Conclusion: Oncologists, oncology nurses, and patients felt that integration of early specialist palliative care in cancer improves symptom control, end-of-life care, health-related communication, and continuity of care. The perceptions of benefit of the palliative care intervention in the components surveyed, differed among the three groups.
Full Text Available Paolo Tralongo1, Francesco Ferraù2, Nicolò Borsellino3, Francesco Verderame4, Michele Caruso5, Dario Giuffrida6, Alfredo Butera7, Vittorio Gebbia81Medical Oncology Unit, Azienda Sanitaria Provinciale, Siracusa; 2Medical Oncology Unit, Ospedale San Vincenzo, Taormina; 3Medical Oncology Unit, Ospedale Buccheri La Ferla, Palermo; 4Medical Oncology Unit, Ospedale Giovanni Paolo II, Sciacca; 5Medical Oncology Unit, Istituto Humanitas, Catania; 6Medical Oncology Unit, Istituto Oncologico del Mediterraneo, Catania; 7Medical Oncology Unit, Ospedale San Giovanni di Dio, Agrigento; 8Medical Oncology Unit, Dipartimento Oncologico, La Maddalena, Università degli Studi, Palermo, ItalyAbstract: Patient-centered home care is a new model of assistance, which may be integrated with more traditional hospital-centered care especially in selected groups of informed and trained patients. Patient-centered care is based on patients' needs rather than on prognosis, and takes into account the emotional and psychosocial aspects of the disease. This model may be applied to elderly patients, who present comorbid diseases, but it also fits with the needs of younger fit patients. A specialized multidisciplinary team coordinated by experienced medical oncologists and including pharmacists, psychologists, nurses, and social assistance providers should carry out home care. Other professional figures may be required depending on patients' needs. Every effort should be made to achieve optimal coordination between the health professionals and the reference hospital and to employ shared evidence-based guidelines, which in turn guarantee safety and efficacy. Comprehensive care has to be easily accessible and requires a high level of education and knowledge of the disease for both the patients and their caregivers. Patient-centered home care represents an important tool to improve quality of life and help cancer patients while also being cost effective.Keywords: cancer, home care
Runowicz, Carolyn D; Leach, Corinne R; Henry, N Lynn; Henry, Karen S; Mackey, Heather T; Cowens-Alvarado, Rebecca L; Cannady, Rachel S; Pratt-Chapman, Mandi L; Edge, Stephen B; Jacobs, Linda A; Hurria, Arti; Marks, Lawrence B; LaMonte, Samuel J; Warner, Ellen; Lyman, Gary H; Ganz, Patricia A
The purpose of the American Cancer Society/American Society of Clinical Oncology Breast Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline is to provide recommendations to assist primary care and other clinicians in the care of female adult survivors of breast cancer. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PubMed through April 2015. A multidisciplinary expert workgroup with expertise in primary care, gynecology, surgical oncology, medical oncology, radiation oncology, and nursing was formed and tasked with drafting the Breast Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline. A total of 1,073 articles met inclusion criteria; and, after full text review, 237 were included as the evidence base. Patients should undergo regular surveillance for breast cancer recurrence, including evaluation with a cancer-related history and physical examination, and should be screened for new primary breast cancer. Data do not support performing routine laboratory tests or imaging tests in asymptomatic patients to evaluate for breast cancer recurrence. Primary care clinicians should counsel patients about the importance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle, monitor for post-treatment symptoms that can adversely affect quality of life, and monitor for adherence to endocrine therapy. Recommendations provided in this guideline are based on current evidence in the literature and expert consensus opinion. Most of the evidence is not sufficient to warrant a strong evidence-based recommendation. Recommendations on surveillance for breast cancer recurrence, screening for second primary cancers, assessment and management of physical and psychosocial long-term and late effects of breast cancer and its treatment, health promotion, and care coordination/practice implications are made.This guideline was developed through a collaboration between the American Cancer Society and the American Society of Clinical Oncology and has been published jointly by invitation and consent in both CA: A Cancer Journal for
Runowicz, Carolyn D; Leach, Corinne R; Henry, N Lynn; Henry, Karen S; Mackey, Heather T; Cowens-Alvarado, Rebecca L; Cannady, Rachel S; Pratt-Chapman, Mandi L; Edge, Stephen B; Jacobs, Linda A; Hurria, Arti; Marks, Lawrence B; LaMonte, Samuel J; Warner, Ellen; Lyman, Gary H; Ganz, Patricia A
Answer questions and earn CME/CNE The purpose of the American Cancer Society/American Society of Clinical Oncology Breast Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline is to provide recommendations to assist primary care and other clinicians in the care of female adult survivors of breast cancer. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PubMed through April 2015. A multidisciplinary expert workgroup with expertise in primary care, gynecology, surgical oncology, medical oncology, radiation oncology, and nursing was formed and tasked with drafting the Breast Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline. A total of 1073 articles met inclusion criteria; and, after full text review, 237 were included as the evidence base. Patients should undergo regular surveillance for breast cancer recurrence, including evaluation with a cancer-related history and physical examination, and should be screened for new primary breast cancer. Data do not support performing routine laboratory tests or imaging tests in asymptomatic patients to evaluate for breast cancer recurrence. Primary care clinicians should counsel patients about the importance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle, monitor for post-treatment symptoms that can adversely affect quality of life, and monitor for adherence to endocrine therapy. Recommendations provided in this guideline are based on current evidence in the literature and expert consensus opinion. Most of the evidence is not sufficient to warrant a strong evidence-based recommendation. Recommendations on surveillance for breast cancer recurrence, screening for second primary cancers, assessment and management of physical and psychosocial long-term and late effects of breast cancer and its treatment, health promotion, and care coordination/practice implications are made.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Prospective Payment System (PPS)-Exempt Cancer Hospital Quality Reporting (PCHQR) Program currently uses five oncology care measures. The resulting PPS-Exempt...
O'Hanlon, E; Kennedy, N
Little is known about the extent of exercise prescription within cancer care. This cross-sectional survey aims to identify Irish oncology nurses and physiotherapists' current knowledge and practice in prescribing exercise for cancer care and barriers to such prescription. An online survey was distributed to the Chartered Physiotherapists in Oncology and Palliative Care (n = 35) and the Irish Association for Nurses in Oncology (n = 170). The response rate was 74% (26/35) for physiotherapists and 34% (58/170) for oncology nurses. Three quarters of physiotherapists recommended/prescribed exercise with 81% or more of cancer patients in the past 6 months, with the exercises prescribed largely in line with current guidelines. Patients' family/friends advising rest was the most commonly reported exercise barrier by physiotherapists [89% (17/19)], with a lack of exercise guidelines for cancer patients being most problematic for oncology nurses [93% (50/54)]. Only 33% (18/54) of oncology nurses felt they had sufficient knowledge regarding exercise in cancer care. In conclusion, exercise prescription by physiotherapists largely corresponds with current guidelines. A minority of nurses felt they had sufficient knowledge of exercise for this population. Further formal postgraduate educational opportunities are needed for oncology nurses and physiotherapists in this area.
Tracy L Truant
Full Text Available The integration of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM and conventional cancer care in Canada is in its nascent stages. While most patients use CAM during their cancer experience, the majority does not receive adequate support from their oncology health care professionals (HCPs to integrate CAM safely and effectively into their treatment and care. A variety of factors influence this lack of integration in Canada, such as health care professional(HCP education and attitudes about CAM; variable licensure, credentialing of CAM practitioners, and reimbursement issues across the country; an emerging CAM evidence base; and models of cancer care that privilege diseased-focused care at the expense of whole person care. Oncology nurses are optimally aligned to be leaders in the integration of CAM into cancer care in Canada. Beyond the respect afforded to oncology nurses by patients and family members that support them in broaching the topic of CAM, policies, and position statements exist that allow oncology nurses to include CAM as part of their scope. Oncology nurses have also taken on leadership roles in clinical innovation, research, education, and advocacy that are integral to the safe and informed integration of evidence-based CAM therapies into cancer care settings in Canada.
Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to assess the knowledge of definition of cancer survivors among Japanese oncology nurses and their roles in long-term cancer survivorship care. Methods: A structured self-administered and self-report questionnaire created by the study investigators was given to members of the Japanese Society of Cancer Nursing. The subjects were 81 female oncology nurses. Results: Forty-nine nurses had 11 or more years of nursing experience, while 27 nurses had cancer-related nursing certifications such as, certification in oncology nursing specialist. This study population had rather rich experience in oncology nursing. Sixty-two nurses defined a cancer survivor from the time of diagnosis, while the nurses′ recognition of long-term survivorship care was poor, compared with nursing care at the time of diagnosis, during treatment, and end of life. Conclusions: The nurses were aware of the needs to recognize and address issues faced by long-term cancer survivors and for nursing study, but very few put the effective patient education and interventions into practice. It is because oncology nurses have few chances to see cancer survivors who go out of the hands of healthcare professionals. In increasing the number of long-term survivors, long-term survivorship care is needed in addition to incorporating such education into undergraduate and graduate programs. Further study on the knowledge of long-term cancer survivorship care and nursing practices are required.
Bultz, Barry D; Travado, Luzia; Jacobsen, Paul B; Turner, Jane; Borras, Josep M; Ullrich, Andreas W H
The International Psycho-oncology Society (IPOS) has just celebrated its 30th anniversary. The growth of psychosocial oncology has been exponential, and this relatively new field is becoming a core service that focuses on prevention, reducing the burden of cancer, and enhancing the quality of life from time of diagnosis, through treatment, survivorship, and palliative care. Looking back over the past 30 years, we see that cancer care globally has evolved to a new and higher standard. Today, 'cancer care for the whole patient' is being accomplished with an evidence-based model that addresses psychosocial needs and integrates psycho-oncology into the treatment and care of patients. The President's Plenary Session in Lisbon, Portugal, highlighted the IPOS Mission of promoting global excellence in psychosocial care of people affected by cancer through our research, public policy, advocacy, and education. The internationally endorsed IPOS Standard of Quality Cancer Care, for example, clearly states the necessity of integrating the psychosocial domain into routine care, and that distress should be measured as the sixth vital sign after temperature, blood pressure, pulse, respiratory rate, and pain. The plenary paper also discussed the global progress being made in Europe, North America, and Australia in providing quality cancer care for the whole patient. Collaborative partnerships between IPOS and organizations such as the European Partnership Action Against Cancer and the World Health Organization are essential in building capacity for the delivery of high-quality psycho-oncology services in the future.
Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Freeman, Carolyn; Marcus, Karen; Claude, Line; Dieckmann, Karin; Halperin, Edward; Esiashvili, Natia; Paulino, Arnold; Mahajan, Anita; Seiersen, Klaus; Ahern, Verity; Ricardi, Umberto; Carrie, Christian
Paediatric malignancies are a challenge for the radiation oncologist due to their rarity, the great variety of histological types, and the complexity of treatment concepts that evolve over time. The Paediatric Radiation Oncology Society (PROS) is the only internationally operating society for paediatric radiation oncology. The objectives of PROS are to set a world-wide standard of excellence with respect to radiation oncology aspects in curing children and adolescents with cancer, to provide a forum for communication between radiation oncologists, and to exchange information with all professionals involved in the management of paediatric and adolescent cancer. Challenges include the need to promote education and support practice in low and middle income countries (LMIC) as well as the cost and availability of modern treatment technologies for all but most especially these countries. Collaborations with other societies that include for example the education programmes provided jointly with ESTRO, and the upgraded technical platform of the PROS web site offer new possibilities to enhance the efficacy of PROS in education and support of paediatric radiation oncology practice world-wide. PROS has made an important contribution to the management of childhood malignancies over the past decade and new and developing collaborations between PROS and other societies or organizations will ultimately lead to a reduction in world-wide health care inequalities.
Full Text Available Mary Ann Cantrell1, Kathy Ruble21College of Nursing, Villanova University, Villanova, PA, USA; 2Department of Pediatric Oncology, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: This paper describes the significant advances in the treatment of childhood cancer and supportive care that have occurred over the last several decades and details how these advances have led to improved survival and quality of life (QOL for children with cancer through a multidisciplinary approach to care. Advances in the basic sciences, general medicine, cooperative research protocols, and policy guidelines have influenced and guided the multidisciplinary approach in pediatric oncology care across the spectrum from diagnosis through long-term survival. Two case studies are provided to highlight the nature and scope of multidisciplinary care in pediatric oncology care.Keywords: childhood cancer, chemotherapy, leukemia
Meropol, Neal J; Schrag, Deborah; Smith, Thomas J; Mulvey, Therese M; Langdon, Robert M; Blum, Diane; Ubel, Peter A; Schnipper, Lowell E
Advances in early detection, prevention, and treatment have resulted in consistently falling cancer death rates in the United States. In parallel with these advances have come significant increases in the cost of cancer care. It is well established that the cost of health care (including cancer care) in the United States is growing more rapidly than the overall economy. In part, this is a result of the prices and rapid uptake of new agents and other technologies, including advances in imaging and therapeutic radiology. Conventional understanding suggests that high prices may reflect the costs and risks associated with the development, production, and marketing of new drugs and technologies, many of which are valued highly by physicians, patients, and payers. The increasing cost of cancer care impacts many stakeholders who play a role in a complex health care system. Our patients are the most vulnerable because they often experience uneven insurance coverage, leading to financial strain or even ruin. Other key groups include pharmaceutical manufacturers that pass along research, development, and marketing costs to the consumer; providers of cancer care who dispense increasingly expensive drugs and technologies; and the insurance industry, which ultimately passes costs to consumers. Increasingly, the economic burden of health care in general, and high-quality cancer care in particular, will be less and less affordable for an increasing number of Americans unless steps are taken to curb current trends. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) is committed to improving cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment and eliminating disparities in cancer care through support of evidence-based and cost-effective practices. To address this goal, ASCO established a Cost of Care Task Force, which has developed this Guidance Statement on the Cost of Cancer Care. This Guidance Statement provides a concise overview of the economic issues facing stakeholders in the cancer
Libo-On, Izette Larraine M; Nashwan, Abdulqadir J
Nurses who work in oncology settings may lack the knowledge and skills required for end-of-life (EoL) care. A clear understanding of nurses' perceptions of EoL care is crucial for the successful improvement of care for terminally ill patients with cancer. Although many studies have underlined nurses' perspectives on EoL care, this is the first such study conducted on oncology nurses in Qatar. This study primarily sought to measure nurses' perceptions of EoL care at the National Center for Cancer Care and Research (NCCCR) in Qatar. A quantitative, cross-sectional, self-reported study. Nurses at the NCCCR reported their perceptions of EoL care using the Frommelt Attitudes Toward Care of the Dying (FATCOD) scale, which consisted of 30 items scored on a five-point Likert scale. Seventy-eight nurses working in oncology settings completed the tool. Approximately one third (33-35%) of the participants had positive perceptions of EoL care. The majority (67%) of the participants were uncertain or ambivalent regarding EoL events and situations. There was no significant relationship between the participants' profiles and their perceptions of EoL care. However, very few of them had completed educational courses in death and dying. Nurses have an important impact on EoL care, and continuous education is necessary to improve their confidence when they work with dying patients and their families. An in-house programme to help nurses cope with compassionate exhaustion and humanistic and relational care is highly recommended.
