radon tracers to quantify water exchange and movement in reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher G.; Baskaran, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Radon and radium isotopes are routinely used to quantify exchange rates between different hydrologic reservoirs. Since their recognition as oceanic tracers in the 1960s, both radon and radium have been used to examine processes such as air-sea exchange, deep oceanic mixing, benthic inputs, and many others. Recently, the application of radon-222 and the radium-quartet (223,224,226,228Ra) as coastal tracers has seen a revelation with the growing interest in coastal groundwater dynamics. The enrichment of these isotopes in benthic fluids including groundwater makes both radium and radon ideal tracers of coastal benthic processes (e.g. submarine groundwater discharge). In this chapter we review traditional and recent advances in the application of radon and radium isotopes to understand mixing and exchange between various hydrologic reservoirs, specifically: (1) atmosphere and ocean, (2) deep and shallow oceanic water masses, (3) coastal groundwater/benthic pore waters and surface ocean, and (4) aquifer-lakes. While the isotopes themselves and their distribution in the environment provide qualitative information about the exchange processes, it is mixing/exchange and transport models for these isotopes that provide specific quantitative information about these processes. Brief introductions of these models and mixing parameters are provided for both historical and more recent studies.

  7. Tracking the 2015 Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium: bridging cancer biology to clinical gastrointestinal oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprile G

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Aprile,1 Francesco Leone,2,3 Riccardo Giampieri,4 Mariaelena Casagrande,1 Donatella Marino,2,3 Luca Faloppi,4 Stefano Cascinu,4 Gianpiero Fasola,1 Mario Scartozzi5,6 1Department of Oncology, University and General Hospital, Udine, Italy; 2Medical Oncology Department, University of Turin, 3Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Candiolo, Turin, Italy; 4Medical Oncology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Ospedali Riuniti, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy; 5Medical Oncology Department, University of Cagliari, 6General Hospital, Cagliari, Italy Abstract: The 2015 Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium (San Francisco, CA, USA; January 15–17 is the world-class conference co-sponsored by the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the American Society for Radiation Oncology, the American Gastroenterological Association Institute, and the Society of Surgical Oncology, in which the most innovative research results in digestive tract oncology are presented and discussed. In its twelfth edition, the meeting has provided new insights focusing on the underpinning biology and clinical management of gastrointestinal malignancies. More than 3,400 health care professionals gathered from all over the world to share their experiences on how to bridge the recent novelties in cancer biology with everyday medical practice. In this article, the authors report on the most significant advances, didactically moving on three different anatomic tracks: gastroesophageal malignancies, pancreatic and biliary cancers, and colorectal adenocarcinomas. Keywords: colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, ramucirumab, pembrolizumab, target therapy, onartuzumab, AMG 337

  8. [Practical pain control in pediatric oncology. Recommendations of the German Society of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, the German Association for the Study of Pain, the German Society of Palliative Care, and the Vodafone Institute of Children's Pain Therapy and Palliative Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernikow, B; Schiessl, C; Wamsler, C; Janssen, G; Griessinger, N; Fengler, R; Nauck, F

    2006-02-01

    In pediatric oncology, optimal pain control is still a challenge. A structured pain history and the regular scoring of pain intensity using age-adapted measuring tools are hallmarks of optimal pain control. Psychological measures are as important as drug therapy in the prophylaxis or control of pain, especially when performing invasive procedures. Pain control is oriented toward the WHO multistep therapeutic schedule. On no account should the pediatric patient have to climb up the "analgesic ladder" - strong pain requires the primary use of strong opioids. Give opioids preferably by the oral route and by the clock - short-acting opioids should be used to treat breakthrough pain. Alternatives are i.v. infusion, patient-controlled analgesia, and transdermal applications. Constipation is the adverse effect most often seen with (oral) opioid therapy. Adverse effects should be anticipated, and prophylactic treatment should be given consistently. The assistance of pediatric nurses is of the utmost importance in pediatric pain control. Nurses deliver the basis for rational and effective pain control by scoring pain intensity and documenting drug administration as well as adverse effects. The nurses' task is also to prepare the patient for and monitor the patient during painful procedures. It is the responsibility of both nurse and doctor to guarantee emergency intervention during sedation whenever needed. In our guideline we comment on drug selection and dosage, pain measurement tools, and documentation tools for the purpose of pain control. Those tools may be easily integrated into daily routine.

  9. Systemic treatment with capecitabine as maintenance therapy in patients with recurring or metastatic breast cancer: experience in the Oncology Hospital, National Medical Center Siglo XXI, Mexican Social Security Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-González, Manuel; Quintana-Quintana, Miguel

    2015-04-01

    Metastatic breast cancer as initial onset represents between 20 and 30 % of cases and is considered an incurable disease. The goal of its treatment is palliative, looking for increasing the survival while reducing the symptoms. Maintenance chemotherapy studies for metastatic breast cancer have demonstrated to prolong the progression-free survival, with unclear results in terms of overall survival. The main objectives of our study were the progression-free survival and overall survival in patients with recurring or metastatic breast cancer treated with capecitabine in the maintenance chemotherapy setting compared with patients not receiving maintenance chemotherapy. As secondary objectives, the frequency of dose-limiting toxicities and response rate were determined. A non-probabilistic sampling was used, through expert selection of patients from the recurring/metastatic breast cancer survey cared within the period from January 1, 2007, to December 21, 2012. A total of 77 patients were included. Clinical data of advanced/recurrent breast cancer patients that were treated with capecitabine were recorded. The study achieved its primary objective, since the progression-free survival was prolonged for the maintenance therapy group: 6.6 versus 18.1 months, p Siglo XXI Oncology Hospital extends the overall survival and progression-free survival with a good toxicity profile.

  10. Perceived roles of oncology nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemonde, Manon; Payman, Naghmeh

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Association of Nurses in Oncology (CANO) Standards of Care (2001) provides a framework that delineates oncology nursing roles and responsibilities. The purpose of this study was to explore how oncology nurses perceive their roles and responsibilities compared to the CANO Standards of Care. Six focus groups were conducted and 21 registered nurses (RNs) from a community-based hospital participated in this study. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative inductive content analysis. Three themes were identified: (1) Oncology nurses perceive a gap between their defined roles and the reality of daily practice, as cancer care becomes more complex and as they provide advanced oncology care to more patients while there is no parallel adaptation to the health care system to support them, such as safe staffing; (2) Oncology nursing, as a specialty, requires sustained professional development and leadership roles; and (3) Oncology nurses are committed to providing continuous care as a reference point in the health care team by fostering interdisciplinary collaboration andfacilitating patient's navigation through the system. Organizational support through commitment to appropriate staffing and matching scope ofpractice to patient needs may lead to maximize the health and well-being of nurses, quality of patient care and organizational performance.

  11. Mathematical oncology 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Gandolfi, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    With chapters on free boundaries, constitutive equations, stochastic dynamics, nonlinear diffusion–consumption, structured populations, and applications of optimal control theory, this volume presents the most significant recent results in the field of mathematical oncology. It highlights the work of world-class research teams, and explores how different researchers approach the same problem in various ways. Tumors are complex entities that present numerous challenges to the mathematical modeler. First and foremost, they grow. Thus their spatial mean field description involves a free boundary problem. Second, their interiors should be modeled as nontrivial porous media using constitutive equations. Third, at the end of anti-cancer therapy, a small number of malignant cells remain, making the post-treatment dynamics inherently stochastic. Fourth, the growth parameters of macroscopic tumors are non-constant, as are the parameters of anti-tumor therapies. Changes in these parameters may induce phenomena that a...

  12. Using big data for quality assessment in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughman, James R; Chen, Ronald C

    2016-05-01

    There is increasing attention in the US healthcare system on the delivery of high-quality care, an issue central to oncology. In the report 'Crossing the Quality Chasm', the Institute of Medicine identified six aims for improving healthcare quality: safe, effective, patient-centered, timely, efficient and equitable. This article describes how current big data resources can be used to assess these six dimensions, and provides examples of published studies in oncology. Strengths and limitations of current big data resources for the evaluation of quality of care are also discussed. Finally, this article outlines a vision where big data can be used not only to retrospectively assess the quality of oncologic care, but help physicians deliver high-quality care in real time.

  13. Human-health effects of radium: an epidemiolgic perspective of research at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebbings, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The topic of health effects of radium has recently been considerably broadened by the identification of multiple myeloma as a specific outcome of bone-seeking radionuclides, and by evidence that the incidence of breast cancer may be significantly increased by radium exposure. All soft-tissue tumors are now suspect, especially leukemias. Concepts of dose-response need to be broadened to include the concept of risk factors, or, if one prefers, of susceptible subgroups. Biological factors relating to radium uptake and retention require study, as do risk factors modifying risk of both the clasical tumors, osteosarcoma and nasal sinus/mastoid, and the more recently suspect soft-tissue tumors. The history, organization, and current research activities in epidemiology at Argonne National Laboratory are described, and findings of the last decade and a half reviewed. Plans for future research are briefly discussed.

  14. Ion neutralisation mass-spectrometry route to radium monofluoride (RaF)

    CERN Document Server

    Isaev, T A; Willmann, L; Berger, R

    2013-01-01

    The diatomic molecule radium monofluoride (RaF) has recently been proposed as a versatile probe for physics beyond the current standard model. Herein, a route towards production of a RaF molecular beam via radium ions is proposed. It takes advantage of the special electronic structure expected for group 2 halides and group 2 hydrides: The electronic ground state of neutral RaF and its monocation differ in occupation of a non-bonding orbital of $\\sigma$ symmetry. This implies similar equilibrium distances and harmonic vibrational wavenumbers in the two charge states and thus favourable Franck--Condon factors for neutralisation without dissociation in neutralising collisions. According to the calculated ionisation energy of RaF, charge exchange collisions of RaF$^+$ with sodium atoms are almost iso-enthalpic, resulting in large cross-sections for the production of neutral radium monofluoride.

  15. Standards of radium-226: from Marie Curie to the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coursey, B M; Collé, R; Coursey, J S

    2002-01-01

    In the early part of the 20th century, the pioneers of radioactivity research, led by Marie Curie, Ernest Rutherford and Stefan Meyer, formed a Commission internationale des étalons de radium. The Commission made arrangements for the preparation and intercomparisons of the international standards of radium, which were identified as the Paris standard and the Vienna standard. Otto Hönigschmid from Vienna prepared a first set of international secondary standards in 1912 and a second set in 1934. In both instances, these secondary standards were compared by gamma-ray measurements with the Paris and Vienna standards. The usage of these international standards of radium in the 20th century is described.

  16. Uranium and radium in groundwater and surface water samples in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakam, O. K.; Choukri, A.; Moutia, Z.; Chouak, A.; Cherkaoui, R.; Reyss, J.-L.; Lferde, M.

    2001-06-01

    Activities and activity ratios of uranium and radium isotopes ( 234U, 238U, 226Ra, 228Ra, 234U/ 238U, 226Ra/ 238U, 228Ra/ 226Ra) have been determined for 15 wells, 14 hot springs, 7 cold springs and 11 rivers. Activities of the radium isotopes were measured by ultra gamma spectrometry using a low background and high efficiency well type germanium detector whereas those of uranium were counted in an alpha spectrometer. The minimal, maximal and average values are reported here for each water source. The obtained results show that, unlike well waters, the thermal spring waters present relatively low 238U activities and elevated 226Ra activities and 234U/ 238U activity ratios. Uranium and radium activities are similar to those published for other non polluting regions of the world.

  17. Measurements of radon and radium activity in bottled mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Reque, Marilson; Tabuchi, Camila Garcia; Del Claro, Flavia; Perna, Allan Felipe, E-mail: jaquelinekappke@gmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Deniak, Valeriy [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Current work presents the results of further development of optimized experimental protocol for RAD7 instant radon detector (Durridge Company Inc.) usage in low level radon in water measurements and the results concerning Ra-226 activity evaluation in bottled mineral water samples purchased at Brazilian market. With the purpose to achieve the statistically consistent results for the activity levels of 0.1Bq/L for radon (radium) activity in water, present study used modified experimental protocol which consists of: 1) water samples were stored in hermetically sealed glass vials of 250mL during 30 days to guarantee that Rn-222 will reach the secular equilibrium; 2) the measurements were performed using WAT250 protocol of RAD7 detector; 3) with an aim to decrease the background, the cleaning (activated carbon filter) and drying (DRIERITE desiccant) vessels, which have a function to retain the radioactive decay product of Rn-222 and humidity, were connected to a closed air loop of RAD7 permanently by means of valves and taps, which gave a possibility to repeat all sequence of measurements (including background evaluation) three or four times without to open the air loop and disconnect the sample vial with water. Each water sample was submitted to such measurements two or three times. Obtained results presented the level of Ra-226 activity in studied samples of bottled mineral water that varied from 0.007 ± 0.061 Bq/L to 0.145 ± 0.049 Bq/L, which is below the limit of 0,5 Bq/L established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2011 for drinking water. (author)

  18. Sustainable agricultural use of natural water sources containing elevated radium activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripler, Effi; Haquin, Gustavo; Koch, Jean; Yehuda, Zehava; Shani, Uri

    2014-06-01

    Relatively elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radium isotopes ((226)Ra, (228)Ra and (224)Ra) are found in two main aquifers in the arid southern part of Israel, in activity concentrations frequently exceeding the limits set in the drinking water quality regulations. We aimed to explore the environmental implications of using water containing Ra for irrigation. Several crops (cucumbers, melons, radish, lettuce, alfalfa and wheat), grown in weighing lysimeters were irrigated at 3 levels of (226)Ra activity concentration: Low Radium Water (LRW)<0.04 Bq L(-1); High Radium Water (HRW) at 1.8 Bq L(-1) and (3) Radium Enriched Water (REW) at 50 times the concentration in HRW. The HYDRUS 1-D software package was used to simulate the long-term (226)Ra distribution in a soil irrigated with HRW for 15 years. Radium uptake by plants was found to be controlled by its activity in the irrigation water and in the soil solution, the physical properties of the soil and the potential evapotranspiration. The (226)Ra apeared to accumulate mainly in the leaves of crops following the evapotranspiration current, while its accumulation in the edible parts (fruits and roots) was minimal. The simulation of 15 years of crop irrigation by HYDERUS 1-D, showed a low Ra activity concentration in the soil solution of the root zone and a limited downward mobility. It was therefore concluded that the crops investigated in this study can be irrigated with the natural occurring activity concentration of (226)Ra of 0.6-1.6 Bq L(-1). This should be accompanied by a continuous monitoring of radium in the edible parts of the crops. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Central nervous system tumors and related intracranial pathologies in radium dial workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebbings, J.H.; Semkiw, W.

    1988-01-01

    Among the female radiation workers in the radium dial industry there is no overall excess of brain or central nervous system tumors. A significant excess did appear, however, in one of three major cohorts; the excess was not due to an excess of gliomas and cannot be ascribed with certainty to radium or external radiation. A significant proportional excess of tumors outside the brain was observed, and is consistent with irradiation of nervous system tissue from adjacent bone. Early deaths from brain abscess or mastoiditis, which are coded as diseases of the nervous system and sense organs, were observed. 12 refs., 11 tabs.

  20. Experimental study of radium partitioning between anorthite and melt at 1 atm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S; Burnett, D; Asimow, P; Phinney, D; Hutcheon, I

    2007-03-08

    We present the first experimental radium mineral/melt partitioning data, specifically between anorthite and a CMAS melt at atmospheric pressure. Ion microprobe measurement of coexisting anorthite and glass phases produces a molar D{sub Ra} = 0.040 {+-} 0.006 and D{sub Ra}/D{sub Ba} = 0.23 {+-} 0.05 at 1400 C. Our results indicate that lattice strain partitioning models fit the divalent (Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra) partition coefficient data of this study well, supporting previous work on crustal melting and magma chamber dynamics that has relied on such models to approximate radium partitioning behavior in the absence of experimentally determined values.

  1. Radium-contaminated water: a risk factor for cancer of the upper digestive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirunwatthanakul, Phatcha; Sriplung, Hutcha; Geater, Alan

    2006-01-01

    There is a high incidence of oral, pharynx and esophagus cancer among males in Na Mom district in Songkhla Province in Thailand, an area where radium concentration in shallow well water is found to be higher than other areas in this province. A population-based case control study was conducted from June to November 2004 to determine the association of oral exposure to radium-contaminated water and cancer of the upper digestive tract in the district.Thirty-two confirmed cases and 128 sex and five-year birth cohort matched neighborhood controls were selected by multistage sampling from six villages in four sub-districts. All subjects were verified to have been permanent residents in the district for more than 10 years. Thirty cases were dead at the time of the study, thus their relatives were interviewed to determine their amount of water drinking, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, betel chewing and exposure to other potential risk factors in the past. The other two cases and all controls were directly interviewed. The concentration of radium in shallow well water at the subject's houses was estimated using a contour map of Ra-226 in the water at the location of their residence. The results showed a strong and dose-dependent associationb etween consumption of radium-contaminated shallow well water and cancer of the upper digestive tract. In multivariate analysis controlled for important risk factors of the cancer, the odds ratios for exposure to oral radium consumption 50-100 mBq/day and >100 mBq/day compared with <50 mBq/day were 2.83 (95% CI: 0.50-16.19) and 29.76 (95% CI: 4.39-201.6) respectively. The risk also increased with consumption of fresh water fish which might have been contaminated by dissolved radium in the water. This study offers the first evidence of the association between radium and cancer of the upper digestive tract to the world literature. Further studies with other methods such as area-wide correlation of radium-uranium concentration and the

  2. Radium concentration and radon exhalation measurements using LR-115 type II plastic track detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, A.; Naqvi, A. H.; Srivastava, D. S.

    1995-12-01

    The “Track-Etch” technique using LR-115 type II plastic track detectors has been employed for measuring the radium content and radon exhalation rates of different types of building materials. Among the eight materials studied it was found that fine aggregates (Badarpur) show the greatest radon exhalation, whereas portland cement produces minimum values of radon exhalation. Experimentally-measured values of the “effective radium content” (in Bq kg-1) their “mass exhalation” rates (in Bq kg-1d-1) and “surface exhalation” rates (in Bq m-2d-1 ) are reported.

  3. [Oncologic gynecology and the Internet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizler, Robert; Bielanów, Tomasz; Kulikiewicz, Krzysztof

    2002-11-01

    The strategy of World Wide Web searching for medical sites was presented in this article. The "deep web" and "surface web" resources were searched. The 10 best sites connected with the gynecological oncology, according to authors' opinion, were presented.

  4. American Society of Clinical Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Interest Mobile App Privacy Policy Privacy Policy Social Media Policy Sponsor Policy Terms of Use American Society of Clinical Oncology ASCO Annual Meeting Register and Reserve Your Hotel June 2-6, 2017 | Chicago, Illinois Hotel Reservation & ...

  5. Personalizing medicine in geriatric oncology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walko, Christine M; McLeod, Howard L

    2014-01-01

    Minimizing toxicity while maximizing efficacy is a common goal in the treatment of any condition but its importance is underscored in the discipline of oncology because of the serious nature of many...

  6. Dosimetric characterization of two radium sources for retrospective dosimetry studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candela-Juan, C., E-mail: ccanjuan@gmail.com [Radiation Oncology Department, La Fe University and Polytechnic Hospital, Valencia 46026, Spain and Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100 (Spain); Karlsson, M. [Division of Radiological Sciences, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping SE 581 85 (Sweden); Lundell, M. [Department of Medical Physics and Oncology, Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm SE 171 76 (Sweden); Ballester, F. [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100 (Spain); Tedgren, Å. Carlsson [Division of Radiological Sciences, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping SE 581 85, Sweden and Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm SE 171 16 (Sweden)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: During the first part of the 20th century, {sup 226}Ra was the most used radionuclide for brachytherapy. Retrospective accurate dosimetry, coupled with patient follow up, is important for advancing knowledge on long-term radiation effects. The purpose of this work was to dosimetrically characterize two {sup 226}Ra sources, commonly used in Sweden during the first half of the 20th century, for retrospective dose–effect studies. Methods: An 8 mg {sup 226}Ra tube and a 10 mg {sup 226}Ra needle, used at Radiumhemmet (Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden), from 1925 to the 1960s, were modeled in two independent Monte Carlo (MC) radiation transport codes: GEANT4 and MCNP5. Absorbed dose and collision kerma around the two sources were obtained, from which the TG-43 parameters were derived for the secular equilibrium state. Furthermore, results from this dosimetric formalism were compared with results from a MC simulation with a superficial mould constituted by five needles inside a glass casing, placed over a water phantom, trying to mimic a typical clinical setup. Calculated absorbed doses using the TG-43 formalism were also compared with previously reported measurements and calculations based on the Sievert integral. Finally, the dose rate at large distances from a {sup 226}Ra point-like-source placed in the center of 1 m radius water sphere was calculated with GEANT4. Results: TG-43 parameters [including g{sub L}(r), F(r, θ), Λ, and s{sub K}] have been uploaded in spreadsheets as additional material, and the fitting parameters of a mathematical curve that provides the dose rate between 10 and 60 cm from the source have been provided. Results from TG-43 formalism are consistent within the treatment volume with those of a MC simulation of a typical clinical scenario. Comparisons with reported measurements made with thermoluminescent dosimeters show differences up to 13% along the transverse axis of the radium needle. It has been estimated that

  7. [Unproven methods in oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallut, O; Guex, P; Barrelet, L

    1984-09-08

    As in some other chronic diseases (rheumatism, multiple sclerosis, etc.), unproven methods of diagnosis and treatment have long been current in cancer. Since 1960 the American Cancer Society has published an abundant literature on these "unproven methods", which serves as a basis for a historical review: some substances (Krebiozen, Laetrile) have enjoyed tremendous if shortlived success. The present trend is back to nature and "mild medicine". The proponents of this so-called natural medicine are often disciples of a pseudoscientific religion using irrational arguments. Direct attacks on these erroneous theories and their public refutation fail to convince the adepts, who trust in these methods and are not amenable to a scientific approach. Study of their psychological motivations reveals that in fact they seek something more reassuring than plain medical explanation which is aware of its limits. They feel reassured by theories which often bear some resemblance to the old popular medicine. To protect patients against these dangerous methods and all the disillusionment they entail, the Swiss Society of Oncology and the Swiss Cancer League have decided to gather information and draw up a descriptive list of the commonest unproven methods in Switzerland (our File No. 2, "Total anti-cancer cure", is given as an example). The files are published in French, German and English and are available to physicians, nursing teams, and also patients who wish to have more objective information on these methods.

  8. [Economic limits in oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellriegel, K P

    2000-12-01

    Economic aspects require consideration even in oncology. However, they have to be seen in context with open questions concerning especially the evaluation of therapeutic effectiveness, of methodology, and particularly of ethics. Medical procedures and achievements should primarily be measured against objective results, against effectiveness and benefits. Consequently, the suitability of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies has to be evaluated. Overall objective of medical achievements should be their optimalization, not their maximization. For a physician being aware of his responsibility, the optimal care for his patients always has highest priority. Medical guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up are the basis for effective and economic patient care. They have to undergo economic evaluation and permanent updating. For systematic collection, documentation and evaluation, the clinical register is the appropriate instrument. For the assessment of medical care, a continuous monitoring of its processes has to be established. The documentation of medical care processes should lead to sustainable cost reductions together with an optimalization of the quality of care.

  9. Micronutrients in Oncological Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Gröber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional supplements are widely used among patients with cancer who perceive them to be anticancer and antitoxicity agents. Depending on the type of malignancy and the gender 30%–90% of the cancer patients supplement their diets with antioxidant and immuno-stabilizing micronutrients, such as selenium, vitamin C, and vitamin D, often without the knowledge of the treating physician. From the oncological viewpoint, there are justifiable concerns that dietary supplements decrease the effectiveness of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recent studies, however, have provided increasing evidence that treatment is tolerated better—with an increase in patient compliance and a lower rate of treatment discontinuations—when micronutrients, such as selenium, are added as appropriate to the patient’s medication. Nutritional supplementation tailored to an individual’s background diet, genetics, tumor histology, and treatments may yield benefits in subsets of patients. Clinicians should have an open dialogue with patients about nutritional supplements. Supplement advice needs to be individualized and come from a credible source, and it is best communicated by the physician.

  10. Perceptions, attitudes, and experiences of hematology/oncology fellows toward incorporating geriatrics in their training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiore, Ronald J; Gorawara-Bhat, Rita; Levine, Stacie K; Dale, William

    2014-01-01

    The aging of the U.S. population continues to highlight emerging issues in providing care generally for older adults and specifically for older adults with cancer. The majority of patients with cancer in the U.S. are currently 65 years of age or older; therefore, training and research in geriatrics and geriatric oncology are viewed to be integral in meeting the needs of this vulnerable population. Yet, the ways to develop and integrate best geriatrics training within the context of hematology/oncology fellowship remain unclear. Toward this end, the current study seeks to evaluate the prior and current geriatric experiences and perspectives of hematology/oncology fellows. To gain insight into these experiences, focus groups of hematology/oncology fellows were conducted. Emergent themes included: 1) perceived lack of formal geriatric oncology didactics among fellows; 2) a considerable amount of variability exists in pre-fellowship geriatric experiences; 3) shared desire to participate in a geriatric oncology-based clinic; 4) differences across training levels in confidence in managing older adults with cancer; and 5) identification of specific criteria on how best to approach older adults with cancer in a particular clinical scenario. The present findings will help guide future studies in evaluating geriatrics among hematology/oncology fellows across institutions. They will also have implications in the development of geriatrics curricula and competencies specific to hematology/oncology training. © 2013.

  11. New technique of uterine body carcinoma brachytherapy. Pt. 1. Radium chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rattka, P.; Jedrus, S. (Instytut Onkologii, Gliwice (Poland))

    1980-01-01

    A simple technique of uterine cavity tamponade with radium charges arranged in a chain has been evolved, establishing at the same time an optimal dose on the basis of computer calculations. Own experiences with the use of this technique in 31 patients are presented.

  12. A review of the potential for radium from luminising activities to migrate in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A C; Toque, C

    2005-06-01

    During the first half of the twentieth century, radium, mixed with other components, was used to luminise many items, including watches, clocks, dials and meters. On many sites, and in particular MoD sites, luminised instruments and paint were disposed of by burning and burial. This paper presents a review of the potential for radium from such sites to migrate in the environment. The most likely mechanisms of migration of radium from former luminising sites in the UK are surface-water erosion and transport, and the action of animals and people. Plant uptake or rainsplash followed by cropping of the plants is another possible mechanism, but the extent of impact is uncertain. The migration of significant quantities of radium through soils or rocks, or due to landsliding or wind transport, is considered to be of minimal importance to most UK sites. A low pH, high salinity (in particular of group II metals) or reducing groundwater would need to be present for migration through soils/rocks to occur and such conditions are unlikely to be present in most shallow aquifer systems in the UK. To reduce the potential for migration to occur it is recommended that luminising wastes at ground surface are removed or covered, that controls are put in place to limit animal activity and that human entry to former luminising sites is restricted.

  13. Radium-223 behandling af knoglemetastaser ved kastrationsrefraktær prostatacancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jann; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2014-01-01

    The alpha emitter Radium-223 ((22)3Ra-Cl2) is a bone-seeking radionuclide studied as a new treatment for patients with bone metastases from hormone refractory prostate cancer. More than 1,000 patients have been included in clinical phase I-III tests showing significant reduction in alkaline...

  14. Radium-223 treatment of bone metastases from castration-resistant prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jann; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2014-01-01

    The alpha emitter Radium-223 ((22)3Ra-Cl2) is a bone-seeking radionuclide studied as a new treatment for patients with bone metastases from hormone refractory prostate cancer. More than 1,000 patients have been included in clinical phase I-III tests showing significant reduction in alkaline...

  15. Potential of electric quadrupole transitions in radium isotopes for single-ion optical frequency standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versolato, O. O.; Wansbeek, L. W.; Jungmann, K.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2011-01-01

    We explore the potential of the electric quadrupole transitions 7s (2)S(1/2)-(6)d (2)D(3/2), 6d (2)D(5/2) in radium isotopes as single-ion optical frequency standards. The frequency shifts of the clock transitions due to external fields and the corresponding uncertainties are calculated. Several

  16. Radium isotopes as a tracer of sediment-water column exchange in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, W.J.; Thomas, H.; Pätsch, J.; Omar, A.; Schrum, C.; Daewel, U.; Brenner, H.; de Baar, H.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Sediment-water column exchange plays an important role in coastal biogeochemistry. We utilize short-lived radium isotopes (224Ra and 223Ra) to understand and quantify the dominant processes governing sediment-water column exchange throughout the North Sea. Our comprehensive survey, conducted in Sept

  17. 40 CFR 61.207 - Radium-226 sampling and measurement procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for Radon Emissions From Phosphogypsum Stacks § 61.207 Radium-226 sampling and measurement procedures. (a) Before removing phosphogypsum from a stack for distribution in commerce pursuant to § 61.204, or § 61.206, the owner or operator of a phosphogypsum stack shall measure the average...

  18. Radium isotopes as a tracer of sediment-water column exchange in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, W. J.; Thomas, H.; Paetsch, J.; Omar, A. M.; Schrum, C.; Daewel, U.; Brenner, H.; de Baar, H. J. W.

    2014-01-01

    Sediment-water column exchange plays an important role in coastal biogeochemistry. We utilize short-lived radium isotopes (Ra-224 and Ra-223) to understand and quantify the dominant processes governing sediment-water column exchange throughout the North Sea. Our comprehensive survey, conducted in Se

  19. Compilation of Spectroscopic Data of Radium (Ra I and Ra II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dammalapati, U.; Jungmann, K.; Willmann, L.

    2016-01-01

    Energy levels, wavelengths, lifetimes, and hyperfine structure constants for the isotopes of the first and second spectra of radium, Ra I and Ra II, have been compiled. Wavelengths and wavenumbers are tabulated for 226Ra and for other Ra isotopes. Isotope shifts and hyperfine structure constants of

  20. Radium-226 in vegetation and substrates at inactive uranium mill sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marple, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a study of the content of radium-226 in plants growing on inactive uranium mill tailings sites in the Four Corners Region of the southwestern United States and in plants grown under greenhouse conditions with minimal surficial contamination are reported. Field plant samples and associated substrates were analyzed from two carbonate tailings sites in the Grants Mineral Belt of New Mexico. Radium activities in air-cleaned samples ranged from 5 to 368 pCi/g (dry weight) depending on species and location: activities in plants growing on local soils averaged 1.0 pCi/g. The talings and local soils contain 140 to 1400 pCi/g and 2.1 pCi/g, respectively. An evaluation of cleaning methods on selected samples showed that from 17 to 79% of the radium activity measured in air-cleaned samples was due to surficial contamination, which varied with species and location. A survey of 18 inactive uranium mill sites in the Four Corners Region was performed. Radium activity in plant tissues from nine species ranged from 2 to 210 pCi/g on bare tailings and from 0.3 to 30 pCi/g on covered tailings The radium content in most of the soil overburdens on the covered tailings piles was 10 to 17 pCi/g. An experiment was performed to measure radium-226 uptake by two species grown on tailings covered with a shallow (5 cm) soil layer. A grass, Sporobolus airoides (alkali sacaton) and a shrub, Atriplex canescens (four-wing saltbush), were studied. The tailings were a mixture of sands and slimes from a carbonate pile. The tailings treatments were plants grown in a soil cover over tailings; the controls were plants grown only in soil. Three soil types, dune sand, clay loam, and loam, were used. The radium activity of the plant tissue from the tailings treatment compared to that of the appropriate control was 1 to 19 times greater for the grass and 4 to 27 times greater for the shrub.

  1. Radiation Oncology and Medical Devices (Part 2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning J. Yue; Ting Chen; Wei Zou

    2014-01-01

    Radiation oncology is one of the three major treatment modalities to manage cancer patient cares, and is a discipline mainly driven by technology and medical devices. Modern radiation treatments have become fairly complex and involve in utilizing a variety of medical devices to achieve the goal of providing conformal radiation dose coverage to the tumor target(s) while maximizing the sparing of normal organ structures. Recently, different forms of linear accelerators/radioactive source based machines have been invented and developed with the aim of providing improved treatments and more treatment options. Besides linear accelerators (Linac) that have been undergoing constant improvement and advancement and can deliver fairly complicated dose distribution patterns, imaging systems, computer information and calculation systems have been more and more integrated into radiotherapy processes. To bring radiotherapy to a potentially higher level, many institutions have either acquired or started to consider particle therapy, especially proton therapy. The complexity of modern radiotherapy demands in-depth understanding of radiation physics and machine engineering as well as computer information systems. This paper is intended to provide an introductory description of radiation oncology and related procedures, and to provide an overview of the current status of medical devices in radiotherapy in the United States of America. This paper covers the radiation delivery systems, imaging systems, treatment planning systems, record and verify systems, and QA systems.

  2. High porewater exchange in a mangrove-dominated estuary revealed from short-lived radium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat-Noori, Mahmood; Santos, Isaac R.; Tait, Douglas R.; Reading, Michael J.; Sanders, Christian J.

    2017-10-01

    We hypothesise that mangroves play an important role in groundwater exchange processes in sub-tropical and tropical estuarine waters. To investigate this, multiple high resolution time series measurements of radium across a tidal estuary (Coffs Creek, NSW, Australia) were performed as well as a spatial survey in both bottom and surface layers. Results from the spatial survey revealed increasing radium concentrations in parts of the estuary surrounded by mangroves. The average radium concentration in estuary areas lined with mangroves was 2.5 times higher than the average concentration at the mouth of the estuary and 6.5-fold higher than upstream freshwater areas. Additionally, the area enriched in radium coincided with low dissolved oxygen concentrations, implying that porewater exchange may drive anoxia. A radium mass balance model based on 223Ra and 224Ra isotopes at different sections of the estuary confirmed higher porewater exchange rates from areas fringed with mangrove vegetation. Estimated porewater exchange rates were 27.8 ± 5.3 and 13.6 ± 2.1 cm d-1 (0.8 ± 0.1 and 0.4 ± 0.1 m3 s-1) based on 223Ra and 224Ra isotopes, respectively. The average saline porewater exchange was ∼ 10-fold larger than the upstream surface freshwater inputs to the estuary. We suggest that mangrove environments within subtropical estuaries are hotspots for porewater exchange due to the complex belowground structure of crab burrows and the effect of tidal pumping. Because porewater exchange releases carbon and nitrogen from coastal sediments, development and modification of mangrove areas in subtropical estuaries have a significant effect on coastal biogeochemical cycles.

  3. Uranium and radium in water samples around the Nikola Tesla B lignite-fired power plant - Obrenovac, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žunić Zora S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of natural radionuclide content in 23 water samples collected in the vicinity of the Nikola Tesla B thermal power plant, Serbia. All samples were analyzed for 226Ra and uranium isotopes (238U, 234U activity using radiochemical methods and alpha spectrometry. Obtained results show that the activity concentrations for uranium and radium in the water around the thermal power plant are low when compared to those from areas across Serbia with their enhanced natural uranium and radium content. No important radiological hazard related to uranium and radium activity stored in heap was found.

  4. Oncology pharma costs to exceed $150 billion by 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Worldwide costs of oncology drugs will rise above $150 billion by 2020, according to a report by the IMS Institute for Healthcare Informatics. Many factors are in play, according to IMS, including the new wave of expensive immunotherapies. Pembrolizumab (Keytruda), priced at $150,000 per year per patient, and nivolumab (Opdivo), priced at $165,000, may be harbingers of the market for cancer immunotherapies.

  5. Clinical oncology in Malaysia: 1914 to present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Gcc

    2006-01-01

    A narration of the development of staff, infrastructure and buildings in the various parts of the country is given in this paper. The role of universities and other institutions of learning, public health, palliative care, nuclear medicine and cancer registries is described together with the networking that has been developed between the government, non-governmental organisations and private hospitals. The training of skilled manpower and the commencement of the Master of Clinical Oncology in the University of Malaya is highlighted. Efforts taken to improve the various aspects of cancer control which includes prevention of cancer, early detection, treatment and palliative care are covered. It is vital to ensure that cancer care services must be accessible and affordable throughout the entire health system, from the primary care level up to the centres for tertiary care, throughout the whole country.

  6. Oncologic Outcomes After Transoral Robotic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, J. Scott; Smith, Richard V.; Moore, Eric; Lawson, Georges; Remacle, Marc; Ganly, Ian; Kraus, Dennis H.; Teng, Marita S.; Miles, Brett A.; White, Hilliary; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar; Ferris, Robert L.; Mehta, Vikas; Kiyosaki, Krista; Damrose, Edward J.; Wang, Steven J.; Kupferman, Michael E.; Koh, Yoon Woo; Genden, Eric M.; Holsinger, F. Christopher

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Large patient cohorts are necessary to validate the efficacy of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) in the management of head and neck cancer. OBJECTIVES To review oncologic outcomes of TORS from a large multi-institutional collaboration and to identify predictors of disease recurrence and disease-specific mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A retrospective review of records from 410 patients undergoing TORS for laryngeal and pharyngeal cancers from January 1, 2007, through December 31, 2012, was performed. Pertinent data were obtained from 11 participating medical institutions. INTERVENTIONS Select patients received radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy before or after TORS. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Locoregional control, disease-specific survival, and overall survival were calculated. We used Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with log-rank testing to evaluate individual variable association with these outcomes, followed by multivariate analysis with Cox proportional hazards regression modeling to identify independent predictors. RESULTS Of the 410 patients treated with TORS in this study, 364 (88.8%) had oropharyngeal cancer. Of these 364 patients, information about post-operative adjuvant therapy was known about 338: 106 (31.3) received radiation therapy alone, and 72 (21.3%) received radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy. Neck dissection was performed in 323 patients (78.8%). Mean follow-up time was 20 months. Local, regional, and distant recurrence occurred in 18 (4.4%), 15 (3.7%), and 10 (2.4%) of 410 patients, respectively. Seventeen (4.1%) died of disease, and 13 (3.2%) died of other causes. The 2-year locoregional control rate was 91.8% (95% CI, 87.6%-94.7%), disease-specific survival 94.5% (95% CI, 90.6%-96.8%), and overall survival 91% (95% CI, 86.5%-94.0%). Multivariate analysis identified improved survival among women (P = .05) and for patients with tumors arising in tonsil (P = .01). Smoking was associated with worse overall

  7. Oocyte cryopreservation in oncological patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcu, Eleonora; Fabbri, Raffaella; Damiano, Giuseppe; Fratto, Rosita; Giunchi, Susanna; Venturoli, Stefano

    2004-04-05

    The use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in oncological patients may reduce their reproductive potential. Sperm cryopreservation has been already used in men affected by neoplastic disease. Oocyte cryopreservation might be an important solution for these patients at risk of losing ovarian function. A program of oocyte cryopreservation for oncological patients is also present in our center. From June 1996 to January 2000, 18 patients awaiting chemotherapy and radiotherapy for neoplastic disease were included in our oocyte cryopreservation program. Our experience documents that oocyte storage may be a concrete and pragmatic alternative for oncological patients. The duration of oocyte storage does not seem to interfere with oocyte survival as pregnancies occurred even after several years of gamete cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen.

  8. Multidisciplinary care in pediatric oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantrell MA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Mary Ann Cantrell1, Kathy Ruble21College of Nursing, Villanova University, Villanova, PA, USA; 2Department of Pediatric Oncology, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: This paper describes the significant advances in the treatment of childhood cancer and supportive care that have occurred over the last several decades and details how these advances have led to improved survival and quality of life (QOL for children with cancer through a multidisciplinary approach to care. Advances in the basic sciences, general medicine, cooperative research protocols, and policy guidelines have influenced and guided the multidisciplinary approach in pediatric oncology care across the spectrum from diagnosis through long-term survival. Two case studies are provided to highlight the nature and scope of multidisciplinary care in pediatric oncology care.Keywords: childhood cancer, chemotherapy, leukemia

  9. Personality types of oncology nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, C A; Holcombe, J K

    1993-12-01

    Personality type influences the choice of occupation. The breadth of specialty areas within oncology nursing allows for divergent activities and relationships and, thus, the accommodation of different personality characteristics. This exploratory study examined personality types for a convenience sample of oncology nurses predominantly employed in hospitals. According to the personality typology defined by Carl Jung, a person demonstrates a preference among four dimensions, i.e., extraversion/introversion, sensory/intuition, thinking/feeling, and judging/perceiving. The type with the strongest self-selection for these oncology nurses was ISFJ, where feeling is introverted and perception is practical, so that helping others is both a responsibility and a pleasure. The discussion relates the personality types to Jung's theory and their impact in clinical practice. Strengths and weaknesses of each personality type are described.

  10. Applications of coxsackievirus A21 in oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Stephen Bradley,1 Adam D Jakes,1 Kevin Harrington,2 Hardev Pandha,3 Alan Melcher,1 Fiona Errington-Mais11Leeds Institute of Cancer and Pathology, Cancer Research UK and Experimental Cancer Medicine Centre, St James' University Hospital, Leeds, UK; 2Division of Cancer Biology, The Institute of Cancer Research, London, UK; 3Oncology Department, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, UKAbstract: The clinical management of cancer continues to be dominated by macroscopic surgical resection, radiotherapy, and cytotoxic drugs. The major challenge facing oncology is to achieve more selective, less toxic and effective methods of targeting disseminated tumors, a challenge oncolytic virotherapy may be well-placed to meet. Characterization of coxsackievirus A21 (CVA21 receptor-based mechanism of virus internalization and lysis in the last decade has suggested promise for CVA21 as a virotherapy against malignancies which overexpress those receptors. Preclinical studies have demonstrated proof of principle, and with the results of early clinical trials awaited, CVA21 may be one of the few viruses to demonstrate benefit for patients. This review outlines the potential of CVA21 as an oncolytic agent, describing the therapeutic development of CVA21 in preclinical studies and early stage clinical trials. Preclinical evidence supports the potential use of CVA21 across a range of malignancies. Malignant melanoma is the most intensively studied cancer, and may represent a “test case” for future development of the virus. Although there are theoretical barriers to the clinical utility of oncolytic viruses like CVA21, whether these will block the efficacy of the virus in clinical practice remains to be established, and is a question which can only be answered by appropriate trials. As these data become available, the rapid journey of CVA21 from animal studies to clinical trials may offer a model for the translation of other

  11. Palliative medicine and medical oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltoni, M; Amadori, D

    2001-04-01

    Traditionally, medical oncology and palliative care have been considered two distinct and separate disciplines, both as regards treatment objectives and delivery times. Palliative care in terminal stages, aimed exclusively at evaluating and improving quality of life, followed antitumor therapies, which concentrated solely on quantitative results (cure, prolongation of life, tumoral mass shrinkage). Over the years, more modern concepts have developed on the subject. Medical oncology, dealing with the skills and strategic co-ordination of oncologic interventions from primary prevention to terminal phases, should also include assessment and treatment of patients' subjective needs. Anticancer therapies should be evaluated in terms of both the quantitative and qualititative impact on patients' lives. Hence, the traditional view of palliative care has to be modified: it constitutes a philosophical and methodological approach to be adopted from the early phases of illness. It is not the evident cultural necessity of integrating medical oncology with palliative medicine that may be a matter of argument, but rather the organizational models needed to put this combined care into practice: should continuous care be guaranteed by a single figure, the medical oncologist, or rather by an interdisciplinary providers' team, including full-time doctors well-equipped for palliative care? In this paper the needs of cancer patients and the part that a complete oncologist should play to deal with such difficult and far-reaching problems are firstly described. Then, as mild provocation, data and critical considerations on the ever increasing needs of palliative care, the present shortcomings in quality of life and pain assessment and management by medical oncologists, and the uncertain efficacy of interventional programmes to change clinical practice are described. Finally, a model of therapeutic continuity is presented. which in our view is realistic and feasible: an Oncologic

  12. Geriatric oncology in the Netherlands: a survey of medical oncology specialists and oncology nursing specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, J M; Smorenburg, C H; Schiphorst, A H; van Rixtel, B; Portielje, J E A; Hamaker, M E

    2014-11-01

    To identify ways to improve cancer care for older patients, we set out to examine how older patients in the Netherlands are currently being evaluated prior to oncological treatment and to explore the potential obstacles in the incorporation of a geriatric evaluation, using a web-based survey sent to Dutch medical oncology specialists and oncology nursing specialists. The response rate was 34% (183 out of 544). Two-thirds of respondents reported that a geriatric evaluation was being used, although primarily on an ad hoc basis only. Most respondents expressed a desire for a routine evaluation or more intensive collaboration with the geriatrician and 86% of respondents who were not using a geriatric evaluation expressed their interest to do so. The most important obstacles were a lack of time or personnel and insufficient availability of a geriatrician to perform the assessment. Thus, over 30% of oncology professionals in the Netherlands express an interest in geriatric oncology. Important obstacles to a routine implementation of a geriatric evaluation are a lack of time, or insufficient availability of geriatricians; this could be overcome with policies that acknowledge that quality cancer care for older patients requires the investment of time and personnel.

  13. 77 FR 57095 - Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs... (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of... plans for four products that are in development for an adult oncology indication. The subcommittee...

  14. 75 FR 66773 - Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs... (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of... were either recently approved by FDA or, are in late stage development for an adult oncology...

  15. 78 FR 63222 - Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs... ] (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of... relevance and potential use of such measures in the pediatric development plans of oncology products....

  16. 78 FR 63224 - Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs... (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of... late stage development for various adult oncology indications. The subcommittee will consider...

  17. 76 FR 61713 - Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs... (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of..., are in late stage development for an adult oncology indication, or in late stage development...

  18. PET/MR in oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balyasnikova, Svetlana; Löfgren, Johan; de Nijs, Robin

    2012-01-01

    of the challenges inherent in this new technology, but focus on potential applications for simultaneous PET/MR in the field of oncology. Methods and tracers for use with the PET technology will be familiar to most readers of this journal; thus this paper aims to provide a short and basic introduction to a number...... be applied together with PET increasing the amount of information about the tissues of interest. The potential clinical benefit of applying PET/MR in staging, radiotherapy planning and treatment evaluation in oncology, as well as the research perspectives for the use of PET/MR in the development of new...

  19. Global Health in Radiation Oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodin, Danielle; Yap, Mei Ling; Grover, Surbhi

    2017-01-01

    The massive global shortfall in radiotherapy equipment and human resources in developing countries is an enormous challenge for international efforts in cancer control. This lack of access to treatment has been long-standing, but there is now a growing consensus about the urgent need to prioritize...... programs. However, formalized training and career promotion tracks in global health within radiation oncology have been slow to emerge, thereby limiting the sustained involvement of students and faculty, and restricting opportunities for leadership in this space. We examine here potential structures...... and funding models might be used to further develop and expand radiation oncology services globally....

  20. PET/MR in oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balyasnikova, Svetlana; Löfgren, Johan; de Nijs, Robin

    2012-01-01

    of the challenges inherent in this new technology, but focus on potential applications for simultaneous PET/MR in the field of oncology. Methods and tracers for use with the PET technology will be familiar to most readers of this journal; thus this paper aims to provide a short and basic introduction to a number...... be applied together with PET increasing the amount of information about the tissues of interest. The potential clinical benefit of applying PET/MR in staging, radiotherapy planning and treatment evaluation in oncology, as well as the research perspectives for the use of PET/MR in the development of new...

  1. The discovery of radium 100 years ago and the impact on the early history of nuclear science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adloff, J.P. [University Louis Pasteur, 63 Rue Saint Urbain 67100 Strasbourg (France)

    1999-09-01

    One hundred years ago, Pierre and Marie Curie reawakened the topic of uranic rays and discovered two radioelements, polonium in July 1898 and radium in December. The circumstances of these events which announced the beginning of radiochemistry are reviewed at the light of the laboratory notebooks and the publications of the authors. The role of radium in the early history of radioactivity and nuclear sciences is emphasized. (author)

  2. The discovery of radium 100 years ago and the impact on the early history of nuclear science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adloff, J.P. [University Louis Pasteur, 63 Rue Saint Urbain 67100 Strasbourg (France)

    1999-09-01

    One hundred years ago, Pierre and Marie Curie reawakened the topic of uranic rays and discovered two radioelements, polonium in July 1898 and radium in December. The circumstances of these events which announced the beginning of radiochemistry are reviewed at the light of the laboratory notebooks and the publications of the authors. The role of radium in the early history of radioactivity and nuclear sciences is emphasized. (author)

  3. Oncological emergencies for the internist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An oncologic emergency is defined as any acute, potentially life-threatening event, either directly or indirectly related to a patient′s cancer (ca or its treatment. It requires rapid intervention to avoid death or severe permanent damage. Most oncologic emergencies can be classified as metabolic, hematologic, structural, or side effects from chemotherapy agents. Tumor lysis syndrome is a metabolic emergency that presents as severe electrolyte abnormalities. The condition is treated with aggressive hydration, allopurinol or urate oxidase to lower uric acid levels. Hypercalcemia of malignancy is treated with aggressive rehydration, furosemide, and intravenous (IV bisphosphonates. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone should be suspected if a patient with ca presents with normovolemic hyponatremia. This metabolic condition usually is treated with fluid restriction and furosemide. Febrile neutropenia is a hematologic emergency that usually requires inpatient therapy with broad-spectrum antibiotics, although outpatient therapy may be appropriate for low-risk patients. Hyperviscosity syndrome usually is associated with Waldenstrφm′s macroglobulinemia, which is treated with plasmapheresis and chemotherapy. Structural oncologic emergencies are caused by direct compression of surrounding structures or by metastatic disease. Superior vena cava syndrome is the most common structural oncological emergency. Treatment options include chemotherapy, radiation, and IV stenting. Epidural spinal cord compression can be treated with dexamethasone, radiation, or surgery. Malignant pericardial effusion, which often is undiagnosed in ca patients, can be treated with pericardiocentesis or a pericardial window procedure.

  4. Exploring targeted therapies in oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mom, Constantijne Helene

    2007-01-01

    Targeted therapy in oncology is treatment directed at specific biological pathways and processes that play a critical role in carcinogenesis. Increased knowledge regarding the molecular changes underlying tumor progression and metastatis has resulted in the development of agents that are designed to

  5. [What's new in geriatric oncology?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terret, Catherine; Albrand, Gilles; Jeanton, Martine; Courpron, Philippe; Droz, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Remarkably, although 60% of new cancer cases and over 70% of cancer deaths occur in patients aged 65 years and older in Europe, standard treatment strategies have been mostly validated in younger adults. This demographic trend has led to the emergence of a new medical discipline, geriatric oncology and the development worldwide of geriatric oncology programs for the individualized management of elderly cancer patients. Elderly cancer patients represent an increasing share of the population and strategies for treating cancer must evolve to face this ineluctable reality. Treatment should take into account the highly heterogeneous physiological age of the elderly, their individual life expectancy, functional reserves, social support and preferences. French geriatric oncology programs have been mostly based on the interdependence of geriatricians, oncologists and auxiliary nursing people. This approach represent the best way to offer patients optimal management; oncologists and geriatricians collaborate to assess both global health status by means of Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) and tumor stage by means of Comprehensive Tumor Assessment (CTA) and to initiate individualized care plans, involving comprehensive management and follow-up of all identified problems. This paper focuses on progress observed in the field of geriatric oncology both in France and worldwide.

  6. Mastering Resilience in Oncology: Learn to Thrive in the Face of Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlubocky, Fay J; Rose, Miko; Epstein, Ronald M

    2017-01-01

    Oncology clinician burnout has become a noteworthy issue in medical oncology directly affecting the quality of patient care, patient satisfaction, and overall organizational success. Due to the increasing demands on clinical time, productivity, and the evolving medical landscape, the oncology clinician is at significant risk for burnout. Long hours in direct care with seriously ill patients/families, limited control over daily responsibilities, and endless electronic documentation, place considerable professional and personal demands on the oncologist. As a result, the oncology clinician's wellness is adversely impacted. Physical/emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and feelings of ineffectiveness evolve as core signs of burnout. Unaddressed burnout may affect cancer clinician relationships with their patients, the quality of care delivered, and the overall physical and emotional health of the clinician. Oncology clinicians should be encouraged to build upon their strengths, thrive in the face of adversity and stress, and learn to positively adapt to the changing cancer care system. Fostering individual resilience is a key protective factor against the development of and managing burnout. Empowering clinicians at both the individual and organizational level with tailored resilience strategies is crucial to ensuring clinician wellness. Resilience interventions may include: burnout education, work-life balance, adjustment of one's relationship to work, mindful practice, and acceptance of the clinical work environment. Health care organizations must act to provide institutional solutions through the implementation of: team-based oncology care, communication skills training, and effective resiliency training programs in order to mitigate the effects of stress and prevent burnout in oncology.

  7. Regional cancer centre demonstrates voluntary conformity with the national Radiation Oncology Practice Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manley, Stephen, E-mail: stephen.manley@ncahs.health.nsw.gov.au; Last, Andrew; Fu, Kenneth; Greenham, Stuart; Kovendy, Andrew; Shakespeare, Thomas P [North Coast Cancer Institute, Lismore, New South Wales (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Radiation Oncology Practice Standards have been developed over the last 10 years and were published for use in Australia in 2011. Although the majority of the radiation oncology community supports the implementation of the standards, there has been no mechanism for uniform assessment or governance. North Coast Cancer Institute's public radiation oncology service is provided across three main service centres on the north coast of NSW. With a strong focus on quality management, we embraced the opportunity to demonstrate conformity with the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards. The Local Health District's Clinical Governance units were engaged to perform assessments of our conformity with the standards and this was signed off as complete on 16 December 2013. The process of demonstrating conformity with the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards has enhanced the culture of quality in our centres. We have demonstrated that self-assessment utilising trained auditors is a viable method for centres to demonstrate conformity. National implementation of the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards will benefit individual centres and the broader radiation oncology community to improve the service delivered to our patients.

  8. Radium concentration factors and their use in health and environmental risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Hamilton, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    Radium is known to be taken up by aquatic animals, and tends to accumulate in bone, shell and exoskeleton. The most common approach to estimating the uptake of a radionuclide by aquatic animals for use in health and environmental risk assessments is the concentration factor method. The concentration factor method relates the concentration of a contaminant in an organism to the concentration in the surrounding water. Site specific data are not usually available, and generic, default values are often used in risk assessment studies. This paper describes the concentration factor method, summarizes some of the variables which may influence the concentration factor for radium, reviews reported concentration factors measured in marine environments and presents concentration factors derived from data collected in a study in coastal Louisiana. The use of generic default values for the concentration factor is also discussed.

  9. Radium concentration factors and their use in health and environmental risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Hamilton, L.D.

    1991-12-31

    Radium is known to be taken up by aquatic animals, and tends to accumulate in bone, shell and exoskeleton. The most common approach to estimating the uptake of a radionuclide by aquatic animals for use in health and environmental risk assessments is the concentration factor method. The concentration factor method relates the concentration of a contaminant in an organism to the concentration in the surrounding water. Site specific data are not usually available, and generic, default values are often used in risk assessment studies. This paper describes the concentration factor method, summarizes some of the variables which may influence the concentration factor for radium, reviews reported concentration factors measured in marine environments and presents concentration factors derived from data collected in a study in coastal Louisiana. The use of generic default values for the concentration factor is also discussed.

  10. Radium-223 in the Treatment of Osteoblastic Metastases: A Critical Clinical Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humm, John L. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Sartor, Oliver [Departments of Medicine and Urology, Tulane Cancer Center, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana (United States); Parker, Chris [Department of Clinical Oncology, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (United Kingdom); Bruland, Oyvind S. [Department of Oncology, Norwegian Radium Hospital and Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Macklis, Roger, E-mail: rmmacklis@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals of Cleveland and Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The element radium (Ra) was discovered by the Curies in 1898 and within a decade was in broad scientific testing for the management of several forms of cancer. The compound was known to give rise to a series of both high-energy particulate and penetrating γ-emissions. The latter found an important role in early 20th century brachytherapy applications, but the short-range α-particles seemed much less useful. Although highly cytotoxic when released within a few cell diameters of critical cell nuclei, the dense double-strand break damage was poorly repaired, and concerns regarding treatment-related toxicities and secondary malignancies halted clinical development. Moreover, the most common isotope of Ra has an exceptionally long half-life (>1600 years for {sup 226}Ra) that proved daunting when aiming for a systemic cancer therapy. Fortunately, other radium isotopes have more convenient half-lives while still producing cytotoxic α particles. Radium-223 dichloride has a half-life of 11.4 days, and this isotope was identified as an excellent candidate for radionuclide therapy of cancers metastatic to bone. The calcium-mimetic chemical properties of the radium allowed intravenous infusion with rapid uptake to sites of new bone formation. The highly efficient bone localization suggested a potential therapeutic role for osteoblastic bone metastases, and a series of phase 1, 2, and 3 clinical trials was undertaken to explore this possibility. This series of clinical explorations culminated in the ALSYMPCA trial, an international, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study that accrued 921 symptomatic men with bone-metastatic, castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Results of this trial demonstrated a prolongation of overall survival, and regulatory agencies around the world have now approved this product as a treatment for advanced prostate cancer.

  11. Radiochemical determination and separation or total radium, 226Ra and 224Ra; Analisis Radioquimico de Radio total, Radio-226 y Radio-224

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, J. A.; Gonzalez, J. A.; Pablo, M. A. de

    1987-07-01

    Radiochemical purification and separation of radium has been carried out and the determination of total radium solubilized in aqueous samples has been studied assuming that all the alpha emitters of the sample have their origin in the 226Ra and elements of its desintegration chain. Also, the activities of 22Ra and 226 Ra have been evaluated separately doing a measurement after the chemical separation of the radium and another one 10 days after. (Author) 9 refs.

  12. Outlook of the process of storage of oncology drugs from the logistic operator in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Vicente Sánchez-Calvera

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article mainly on the problem of  storage of oncology drugs, which is an important element in the supply chain, applied in the context of warehouse management of oncology drugs, in the logistics operator and providers of health services institutions (IPS for its acronym in Spanish of Bogotá DC and in the contex of a macro project "Methodological proposal for the definition of policies , rules of negotation and coordination in supply management of oncology drugs in Colombia," funded by Colciencias and the Universidad Nacional of Colombia. This article presents the current situation of oncology drugs, marking a characterization, diagnosis and identification and startegies evaluated under different scenarios. Finally, it is presented a proposal of improvement applied tranversely to storage processes including labels such as just in Time and the application of information and communication technologies (ICT.

  13. Does adding an appended oncology module to the Global Trigger Tool increase its value?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Thea Otto; Knudsen, Janne Lehmann; Brixen, Kim;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine any additional value in the evaluation of safety levels by adding an appended oncology module to the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's Global Trigger Tool (GTT). DESIGN: Comparison of two independent retrospective chart reviews: one review team using the general GTT...... method and one using the general GTT method plus the appended oncology module on the same inpatient charts. SETTING: The Department of Clinical Oncology at a Danish University Hospital (1000 beds). PARTICIPANTS: All inpatients admitted to the hospital in 2010, n = 3692, biweekly sample of 10 admission...... per 1000 admission days. RESULTS: No significant (95% confidence interval) difference was found between review teams using the general GTT versus the general GTT plus the appended oncology module on the total number of identified AEs, AEs per 100 admissions, AEs per 1000 admission days...

  14. RADIUM AND RADON EXHALATION RATE IN SOIL SAMPLES OF HASSAN DISTRICT OF SOUTH KARNATAKA, INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeesha, B G; Narayana, Y

    2016-10-01

    The radon exhalation rate was measured in 32 soil samples collected from Hassan district of South Karnataka. Radon exhalation rate of soil samples was measured using can technique. The results show variation of radon exhalation rate with radium content of the soil samples. A strong correlation was observed between effective radium content and radon exhalation rate. In the present work, an attempt was made to assess the levels of radon in the environment of Hassan. Radon activities were found to vary from 2.25±0.55 to 270.85±19.16 Bq m(-3) and effective radium contents vary from 12.06±2.98 to 1449.56±102.58 mBq kg(-1) Surface exhalation rates of radon vary from 1.55±0.47 to 186.43±18.57 mBq m(-2) h(-1), and mass exhalation rates of radon vary from 0.312±0.07 to 37.46±2.65 mBq kg(-1) h(-1). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Exploring technical and cultural appeals in strategic risk communication: the Fernald radium case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jennifer Duffield

    2003-04-01

    Risk disputes are often characterized by tensions between technical and cultural understandings of risk and by communication practices that reflect those differing perspectives. This study considers how participants in risk debates draw upon and combine aspects of technical and cultural rationality as broad orientations to risk in expressing their views and formulating persuasive appeals during risk debates. Rhetorical theorist Kenneth Burke's (1984) concept of frames of acceptance is used to analyze a case study involving competing priorities for radium stored at the Fernald site, a former Department of Energy nuclear weapons facility. A rhetorical analysis is conducted using the transcript from a 1995 public meeting during which local residents and a nuclear medicine expert discussed priorities of Fernald site cleanup versus providing radium stored on site for promising cancer research. Two tensions are identified that fostered disagreement among discussants: the first a tension between a local or global context for the controversy and the second a tension between competing definitions of public participation for this issue. This study analyzes the rhetorical strategies by which participants in the Fernald radium debate articulated these tensions and argues that technical and cultural rationality (Plough & Krimsky, 1987) acted as sources of rhetorical invention influencing participants' individual frames of acceptance and the ways they defined and interpreted the situation and crafted persuasive appeals.

  16. Radium contamination in the Nizzana-1 water well, Negev Desert, Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minster, T. E-mail: tsevi.minster@mail.gsi.gov.il; Ilani, S.; Kronfeld, J.; Even, O.; Godfrey-Smith, D.I

    2004-07-01

    In a search for fresh groundwater reserves in the northwestern Negev Desert of Israel, the Nizzana-1 water well drilled into the Judea Group aquifer encountered water that exhibits an anomalously high {sup 226}Ra activity of 2.4 Bq/l, along with 133 Bq/l {sup 222}Rn. The exploited well water is a mixture of the original Judea Group aquifer water and the underlying more saline artesian water of the Kurnub Group (or Nubian Sandstone) aquifer that is currently intruding via faults. Both aquifers elsewhere contain intrinsically low radioactivity. A study of the sedimentary sequence transected by the borehole revealed that much of the bituminous sequence of the Mount Scopus Group of Upper Cretaceous age is substantially depleted in {sup 226}Ra. During its ascent, the Nubian Sandstone water flushes the moderately uranium enriched bituminous sediments, selectively leaching radium and/or receiving alpha-recoil additions of radium. These bituminous chalks and marls are regionally widespread. It is thus suggested that radium should be monitored where faulting allows for inter-aquiferial connections across uranium enriched bituminous sections.

  17. Determining factors in the elimination of uranium and radium from groundwaters during a standard potabilization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeza, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de la Universidad s/n 10071 Caceres (Spain)], E-mail: ymiralle@unex.es; Salas, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de la Universidad s/n 10071 Caceres (Spain); Legarda, F. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Pais Vasco, Alameda de Urquijo s/n 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    We studied the physico-chemical and radioactive characteristics of four waters of subsurface origin. They were chosen for having the highest natural radioactivity levels of waters for human consumption in the Autonomous Community of Extremadura, Spain Their activity levels for alpha emitting radionuclides are between 120 and 19 300 mBq L{sup -1}, all exceeding the 100 mBq L{sup -1} threshold established in the European Union above which radioactive isotopes that are present in water should be investigated to determine which corrective action, if any, is needed. These waters were used to compare the efficiency in eliminating their uranium and radium content of two potabilization processes - one the standard chlorination-only process used by their respective municipalities, and the other a procedure consisting of coagulation, flocculation, settling, filtration, and chlorination stages, specifically designed to maximize the elimination of their natural radioactive content. The results showed the uranium and radium elimination efficiencies to depend strongly on the water's hydrogencarbonate, calcium, and magnesium ion concentrations. In particular, with increasing concentrations of any of these ions, the uranium elimination efficiency fell from 90% to 60% at its optimal working pH, pH = 6, while the radium elimination efficiency rose from 50% to 90% at its optimal working pH, pH = 10.

  18. Antisense therapeutics in oncology: current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooqi AA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ammad Ahmad Farooqi,1 Zia ur Rehman,2 Jordi Muntane3,4 1Laboratory for Translational Oncology and Personalized Medicine, Rashid Latif Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan; 2Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Kohat University of Science and Technology (KUST, Kohat, Pakistan; 3Department of General Surgery, Institute of Biomedicine of Seville (IBiS, Hospital Universitary "Virgen del Rocío"/CSIC/University of Seville, Sevilla, Spain; 4Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEREHD o Ciberehd, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spain Abstract: There is increasing progress in translational oncology and tremendous breakthroughs have been made as evidenced by preclinical and clinical trials. Data obtained from high-throughput technologies are deepening our understanding about the molecular and gene network in cancer cells and rapidly emerging in vitro and in vivo evidence is highlighting the role of antisense agents as specific inhibitors of the expression of target genes, thus modulating the response of cancer cells to different therapeutic strategies. Much information is continuously being added into various facets of molecular oncology and it is now understood that overexpression of antiapoptotic proteins, oncogenes, oncogenic microRNAs (miRNA, and fusion proteins make cancer cells difficult to target. Delivery of antisense oligonucleotides has remained a challenge and technological developments have helped in overcoming hurdles by improving the ability to penetrate cells, effective and targeted binding to gene sequences, and downregulation of target gene function. Different delivery systems, including stable nucleic acid lipid particles, have shown potential in enhancing the delivery of cargo to the target site. In this review, we attempt to summarize the current progress in the development of antisense therapeutics and their potential in medical research. We partition this multicomponent

  19. Pediatric hematology and oncology in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alebouyeh, Mardawig

    2005-01-01

    Pediatric hematology and oncology (PHO) is a rapidly expandingfield. It has been our goal to meet the needs and increasing demands for comprehensive medical care of children suffering from chronic blood diseases and malignancies. In the past decade we have been able expand and optimize the PHO services throughout Iran, in general and in respect to their prevalence and clinical importance, by trained pediatric hematologist-oncologists, pediatric surgeons and improved para clinical facilities. Major beta-thalassemics receive blood transfusion and chelation therapy according to the current standards mostly at regional blood banks centers. To curb major beta-thalassemia a premarital screening program has been enacted and abortion has been legitimized if major thalassemia is diagnosed by CVS. Hemophiliacs are supervised and treated as indicated by Iranian Hemophilia Comprehensive Care Centers (IHCCC). Screening for transfusion related complications and transmitted viral diseases (HBV, HCV and HIV) in both cohorts are carried out in regular intervals and necessary management will be then carried out as indicated at respective specialized units. Childhood malignancies are treated according to protocols adopted from accredited institutions in the USA and Europe, with almost comparable results. BMT is available for selected patients with beta-thalassemia or malignancies. By going to public we have been able to rise general awareness about chronic blood diseases and childhood malignancies and have initiated establishment of parents groups and formation of NGOs to support these children and their families. Foundation of Iranian Society of Pediatric Hamatology and Oncology (ISPHO) in the year 2000 has been another step forward to consolidate and coordinate the available manpower and facilities. By evaluation of the country's main problems and shortcomings and conduction of collaborative studies and operation planning one will succeed to get the expected feedback and

  20. Enhancing collaborative leadership in palliative social work in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Barbara; Phillips, Farya; Head, Barbara Anderson; Hedlund, Susan; Kalisiak, Angela; Zebrack, Brad; Kilburn, Lisa; Otis-Green, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) Report-Cancer Care for the Whole Patient: Meeting Psychosocial Health Needs-provided recommendations for meeting the palliative care needs of our growing population of older Americans. The IOM report highlights the demand for social work leadership across all aspects of the health care delivery system. Social workers are core interdisciplinary members of the health care team and it is important for them to be well prepared for collaborative leadership roles across health care settings. The ExCEL in Social Work: Excellence in Cancer Education & Leadership education project was created as a direct response to the 2008 IOM Report. This article highlights a sampling of palliative care projects initiated by outstanding oncology social work participants in the ExCEL program. These projects demonstrate the leadership of social workers in palliative care oncology.

  1. The importance of pharmacist providing patient education in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Mia; Williams, Felecia

    2015-02-01

    The world's increasing diversity requires health care professionals to adjust delivery methods of teaching to accommodate different cultural values and beliefs. The ability to communicate effectively across languages and various cultural practices directly affects patient education outcomes. Pharmacist should be aware of varying modalities and considerations when counseling a patient diagnosed with cancer and undergoing chemotherapy. In more recent years, the medical profession has seen an increase in patient outcomes due to using the multidisciplinary team approach and has benefited by implementing Medication Therapy Management (MTM) programs at various institutions. For the clinical pharmacist, this would mean documentation for these services should be precise and accurate based on the specific patients needs. There are several factors involved in the care and therapy of the patient with cancer. Clinical oncology pharmacist should be aware of the ever-changing role in oncology and be able to implement new practices at their facility for better patient outcomes.

  2. Oncology nurses' communication challenges with patients and families: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Smita C; Manna, Ruth; Coyle, Nessa; Shen, Megan Johnson; Pehrson, Cassandra; Zaider, Talia; Hammonds, Stacey; Krueger, Carol A; Parker, Patricia A; Bylund, Carma L

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of effective communication in an oncology setting are multifold and include the overall well-being of patients and health professionals, adherence to treatment regimens, psychological functioning, and improvements in quality of life. Nevertheless, there are substantial barriers and communication challenges reported by oncology nurses. This study was conducted to present a summary of communication challenges faced by oncology nurses. From November 2012 to March 2014, 121 inpatient nurses working in the oncology setting participated in an online pre-training qualitative survey that asked nurses to describe common communication challenges in communicating empathy and discussing death, dying, and end-of-life (EOL) goals of care. The results revealed six themes that describe the challenges in communicating empathically: dialectic tensions, burden of carrying bad news, lack of skills for providing empathy, perceived institutional barriers, challenging situations, and perceived dissimilarities between the nurse and the patient. The results for challenges in discussing death, dying and EOL goals of care revealed five themes: dialectic tensions, discussing specific topics related to EOL, lack of skills for providing empathy, patient/family characteristics, and perceived institutional barriers. This study emphasizes the need for institutions to provide communication skills training to their oncology nurses for navigating through challenging patient interactions.

  3. Raman Spectroscopy for Clinical Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Fenn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the leading causes of death throughout the world. Advancements in early and improved diagnosis could help prevent a significant number of these deaths. Raman spectroscopy is a vibrational spectroscopic technique which has received considerable attention recently with regards to applications in clinical oncology. Raman spectroscopy has the potential not only to improve diagnosis of cancer but also to advance the treatment of cancer. A number of studies have investigated Raman spectroscopy for its potential to improve diagnosis and treatment of a wide variety of cancers. In this paper the most recent advances in dispersive Raman spectroscopy, which have demonstrated promising leads to real world application for clinical oncology are reviewed. The application of Raman spectroscopy to breast, brain, skin, cervical, gastrointestinal, oral, and lung cancers is reviewed as well as a special focus on the data analysis techniques, which have been employed in the studies.

  4. Generalities of the oncological pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah María Regueira Betancourt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer pain can be caused by a malignant tumor, by the therapy used to treat it, or by both causes. It begins with an acute onset that goes towards healing or chronicity. Together with the manifestations of a chronic pain, acute episodes may appear. A bibliographic study was carried out on the oncological pain, using the resources available in the Infomed network, specifically Ebsco, The Cochrane Librery, PubMed, Hinari and SciELO, by means of which the following databases were accessed: MEDLINE, AcademicSearch Premier and MedicLatina. The presence of pain in an oncological process is variable and it depends on the type and extension of the disease, as well as on each person's own individual tolerance. The terminal intense oncological pain is a circumstance both foreseeable and necessarily avoidable. Its relief is a priority in the cancer program of the World Health Organization. To know the classification of pain, its causes, the assessment scales and the way in which it may be described provides a comprehensive treatment for cancer pain. It also helps to optimize the comprehensive care to the patients suffering from this condition and improve their quality of life.

  5. Orthodontic treatment in oncological patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mituś-Kenig, Maria; Łoboda, Magdalena; Marcinkowska-Mituś, Agata; Durka-Zajac, Magdalena; Pawłowska, Elzbieta

    2015-01-01

    The progress in oncological treatment has led to the current increase of childhood cancer survival rate to 80%. That is why orthodontists more and more frequently consult patients who had completed a successful anti-cancer therapy in childhood. Oncological treatments such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy or supportive immunosuppressive therapy cause numerous side effects in growing patients, connected i.a. with growth, the development of teeth or the viscerocranium. This is a special group of patients that needs an optimised plan of orthodontic treatment and often has to accept a compromise result. The purpose of the current work is to discuss the results of orthodontic treatment in patients after an anti-cancer therapy. Time of treatment was 12,5 months. In 6 patients (from 40 undergoing orthodontic therapy) we haven't reached a normocclusion, in 9 patients we should have stopped the therapy because of the recurrence. In 11 patients we found mucosa inflammation and in 1 patient the therapy stopped before the end because of very low oral hygiene level. Bearing in mind the limited number of original works on the above topic in Polish medical literature, the study has been carried out in order to make Polish orthodontists more acquainted with the topic and the standards of dealing with an oncological patient.

  6. Parcial Nephrectomies - results of 12 years from an Oncology Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Rui; Cruz, Ricardo; Antunes, Luís; Araújo, Paulo; Silva, Pedro; Saraiva, Luis; Magalhães, Sanches; Moreira Silva, Vitor; Morais, António; Lobo, Francisco; Oliveira, Jorge

    2016-02-01

    Introdução: O diagnóstico de carcinoma de células renais tem vindo a aumentar nos últimos anos, sobretudo pelo seu diagnóstico incidental, e de forma paralela tem aumentado as indicações para cirurgia preservadora de nefrónios.Objectivos: Rever uma série de nefrectomias parciais de uma instituição oncológica em termos técnicos, sobrevida, variação da função renal. Material e Métodos: Análise retrospectiva de todos os doentes com neoplasia renal, submetidos a nefrectomia parcial na nossa instituição entre janeiro de 2000 e dezembro de 2012. Resultados: Foram realizadas 156 nefrectomias parciais, 85 em homens e 71 em mulheres, com média de idades de 62 '± 15 anos. A abordagem foi em 23 casos transperitoneal laparoscópica sendo nos restantes 133 por lombotomia. O tempo médio de isquemia foi literatura, todavia não foram encontrados factores preditivos para tal e em última análise não foi encontrada recidiva tumoral ou qualquer influência na sobrevida destes doentes. Apesar de ter se ter verificado uma diminuição significativa da taxa de filtração glomerular, o tempo de isquemia quente foi muito reduzido e apenas cinco doentes apresentaram taxa de filtração glomerular de novo literatura. Esta é uma técnica segura que apresenta bons resultados, justificando o seu crescimento.

  7. Analysis of the severe complications of irradiation of carcinoma of the uterine cervix: treatment with intracavitary radium and parametrial irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unal, A.; Hamberger, A.D.; Seski, J.C.

    1981-08-01

    Between January 1967 and December 1974, 254 patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix were treated with either intracavitary radium and parametrial irradiation or 2000 rad whole pelvis irradiation followed by intracavitary radium and parametrial irradiation. In general, these patients had tumors of relatively limited volume and vaginal and uterine anatomy that was favorable for intracavitary radium. Not all patients had a lymphangiogram performed prior to irradiation. Of those who did, only patients with negative lymphangiograms are included in this analysis. All patient had a minimum follow-up of four years. The absolute four year survival rate for this group of patients was 86%. Only 6.3% of patients died of disease. The incidence of severe complications was 7.5%. Complications were associated with a high number of milligram hours of radium plus a high dose of external irradiation, in combination with either asymmetry of the radium system and/or history of previous pelvic inflammatory disease, pelvic surgery, or diverticulosis.

  8. Estonian waterworks treatment plants: clearance of residues, discharge of effluents and efficiency of removal of radium from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotti, F; Caldognetto, E; Forte, M; Nuccetelli, C; Risica, S; Rusconi, R

    2013-12-01

    Considerable levels of radium were detected in a certain fraction of the Estonian drinking water supply network. Some of these waterworks have treatment systems for the removal of (mainly) iron and manganese from drinking water. Three of these waterworks and another one equipped with a radium removal pilot plant were examined, and a specific study was conducted in order to assess the environmental compatibility of effluents and residues produced in the plants. (226)Ra and (228)Ra activity concentrations were analysed in both liquid (backwash water) and solid (sand filter and sediment) materials to evaluate their compliance, from the radiological point of view, with current Estonian legislation and international technical documents that propose reference levels for radium in effluents and residues. Also with regard to water treatment by-products, a preliminary analysis was done of possible consequences of the transposition of the European Basic Safety Standards Draft into Estonian law. Radium removal efficiency was also tested in the same plants. Iron and manganese treatment plants turned out to be scarcely effective, whilst the radium mitigation pilot plant showed a promising performance.

  9. Analysis of ovarian dose of women employed in the radium watch dial industry: A macrodosimetric and microdosimetric approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeske, J.C. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Radiation and Cellular Oncology; Stinchcomb, T.G. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics; Schieve, L. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics; Keane, A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental, Safety and Health Div.

    1999-01-01

    In the 1920s, painters in the radium watch dial industry frequently tipped their brushes with their tongues resulting in the ingestion of radium-226 and/or radium-228. Earlier dosimetric studies (1950--1990) attempted to correlate the magnitude of biological effects (e.g., increased cancer incidence) with variations in radium uptake. Recently, there is a renewed interest on the part of epidemiologists studying additional possible effects (e.g., low birthrate and sex ratio). The goal of this work is to review and update the determination of dose to the ovaries from both external and internal radiation hazards in an attempt to correlate ovarian dose with these additional possible effects. The dose to the ovaries can be attributed to four major sources: (1) external gamma irradiation from the containers of radium paint; (2) alpha and (3) beta particle emissions due to sources which decay within the ovaries; and (4) internal gamma irradiation released throughout the body. Data obtained in earlier dosimetric studies on the quantity of Ra-226 and/or Ra-228 ingested were used in this study. Dose is estimated on a macroscopic scale by calculating the average dose deposited within the entire ovary. In addition, a microdosimetric analysis is performed which considers the statistical variation of energy deposited within individual oocyte nuclei. Sources of uncertainty, and the use of these data in new epidemiological studies are discussed.

  10. Organisational design for an integrated oncological department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch.L. Meiss-de Haas

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The outcomes of a Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threat (SWOT analysis of three Integrated Oncological Departments were compared with their present situation three years later to define factors that can influence a successful implementation and development of an Integrated Oncological Department in- and outside (i.e. home care the hospital. Research design: Comparative Qualitative Case Study. Methods: Auditing based on care-as-usual norms by an external, experienced auditing committee. Research setting: Integrated Oncological Departments of three hospitals. Results: Successful multidisciplinary care in an integrated, oncological department needs broad support inside the hospital and a well-defined organisational plan.

  11. 78 FR 25304 - Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology), Including On...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... Employment and Training Administration Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology), Including On-Site Leased Workers From Source Right Solutions, Concord, California, Now Located... 5, 2012, applicable to workers of Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care...