Silver, Julie K; Raj, Vishwa S; Fu, Jack B; Wisotzky, Eric M; Smith, Sean Robinson; Kirch, Rebecca A
Palliative care and rehabilitation practitioners are important collaborative referral sources for each other who can work together to improve the lives of cancer patients, survivors, and caregivers by improving both quality of care and quality of life. Cancer rehabilitation and palliative care involve the delivery of important but underutilized medical services to oncology patients by interdisciplinary teams. These subspecialties are similar in many respects, including their focus on improving cancer-related symptoms or cancer treatment-related side effects, improving health-related quality of life, lessening caregiver burden, and valuing patient-centered care and shared decision-making. They also aim to improve healthcare efficiencies and minimize costs by means such as reducing hospital lengths of stay and unanticipated readmissions. Although their goals are often aligned, different specialized skills and approaches are used in the delivery of care. For example, while each specialty prioritizes goal-concordant care through identification of patient and family preferences and values, palliative care teams typically focus extensively on using patient and family communication to determine their goals of care, while also tending to comfort issues such as symptom management and spiritual concerns. Rehabilitation clinicians may tend to focus more specifically on functional issues such as identifying and treating deficits in physical, psychological, or cognitive impairments and any resulting disability and negative impact on quality of life. Additionally, although palliative care and rehabilitation practitioners are trained to diagnose and treat medically complex patients, rehabilitation clinicians also treat many patients with a single impairment and a low symptom burden. In these cases, the goal is often cure of the underlying neurologic or musculoskeletal condition. This report defines and describes cancer rehabilitation and palliative care, delineates their
Robles, L; Balmaña, J; Barrel, I; Grandes, S; Graña, B; Guillén, C; Marcos, H; Ramírez, D; Redondo, E; Sánchez, J
It is believed that 5% of all cancers are hereditary, on being caused by mutations in the germinal line in cancer susceptibility genes. The hereditary pattern in the majority of cases is autosomal dominant. Genetic tests are only recommended to individuals whose personal or family history is highly suggestive of a hereditary cancer. The appropriate assessment of these individuals and their families must be performed in Cancer Genetic Counselling Units (UCGC). Representatives of the Spanish Medical Oncology Society (Sociedad Española de Oncología Médica [SEOM]) and the three primary care scientific societies: Spanish Society of Family and Community Medicine (Sociedad Española de Medicina de Familia y Comunitaria [SEMFyC]), Spanish Society of Primary Care Physicians (Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria [SEMERGEN]) and the Spanish Society of General and Family Doctors (Sociedad Española de Médicos Generales y de Familia [SEMG]), met to prepare this consensus document on hereditary cancer. The consensus identified the three main aspects: how to identify subjects at risk of hereditary cancer; how to refer to a UCGC; and the usefulness of the assessment and genetic studies. A document, with the text fully agreed by all the participants, has been prepared. It contains a summary of the principal characteristics of the care for individuals with hereditary cancer. It shows how to; identify them, assess them, refer them to a UCGC. How to assess their genetic risk, perform genetic studies, as well as prevention measures and reduction of the risk is also presented. This consensus document is a landmark in the relationships with several Scientific Societies that represent the professionals who provide care to individuals with cancer and their families, and will help to improve care in hereditary cancer in Spain. Copyright © 2013. Publicado por Elsevier España.
García Rojas Vázquez, L E; Trujano-Ramos, L A; Pérez-Rivera, E
The head and neck cancer in Michoacán, Mexico, ranks as the third most common cancer and accounts for 12% of deaths. The increase in malnutrition in a patient with this disease has been associated with increased mortality. We studied prospectively 30 patients of both sexes, aged 18 years with head and neck cancer in the Cancer Care Center of Michoacan. In the evaluation period since August 2010 to August 2011. Formats were used VGS-Oncology (Subjective Global Assessment), NRS 2002 (Nutritional risk screen) and Guss (Gugging Swallowing Screen), through which nutritional risk was determined, and established the swallowing capacity of the study population. In our study, 53.3% of the population had moderate malnutrition according to the VGS Oncology, 33% weight loss record. The NRS 2002 show that 43.3% is at risk of malnutrition. The degree of dysphagia is shown more often in older patients, cancer type and stage of illness. Nutritional risk scales relate directly proportional to tumor location and stage, as well, there are other different oncological factors involved in the patient's nutritional deterioration. Therefore it is of vital importance to have a nutritionist as part of the multidisciplinary team, to detect the nutritional risk and to be able to handle it in an opportune way. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Gschwend, J E; Albers, P; Schrader, M
Establishment of organ site-specific cancer centers by the German Cancer Society (GCS) is part of the basic politically driven reform of oncology care in Germany. Since 2007 an increasing number of prostate cancer centers have been guided toward certification by the OnkoZert GmbH of the GCS. Currently 68 centers are certified and together with ongoing certification proceedings will amount to 81 prostate cancer centers, which cover about one fourth of cases of primary prostate cancer. Urology is of particular importance in the management of these centers. For the most part, urologists belonging to a clinical unit are the initiators of the certification process, thus ensuring that uro-oncology is firmly entrenched in the specialty with involvement of outpatient service providers. Fears that authority will be lost are unfounded as long as responsibility for this task is taken seriously and active use is made of the possibilities for creativity. A similarly important function is fulfilled by the testicular cancer centers that offer second opinion services, which were initiated by urology conjointly with German Cancer Aid to pursue the goal of quality assurance for this tumor entity and therefore likewise secure the position of this tumor in the realm of urologists. By applying such strategic approaches, urologists will succeed in sustainably safeguarding their future importance in a very competitive environment and in counteracting the encroachments of other specialties by exhibiting clear orientation.
Renz, Monika; Schütt Mao, Miriam; Cerny, Thomas
It is recognized as increasingly important in palliative care that spiritual needs of terminally ill patients should be acknowledged and addressed. Two research projects investigated the feasibility of psychotherapeutic and music therapeutic assistance offered to advanced cancer patients. The first project (1998-2000) sought to improve the understanding of the effect of therapeutic support given to 80 patients and the characteristics of the dying process. The second project (2000-2003) assessed the significance of spiritual experiences in illness and affliction. Empathic therapeutic assistance, observations and systematic record keeping were combined with statistical assessment in an interdisciplinary approach. A respectful attitude and spiritual care were taken to perceive and analyse changes in border areas of life. The first project studied the rules and methods of terminal communication and described three stages in the dying process. After a 'passing through,' the dying often had a spiritual opening leading in a state beyond all pain. The second project concentrated on spiritual experiences. Of 251 treated patients, 135 had such experiences. Spiritual experiences can have a great impact on physical and emotional well-being (alleviate pain, release from anxiety and despair, engender feelings of serenity and wholeness) and facilitate dying. Music therapy, psychotherapy and spiritual assistance offer essential methods for psycho-oncology and palliative care. A holistic and interdisciplinary approach is needed to assist patients in their complex suffering. Our findings on spiritual experience and terminal communication should stimulate further research in a still unexplored territory of clinical research.