  12. 76 FR 58520 - Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs... (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee...

  13. A survey of the educational environment for oncologists as perceived by surgical oncology professionals in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Are Chandrakanth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current educational environment may need enhancement to tackle the rising cancer burden in India. The aim of this study was to conduct a survey of Surgical Oncologists to identify their perceptions of the current state of Oncology education in India. Methods An Institutional Review Board approved questionnaire was developed to target the audience of the 2009 annual meeting of the Indian Association of Surgical Oncology in India. The survey collected demographic information and asked respondents to provide their opinions about Oncology education in India. Results A total of 205 out of 408 attendee's participated in the survey with a 42.7% response rate. The majority of respondents felt that Oncology education was poor to fair during medical school (75%, residency (56% and for practicing physicians (71%. The majority of participants also felt that the quality of continuing medical education was poor and that minimal emphasis was placed on evidence based medicine. Conclusions The results of our survey demonstrate that the majority of respondents feel that the current educational environment for Oncology in India should be enhanced. The study identified perceptions of several gaps and needs, which can be the targets for implementing measures to enhance the training of Oncology professionals.

  14. [Quality assurance in oncology: experiences of an ISO certification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szentirmay, Zoltán; Cseh, Lujza; Ottó, Szabolcs; Kásler, Miklós

    2002-01-01

    The ISO 9001 quality assurance of the National Institute of Oncology has been achieved successfully. We give an account of the brief history and the structure of the assurance system of the Institute, the process of setting our goals, and also the experience gained from drafting ISO 9001 handbook and flowcharts. Apart from the bureaucratic nature of quality assurance, it is a good opportunity for us to investigate our everyday work, put it into orderly manner and work more reliably. Experience has shown that the introduction of a quality assurance system increases the level of patient care, the documentation helps the Institute or some of its departments, or even individuals prevent law suits, and serves as a sound basis for proposing promotion, salary increases and bonuses, or even honors.

  15. Radium originating in harbour sludge from the Dutch Rijnmond area. Results for 2002 and corrections for 1994-2001; Radium in baggerspecie afkomstig uit het Rijnmondgebied. Resultaten over 2002 en correcties voor 1994-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lembrechts, J.; Glastra, P.; Nissan, L.A.; Overwater, R.M.W

    2003-07-01

    The radium concentration was measured in 25 samples of harbour sludge taken from the Rijnmond area (Rotterdam harbours and the Nieuwe Waterweg) in 2002. High radium levels were found near the former discharge points of the phosphate ore processing plants, confirming the results of previous campaigns. The results of these previous campaigns (1994-2001) were corrected for a calibration defect that had been indicated in an international comparison of measurements. The cause of this defect appeared to be radon leakage from the calibration samples, resulting in an overestimation of radium concentrations by 16%. However, this turned out to be of no consequence for the conclusions drawn in previous reports. For 2002, the highest radium concentration of about 209 Bq kg-1 was found in a sample from the Nieuwe Maas (NM-2). The average total amount of radium of industrial origin for 2000 to 2002 in the nine regularly probed sections showing the highest radium levels was found to be approximately half the average for the 1995-1997 period. This is probably the effect of the former industrial releases, which, although decreasing, has not disappeared completely. [Dutch] In 2002 zijn wederom havenspeciemonsters verzameld in de Rotterdamse havens en in de Nieuwe Waterweg. Van 25 monsters is het 226Ra-gehalte bepaald. Zoals ook in eerdere meetcampagnes is vastgesteld, worden hoge radiumgehalten gevonden in de omgeving van de voormalige lozingspunten van de fosfaatertsverwerkende industrieen. In de meetcampagne van 2002 is het hoogste 226Ra-gehalte, circa 209 Bq kg-1, gevonden in een mengmonster afkomstig uit een vak gelegen in de Nieuwe Maas (NM-2). Uit resultaten van internationale ringonderzoeken is gebleken dat de voorheen gerapporteerde radiumgehalten zijn overschat. De oorzaak daarvan lag in het niet geheel lekdicht zijn van de eertijds gebruikte kalibratiemonsters, waardoor een fractie van het radongas ontsnapte. Na herziening van de kalibratiemethode bleek de overschatting 16

  16. Radium-228 analysis of natural waters by Cherenkov counting of Actinium-228

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleissa, Khalid A.; Almasoud, Fahad I.; Islam, Mohammed S. [Atomic Energy Research Institute, King Abdul Aziz City for Science and Technology, P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia); L' Annunziata, Michael F. [IAEA Expert, Montague Group, P.O. Box 5033, Oceanside, CA 92052-5033 (United States)], E-mail: mlannunziata@cox.net

    2008-12-15

    The activities of {sup 228}Ra in natural waters were determined by the Cherenkov counting of the daughter nuclide {sup 228}Ac. The radium was pre-concentrated on MnO{sub 2} and the radium purified via ion exchange and, after a 2-day period of incubation to allow for secular equilibrium between the parent-daughter {sup 228}Ra({sup 228}Ac), the daughter nuclide {sup 228}Ac was isolated by ion exchange according to the method of Nour et al. [2004. Radium-228 determination of natural waters via concentration on manganese dioxide and separation using Diphonix ion exchange resin. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61, 1173-1178]. The Cherenkov photons produced by {sup 228}Ac were counted directly without the addition of any scintillation reagents. The optimum Cherenkov counting window, sample volume, and vial type were determined experimentally to achieve optimum Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and lowest background count rates. An optimum detection efficiency of 10.9{+-}0.1% was measured for {sup 228}Ac by Cherenkov counting with a very low Cherenkov photon background of 0.317{+-}0.013 cpm. The addition of sodium salicylate into the sample counting vial at a concentration of 0.1 g/mL yielded a more than 3-fold increase in the Cherenkov detection efficiency of {sup 228}Ac to 38%. Tests of the Cherenkov counting technique were conducted with several water standards of known activity and the results obtained compared closely with a conventional liquid scintillation counting technique. The advantages and disadvantages of Cherenkov counting compared to liquid scintillation counting methods are discussed. Advantages include much lower Cherenkov background count rates and consequently lower minimal detectable activities for {sup 228}Ra and no need for expensive environmentally unfriendly liquid scintillation cocktails. The disadvantages of the Cherenkov counting method include the need to measure {sup 228}Ac Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and optimum Cherenkov counting volume

  17. Radium-228 analysis of natural waters by Cherenkov counting of Actinium-228.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleissa, Khalid A; Almasoud, Fahad I; Islam, Mohammed S; L'Annunziata, Michael F

    2008-12-01

    The activities of (228)Ra in natural waters were determined by the Cherenkov counting of the daughter nuclide (228)Ac. The radium was pre-concentrated on MnO(2) and the radium purified via ion exchange and, after a 2-day period of incubation to allow for secular equilibrium between the parent-daughter (228)Ra((228)Ac), the daughter nuclide (228)Ac was isolated by ion exchange according to the method of Nour et al. [2004. Radium-228 determination of natural waters via concentration on manganese dioxide and separation using Diphonix ion exchange resin. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61, 1173-1178]. The Cherenkov photons produced by (228)Ac were counted directly without the addition of any scintillation reagents. The optimum Cherenkov counting window, sample volume, and vial type were determined experimentally to achieve optimum Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and lowest background count rates. An optimum detection efficiency of 10.9+/-0.1% was measured for (228)Ac by Cherenkov counting with a very low Cherenkov photon background of 0.317+/-0.013cpm. The addition of sodium salicylate into the sample counting vial at a concentration of 0.1g/mL yielded a more than 3-fold increase in the Cherenkov detection efficiency of (228)Ac to 38%. Tests of the Cherenkov counting technique were conducted with several water standards of known activity and the results obtained compared closely with a conventional liquid scintillation counting technique. The advantages and disadvantages of Cherenkov counting compared to liquid scintillation counting methods are discussed. Advantages include much lower Cherenkov background count rates and consequently lower minimal detectable activities for (228)Ra and no need for expensive environmentally unfriendly liquid scintillation cocktails. The disadvantages of the Cherenkov counting method include the need to measure (228)Ac Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and optimum Cherenkov counting volume, which are not at all required when liquid

  18. Realization of results of innovational research in clinical oncological

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Kaprin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a brief overview of major innovative scientific research conducted at the research oncological Institute n. a. P. A. Herzen over the last decade, and the results of their the introduction into clinical practice. On the basis of 36 patents of the for the invention in Russian Federation we developed new medical technologies for diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of cancer patients, permission for clinical use in the territory of the Russian Federation issued by the Federal service on surveillance in healthcare and social development.

  19. Atomic parity violation in one single trapped radium ion as a probe of electroweak running

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wansbeek, Lotje; Versolato, Oscar; Willmann, Lorenz; Timmermans, Rob; Jungmann, Klaus [KVI, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2008-07-01

    In a single trapped and laser cooled radium ion we investigate atomic parity violation by probing the differential splitting (*light shifts*) of the 7S and 6D Zeeman levels, which is caused by the interaction of the ion with an off-resonant laser light field. This experiment serves as a low-energy test of the electroweak Standard Model of particle physics. With precision RF spectroscopy and subsequent monitoring of quantum jumps, this splitting can be determined to sub-Hertz accuracy. A proof-of-principle has recently been given for the barium ion, and crucial ideas are being extended to Ra{sup +} which is a superior candidate.

  20. Accumulation of uranium, cesium, and radium by microbial cells: bench-scale studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II

    1982-07-01

    This report describes bench-scale studies on the utilization of microbial cells for the concentration and removal of uranium, radium, and cesium from nuclear processing waste streams. Included are studies aimed at elucidating the basic mechanism of uranium uptake, process development efforts for the use of a combined denitrification-uranium removal process to treat a specific nuclear processing waste stream, and a preliminary investigation of the applicability of microorganisms for the removal of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 226/Ra from existing waste solutions.

  1. Radium-223 dichloride: illustrating the benefits of a multidisciplinary approach for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzulli II JF

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Joseph F Renzulli II, Jennifer Collins, Anthony Mega Genitourinary Multidisciplinary Clinic, The Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Improving options for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC provide latitude in designing treatment plans that meet patients' medical needs and personal goals. The field's rapid evolution opens avenues for contributions by multiple medical specialties and requires considering more options to ensure that each patient receives the most appropriate care. A multidisciplinary clinic (MDC focusing on patients with cancers of the genitourinary tract demonstrates an efficient and cost-effective means of integrating the diverse professional knowledge and skills needed to develop an optimal patient treatment plan. As a guide to establishing an MDC for patients with mCRPC, this article describes the operation of the Genitourinary MDC at The Miriam Hospital in Providence, RI – specifically, the successful incorporation of radium-223 dichloride (radium-223 into the treatment algorithm for men with mCRPC and symptomatic bone metastases. Radium-223 is a new treatment that, unlike earlier radionuclide therapies, has shown a survival advantage in a large randomized phase 3 trial (ALSYMPCA. The overall survival benefit was comparable to that of newer immuno- and hormonal therapies in similar populations. Radium-223 treatment also delayed onset of symptomatic skeletal events. Both benefits were independent of prior docetaxel therapy or concurrent bisphosphonate use. In our clinic, radium-223 is used primarily to extend patient survival. Patient selection, patient management, and treatment sequencing are discussed here in the context of a multidisciplinary environment. Keywords: radium-223 dichloride, prostate cancer, castration-resistant prostate cancer, multidisciplinary clinic, best practices

  2. Introduction to veterinary clinical oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Veterinary clinical oncology involves a multidisciplinary approach to the recognition and management of spontaneously occurring neoplasms of domestic animals. This requires some knowledge of the causes, incidence, and natural course of malignant disease as it occurs in domestic species. The purpose of this course is to acquaint you with the more common neoplastic problems you will encounter in practice, so that you can offer your clients an informed opinion regarding prognosis and possible therapeutic modalities. A major thrust will be directed toward discussing and encouraging treatment/management of malignant disease. Multimodality therapy will be stressed. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. Introduction to veterinary clinical oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Veterinary clinical oncology involves a multidisciplinary approach to the recognition and management of spontaneously occurring neoplasms of domestic animals. This requires some knowledge of the causes, incidence, and natural course of malignant disease as it occurs in domestic species. The purpose of this course is to acquaint you with the more common neoplastic problems you will encounter in practice, so that you can offer your clients an informed opinion regarding prognosis and possible therapeutic modalities. A major thrust will be directed toward discussing and encouraging treatment/management of malignant disease. Multimodality therapy will be stressed. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. New Technologies in Radiation Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Wolfgang; Bortfeld, Thomas; Grosu, Anca-Ligia

    This book provides an overview of recent advances in radiation oncology, many of which have originated from physics and engineering sciences. After an introductory section on basic aspects of 3D medical imaging, the role of 3D imaging in the context of radiotherapy is explored in a series of chapters on the various modern imaging techniques. A further major section addresses 3D treatment planning for conformal radiotherapy, with consideration of both external radiotherapy and brachytherapy. Subsequently the modern techniques of 3D conformal radiotherapy are described, including stereotactic radiotherapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, image-guided and adaptive radiotherapy, and radiotherapy with charged particles.

  5. Integration of Palliative Care Into Standard Oncology Care: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Betty R; Temel, Jennifer S; Temin, Sarah; Alesi, Erin R; Balboni, Tracy A; Basch, Ethan M; Firn, Janice I; Paice, Judith A; Peppercorn, Jeffrey M; Phillips, Tanyanika; Stovall, Ellen L; Zimmermann, Camilla; Smith, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To provide evidence-based recommendations to oncology clinicians, patients, family and friend caregivers, and palliative care specialists to update the 2012 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) provisional clinical opinion (PCO) on the integration of palliative care into standard oncology care for all patients diagnosed with cancer. Methods ASCO convened an Expert Panel of members of the ASCO Ad Hoc Palliative Care Expert Panel to develop an update. The 2012 PCO was based on a review of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) by the National Cancer Institute Physicians Data Query and additional trials. The panel conducted an updated systematic review seeking randomized clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses, as well as secondary analyses of RCTs in the 2012 PCO, published from March 2010 to January 2016. Results The guideline update reflects changes in evidence since the previous guideline. Nine RCTs, one quasiexperimental trial, and five secondary analyses from RCTs in the 2012 PCO on providing palliative care services to patients with cancer and/or their caregivers, including family caregivers, were found to inform the update. Recommendations Inpatients and outpatients with advanced cancer should receive dedicated palliative care services, early in the disease course, concurrent with active treatment. Referral of patients to interdisciplinary palliative care teams is optimal, and services may complement existing programs. Providers may refer family and friend caregivers of patients with early or advanced cancer to palliative care services.

  6. Burnout in United States Academic Chairs of Radiation Oncology Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusano, Aaron S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington (United States); Thomas, Charles R., E-mail: thomasch@ohsu.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine, Knight Cancer Institute/Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Bonner, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama (United States); DeWeese, Theodore L. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Formenti, Silvia C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University, New York, New York (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Mittal, Bharat B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University, Chicago, Ilinois (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to determine the self-reported prevalence of burnout in chairs of academic radiation oncology departments, to identify factors contributing to burnout, and to compare the prevalence of burnout with that seen in other academic chair groups. Methods and Materials: An anonymous online survey was administered to the membership of the Society of Chairs of Academic Radiation Oncology Programs (SCAROP). Burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS). Results: Questionnaires were returned from 66 of 87 chairs (76% response rate). Seventy-nine percent of respondents reported satisfaction with their current positions. Common major stressors were budget deficits and human resource issues. One-quarter of chairs reported that it was at least moderately likely that they would step down in the next 1 to 2 years; these individuals demonstrated significantly higher emotional exhaustion. Twenty-five percent of respondents met the MBI-HSS criteria for low burnout, 75% for moderate burnout, and none for high burnout. Group MBI-HSS subscale scores demonstrated a pattern of moderate emotional exhaustion, low depersonalization, and moderate personal accomplishment, comparing favorably with other specialties. Conclusions: This is the first study of burnout in radiation oncology chairs with a high response rate and using a validated psychometric tool. Radiation oncology chairs share similar major stressors to other chair groups, but they demonstrate relatively high job satisfaction and lower burnout. Emotional exhaustion may contribute to the anticipated turnover in coming years. Further efforts addressing individual and institutional factors associated with burnout may improve the relationship with work of chairs and other department members.

  7. A scoping review of the nurse practitioner workforce in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Lorinda A; Hunt, Lauren; Cataldo, Janine

    2016-08-01

    The quality of cancer care may be compromised in the near future because of work force issues. Several factors will impact the oncology health provider work force: an aging population, an increase in the number of cancer survivors, and expansion of health care coverage for the previously uninsured. Between October 2014 and March 2015, an electronic literature search of English language articles was conducted using PubMed(®) , the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Sciences (CINAHL(®) ), Web of Science, Journal Storage (JSTOR(®) ), Google Scholar, and SCOPUS(®) . Using the scoping review criteria, the research question was identified "How much care in oncology is provided by nurse practitioners (NPs)?" Key search terms were kept broad and included: "NP" AND "oncology" AND "workforce". The literature was searched between 2005 and 2015, using the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 29 studies were identified, further review resulted in 10 relevant studies that met all criteria. Results demonstrated that NPs are utilized in both inpatient and outpatient settings, across all malignancy types and in a variety of roles. Academic institutions were strongly represented in all relevant studies, a finding that may reflect the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty work hour limitations. There was no pattern associated with state scope of practice and NP representation in this scoping review. Many of the studies reviewed relied on subjective information, or represented a very small number of NPs. There is an obvious need for an objective analysis of the amount of care provided by oncology NPs. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Nursing 436A: Pediatric Oncology for Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Cynthia L.

    A description is provided of "Pediatric Oncology for Nurses," the first in a series of three courses offered to fourth-year nursing students in pediatric oncology. The first section provides a course overview, discusses time assignments, and describes the target student population. Next, a glossary of terms, and lists of course goals, long-range…

  9. Perceptions of Oncology as a Medical Specialty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassileth, Barrie R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics and prestige associated with oncology and assessed shifts in medical students' perceptions as a result of participation in an oncology course are explored. Respondents were asked to rate the prestige of eight specialities and asked to select characteristics "that best describe each type of specialist." (MLW)

  10. Art Therapy with an Oncology Care Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainis, Nancy A.

    2005-01-01

    Oncology nurses are particularly vulnerable to "burnout" syndrome due to the intensity of their work and the ongoing losses they experience while providing oncology care to their patients. High levels of stress in the workplace left untended lead to high job turnover, poor productivity, and diminished quality of care for patients.…

  11. Clinical Oncology Assistantship Program for Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilan, Barbara A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The Clinical Oncology Assistantship Program at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences is described, along with student reactions to the program. The summer elective program involves cancer lectures (one week) and clinical exposure (nine weeks) in medical, surgical, and pediatric oncology services, as well as self-directed learning…

  12. Organisational design for an integrated oncological department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meiss-de Haas, Ch.L.; Falkmann, H.; Douma, J.; Van Gassel, J.G.; Peters, W.G.; Van Mierlo, R.; Van Turnhout, J.M.; Verhagen, C.A.H.H.V.M.; Schrijvers, A.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The outcomes of a Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threat (SWOT) analysis of three Integrated Oncological Departments were compared with their present situation three years later to define factors that can influence a successful implementation and development of an Integrated Oncolog

  13. Medical Student–Reported Outcomes of a Radiation Oncologist–Led Preclinical Course in Oncology: A Five-Year Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Ankit; Koottappillil, Brian; Shah, Bhartesh; Ahuja, Divya; Hirsch, Ariel E., E-mail: Ariel.hirsch@bmc.org

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: There is a recognized need for more robust training in oncology for medical students. At our institution, we have offered a core dedicated oncology block, led by a radiation oncologist course director, during the second year of the medical school curriculum since the 2008-2009 academic year. Herein, we report the outcomes of the oncology block over the past 5 years through an analysis of student perceptions of the course, both immediately after completion of the block and in the third year. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 2 separate surveys. The first assessed student impressions of how well the course met each of the course's learning objectives through a survey that was administered to students immediately after the oncology block in 2012. The second was administered after students completed the oncology block during the required radiology clerkship in the third year. All questions used a 5-level Likert scale and were analyzed by use of a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: Of the 169 students who took the oncology course in 2012, 127 (75.1%) completed the course feedback survey. Over 73% of students agreed or strongly agreed that the course met its 3 learning objectives. Of the 699 medical students who took the required radiology clerkship between 2010 and 2013, 538 participated in the second survey, for a total response rate of 77%. Of these students, 368 (68.4%) agreed or strongly agreed that the course was effective in contributing to their overall medical education. Conclusion: Student perceptions of the oncology block are favorable and have improved across multiple categories since the inception of the course. Students self-reported that a dedicated preclinical oncology block was effective in helping identify the basics of cancer therapy and laying the foundation for clinical electives in oncology, including radiation oncology.

  14. Big data in oncologic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regge, Daniele; Mazzetti, Simone; Giannini, Valentina; Bracco, Christian; Stasi, Michele

    2017-06-01

    Cancer is a complex disease and unfortunately understanding how the components of the cancer system work does not help understand the behavior of the system as a whole. In the words of the Greek philosopher Aristotle "the whole is greater than the sum of parts." To date, thanks to improved information technology infrastructures, it is possible to store data from each single cancer patient, including clinical data, medical images, laboratory tests, and pathological and genomic information. Indeed, medical archive storage constitutes approximately one-third of total global storage demand and a large part of the data are in the form of medical images. The opportunity is now to draw insight on the whole to the benefit of each individual patient. In the oncologic patient, big data analysis is at the beginning but several useful applications can be envisaged including development of imaging biomarkers to predict disease outcome, assessing the risk of X-ray dose exposure or of renal damage following the administration of contrast agents, and tracking and optimizing patient workflow. The aim of this review is to present current evidence of how big data derived from medical images may impact on the diagnostic pathway of the oncologic patient.

  15. Decision making in surgical oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, B; Green, J S A; Vincent, C; Sevdalis, N

    2011-09-01

    Decisions in surgical oncology are increasingly being made by multi-disciplinary teams (MDTs). Although MDTs have been widely accepted as the preferred model for cancer service delivery, the process of decision making has not been well described and there is little evidence pointing to the ideal structure of an MDT. Performance in surgery has been shown to depend on non-technical skills, such as decision making, as well as patient factors and the technical skills of the healthcare team. Application of this systems approach to MDT working allows the identification of factors that affect the quality of decision making for cancer patients. In this article we review the literature on decision making in surgical oncology and by drawing from the systems approach to surgical performance we provide a framework for understanding the process of decision making in MDTs. Technical factors that affect decision making include the information about patients, robust ICT and video-conferencing equipment, a minimum dataset with expert review of radiological and pathological information, implementation and recording of the MDTs decision. Non-technical factors with an impact on decision making include attendance of team members at meetings, leadership, teamwork, open discussion, consensus on decisions and communication with patients and primary care. Optimising these factors will strengthen the decision making process and raise the quality of care for cancer patients.

  16. Optical imaging probes in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Cristina; Lo Dico, Alessia; Diceglie, Cecilia; Lucignani, Giovanni; Ottobrini, Luisa

    2016-07-26

    Cancer is a complex disease, characterized by alteration of different physiological molecular processes and cellular features. Keeping this in mind, the possibility of early identification and detection of specific tumor biomarkers by non-invasive approaches could improve early diagnosis and patient management.Different molecular imaging procedures provide powerful tools for detection and non-invasive characterization of oncological lesions. Clinical studies are mainly based on the use of computed tomography, nuclear-based imaging techniques and magnetic resonance imaging. Preclinical imaging in small animal models entails the use of dedicated instruments, and beyond the already cited imaging techniques, it includes also optical imaging studies. Optical imaging strategies are based on the use of luminescent or fluorescent reporter genes or injectable fluorescent or luminescent probes that provide the possibility to study tumor features even by means of fluorescence and luminescence imaging. Currently, most of these probes are used only in animal models, but the possibility of applying some of them also in the clinics is under evaluation.The importance of tumor imaging, the ease of use of optical imaging instruments, the commercial availability of a wide range of probes as well as the continuous description of newly developed probes, demonstrate the significance of these applications. The aim of this review is providing a complete description of the possible optical imaging procedures available for the non-invasive assessment of tumor features in oncological murine models. In particular, the characteristics of both commercially available and newly developed probes will be outlined and discussed.

  17. Lessons learned from the science of caring: Extending the reach of psychosocial oncology: The International Psycho-Oncology Society 2016 Sutherland Award Lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultz, Barry D

    2017-06-01

    In medicine, referral to a medical oncology specialty is based on recent history, physical examination, pathology, surgery reports, imaging, blood work, and the patient's vital signs. By contrast, referral to a psychosocial specialist has typically been based on the patients expressed request for psychosocial support or the health care team's observation of the patient's limited adjustment or poor coping with the diagnosis, treatment, or end-of-life distress. These observations are usually based on clinical acumen not on metrics. In psychosocial oncology, by committing to the science of caring and relying on the use of standardized tools to screen for distress, the multidisciplinary cancer care team assess, communicate, and intervene on what is measured. That is, health care providers can begin to address the patients' identified concerns. Branding distress as the 6th vital sign and incorporating screening for distress into standard cancer practice can be an effective strategy to challenging the resistance in implementation of psychosocial oncology in cancer care institutions. Accreditation agencies are endorsing the need to assess patient distress and better manage symptoms of distress as part of routine and standardized patient care. While many international organizations and societies support the importance of screening, implementing screening for distress still has a long way to go to be operationalized in many cancer care programs. Screening for distress when implemented does, however, create an opportunity for psychosocial oncology to extend its reach into cancer care programs and institutions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Ambulatory oncology nurses making the right call: assessment and education in telephone triage practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Karen; O'Neill, Eileen Brennan; Goldschmitt, Jennifer; Horigan, Jennifer; Moriarty, Linda

    2013-06-01

    Nurses in a hematology/oncology practice are responsible for the triage and management of phone calls from a diverse oncology population. An initiative was developed at the authors' institution to identify the educational needs of RNs while designing strategies to educate and improve telephone triage skills. The goal was to standardize triage practice and ultimately improve the effectiveness of telephone triage management. It was felt that these improvements could enhance the nurse-patient relationship, resulting in continuity of care to the patient, as well as reducing inappropriate appointments and hospitalizations, enhancing education, and lessening the risk of medical complications related to delays in care.

  19. Radium and uranium levels in vegetables grown using different farming management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauria, D.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil)], E-mail: dejanira@ird.gov.br; Ribeiro, F.C.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/CNEN), Av. Prof. Luiz Freire 200, Cidade Universitaria Recife, PE, CEP 50740-540 (Brazil); Conti, C.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil); Loureiro, F.A. [Estacao Experimental de Nova Friburgo, Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Pesagro (Brazil)

    2009-02-15

    Vegetables grown with phosphate fertilizer (conventional management), with bovine manure fertilization (organic management) and in a mineral nutrient solution (hydroponic) were analyzed and the concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra in lettuce, carrots, and beans were compared. Lettuce from hydroponic farming system showed the lowest concentration of radionuclides 0.51 for {sup 226}Ra, 0.55 for {sup 228}Ra and 0.24 for {sup 238}U (Bq kg{sup -1} dry). Vegetables from organically and conventionally grown farming systems showed no differences in the concentration of radium and uranium. Relationships between uranium content in plants and exchangeable Ca and Mg in soil were found, whereas Ra in vegetables was inversely correlated to the cation exchange capacity of soil, leading to the assumption that by supplying carbonate and cations to soil, liming may cause an increase of U and a decrease of radium uptake by plants. The soil to plant transfer varied from 10{sup -4} to 10{sup -2} for {sup 238}U and from 10{sup -2} to 10{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra.

  20. Radium mass balance and submarine groundwater discharge in Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoak, Joseph M.; Sanders, Christian J.; Patchineelam, Sambasiva R.; Moore, Willard S.

    2012-11-01

    Radium-226 and 228Ra activities were determined in water samples from within and adjacent to Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) in 1998, 2005 and 2007. Surface waters in Sepetiba Bay were substantially higher in 226Ra and 228Ra compared to ocean end member samples. Using the residence time of water in the bay we calculated the flux required to maintain the observed enrichment over the ocean end members. We then applied a radium mass balance to estimate the volume of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the bay. The estimates of SGD into Sepetiba Bay (in 1010 L day-1) were 2.56, 3.75, and 1.0, respectively for 1998, 2005, and 2007. These estimates are equivalent to approximately 1% of the total volume of the bay each day or 50 L m-2 day-1. It is likely that a substantial portion of the SGD in Sepetiba Bay consists of infiltrated seawater. This large flux of SGD has the potential to supply substantial quantities of nutrients, carbon and metals into coastal waters. The SGD found here is greater than what is typically found in SGD studies along the eastern United States and areas with similar geologic characteristics. Considering there are many coastal areas around the world like Sepetiba Bay, this could revise upward the already important contribution of SGD to coastal as well as oceanic budgets.

  1. Production of high-purity radium-223 from legacy actinium-beryllium neutron sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderquist, Chuck Z; McNamara, Bruce K; Fisher, Darrell R

    2012-07-01

    Radium-223 is a short-lived alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide with potential applications in cancer treatment. Research to develop new radiopharmaceuticals employing (223)Ra has been hindered by poor availability due to the small quantities of parent actinium-227 available world-wide. The purpose of this study was to develop innovative and cost-effective methods to obtain high-purity (223)Ra from (227)Ac. We obtained (227)Ac from two surplus actinium-beryllium neutron generators. We retrieved the actinium/beryllium buttons from the sources and dissolved them in a sulfuric-nitric acid solution. A crude actinium solid was recovered from the solution by coprecipitation with thorium fluoride, leaving beryllium in solution. The crude actinium was purified to provide about 40 milligrams of actinium nitrate using anion exchange in methanol-water-nitric acid solution. The purified actinium was then used to generate high-purity (223)Ra. We extracted (223)Ra using anion exchange in a methanol-water-nitric acid solution. After the radium was separated, actinium and thorium were then eluted from the column and dried for interim storage. This single-pass separation produces high purity, carrier-free (223)Ra product, and does not disturb the (227)Ac/(227)Th equilibrium. A high purity, carrier-free (227)Th was also obtained from the actinium using a similar anion exchange in nitric acid. These methods enable efficient production of (223)Ra for research and new alpha-emitter radiopharmaceutical development.

  2. Pain Management and Use of Opioids in Pediatric Oncology in India: A Qualitative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Angelini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Consumption of medical opium for pain relief in India is low, despite the country being one of the main world producers of the substance. We investigated obstacles to opioid use and physician perceptions about optimal pain management in pediatric oncology patients in India. Methods: Semistructured interviews were conducted with oncologists who work in pediatric oncology settings. A mixed sampling strategy was used, including maximum variation and confirmation and disconfirmation of cases, as well as snowball sampling. Key informants were identified. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by thematic analysis methodology. Results: Twenty-three interviews were performed across 20 Indian institutions. The main obstacles identified were lack of financial resources, inadequate education of health care providers on pain management, insufficient human resources (particularly lack of dedicated trained oncology nurses, poor access to opioids, and cultural perceptions about pain. Children from rural areas, treated in public hospitals, and from lower socioeconomic classes appear disadvantaged. A significant equality gap exists between public institutions and private institutions, which provide state-of-the-art treatment. Conclusion: The study illuminates the complexity of pain management in pediatric oncology in India, where financial constraints, lack of education, and poor access to opioids play a dominant role, but lack of awareness and cultural perceptions about pain management among health care providers and parents emerged as important contributing factors. Urgent interventions are needed to optimize care in this vulnerable population.

  3. A brief history of the American radium industry and its ties to the scientific community of its early twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, E.R.

    1993-01-01

    Federally funded remedial action projects are presently underway in New Jersey and Colorado at sites containing 226Ra and other radionuclides from radium-uranium ore extraction plants that operated during the early twentieth century. They are but the latest chapter in the story of an American industry that emerged and perished in the span of three decades. Major extraction plants were established in or near Denver (CO), Pittsburgh (PA), and New York City (NY) to process radium from ore that came largely from the carnotite deposits of western Colorado and eastern Utah. The staffs of these plants included some of the finest chemists and physicists in the nation, and the highly-refined radium products found a variety of uses in medicine and industry. The discovery of high-grade pitchblende ores in the Belgian Congo and the subsequent opening of an extraction plant near Antwerp, Belgium, in 1992, however, created an economic climate that put an end to the American radium industry. The geologic, chemical, and engineering information gathered during this era formed the basis of the uranium industry of the later part of the century, while the tailings and residues came to be viewed as environmental problems during the same period.

  4. Patient safety climate in a hospital specialized in oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Barbosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study’s objective was to assess the safety climate from the perspective of a health team from a hospital specialized in oncology. An observational sectional study, conducted with 66 health professionals, using the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire. For analysis, Student’s t test and Sperman’s correlation (α=0.05 were used. The instrument’s general score was 70.28. The domain with best score was satisfaction at work (86.74 and, the domains with lower scores were perception from management (64.99 and stress perception (61.74. There was no differences of means statistically significant between genders, but it was present between those who had gone through graduate school or not. There was no correlation between scores and career time in the specialty at the institution. The final assessment demonstrated fragilities in the perception of health professionals related to questions involving the institutional climate of safety.

  5. Nutrition support in surgical oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhmann, Maureen B; August, David A

    2009-01-01

    This review article, the second in a series of articles to examine the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) Guidelines for the Use of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition in Adult and Pediatric Patients, evaluates the evidence related to the use of nutrition support in surgical oncology patients. Cancer patients develop complex nutrition issues. Nutrition support may be indicated in malnourished cancer patients undergoing surgery, depending on individual patient characteristics. As with the first article in this series, this article provides background concerning nutrition issues in cancer patients, as well as discusses the role of nutrition support in the care of surgical cancer patients. The goal of this review is to enrich the discussion contained in the clinical guidelines as they relate to recommendations made for surgical patients, cite the primary literature more completely, and suggest updates to the guideline statements in light of subsequently published studies.

  6. [HTA-Perspective: Challenges in the early assessment of new oncological drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Claudia; Nachtnebel, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Oncologic drug therapies have gained wide attention in the context of health policy priority setting for serious and socially significant diseases with high human and monetary costs. Due to uncertainties and scepticism about the actual therapeutic importance of newly approved oncology products, an early assessment programme was already established in Austria in 2007. The assessment of new oncology products is thereby faced with special challenges, since study populations are frequently not representative or the study design is laid out in such a manner that a definitive assessment of patient-relevant endpoints is not possible (cross-overs after interim assessments, surrogate parameters as primary endpoints, uncontrolled studies or those with unrealistic comparators, invalidated post-hoc identified biomarkers). On account of these major uncertainties, even the European Medicines Agency (EMA) is already contemplating multi-stage, "adaptive" approvals, and national reimbursement institutions are increasingly working with outcome-oriented, conditional reimbursement. (As supplied by publisher).

  7. The role of Internet resources in clinical oncology: promises and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Bradford W; Greenberg, Alexandra J; Rutten, Lila J Finney

    2016-12-01

    The Internet is a valuable tool that continues to revolutionize many aspects of our lives; however, the ability to disseminate diverse data across populations and nations presents both opportunities and challenges. Online resources are increasingly used in health care, providing wider access to information for patients, researchers, and clinicians. At the turn of the millennium, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) predicted that Internet-based technologies would create a revolution in communication for oncology professionals and patients with cancer. Herein, findings from the NCI's Health Information National Trends Survey are reviewed to give insight into how Internet trends related to oncology patients are evolving. Future trends are discussed, including examples of 'connected health' in oncology; the spread of mobile and ubiquitous access points to Internet-hosted information; the diffusion of devices, sensors, and apps; the spread of personal data sharing; and an evolution in how networks can support person-centred and family-centred care.

  8. Physical sciences and engineering advances in life sciences and oncology a WTEC global assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, Daniel; Gerecht, Sharon; Levine, Ross; Mallick, Parag; McCarty, Owen; Munn, Lance; Reinhart-King, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an Assessment of Physical Sciences and Engineering Advances in Life Sciences and Oncology (APHELION) by a panel of experts. It covers the status and trends of applying physical sciences and engineering principles to oncology research in leading laboratories and organizations in Europe and Asia. The book elaborates on the six topics identified by the panel that have the greatest potential to advance understanding and treatment of cancer, each covered by a chapter in the book. The study was sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) at the National Institute of Health (NIH), the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering at the NIH in the US under a cooperative agreement with the World Technology Evaluation Center (WTEC).

  9. The impact of genomics on oncology nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamer, Laura Curr; Linder, Lauri; Wu, Bohua; Eggert, Julia

    2013-12-01

    Since 2003, genetics and genomics information has led to exciting new diagnostics, prognostics, and treatment options in oncology practice. Profiling of cancers offers providers insight into treatment and prognostic factors. Germline testing provides an individual with information for surveillance or therapy that may help them prevent cancer in their lifetime and options for family members as yet untouched by malignancy. This offers a challenge for oncology nurses and other oncology health care providers to become comfortable with incorporating education about genetics/genomics into their clinical practice and patient education.

  10. PET-Based Thoracic Radiation Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Charles B; Houshmand, Sina; Kalbasi, Anusha; Salavati, Ali; Alavi, Abass

    2016-07-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET is increasingly being integrated into multiple aspects of oncology. PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) has become especially important in radiation oncology. With the increasing use of advanced techniques like intensity-modulated radiation therapy and proton therapy, PET/CT scans have played critical roles in the target delineation of tumors for radiation oncologists delivering conformal treatment techniques. Use of PET/CT is well established in lung cancer and several other thoracic malignancies. This article details the current uses of PET/CT in thoracic radiation oncology with a focus on lung cancer and describes expected future roles of PET/CT for thoracic tumors.

  11. The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steinbjørn

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry (DNOR) was established by the Danish Neuro-Oncology Group as a national clinical database. It was established for the purpose of supporting research and development in adult patients with primary brain tumors in Denmark. STUDY POPULATION: DNOR has...... advantage of reporting indicators is the related multidisciplinary discussions giving a better understanding of what actually is going on, thereby facilitating the work on adjusting the national guidelines in the Danish Neuro-Oncology Group. CONCLUSION: The establishment of DNOR has optimized the quality...

  12. Sequential chemical treatment of radium species in TENORM waste sludge produced from oil and natural gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Afifi, E.M. [Analytical Chemistry and Environmental Control Department, Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center (HLWMC), Atomic Energy Authority, Post Office No. 13759, Cairo (Egypt); Awwad, N.S. [Analytical Chemistry and Environmental Control Department, Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center (HLWMC), Atomic Energy Authority, Post Office No. 13759, Cairo (Egypt)], E-mail: nsawwad20@yahoo.com; Hilal, M.A. [Analytical Chemistry and Environmental Control Department, Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center (HLWMC), Atomic Energy Authority, Post Office No. 13759, Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-01-30

    This paper is dedicated to the treatment of sludge occurring in frame of the Egyptian produced from oil and gas production. The activity levels of three radium isotopes: Ra-226 (of U-series), Ra-228 and Ra-224 (of Th-series) in the solid TENORM waste (sludge) were first evaluated and followed by a sequential treatment for all radium species (fractions) presented in TENORM. The sequential treatment was carried out based on two approaches 'A' and 'B' using different chemical solutions. The results obtained indicate that the activity levels of all radium isotopes (Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224) of the environmental interest in the TENORM waste sludge were elevated with regard to exemption levels established by IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), International basic safety standards for the protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. GOV/2715/Vienna, 1994]. Each approach of the sequential treatment was performed through four steps using different chemical solutions to reduce the activity concentration of radium in a large extent. Most of the leached radium was found as an oxidizable Ra species. The actual removal % leached using approach B was relatively efficient compared to A. It is observed that the actual removal percentages (%) of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224 using approach A are 78 {+-} 2.8, 64.8 {+-} 4.1 and 76.4 {+-} 5.2%, respectively. Whereas in approach A, the overall removal % of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-228 was increased to {approx}91 {+-} 3.5, 87 {+-} 4.1 and 90 {+-} 6.2%, respectively.