Sprague Martinez, Linda; Freeman, Elmer R; Winkfield, Karen M
Despite efforts to ameliorate disparities in cancer care and clinical trials, barriers persist. As part of a multiphase community-engaged assessment, an exploratory community-engaged research partnership, forged between an academic hospital and a community-based organization, set out to explore perceptions of cancer care and cancer clinical trials by black Bostonians. Key informant interviews with health care providers and patient advocates in community health centers (CHCs), organizers from grassroots coalitions focused on cancer, informed the development of a focus group protocol. Six focus groups were conducted with black residents in Boston, including groups of cancer survivors and family members. Transcripts were coded thematically and a code-based report was generated and analyzed by community and academic stakeholders. While some participants identified clinical trials as beneficial, overall perceptions conjured feelings of fear and exploitation. Participants describe barriers to clinical trial participation in the context of cancer care experiences, which included negative interactions with providers and mistrust. Primary care physicians (PCPs) reported being levied as a trusted resource for patients undergoing care, but lamented the absence of a mechanism by which to gain information about cancer care and clinical trials. Confusion about cancer care and clinical trials persists, even among individuals who have undergone treatment for cancer. Greater coordination between PCPs and CHC care teams and oncology care teams may improve patient experiences with cancer care, while also serving as a mechanism to disseminate information about treatment options and clinical trials. Inequities in cancer care and clinical trial participation persist. Our findings indicate that greater coordination with primary care physicians (PCPs) and community health center (CHC) providers may be an important step for both improving the quality of cancer care in communities and
Hlubocky, Fay J; Back, Anthony L; Shanafelt, Tait D
Despite their benevolent care of others, today, more than ever, the cancer care professional who experiences overwhelming feelings of exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy is in grave jeopardy of developing burnout. Clinicians are repeatedly physically and emotionally exposed to exceedingly long hours in direct care with seriously ill patients/families, limited autonomy over daily responsibilities, endless electronic documentation, and a shifting medical landscape. The physical and emotional well-being of the cancer care clinician is critical to the impact on quality care, patient satisfaction, and overall success of their organizations. The prevention of burnout as well as targeting established burnout need to be proactively addressed at the individual level and organizational level. In fact, confronting burnout and promoting wellness are the shared responsibility of both oncology clinicians and their organizations. From an individual perspective, oncology clinicians must be empowered to play a crucial role in enhancing their own wellness by identification of burnout symptoms in both themselves and their colleagues, learning resilience strategies (e.g., mindful self-compassion), and cultivating positive relationships with fellow clinician colleagues. At the organizational level, leadership must recognize the importance of oncology clinician well-being; engage leaders and physicians in collaborative action planning, improve overall practice environment, and provide institutional wellness resources to physicians. These effective individual and organizational interventions are crucial for the prevention and improvement of overall clinician wellness and must be widely and systematically integrated into oncology care.
Újhelyi, Mihály; Pukancsik, Dávid; Kelemen, Péter; Sávolt, Ákos; Gődény, Mária; Kovács, Eszter; Udvarhelyi, Nóra; Bak, Mihály; Polgár, Csaba; Rubovszky, Gábor; Kásler, Miklós; Mátrai, Zoltán
The European Society of Breast Cancer Specialists has created quality indicators for breast units to establish minimum standards and to ensure specialist multimodality care with the conscious aim of improving outcomes and decreasing breast cancer mortality. The aim of this study was to analyse the breast cancer care in the National Institute of Oncology according to the European Society of Breast Cancer Specialists requirements and in a large number of cases in order to present representative clinico-pathological data on the incidence of breast cancer in Hungary. According to the European Society of Breast Cancer Specialists uniformed criteria clinico-pathological data of multimodality treated breast cancer cases were retrospectively analysed between June 1, 2011 and May 31, 2012. During the period of interest 906 patients underwent breast surgery for malignant or benign lesions. According to the European Society of Breast Cancer Specialists quality indicators the breast cancer care of the National Institute of Oncology is eligible. The diagnostic modalities and multimodality care of breast cancer of the National Institute of Oncology breast unit meets the critical mass and minimum standards of the European Society of Breast Cancer Specialists criteria. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(42), 1674-1682.
Levine, Deena R.; Johnson, Liza-Marie; Snyder, Angela; Wiser, Robert K.; Gibson, Deborah; Kane, Javier R.; Baker, Justin N.
Background The demonstrated benefit of integrating palliative care (PC) into cancer treatment has triggered an increased need for PC services. The trajectory of integrating PC in comprehensive cancer centers, particularly pediatric centers, is unknown. We describe our eight-year experience of initiating and establishing PC with the Quality of Life Service (QoLS) at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital. Patients and Methods We retrospectively reviewed records of patients seen by the QoLS (n= 615) from March 2007 to December 2014. Variables analyzed for each year, using descriptive statistics, included diagnostic groups, QoLS encounters, goals of care, duration of survival, and location of death. Results Total QoLS patient encounters increased from 58 (2007) to 1297 (2014), new consults increased from 17 (2007) to 115 (2014), and mean encounters per patient increased from 5.06 (2007) to 16.11 (2014). Goal of care at initial consultation shifted from primarily comfort to an increasing goal of cure. The median number of days from initial consult to death increased from 52 days (2008) to 223 days (2014). A trend toward increased outpatient location of death was noted with 42% outpatient deaths in 2007 increasing to a majority in each subsequent year (range 51–74%). Hospital-wide, patients receiving PC services before death increased from approximately 50% to nearly 100%. Conclusions Since its inception, the QoLS experienced a dramatic rise in referrals and encounters per patient, utilization by all clinical services, a trend toward earlier consultation and longer term follow-up, increasing outpatient location of death, and near-universal PC involvement at the end-of-life. The successful integration of PC in a comprehensive cancer center, and resulting potential for improved care provision over time, can serve as a model for other programs on a broad scale. PMID:27283167
Vogel, Wendy H
Oncology care is becoming increasingly complex. The interprofessional team concept of care is necessary to meet projected oncology professional shortages, as well as to provide superior oncology care. The oncology advanced practitioner (AP) is a licensed health care professional who has completed advanced training in nursing or pharmacy or has completed training as a physician assistant. Oncology APs increase practice productivity and efficiency. Proven to be cost effective, APs may perform varied roles in an oncology practice. Integrating an AP into an oncology practice requires forethought given to the type of collaborative model desired, role expectations, scheduling, training, and mentoring.
Burg, Mary Ann; Zebrack, Brad; Walsh, Katherine; Maramaldi, Peter; Lim, Jung-Won; Smolinski, Kathryn M; Lawson, Kim
The present article reports data from a cross-sectional survey of members of the Association of Oncology Social Work (AOSW) completed in May 2006. The purpose of the survey was to gather information on AOSW members' practice roles, the clients they serve, and their views on barriers cancer patients face in obtaining quality cancer care. The survey instrument was a self-administered 18-page survey disseminated online and by U.S. mail to members who did not provide e-mail addresses. The response rate to the survey was 62.3% (622/999). Reported barriers to quality cancer care are presented here in three categories: health system, social/environmental, and individual-level barriers. The majority of respondents reported health system barriers, specifically inadequate health insurance, as the major barrier to accessing quality health care for cancer patients. Among social/environmental barriers, inability to pay for treatment-related expenses was the major barrier. Among individual-level barriers, patients' fears and distress were the major barriers. The conclusions from this survey point to the critical role of oncology social workers in assisting cancer patients in overcoming the barriers to quality care and achieving optimum quality of life.
Kessel, Kerstin Anne; Vogel, Marco Me; Kessel, Carmen; Bier, Henning; Biedermann, Tilo; Friess, Helmut; Herschbach, Peter; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Rüdiger; Meyer, Bernhard; Kiechle, Marion; Keller, Ulrich; Peschel, Christian; Schmid, Roland M; Combs, Stephanie E
In the last decade, the health care sector has been enriched by numerous innovations such as apps and connected devices that assist users in weight reduction and diabetes management. However, only a few native apps in the oncological context exist, which support patients during treatment and aftercare. The objective of this study was to analyze patients' acceptance regarding app use and to investigate the functions of an oncological app that are most required, and the primary reasons for patients to refuse app-assisted cancer care. We designed and conducted a survey with 23 questions, inquiring patients about their technical knowledge and equipment, as well as the possible advantages and disadvantages, data transfer, and general functionality of an app. A total of 375 patients participated; the participation rate was 60.7% (375/618). Gender distribution was about 3:4 (female:male) with a median age of 59 years (range 18-92 years). Whereas 69.6% (261/375) of patients used mobile devices, 16.3% (61/375) did not own one, and 9.1% (34/375) only used a personal computer (PC). About half of the patients rated their usability skills as very good and good (18.9% 71/375; 35.2% 132/375), 23.5% (88/375) described their skills as intermediate, and 14.4% (54/375) as bad. Of all patients, 182 (48.5%, 182/375) were willing to send data to their treating clinic via an app, that is, to a server (61.0% 111/182) or as email (33.5%, 61/182). About two-thirds (68.7%, 125/182) believed that additional and regularly sent data would be an ideal complement to the standard follow-up procedure. Additionally, 86.8% (158/182) wished to be contacted by a physician when entered data showed irregularities. Because of lack of skills (34.4%, 56/163), concerns about the use of data (35.0%, 57/163), lack of capable devices (25.8%, 42/163), and the wish for personal contact with the treating physician (47.2%, 77/163), a total of 163 (43.5%, 163/375) patients refused to use an app. Pearson correlation
Fiore, Louis D; Brophy, Mary T; Turek, Sara; Kudesia, Valmeek; Ramnath, Nithya; Shannon, Colleen; Ferguson, Ryan; Pyarajan, Saiju; Fiore, Melissa A; Hornberger, John; Lavori, Philip
The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) recognized the need to balance patient-centered care with responsible creation of generalizable knowledge on the effectiveness of molecular medicine tools. Embracing the principles of the rapid learning health-care system, a new clinical program called the Precision Oncology Program (POP) was created in New England. The POP integrates generalized knowledge about molecular medicine in cancer with a database of observations from previously treated veterans. The program assures access to modern genomic oncology practice in the veterans affairs (VA), removes disparities of access across the VA network of clinical centers, disseminates the products of learning that are generalizable to non-VA settings, and systematically presents opportunities for patients to participate in clinical trials of targeted therapeutics.
van Hoeve, J.; de Munck, L.; Otter, Renee; de Vries, J.; Siesling, S.