  13. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF RADIUM CONTENT AND RADON EXHALATION RATE FROM SOIL SAMPLES USING ACTIVE AND PASSIVE TECHNIQUES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Manjulata; Prasad, Mukesh; Joshi, Veena; Gusain, G S; Ramola, R C

    2016-10-01

    Soil is the most important factor affecting the radon level in the human living environments. It depends not only on uranium and thorium contents but also on the physical and chemical properties of the soil. In this paper, the measurements of radium content and mass exhalation rate of radon from the soil samples collected from Uttarkashi area of Garhwal Himalaya are presented. The correlation between radium content and radon mass exhalation rate from soil has also been obtained. The radium was measured by gamma ray spectrometry, while the mass exhalation rate of radon has been determined by both active and passive methods. The radium activity in the soil of study area was found to vary from 45±7 to 285±29 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 99 Bq kg(-1) The radon mass exhalation rate was found to vary from 0.59 × 10(-5) to 2.2 × 10(-5) Bq kg(-1) h(-1) with an average of 1.4 × 10(-5) Bq kg(-1) h(-1) by passive technique and from 0.8 × 10(-5) to 3.2 × 10(-5) Bq kg(-1) h(-1) with an average of 1.5 × 10(-5) Bq kg(-1) h(-1) by active technique. The results suggest that the measured radium value is positively correlated with the radon mass exhalation rate measured with both the active and passive techniques. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Phase II study of radium-223 dichloride in Japanese patients with symptomatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Nobuaki; Nagamori, Satsohi; Wakumoto, Yoshiaki; Uemura, Hirotsugu; Kimura, Go; Yokomizo, Akira; Kikukawa, Hiroaki; Mizokami, Atsushi; Kosaka, Takeo; Masumori, Naoya; Kawasaki, Yoshihide; Yonese, Junji; Nasu, Yasutomo; Fukasawa, Satoshi; Sugiyama, Takayuki; Kinuya, Seigo; Hosono, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Iku; Tsutsui, Hirokazu; Uemura, Hiroji

    2017-08-02

    Radium-223 dichloride (radium-223) is the first targeted alpha therapy approved for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) with bone metastases. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of radium-223 in Japanese patients with symptomatic CRPC and bone metastases. In this open-label, multicenter, phase II study, patients with progressive, symptomatic CRPC and bone metastases were treated with radium-223 (55 kBq/kg, intravenously) in a 4-week cycle for six cycles. The primary endpoint was the percent change in total alkaline phosphatase (ALP) from baseline at 12 weeks. Secondary endpoints included the percent ALP change from baseline to end of treatment (EOT), ALP response rates, percent change in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) from baseline to 12 weeks and EOT, PSA response rates, overall survival (OS), and time to symptomatic skeletal events (SSEs). Adverse events were monitored throughout the study period. Of the 49 Japanese patients (median age 74 years), 28 completed all infusions. Mean percent change in total ALP and PSA from baseline to 12 weeks was -19.3 and +97.4%, respectively. One-year OS and SSE-free rate at the end of active follow-up were 78 and 89%, respectively. The ALP response rate was 31%, while the PSA response rate was 6%. Grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse events observed in ≥10% of patients included decreased lymphocyte count (14%), anemia (14%), anorexia (10%), and bone pain (10%). Radium-223 is effective and well tolerated in Japanese patients with CRPC and bone metastases. Results were comparable with the Alpharadin in Symptomatic Prostate Cancer Patients (ALSYMPCA) trial. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01929655.

  15. Sequential chemical treatment of radium species in TENORM waste sludge produced from oil and natural gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Afifi, E M; Awwad, N S; Hilal, M A

    2009-01-30

    This paper is dedicated to the treatment of sludge occurring in frame of the Egyptian produced from oil and gas production. The activity levels of three radium isotopes: Ra-226 (of U-series), Ra-228 and Ra-224 (of Th-series) in the solid TENORM waste (sludge) were first evaluated and followed by a sequential treatment for all radium species (fractions) presented in TENORM. The sequential treatment was carried out based on two approaches 'A' and 'B' using different chemical solutions. The results obtained indicate that the activity levels of all radium isotopes (Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224) of the environmental interest in the TENORM waste sludge were elevated with regard to exemption levels established by IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), International basic safety standards for the protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. GOV/2715/Vienna, 1994]. Each approach of the sequential treatment was performed through four steps using different chemical solutions to reduce the activity concentration of radium in a large extent. Most of the leached radium was found as an oxidizable Ra species. The actual removal % leached using approach B was relatively efficient compared to A. It is observed that the actual removal percentages (%) of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224 using approach A are 78+/-2.8, 64.8+/-4.1 and 76.4+/-5.2%, respectively. Whereas in approach A, the overall removal % of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-228 was increased to approximately 91+/-3.5, 87+/-4.1 and 90+/-6.2%, respectively.

  16. Analysis of radium-226 in high salinity wastewater from unconventional gas extraction by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tieyuan; Bain, Daniel; Hammack, Richard; Vidic, Radisav D

    2015-03-01

    Elevated concentration of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in wastewater generated from Marcellus Shale gas extraction is of great concern due to potential environmental and public health impacts. Development of a rapid and robust method for analysis of Ra-226, which is the major NORM component in this water, is critical for the selection of appropriate management approaches to properly address regulatory and public concerns. Traditional methods for Ra-226 determination require long sample holding time or long detection time. A novel method combining Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) with solid-phase extraction (SPE) to separate and purify radium isotopes from the matrix elements in high salinity solutions is developed in this study. This method reduces analysis time while maintaining requisite precision and detection limit. Radium separation is accomplished using a combination of a strong-acid cation exchange resin to separate barium and radium from other ions in the solution and a strontium-specific resin to isolate radium from barium and obtain a sample suitable for analysis by ICP-MS. Method optimization achieved high radium recovery (101 ± 6% for standard mode and 97 ± 7% for collision mode) for synthetic Marcellus Shale wastewater (MSW) samples with total dissolved solids as high as 171,000 mg/L. Ra-226 concentration in actual MSW samples with TDS as high as 415,000 mg/L measured using ICP-MS matched very well with the results from gamma spectrometry. The Ra-226 analysis method developed in this study requires several hours for sample preparation and several minutes for analysis with the detection limit of 100 pCi/L with RSD of 45% (standard mode) and 67% (collision mode). The RSD decreased to below 15% when Ra-226 concentration increased over 500 pCi/L.

  17. Using radium isotopes as tracers of transfers in the soil - water- -plant system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihs, S.; Pierret, M.-C.; Chabaux, F.

    2012-04-01

    Because soils form at the critical interface between the lithosphere and the atmosphere, characterization of the dynamics occurring through this compartment represents an important goal for several scientific fields and/or human activities. However, this issue remains a challenge because soils are complex systems, where a continuous evolution of minerals and organic soil constituents occurs in response to interactions with waters and vegetation. This study aims to investigate the relevance of short-lived nuclides of U- and Th-series to quantify the transfer times and scheme of radionuclides through a soil - water - plant ecosystem. Activities of (226Ra), (228Ra) as well as (228Th) were measured by TIMS and gamma-spectrometry in the major compartments of a forested soil section: solid soil fractions (exchangeable fraction, secondary phases and inherited primary minerals), waters (seepage soil waters and a spring further down the watershed) and vegetation (fine and coarse roots of beech trees, young and mature leaves). The matching of these nuclides half-live to bio-geochemical processes time-scale and the relatively good chemical analogy of radium with calcium make these isotopes especially suitable to investigate either time or mechanism of transfers within a soil-water-plant system. Indeed, the (228Ra/226Ra) isotopic ratios strongly differ in the range of samples, allowing quantifying the source and duration transfers. Analyses of the various solid soil fractions demonstrate a full redistribution of Ra isotopes between the inherited minerals and secondary soil phases. Moreover, the transfer of these isotopes to the seepage water or to the tree roots does not follow a simple and obvious scheme. The radium isotopic ratio in the trees roots does not match the soil exchangeable fraction, suggesting a mixed pool of radium for roots uptake. Decay of 228Ra within the various parts of the trees allows calculating a vegetation cycling duration of about 12 years for this

  18. Effective radium concentration in topsoils contaminated by lead and zinc smelters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girault, Frédéric, E-mail: girault@ipgp.fr [Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS, Paris, France. (France); Perrier, Frédéric; Poitou, Charles; Isambert, Aude [Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS, Paris, France. (France); Théveniaut, Hervé; Laperche, Valérie [Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières, Orléans, France. (France); Clozel-Leloup, Blandine [Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières, Villeurbanne, France. (France); Douay, Francis [Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo Environnement, ISA Lille, Lille, France. (France)

    2016-10-01

    Trace elements (TE) are indicative of industrial pollution in soils, but geochemical methods are difficult to implement in contaminated sites with large numbers of samples. Therefore, measurement of soil magnetic susceptibility (MS) has been used to map TE pollutions, albeit with contrasted results in some cases. Effective radium concentration (EC{sub Ra}), product of radium concentration by the emanation factor, can be measured in a cost-effective manner in the laboratory, and could then provide a useful addition. We evaluate this possibility using 186 topsoils sampled over about 783 km{sup 2} around two former lead and zinc smelters in Northern France. The EC{sub Ra} values, obtained from 319 measurements, range from 0.70 ± 0.06 to 12.53 ± 0.49 Bq·kg{sup −1}, and are remarkably organized spatially, away from the smelters, in domains corresponding to geographical units. Lead-contaminated soils, with lead concentrations above 100 mg·kg{sup −1} < 3 km from the smelters, are characterized on average by larger peak EC{sub Ra} values and larger dispersion. At large scales, away from the smelters, spatial variations of EC{sub Ra} correlate well with spatial variations of MS, thus suggesting that, at distance larger than 5 km, variability of MS contains a significant natural component. Larger EC{sub Ra} values are correlated with larger fine fraction and, possibly, mercury concentration. While MS is enhanced in the vicinity of the smelters and is associated with the presence of soft ferrimagnetic minerals such as magnetite, it does not correlate systematically with metal concentrations. When multiple industrial and urban sources are present, EC{sub Ra} mapping, thus, can help in identifying at least part of the natural spatial variability of MS. More generally, this study shows that EC{sub Ra} mapping provides an independent and reliable assessment of the background spatial structure which underlies the structure of a given contamination. Furthermore, EC{sub Ra

  19. An interprofessionally developed geriatric oncology curriculum for hematology–oncology fellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Ahmed; Hughes, Caren; Karuturi, Meghan; Reyes, Connie; Yorio, Jeffrey; Holmes, Holly

    2016-01-01

    Objective Because the cancer population is aging, interprofessional education incorporating geriatric principles is essential to providing adequate training for oncology fellows. We report the targeted needs assessment, content, and evaluation tools for our geriatric oncology curriculum at MD Anderson Cancer Center. Methods A team comprising a geriatrician, a medical oncologist, an oncology PharmD, an oncology advanced nurse practitioner, and two oncology chief fellows developed the geriatric oncology curriculum. First, a general needs assessment was conducted by reviewing the literature and medical societies’ publications and by consulting experts. A targeted needs assessment was then conducted by reviewing the fellows’ evaluations of the geriatric oncology rotation and by interviewing fellows and recently graduated oncology faculty. Results Geriatric assessment, pharmacology, and psychosocial knowledge skills were the three identified areas of educational need. Curriculum objectives and an evaluation checklist were developed to evaluate learners in the three identified areas. The checklist content was validated by consulting experts in the field. Online materials, including a curriculum, a geriatric pharmacology job aid, and pharmacology cases, were also developed and delivered as part of the curriculum. Conclusion An interprofessional team approach was a successful method for identifying areas of learners’ educational needs, which in turn helped us develop an integrated geriatric oncology curriculum. The curriculum is currently being piloted and evaluated. PMID:25487037

  20. Complementary and alternative medicine in oncology nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somani, Salima; Ali, Fauziya; Saeed Ali, Tazeen; Sulaiman Lalani, Nasreen

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has increased globally, particularly among oncology patients. This study investigated the knowledge, experience and attitudes of oncology nurses towards CAM. A quantitative study was conducted in tertiary care hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan, where 132 oncology nurses were surveyed. The survey revealed that more than 50% of nurses had never heard about many of the CAM therapies used in Pakistan. Approximately 65% of the nurses had knowledge about prayer and less than 30% had experience of CAM education or training. In addition, the majority of nurses had seen patients using CAM and felt that their health status could be enhanced with the use of CAM. This study showed that oncology nurses had a positive experience of and attitude towards CAM, although they needed to enhance their knowledge of it to maximise patient satisfaction and quality of care.

  1. Organisational design for an integrated oncological department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meiss-de Haas, Ch.L.; Falkmann, H.; Douma, J.; Van Gassel, J.G.; Peters, W.G.; Van Mierlo, R.; Van Turnhout, J.M.; Verhagen, C.A.H.H.V.M.; Schrijvers, A.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The outcomes of a Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threat (SWOT) analysis of three Integrated Oncological Departments were compared with their present situation three years later to define factors that can influence a successful implementation and development of an Integrated

  2. A radium assay technique using hydrous titanium oxide adsorbent for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, T. C.; Black, R. A.; Blevis, I.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.; Chen, M.; Cleveland, B. T.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Doucas, G.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Fowler, M. M.; Hahn, R. L.; Hallman, E. D.; Hargrove, C. K.; Heron, H.; Hooper, E.; Howard, K. H.; Jagam, P.; Jelley, N. A.; Knox, A. B.; Lee, H. W.; Levine, I.; Locke, W.; Majerus, S.; McFarlane, K.; McGregor, G.; Miller, G. G.; Moorhead, M.; Noble, A. J.; Omori, M.; Rowley, J. K.; Shatkay, M.; Shewchuk, C.; Simpson, J. J.; Sinclair, D.; Tanner, N. W.; Taplin, R. K.; Trent, P. T.; Wang, J.-X.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Yeh, M.

    2003-04-01

    As photodisintegration of deuterons mimics the disintegration of deuterons by neutrinos, the accurate measurement of the radioactivity from thorium and uranium decay chains in the heavy water in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is essential for the determination of the total solar neutrino flux. A radium assay technique of the required sensitivity is described that uses hydrous titanium oxide adsorbent on a filtration membrane together with a β-α delayed coincidence counting system. For a 200 tonne assay the detection limit for 232Th is a concentration of ˜3×10 -16 g Th/g water and for 238U of ˜3×10 -16 g U/g water. Results of assays of both the heavy and light water carried out during the first 2 years of data collection of SNO are presented.

  3. Development of an MSFIA-MPFS pre-treatment method for radium determination in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Y; Gómez, E; Garcias, F; Cerdà, V; Casas, M

    2007-02-28

    A new automatic method for preconcentration and separation of radium in water samples has been developed. Such method combines both multisyringe (MSFIA) and multi-pumping (MPFS) flow analysis techniques allowing to analyze larger sample volumes with a higher throughput than other previous methodologies. Ra adsorbed on MnO(2), deposited on cotton fiber, is eluted with hydroxylamine and subsequently coprecipitated with BaSO(4). (226)Ra activity is determined off-line by using a low background proportional counter. The procedure yield is (90+/-3)% and its lower limit of detection 0.05BqL(-1). This method has been applied satisfactorily to different types of spiked water (tap, mineral and seawater).

  4. Late effects of radium-224 injected in children and adults survey and comment of a paediatrician

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiess, H. [Poliklinik Muenchen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Radium-224 (Ra-224) was already used as medicament before world war I; but because of serious side effects soon abandoned. It was revived as a remedy for tuberculosis and ankylosing spondylitis after world war II by a country doctor called Troch, supported by the Insurance Company ''Braunschweiger Landesversicherungsanstalt'' and over enthusiastic press reports. The 'new' medicine called 'Peteosthor' was a mixture of Ra-224 with traces of the red dye cosine and platinsol. The propaganda in favour of this therapy was so strong, that the government of Lower Saxony asked the University of Goettingen and others to examine this new 'wonderdrug'. Dr. Troch demanded that it should be used only under his personal supervision. As youngest assistent at the university childrens hospital of the University Goettingen I was sent in 1948 to this hospital in Hildesheim to examine 'Peteosthor'. (orig.)

  5. Sorption of cesium, radium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium and plutonium on rapakivi granite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huitti, T.; Hakanen, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Radiochemistry; Lindberg, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the sorption of cesium, radium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium and plutonium on rapakivi granite in the brackish groundwater of Haestholmen (site of the Loviisa-1, Loviisa-2 reactors). The studies were carried out under aerobic (Cs, Ra, Pa, U, Np, Pu) and anaerobic (Np, Pa, Pu, Tc) laboratory conditions. The cation exchange capasity was determined for the rock and the diffusion of tritiated water in the rocks of different degree of alteration. The sorption and diffusion properties of the rocks are briefly compared with those of host rocks at other sites under investigation by the Finnish company Posiva Oy for the final disposal of spent fuel. (29 refs.).

  6. A radium assay technique using hydrous titanium oxide adsorbent for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, T.C.; Black, R.A.; Blevis, I.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.; Chen, M.; Cleveland, B.T.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Doucas, G.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Fowler, M.M.; Hahn, R.L.; Hallman, E.D.; Hargrove, C.K.; Heron, H.; Hooper, E.; Howard, K.H.; Jagam, P.; Jelley, N.A. E-mail: n.jelley@physics.oxford.ac.uk; Knox, A.B.; Lee, H.W.; Levine, I.; Locke, W.; Majerus, S.; McFarlane, K.; McGregor, G.; Miller, G.G.; Moorhead, M.; Noble, A.J.; Omori, M.; Rowley, J.K.; Shatkay, M.; Shewchuk, C.; Simpson, J.J.; Sinclair, D.; Tanner, N.W.; Taplin, R.K.; Trent, P.T.; Wang, J.-X.; Wilhelmy, J.B.; Yeh, M

    2003-04-01

    As photodisintegration of deuterons mimics the disintegration of deuterons by neutrinos, the accurate measurement of the radioactivity from thorium and uranium decay chains in the heavy water in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is essential for the determination of the total solar neutrino flux. A radium assay technique of the required sensitivity is described that uses hydrous titanium oxide adsorbent on a filtration membrane together with a {beta}-{alpha} delayed coincidence counting system. For a 200 tonne assay the detection limit for {sup 232}Th is a concentration of {approx}3x10{sup -16} g Th/g water and for {sup 238}U of {approx}3x10{sup -16} g U/g water. Results of assays of both the heavy and light water carried out during the first 2 years of data collection of SNO are presented.

  7. Ecotoxicity evaluation of an amended soil contaminated with uranium and radium using sensitive plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, M. M.; Lopes, J.; Magalhães, M. C. F.; Santos, E.

    2012-04-01

    In the centre-north granitic regions of Portugal, during the twenty century radium and uranium were exploited from approximately 60 mines. The closure of all uranium mines, in 2001, raised concerns regarding the possible chemical and radiological effects on the inhabitants health around the mine areas. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of organic amendments and organic hydroxiapatite in the ecotoxicity reduction of agricultural soils contaminated with uranium and radium, by germination and growth tests of two sensitive plants (Lactuca sativa L. and Zea mays L.). Pot experiments, under controlled conditions, were undertaken during two months of incubation at 70% of the soil water-holding capacity. Fluvisol from Urgeiriça region containing large concentration of Utotal (635 mg/kg) and 226Ra (2310 Bq/kg) was used. The soil available fraction, extracted with ammonium acetate, corresponds to 90% and 25% of total concentration of Utotal and 226Ra, respectively. Fine ground bone (FB) and sheep manure (OM) single or mixtures were used as amendments. Four treatments, plus control were carried out in triplicate: (A) soil+40 Mg/ha of FB; (B) soil+70 Mg/ha of OM; (C) soil+70 Mg/ha of OM+40 Mg/ha of FB; (D) soil+70 Mg/ha of OM+20 Mg/ha of FB. After the incubation moist soils were kept at 4-5 °C and subsamples were used for leachates extraction following DIN 38414-S4 method. Maize and lettuce seeds were sown in filter paper moistened with the leachates aqueous solutions and in the moist soil for germination and growth tests. Seedlings after three days of germination were used for growth tests in hydroponic, during seven days, using the leachates. Five seeds per replicate were used. Soil presented: pH(H2O)=5.15, EC=7.3 µS/cm; and Corgnic=12.5 g/kg. After two months of incubation soil pH increased to a maximum of 6.53 in amended samples, and EC showed a dramatic increase when compared to the control (0.398 dS/m), from 1.5 dS/m (treatment-A) to 4.7 d

  8. Low Level Gamma Spectroscopy Measurements of Radium and Cesium in Lucerne (Medicago Sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokapić, S.; Bikit, I.; Mrđa, D.; Vesković, M.; Slivka, J.; Mihaljev, Ž.; Ćupić, Ž.

    2007-04-01

    Nineteen years after Chernobyl nuclear accident, activity concentration of 137Cs still could be detected in food and soil samples in Central and Eastern Europe. In this paper radiation levels of radium and cesium in Lucerne will be presented. It is a perennial plant with a deep root system and it is widely grown throughout the world as forage for cattle. The samples of Lucerne were taken from twelve different locations in Vojvodina in the summer period July-September 2004. The samples were specially dried on the air and after that ground, powdered and mineralized by method of dry burning on the temperature of 450°C. Gamma spectrometry measurements of the ash were performed by means of actively shielded germanium detector with maximal background reduction. For cesium 137Cs 10 mBq/kg order of magnitude detection limits were achieved.

  9. A radium assay technique using hydrous titanium oxide adsorbent for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, T C

    2003-01-01

    As photodisintegration of deuterons mimics the disintegration of deuterons by neutrinos, the accurate measurement of the radioactivity from thorium and uranium decay chains in the heavy water in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is essential for the determination of the total solar neutrino flux. A radium assay technique of the required sensitivity is described that uses hydrous titanium oxide adsorbent on a filtration membrane together with a beta-alpha delayed coincidence counting system. For a 200 tonne assay the detection limit for 232Th is a concentration of 3 x 10^(-16) g Th/g water and for 238U of 3 x 10^(-16) g U/g water. Results of assays of both the heavy and light water carried out during the first two years of data collection of SNO are presented.

  10. [Interests of applied anthropology to oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soum-Pouyalet, Fanny; Hubert, Annie; Dilhuydy, Jean-Marie

    2008-01-01

    From now on the introduction of social and human sciences studies in the field of oncology has not always been conclusive. This article aims to analyze the bounds that border the meeting and the understanding between physicians, patients and anthropologists. It also treats the problems due to the introduction of applied anthropology in the field of oncology and points up the interests and practical contributions that this disciplinary bring and could bring.

  11. Current development of radon and radium monitoring at the Federal University of Technology (UTFPR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Claro, Flavia Del; Perna, Allan F.N.; Reque, Marilson; Levchuk, Leonid, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: janine_nicolosi@hotmail.com, E-mail: flavia_delclaro@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal Tecnologica do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Denyak, Valeriy; Schelin, Hugo R. [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O., E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The present work describes the principal results concerning the radon and radium measurements at Curitiba (PR) urban area during the last decade. The monitoring was performed in cooperation with the Center of Nuclear Technology Development (CDTN/CNEN). For radon in air activity measurements, it was used polycarbonate etched track detectors such as LEXAN and CR-39, mounted in diffusion chambers. For soil gas measurements, the experimental setup was based on the Professional AlphaGUARD Radon Monitor connected to the Soil Gas Probe, filter vessels and air pump (AlphaPUMP), following the recommended protocols elaborated in the Soil-Gas Radon Intercomparison Measurements performed at different Countries of the world. In the case of radon tests in drinking water, the experimental setup was based on the AlphaGUARD Radon monitor and Electronic Radon Detector RAD7 connected to a special kit of glass vessels through the air pump. The obtained results permitted to identify few dwellings where radon concentration in air was found bigger than 600 Bq/m{sup 3}, that is considered as the action level by most of the European Community and the World Health Organization (WHO). In the case of well water, collected samples presented the average Rn-222 activity of about 60 Bq/L, that is 6 times bigger than the maximum level recommended by USEPA. Some artesian wells presented radon activity of almost 200 Bq/L. More over, almost all water samples presented the radioactivity of radium (Ra-226) salts bigger than the upper limit for global alpha radioactivity of potable water established by the Norms and Regulation of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. (author)

  12. Seasonal Short-Lived Radium Activity in the Venice Lagoon: The Role of Residence Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapaglia, J.; Ferrarin, C.; Zaggia, L.; Umgiesser, G.; Zuppi, G.; Manfe', G.

    2008-12-01

    Radium is considered to be an excellent tracer of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and, therefore, has been used in many studies of this process in the past decade. Comprehensive surveys of excess 223,224Ra activity were completed in the surface waters of the Venice Lagoon over 6 seasons in order to quantify seasonal variation of SGD into the lagoon. The mass balance of radium found that SGD was 5-26 times greater than total river discharge (35.5 m3 s-1), and that total SGD could differ by almost an order of magnitude pending season. Several possible parameters, which may cause the seasonal variation, were tested. These included precipitation events, average tidal elevation, average tidal excursion, wind speed and direction, yet none provided a satisfactory explanation for the difference. Residence time based on a hydrodynamic model, however, was very strongly correlated with the observed variation. When the average residence time in the lagoon was low (5 days) the SGD was calculated to be 930 m3 s-1 and when the average residence time was high (9 days) the SGD was quantified as 160 m3 s-1. Radioactive decay is already accounted for in the mass balance model and therefore this correlation must be explained by another process. The Venice Lagoon is characterized by low residence time during periods of spring tides and bora or northerly winds, both of which create exceptionally strong currents in the Venice Lagoon. The currents as well as the large tidal excursion which occurs at spring tides drive a recirculation of seawater through the surface sediments, which greatly increases short-lived Ra activity in the surface waters. This evidence suggests, therefore, that short-lived Ra mass balance studies, which are based on a single survey, may under or overestimate the mean annual SGD pending the hydrodynamics of the investigated location.

  13. Measuring low radium activity concentration in water with RAD7 by means of evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Marussig, Camila G.T.; Paschuk, Sergei; Zambianchi Junior, Pedro; Correa, Janine N.; Perna, Allan Felipe Nunes; Martin, Aline, E-mail: jaquelinekappke@gmail.com, E-mail: mila_garciatb@hotmail.com, E-mail: spaschuk@gmail.com, E-mail: zambianchi@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: janine_nicolosi@hotmail.com, E-mail: allan_perna@hotmail.com, E-mail: nocamartin@hotmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Preliminary activity measurements of low radium concentration in mineral water by using RAD7 equipment showed high values of statistical errors. Therefore, the need to develop a new protocol for measuring and proofing the evaporation test for radium measurements in water is in place. This study evaluates the possibility of using RAD7 equipment to measure Ra-226 activity in equilibrium with Rn-222 present in water samples. The technique involves evaporation process so as to increase the Ra-226 concentration in the sample in a controlled manner and thus reduce statistical errors. Two samples were compared, 10 L sample of distilled water and a 7.75 L sample of known concentration (0.1 Bq/L). The evaporation was carried out starting with different initial volumes for both samples: 500 mL, 1000 mL, 2000 mL, 4000 mL and a 250 mL sample not subject to evaporation. All samples reached a final volume of approximately 250 mL. After evaporation, the samples were stored for 30 days until secular equilibrium was achieved between Ra-226 and Rn-222. The values obtained, by using RAD7 detector, for distilled water, as expected, are near zero averaging 0.021 ± 0.016 Bq/L. The average value found in the water of known concentration was 0.099 ± 0.011 Bq/L, also close to the expected 0.1 Bq/L. The conclusion is that the application of an evaporation process is efficient and the proposed methodology is a proven alternative to decrease the statistical errors. (author)

  14. Exploring resilience in paediatric oncology nursing staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Melissa; Hutton, Alison; King, Lindy

    2013-01-01

    Resilience has been suggested as an important coping strategy for nurses working in demanding settings, such as paediatric oncology. This qualitative study explored paediatric oncology nurses' perceptions of their development of resilience and how this resilience underpinned their ability to deal with work-related stressors. Five paediatric oncology nurses were interviewed about their understanding of the concept of resilience, their preferred coping mechanisms, and their day-today work in paediatric oncology. Using thematic analysis, the interviews were subsequently grouped together into seventeen initial themes. These themes were then grouped into seven major aspects that described how the participants perceived resilience underpinned their work. These "seven aspects of forming resilience" contributed to an initial understanding of how paediatric oncology nurses develop resilience in the face of their personal and professional challenges. Several key strategies derived from the findings, such as improved rostering, support to a nurse's friend and family, and a clinical support nursing role, could be implemented at an organizational level to support resilience development within the paediatric oncology setting.

  15. A prospective study on the attitude of post graduates in general pediatrics toward pediatric oncology subspeciality as a career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirugnanasambandam, Ram Prakash; Latha, Magatha Sneha; Moorthy, Aravind; Kannan, Lakshminarayanan; Paramasivam, Venkataraman; Scott, Julius Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The health care scenario in India is experiencing an increase in the number of children affected with cancer and the number of pediatric oncologists available to treat these children are few and the awareness of childhood cancer is decimally low. Hence, the purpose of this study was to determine the attitude of post-graduate students of general pediatrics towards childhood cancer and to assess their interest in pursuing pediatric oncology as a specialty in their carrier. The study was conducted among 188 post-graduates hailing from various Medical colleges all over South India who were attending a 2 day workshop at Chennai. The survey was a 10 point questionnaire pertaining to their previous training, competence, interest toward the field of hematooncology. The data were analyzed by SPSS 18.V software. Among the post-graduates, 74.7% of them reported that they did not have a pediatric oncology unit in their institution. 63.3% reported that they never been posted in pediatric oncology clinical postings before. 62% were not interested in pursuing pediatric oncology as a sub-specialty at all. 45.3% felt that pediatric oncology was too depressing to take as a specialty. 46.7% felt that late diagnosis and referral was the main factor which contributed to the failure of effective treatment of childhood cancers. 52.7% had never attended a class on pediatric oncology. 61.3% felt that they did not have sufficient knowledge to suspect and refer a child with cancer. 92% felt that there was a need to improve pediatric oncology teaching in their curriculum. 56.7% felt that the best way to imprint awareness on childhood malignancies was to improve pediatric oncology teaching in their medical curriculum. The results show that majority of post-graduates in pediatrics were not interested in pursuing pediatric oncology as a sub-specialty. The main reasons may be lack of specialized Pediatric oncology units in the majority of the medical institutions, lack of opportunity of these

  16. Interventional radiology in pediatric oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffer, Fredric A. [Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, 332 N. Lauderdale St., Memphis, TN 38105 (United States)]. E-mail: fred.hoffer@stjude.org

    2005-01-01

    There are many radiological interventions necessary for pediatric oncology patients, some of which may be covered in other articles in this publication. I will discuss a number of interventions including percutaneous biopsy for solid tumor and hematological malignancy diagnosis or recurrence, for the diagnosis of graft versus host disease after stem cell or bone marrow transplantation, and for the diagnosis of complications of immunosuppression such as invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. In the past, tumor localization techniques have been necessary to biopsy or resect small lesions. However improved guidance techniques have allowed for more precise biopsy and the use of thermal ablation instead of excision for local tumor control. A percutaneously placed radio frequency, microwave, laser or cryogen probe can ablate the primary and metastatic tumors of the liver, lung, bone, kidney and other structures in children. This is an alternative treatment for the local control of tumors that may not be amenable to surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy. I will also describe how chemoembolization can be used to treat primary or metastatic tumors of the liver that have failed other therapies. This treatment delivers chemotherapy in the hepatic artery infused with emboli to increase the dwell time and concentration of the agents.

  17. Future supply and demand for oncologists : challenges to assuring access to oncology services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Clese; Salsberg, Edward; Forte, Gaetano; Bruinooge, Suanna; Goldstein, Michael

    2007-03-01

    To conduct a comprehensive analysis of supply of and demand for oncology services through 2020. This study was commissioned by the Board of Directors of ASCO. New data on physician supply gathered from surveys of practicing oncologists, oncology fellows, and fellowship program directors were analyzed, along with 2005 American Medical Association Masterfile data on practicing medical oncologists, hematologists/oncologists, and gynecologic oncologists, to determine the baseline capacity and to forecast visit capacity through 2020. Demand for visits was calculated by applying age-, sex-, and time-from-diagnosis-visit rate data from the National Cancer Institute's analysis of the 1998 to 2002 Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database to the National Cancer Institute's cancer incidence and prevalence projections. The cancer incidence and prevalence projections were calculated by applying a 3-year average (2000-2002) of age- and sex-specific cancer rates from SEER to the US Census Bureau population projections released on March 2004. The baseline supply and demand forecasts assume no change in cancer care delivery and physician practice patterns. Alternate scenarios were constructed by changing assumptions in the baseline models. Demand for oncology services is expected to rise rapidly, driven by the aging and growth of the population and improvements in cancer survival rates, at the same time the oncology workforce is aging and retiring in increasing numbers. Demand is expected to rise 48% between 2005 and 2020. The supply of services provided by oncologists during this time is expected to grow more slowly, approximately 14%, based on the current age distribution and practice patterns of oncologists and the number of oncology fellowship positions. This translates into a shortage of 9.4 to 15.0 million visits, or 2,550 to 4,080 oncologists-roughly one-quarter to one-third of the 2005 supply. The baseline projections do not include any alterations based

  18. Applications of radon and radium isotopes to determine submarine groundwater discharge and flushing times in Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatje, Vanessa; Attisano, Karina Kammer; de Souza, Marcelo Friederichs Landim; Mazzilli, Barbara; de Oliveira, Joselene; de Araújo Mora, Tamires; Burnett, William C

    2017-08-16

    Todos os Santos Bay (BTS) is the 2nd largest bay in Brazil and an important resource for the people of the State of Bahia. We made measurements of radon and radium in selected areas of the bay to evaluate if these tracers could provide estimates of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and flushing times of the Paraguaçu Estuary and BTS. We found that there were a few areas along the eastern and northeastern shorelines that displayed relatively high radon and low salinities, indicating possible sites of enhanced SGD. A time-series mooring over a tidal cycle at Marina do Bonfim showed a systematic enrichment of the short-lived radium isotopes (223)Ra and (224)Ra during the falling tide. Assuming that the elevated radium isotopes were related to SGD and using measured radium activities from a shallow well at the site, we estimated groundwater seepage at about 70 m(3)/day per unit width of shoreline. Extrapolating to an estimated total shoreline length provided a first approximation of total (fresh + saline) SGD into BTS of 300 m(3)/s, about 3 times the average river discharge into the bay. Just applying the shoreline lengths from areas identified with high radon and reduced salinity results in a lower SGD estimate of 20 m(3)/s. Flushing times of the Paraguaçu Estuary were estimated at about 3-4 days based on changing radium isotope ratios from low to high salinities. The flushing time for the entire BTS was also attempted using the same approach and resulted in a surprisingly low value of only 6-8 days. Although physical oceanographic models have proposed flushing times on the order of months, a simple tidal prism calculation provided results in the range of 4-7 days, consistent with the radium approach. Based on these initial results, we recommend a strategy for refining both SGD and flushing time estimates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A study on heavy radioactive pollution: Radon and Radium in streams and drinking water of Ramsar region by measured Prassi system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mohammadi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  Inhalation of radon gas 222Rn, which is a decay product of 226Ra, and its decay products accounts for typically about half of the effective doses received by public from all natural sources of ionizing radiation. Radon alpha particles can initiate a series of molecular and cellular events that culminates in the development of lung and other cancers. Also, 226Ra in the environment is widely distributed, being present in various concentrations in waters, soils and rocks. When radium is ingested, the majority of material is rapidly excreted. However, since radium is chemically similar to calcium, a significant fraction is absorbed into the bloodstream and deposited mainly in the skeleton. So, presence of these radioactive contaminants in water is dangerous and many studies especially about radon have been done in this area. For these reasons and becauses some areas of Ramsar, a city in northern Iran in mazandaran province, have been among the highest known background radiation levels in the world we measured radon and radium concentrations in water sources of Ramsar region. In this study, Radon and radium concentrations of the 22 streams and 20 drinking water samples were measured by PRASSI system. According to the data, the arithmetic mean of radon concentration for all samples was 3.030 ± 1.122 Bq/l. Similarly, arithmetic mean of radium for all samples was 0.185 ± 0.055 Bq/l. Also 1 sample of streams and 1 sample of drinking water showed radon concentration higher than 10Bq/l as normal level. Radium-226 alone, in 11 samples of streams and 8 samples of drinking water had concentrations higher than 0.185Bq/l as normal level for the combined Radium-226 and Radium-228.

  20. Radium content of oil- and gas-field produced waters in the northern Appalachian Basin (USA)—Summary and discussion of data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, E.L.; Engle, M.A.; Kirby, C.S.; Kraemer, T.F.

    2011-01-01

    Radium activity data for waters co-produced with oil and gas in New York and Pennsylvania have been compiled from publicly available sources and are presented together with new data for six wells, including one time series. When available, total dissolved solids (TDS), and gross alpha and gross beta particle activities also were compiled. Data from the 1990s and earlier are from sandstone and limestone oil/gas reservoirs of Cambrian-Mississippian age; however, the recent data are almost exclusively from the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale. The Marcellus Shale represents a vast resource of natural gas the size and significance of which have only recently been recognized. Exploitation of the Marcellus involves hydraulic fracturing of the shale to release tightly held gas. Analyses of the water produced with the gas commonly show elevated levels of salinity and radium. Similarities and differences in radium data from reservoirs of different ages and lithologies are discussed. The range of radium activities for samples from the Marcellus Shale (less than detection to 18,000 picocuries per liter (pCi/L)) overlaps the range for non-Marcellus reservoirs (less than detection to 6,700 pCi/L), and the median values are 2,460 pCi/L and 734 pCi/L, respectively. A positive correlation between the logs of TDS and radium activity can be demonstrated for the entire dataset, and controlling for this TDS dependence, Marcellus shale produced water samples contain statistically more radium than non-Marcellus samples. The radium isotopic ratio, Ra-228/Ra-226, in samples from the Marcellus Shale is generally less than 0.3, distinctly lower than the median values from other reservoirs. This ratio may serve as an indicator of the provenance or reservoir source of radium in samples of uncertain origin.

  1. The American Society for Radiation Oncology's 2010 Core Physics Curriculum for Radiation Oncology Residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Ying, E-mail: ying.xiao@jefferson.edu [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); De Amorim Bernstein, Karen [Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Chetty, Indrin J. [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Eifel, Patricia [M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Hughes, Lesley [Cooper University Hospital, Camden, NJ (United States); Klein, Eric E. [Washington University, Saint Louis, MO (United States); McDermott, Patrick [William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Prisciandaro, Joann [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Paliwal, Bhudatt [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Price, Robert A. [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Werner-Wasik, Maria [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Palta, Jatinder R. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: In 2004, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) published its first physics education curriculum for residents, which was updated in 2007. A committee composed of physicists and physicians from various residency program teaching institutions was reconvened again to update the curriculum in 2009. Methods and Materials: Members of this committee have associations with ASTRO, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology, the American Board of Radiology (ABR), and the American College of Radiology. Members reviewed and updated assigned subjects from the last curriculum. The updated curriculum was carefully reviewed by a representative from the ABR and other physics and clinical experts. Results: The new curriculum resulted in a recommended 56-h course, excluding initial orientation. Learning objectives are provided for each subject area, and a detailed outline of material to be covered is given for each lecture hour. Some recent changes in the curriculum include the addition of Radiation Incidents and Bioterrorism Response Training as a subject and updates that reflect new treatment techniques and modalities in a number of core subjects. The new curriculum was approved by the ASTRO board in April 2010. We anticipate that physicists will use this curriculum for structuring their teaching programs, and subsequently the ABR will adopt this educational program for its written examination. Currently, the American College of Radiology uses the ASTRO curriculum for their training examination topics. In addition to the curriculum, the committee updated suggested references and the glossary. Conclusions: The ASTRO physics education curriculum for radiation oncology residents has been updated. To ensure continued commitment to a current and relevant curriculum, the subject matter will be updated again in 2 years.

  2. American Society of Clinical Oncology Policy Statement on Clinical Pathways in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zon, Robin T; Frame, James N; Neuss, Michael N; Page, Ray D; Wollins, Dana S; Stranne, Steven; Bosserman, Linda D

    2016-03-01

    The use of clinical pathways in oncology care is increasingly important to patients and oncology providers as a tool for enhancing both quality and value. However, with increasing adoption of pathways into oncology practice, concerns have been raised by ASCO members and other stakeholders. These include the process being used for pathway development, the administrative burdens on oncology practices of reporting on pathway adherence, and understanding the true impact of pathway use on patient health outcomes. To address these concerns, ASCO's Board of Directors established a Task Force on Clinical Pathways, charged with articulating a set of recommendations to improve the development of oncology pathways and processes, allowing the demonstration of pathway concordance in a manner that promotes evidence-based, high-value care respecting input from patients, payers, and providers. These recommendations have been approved and adopted by ASCO's Board of Directors on August 12, 2015, and are presented herein.

  3. Purification of radium-226 for the manufacturing of actinium-225 in a cyclotron for alpha-immunotherapy; Radium-Aufreinigung zur Herstellung von Actinium-225 am Zyklotron fuer die Alpha-Immuntherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, Sebastian Markus

    2014-09-23

    The thesis describes the development of methods for the purification of Ra-226. The objective was to obtain the radionuclide in the quality that is needed to be used as starting material in the manufacturing process for Ac-225 via proton-irradiated Ra-226. The radionuclide has been gained efficiently out of huge excesses of impurities. The high purity of the obtained radium affords its use as staring material in a pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

  4. DIGITAL ONCOLOGY PATIENT RECORD - HETEROGENEOUS FILE BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Sapundzhiev

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oncology patients need extensive follow-up and meticulous documentation. The aim of this study was to introduce a simple, platform independent file based system for documentation of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in oncology patients and test its function.Material and methods: A file-name based system of the type M1M2M3.F2 was introduced, where M1 is a unique identifier for the patient, M2 is the date of the clinical intervention/event, M3 is an identifier for the author of the medical record and F2 is the specific software generated file-name extension.Results: This system is in use at 5 institutions, where a total of 11 persons on 14 different workstations inputted 16591 entries (files for 2370. The merge process was tested on 2 operating systems - when copied together all files sort up as expected by patient, and for each patient in a chronological order, providing a digital cumulative patient record, which contains heterogeneous file formats.Conclusion: The file based approach for storing heterogeneous digital patient related information is an reliable system, which can handle open-source, proprietary, general and custom file formats and seems to be easily scalable. Further development of software for automatic checks of the integrity and searching and indexing of the files is expected to produce a more user-friendly environment

  5. Future vision for the quality assurance of oncology clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eFitzGerald, MD

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The National Cancer Institute clinical cooperative groups have been instrumental over the past 50 years in developing clinical trials and evidence based process improvements for clinical oncology patient care. The cooperative groups are undergoing a transformation process as we further integrate molecular biology into personalized patient care and move to incorporate international partners in clinical trials. To support this vision, data acquisition and data management informatics tools must become both nimble and robust to support transformational research at an enterprise level. Information, including imaging, pathology, molecular biology, radiation oncology, surgery, systemic therapy and patient outcome data needs to be integrated into the clinical trial charter using adaptive clinical trial mechanisms for design of the trial. This information needs to be made available to investigators using digital processes for real time data analysis. Future clinical trials will need to be designed and completed in a timely manner facilitated by nimble informatics processes for data management. This paper discusses both past experience and future vision for clinical trials as we move to develop data management and quality assurance processes to meet the needs of the modern trial.

  6. The road not taken and choices in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, C Norman; Glatstein, Eli

    2010-01-01

    Accomplishments and contributions in a career in radiation oncology, and in medicine in general, involve individual choices that impact the direction of a specialty, decisions in patient care, consequences of treatment outcome, and personal satisfaction. Issues in radiation oncology include: the development and implementation of new radiation treatment technology; the use of multimodality and biologically based therapies; the role of nonradiation "energy" technologies, often by other medical specialties, including the need for quality assurance in treatment and data reporting; and the type of evidence, including appropriate study design, analysis, and rigorous long-term follow-up, that is sought before widespread implementation of a new treatment. Personal choices must weigh: the pressure from institutions-practices, departments, universities, and hospitals; the need to serve society and the underserved; the balance between individual reward and a greater mission; and the critical role of personal values and integrity, often requiring difficult and "life-defining" decisions. The impact that each of us makes in a career is perhaps more a result of character than of the specific details enumerated on one's curriculum vitae. The individual tapestry weaved by choosing the more or less traveled paths during a career results in many pathways that would be called success; however, the one path for which there is no good alternative is that of living and acting with integrity.

  7. The Characteristics of a Research Network for Radiation Oncology in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Hyun; Park, Seo Hyun; Kang, Jin Oh [Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    To evaluate the structural characteristics of a scientific network of radiation oncology society A total of 1,512 articles published from 1986 to April 2010 with the terms 'radiation oncology' or 'therapeutic radiology' were obtained in the Korea Med database. The co-authors were analyzed according to their affiliation, and their relationship was used to build a matrix. With the matrix, centralization indices and the Key Player index were analyzed. We used UCINET 6.0 for the network analysis, Netdraw for determining a sociogram and Key Player 1.44 for the key player analysis. The centralization of the radiation oncology field decreased from 8.29% for the period from 1986-1990 to 1.84% from 2006-2010. However, when the Korean Journal of Medical Physics was excluded, centralization increased from 2.32% for the period from 2001-2005 to 3.80% from 2006-2010. This suggested that the communication in the clinical research field of radiation oncology is decreasing. In a node centralization analysis, Seoul National University was found to be the highest at 7.9%. Seoul National University showed the highest indices in the Outdegree (6.50%) and Indegree (8.54%), in addition to Betweenness (14.94%) and Eigenvector (135.234%). The Key Player analysis indicated that Inha University had the highest index at 0.491, but when the Korean Journal of Medical Physics was excluded, Yonsei University had the highest Key Player index at 0.584. The degree centrality in the network of radiation oncology decreased in the most recent period as more institutions are participating in network. However, the Betweenness centrality is still increasing, suggesting that the communications among research groups (clique) in radiation oncology is warranted.

  8. Uptake of uranium, thorium and radium isotopes by plants growing in dam impoundment Tasotkel and the Lower Shu region (Kazakhstan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveyeva, Ilona; Burkitbayev, Mukhambetkali [al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan). Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology; Jacimovic, Radojko [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Planinsek, Petra; Smodis, Borut [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Jozef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2016-04-01

    The activity concentrations of isotopes of uranium, thorium and radium-226 in dominant species of plants (Xantium strumarium, Phragmites communis, Artemisia nitrosa and Artemisia serotina) growing on the territories contaminated by uranium industry of Kazakhstan (close to dam impoundment Tasotkel and the Lower Shu region) are presented. The obtained data showed the significant variations of activity concentrations of isotopes of uranium, thorium and radium-226 in above ground parts. The concentrations of most of the investigated radionuclides in the root system are higher than in the aboveground parts; it can be explained by root barrier. It was found that the highest root barrier has Xantium strumarium, especially for uranium isotopes. The concentration ratios of radionuclides were calculated, and as the result it was found that the highest accumulation ability in the investigated region has Artemisia serotina.

  9. Response of chronic myelogenous leukemia patients to COAP-splenectomy. A Southwest Oncology Group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, J P; Waddell, C C; Coltman, C A; Morrison, F S; Stephens, R L; Balcerzak, S P; Baker, L H; Chen, T T

    1984-11-01

    Eighty-seven patients from 18 institutions with a confirmed diagnosis of chronic myelogenous leukemia were registered on a Southwest Oncology Group protocol for multiagent induction and single-agent maintenance chemotherapy, with randomization to an immunotherapy arm. Elective surgical splenectomy was performed for 42 patients at the completion of 3 months of induction therapy. Final analysis of the study revealed statistically significant survival advantages were correlated with age, splenectomy, the absence of hepatic leukemic infiltrate at the time of splenectomy, and race.

  10. Oncological outcome of unresectable lung metastases without extrapulmonary metastases in colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To explore the oncological outcomes of unresectable lung metastases without extrapulmonary metastases in colorectal cancer. METHODS: Patients with unresectable isolated lung metastases from colorectal cancer were prospectively collected in a single institution during a 5-year period. All patients received either the fluorouracil/leucovorin plus oxaliplatin, fluorouracil/leucovorin plus irinotecan or capecitabine plus oxaliplatin regimen as first-line treatment. The resectability after preoperative chem...

  11. Precision oncology: origins, optimism, and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vinay; Fojo, Tito; Brada, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Imatinib, the first and arguably the best targeted therapy, became the springboard for developing drugs aimed at molecular targets deemed crucial to tumours. As this development unfolded, a revolution in the speed and cost of genetic sequencing occurred. The result--an armamentarium of drugs and an array of molecular targets--set the stage for precision oncology, a hypothesis that cancer treatment could be markedly improved if therapies were guided by a tumour's genomic alterations. Drawing lessons from the biological basis of cancer and recent empirical investigations, we take a more measured view of precision oncology's promise. Ultimately, the promise is not our concern, but the threshold at which we declare success. We review reports of precision oncology alongside those of precision diagnostics and novel radiotherapy approaches. Although confirmatory evidence is scarce, these interventions have been widely endorsed. We conclude that the current path will probably not be successful or, at a minimum, will have to undergo substantive adjustments before it can be successful. For the sake of patients with cancer, we hope one form of precision oncology will deliver on its promise. However, until confirmatory studies are completed, precision oncology remains unproven, and as such, a hypothesis in need of rigorous testing.

  12. Psycho-oncology: Searching for practical wisdom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butlin, Helen

    2015-10-01

    The debate is vigorous in psycho-oncology about whether spiritual, existential, and psychosocial are the most comprehensive terms for academic research discourses investigating meaning and purpose. A call-to-action email from the International Society of Psycho-Oncology included the term soul. The current essay highlights the historical and contemporary uses of "soul" to suggest that the re-emergent soul signifies a tacit quest for an "intangible" that seems missing in current constructs of clinical domains reflected in the vigor of the debates. It is suggested that the re-emergence of the pre-Medieval meaning(s) of the notion of soul affirms a growing need for integrative paradigms on "being human" to guide psycho-oncology practitioners and their research. As a paradigmatic example, a clinical support group entitled Soul Medicine is described as employing the term soul to open up the more marginal discourses about experiences of illness arising from philosophical reflection, arts, humanities, and spirituality within a clinical oncology context. A link between soul and wisdom is suggested for further exploration with the view that phronesis ("the virtue of practical wisdom"), an emerging concept in health professional education research, is of ultimate value to the people psycho-oncology seeks to serve. This group holds that garnering wisdom from the expertise of those living with cancer should be a central aim of our field.

  13. Long term changes in the concentration of radium in discharge waters of coal mines and Upper Silesian rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chałupnik, Stanisław; Wysocka, Małgorzata; Janson, Ewa; Chmielewska, Izabela; Wiesner, Marta

    2017-05-01

    According to the latest guidelines of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, 2016), coal mining is one of the most important contributors to occupational exposure. Coal mining contributes about 45% of the total annual collective dose obtained by workers due to the exposure at places of working. One of the sources of exposure in mining are formation brines with elevated concentrations of natural radionuclides, the most common are radium (226)Ra and (228)Ra. Radium isotopes often occur in formation waters in underground collieries in the Upper Silesian region (USCB) in Poland. Significant amounts of radium remain underground in the form of radioactive deposits created as a result of spontaneous deposition or water treatment. This phenomenon leads to the increase of radiation hazard for miners. The remaining activities of (226)Ra and (228)Ra are released into the rivers with mine effluents, causing the contamination of bottom sediments and river banks. The results of radioactivity monitoring of effluents and river waters are presented here to illustrate a trend of long-term changes in environmental contamination, caused by mining industry in the Upper Silesian Region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Uranium and radium-226 in the environment of the post-uranium mining areas in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kardas, M.; Suplinska, M.; Ciupek, K. [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection (Poland)

    2014-07-01

    The work carried out under the project NCBiR - 'Technologies Supporting Development of Safe Nuclear Power Engineering'; Task 3: Meeting the Polish nuclear power engineering's demand for fuel - fundamental aspects. Depending on location, environmental components may have different concentration levels of radionuclides. Main source of uranium and radium in the natural environment is atmospheric precipitation of the material resulting weathering and erosion of older rocks, enhanced due to human activity by fertilizers used in agriculture and fossil fuel combustion. The waste heaps and dumps, especially derived from post-uranium mining and phosphate fertilizer industry are the another source of uranium and radium in the environment. Our studies include post-uranium mining areas (inactive mines and waste dumps) and those adjacent meadows and grassland at the area of the Giant Mountains (Karkonosze Mountains) in the south-west Poland. Samples of soil and mineral material from mine shafts, water samples from ponds, streams and small rivers and vegetation samples (grass, alfalfa, birch leaves) were analyzed. Also, similar samples from agricultural regions of Poland were examined as a reference level. Uranium isotopes were determined by radiochemical method (ion exchange and extraction) and activity measurement using alpha spectrometry. Concentration of {sup 226}Ra was determined radiochemically using emanation method. For the validation of the method, determinations of uranium isotopes and radium-226 in reference samples were performed. Depending on location, the different levels of activity concentration of analyzed radionuclides were detected. Samples from the mine shafts and dumps, both water and soil, were characterized by the activity concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra even by several orders higher than outside of those areas. The concentrations of the radionuclides in the areas located in further distances from mine and dumps are similar to

  15. [Economic and logistical problems of radiation oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodkiĭ, V A; Pan'shin, G A; Sotnikov, V M; Ivashin, A V

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of economic and logistical problems of radiation oncology is presented based on domestic and foreign literature. Despite the high efficacy of radiotherapy this branch of oncology is not financed enough in most countries. As a consequence, it is ubiquitously marked radiotherapy capacity deficit that does not allow to fully realize its therapeutic potential. Medical electron accelerators and related equipment have become increasingly complex and expensive and radiotherapy techniques more consuming. Even in developed countries growing waiting times for radiotherapy, not using the most modern and efficient radiotherapy technologies (image guiding, etc.) has become a daily reality. Based on these data, we assessed the prospects and possibilities of upgrading the technical base of radiation oncology in Russia including the development of hadron therapy.

  16. Robot-assisted surgery in gynecological oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Steffen E; Mosgaard, Berit J; Rosendahl, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Robot-assisted surgery has become more widespread in gynecological oncology. The purpose of this systematic review is to present current knowledge on robot-assisted surgery, and to clarify and discuss controversies that have arisen alongside the development and deployment. MATERIAL...... AND METHODS: A database search in PubMed and EMBASE was performed up until 4 March 2016. The search strategy was developed in collaboration with an information specialist, and by application of the PRISMA guidelines. Human participants and English language were the only restrictive filters applied. Selection...... was performed by screening of titles and abstracts, and by full text scrutiny. From 2001 to 2016, a total of 76 references were included. RESULTS: Robot-assisted surgery in gynecological oncology has increased, and current knowledge supports that the oncological safety is similar, compared with previous...

  17. The Servier oncology pipeline in 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therasse, Patrick; Perron, Beatrice; Novack, Sarah A; Abastado, Jean-Pierre

    2017-07-01

    Cancer is a complex, multifactorial disease that for years has been the focus of intensive research efforts to explore both the molecular and biological mechanisms involved and the development of novel agents to target these pathways. Servier is an independent French pharmaceutical company with a focus on oncology. Currently, Servier's commercial portfolio includes agents used to treat non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and metastatic colorectal cancer; Servier's oncology pipeline involves agents for the treatment of both solid and hematological tumors. The main areas of future research focus on the development of therapeutics targeting apoptosis or the active immune components involved in tumour development/maintenance. Servier intends to continue its focus on cutting-edge oncology innovation by collaborating with both industry and academia, and maintaining its strong patient-centered approach.

  18. Radium-derived porewater exchange and dissolved N and P fluxes in mangroves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, D. R.; Maher, D. T.; Sanders, C. J.; Santos, I. R.

    2017-03-01

    Mangroves are increasingly being recognized as a major player in coastal hydrological and biogeochemical cycles with their complex belowground structure (i.e., crab burrows) facilitating porewater exchange and submarine groundwater discharge. Here, we quantify porewater exchange rates and associated fluxes of nutrients at six mangrove dominated sites covering a broad latitudinal gradient (∼12.4°S to ∼38.3°S) in Australia. Porewater exchange rates were calculated using the natural tracer radium (223Ra and 224Ra) and ranged from 1.5 cm day-1 in the temperate region to 30.9 cm day-1 in the tropics. When porewater exchange rates were multiplied by the global weighted area of mangroves in each of their respective climate zones, this would equate to global porewater exchange rates of 6.4 × 1012 m3 yr-1 (223Ra) and 7.2 × 1012 m3 yr-1 (224Ra) which is equivalent to 17-19% of global riverine freshwater flows. This porewater exchange rate could recirculate a volume of water equal to continental shelf waters adjacent to mangroves every 12.4 (223Ra) and 10.1 (224Ra) years. The radium-derived estimates are within 40% of previous values based on 222Rn (1.3 × 1013 m3 yr-1). The mangrove sites studied were seen to be both nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) limited which was driven by a combination of porewater exchange, low incoming surface water nutrient fluxes, and the high contribution of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP). The average porewater total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and total dissolved phosphorous (TDP) concentrations were ∼3.4 and 2.7 times greater respectively than in surface waters. The average surface water export of TDN was 2.39 ± 1.30 mmol N m-2 day-1. If upscaled to the global mangrove area, these TDN exports (1.69 Tg N yr-1) would be equal to 6 ± 3% of global river exports. In contrast, there was an overall import of total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) from coastal waters (0.95 ± 0.40 mmol P m-2 day-1) into the

  19. Using the radium quartet to quantify submarine groundwater discharge and porewater exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodellas, Valentí; Garcia-Orellana, Jordi; Trezzi, Giada; Masqué, Pere; Stieglitz, Thomas C.; Bokuniewicz, Henry; Cochran, J. Kirk; Berdalet, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    The specific ingrowth rates of different radium isotopes make them valuable tracers to distinguish processes occurring at different temporal scales. Here we demonstrate the use of the radium quartet (223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra and 228Ra) to differentiate flows of submarine groundwater discharge and porewater exchange to a coastal embayment (Alfacs Bay, NW Mediterranean Sea), based on the assumption that these processes occur on different time scales. In order to evaluate the seasonal dynamics of groundwater and porewater inputs to the bay, we conducted three seasonal samplings at Alfacs Bay, during which samples for Ra isotopes were collected from bay waters, groundwater springs, porewaters and irrigation channels. Activities of short-lived Ra isotopes in the bay showed a strong seasonality, (e.g. average 224Ra activities in summer (∼32 dpm 100 L-1) up to 4 times higher than in winter (∼8 dpm 100 L-1)). In contrast, the activities of the long-lived Ra isotopes were fairly constant throughout the year (e.g. activities of 226Ra were ∼16 and ∼14 dpm 100 L-1 in summer and winter, respectively). The relatively short exposure to sediments of recirculation fluxes resulted in porewaters significantly enriched in short-lived Ra isotopes relative to the long-lived ones (e.g. 224Ra = 1100-1300 dpm 100 L-1; 226Ra = 17-99 dpm 100 L-1), whereas coastal groundwaters were enriched in all the Ra isotopes (e.g. 224Ra = 120-150 dpm 100 L-1; 226Ra = 200-400 dpm 100 L-1). The distinct signatures of different sources allowed us to construct seasonal Ra mass balances to estimate both groundwater discharge, which ranges from (40 ± 60)·103 m3·d-1 in summer to (310 ± 200)·103 m3·d-1 in winter, and porewater exchange fluxes, ranging from (1200 ± 120)·103 m3·d-1 in summer to (270 ± 40)·103 m3·d-1 in winter. Whereas the seasonal variability of groundwater inputs is likely governed by the terrestrial hydraulic gradient, a qualitative evaluation of the drivers of porewater exchange

  20. Radium isotopes in groundwater around Fuji Volcano, Japan -application for groundwater dating on volcanic area-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, T.; Mahara, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Young groundwater dating less than 100 years is possible to be obtained from environmental radioactivity with short half life, 3H+3He, 85Kr, or chemical material, CFC-12. The 3H+3He dating method is excellent method to estimate the residence time of shallow groundwater. The one of advantage of the method is small sample volume. The 3He in groundwater is originated by 3 sources, tritiogenic He, mantle He, radiogenic He produced in rock. Especially, as the contribution of the mantle He is greater than the radiogenic and triogenic, when 3H+3He dating apply for groundwater dating on volcanic area, we have to determine ratio of 3 sources. On the other hand, as 85Kr is only originated from atmosphere, it is excellent groundwater dating tracer on volcanic area. However, as 85Kr is ultra low concentration in groundwater, 85Kr is needed to separate from large amount of ground water about 10^5 L. Young groundwater dating by these methods has both advantages and disadvantages, but the disadvantages of the individual methods can be offset by using multiple tracers. Development of a lot of groundwater dating techniques is desired. Therefore, an application of radium isotopes which is simple origin to groundwater dating on volcanic area was tried. Ra-228 and Ra-226 are progenies of Th and U, respectively. The 228Ra/226Ra in ground waters depends on the Th/U in the relevant rocks. As the 228Ra and 226Ra in shallow groundwater on volcanic area are originated from only rock, and the collection of radium isotopes from groundwater is easier than that of 85Kr, implying that it is possible to be good tracer for volcanic area. We aim that groundwater age obtain from 228Ra/226Ra in groundwater and relevant rock on volcanic area. We determined that 228Ra/226Ra observed with river waters and the relevant rocks. The method applied for Kakitagawa around Fuji Volcano, Japan. The relevant rock of Kakitagawa is Mishima lava flow. Our method compared with 3H+3He dating. The residence time of

  1. Contemporary Trends in Radiation Oncology Resident Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vivek; Burt, Lindsay; Gimotty, Phyllis A; Ojerholm, Eric

    2016-11-15

    To test the hypothesis that recent resident research productivity might be different than a decade ago, and to provide contemporary information about resident scholarly activity. We compiled a list of radiation oncology residents from the 2 most recent graduating classes (June 2014 and 2015) using the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology annual directories. We queried the PubMed database for each resident's first-authored publications from postgraduate years (PGY) 2 through 5, plus a 3-month period after residency completion. We abstracted corresponding historical data for 2002 to 2007 from the benchmark publication by Morgan and colleagues (Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009;74:1567-1572). We tested the null hypothesis that these 2 samples had the same distribution for number of publications using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. We explored the association of demographic factors and publication number using multivariable zero-inflated Poisson regression. There were 334 residents publishing 659 eligible first-author publications during residency (range 0-17; interquartile range 0-3; mean 2.0; median 1). The contemporary and historical distributions were significantly different (Presearch (75%). In the historical cohort, half of all articles were published in 3 journals; in contrast, the top half of contemporary publications were spread over 10 journals-most commonly International Journal of Radiation Oncology • Biology • Physics (17%), Practical Radiation Oncology (7%), and Radiation Oncology (4%). Male gender, non-PhD status, and larger residency size were associated with higher number of publications in the multivariable analysis. We observed an increase in first-author publications during training compared with historical data from the mid-2000s. These contemporary figures may be useful to medical students considering radiation oncology, current residents, training programs, and prospective employers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetics in neuro-oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martuza, R L

    1983-01-01

    could be identified and studied in the meningioma, the findings could be important not only in the treatment of patients with this tumor but also in the treatment of tumors of other hormonally modulated tissues such as breast and uterus. Finally, neurofibromatosis was chosen as the most common of the phakomatoses and as one which can offer significant insights into many areas of neuro-oncology. The NF gene occurs in at least two forms (VRNF, BANF), and it can be associated with virtually all of the tumors known to neurosurgeons--gliomas, neurofibromas, schwannomas, and meningiomas.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  3. Integrated biophotonics in endoscopic oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muguruma, Naoki; DaCosta, Ralph S.; Wilson, Brian C.; Marcon, Norman E.

    2009-02-01

    endoscopic diagnosis is likely to be impacted by a combination of biomarkers and technology, and 'endoscopic molecular imaging' should be defined as "visualization of molecular characteristics with endoscopy". These innovations will allow us not only to locate a tumor or dysplastic lesion but also to visualize its molecular characteristics (e.g., DNA mutations and polymorphisms, gene and/or protein expression), and the activity of specific molecules and biological processes that affect tumor behavior and/or its response to therapy. In the near future, these methods should be promising technologies that will play a central role in gastrointestinal oncology.

  4. Oncology of Reptiles: Diseases, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Jane; Devau, Michael; Wilson-Robles, Heather; Hoppes, Sharman; Rech, Raquel; Russell, Karen E; Heatley, J Jill

    2017-01-01

    Based on necropsy review, neoplasia in reptiles has a comparable frequency to that of mammals and birds. Reptile neoplasia is now more frequently diagnosed in clinical practice based on increased use of advanced diagnostic techniques and improvements in reptilian husbandry allowing greater longevity of these species. This article reviews the current literature on neoplasia in reptiles, and focuses on advanced diagnostics and therapeutic options for reptilian patientssuffering neoplastic disease. Although most applied clinical reptile oncology is translated from dog and cat oncology, considerations specific to reptilian patients commonly encountered in clinical practice (turtles, tortoises, snakes, and lizards) are presented.

  5. Lessons Learned from Radiation Oncology Clinical Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Fei-Fei; Okunieff, Paul; Bernhard, Eric J.; Stone, Helen B.; Yoo, Stephen; Coleman, C. Norman; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Brown, Martin; Buatti, John; Guha, Chandan

    2013-01-01

    A Workshop entitled “Lessons Learned from Radiation Oncology Trials” was held on December 7–8th, 2011 in Bethesda, MD, to present and discuss some of the recently conducted Radiation Oncology clinical trials with a focus on those that failed to refute the null hypothesis. The objectives of this Workshop were to summarize and examine the questions that these trials provoked, to assess the quality and limitations of the pre-clinical data that supported the hypotheses underlying these trials, an...

  6. Fish Oncology: Diseases, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergneau-Grosset, Claire; Nadeau, Marie-Eve; Groff, Joseph M

    2017-01-01

    The scientific literature contains a wealth of information concerning spontaneous fish neoplasms, although ornamental fish oncology is still in its infancy. The occurrence of fish neoplasms has often been associated with oncogenic viruses and environmental insults, making them useful markers for environmental contaminants. The use of fish, including zebrafish, as models of human carcinogenesis has been developed and knowledge gained from these models may also be applied to ornamental fish, although more studies are required. This review summarizes information available about fish oncology pertaining to veterinary clinicians.

  7. Current therapies in exotic animal oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jennifer E; Kent, Michael S; Théon, Alain

    2004-09-01

    The majority of information on oncology therapies has been reported in humans, canine, and feline patients, and laboratory animals with experimentally induced tumors. A variety of treatments,including radiation therapy, chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, and others have been used with exotic animals. There are many species of exotic pets, and anatomic differences, as well as husbandry and nutritional requirements, must be taken into account to provide optimal care. By providing a broad overview of therapies and considerations for treatment, this article is intended to provide the practitioner with an overview of approach and options when addressing oncology cases in exotic animals.

  8. The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steinbjørn; Nielsen, Jan; Laursen, René J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry (DNOR) is a nationwide clinical cancer database that has prospectively registered data on patients with gliomas since January 2009. The purpose of this study was to describe the establishment of the DNOR and further to evaluate the database completen......BACKGROUND: The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry (DNOR) is a nationwide clinical cancer database that has prospectively registered data on patients with gliomas since January 2009. The purpose of this study was to describe the establishment of the DNOR and further to evaluate the database...

  9. Mapping the Future: Towards Oncology Curriculum Reform in Undergraduate Medical Education at a Canadian Medical School

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, Jennifer Y.Y. [School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Nyhof-Young, Joyce [Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Catton, Pamela [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Giuliani, Meredith E., E-mail: Meredith.Giuliani@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate (1) the quantity and quality of current undergraduate oncology teaching at a major Canadian medical school; and (2) curricular changes over the past decade, to enhance local oncology education and provide insight for other educators. Methods and Materials: Relevant 2011-2012 undergraduate curricular sessions were extracted from the University of Toronto curriculum mapping database using keywords and database identifiers. Educational sessions were analyzed according to Medical Council of Canada objectives, discussion topics, instructor qualifications, teaching format, program year, and course subject. Course-related oncology research projects performed by students during 2000 to 2012 were extracted from another internal database. Elective choices of clerks during 2008-2014 were retrieved from the institution. The 2011-2012 and 2000-2001 curricula were compared using common criteria. Results: The 2011-2012 curriculum covers 5 major themes (public health, cancer biology, diagnosis, principles of care, and therapy), which highlight 286 oncology teaching topics within 80 sessions. Genitourinary (10, 12.5%), gynecologic (8, 10.0%), and gastrointestinal cancers (7.9, 9.8%) were the most commonly taught cancers. A minority of sessions were taught by surgical oncologists (6.5, 8.1%), medical oncologists (2.5, 3.1%), and radiation oncologists (1, 1.2%). During 2000-2012, 9.0% of students (233 of 2578) opted to complete an oncology research project. During 2008-2014, oncology electives constituted 2.2% of all clerkship elective choices (209 of 9596). Compared with pre-2001 curricula, the 2012 oncology curriculum shows notable expansion in the coverage of epidemiology (6:1 increase), prevention (4:1), screening (3:1), and molecular biology (6:1). Conclusions: The scope of the oncology curriculum has grown over the past decade. Nevertheless, further work is needed to improve medical student knowledge of cancers, particularly those relevant to public health

  10. Clinical practice guidelines and consensus statements in oncology--an assessment of their methodological quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmel Jacobs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines are widely available for enhancing the care of cancer patients. Despite subtle differences in their definition and purpose, these terms are often used interchangeably. We systematically assessed the methodological quality of consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines published in three commonly read, geographically diverse, cancer-specific journals. Methods Consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines published between January 2005 and September 2013 in Current Oncology, European Journal of Cancer and Journal of Clinical Oncology were evaluated. Each publication was assessed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II rigour of development and editorial independence domains. For assessment of transparency of document development, 7 additional items were taken from the Institute of Medicine's standards for practice guidelines and the Journal of Clinical Oncology guidelines for authors of guidance documents. METHODS: Consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines published between January 2005 and September 2013 in Current Oncology, European Journal of Cancer and Journal of Clinical Oncology were evaluated. Each publication was assessed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II rigour of development and editorial independence domains. For assessment of transparency of document development, 7 additional items were taken from the Institute of Medicine's standards for practice guidelines and the Journal of Clinical Oncology guidelines for authors of guidance documents. FINDINGS: Thirty-four consensus statements and 67 clinical practice guidelines were evaluated. The rigour of development score for consensus statements over the three journals was 32% lower than that of clinical practice guidelines. The editorial independence score was 15% lower for consensus statements than clinical practice

  11. Indian Society of Neuro-Oncology consensus guidelines for the contemporary management of medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Tejpal; Sarkar, Chitra; Rajshekhar, Vedantam; Chatterjee, Sandip; Shirsat, Neelam; Muzumdar, Dattatreya; Pungavkar, Sona; Chinnaswamy, Girish; Jalali, Rakesh

    2017-01-01

    The high success rate in the management medulloblastoma achieved in the western world is not exactly mirrored in developing countries including India. Socio-demographic differences, health-care disparity, and lack in uniformity of care with resultant widespread variations in the clinical practice are some of the reasons that may partly explain this difference in outcomes. Patients with medulloblastoma require a multi-disciplinary team approach involving but not limited to neuro-radiology, neurosurgery; neuropathology, molecular biology, radiation oncology, pediatric medical oncology and rehabilitative services for optimizing outcomes. The Indian Society of Neuro-Oncology (ISNO) constituted an expert multi-disciplinary panel with adequate representation from all stakeholders to prepare national consensus guidelines for the contemporary management of medulloblastoma. Minimum desirable, as well as preferable though optional recommendations (as appropriate), were developed and adopted for the pre-surgical work-up including neuroimaging; neurosurgical management including surgical principles, techniques, and complications; neuropathology reporting and molecular testing; contemporary risk-stratification in the molecular era; appropriate adjuvant therapy (radiotherapy and chemotherapy); and follow-up schedule in medulloblastoma. The current document represents a broad consensus reached amongst various stakeholders within the neuro-oncology community involved in the contemporary curative-intent management of children with medulloblastoma. It provides both general as well as specific guidelines and recommendations to be adopted by physicians and health care providers across India to achieve uniformity of care, improve disease-related outcomes, and compare results between institutions within the country.

  12. 75 FR 81283 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Cancellation AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The meeting of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory... of December 6, 2010 (75 FR 75680). On February 9, 2011, the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee...

  13. The experiential world of the Oncology nurse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia le Roux

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In her experiential world, the oncology nurse experiences unique, challenging and rewarding relationships in a multidimensional, dynamic way. The aim of this study was to describe, from her viewpoint and perspective, how she experiences and reacts to this world. Through this study the researcher wants the oncology nurse’s voice to be heard, the richness of her story acknowledged and the derived data to be applied to the benefit of the field of oncology. In-depth, unstructured phenomenological interviews provided the saturated data from which the uniqueness of the world of the oncology nurse unfolded as the uniqueness of the oncology patients and their world emerged clearly. Findings show that the oncology nurse, attending to the cancer patients and their family, experiences many different relationships. The uniqueness of the oncology nurse-patient relationship is described as unlike any other nurse-patient relationship. The challenging interpersonal relationships with management and other members of the multiprofessional team, as experienced from the perspective of the oncology nurse, are also highlighted. Furthermore, a unifying intrapersonal relationship with the self was identified. This enables the oncology nurse to be both on the giving and receiving end of the intensely emotional environment she works in, explaining, at least partly, the high job satisfaction that permeated the interviews in this study. Recommendations for nursing practice, education and research were formulated. Opsomming In haar leefwêreld ondervind onkologieverpleegkundige unieke, uitdagende en belonende verhoudinge op ‘n multidimensionele en dinamiese wyse. Die doel van hierdie studie was om ‘n beskrywing van die onkologieverpleegkundige se ervarings van en reaksie op haar leefwêreld vanuit haar oogpunt en perspektief. Deur middel van hierdie studie wil die navorser die stem van die onkologieverpleegkundige gehoor laat word, die rykdom van haar verhaal

  14. Institutional advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Xavier

    Is there such a thing as institutional advantage—and what does it mean for the study of corporate competitive advantage? In this article, I develop the concept of institutional competitive advantage, as distinct from plain competitive advantage and from comparative institutional advantage. I first

  15. Institutional advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Is there such a thing as institutional advantage—and what does it mean for the study of corporate competitive advantage? In this article, I develop the concept of institutional competitive advantage, as distinct from plain competitive advantage and from comparative institutional advantage. I first i

  16. Confucius Institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Confucius Institute(simplified Chinese:孔子学院;traditional Chinese:孔子學院;pinyin:kǒngzǐ xuéyuàn)is a non-profit public institute which aims at promoting Chinese language and culture and supporting local Chinese teaching internationally through affiliated Confucius Institutes.

  17. Institutional advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Is there such a thing as institutional advantage—and what does it mean for the study of corporate competitive advantage? In this article, I develop the concept of institutional competitive advantage, as distinct from plain competitive advantage and from comparative institutional advantage. I first i

  18. A framework for quality improvement and patient safety education in radiation oncology residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Anamaria; Greenwalt, Julie

    2015-01-01

    In training future radiation oncologists, we must begin to focus on training future QI specialists. Our patients are demanding better quality and safer care, and accrediting bodies are requiring it. We must equip radiation oncology trainees to be leaders in this new world. To that end, a QI/PS educational program should contain 2 components: a didactic portion focused on teaching basic QI tools as well as an overview of the quality and safety goals of the institution, and an experiential component, ideally a resident-led QI project mentored by an expert faculty member and that is linked to the department's and institution's goals.

  19. Radium isotopes assess water mixing processes and its application in the Zhujiang River estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoyi; Xu, Bochao; Yu, Zhigang; Li, Xiuqin; Nan, Haiming; Jian, Huimin; Jiang, Xueyan; Diao, Shaobo; Gao, Maosheng

    2017-09-01

    Radium (Ra) isotopes are useful for tracing water mass transport and examining estuarine hydrological dynamics. In this study, several hydrological parameters, nutrients, chlorophyll- a (chl- a), suspended particulate matter (SPM) and Ra isotopes (223Ra, 224Ra and 226Ra) of surface waters of the Zhujiang (Pearl) River estuary (ZRE) were measured. This was done for both winter (December) and summer (July) seasons, to quantitatively understand the seasonal characteristics of river plume flow rate and trajectories, as well as the ecological response. The results show that Ra concentrations in summer were higher than in winter, especially 224Ra (about 2-5 times higher). The spatial distribution of three Ra isotopes and relative Ra water ages indicated that river water mainly flushed out of ZRE through the western side in winter, where the water transport was about 5 days faster than in the eastern zone. In summer, diluted river water expended to the east side, resulting in fairly similar water ages for both sides of the river mouth. Although nutrients were higher during the summer season, lower chl- a concentrations indicated that reduced primary production might be caused by high SPM (low light penetration). The results obtained from this study will provide knowledge needed for effectively developing and managing the ZRE.

  20. Lasercooled radium monofluoride: A molecular all-in-one probe for new physics

    CERN Document Server

    Isaev, T A

    2013-01-01

    The particular advantages of using diatomic molecule radium monofluoride (RaF) as a versatile molecular probe for physics beyond the Standard Model are highlighted. i) RaF was previously suggested as being potentially amenable to direct cooling with lasers. As shown in the present work, RaF's energetically lowest electronically excited state is of ${}^{2}\\Pi$ symmetry (in contrast to BaF), such that no low-lying ${}^{2}\\Delta$ state prevents efficient optical cooling cycles. ii) The effective electric field acting on the unpaired electron in the electronic ground state of RaF is estimated larger than in YbF, from which the best restrictions on the electron electric dipole moment (eEDM) were obtained experimentally. iii) Favourable crossings of spin-rotational levels of opposite parity in external magnetic fields exist, which are important for the measurement of the nuclear anapole moment of nuclei with a valence neutron. Thus, RaF appears currently as one of the most attractive candidates for investigation of...

  1. Radium-223: From Radiochemical Development to Clinical Applications in Targeted Cancer Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruland, Oyvind S.; Jonasdottir, Thora J.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Larsen, Roy H.