Background and aim: In cancer care, more and more systemized approaches such as care pathways are used to reduce variation, reduce waiting- and throughput times and to improve quality of care. The aim of this study was to determine whether the implementation of a multidisciplinary breast cancer path
Hoeve, van J.; Munck, de L.; Otter, R.; Vries, de J.; Siesling, S.
Background and aim In cancer care, more and more systemized approaches such as care pathways are used to reduce variation, reduce waiting- and throughput times and to improve quality of care. The aim of this study was to determine whether the implementation of a multidisciplinary breast cancer pathw
Hatzoglou, Vaios; Omuro, Antonio M; Haque, Sofia; Khakoo, Yasmin; Ganly, Ian; Oh, Jung Hun; Shukla-Dave, Amita; Fatovic, Robin; Gaal, Joshua; Holodny, Andrei I
The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility and clinical impact of second-opinion interpretations of outside neuroimaging studies by oncologic neuroradiologists at a National Cancer Institute-designated cancer center. We performed a retrospective analysis of initial outside and second-opinion radiology reports from 300 computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies and identified cases with discrepancies between the two reports. An adult neuro-oncologist, pediatric neuro-oncologist, and head and neck surgeon reviewed each pair of discrepant reports based on their area of expertise, patient age, and the type of study performed. The clinicians were blinded to the origin of each report and recorded whether the differences in the reports would have led to a change in patient management and/or disease staging. Histopathologic analysis, clinical assessment, and/or minimum 3-month imaging follow-up served as the reference standards to establish which of the 2 reports was correct. Among the 283 cases that met our study criteria, there were 55 neuroimaging studies with disagreements (19%) between the initial outside report and second-opinion interpretation. Patient management and/or disease stage would have been altered in 42 of 283 cases (15%) based on report differences as determined by the 2 neuro-oncologists and the surgeon participating in the study. Sufficient follow-up was available in 35 of 42 cases (83%). The second-opinion interpretation was correct 100% of the time (35/35). Second-opinion interpretations of neuroimaging studies by subspecialized oncologic neuroradiologists provide added value by reducing error and optimizing the care of cancer patients. Cancer 2016. © 2016 American Cancer Society. Cancer 2016;122:2708-2714. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
Popescu, R A; Schäfer, R; Califano, R; Eckert, R; Coleman, R; Douillard, J-Y; Cervantes, A; Casali, P G; Sessa, C; Van Cutsem, E; de Vries, E; Pavlidis, N; Fumasoli, K; Wörmann, B; Samonigg, H; Cascinu, S; Cruz Hernández, J J; Howard, A J; Ciardiello, F; Stahel, R A; Piccart, M
The number of cancer patients in Europe is rising and significant advances in basic and applied cancer research are making the provision of optimal care more challenging. The concept of cancer as a systemic, highly heterogeneous and complex disease has increased the awareness that quality cancer care should be provided by a multidisciplinary team (MDT) of highly qualified healthcare professionals. Cancer patients also have the right to benefit from medical progress by receiving optimal treatment from adequately trained and highly skilled medical professionals. Built on the highest standards of professional training and continuing medical education, medical oncology is recognised as an independent medical specialty in many European countries. Medical oncology is a core member of the MDT and offers cancer patients a comprehensive and systemic approach to treatment and care, while ensuring evidence-based, safe and cost-effective use of cancer drugs and preserving the quality of life of cancer patients through the entire 'cancer journey'. Medical oncologists are also engaged in clinical and translational research to promote innovation and new therapies and they contribute to cancer diagnosis, prevention and research, making a difference for patients in a dynamic, stimulating professional environment. Medical oncologists play an important role in shaping the future of healthcare through innovation and are also actively involved at the political level to ensure a maximum contribution of the profession to Society and to tackle future challenges. This position paper summarises the multifarious and vital contributions of medical oncology and medical oncologists to today's and tomorrow's professional cancer care.
Genovesi, Domenico; Mazzilli, Lorenzo; Trignani, Marianna; DI Tommaso, Monica; Nuzzo, Antonio; Biondi, Edoardo; Tinari, Nicola; Martino, Maria Teresa; Innocenti, Paolo; DI Sebastiano, Pierluigi; Mazzola, Lorenzo; Lanci, Carmine; Neri, Matteo; Laterza, Francesco; Marino, Maria; Ferrini, Giovanni; Spadaccini, Antonio; Filippone, Antonella; DI Giandomenico, Enzo; Marulli, Antonio; Palombo, Giuseppe; Sparvieri, Antonio; Marchetti, Antonio; Pizzicannella, Giuseppe; Petrini, Flavia; DI Felice, Maria; Ottaviani, Floriana; Monteodorisio, Antonio; DI Nicola, Marta; Cefaro, Giampiero Ausili
To report our experience on implementation and preliminary results of a decision-making model based on the recommendations of an Interdisciplinary Oncological Care Group developed for the management of colorectal cancer. The multidisciplinary team identified a reference guideline using appraisal of guidelines for research and evaluation (AGREE) tool based on a sequential assessment of the guideline quality. Thereafter, internal guidelines with diagnostic and therapeutic management for early, locally advanced and metastatic colonic and rectal cancer were drafted; organizational aspects, responsibility matrices, protocol actions for each area of specialty involved and indicators for performing audits were also defined. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) UK guideline was the reference for drafting the internal guideline document; from February to November 2013, 125 patients with colorectal cancer were discussed by and taken under the care of the Interdisciplinary Oncological Care Group. The first audit performed in December 2013 revealed optimal adherence to the internal guideline, mainly in terms of uniformity and accuracy of perioperative staging, coordination and timing of multi-modal therapies. To date, all patients under observation are within the diagnostic and therapeutic course, no patient came out from the multidisciplinary "path" and only in 14% of cases have the first recommendations proposed been changed. The selected indicators appear effective and reliable, while at the moment, it is not yet possible to assess the impact of the multidisciplinary team on clinical outcome. Although having a short observation period, our model seems capable of determining optimal uniformity of diagnostic and therapeutic management, to a high degree of patient satisfaction. A longer observation period is necessary in order to confirm these observations and for assessing the impact on clinical outcome.
Kelly K Filipski
Full Text Available Cancer pharmacogenomics have contributed a number of important discoveries to current cancer treatment, changing the paradigm of treatment decisions. Both somatic and germline mutations are utilized to better understand the underlying biology of cancer growth and treatment response. The level of evidence required to fully translate pharmacogenomic discoveries into the clinic has relied heavily on randomized clinical trials. In this review, the use of observational studies, as well as, the use of adaptive trials and next generation sequencing to develop the required level of evidence for clinical implementation are discussed.