    2008-09-15

    The radiochemical properties of radium-223 (223Ra, T1/2 = 11.4 d) render this alpha-emitting radionuclide promising for targeted cancer therapy. Together with its short-lived daughters, each 223Ra decay produces four alpha-particle emissions—which enhance therapy effectiveness at the cellular level. In this paper, we review the recently published data reported for pre-clinical and clinical use of 223Ra in cancer treatment. We have evaluated two distinct chemical forms of 223Ra in vivo: 1) cationic 223Ra as dissolved RaCl2, and 2) liposome-encapsulated 223Ra. Cationic 223Ra seeks metabolically active osteoblastic bone and tumor lesions with high uptake and strong binding affinity based on its similarities to calcium. Based on these properties, we have advanced the clinical use of 223Ra for treating bone metastases from late-stage breast and prostate cancer. The results show impressive anti-tumor activity and improved overall survival in hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients with bone metastases. In other studies, we have evaluated the biodistribution and tumor uptake of liposomally encapsulated 223Ra in mice with human osteosarcoma xenografts, and in dogs with spontaneous osteosarcoma and associated soft tissue metastases. Results indicate excellent biodistributions in both species. In dogs, we found considerable uptake of liposomal 223Ra in cancer metastases in multiple organs, resulting in favorable tumor-to-normal soft tissue ratios. Collectively, these findings show an outstanding potential for 223Ra as a therapeutic agent.

  2. Stochastic simulation of radium-223 dichloride therapy at the sub-cellular level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Y.; Zhu, X.; Fulton, R.; Meikle, S.; El-Fakhri, G.; Kuncic, Z.

    2015-08-01

    Radium-223 dichloride (223Ra) is an alpha particle emitter and a natural bone-seeking radionuclide that is currently used for treating osteoblastic bone metastases associated with prostate cancer. The stochastic nature of alpha emission, hits and energy deposition poses some challenges for estimating radiation damage. In this paper we investigate the distribution of hits to cells by multiple alpha particles corresponding to a typical clinically delivered dose using a Monte Carlo model to simulate the stochastic effects. The number of hits and dose deposition were recorded in the cytoplasm and nucleus of each cell. Alpha particle tracks were also visualized. We found that the stochastic variation in dose deposited in cell nuclei (≃ 40%) can be attributed in part to the variation in LET with pathlength. We also found that ≃ 18% of cell nuclei receive less than one sigma below the average dose per cell (≃ 15.4 Gy). One possible implication of this is that the efficacy of cell kill in alpha particle therapy need not rely solely on ionization clustering on DNA but possibly also on indirect DNA damage through the production of free radicals and ensuing intracellular signaling.

  3. Radium and radon in ground water in the Chickies Quartzite, southeastern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, L.A.; Vogel, K.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Chickies Quartzite, a Lower Cambrian-age formation compromised of quartzite and slate overlying a basal conglomerate, forms a narrow ridges and crops out discontinuously over 112 square miles in the Piedmont physiographic province of southeastern Pennsylvania. The formation is a low-yielding, fractured- rock, water-table aquifer recharged primarily by local precipitation. It is the sole source of water supply for thousands of domestic users. Ground water in the Chickies Quartzite generally is soft and acidic. During 1986-88, the U.S. Geological Survey sampled water from 160 wells that penetrate the Chickies Quartzite to determine the magnitude and distribution of radium-226 (Ra-226), radium-228 (Ra-228), and radon-222 (Rn-222) activities in ground water in the formation and to characterize the geochemical environmental associated with elevated activities of radium (Ra). In addition, 28 wells penetrating adjacent geologic units and 1 well in the Hardyston Quartzite were sampled to determine relative background Ra and RN-222 activities in ground water. Analyses included determination of activities of dissolved Ra-226, Ra-228, and RN-222, and concentrations of dissolved uranium (U), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and major and minor dissolved inorganic ions. Rock samples were analyzed for U and thorium (Th) and geophysical logs were run to determine sources of Ra and RN-222 in the Chickies Quartzite. Activities of up to 41 pCi/L (picocuries per liter) for Ra-226, 160 pCi/L for Ra-228, and 32,300 pCi/L for RN-222 were measured in ground water in the Chickies Quartzite. Forty-seven percent of the samples contained Ra-226 and Ra-228 activities greater than 5 pCi/L. Median activities measured were 1.2 pCi/L for Ra-226, 2.6 pCi/L for Ra-228, 4.2 pCi/L for combined Ra-226 and Ra-228, and 2,400 pCi/L for RN-222 Ra-228 activity exceeded Ra-226 activity in about 92 percent of 100 water samples; the median Ra-228/Ra226 activity ratio was 2.4. Ra-228/Ra-226 activity ratios

  4. Investigation of rare nuclear decays with BaF$_2$ crystal scintillator contaminated by radium

    CERN Document Server

    Belli, P; Cappella, F; Caracciolo, V; Cerulli, R; Danevich, F A; Di Marco, A; Incicchitti, A; Poda, D V; Polischuk, O G; Tretyak, V I

    2014-01-01

    The radioactive contamination of a BaF$_2$ scintillation crystal with mass of 1.714 kg was measured over 101 hours in the low-background DAMA/R&D set-up deep underground (3600 m w.e.) at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories of INFN (LNGS, Italy). The half-life of $^{212}$Po (present in the crystal scintillator due to contamination by radium) was measured as $T_{1/2}(^{212}$Po) = 298.8$\\pm$0.8(stat.)$\\pm$1.4(syst.) ns by analysis of the events' pulse profiles. The $^{222}$Rn nuclide is known as 100% decaying via emission of $\\alpha$ particle with $T_{1/2}$ = 3.82 d; however, its $\\beta$ decay is also energetically allowed with $Q_\\beta = 24\\pm21$ keV. Search for decay chains of events with specific pulse shapes characteristic for $\\alpha$ or for $\\beta/\\gamma$ signals and with known energies and time differences allowed us to set, for the first time, the limit on the branching ratio of $^{222}$Rn relatively to $\\beta$ decay as $B_\\beta 8.0$ y). Half-life limits of $^{212}$Pb, $^{222}$Rn and $^{226}$Ra rel...

  5. Lymphocyte function following radium-223 therapy in patients with metastasized, castration-resistant prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsegian, Vahe; Moeckel, Daniel [Helios Kliniken, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Schwerin (Germany); Mueller, Stefan P.; Bockisch, Andreas [University Hospital Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); Horn, Peter A.; Lindemann, Monika [University Hospital Essen, Institute for Transfusion Medicine, Essen (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Therapy with the alpha-emitter radium-223 chloride ({sup 223}Ra) is an innovative therapeutic option in patients with metastasized, castration-resistant prostate cancer. However, radiotherapy can lead to hematopoietic toxicity. The aim of this study was to determine if {sup 223}Ra therapy induces an impairment of cellular antimicrobial immune responses. In 11 patients receiving {sup 223}Ra treatment, lymphocyte proliferation and the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (interferon-γ and interleukin-10) were determined, using lymphocyte transformation testing and ELISpot, respectively. Lymphocyte function after stimulation with mitogens and microbial antigens was assessed prior to therapy and at day 1, 7 and 28 after therapy. Lymphocyte proliferation and the production of interferon-γ and interleukin-10 towards mitogens and antigens remained unchanged after therapy. Consistent with these in vitro data, we did not observe infectious complications after treatment. The results argue against an impairment of lymphocyte function after {sup 223}Ra therapy. Thus, immune responses against pathogens should remain unaffected. (orig.)

  6. Radium geochemistry in Na-Cl type groundwater in Niigata Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Junpei; Satake, Hiroshi; Fukuyama, Taijiro; Sasaki, Keiichi; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    2010-03-01

    Radium isotopes in 23 Na-Cl type groundwater sampled mainly from deep wells in Niigata Prefecture, which is the site of the largest oil- and gas-fields in Japan, were measured along with U isotopes, chemical components and hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios to elucidate the distribution and behavior of Ra in a brackish environment underground. Also analyzed were U and Th isotopes in 38 rock samples collected from outcrops at 17 locations. Ra-226 concentrations (8.86-1637 mBq kg(-1)) of groundwater samples roughly correlated with total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations and other alkaline earth contents. Their (228)Ra/(226)Ra activity ratios (0.32-5.2) were similar to or higher than the (232)Th/(238)U activity ratios (0.6-1.7) in the rocks. The most likely transport mechanism of Ra isotopes into groundwater was due to their alpha-recoil from the solid phase, probably from the water-rock interface where Th isotopes had accumulated, and adsorption/desorption reaction based on the increase in (226)Ra contents with TDS.

  7. Investigation of residence time and groundwater flux in Venice Lagoon: comparing radium isotope and hydrodynamical models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapaglia, John, E-mail: john.rapaglia@gmail.co [National Research Council of Italy, Marine Science Institute-Venice, Castello 1364/a, Venice 30122 (Italy); Ferrarin, Christian, E-mail: christian.ferrarin@ve.ismar.cnr.i [National Research Council of Italy, Marine Science Institute-Venice, Castello 1364/a, Venice 30122 (Italy); Zaggia, Luca, E-mail: luca.zaggia@ve.ismar.cnr.i [National Research Council of Italy, Marine Science Institute-Venice, Castello 1364/a, Venice 30122 (Italy); Moore, Willard S., E-mail: moore@geol.sc.ed [Department of Geological Sciences, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Umgiesser, Georg, E-mail: georg.umgiesser@ve.ismar.cnr.i [National Research Council of Italy, Marine Science Institute-Venice, Castello 1364/a, Venice 30122 (Italy); Garcia-Solsona, Ester, E-mail: esther.garcia@uab.ca [Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals - Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra 08193 (Spain); Garcia-Orellana, Jordi, E-mail: jordi.garcia@uab.ca [Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals - Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra 08193 (Spain); School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 (United States); Masque, Pere, E-mail: pere.masque@uab.ca [Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals - Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra 08193 (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    The four naturally-occurring isotopes of radium were coupled with a previously evaluated hydrodynamic model to determine the apparent age of surface waters and to quantify submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the Venice Lagoon, Italy. Mean apparent age of water in the Venice Lagoon was calculated using the ratio of {sup 224}Ra to {sup 228}Ra determined from 30 monitoring stations and a mean pore water endmember. Average apparent age was calculated to be 6.0 d using Ra ratios. This calculated age was very similar to average residence time calculated for the same period using a hydrodynamic model (5.8 d). A mass balance of Ra was accomplished by quantifying each of the sources and sinks of Ra in the lagoon, with the unknown variable being attributed to SGD. Total SGD were calculated to be 4.1 {+-} 1.5, 3.8 {+-} 0.7, 3.0 {+-} 1.3, and 3.5 {+-} 1.0 x 10{sup 10} L d{sup -1} for {sup 223,224,226,228}Ra, respectively, which are an order of magnitude larger than total mean fluvial discharge into the Venice Lagoon (3.1 x 10{sup 9} L d{sup -1}). The SGD as a source of nutrients in the Venice Lagoon is also discussed and, though significant to the nutrient budget, is likely to be less important as the dominant control on SGD is recirculated seawater rather than freshwater.

  8. Management of high-grade bone sarcomas over two decades: The Norwegian Radium Hospital experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hege Aksnes, Liv; Sundby Hall, Kirsten; Folleraas, Gunnar; Stenwig, Anna Elisabeth; Bjerkehagen, Bodil; Taksdal, Ingeborg; Winderen, Mette; Bruland, Oeyvind Sverre; Saeter, Gunnar [The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Montebello, Oslo (Norway)

    2006-02-15

    All cases of high-grade osteosarcoma (OS) (n=196) and Ewing's sarcoma of bone (ES) (n=56) treated at the Norwegian Radium Hospital in the period 1980-1999 were analyzed retrospectively. They were allocated to consecutive ten-year periods by their time of diagnosis. Patient and tumour characteristics have been relatively stable. Eighty percent of all patients received surgical treatment and the amputation rate decreased from 64% to 23%. The percentage of patients receiving chemotherapy has remained around 80%. The use of radiotherapy in primary treatment decreased gradually from 33% to 18%. Sarcoma specific survival (SSS) at five years for all patients increased significantly from 39% to 53%. Similar trends for improvement were seen for both OS and ES. In multivariate analysis, independent prognostic factors for improved SSS were non-metastatic disease at diagnosis, age under 40, extremity tumours, small tumours and treatment from 1995 onwards. No major new treatment options have emerged over these 20 years. The improved outcome appears partly to be due to refinements in the use of existing modalities and improved quality and integration of multidisciplinary approaches. Improved formalized organisation of the sarcoma group and annual audited reports of its patient and research activity may also have contributed to improved focus and performance.

  9. Clinical PET/MR Imaging in Oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Andreas; Torigian, Drew A.

    2016-01-01

    . The question, therefore, arises regarding what the future clinical applications of PET/MR imaging will be. In this article, the authors discuss ways in which PET/MR imaging may be used in future applications that justify the added cost, predominantly focusing on oncologic applications. The authors suggest...

  10. Ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kely Regina da Luz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to know the ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses. Method: descriptive and exploratory study with a qualitative approach, performed in inpatient units and in chemotherapy out-patients units that provide assistance to oncological patients in two capitals in the South region of Brazil. Eighteen nurses participated in this study, selected by snowball sampling type. For data collection, semi-structured interviews were carried out, which were recorded and transcribed, and then analyzed by thematic analysis. Results: two categories were established: when informing or not becomes a dilemma - showing the main difficulties related to oncological treatment information regarding health staff, health system, and infrastructure; to invest or not - dilemmas related to finitude - showing situations of dilemmas related to pain and confrontation with finitude. Conclusion: for the effective confrontation of the ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses to occur, it is important to invest in the training of these professionals, preparing them in an ethical and human way to act as lawyers of the patient with cancer, in a context of dilemmas related mainly to the possibility of finitude.

  11. Tobacco control policies of oncology nursing organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Linda; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga

    2004-05-01

    Nurses, the largest group of health care professionals, and the policies of nursing organizations, have tremendous potential to promote health and tobacco control. Policies addressing tobacco use have been implemented by a variety of national and international nursing organizations. This article reviews existing tobacco control policies in oncology nursing organizations.

  12. The oncological implications of immediate breast reconstruction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knottenbelt, A.; Spauwen, P.H.M.; Wobbes, Th.

    2004-01-01

    AIMS: The timing of breast reconstruction following mastectomy has been an area of contention. The purpose of this study was to report the oncologic safety of mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction, primarily with a tissue expander. METHODS: We offered 54 patients (58 reconstructions) an

  13. NCCN Oncology Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies White Paper: Recommendations for Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip E; Dahlman, George; Eng, Kirby; Garg, Rekha; Gottlieb, Scott; Hoffman, James M; Howell, Peyton; Jahanzeb, Mohammad; Johnson, Shirley; Mackler, Emily; Rubino, Mark; Sarokhan, Brenda; Marc Stewart, F; Tyler, Tim; Vose, Julie M; Weinstein, Sharon; Li, Edward C; Demartino, Jessica

    2010-09-01

    REMS are a particularly important issue for oncology and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN). A disproportionate number of drugs with complex REMS are used in patients with cancer or hematologic disorders. REMS policies and processes within oncology may act as a model for other clinical areas. A breadth of experience and access to a wide knowledge base exists within oncology that will ensure appropriate development and consideration of the practical implications of REMS. NCCN is uniquely positioned to assume a leadership role in this process given its status as the arbiter of high-quality cancer care based on its world-leading institutions and clinicians. Notwithstanding the potential benefits, the successful design, implementation, and analysis of the FDA's recent requirement for REMS for some high-risk drugs and biologics will present significant challenges for stakeholders, including patients, providers, cancer centers, manufacturers, payors, health information technology vendors, and regulatory agencies. To provide guidance to these stakeholders regarding REMS challenges, the NCCN assembled a work group comprised of thought leaders from NCCN Member Institutions and other outside experts. The Work Group identified challenges across the REMS spectrum, including the areas of standardization, development and assessment of REMS programs, medication guides, provider knowledge and impact on prescribing, provider burden and compensation, and incorporation of REMS into clinical practice.

  14. Oncology healthcare providers' knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors regarding LGBT health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Gina; Sanchez, Julian A; Lancaster, Johnathan M; Wilson, Lauren E; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Schabath, Matthew B

    2016-10-01

    There are limited data on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) healthcare experiences and interactions with the providers. This study assessed knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors of oncology providers regarding LGBT health. A 32-item web-based survey was emailed to 388 oncology providers at a single institution. The survey assessed: demographics, knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors. 108 providers participated in the survey (28% response rate). LGBT cultural competency at the institution. Results from the open comments section identified multiple misconceptions. This study revealed knowledge gaps about LGBT health risks. Cultural competency training may aid oncology providers to understand the need to inquire about patients' gender identity and sexual orientation. Health care providers who incorporate the routine collection of gender identity and sexual orientation (SOGI) in their patient history taking may improve patient care by offering tailored education and referrals. While identifying as LGBT does not in itself increase risk for adverse health outcomes, this population tends to have increased risk behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The prevalence of burnout among oncology professionals: oncologists are at risk of developing burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eelen, S; Bauwens, S; Baillon, C; Distelmans, W; Jacobs, E; Verzelen, A

    2014-12-01

    International research shows that oncology staff suffers more from burnout than other healthcare professionals. Burnout is common among oncologists. The prevalence of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment appears to be significantly higher among physicians. Detecting burnout is highly relevant, because it affects the personal well-being and quality of life of the healthcare professional. A national study on the prevalence of burnout in oncology was never conducted in Flanders (Dutch-speaking part of Belgium). The Cédric Hèle institute spread anonymous questionnaires among 923 healthcare workers in oncology (physicians, social workers, psychologists, nurses, and specialist-nurses) in Flanders. The questionnaire consisted of two parts. The first part contained questions concerning demographic and job features. The second part included the Dutch version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Five hundred and fifty subjects participated in the survey (response rate of 59.5%). Of the medical oncologists, 51.2% suffered from emotional exhaustion, 31.8% from depersonalization, and 6.8% from a lack of personal accomplishment. Multivariate analysis of variance suggested a significantly elevated level of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization in oncologists compared with other professionals. Logistic regression indicated that the following variables have predictive value on risk of burnout: gender, profession, and combining work in a university hospital with work in a private hospital. The CHi research showed a significantly increased level of burnout-components in professionals working in oncology, especially in medical oncologists. These results should have an impact on the daily clinic of oncology, and could be guidance for further research. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The feasibility of implementing a communication skills training course in pediatric hematology/oncology fellowship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Lauren; Figueiredo, Lisa; Roth, Michael; Levy, Adam

    Communication skills are a competency highlighted by the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education; yet, little is known about the frequency with which trainees receive formal training or what programs are willing to invest. We sought to answer this question and designed a program to address identified barriers. We surveyed pediatric fellowship program directors from all disciplines and, separately, pediatric hematology/oncology fellowship program directors to determine current use of formal communication skills training. At our institution, we piloted a standardized patient (SP)-based communication skills training program for pediatric hematology/oncology fellows. Twenty-seven pediatric hematology/oncology program directors and 44 pediatric program directors participated in the survey, of which 56% and 48%, respectively, reported having an established, formal communication skills training course. Multiple barriers to implementation of a communication skills course were identified, most notably time and cost. In the pilot program, 13 pediatric hematology/oncology fellows have participated, and 9 have completed all 3 years of training. Precourse assessment demonstrated fellows had limited comfort in various areas of communication. Following course completion, there was a significant increase in self-reported comfort and/or skill level in such areas of communication, including discussing a new diagnosis (p =.0004), telling a patient they are going to die (p =.005), discussing recurrent disease (p communicating a poor prognosis (p =.002), or responding to anger (p ≤.001). We have designed a concise communication skills training program, which addresses identified barriers and can feasibly be implemented in pediatric hematology/oncology fellowship.

  17. Ação do radium sôbre o vírus da Coriomeningite linfocitária benigna Radium effect upon the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Guilherme Lacorte

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho faz parte de uma seqüência iniciada em 1953 com a verificação do efeito dos raios X sôbre o vírus da gripe em que observamos que os mesmos, em doses fracas, tem aumentado o seu poder patogênico para camundongos. Posteriormente, verificamos a ação do radium sôbre o vírus da gripe e da poliomielite. Neste último caso, o vírus irradiado mostrou-se ativo durante maior número de dias. Nas pesquisas aqui referidas, submetemos o vírus da coriomeningite linfocitária benigna a ação do radium, usando quatro agulhas de 1 mg desse elemento em dispositivo que idealizamos para êste fim. Depois de irradiada, foi a suspensão de vírus diluida a 10*-1, 10*-2 e 10*-3 para as inoculações em camundongos, juntamente com as diluições testemunhas. Observamos que o vírus resistiu pelo menos 264 dias, à temperatura de 4ºC. Quanto às alterações do poder patogênico provocadas pelo radium verificamos que o mesmo não se altera após 24 horas de irradiação. Diminue após 8 dias para aumentar, de modo seguro, após 20 e 33 dias. Iguala-se ao testemunha depois de 78 dias.In the present paper the authors refered the experiments made with the lymphocytic chriomeningitis virus. We strain, after exposition to 4 tubes of 1 mg of radium. The virus suspension was put into the Carrel flask in a layer of 0,1 cm. The titrations of the irradiated virus suspension were made after 24 hours, 8, 20, 33, 78, 85, 120, 264, 292, 387 and 535 days. the virus was still active after 264 days, not after 292 days. The virus irradiated during 24 hours presented the same pathogenicity form mice than the control but after 8 days it was lesser and after 20 and 33 days it was enchanced (Graphic 10. After 78 days the pathogenic power was the same for the irradiated virus and the control.

  18. 228Ra, 226Ra, 224Ra and 223Ra in potential sources and sinks of land-derived material in the German Bight of the North Sea: implications for the use of radium as a tracer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, C.; Hanfland, C.; Regnier, P.; Van Cappellen, P.; Schlüter, M.; Knauthe, U.; Stimac, I.; Geibert, W.

    2011-01-01

    Activities of the naturally occurring radium nuclides 228Ra, 226Ra, 224Ra and 223Ra were determined in waters of the open German Bight and adjacent nearshore areas in the North Sea, in order to explore the potential use of radium isotopes as natural tracers of land–ocean interaction in an environmen

  19. Producing a problem? Effects of produced water contaminants (PAHs, radium-226, barium and scale inhibitor) on the copepod Calanus finmarchicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiel Jensen, Louise [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Fram Centre, 9296 Tromsoe (Norway); Halvorsen, Elisabeth; Gammelsaeter Hallanger, Ingeborg [UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, P.O. box 6050 Langnes, 9037 Tromsoe (Norway); Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Brooks, Steven [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Gaustadalleen 21, 0349 Oslo (Norway); Hansen, Bjoern Henrik [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Marine Environmental Technology, Brattoerkaia 17B, 7010 Trondheim (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    In the Barents Sea region new petroleum fields are discovered yearly and the extraction of petroleum products are expected to increase in the upcoming years. Despite enhanced technology and stricter governmental legislation, establishing the petroleum industry in the Barents Sea will introduce a new source of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) to the area as some discharges of produced water will be allowed. Whether the presence of produced water poses a risk to the Arctic marine life remains to be examined. We examined effects on the copepod species Calanus finmarchicus after exposure to several compounds found in produced water. A mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkyl phenols commonly found in produced water was used as a proxy of the organic fraction of the produced water (hereafter termed APW (Artificial Produced Water)). In addition, exposures were done using radium-226 (proxy for NORM), barium (proxy for metals) and a scale inhibitor (SI -4470, M-I SWACO, Schlumberger Norge AS). Short-term screening tests on a range of concentrations of all compounds were run to assess the hatchability of the eggs and early survival of the nauplii. Long-term experiments were carried out with exposure concentrations at realistic levels found in the vicinity of known discharge points. The copepod C. finmarchicus is considered a keystone species in the Barents Sea ecosystem as it represents the major pathway of energy transfer from lower to higher trophic levels. We have examined sub-lethal effects on early life stages and on adult females. The hatchability of the eggs was not affected by concentrations well above realistic environmental levels. However, the instant mortality of the hatched larvae increased with higher concentrations of barium, scale inhibitor and APW, though not with higher radium-226 concentration. When examining the long-term growth of the nauplii, we found that the survival was poor in the APW treatment, and in the barium

  20. Factors Associated With Survival Following Radium-223 Treatment for Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, William W; Anderson, Eric M; Mohammadi, Homan; Daniels, Thomas B; Schild, Steve E; Keole, Sameer R; Choo, C Richard; Tzou, Katherine S; Bryce, Alan H; Ho, Thai H; Quevedo, Fernando J; Vora, Sujay A

    2017-04-26

    Radium-223 ((223)Ra) improves survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). This retrospective analysis was performed to better understand its efficacy in routine clinical practice and identify factors associated with survival. Sixty-four patients with mCRPC who received (223)Ra between 2013 and 2015 were the basis of this retrospective study. Clinical outcomes and patient characteristics were obtained. Potential prognostic factors for survival were evaluated by univariate analysis using the log-rank test and multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazard method. The median survival was 12.9 months. Twenty-one patients (33%) developed a skeletal event, and the median time to the first skeletal event was 4.4 months. In univariate analysis, factors significantly associated with survival included: no prior chemotherapy, ≤ 5 bone metastases, baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≤ 36 ng/mL, baseline alkaline phosphatase (ALP)  12 g/dL, ALP response after (223)Ra treatment, PSA decrease during (223)Ra treatment, and absence of > 25% PSA increase during (223)Ra treatment. In multivariate analysis, 4 factors remained significant: no prior chemotherapy, ≤ 5 bone metastases, baseline ALP < 115 U/L, and ALP response after (223)Ra treatment. When (223)Ra is administered in routine clinical practice, clinical outcomes can be more variable than those reported in the randomized study owing to patient heterogeneity. Four factors were identified to be significantly associated with survival after (223)Ra treatment. These pretreatment factors may be used as stratification factors in future studies to investigate whether (223)Ra would be more effective for patients with newly diagnosed metastatic disease that is sensitive to androgen deprivation therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigation of rare nuclear decays with BaF{sub 2} crystal scintillator contaminated by radium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, P. [INFN, Sezione di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Bernabei, R. [INFN, Sezione di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); Cappella, F. [INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); Caracciolo, V.; Cerulli, R. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, INFN, Assergi (Italy); Danevich, F.A.; Poda, D.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); Di Marco, A. [Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); Incicchitti, A. [INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Polischuk, O.G.; Tretyak, V.I. [INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2014-09-15

    The radioactive contamination of a BaF{sub 2} scintillation crystal with mass of 1.714 kg was measured over 101 hours in the low-background DAMA/R and D set-up deep underground (3600 m w.e.) at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories of INFN (LNGS, Italy). The half-life of {sup 212}Po (present in the crystal scintillator due to contamination by radium) was measured as T{sub 1/2}({sup 212}Po) = 298.8 ± 0.8(stat.) ± 1.4(syst.) ns by the analysis of the events' pulse profiles. The {sup 222}Rn nuclide is known as 100% decaying via the emission of the α particle with T{sub 1/2} = 3.82d; however, its β decay is also energetically allowed with Q{sub β} = 24 ± 21 keV. Search for decay chains of events with specific pulse shapes characteristic for α or for β/γ signals and with known energies and time differences allowed us to set, for the first time, the limit on the branching ratio of {sup 222}Rn relatively to β decay as B{sub β} < 0.13 % at 90% C.L. (equivalent to limit on partial half-life T{sub 1/2}{sup β} > 8.0y). The half-life limits of {sup 212}Pb, {sup 222}Rn and {sup 226}Ra relatively to 2 β decays are also improved in comparison with the earlier results. (orig.)

  2. Optimized measurement of radium-226 concentration in liquid samples with radon-222 emanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Frédéric; Aupiais, Jean; Girault, Frédéric; Przylibski, Tadeusz A; Bouquerel, Hélène

    2016-06-01

    Measuring radium-226 concentration in liquid samples using radon-222 emanation remains competitive with techniques such as liquid scintillation, alpha or mass spectrometry. Indeed, we show that high-precision can be obtained without air circulation, using an optimal air to liquid volume ratio and moderate heating. Cost-effective and efficient measurement of radon concentration is achieved by scintillation flasks and sufficiently long counting times for signal and background. More than 400 such measurements were performed, including 39 dilution experiments, a successful blind measurement of six reference test solutions, and more than 110 repeated measurements. Under optimal conditions, uncertainties reach 5% for an activity concentration of 100 mBq L(-1) and 10% for 10 mBq L(-1). While the theoretical detection limit predicted by Monte Carlo simulation is around 3 mBq L(-1), a conservative experimental estimate is rather 5 mBq L(-1), corresponding to 0.14 fg g(-1). The method was applied to 47 natural waters, 51 commercial waters, and 17 wine samples, illustrating that it could be an option for liquids that cannot be easily measured by other methods. Counting of scintillation flasks can be done in remote locations in absence of electricity supply, using a solar panel. Thus, this portable method, which has demonstrated sufficient accuracy for numerous natural liquids, could be useful in geological and environmental problems, with the additional benefit that it can be applied in isolated locations and in circumstances when samples cannot be transported.

  3. Evaluation of a compassion fatigue resiliency program for oncology nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Patricia; Deshields, Teresa; Berger, Julia Allen; Clarke, Marty; Olsen, Sarah; Chen, Ling

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate a resiliency program designed to educate oncology nurses about compassion fatigue. Descriptive pilot study. A National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center in the midwestern United States. 13 oncology nurses employed in an outpatient infusion center. Nurses attended a five-week program involving five 90-minute sessions on compassion fatigue resiliency. A pre- and post-test design, using repeated measures, was conducted over six months. Scores on the Professional Quality of Life (ProQOL) IV, Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey, Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and the Nursing Job Satisfaction Scale. Long-term benefits were realized from the program. Secondary traumatization scores on the ProQOL IV declined immediately after the program, remained down at three months, and then dropped again at six months, with a statistically significant mean difference compared with baseline. The average IES-R total scores improved significantly overall and for each of the three postintervention time points. Participants evaluated the program positively with respect to their ability to apply and benefit from resiliency techniques. This is the first reported study to show benefits gained from a compassion fatigue intervention program. Participants received useful strategies for managing stress at work and home. Compassion fatigue is a prevalent condition among healthcare providers. Development of resiliency to compassion fatigue may improve decision making, clarity of communication, and patient and nurse satisfaction. Self-regulation offers an approach to reduce stress during a perceived threat. Working by intention reduces reactivity in the workplace and makes communication more intentional and, therefore, effective.

  4. ASTRO's 2007 core physics curriculum for radiation oncology residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Eric E; Gerbi, Bruce J; Price, Robert A; Balter, James M; Paliwal, Bhudatt; Hughes, Lesley; Huang, Eugene

    2007-08-01

    In 2004, the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) published a curriculum for physics education. The document described a 54-hour course. In 2006, the committee reconvened to update the curriculum. The committee is composed of physicists and physicians from various residency program teaching institutions. Simultaneously, members have associations with the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, ASTRO, Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology, American Board of Radiology, and American College of Radiology. Representatives from the latter two organizations are key to provide feedback between the examining organizations and ASTRO. Subjects are based on Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requirements (particles and hyperthermia), whereas the majority of subjects and appropriated hours/subject were developed by consensus. The new curriculum is 55 hours, containing new subjects, redistribution of subjects with updates, and reorganization of core topics. For each subject, learning objectives are provided, and for each lecture hour, a detailed outline of material to be covered is provided. Some changes include a decrease in basic radiologic physics, addition of informatics as a subject, increase in intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and migration of some brachytherapy hours to radiopharmaceuticals. The new curriculum was approved by the ASTRO board in late 2006. It is hoped that physicists will adopt the curriculum for structuring their didactic teaching program, and simultaneously, the American Board of Radiology, for its written examination. The American College of Radiology uses the ASTRO curriculum for their training examination topics. In addition to the curriculum, the committee added suggested references, a glossary, and a condensed version of lectures for a Postgraduate Year 2 resident physics orientation. To ensure continued commitment to a current and relevant curriculum, subject matter will be updated

  5. Experience of wireless local area network in a radiation oncology department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Abhijit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a wireless local area network (LAN between different types of users (Radiation Oncologists, Radiological Physicists, Radiation Technologists, etc for efficient patient data management and to made easy the availability of information (chair side to improve the quality of patient care in Radiation Oncology department. We have used mobile workstations (Laptops and stationary workstations, all equipped with wireless-fidelity (Wi-Fi access. Wireless standard 802.11g (as recommended by Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ has been used. The wireless networking was configured with the Service Set Identifier (SSID, Media Access Control (MAC address filtering, and Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP network securities. We are successfully using this wireless network in sharing the indigenously developed patient information management software. The proper selection of the hardware and the software combined with a secure wireless LAN setup will lead to a more efficient and productive radiation oncology department.

  6. An overview of viral oncology in Italy - report from the Pavia meeting on solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Vittorio; Ricotti, Mattia; Buonaguro, Franco; Tirelli, Umberto; Pedrazzoli, Paolo

    2012-09-05

    This is a report on some of the research activities currently ongoing in Italy as outlined at the "Viruses and solid tumors" meeting jointly organized by the Oncology Sections of IRCCS Policlinico "San Matteo" (Pavia) and IRCCS National Cancer Institute (Aviano), held in Pavia, Italy, on October 2011. Experts from the various disciplines involved in the study of the complex relationships between solid tumors and viruses met to discuss recent developments in the field and to report their personal contributions to the specified topics. Secondary end point was to establish a multidisciplinary work group specifically devoted to solid tumors and infectious agents, aimed to identify areas of common interest, promoting and establishing collaborative projects and programs, and to coordinate clinical and research activities. The group, which will be named IVOG (Italian Viral Oncology Group), will operate under the patronage of the various scientific societies of interest.

  7. The 2008 European School of Oncology inside track conference, "predictive modeling in prostate cancer".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdagni, Riccardo; Scardino, Peter T; Denis, Louis

    2009-07-01

    The European School of Oncology (ESO) Inside Track Conference, "Predictive Modeling in Prostate Cancer," the first event ever dedicated to prediction in prostate cancer, was organized in collaboration with the Prostate Program of Milan National Cancer Institute and the American Italian Cancer Foundation in the wonderful scenario of the Excelsior Lido Hotel in Venice on April 17 through 19, 2008. More than 240 participants from 23 countries attended this 3-day conference, which convened an exceptional group of experts from all over the world whose presentations provided a framework for understanding the state of the art in predictive modeling of prostate cancer and displayed future research trends in the uro-oncologic community. Cancer 2009;115(13 suppl):3035-8. (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.

  8. An overview of viral oncology in Italy - report from the Pavia meeting on solid tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perfetti Vittorio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a report on some of the research activities currently ongoing in Italy as outlined at the “Viruses and solid tumors” meeting jointly organized by the Oncology Sections of IRCCS Policlinico “San Matteo” (Pavia and IRCCS National Cancer Institute (Aviano, held in Pavia, Italy, on October 2011. Experts from the various disciplines involved in the study of the complex relationships between solid tumors and viruses met to discuss recent developments in the field and to report their personal contributions to the specified topics. Secondary end point was to establish a multidisciplinary work group specifically devoted to solid tumors and infectious agents, aimed to identify areas of common interest, promoting and establishing collaborative projects and programs, and to coordinate clinical and research activities. The group, which will be named IVOG (Italian Viral Oncology Group, will operate under the patronage of the various scientific societies of interest.

  9. Separation of Radium in Reaction of 60 MeV/u ~(18)O with ThO_2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to obserVe the β-delalyed fission from~(230)Ac~[1],experiments were performed.The 60 MeV/u~(18)O beam with an intensity of about 40 enA was used to irradiate a“radium free”ThO_2 powder target(1.5g/cm~2).The~(230)Ac isotope was produced via the reaction~(232)Th-2P→~(230)Ra[?]~(230)Ac.It is difficult to separate~(230)Ac directly from the reaction products and observe its β-delayed fission in the experiment.We solved the problem

  10. Radiological assessment of water treatment processes in a water treatment plant in Saudi Arabia: Water and sludge radium content, radon air concentrations and dose rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jaseem, Q.Kh., E-mail: qjassem@kacst.edu.sa [Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia); Almasoud, Fahad I. [Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia); Ababneh, Anas M. [Physics Dept., Faculty of Science, Islamic University in Madinah, Al-Madinah, P.O. Box 170 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Hobaib, A.S. [Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-09-01

    There is an increase demand for clean water sources in Saudi Arabia and, yet, renewable water resources are very limited. This has forced the authorities to explore deep groundwater which is known to contain large concentrations of radionuclides, mainly radium isotopes. Lately, there has been an increase in the number of water treatment plants (WTPs) around the country. In this study, a radiological assessment of a WTP in Saudi Arabia was performed. Raw water was found to have total radium activity of 0.23 Bq/L, which exceeds the international limit of 0.185 Bq/L (5 pCi/L). The WTP investigated uses three stages of treatment: flocculation/sedimentation, sand filtration and reverse osmosis. The radium removal efficiency was evaluated for each stage and the respective values were 33%, 22% and 98%. Moreover, the activity of radium in the solid waste generated from the WTP in the sedimentation and sand filtrations stages were measured and found to be 4490 and 6750 Bq/kg, respectively, which exceed the national limit of 1000 Bq/kg for radioactive waste. A radiological assessment of the air inside the WTP was also performed by measuring the radon concentrations and dose rates and were found in the ranges of 2–18 Bq/m{sup 3} and 70–1000 nSv/h, respectively. The annual effective dose was calculated and the average values was found to be 0.3 mSv which is below the 1 mSv limit. - Highlights: • Radiological assessment of groundwater treatment plant was performed. • Radium Removal efficiency was calculated for different stages during water treatment. • Radium concentrations in sludge were measured and found to exceed the national limit for radioactive waste. • Air radon concentrations and dose rates were monitored in the water treatment plant. • The Reverse Osmosis (RO) unit was found to record the highest air radon concentrations and dose rates.

  11. Institutional ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rebecca; Tienari, Janne

    2016-01-01

    . In institutional ethnography the notion of objectification is applied to describe research processes like those that have been found to dominate in scholarly work on M&As. In this chapter, we offer an outline of Smiths critique of objectification, elucidate how institutional ethnography seeks to address it...

  12. Colonial Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura; Palmer, Russell

    2016-01-01

    and the USA which reveal that the study of colonial institutions should not be limited to the functional life of these institutions—or solely those that take the form of monumental architecture—but should include the long shadow of “imperial debris” (Stoler 2008) and immaterial institutions....

  13. Institutional actorhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Uhrenholdt

    In this paper I describe the changing role of intra-organizational experts in the face of institutional complexity of their field. I do this through a qualitative investigation of the institutional and organizational roles of actors in Danish organizations who are responsible for the efforts to c...... to comply with the Danish work environment regulation. And by doing so I also describe how institutional complexity and organizational responses to this complexity are particular important for the changing modes of governance that characterizes contemporary welfare states.......In this paper I describe the changing role of intra-organizational experts in the face of institutional complexity of their field. I do this through a qualitative investigation of the institutional and organizational roles of actors in Danish organizations who are responsible for the efforts...

  14. Institutional upbringing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2008-01-01

    In the chapter, I discuss the role day care institutions play in the construction of the idea of proper childhood in Denmark. Drawing on findings from research on ethnic minority children in two Danish day care institutions, I begin with a discussion of how childcare institutions act as civilising...... agents, empowered with the legitimate right to define and control normality and proper ways of behaving oneself. I aim to show how institutions come to define the normal child and proper childhood in accordance with current efforts toward reinventing national culture, exemplified by legislation requiring...... current testing of Danish language fluency levels among pre-school minority children. Testing language skills marks and defines distinctions that reinforce images of deviance that, in turn, legitimize initiatives to enrol children, specifically minority children, in child care institutions....