Abt Sacks, A; Perestelo-Perez, L; Rodriguez-Martin, B; Cuellar-Pompa, L; Algara López, M; González Hernández, N; Serrano-Aguilar, P
To analyse the perception about the information and communication received to evaluate oncologic care of breast cancer patients in Spain. Qualitative study based on conducting in-depth interviews. An inductive thematic analysis of the illness narratives was performed. Intentional theoretical sampling of 41 people diagnosed with breast cancer. The information provided during care process is assessed as appropriate, as it includes personalised skills focused on communication and considers organisational and contextual issues. In some cases, the information was considered partial, heterogeneous and at times contradictory, which revealed a lack of continuity. To provide and adequately cover information needs from the patient perspective, it is necessary to ensure access, both in its physical (material) and intellectual (comprehension) dimension, keeping in mind elements of social capital (social networks) and cultural capital (values, beliefs, non-verbal language) that facilitate or hinder access. The current state of transition to a horizontal model in the doctor-patient relationship, could account for the difficulties, deficits and contradictions in communication and information that breast cancer patients perceive in many contexts. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Reñones Crego, María de la Concepción; Fernández Pérez, Dolores; Vena Fernández, Carmen; Zamudio Sánchez, Antonio
Cancer treatment is a major burden for the patient and its family that requires an individualized management by healthcare professionals. Nurses are in charge of coordinating care and are the closest healthcare professionals to patient and family; however, in Spain, there are not standard protocols yet for the management of oncology patients. The Spanish Oncology Nursing Society developed between 2012 and 2014 the SHARE project, with the aim of establishing strategies to improve quality of life and nursing care in oncology patients. It was developed in 3 phases. First, a literature search and review was performed to identify nursing strategies, interventions and tools to improve cancer patients' care. At the second stage, these interventions were agreed within a group of oncology nursing experts; and at the third phase, a different group of experts in oncology care categorized the interventions to identify the ones with highest priority and most feasible to be implemented. As a result, 3 strategic actions were identified to improve nursing care during cancer treatment: To provide a named nurse to carry out the follow up process by attending to the clinic or telephonic consultation, develop therapeutic education with adapted protocols for each tumor type and treatment and ensure specific training for nurses on the management of the cancer patients. Strategic actions proposed in this paper aim to improve cancer patients' healthcare and quality of life through the development of advanced nursing roles based on a higher level of autonomy, situating nurses as care coordinators to assure an holistic care in oncology patients.
Ben-Arye, Eran; Popper-Giveon, Ariela; Samuels, Noah; Mutafoglu, Kamer; Schiff, Elad; Omran, Suha; Charalambous, Haris; Dweikat, Tahani; Ghrayeb, Ibtisam; Turker, Ibrahim; Hassan, Azza; Hassan, Esmat; Nimri, Omar; Kebudi, Rejin; Silbermann, Michael
The use of complementary and traditional medicine (CTM ) in Middle Eastern countries is widespread, including among patients with cancer. Perspectives of oncology healthcare professionals (HCPs) in this region regarding the integration of CTM within conventional supportive cancer care were explored. An 11-item questionnaire with an open-ended question asking respondents to comment about the integration of CTM within supportive cancer care was sent to Middle Eastern oncology HCPs, using snowball sampling methodology. The narratives provided were examined using thematic analysis. A total of 339 oncology HCPs completed and returned the study tool (80.3 % response rate ), of which 178 from 15 Middle Eastern countries responded to the open-ended question. The majority of respondents are in favor of the integration of CTM within supportive cancer care, though ideas on how this should be implemented varied. Thematic analysis identified multifactorial barriers to integration, which focused on HCPs' perspectives (e.g., a lack of knowledge and training; a skeptical approach to CTM), attitudes of patients and caregivers (e.g., unrealistic expectations regarding the outcomes of CTM treatments) and HCP-patient communication. In order to overcome these barriers, respondents suggested education and training programs for oncology HCPs which would focus on improving patients' quality-of-life-related outcomes. Middle Eastern oncology HCPs support the integration of CTM within supportive cancer care, while recognizing the need for education and training in this field. A better understanding of CTM would provide the knowledge and skills which would promote a non-judgmental, evidence-based approach, fostering better communication with patients.
The NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) is a national network of cancer care investigators, providers, academia, and other organizations that care for diverse populations in health systems. View the list of publications from NCORP. | Clinical Trials network of cancer care professionals who care for diverse populations across the U.S.
Full Text Available The burden of cancer in low- to middle-income countries is growing and is expected to rise dramatically while resources to manage this disease remain inadequate. All authorities for the management of cancer recommend multidisciplinary care. Educational efforts by international organizations to assist local professionals in caring for their patients tend to have a lasting impact because they empower local professionals and enhance their skills. A multidisciplinary cancer management course was designed by American Society of Clinical Oncology staff and local experts to provide a roadmap for cross-specialty interaction and coordination of care in Zimbabwe. The outcome of the course was measured through feedback obtained from participants and impact on local workforce. The cancer management course was relevant to daily practice and fostered long-lasting partnerships and collaborations. Furthermore, it resulted in a more motivated local workforce and strengthened existing multidisciplinary practices. Cancer care is in a critical state in low- to middle-income countries. Educational efforts and collaborative partnerships may provide a cost-effective strategy with sustainable benefits. A multidisciplinary approach to optimize therapy is desirable. Evaluation of the course impact after a period of 6 months to 1 year is needed to determine the sustainability and impact of such efforts.
The third Symptom Management Research Trial in Oncology (SMaRT Oncology-3: a randomised trial to determine the efficacy of adding a complex intervention for major depressive disorder (Depression Care for People with Lung Cancer to usual care, compared to usual care alone in patients with lung cancer
Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression Care for People with Lung Cancer is a complex intervention delivered by specially trained cancer nurses, under the supervision of a psychiatrist. It is given as a supplement to the usual care for depression, which patients receive from their general practitioner and cancer service. The third Symptom Management Research Trial in Oncology (SMaRT Oncology-3 Trial will test its efficacy when compared to usual care alone. Design A two arm parallel group multi-centre randomised controlled trial. 200 patients will be recruited through established systematic Symptom Monitoring Services, which screen patients for depression. Patients will have: a diagnosis of lung cancer; an estimated life expectancy of three months or more and a diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder. Patients will be randomised to usual care or usual care plus Depression Care for People with Lung Cancer. Randomisation will be carried out by telephoning a secure computerised central randomisation system or by using a secure web interface. The primary outcome measure is average depression severity. This will be assessed using scores on the 20-item Symptom Hopkins Checklist (SCL-20D, collected every four weeks over 32 weeks. Secondary outcomes include severity of anxiety, pain and fatigue; self-rated improvement of depression; quality of life and satisfaction with depression care. Trial Registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN75905964
Nekhlyudov, Larissa; Lacchetti, Christina; Davis, Nancy B; Garvey, Thomas Q; Goldstein, David P; Nunnink, J Chris; Ninfea, Jose I Ruades; Salner, Andrew L; Salz, Talya; Siu, Lillian L
Purpose This guideline provides recommendations on the management of adults after head and neck cancer (HNC) treatment, focusing on surveillance and screening for recurrence or second primary cancers, assessment and management of long-term and late effects, health promotion, care coordination, and practice implications. Methods ASCO has a policy and set of procedures for endorsing clinical practice guidelines that have been developed by other professional organizations. The American Cancer Society (ACS) HNC Survivorship Care Guideline was reviewed for developmental rigor by methodologists. An ASCO Expert Panel reviewed the content and recommendations, offering modifications and/or qualifying statements when deemed necessary. Results The ASCO Expert Panel determined that the ACS HNC Survivorship Care Guideline, published in 2016, is clear, thorough, clinically practical, and helpful, despite the limited availability of high-quality evidence to support many of the recommendations. ASCO endorsed the ACS HNC Survivorship Care Guideline, adding qualifying statements aimed at promoting team-based, multispecialty, multidisciplinary, collaborative head and neck survivorship care. Recommendations The ASCO Expert Panel emphasized that caring for HNC survivors requires a team-based approach that includes primary care clinicians, oncology specialists, otolaryngologists, dentists, and other allied professionals. The HNC treatment team should educate the primary care clinicians and patients about the type(s) of treatment received, the likelihood of potential recurrence, and the potential late and long-term complications. Primary care clinicians should recognize symptoms of recurrence and coordinate a prompt evaluation. They should also be prepared to manage late effects either directly or by referral to appropriate specialists. Health promotion is critical, particularly regarding tobacco cessation and dental care. Additional information is available at www
Viani, Karina; Filho, Vicente Odone; Ferman, Sima; Fonseca, Teresa Cristina Cardoso; Oliveira, Vanessa da Cunha; Lemos, Priscila Dos Santos Maia; Barr, Ronald D; Ladas, Elena J
The authors present a proposal of a partnership between the Sociedade Brasileira de Oncologia Pediátrica (SOBOPE) and the International Society of Pediatric Oncology (SIOP) to promote the standardization and improvement of nutritional care of kids under cancer treatment in Brazil. The results of the first meeting in Brazil as well as plans for future meetings are described. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Nainis, Nancy A.
Oncology nurses are particularly vulnerable to "burnout" syndrome due to the intensity of their work and the ongoing losses they experience while providing oncology care to their patients. High levels of stress in the workplace left untended lead to high job turnover, poor productivity, and diminished quality of care for patients.…
A paradox in cancer research is that the majority of patients enrolled in clinical trials are relatively young and fit while typical patients in daily practice are elderly and have comorbidities and impaired organ function. Given these differences, many major studies provide an imperfect guide to optimizing the treatment of the majority of patients. Since cancer incidence is highly correlated with age, and since the world's population is rapidly ageing, this problem can only increase. For this reason, oncologists and geriatricians need to collaborate in developing tools to systematically assess the health status of elderly patients and their fitness to receive cancer therapies of various intensity. Tailoring anti-cancer treatments and supportive care to individual needs should be seen as part of the move towards personalized medicine. Achieving this goal is as much of a challenge to developing and middle-income countries as it is to western nations. The 2015 annual conference of the International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG) held in Prague, Czech Republic, November 2015 and had a global focus on advancing the science of geriatric oncology and supportive care. Central to this approach is the systematic assessment of life expectancy, independent functioning, and the physical and psychological health of older cancer patients. The assumption behind comprehensive geriatric assessment is that elderly cancer patients have complex needs. The implication is that effective intervention will require a multidisciplinary team. Examples of effective geriatric assessment, multidisciplinary working and supportive care were presented at the SIOG conference.
Plante, Anne; Joannette, Sonia
The oncology patient navigator role was developed to ensure both continuity and consultation in the delivery of care to cancer patients and their families. In Québec, this role is filled by a nurse. This first article in a series of two, aims to explain why nurses were selected as patient navigators and to describe how this new role has been integrated in the Montérégie Region. The Québec Cancer Control Program, the definition established for the oncology nurse navigator role and the implementation of an integrated care network based on the Montérégie experience will be discussed.
Shah, Alaap; Stewart, Andrew K; Kolacevski, Andrej; Michels, Dina; Miller, Robert
The ever-increasing volume of scientific discoveries, clinical knowledge, novel diagnostic tools, and treatment options juxtaposed with rising costs in health care challenge physicians to identify, prioritize, and use new information rapidly to deliver efficient and high-quality care to a growing and aging patient population. CancerLinQ, a rapid learning health care system in oncology, is an initiative of the American Society of Clinical Oncology and its Institute for Quality that addresses these challenges by collecting information from the electronic health records of large numbers of patients with cancer. CancerLinQ is first and foremost a quality measurement and reporting system through which oncologists can harness the depth and power of their patients' clinical records and other data to assess, monitor, and improve the care they deliver. However, in light of privacy and security concerns with regard to collection, use, and disclosure of patient information, this article addresses the need to collect protected health information as defined under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 to drive rapid learning through CancerLinQ.
The growing Hispanic population in the United States mandates the need for oncology providers to become more familiar with disease patterns and cultural belief systems that can impact cancer care. "Culturally competent care" should be the mandate of all providers. This comprises awareness of cultural differences, communication in a manner that the patient understands, and respect.
Tariman, Joseph D; Mehmeti, Enisa; Spawn, Nadia; McCarter, Sarah P; Bishop-Royse, Jessica; Garcia, Ima; Hartle, Lisa; Szubski, Katharine
This study aimed to describe the contemporary role of the oncology nurse throughout the entire cancer shared decision-making (SDM) process. Study participants consisted of 30 nurses and nurse practitioners who are actively involved in direct care of patients with cancer in the inpatient or outpatient setting. The major themes that emerged from the content analysis are: oncology nurses have various roles at different time points and settings of cancer SDM processes; patient education, advocacy, and treatment side effects management are among the top nursing roles; oncology nurses value their participation in the cancer SDM process; oncology nurses believe they have a voice, but with various degrees of influence in actual treatment decisions; nurses' level of disease knowledge influences the degree of participation in cancer SDM; and the nursing role during cancer SDM can be complicated and requires flexibility. .
Chin, Joseph; Rumble, R Bryan; Kollmeier, Marisa; Heath, Elisabeth; Efstathiou, Jason; Dorff, Tanya; Berman, Barry; Feifer, Andrew; Jacques, Arthur; Loblaw, D Andrew
Purpose To jointly update the Cancer Care Ontario guideline on brachytherapy for patients with prostate cancer to account for new evidence. Methods An Update Panel conducted a targeted systematic literature review and identified more recent randomized controlled trials comparing dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with brachytherapy in men with prostate cancer. Results Five randomized controlled trials provided the evidence for this update. Recommendations For patients with low-risk prostate cancer who require or choose active treatment, low-dose rate brachytherapy (LDR) alone, EBRT alone, and/or radical prostatectomy (RP) should be offered to eligible patients. For patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer choosing EBRT with or without androgen-deprivation therapy, brachytherapy boost (LDR or high-dose rate [HDR]) should be offered to eligible patients. For low-intermediate risk prostate cancer (Gleason 7, prostate-specific antigen < 10 ng/mL or Gleason 6, prostate-specific antigen, 10 to 20 ng/mL), LDR brachytherapy alone may be offered as monotherapy. For patients with high-risk prostate cancer receiving EBRT and androgen-deprivation therapy, brachytherapy boost (LDR or HDR) should be offered to eligible patients. Iodine-125 and palladium-103 are each reasonable isotope options for patients receiving LDR brachytherapy; no recommendation can be made for or against using cesium-131 or HDR monotherapy. Patients should be encouraged to participate in clinical trials to test novel or targeted approaches to this disease. Additional information is available at www.asco.org/Brachytherapy-guideline and www.asco.org/guidelineswiki .
On June 24, 2013, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Board of Scientific Advisors approved the creation of the NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP). NCORP will bring state-of-the art cancer prevention, control, treatment and imaging clinical trials, cancer care delivery research, and disparities studies to individuals in their own communities. |
This paper, summarizing the March 2012 presentation at the second international workshop of the Canadian Task Force on Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer, describes the situation in Italy concerning the inadequate access to optimal cancer services for adolescents, and the need to improve the quality of care for these patients while investing in more research on the diseases that afflict them. National actions to bridge the gap in care and implement specific programs tailored to these patients arose from the pediatric oncology community. These actions include creation of the national Committee on Adolescents of the Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP), founded with the mission of ensuring that Italian adolescents with cancer have prompt, adequate, and equitable access to the best care to optimize their treatment outcome and quality of life. Also developed was the Youth Project of the pediatric oncology unit at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan, which is currently dedicated to adolescents aged 15-19 years old and may eventually serve young adults up to the age of 25 that are affected by pediatric-type tumors.