  15. Mind-body therapies in integrative oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Gary; Fisher, William; Johnson, Aimee

    2010-12-01

    There is growing interest in mind-body therapies as adjuncts to mainstream cancer treatment, and an increasing number of patients turn to these interventions for the control of emotional stress associated with cancer. Increased research funding has enabled many such interventions to be evaluated for their efficacy, including studies of mind-body interventions to reduce pain, anxiety, insomnia, anticipatory, and treatment-related nauseas, hot flashes, and improved mood. Mind-body treatments evaluated for their utility in oncology include relaxation therapies, biofeedback, meditation and hypnosis, yoga, art and music therapy, tai chi, and qigong. Although studies are not always methodologically sound and results mixed, a growing number of well-designed studies provide convincing evidence that mind-body techniques are beneficial adjuncts to cancer treatment. The evidence is sufficient to recommend further investigation and adoption of these techniques in mainstream oncology care.

  16. Neuro-oncology of CNS tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, J.C. [Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Westphal, M. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik; Rutka, J.T. [Toronto Univ. Hospital for Sick Children, ON (Canada). Div. of Neurosurgery; Grossmann, S.A. (eds.) [Johns Hopkins Oncology Center Neuro-Oncology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Diagnosis and treatment modalities for neuro-oncologic diseases have made considerable advances in recent years. There is hardly a segment of the field of solid tumours that is experiencing such dynamic development with regard to basic scientific findings and clinical results. In the present book the world's leading experts have compiled the current practice-relevant knowledge of neuro-oncologic diseases. The book's clear structure and the uniform presentation of all chapters make this volume a valuable reference, especially for practice-oriented activities, allowing swift access to information about current treatment standards. Hence it will be of great value to both clinicians and researchers. (orig.)

  17. Radiation oncology a physicist's-eye view

    CERN Document Server

    Goitein, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Radiation Oncology: A Physicist's-Eye View was written for both physicists and medical oncologists with the aim of helping them approach the use of radiation in the treatment of cancer with understanding, confidence, and imagination. The book will let practitioners in one field understand the problems of, and find solutions for, practitioners in the other. It will help them to know "why" certain approaches are fruitful while, at the same time, encouraging them to ask the question "Why not?" in the face of assertions that some proposal of theirs is impractical, unreasonable, or impossible. Unlike a textbook, formal and complete developments of the topics are not among the goals. Instead, the reader will develop a foundation for understanding what the author has found to be matters of importance in radiation oncology during over thirty years of experience. Presentations cover, in largely non-technical language, the principal physical and biological aspects of radiation treatment and address practical clinical c...

  18. Value: a framework for radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teckie, Sewit; McCloskey, Susan A; Steinberg, Michael L

    2014-09-10

    In the current health care system, high costs without proportional improvements in quality or outcome have prompted widespread calls for change in how we deliver and pay for care. Value-based health care delivery models have been proposed. Multiple impediments exist to achieving value, including misaligned patient and provider incentives, information asymmetries, convoluted and opaque cost structures, and cultural attitudes toward cancer treatment. Radiation oncology as a specialty has recently become a focus of the value discussion. Escalating costs secondary to rapidly evolving technologies, safety breaches, and variable, nonstandardized structures and processes of delivering care have garnered attention. In response, we present a framework for the value discussion in radiation oncology and identify approaches for attaining value, including economic and structural models, process improvements, outcome measurement, and cost assessment.

  19. Resilience and family of oncological patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Garassi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resilience like ability to overcome adversity and even learn and get out “strengthened” them has become, in the last decade, the focus of many studies throughout the life cycle and in different cultures. On the other hand, oncological disease was introduced globally in a high percentage of the population requiring labor and health team including psychologists for coping on the part of the patient and their family members. The authors cited in the course of this article refer to the importance of developing resilience at the personal, family and cultural level, started with the presence of trust relationships, cultivating positive emotions, the acceptance of different cycles of life and belief in a just world. These promoting resilience factors are the springs that allow the experience of oncological disease and even death and mourning as opportunities to generate personal and familiar learning. 

  20. Oncological considerations of skin-sparing mastectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Cunnick, GH; Mokbel, K

    2006-01-01

    Aim To review evidence concerning the oncological safety of performing skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) for invasive breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Furthermore, the evidence concerning RT in relation to SSM and the possibility of nipple preservation was considered. Methods Literature review facilitated by Medline and PubMed databases. Findings Despite the lack of randomised controlled trials, SSM has become an accepted procedure in women undergoing mastectomy and immediate re...

  1. Whole body MR imaging: applications in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, C; Brennan, S; Ford, S; Eustace, S

    2006-04-01

    This article reviews technique and clinical applications of whole body MR imaging as a diagnostic tool in cancer staging. In particular the article reviews its role as an alternative to scintigraphy (bone scan and PET) in staging skeletal spread of disease, its role in assessing total tumour burden, its role in multiple myeloma and finally its evolving non oncologic role predominantly assessing total body composition.

  2. The Sir Anthony Mamo Oncology Centre

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, the development of a medical brief, effectively detailing the specifications for a purpose-built oncology hospital and including the medical equipment and human resources required, was commenced. Robust engagement by the relevant stakeholders, many of which hailed from the extant Sir Paul Boffa Hospital, ensured a very relevant proposal. The project (ERDF 196), led by the Foundation for Medical Sciences, was subsequently approved for partial funding through Europ...

  3. [Multidisciplinary oncology teams: beware of endless discussions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giard, Raimond W M

    2010-01-01

    The continual and increasing complexity of diagnostic and treatment options in oncology demands careful communication, coordination and decision making. Cancer care could be improved by multidisciplinary teamwork. Although this sort of teamwork has many advantages in theory, we know very little about its effectiveness in practice. We have to answer questions such as how teams can accomplish their task most effectively and how we must manage organizations in such a way that team-based working contributes optimally to organizational effectiveness.

  4. Database management for a gynecologic oncology service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, I; Noumoff, J S; Carlson, J A; Giuntoli, R L; Morgan, M; Mikuta, J J

    1990-09-01

    With the ready availability of powerful desktop computers, the ability to manage large clinical databases has become practical. A computer can enhance the capability of a gynecologic oncology service to catalog, recall, and analyze data about patients, tumors, and therapies. While commercially available database packages can be used for this purpose, we have developed a custom database for tracking the clinical activity of a busy gynecologic oncology service. The system catalogs data about patients, admissions, tumors, and therapeutic modalities and uses this information to generate several useful reports. The reports are used for daily patient care, fellow and resident case statistics, and clinical research. What is unique about the system is that it is optimized for ease of use. The development of this tumor registry, its user friendliness, and advantages over a manual recordkeeping system are described. Unlike other tumor registries, our system is utilized on a daily basis for patient care. Therefore, the data being entered have an immediate usefulness in addition to being simultaneously added to the tumor register for retrospective clinical research. One may hypothesize that it would be useful if all gynecologic oncology services used a common computerized tumor registry that could allow for the sharing of information on a national or global scale.

  5. Moral justification of Phase 1 oncology trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubov, Alex

    2014-06-01

    This article attempts to answer the following normative questions: Can one consider the design of Phase 1 trials ethically appropriate due to the unfavorable ratio of risks and benefits? What are some ethical safeguards for Phase 1 oncology research? A comparative review of literature contributed to the consolidation of the proposed ethical framework for Phase 1 oncology trials. This framework gives a special attention to issues of therapeutic misconception and vulnerability. The benefits and dangers associated with the enrollment in trials are described as well as the absence of alternatives, treatment-specific optimism, and vagueness in factual presentation during the informed consent process. The notion of therapeutic misconception is contrasted with optimism despite realism that stems from psychological, cultural, and religious factors and not necessarily from the lack of information. Close attention is given to the possible ways in which the inherent uncertainty and resulting cognitive biases may affect the informed consent process and the definition of therapeutic misconception. The article ends with recommendations for an ethical way of enrolling palliative patients in early stages of oncology research, giving special attention to provision of adequate consent, protection of vulnerability, and avoidance of therapeutic misconception.

  6. Lymphoscintigraphy in oncology: a rediscovered challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes Olmos, R.A.; Hoefnagel, C.A. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Nieweg, O.E.; Jansen, L.; Rutgers, E.J.T.; Kroon, B.B.R. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Surgery; Borger, J. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Horenblas, S. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Urology

    1999-04-01

    The validation of the sentinel node concept in oncology has led to the rediscovery of lymphoscintigraphy. By combining preoperative lymphatic mapping with intraoperative probe detection this nuclear medicine procedure is being increasingly used to identify and detect the sentinel node in melanoma, breast cancer, and in other malignancies such as penile cancer and vulvar cancer. In the past lymphoscintigraphy has been widely applied for various indications in oncology, and in the case of the internal mammary lymph-node chain its current use in breast cancer remains essential to adjust irradiation treatment to the individual findings of each patient. In another diagnostic area, lymphoscintigraphy is also useful to document altered drainage patterns after surgery and/or radiotherapy; its use in breast cancer patients with upper limb oedema after axillary lymph-node dissection or in melanoma patients with lower-extremity oedema after groin dissection can provide information for physiotherapy or reconstructive surgery. Finally, the renewed interest in lymphoscintigraphy in oncology has led not only to the rediscovery of findings from old literature reports, but also to a discussion about methodological aspects such as tracer characteristics, image acquisition or administration routes, as well as to discussion on the study of migration patterns of radiolabelled colloid particles in the context of cancer dissemination. All this makes the need for standardized guidelines for lymphoscintigraphy mandatory. (orig.) With 10 figs., 1 tab., 56 refs.

  7. Transparent Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fombona

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project is to create sets of media-based imagery that illustrate the internal workings of public institutions to the common citizen. This is an important need in countries that are seeking to open up their public and private institutions and bring them closer to their users. Method: There is a clear need to carry out proposals that tackle organizational lack of transparency; to this end, through an interdisciplinary approach, we propose the creation of a freeaccess Web-based portal that shows the interior of the institutions at hand, learning institutions to start with, this scope will be broadened later to institutions of health and public safety. The project chooses and shows a core selection of features capable of becoming international models for each kind of institutions, elementary schools in this phase. These features are shown in short videos, depicting every core element found: installations, governing bodies, documentation, samples of learning and teaching methodologies in use, etc. Results: the propossed project succeeds in getting institutions closer to their users. It has been developed in Spain, and translated to other Latin-American countries and the United States.

  8. Transparent Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fombona

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project is to create sets of media-based imagery that illustrate the internal workings of public institutions to the common citizen. This is an important need in countries that are seeking to open up their public and private institutions and bring them closer to their users. Method: There is a clear need to carry out proposals that tackle organizational lack of transparency; to this end, through an interdisciplinary approach, we propose the creation of a freeaccess Web-based portal that shows the interior of the institutions at hand, learning institutions to start with, this scope will be broadened later to institutions of health and public safety. The project chooses and shows a core selection of features capable of becoming international models for each kind of institutions, elementary schools in this phase. These features are shown in short videos, depicting every core element found: installations, governing bodies, documentation, samples of learning and teaching methodologies in use, etc. Results: the propossed project succeeds in getting institutions closer to their users. It has been developed in Spain, and translated to other Latin-American countries and the United States.

  9. Practical guidance: the use of social media in oncology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizon, Don S; Graham, David; Thompson, Michael A; Johnson, Lisa J; Johnston, Claire; Fisch, Michael J; Miller, Robert

    2012-09-01

    The penetration of social media into modern society has become a worldwide cultural phenomenon. Social media use widely accessible Web-based and mobile technologies to facilitate the creation and sharing of user-generated content in a collaborative and social manner. The uptake of social media in medicine provides new opportunities for health care professionals and institutions to interact with patients and other professionals. Oncologists may use social media as a platform for patient education and authoritative health messaging, for professional development and knowledge sharing, and for direct patient interaction, although this may be fraught with important legal and privacy concerns. In this article, a working group of the ASCO Integrated Media and Technology Committee explores how oncologists might responsibly use social media in their professional lives. Existing social media policies from hospitals, health systems, and pharmaceutical industries are examined to identify common concepts informing the development of future guidelines. Key principles identified include establishing institutional ownership of social media activities and safeguarding protected health information. Furthermore, oncologists must not confuse the roles of provider of information and provider of care, must understand regulations related to state licensure and medical records, and must recognize the importance of transparency and disclosure of potential conflicts of interest. social media may be particularly useful for raising the awareness of and recruitment to clinical trials, but compliance with federal and state regulations and areas under the purview of a local institutional review board must also be ensured. Examples of constructive use of social media in oncology with Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube are provided.

  10. Radium-228 determination of natural waters via concentration on manganese dioxide and separation using Diphonix ion exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, S; El-Sharkawy, A; Burnett, W C; Horwitz, E P

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this work was to establish a new procedure for 228Ra determination of natural waters via preconcentration of radium on MnO2 and separation of its daughter, 228Ac, using Diphonix ion exchange resin. Following removal of potential interferences via passage through an initial Diphonix Resin column, the first daughter of 228Ra, 228Ac, is isolated by chromatographic separation via a second Diphonix column. A holding time of > 30 h for 228Ac ingrowth in between the two column separations ensures secular equilibrium. Barium-133 is used as a yield tracer. Actinium-228 is eluted from the second Diphonix Resin with 5 ml 1M 1-Hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) and quantified by addition of scintillation cocktail and LSC counting. Radium (and 133Ba) from the load and rinse solutions from the 2nd Diphonix column may be prepared for alpha spectrometry (for determination of 223Ra, 224Ra, and 226Ra) by BaSO4 microprecipitation and filtration. Decontamination tests indicate that U, Th, and Ra series nuclides do not interfere with these measurements, although high contents of 90Sr (90Y) require additional treatment for accurate measurement of 228Ra. Addition of stable Sr as a "hold back" carrier during the initial MnO2 preconcentration step was shown to remove most 90Sr interference.

  11. Uranium and radium activities measurements and calculation of effective doses in some drinking water samples in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oum Keltoum Hakam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As a way of prevention, we have measured the activities of uranium and radium isotopes (234U, 238U, 226Ra, 228Ra for 30 drinking water samples collected from 11 wells, 9 springs (6 hot and 3 cold, 3 commercialised mineral water, and 7 tap water samples. Methods: Activities of the Ra isotopes were measured by ultra-gamma spectrometry using a low background and high efficiency well type germanium detector. The U isotopes were counted in an alpha spectrometer.Results: The measured Uranium and radium activities are similar to those published for other non-polluting regions of the world. Except in one commercialised gaseous water sample, and in two hot spring water samples, the calculated effective doses during one year are inferior to the reference level of 0.1 mSv/year recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Conclusion: These activities don't present any risk for public health in Morocco. The sparkling water of Oulmes is occasionally consumed as table water and waters of warm springs are not used as main sources of drinking water.  

  12. Atomic parity violation in one single trapped and laser cooled radium ion: a probe of electroweak running

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giri, G.S.; Boell, O.; Jungmann, K.; Sahoo, B.K.; Timmermans, R.G.E.; Versolato, O.O.; Wansbeek, L.W.; Willmann, L. [KVI, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    One single-trapped and laser cooled radium ion is an ideal candidate to investigate atomic parity non-conservation (APNC). APNC can serve as a low energy test of the Standard Model of particle physics. We aim for a precision measurement of the electroweak mixing angle, by probing the differential light shift of the 7S and 6D Zeeman sublevels. This shift is caused by the interaction of the ion with an off-resonant laser light field. With precision RF spectroscopy and subsequent electron shelving, the differential splitting can be determined to sub-Hertz accuracy. Recent calculations show that Ra{sup +} is a superior candidate for probing APNC. With an almost identical set-up and using the electron shelving technique, ultra-narrow transitions in this ion can be exploited for an all optical, high stability frequency standard clock. We have succeeded in the production and subsequent slowing down of radium isotopes around {sup 213}Ra. Further progress has been made in the development of ion traps and the necessary high precision optical laboratory. Laser spectroscopy of Ra{sup +} and the first ever trapping of this particle are being prepared.

  13. Age validation of canary rockfish (Sebastes pinniger) using two independent otolith techniques: lead-radium and bomb radiocarbon dating.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, A H; Kerr, L A; Cailliet, G M; Brown, T A; Lundstrom, C C; Stanley, R D

    2007-11-04

    Canary rockfish (Sebastes pinniger) have long been an important part of recreational and commercial rockfish fishing from southeast Alaska to southern California, but localized stock abundances have declined considerably. Based on age estimates from otoliths and other structures, lifespan estimates vary from about 20 years to over 80 years. For the purpose of monitoring stocks, age composition is routinely estimated by counting growth zones in otoliths; however, age estimation procedures and lifespan estimates remain largely unvalidated. Typical age validation techniques have limited application for canary rockfish because they are deep dwelling and may be long lived. In this study, the unaged otolith of the pair from fish aged at the Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada was used in one of two age validation techniques: (1) lead-radium dating and (2) bomb radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) dating. Age estimate accuracy and the validity of age estimation procedures were validated based on the results from each technique. Lead-radium dating proved successful in determining a minimum estimate of lifespan was 53 years and provided support for age estimation procedures up to about 50-60 years. These findings were further supported by {Delta}{sup 14}C data, which indicated a minimum estimate of lifespan was 44 {+-} 3 years. Both techniques validate, to differing degrees, age estimation procedures and provide support for inferring that canary rockfish can live more than 80 years.

  14. Burn Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Now Help keep local seniors safe from fire! Burn Survivor Support If you are reading this, chances ... year – a burn injury. Learn more Fire and Burn Prevention Each year, the Burn Institute provides fire ...

  15. CSCAPES Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex Pothen

    2008-10-26

    We report on the progress made by researchers of the CSCAPES Institute at Old Dominion University for the years 2007 and 2008 in the areas of research, software creation, education and training, and outreach activities.

  16. Institutional Controls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of institutional control data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different...

  17. Current status of radon and radium monitoring at the Federal University of Technology (UTFPR), PR, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Schelin, Hugo R.; Denyak, Valeriy; Barbosa, Laercio; Perna, Allan F.N. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Numerous and systematic studies performed in different countries for many decades resulted in the explicit conclusion that radon exposure, as well as its progeny, is the main cause of lung cancer among non-smokers. All three natural radon isotopes ({sup 222}Rn, {sup 220}Rn and {sup 219}Rn) are produced in the three principal natural radioactive decay chains. Specifically, the {sup 222}Rn is produced by the decay series of {sup 238}U and proceeded from {alpha}-decay of {sup 226}Ra. Current work describes the present status and obtained results concerning indoor radon survey in dwellings, radon in water supply and soil gas tests performed by the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology (UTFPR) within Curitiba urban area. For radon in air activity measurements, it was used polycarbonate etched track detectors such as LEXAN (GE) and CR-39, mounted in diffusion chambers. For soil gas measurements, the experimental setup was based on the Professional Radon Monitor (AlphaGUARD, Genitron/SAPHYMO) connected to the air pump with filter vessels and to specially developed in our Laboratory the Soil Gas Probe. In the case of radon tests in drinking water, the experimental setup was based on the AlphaGUARD Radon monitor and Electronic radon detector RAD7 (Durridge Company, Inc.) connected to special kit of glass vessels through the air pump. Obtained results permitted to identify few dwellings where radon concentration in air was found bigger than 600 Bq/m{sup 3} which is considered as the action level by most of the European Community and the World Health Organization (WHO). In the case of studied artesian wells, collected samples of water presented the average {sup 222}Rn activity about 60 Bq/L which is 6 times bigger than maximum level recommended by USEPA. Some artesian wells presented the radon activity of almost 200 Bq/L. More over, it was identified the radioactivity of radium ({sup 226}Ra) salts which are soluble in water and almost

  18. Comparison of Activity Determination of Radium 226 in FUSRAP Soil using Various Energy Lines - 12299

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, Brian [Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure, Stoughton, MA 02072 (United States); Donakowski, Jough [Unites States Army Corps of Engineers, Kansas City, MO 64106 (United States); Hays, David [United States Army Corps of Engineers, Maywood, NJ 07607 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Gamma spectroscopy is used at the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Maywood Superfund Site as the primary radioanalytical tool for quantization of activities of the radionuclides of concern in site soil. When selecting energy lines in gamma spectroscopy, a number of factors are considered including assumptions concerning secondary equilibrium, interferences, and the strength of the lines. The case of the Maywood radionuclide of concern radium-226 (Ra-226) is considered in this paper. At the FUSRAP Maywood Superfund Site, one of the daughters produced from radioactive decay of Ra-226, lead-214 (Pb- 214), is used to quantitate Ra-226. Another Ra-226 daughter, bismuth-214 (Bi-214), also may be used to quantitate Ra-226. In this paper, a comparison of Ra-226 to Pb-214 activities and Ra-226 to Bi-214 activities, obtained using gamma spectrometry for a large number of soil samples, was performed. The Pb-214, Bi-214, and Ra-226 activities were quantitated using the 352 kilo electron volt (keV), 609 keV, and 186 keV lines, respectively. The comparisons were made after correcting the Ra-226 activities by a factor of 0.571 and both ignoring and accounting for the contribution of a U-235 interfering line to the Ra-226 line. For the Pb-214 and Bi-214 activities, a mean in-growth factor was employed. The gamma spectrometer was calibrated for efficiency and energy using a mixed gamma standard and an energy range of 59 keV to 1830 keV. The authors expect other sites with Ra-226 contamination in soil may benefit from the discussions and points in this paper. Proper use of correction factors and comparison of the data from three different gamma-emitting radionuclides revealed agreement with expectations and provided confidence that using such correction factors generates quality data. The results indicate that if contamination is low level and due to NORM, the Ra-226 can be measured directly if corrected to subtract the contribution from U-235. If there is

  19. Neuro-oncology: a selected review of ASCO 2016 abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Marc C

    2016-10-01

    ASCO 2016, 29 May-2 June 2016, Chicago, IL, USA The largest annual clinical oncology conference the American Society of Clinical Oncology is held in the USA and gives researchers and other key opinion leaders the opportunity to present new cancer clinical trials and research data. The CNS tumors section of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 2016 covered various aspects of neuro-oncology including metastatic CNS diseases and primary brain tumors, presented via posters, oral talks and over 100 abstracts. This brief review selectively highlights presentations from this meeting in an organizational manner that reflects clinically relevant aspects of a large and multifaceted meeting.

  20. Early stage carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Effects of intracavitary radium treatment on lymphoid cells in blood and pelvic lymph nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onsrud, M.; Grahm, I.; Gaudernack, G.

    Sixteen patients with early stage carcinoma of the uterine cervix treated with primary radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy were compared with 17 patients who four to six weeks before the operation received intracavitary treatment with radium. The calculated radiation dose to the pelvic wall was approximately 10 Gy. The distribution of lymphoid cells in blood and pelvic lymph nodes was studied by an indirect immunoflourescence technique using monoclonal antibodies. The radium treated group showed a significant reduction of circulating OKT4+ (T helper) and OKT8+ (T suppressor/cytotoxic) lymphocytes. The number of Leu7+ (natural killer) cells and 1D5+ cells (monocytes) was not changed, but the ratio between monocytes and T cells was increased after radium therapy. In cell suspensions obtained from the pelvic lymph nodes, the radium treatment induced a significant reduction of the OKT4+ cell fraction. It is concluded that this low dose rate regimen of intracavitary treatment induces changes in the immune system which are of the same type as those seen after external field irradiation.

  1. Changes in skeletal tumor activity on {sup 18}F-choline PET/CT in patients receiving {sup 223}radium radionuclide therapy for metastatic prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Kyle S. [Oncology Research Dept. and Hamamatsu/Queen' s PET Imaging Center, The Queen' s Medical Center, Honolulu (United States); Kang, Yu; Kwee, Sandi A. [Dept. of Medical Physics, School of Allied Health Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Radium-223 dichloride is an alpha-emitting radiopharmaceutical shown to prolong survival in patients with castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and symptomatic skeletal metastases. This report describes in two patients the acute changes in bone metastatic activity detected by F-18 choline PET/CT imaging midway during treatment with radium-223 dichloride. In addition to visual and standardized uptake value analysis, changes in the whole-body tumor burden were quantified by measuring the difference in net metabolically active tumor volume (MATV) and total lesion activity (TLA) between pre- and mid-treatment PET scans. After the third dose of radium-223 dichloride, near-total disappearance of abnormal skeletal activity was observed in one case (net MATV change from 260.7 to 0.8 cc; net TLA change from 510.7 to 2.1), while a heterogeneous tumor response was observed in the other (net MATV change from 272.2 to 241.3 cc; net TLA change from 987.1 to 779.4). Corresponding normalization and persistent elevation in serum alkaline phosphatase levels were observed in these cases, respectively. Further research is needed to determine the predictive value of serial F-18 choline PET/CT imaging in patients receiving radium-223 dichloride for CRPC.

  2. Evaluation of bone metastases by 18F-choline PET/CT in a patient with castration-resistant prostate cancer treated with radium-223.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalzi, Piera; Baiocco, Cinzia; Genovese, Sabrina; Trevisan, Antonella; Sirotova, Zuzana; Poti, Carlo

    2017-02-03

    To date, bone metastases remain the main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Therefore, the combination of accurate early detection of bony disease and effective treatment of these lesions is crucial in the management of mCRPC patients, but clinical trials specifically designed to test novel approaches are currently lacking. This report describes the case of a 74-year-old male with bone mCRPC and symptomatic and biochemical progression, who underwent radium-223 therapy, following previous treatment failure. 18F-choline positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) was used to assess changes in skeletal tumor activity before and after radium-223. Changes in prostate-specific antigen and alkaline phosphatase were also determined. 18F-choline PET/CT showed that treatment with radium-223 was able to effectively reduce bone metastatic disease, and this was accompanied by an excellent metabolic response. In clinical practice, metabolic assessment of lesions by 18F-choline PET/CT following radium-223 seems a valid approach to monitor treatment response. Until results from clinical trials become available, reporting of single cases relating to data on the use of this technique remains paramount.

  3. Complementary and alternative medicine use in oncology: A questionnaire survey of patients and health care professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweeney Karl J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to investigate the prevalence and predictors of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM use among cancer patients and non-cancer volunteers, and to assess the knowledge of and attitudes toward CAM use in oncology among health care professionals. Methods This is a cross-sectional questionnaire survey conducted in a single institution in Ireland. Survey was performed in outpatient and inpatient settings involving cancer patients and non-cancer volunteers. Clinicians and allied health care professionals were asked to complete a different questionnaire. Results In 676 participants including 219 cancer patients; 301 non-cancer volunteers and 156 health care professionals, the overall prevalence of CAM use was 32.5% (29.1%, 30.9% and 39.7% respectively in the three study cohorts. Female gender (p Conclusions This study demonstrates a similarly high prevalence of CAM use among oncology health care professionals, cancer and non cancer patients. Patients are more likely to disclose CAM usage if they are specifically asked. Health care professionals are interested to learn more about various CAM therapies and have poor evidence-based knowledge on specific oncology treatments. There is a need for further training to meet to the escalation of CAM use among patients and to raise awareness of potential benefits and risks associated with these therapies.

  4. Pharmacists' roles in oncology pharmacy services: Results of a global survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holle, Lisa M; Harris, Christy S; Chan, Alexandre; Fahrenbruch, Rebecca J; Labdi, Bonnie A; Mohs, Jocelyn E; Norris, Leann B; Perkins, Janelle; Vela, Cory M

    2017-04-01

    understanding, administrative assistance, or time with setting up reimbursement models within the institution. Conclusion Many oncology pharmacists are participating in oral chemotherapy programs, MTM, and/or CPAs and perceived barriers were identified. Increased efforts should be directed toward prospectively reporting and assessing the impact these services have on patient care.

  5. Maternal Dietary Patterns During Early Pregnancy and the Odds of Childhood Germ Cell Tumors: A Children's Oncology Group Study

    OpenAIRE

    Musselman, Jessica R.B.; Anne M Jurek; Johnson, Kimberly J.; Linabery, Amy M.; Robison, Leslie L.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ross, Julie A

    2010-01-01

    Maternal diet during pregnancy may be associated with cancer in offspring. Intake of individual foods, as well as dietary patterns, can be used when examining these relations. Here, the authors examined associations between maternal dietary intake patterns and pediatric germ cell tumors (GCTs) using principal components analysis and logistic regression. Mothers of 222 GCT cases aged less than 15 years who were diagnosed at a Children's Oncology Group institution between 1993 and 2001 and thos...

  6. An increase in medical student knowledge of radiation oncology: a pre-post examination analysis of the oncology education initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Ariel E; Mulleady Bishop, Pauline; Dad, Luqman; Singh, Deeptej; Slanetz, Priscilla J

    2009-03-15

    The Oncology Education Initiative was created to advance oncology and radiation oncology education by integrating structured didactics into the existing core radiology clerkship. We set out to determine whether the addition of structured didactics could lead to a significant increase in overall medical student knowledge about radiation oncology. We conducted a pre- and posttest examining concepts in general radiation oncology, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. The 15-question, multiple-choice exam was administered before and after a 1.5-hour didactic lecture by an attending physician in radiation oncology. Individual question changes, overall student changes, and overall categorical changes were analyzed. All hypothesis tests were two-tailed (significance level 0.05). Of the 153 fourth-year students, 137 (90%) took the pre- and posttest and were present for the didactic lecture. The average test grade improved from 59% to 70% (p = 0.011). Improvement was seen in all questions except clinical vignettes involving correct identification of TNM staging. Statistically significant improvement (p cancer, delivery of radiation treatment, and management of early-stage breast cancer. Addition of didactics in radiation oncology significantly improves medical students' knowledge of the topic. Despite perceived difficulty in teaching radiation oncology and the assumption that it is beyond the scope of reasonable knowledge for medical students, we have shown that even with one dedicated lecture, students can learn and absorb general principles regarding radiation oncology.

  7. Pediatric oncology at Hospital Infantil de Mexico: fifty-five years of accomplishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Sanson, A; Martínez-Avalos, A; Gallegos-Castorena, S; Juárez-Villegas, L E; González-Montalvo, P; Perales-Arroyo, A; Gallegos-González, E; Ayometzi-Ouchi, M T

    2002-09-01

    The Department of Oncology at Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez (HIMFG) was the first unit in our country, and one of the first in Latin America, to specialize in the management of children with cancer. The HIMFG is part of the National Institutes of Health of Mexico, and is a reference hospital with research, educative, and tertiary care medical function. To date, the HIMFG and the Instituto Nacional de Pediatria are the principal medical centers in which children with cancer receive comprehensive care.

  8. [Donatori di Musica: when oncology meets music].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graiff, Claudio

    2014-10-01

    Donatori di Musica is a network of musicians - both physicians and volunteers - that was initially founded in 2009 with the aim to set up and coordinate classical music concerts in hospitals. This activity was initially started and led by the Oncology Departments at Carrara and Bolzano Hospitals, where high profile professional musicians make themselves available for concerts in support of Oncological in/out-patients of that specific Hospital. A live classical music performance is a deeply touching experience - particularly for those who live a critical condition like cancer. Main characteristics of Donatori di Musica concerts are: continuity (concerts are part of a regular and non-stopping music season); quality (concerts are held by well-established professional musicians); philanthropic attitude (musicians do not wear a suit and usually chat with patients; they also select an easy-to-listen program; a convivial event is usually organized after the performance with the aim of overcoming distinctions and barriers between physician and patient); no profit: musicians perform for free - travel expenses and/or overnight staying only can be claimed; concerts have free access for patients, their families and hospital staff.Patients and musicians therefore do get in close contact and music is able to merge each other experiences - with patients being treated by the beauty of music and musicians being treated theirselves by patients daily-life feedback. The Donatori di Musica experience is therefore able to help Medicine to retrieve its very first significance - the medical act regain that human and cultural dimension that seems to be abandoned in the last decades in favour of a mere technicism. This is the spirit and the deep significance of Donatori di Musica - «[…] the hope that Music can become a key support to medical treatments in every Oncology department» (by Gian Andrea Lodovici).

  9. Unimagined Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangenberg, Mikkel Bruun

    2007-01-01

    In this paper it is argued that war contains inherent and thus necessary aesthetic traits (ranging from sensory data to narrative features), but that existing research institutions throughout the West have failed to address this issue adequately, in terms of research policy, recruitment and metho......In this paper it is argued that war contains inherent and thus necessary aesthetic traits (ranging from sensory data to narrative features), but that existing research institutions throughout the West have failed to address this issue adequately, in terms of research policy, recruitment...... and methodology. Accordingly, it is suggested that scholars from the humanities in particular aggressively seek to develop new types of research institutions and methods in order to deal with the manifold forms of overlap between warfare and aesthetics. In empirical terms, focus is limited to the current...

  10. Evidence-based paediatric surgical oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losty, Paul D

    2016-10-01

    Surgeons play a pivotal role in the decision-making and multidisciplinary management of childhood solid tumours.(1) Evidence-based medicine-"aims to optimise decision making by emphasising on the use of best evidence from well-designed conducted research." This article offers a brief overview in an effort to demonstrate how a selection of well-conducted, recently published studies can help address some topical and controversial themes in paediatric surgical oncology practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. ULTRASOUND APPLICATION FOR TREATMENT OF ONCOLOGICAL DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Minchenya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes methods for treatment of oncological diseases while applying ultrasound as an independent method and modifier of radiation therapy.Experimental and clinical investigations show effectiveness of ultrasound as an independent remedy against malignant tumors and its usage in combination with other anti-tumor agents. However combination effect of ultrasound and radiation on malignant neoplasms and mechanisms of radiation-sensitizing action of low-frequency ultrasonic radiation is still understudied. Influence of ultrasound input direction in malignant tumor zone has not been investigated yet and there are no rational designs of waveguides for controllable vibration impact on skin neoplasms.

  12. Clinical Oncology-A New Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Biyun Qian; Dan Su; Herbert Yu

    2007-01-01

    Rapid growth in biomedical research coupled with dramatic advancement in biotechnology has significantly improved our understanding of the molecular basis involving cancer development and progression.This improvement has led to the discovery of new molecular markers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis as well as new molecular targets for cancer treatment and intervention.Continuous emergence of some new developing area in molecular profiling,new therapeutic agents,tissue microenvironment and systems biology have made significant progress in clinical oncology.Clinical research and investigation that focus on these new developments have begun to show exciting results that indicate future promises in improving patient management and survival.

  13. Advanced MR Imaging in Neuro-oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radbruch, A; Bendszus, M

    2015-10-01

    The value of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for the clinical management of brain tumour patients has greatly increased in recent years through the introduction of functional MR sequences. Previously, MR imaging for brain tumours relied for the most part on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR sequences but today with the help of advanced functional MR sequences, the pathophysiological aspects of tumour growth can be directly visualised and investigated. This article will present the pathophysiological background of the MR sequences relevant to neuro-oncological imaging as well as potential clinical applications. Ultimately, we take a look at possible future developments for ultra-high-field MR imaging.

  14. Psychosocial Impact of Personalized Therapies in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Georgia; Schulz-Kindermann, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Personalized medicine is a keyword in modern oncology summarizing biomarker-driven targeted therapies. Those novel agents enhance our therapeutic portfolio and offer new options for our patients. But the term is often misleading and implicates a tailored therapy to the individual person, but it rather means a treatment stratified on genetic characteristics of the tumor. Molecular therapies raise expectations of curability or long-term treatments making former life-threatening diseases to more chronic ones but this is true only for some patients. So we have to carefully communicate with our patients about the options and limitations of those modern therapies not to trigger disappointments.

  15. Whole-body imaging modalities in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Fiona; Shortt, Conor P; Shelly, Martin J; Eustace, Stephen J; O'Connell, Martin J

    2010-03-01

    This article outlines the expanding approaches to whole-body imaging in oncology focusing on whole-body MRI and comparing it to emerging applications of whole-body CT, scintigraphy, and above all PET CT imaging. Whole-body MRI is widely available, non-ionizing and rapidly acquired, and inexpensive relative to PET CT. While it has many advantages, WBMRI is non-specific and, when compared to PET CT, is less sensitive. This article expands each of these issues comparing individual modalities as they refer to specific cancers.

  16. INTEGRATIVE ONCOLOGY, A PRACTICE UNDER CONSTRUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Siegel, Pamela; Barros, Nelson Filice de

    2013-01-01

    O termo Oncologia Integrativa (OI) foi criado a partir da medicina integrativa, que se diferencia das medicinas alternativa e complementarpor buscar resultados baseados em evidências e considerar o paciente em sua totalidade. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar os resultados de uma revisão integrativa da literatura realizada no bancode dados PubMed-MEDLINE usando a expressão Integrative Oncology.Foram encontrados 74 estudos dos quais 26 foram incluídos e 48 excluídos pelos critérios de inclu...

  17. Applied Nanotechnology and Nanoscience in Orthopedic Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvidou, Olga D; Bolia, Ioanna K; Chloros, George D; Goumenos, Stavros D; Sakellariou, Vasileios I; Galanis, Evanthia C; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

    2016-09-01

    Nanomedicine is based on the fact that biological molecules behave similarly to nanomolecules, which have a size of less than 100 nm, and is now affecting most areas of orthopedics. In orthopedic oncology, most of the in vitro and in vivo studies have used osteosarcoma or Ewing sarcoma cell lineages. In this article, tumor imaging and treatment nanotechnology applications, including nanostructure delivery of chemotherapeutic agents, gene therapy, and the role of nano-selenium-coated implants, are outlined. Finally, the potential role of nanotechnology in addressing the challenges of drug and radiotherapy resistance is discussed. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(5):280-286.].

  18. Institutional Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlvik, Carina; Boxenbaum, Eva

    Drawing on dual-process theory and mindfulness research this article sets out to shed light on the conditions that need to be met to create “a reflexive shift in consciousness” argued to be a key foundational mechanism for agency in institutional theory. Although past research has identified diff...... in consciousness to emerge and argue for how the varying levels of mindfulness in the form of internal and external awareness may manifest as distinct responses to the institutional environment the actor is embedded in....

  19. Compassion Fatigue, Burnout, and Compassion Satisfaction Among Oncology Nurses in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Stacey; Singh-Carlson, Savitri; Odell, Annie; Reynolds, Grace; Su, Yuhua

    2016-07-01

    To examine the experiences of compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction among oncology nurses in the United States and Canada. 
. Quantitative, descriptive, nonexperimental.
. Online survey with members from the Canadian Association of Nursing Oncology and the Oncology Nursing Society.
. 486 American and 63 Canadian practicing oncology nurses.
. The Professional Quality of Life (ProQOL) scale, version 5, and modified Abendroth Demographic Questionnaire were administered through FluidSurveys™, an online data collection instrument. Chi-square tests of independence were used to investigate associations between demographic characteristics, health, personal stressors, and work-related characteristics to experiences of compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction. Compassion fatigue was measured using the subscales of secondary traumatic stress and burnout. 
. Compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction.
. Demographic characteristics were similar in American and Canadian participants, and both cohorts reported comparable levels of compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction. Perception of team cohesiveness within the workplace environment was found to be significant for both groups, as indicated by significant relationships in all three subscales of secondary traumatic stress, burnout, and compassion satisfaction in the ProQOL.
. Healthy and supportive work environments are imperative to nurses' health, well-being, and satisfaction. Improvements in the workplace can help prevent negative sequelae, as well as improve health outcomes for patients and nurses, decrease nurse turnover, and reduce healthcare expenditures. 
. Findings can be used to implement institutional changes, such as creating policies and guidelines for the development of preventive interventions and psychosocial support for nurses.

  20. Recommendations to support nurses and improve the delivery of oncology and palliative care in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia T LeBaron

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Nurses in India often practice in resource-constrained settings and care for cancer patients with high symptom burden yet receive little oncology or palliative care training. Aim: The aim of this study is to explore challenges encountered by nurses in India and offer recommendations to improve the delivery of oncology and palliative care. Methods: Qualitative ethnography. Setting: The study was conducted at a government cancer hospital in urban South India. Sample: Thirty-seven oncology/palliative care nurses and 22 others (physicians, social workers, pharmacists, patients/family members who interact closely with nurses were included in the study. Data Collection: Data were collected over 9 months (September 2011– June 2012. Key data sources included over 400 hours of participant observation and 54 audio-recorded semi-structured interviews. Analysis: Systematic qualitative analysis of field notes and interview transcripts identified key themes and patterns. Results: Key concerns of nurses included safety related to chemotherapy administration, workload and clerical responsibilities, patients who died on the wards, monitoring family attendants, and lack of supplies. Many participants verbalized distress that they received no formal oncology training. Conclusions: Recommendations to support nurses in India include: prioritize safety, optimize role of the nurse and explore innovative models of care delivery, empower staff nurses, strengthen nurse leadership, offer relevant educational programs, enhance teamwork, improve cancer pain management, and engage in research and quality improvement projects. Strong institutional commitment and leadership are required to implement interventions to support nurses. Successful interventions must account for existing cultural and professional norms and first address safety needs of nurses. Positive aspects from existing models of care delivery can be adapted and integrated into general nursing

  1. Burnout among physicians and nurses working in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Anita; Vigna, Cristina; Bigazzi, Valentina; Sperduti, Isabella; Bongiorno, Laura; Allocca, Amalia

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of Burnout is an important occupational problem which affects those working in the "helping professions" to a greater degree since they have continuous and constant contact with suffering patients. We aimed to assess the Burnout level and its correlation with organizational stressors. The aim was achieved through administration of a questionnaire, the organizational check-up survey (OCS) among 80 physicians and 102 nurses working in a cancer institute. The results showed significant levels of Burnout (Exhaustion and Cynicism) associated with perceived discrepancy between the worker's values and those promoted by the hospital management, mainly among longer serving staff work overload reported by staff working in the intensive care and medical oncology departments; lack of recognition reported by permanent staff and also those who had no contact with the patients. The study confirmed the multiple factors involved in the phenomenon of Burnout and the usefulness of the OCS tool for the diagnosis and management of Burnout via appropriate intervention programmes. Furthermore, it also seemed to confirm the need to pay particular attention to the wellbeing of health professionals working in care and treatment of cancer patients via individual measures associated with other organizational measures.

  2. Importance of dose intensity in neuro-oncology clinical trials: summary report of the Sixth Annual Meeting of the Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption Consortium.

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Therapeutic options for the treatment of malignant brain tumors have been limited, in part, because of the presence of the blood-brain barrier. For this reason, the Sixth Annual Meeting of the Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption Consortium, the focus of which was the "Importance of Dose Intensity in Neuro-Oncology Clinical Trials," was convened in April 2000, at Government Camp, Mount Hood, Oregon. This meeting, which was supported by the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Neurol...

  3. POSSIBILITY OF PLANTS ACTIVE PARTS USAGE FOR ONCOLOGICAL DISEASES TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Goncharova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes an implementation of plant drugs for oncological diseases treatment. It focuses on multicomponent combination herbal medicinal preparation, its therapeutic action, and supposed efficiency during its implementation with basic therapy for oncological disease.

  4. Effects of Age Expectations on Oncology Social Workers' Clinical Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Annemarie; Choi, Namkee G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the influence of oncology social workers' expectations regarding aging (ERA) and ERA with cancer (ERAC) on their clinical judgment. Methods: Oncology social workers (N = 322) were randomly assigned to one of four vignettes describing a patient with lung cancer. The vignettes were identical except for the patent's age…

  5. Quality of systematic reviews in pediatric oncology - A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Lundh; S.L. Knijnenburg; A.W. Jørgensen; E.C. van Dalen; L.C.M. Kremer

    2009-01-01

    Background: To ensure evidence-based decision making in pediatric oncology systematic reviews are necessary. The objective of our study was to evaluate the methodological quality of all currently existing systematic reviews in pediatric oncology. Methods: We identified eligible systematic reviews th

  6. Exercise-Based Oncology Rehabilitation: Leveraging the Cardiac Rehabilitation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittus, Kim L.; Lakoski, Susan G.; Savage, Patrick D.; Kokinda, Nathan; Toth, Michael; Stevens, Diane; Woods, Kimberly; O’Brien, Patricia; Ades, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The value of exercise and rehabilitative interventions for cancer survivors is increasingly clear and oncology rehabilitation programs could provide these important interventions. However, a pathway to create oncology rehabilitation has not been delineated. Community-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs staffed by health care professionals with experience in providing rehabilitation and secondary prevention services to individuals with coronary heart disease are widely available and provide a potential model and location for oncology rehabilitation programs. Our purpose is to outline the rehabilitative needs of cancer survivors and demonstrate how oncology rehabilitation can be created using a cardiac rehabilitation model. METHODS We identify the impairments associated with cancer and its therapy that respond to rehabilitative interventions. Components of the CR model that would benefit cancer survivors are described. An example of an oncology rehabilitation program using a CR model is presented. RESULTS Cancer survivors have impairments associated with cancer and its therapy that improve with rehabilitation. Our experience demonstrates that effective rehabilitation services can be provided utilizing an existing CR infrastructure. Few adjustments to current cardiac rehabilitation models would be needed to provide oncology rehabilitation. Preliminary evidence suggests that cancer survivors participating in an oncology rehabilitation program experience improvements in psychological and physiologic parameters. CONCLUSIONS Utilizing the CR model of rehabilitative services and disease management provides a much needed mechanism to bring oncology rehabilitation to larger numbers of cancer survivors. PMID:25407596

  7. The Evidence Behind Integrating Palliative Care Into Oncology Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Erin

    2016-08-01

    Palliative care services provided alongside traditional oncology care have been shown to be beneficial to patients and families. This article provides a brief history of palliative care, a pathway to implementing these services into currently established oncology programs, and a brief discussion of common barriers.

  8. 75 FR 71450 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing an amendment to the notice of a meeting of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee....

  9. 77 FR 37911 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing an amendment to the notice of meeting of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee. This meeting...

  10. 77 FR 63839 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Cancellation AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The meeting of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory... committee have been resolved. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Caleb Briggs, Center for Drug Evaluation...

  11. Oncology Workforce: Results of the ASCO 2007 Program Directors Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Clese; Schulman, Stacey; Kosty, Michael; Hanley, Amy

    2009-03-01

    The supply of oncologists is projected to increase by 14%, but the demand for oncology visits is projected to increase by 48% because of a growing aging population and an increase in the number of cancer survivors. Multiple strategies must be implemented to ensure continued access to quality cancer care, such as increasing the number of oncology training positions.

  12. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the Europea

  13. Institution Morphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguen, Joseph; Rosu, Grigore; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Institutions formalize the intuitive notion of logical system, including both syntax and semantics. A surprising number of different notions of morphisim have been suggested for forming categories with institutions as objects, and a surprising variety of names have been proposed for them. One goal of this paper is to suggest a terminology that is both uniform and informative to replace the current rather chaotic nomenclature. Another goal is to investigate the properties and interrelations of these notions. Following brief expositions of indexed categories, twisted relations, and Kan extensions, we demonstrate and then exploit the duality between institution morphisms in the original sense of Goguen and Burstall, and the 'plain maps' of Meseguer, obtaining simple uniform proofs of completeness and cocompleteness for both resulting categories; because of this duality, we prefer the name 'comorphism' over 'plain map.' We next consider 'theoroidal' morphisms and comorphisims, which generalize signatures to theories, finding that the 'maps' of Meseguer are theoroidal comorphisms, while theoroidal morphisms are a new concept. We then introduce 'forward' and 'semi-natural' morphisms, and appendices discuss institutions for hidden algebra, universal algebra, partial equational logic, and a variant of order sorted algebra supporting partiality.

  14. Institutional Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmolinsky, Adam

    1975-01-01

    Institutional paralysis of higher education is the result of the disjunction between faculty and administration; the disjunction between substantive planning and bugetary decision-making; the disjunction between departmental structures and functional areas of university concern; and the disjunction between the theory of direct democracy and its…

  15. Long term investigation of late effects in ankylosing spondylitis patients treated with radium-224

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wick, R.R. [GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health, Inst. of Radiobiology, Neuherberg (Germany); Nekolla, E.A. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS), Neuherberg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    An epidemiological study has been carried out on 1462 ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients followed since 1971 at the GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health. The aim of the study was to ascertain the late health effects occurring in these patients who had received repeated intravenous injections of the short lived {alpha}-emitter {sup 224}radium between 1948 and 1975 (excluding patients treated additionally with X-rays). The then usual therapeutic protocol consisted of a total of 10 to 12 injections of 1.036 MBq (28 {mu}Ci) of {sup 224}Ra each, given at weekly intervals. This resulted in a cumulative {alpha}-dose of 0.56 to 0.67 Gy to the marrow-free skeleton (bone surface dose: {proportional_to} 5.5 Gy) of a 70-kg-man (standard man). These patients have been followed together with a control group of 1324 ankylosing spondylitis patients not treated with radioactive drugs and/or X-rays. Up to August 2004, causes of death have been ascertained for 913 exposed patients and 971 controls (mean follow-up time {proportional_to} 26 yr in the exposed group or {proportional_to} 24 yr in the control group). In the exposed group there has been a total of 251 malignant diseases (vs. 277.0 expected cases) and 233 cases (vs. 302.4 exp.) among the controls. In the exposure group 16 cases of kidney cancer (vs. 8.7 cases expected, p = 0.02), 6 cases of liver cancer (vs. 3.3 exp., p = 0.12), and 4 cases of thyroid cancer (vs. 1.1 exp., p = 0.03) were observed. The most striking observation, however, were the 16 cases of leukaemia in the exposure group (vs. 6.5 cases expected, p = 0.001) compared to only 10 cases of leukaemia in the control group (vs. 7.1 cases expected, p = 0.2). Further subclassification of the leukaemias demonstrated a high increase of myeloid leukaemia in the exposure group (10 cases obs. vs. 2.8 cases exp., p <0.001), and particularly, of myeloid leukaemia (7 cases observed vs. 1.7 expected, p = 0.002), whereas in the control group the number

  16. Apps for Radiation Oncology. A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Calero

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Software applications executed on a smart-phone or mobile device (“Apps” are increasingly used by oncologists in their daily work. A comprehensive critical review was conducted on Apps specifically designed for Radiation Oncology, which aims to provide scientific support for these tools and to guide users in choosing the most suited to their needs. Material and methods: A systematic search was conducted in mobile platforms, iOS and Android, returning 157 Apps. Excluding those whose purpose did not match the scope of the study, 31 Apps were methodically analyzed by the following items: Objective Features, List of Functionalities, Consistency in Outcomes and Usability. Results: Apps are presented in groups of features, as Dose Calculators (7 Apps, Clinical Calculators (4, Tools for Staging (7, Multipurpose (7 and Others (6. Each App is presented with the list of attributes and a brief comment. A short summary is provided at the end of each group. Discussion and Recommendations: There are numerous Apps with useful tools at the disposal of radiation oncologists. The most advisable Apps do not match the more expensive. Three all-in-one apps seem advisable above all: RadOnc Reference (in English, Easy Oncology (in German and iOncoR (in Spanish. Others recommendations are suggested for specific tasks: dose calculators, treatment-decision and staging.

  17. A Study of Layered Learning in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Jill S; Buie, Larry W; Lyons, Kayley; Rao, Kamakshi; Pinelli, Nicole R; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Roth, Mary T

    2016-05-25

    Objective. To explore use of pharmacy learners as a means to expand pharmacy services in a layered learning practice model (LLPM), to examine whether an LLPM environment precludes achievement of knowledge-based learning objectives, and to explore learner perception of the experience. Design. An acute care oncology pharmacy practice experience was redesigned to support the LLPM. Specifically, the redesign focused on micro discussion, standardized feedback (eg, rubrics), and cooperative learning to enhance educational gain through performing clinical activities. Assessment. Posttest scores evaluating knowledge-based learning objectives increased in mean percentage compared to pretest values. Learners viewed the newly designed practice experience positively with respect to perceived knowledge attainment, improved clinical time management skills, contributions to patient care, and development of clinical and self-management skills. A fifth theme among students, comfort with learning, was also noted. Conclusion. Layered learning in an oncology practice experience was well-received by pharmacy learners. Data suggest a practice experience in the LLPM environment does not preclude achieving knowledge-based learning objectives and supports further studies of the LLPM.

  18. Combined PET/CT in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Keon Wook [National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-02-01

    Presently, PET is widely used in oncology, but suffers from limitations of poor anatomical information. To compensate for this weakness, a combined PET/CT has been developed by Professor Townsend at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. The prototype was designed as PET and CT components combined serially in a gantry. The CT images provide not only accurate anatomical location of the lesions but also transmission map for attenuation correction. More than 300 cancer patients have been studied with the prototype of PET/CT since July, 1998. The PET/TC studies affected the managements in about 20{approx}30% of cancer patients. These changes are a consequence of the more accurate localization of functional abnormalities, and the distinction of pathological from normal physiological uptake. Now a variety of combined PET/CT scanners with high-end PET and high-end CT components are commercially available. With the high speed of multi-slice helical CT, throughput of patient's increases compared to conventional PET. Although some problems (such as a discrepancy in breathing state between the two modalities) still remain, the role of PET/CT in oncology is very promising.

  19. Radiation Oncology Physics and Medical Physics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourland, Dan

    2011-10-01

    Medical physics, an applied field of physics, is the applications of physics in medicine. Medical physicists are essential professionals in contemporary healthcare, contributing primarily to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases through numerous inventions, advances, and improvements in medical imaging and cancer treatment. Clinical service, research, and teaching by medical physicists benefits thousands of patients and other individuals every day. This talk will cover three main topics. First, exciting current research and development areas in the medical physics sub-specialty of radiation oncology physics will be described, including advanced oncology imaging for treatment simulation, image-guided radiation therapy, and biologically-optimized radiation treatment. Challenges in patient safety in high-technology radiation treatments will be briefly reviewed. Second, the educational path to becoming a medical physicist will be reviewed, including undergraduate foundations, graduate training, residency, board certification, and career opportunities. Third, I will introduce the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), which is the professional society that represents, advocates, and advances the field of medical physics (www.aapm.org).

  20. Training oncology practitioners in communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baile, Walter F

    2011-10-01

    Many practitioners in oncology receive no or little training in how to effectively communicate with patients and families who are dealing with cancer. Moreover medical teachers are not always aware of the pedagogy of teaching communication skills in a way that results in performance improvement in this area. In this paper a method of small group teaching that was used to instruct medical oncology fellows in the essentials of communication using a retreat format that lasted three days is described. The paper covers the theoretical basis for the teaching format as well as the specific components of the workshops. It describes the process of facilitation using a "learner-centered" approach using standardized patients who take on the role of cancer patients along the trajectory of the illness. It discuss the use of small group process to facilitate skills acquisition and other strategies that facilitate learning such as reflective exercises, open role play and parallel process. It concludes with a consideration of the various ways that such workshops can be evaluated.

  1. Evaluation of burnout syndrome in oncology employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Senem; Yildirim, Yasemin Kuzeyli; Ozsaran, Zeynep; Uslu, Ruchan; Yalman, Deniz; Aras, Arif B

    2010-09-01

    Burnout is an important occupational problem for health care workers. We aimed to assess the burnout levels among oncology employees and to evaluate the sociodemographic and occupational factors contributing to burnout levels. The Maslach Burnout Inventory, which is designed to measure the three stages of burnout-emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and personal accomplishment (PA), was used. The study sample consisted of 90 participants with a median age of 34 (range 23-56). The mean levels of burnout in EE, DP and PA stages were 23.80 +/- 10.98, 5.21 +/- 4.99, and 36.23 +/- 8.05, respectively, for the entire sample. Among the 90 participants, 42, 20, and 35.6% of the employees had high levels of burnout in the EE, DP, and PA substage, respectively. Sociodemographic and occupational factors associated with higher levels of burnout included age of less than 35, being unmarried, being childless, >40 work hours per week, working on night shifts, and burnout. Furthermore, employees who are not pleased with working in oncology field, who would like to change their specialty if they have an opportunity, and whose family and social lives have been negatively affected by their work experienced higher levels of burnout. Burnout syndrome may influence physical and mental health of the employee and affects the quality of health care as well. Therefore, several individual or organizational efforts should be considered for dealing with burnout.

  2. Apps for Radiation Oncology. A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, J J; Oton, L F; Oton, C A

    2017-02-01

    Software applications executed on a smart-phone or mobile device ("Apps") are increasingly used by oncologists in their daily work. A comprehensive critical review was conducted on Apps specifically designed for Radiation Oncology, which aims to provide scientific support for these tools and to guide users in choosing the most suited to their needs. A systematic search was conducted in mobile platforms, iOS and Android, returning 157 Apps. Excluding those whose purpose did not match the scope of the study, 31 Apps were methodically analyzed by the following items: Objective Features, List of Functionalities, Consistency in Outcomes and Usability. Apps are presented in groups of features, as Dose Calculators (7 Apps), Clinical Calculators (4), Tools for Staging (7), Multipurpose (7) and Others (6). Each App is presented with the list of attributes and a brief comment. A short summary is provided at the end of each group. There are numerous Apps with useful tools at the disposal of radiation oncologists. The most advisable Apps do not match the more expensive. Three all-in-one apps seem advisable above all: RadOnc Reference (in English), Easy Oncology (in German) and iOncoR (in Spanish). Others recommendations are suggested for specific tasks: dose calculators, treatment-decision and staging. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Introduction of emotional labour into oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazányi, Kornélia; Molnár, Péter; Szluha, Kornélia

    2007-06-03

    Health care professionals do not have emotional labour obligations in their employment contract. However, in everyday work it is often inevitable for them to change their true feelings. This is critically true for professionals treating chronic or cancer patients. The suitable emotional state of the treatment staff does not only influence the practitioner-patient relationship but the process of recovery as well. Depending on the way one might get into the appropriate emotional state, the literature distinguishes between surface, deep and genuine acting. While surface and deep emotional labour has numerous negative psychological consequences genuine acting is usually accompanied by positive side effects. For those working in the field of oncology, emotional labour is a part of the role expectations of the professionals. This is how the appropriate attitude is a fundamental part of the professionals' essence. For the in depth analysis of subjects related to emotional labour, the authors adopted ideas from L. Festinger 's cognitive dissonance theory. The best way to alleviate cognitive dissonance and the negative side effects of emotional labour is to prevent the emergence of them. Oncology professionals should fit their role expectations genuinely, without particular efforts. If this was impossible, or the particular life situations did not allow genuine acting, it is the employer's and the workmates' common duty to help professionals, to ease the load of emotional labour, to diminish the occurring cognitive dissonance with the help of appropriate recompense.

  4. Molecular markers in pediatric neuro-oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimura, Koichi; Nishikawa, Ryo; Matsutani, Masao

    2012-09-01

    Pediatric molecular neuro-oncology is a fast developing field. A multitude of molecular profiling studies in recent years has unveiled a number of genetic abnormalities unique to pediatric brain tumors. It has now become clear that brain tumors that arise in children have distinct pathogenesis and biology, compared with their adult counterparts, even for those with indistinguishable histopathology. Some of the molecular features are so specific to a particular type of tumors, such as the presence of the KIAA1549-BRAF fusion gene for pilocytic astrocytomas or SMARCB1 mutations for atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, that they could practically serve as a diagnostic marker on their own. Expression profiling has resolved the existence of 4 molecular subgroups in medulloblastomas, which positively translated into improved prognostication for the patients. The currently available molecular markers, however, do not cover all tumors even within a single tumor entity. The molecular pathogenesis of a large number of pediatric brain tumors is still unaccounted for, and the hierarchy of tumors is likely to be more complex and intricate than currently acknowledged. One of the main tasks of future molecular analyses in pediatric neuro-oncology, including the ongoing genome sequencing efforts, is to elucidate the biological basis of those orphan tumors. The ultimate goal of molecular diagnostics is to accurately predict the clinical and biological behavior of any tumor by means of their molecular characteristics, which is hoped to eventually pave the way for individualized treatment.

  5. [Artificial intelligence applied to radiation oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibault, J-E; Burgun, A; Giraud, P

    2017-05-01

    Performing randomised comparative clinical trials in radiation oncology remains a challenge when new treatment modalities become available. One of the most recent examples is the lack of phase III trials demonstrating the superiority of intensity-modulated radiation therapy in most of its current indications. A new paradigm is developing that consists in the mining of large databases to answer clinical or translational issues. Beyond national databases (such as SEER or NCDB), that often lack the necessary level of details on the population studied or the treatments performed, electronic health records can be used to create detailed phenotypic profiles of any patients. In parallel, the Record-and-Verify Systems used in radiation oncology precisely document the planned and performed treatments. Artificial Intelligence and machine learning algorithms can be used to incrementally analyse these data in order to generate hypothesis to better personalize treatments. This review discusses how these methods have already been used in previous studies. Copyright © 2017 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Medical oncology, history and its future in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzania, Mehrzad; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir; Asvadi Kermani, Iraj; Ashrafi, Farzaneh; Allahyari, Abolghasem; Rostami, Nematollah; Razavi, Seyed Mohsen; Ramzi, Mani; Nemanipour, Gholamreza

    2015-11-01

    Systemic therapy is one of the cornerstones of cancer treatment. In 1972, following representations by American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) recognized medical oncology as a new subspecialty of internal medicine. Subspecialty of Hematology and Medical Oncology was emerged in Iran in 1983. In the past, modern medical treatments and education were started in Dar Al-fonun school and then in Tehran University; now six universities in Iran are training in Subspecialty of Hematology and Medical Oncology. There are also ten active hematopoietic stem cell transplantation centers, thirty-one provincial medical schools use their specialized services. Future goals for Hematology and Medical Oncology in Iran include expansion and reinforcement of multidisciplinary teams across the country, early detection and prevention of cancer, providing educational program and conducting cancer researches. To achieve these goals, it is necessary to establish Cancer Hospitals in each province that link together through a network.

  7. Addressing Burnout in Oncology: Why Cancer Care Clinicians Are At Risk, What Individuals Can Do, and How Organizations Can Respond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlubocky, Fay J; Back, Anthony L; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2016-01-01

    Despite their benevolent care of others, today, more than ever, the cancer care professional who experiences overwhelming feelings of exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy is in grave jeopardy of developing burnout. Clinicians are repeatedly physically and emotionally exposed to exceedingly long hours in direct care with seriously ill patients/families, limited autonomy over daily responsibilities, endless electronic documentation, and a shifting medical landscape. The physical and emotional well-being of the cancer care clinician is critical to the impact on quality care, patient satisfaction, and overall success of their organizations. The prevention of burnout as well as targeting established burnout need to be proactively addressed at the individual level and organizational level. In fact, confronting burnout and promoting wellness are the shared responsibility of both oncology clinicians and their organizations. From an individual perspective, oncology clinicians must be empowered to play a crucial role in enhancing their own wellness by identification of burnout symptoms in both themselves and their colleagues, learning resilience strategies (e.g., mindful self-compassion), and cultivating positive relationships with fellow clinician colleagues. At the organizational level, leadership must recognize the importance of oncology clinician well-being; engage leaders and physicians in collaborative action planning, improve overall practice environment, and provide institutional wellness resources to physicians. These effective individual and organizational interventions are crucial for the prevention and improvement of overall clinician wellness and must be widely and systematically integrated into oncology care.

  8. Freshwater mussel, Velesunio angasi - a monitor for radium-226 pollution in the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davy, D.R.; Jeffree, R.A. (Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment, Lucas Heights. Environmental Science Div.)

    1984-10-01

    The state of knowledge of the biology and radioecology of the freshwater mussel, Velesunio angasi, is reviewed. The theoretical response is calculated, in terms of gross parameters suitable for monitoring purposes, for a range of predicted water contaminating events at the Ranger Uranium Mine site in the Alligator Rivers region of the Northern Territory. These results suggest that mussels would be useful biological monitors for events that lead to an increase in the Ra/Ca ratio for the receiving waters. Suitable measurement parameters are Ra:Ca tissue concentration regression and the microstructure of radium distribution within the mussel shell. On the basis of available field data for one event (enhanced erosion of pit borrow material into Georgetown waterhole during the 1980-81 wet season), which had no conventional water quality fingerprint, mussels were shown to be a suitable monitor of such events.

  9. Activation of endogenous C-type retroviral genomes by internal alpha-irradiation of mice with /sup 224/Radium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, J.; Erfle, V.; Mueller, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Sensitive co-cultivation techniques were applied to study the radiation-induced activation of endogenous retroviral genomes in different mouse strains by the alpha-emitting radionuclide /sup 224/Radium. Activated infectious C-type retroviruses were detected in spleen, bone marrow and bone tissues of C57BL/6-, BALB/c- and NMRI mice. The titres of high-dose-irradiated animals were higher than those found in low-dose-irradiated animals. Infectious retrovirus could be detected with a dose of 13.2 rad (maximum dose rate 0.9 rad/day) in the skeleton, and a dose of 4.2 rad (maximum dose rate 0.3 rad/day) in the spleen. The virus activation pattern was different in the three mouse strains. These data indicate that activation of endogenous retroviral genomes by alpha-irradiation shows a dose-effect relationship and a dependence on the genetic background of the mouse.

  10. Radium-based estimates of cesium isotope transport and total direct ocean discharges from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Charette

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Radium has four naturally occurring isotopes that have proven useful in constraining water mass source, age, and mixing rates in the coastal and open ocean. In this study, we used radium isotopes to determine the fate and flux of runoff-derived cesium from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (NPP. During a June 2011 cruise, the highest Cs concentrations were found along the eastern shelf of northern Japan, from Fukushima south, to the edge of the Kuroshio current, and in an eddy ∼ 130 km from the NPP site. Locations with the highest cesium also had some of the highest radium activities, suggesting much of the direct ocean discharges of Cs remained in the coastal zone 2–3 months after the accident. We used a short-lived Ra isotope (223Ra, t1/2 = 11.4 d to derive an average water mass age (Tr in the coastal zone of 32 days. To ground-truth the Ra age model, we conducted a direct, station-by-station comparison of water mass ages with a numerical oceanographic model and found them to be in excellent agreement (model avg. Tr = 27 days. From these independent Tr values and the inventory of Cs within the water column at the time of our cruise, we were able to calculate an offshore 134Cs flux of 3.9–4.6 × 1013 Bq d−1. Radium-228 (t1/2 = 5.75 yr was used to derive a vertical eddy diffusivity (Kz of 0.7 m2 d−1 (0.1 cm2 s−1; from this Kz and 134Cs inventory, we estimated a 134Cs flux across the pycnocline of 1.8 × 104 Bq d−1 for the same time period. On average, our results show that horizontal mixing loss of Cs from the coastal zone was ∼ 109 greater than vertical exchange below the surface mixed layer. Finally, a mixing/dilution model that utilized our Ra-based and

  11. Linearity assumption in soil-to-plant transfer factors of natural uranium and radium in Helianthus annuus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, P. Blanco [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Tome, F. Vera [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)]. E-mail: fvt@unex.es; Fernandez, M. Perez [Area de Ecologia, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Lozano, J.C. [Laboratorio de Radiactividad Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2006-05-15

    The linearity assumption of the validation of soil-to-plant transfer factors of natural uranium and {sup 226}Ra was tested using Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower) grown in a hydroponic medium. Transfer of natural uranium and {sup 226}Ra was tested in both the aerial fraction of plants and in the overall seedlings (roots and shoots). The results show that the linearity assumption can be considered valid in the hydroponic growth of sunflowers for the radionuclides studied. The ability of sunflowers to translocate uranium and {sup 226}Ra was also investigated, as well as the feasibility of using sunflower plants to remove uranium and radium from contaminated water, and by extension, their potential for phytoextraction. In this sense, the removal percentages obtained for natural uranium and {sup 226}Ra were 24% and 42%, respectively. Practically all the uranium is accumulated in the roots. However, 86% of the {sup 226}Ra activity concentration in roots was translocated to the aerial part.

  12. Updates from the 2013 Society for Neuro-Oncology annual and World Federation for Neuro-Oncology quadrennial meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Rimas V; Amidei, Christina

    2014-01-01

    We present an overview of a number of key clinical studies in infiltrating gliomas presented at the 2013 Society for Neuro-Oncology and World Federation of Neuro-Oncology joint meeting. This review focuses on efficacy results, including quality of life studies, from larger clinical trials in both high- and low-grade infiltrating gliomas.

  13. Remediating radium contaminated legacy sites: Advances made through machine learning in routine monitoring of “hot” particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Adam, E-mail: a.l.varley@stir.ac.uk [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA (United Kingdom); Tyler, Andrew, E-mail: a.n.tyler@stir.ac.uk [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA (United Kingdom); Smith, Leslie, E-mail: l.s.smith@cs.stir.ac.uk [Department of Computing Science and Mathematics, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA (United Kingdom); Dale, Paul, E-mail: paul.dale@sepa.org.uk [Scottish Environmental Protection Agency, Radioactive Substances, Strathallan House, Castle Business Park, Stirling FK9 4TZ (United Kingdom); Davies, Mike, E-mail: Mike.Davies@nuvia.co.uk [Nuvia Limited, The Library, Eight Street, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0RL (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    The extensive use of radium during the 20th century for industrial, military and pharmaceutical purposes has led to a large number of contaminated legacy sites across Europe and North America. Sites that pose a high risk to the general public can present expensive and long-term remediation projects. Often the most pragmatic remediation approach is through routine monitoring operating gamma-ray detectors to identify, in real-time, the signal from the most hazardous heterogeneous contamination (hot particles); thus facilitating their removal and safe disposal. However, current detection systems do not fully utilise all spectral information resulting in low detection rates and ultimately an increased risk to the human health. The aim of this study was to establish an optimised detector-algorithm combination. To achieve this, field data was collected using two handheld detectors (sodium iodide and lanthanum bromide) and a number of Monte Carlo simulated hot particles were randomly injected into the field data. This allowed for the detection rate of conventional deterministic (gross counts) and machine learning (neural networks and support vector machines) algorithms to be assessed. The results demonstrated that a Neural Network operated on a sodium iodide detector provided the best detection capability. Compared to deterministic approaches, this optimised detection system could detect a hot particle on average 10 cm deeper into the soil column or with half of the activity at the same depth. It was also found that noise presented by internal contamination restricted lanthanum bromide for this application. - Highlights: • Land contaminated with radium is hazardous to human health. • Routine monitoring permits identification and removal of radioactive hot particles. • Current alarm algorithms do not provide reliable hot particle detection. • Spectral processing using Machine Learning significantly improves detection.

  14. Assessment of radium-226 bioavailability and bioaccumulation downstream of decommissioned uranium operations, using the caged oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiramanaden, Cheryl I E; Orr, Patricia L; Russel, Cynthia K

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated the integrated effects of several geochemical processes that control radium-226 ((226) Ra) mobility in the aquatic environment and bioaccumulation in in situ caged benthic invertebrates. Radium-226 bioaccumulation from sediment and water was evaluated using caged oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) deployed for 10 d in 6 areas downstream of decommissioned uranium operations in Ontario and Saskatchewan, Canada. Measured (226) Ra radioactivity levels in the retrieved oligochaetes did not relate directly to water and sediment exposure levels. Other environmental factors that may influence (226) Ra bioavailability in sediment and water were investigated. The strongest mitigating influence on (226) Ra bioaccumulation factors was sediment barium concentration, with elevated barium (Ba) levels being related to use of barium chloride in effluent treatment for removing (226) Ra through barite formation. Observations from the present study also indicated that (226) Ra bioavailability was influenced by dissolved organic carbon in water, and by gypsum, carbonate minerals, and iron oxyhydroxides in sediment, suggestive of sorption processes. Environmental factors that appeared to increase (226) Ra bioaccumulation were the presence of other group (II) ions in water (likely competing for binding sites on organic carbon molecules), and the presence of K-feldspars in sediment, which likely act as a dynamic repository for (226) Ra where weak ion exchange can occur. In addition to influencing bioavailability to sediment biota, secondary minerals such as gypsum, carbonate minerals, and iron oxyhydroxides likely help mitigate (226) Ra release into overlying water after the dissolution of sedimentary barite. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:507-517. © 2014 SETAC.

  15. A Profile of Academic Training Program Directors and Chairs in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Lynn D., E-mail: Lynn.wilson@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, Smilow Cancer Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Smith, Benjamin D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, UMDNJ-RWJMS, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To identify objective characteristics and benchmarks for program leadership in academic radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: A study of the 87 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education radiation oncology training program directors (PD) and their chairs was performed. Variables included age, gender, original training department, highest degree, rank, endowed chair assignment, National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding, and Hirsch index (H-index). Data were gathered from online sources such as departmental websites, NIH RePORTER, and Scopus. Results: There were a total of 87 PD. The median age was 48, and 14 (16%) were MD/PhD. A total of 21 (24%) were female, and rank was relatively equally distributed above instructor. Of the 26 professors, at least 7 (27%) were female. At least 24 (28%) were working at the institution from which they had received their training. A total of 6 individuals held endowed chairs. Only 2 PD had active NIH funding in 2012. The median H-index was 12 (range, 0-51) but the index dropped to 9 (range, 0-38) when those who served as both PD and chair were removed from the group. A total of 76 chairs were identified at the time of the study. The median age was 55, and 9 (12%) were MD/PhD. A total of 7 (9%) of the chairs were female, and rank was professor for all with the exception of 1 who was listed as “Head” and was an associate professor. Of the 76 chairs, at least 10 (13%) were working at the institution from which they received their training. There were a total of 21 individuals with endowed chairs. A total of 13 (17%) had NIH funding in 2012. The median H-index was 29 (range, 3-60). Conclusions: These data provide benchmarks for individuals and departments evaluating leadership positions in the field of academic radiation oncology. Such data are useful for evaluating leadership trends over time and comparing academic radiation oncology with other specialties.

  16. American Society of Clinical Oncology Strategic Plan for Increasing Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Oncology Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkfield, Karen M; Flowers, Christopher R; Patel, Jyoti D; Rodriguez, Gladys; Robinson, Patricia; Agarwal, Amit; Pierce, Lori; Brawley, Otis W; Mitchell, Edith P; Head-Smith, Kimberly T; Wollins, Dana S; Hayes, Daniel F

    2017-08-01

    In December 2016, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Board of Directors approved the ASCO Strategic Plan to Increase Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Oncology Workforce. Developed through a multistakeholder effort led by the ASCO Health Disparities Committee, the purpose of the plan is to guide the formal efforts of ASCO in this area over the next three years (2017 to 2020). There are three primary goals: (1) to establish a longitudinal pathway for increasing workforce diversity, (2) to enhance ASCO leadership diversity, and (3) to integrate a focus on diversity across ASCO programs and policies. Improving quality cancer care in the United States requires the recruitment of oncology professionals from diverse backgrounds. The ASCO Strategic Plan to Increase Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Oncology Workforce is designed to enhance existing programs and create new opportunities that will move us closer to the vision of achieving an oncology workforce that reflects the demographics of the US population it serves.

  17. Distribution and determinants of patient satisfaction in oncology: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher G Lis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Christopher G Lis, Mark Rodeghier, Digant GuptaCancer Treatment Centers of America® at Midwestern Regional Medical Center, 2610 Sheridan Road, Zion, IL, 60099, USAAbstract: Cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States. It places considerable mental, physical, and emotional stress on patients and requires them to make major adjustments in many key areas of their lives. As a consequence, the demands on health care providers to satisfy the complex care needs of cancer patients increase manifold. Of late, patient satisfaction has been recognized as one of the key indicators of health care quality and is now being used by health care institutions for monitoring health care improvement programs, gaining accreditation, and marketing strategies. The patient satisfaction information is also being used to compare and benchmark hospitals, identify best-performance institutions, and discover areas in need of improvement. However, the existing literature on patient satisfaction with the quality of cancer care they receive is inconsistent and heterogeneous because of differences in study designs, questionnaires, study populations, and sample sizes. The aim of this review was therefore to systematically evaluate the available information on the distribution and determinants of patient satisfaction in oncology.Keywords: patient satisfaction, determinants, oncology

  18. [Quality assurance in head and neck medical oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digue, Laurence; Pedeboscq, Stéphane

    2014-05-01

    In medical oncology, how can we be sure that the right drug is being administered to the right patient at the right time? The implementation of quality assurance criteria is important in medical oncology, in order to ensure that the patient receives the best treatment safely. There is very little literature about quality assurance in medical oncology, as opposed to radiotherapy or cancer surgery. Quality assurance must cover the entire patient care process, from the diagnosis, to the therapeutic decision and drug distribution, including its selection, its preparation and its delivery to the patient (administration and dosage), and finally the potential side effects and their management. The dose-intensity respect is crucial, and its reduction can negatively affect overall survival rates, as shown in breast and testis cancers for example. In head and neck medical oncology, it is essential to respect the few well-standardized recommendations and the dose-intensity, in a population with numerous comorbidities. We will first review quality assurance criteria for the general medical oncology organization and then focus on head and neck medical oncology. We will then describe administration specificities of head and neck treatments (chemoradiation, radiation plus cetuximab, postoperative chemoradiation, induction and palliative chemotherapy) as well as their follow-up. Lastly, we will offer some recommendations to improve quality assurance in head and neck medical oncology.

  19. Attitudes of Chinese Oncology Physicians Toward Death with Dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Ping; Huang, Bo-Yan; Yi, Ting-Wu; Deng, Yao-Tiao; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Yu-Qing; Zhang, Zong-Yan; Jiang, Yu

    2016-08-01

    Death with dignity (DWD) refers to the refusal of life-prolonging measures for terminally ill patients by "living wills" forms in advance. More and more oncology physicians are receiving DWD requests from advance cancer patients in mainland China. The study objective was to investigate the attitudes of Chinese oncology physicians toward the legalization and implementation of DWD. A questionnaire investigating the understanding and attitudes toward DWD was administered to 257 oncology physicians from 11 hospitals in mainland China. The effective response rate was 86.8% (223/257). The majority of oncology physicians (69.1%) had received DWD requests from patients. Half of the participants (52.5%) thought that the most important reason was the patients' unwillingness to maintain survival through machines. One-third of participants (33.0%) attributed the most important reason to suffering from painful symptoms. Most oncology physicians (78.9%) had knowledge about DWD. A fifth of respondents did not know the difference between DWD and euthanasia, and a few even considered DWD as euthanasia. The majority of oncology physicians supported the legalization (88.3%) and implementation (83.9%) of DWD. Many Chinese oncology physicians have received advanced cancer patients' DWD requests and think that DWD should be legalized and implemented. Chinese health management departments should consider the demands of physicians and patients. It is important to inform physicians about the difference between DWD and euthanasia, as one-fifth of them were confused about it.

  20. Side effects of chemotherapy in musculoskeletal oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Romantini, Matteo; Angelini, Andrea; Ruggieri, Pietro

    2010-01-01

    With recent advances in medical and orthopedic oncology, radiation therapy and single- or multiple-agent perioperative chemotherapy are currently applied as an essential part of the multidisciplinary treatment to improve disease-free and overall survival of patients with primary and metastatic bone and soft tissue tumors. However, these treatments have led to unwanted complications. A better understanding of the effects of various antineoplastic agents on bone, soft tissue, and organs may provide the basis for the more efficacious use of antiproliferative drugs when fracture healing or allograft incorporation is required. This knowledge may also provide a rationale for concurrent treatment with drugs that protect against or compensate for adverse effects in osseous repair resulting from chemotherapy.