Ferrell, Betty R; Temel, Jennifer S; Temin, Sarah; Alesi, Erin R; Balboni, Tracy A; Basch, Ethan M; Firn, Janice I; Paice, Judith A; Peppercorn, Jeffrey M; Phillips, Tanyanika; Stovall, Ellen L; Zimmermann, Camilla; Smith, Thomas J
Purpose To provide evidence-based recommendations to oncology clinicians, patients, family and friend caregivers, and palliative care specialists to update the 2012 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) provisional clinical opinion (PCO) on the integration of palliative care into standard oncology care for all patients diagnosed with cancer. Methods ASCO convened an Expert Panel of members of the ASCO Ad Hoc Palliative Care Expert Panel to develop an update. The 2012 PCO was based on a review of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) by the National Cancer Institute Physicians Data Query and additional trials. The panel conducted an updated systematic review seeking randomized clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses, as well as secondary analyses of RCTs in the 2012 PCO, published from March 2010 to January 2016. Results The guideline update reflects changes in evidence since the previous guideline. Nine RCTs, one quasiexperimental trial, and five secondary analyses from RCTs in the 2012 PCO on providing palliative care services to patients with cancer and/or their caregivers, including family caregivers, were found to inform the update. Recommendations Inpatients and outpatients with advanced cancer should receive dedicated palliative care services, early in the disease course, concurrent with active treatment. Referral of patients to interdisciplinary palliative care teams is optimal, and services may complement existing programs. Providers may refer family and friend caregivers of patients with early or advanced cancer to palliative care services.
Inserra, Alessandro; Narciso, Alessandra; Paolantonio, Guglielmo; Messina, Raffaella; Crocoli, Alessandro
Survival rate for childhood cancer has increased in recent years, reaching as high as 70% in developed countries compared with 54% for all cancers diagnosed in the 1980s. In the remaining 30%, progression or metastatic disease leads to death and in this framework palliative care has an outstanding role though not well settled in all its facets. In this landscape, surgery has a supportive actor role integrated with other welfare aspects from which are not severable. The definition of surgical palliation has moved from the ancient definition of noncurative surgery to a group of practices performed not to cure but to alleviate an organ dysfunction offering the best quality of life possible in all the aspects of life (pain, dysfunctions, caregivers, psychosocial, etc.). To emphasize this aspect a more modern definition has been introduced: palliative therapy in whose context is comprised not only the care assistance but also the plans of care since the onset of illness, teaching the matter to surgeons in training and share paths. Literature is very poor regarding surgical aspects specifically dedicated and all researches (PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane) with various meshing terms result in a more oncologic and psychosocial effort. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rimel, B J; Burke, William M; Higgins, Robert V; Lee, Paula S; Lutman, Christopher V; Parker, Lynn
To identify potential cost savings in gynecologic oncology care without sacrificing quality. Members of the Clinical Practice Committee of the Society of Gynecologic Oncology were asked to review current practice patterns in gynecologic oncology and assess the potential for cost savings founded on evidence-based medicine and current guidelines. Five clinical practices were identified including the following: vaginal cytology for endometrial cancer survivors; colposcopy for low grade cytologic abnormalities for cervical cancer survivors; routine imaging studies for gynecologic cancer survivors; screening for ovarian cancer with serum biomarkers and ultrasound; and improving palliative care for gynecologic cancer patients. Review of the published literature and guidelines were performed to make evidence-based recommendations for cost effective quality gynecologic oncology care. • Do not perform Pap tests of the vaginal cuff in patients with a history of endometrial cancer. • Do not perform colposcopy for low grade Pap tests in women with a history of cervical cancer. • Avoid routine imaging for cancer surveillance in asymptomatic women with gynecologic cancer, specifically ovarian, endometrial, cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancer. • Do not screen women at low risk for ovarian cancer with ultrasound or CA-125 or other biomarkers. • Do not delay basic level palliative care for women with advanced or relapsed gynecologic cancer, do refer to a palliative care specialist when needed, and avoid unnecessary treatments at life's end. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cannon, Claire M.
Naturally occurring tumors in dogs are well-established models for several human cancers. Domestic cats share many of the benefits of dogs as a model (spontaneous cancers developing in an immunocompetent animal sharing the same environment as humans, shorter lifespan allowing more rapid trial completion and data collection, lack of standard of care for many cancers allowing evaluation of therapies in treatment-naïve populations), but have not been utilized to the same degree in the One Medici...
The Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group supports clinical oncology trials in cancer prevention and control in community settings. The group also supports investigator-initiated research projects in supportive, palliative and end-of-life care, and coordinates clinical oncology research projects with other NCI programs to be done in the community setting. |
Full Text Available Cancer is becoming a major public health issue as patients enjoy longer survivals than ever before due to the introduction innovative but expensive drugs in the clinic. In addition, the ageing of the population in Greece is expected to increase the absolute incidence of cancer. The National Health System should rapidly and efficiently adapt to the new challenges, including increased pharmaceutical costs. Resources ought to be allocated rationally and efficiently while maintaining adequate coverage for the insured population. Economising due to large-scale operations should be pursued by the governmental single payor (EOPYY, so that affordable coverage remains feasible. Establishment of mechanisms to deal with new and very costly drugs should be put in place. The major changes in anchor oncologic hospitals are needed in order to play a role as regional leaders in oncologic care, including merging of similar divisions, subspecialisation of services and promotion of clinical research. These major centres could coordinate a host of satellite oncology services in other urban hospitals and in the provinces. In addition, joint operations in training and patient care should be pursued with major private centres, without mutual mistrust or obsolete inflexibilities. The current financial crisis represents an excellent opportunity for revisioning and restructuring oncologic care in Greece, taking into account the societal needs and based on flexibility and efficiency.
... Employment and Training Administration Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology), Including On-Site Leased Workers From Source Right Solutions, Concord, California, Now Located... 5, 2012, applicable to workers of Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care...
Support Services As part of the comprehensive care provided at the NCI Pediatric Oncology Branch, we provide a wide range of services to address the social, psychological, emotional, and practical facets of pediatric cancer and to support patients and families while they are enrolled in clinical research protocols.
Sleight, Alix G; Duker, Leah I Stein
Supportive care in oncology helps people cope with cancer and its psychological, physical, and emotional side effects. However, cancer survivors report dissatisfaction with supportive care and a need for more psychosocial and self-management services. Occupational therapy practitioners represent an integral part of the supportive care team because their scope of practice emphasizes function. Through a focus on function, practitioners address the full spectrum of physical and psychosocial care. Currently, conceptualizations of occupational therapy for cancer survivors often focus solely on physical interventions and, therefore, do not represent the unique involvement of the profession in supportive oncology care. We advocate for a focused framework for occupational therapy practitioners in oncology as experts in function and providers of both physical and psychosocial treatments. Barriers to a focus on function are identified, and strategies are suggested for expanding involvement for the profession in supportive oncology care.
Full Text Available Giuseppe Aprile,1 Francesco Leone,2,3 Riccardo Giampieri,4 Mariaelena Casagrande,1 Donatella Marino,2,3 Luca Faloppi,4 Stefano Cascinu,4 Gianpiero Fasola,1 Mario Scartozzi5,6 1Department of Oncology, University and General Hospital, Udine, Italy; 2Medical Oncology Department, University of Turin, 3Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Candiolo, Turin, Italy; 4Medical Oncology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Ospedali Riuniti, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy; 5Medical Oncology Department, University of Cagliari, 6General Hospital, Cagliari, Italy Abstract: The 2015 Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium (San Francisco, CA, USA; January 15–17 is the world-class conference co-sponsored by the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the American Society for Radiation Oncology, the American Gastroenterological Association Institute, and the Society of Surgical Oncology, in which the most innovative research results in digestive tract oncology are presented and discussed. In its twelfth edition, the meeting has provided new insights focusing on the underpinning biology and clinical management of gastrointestinal malignancies. More than 3,400 health care professionals gathered from all over the world to share their experiences on how to bridge the recent novelties in cancer biology with everyday medical practice. In this article, the authors report on the most significant advances, didactically moving on three different anatomic tracks: gastroesophageal malignancies, pancreatic and biliary cancers, and colorectal adenocarcinomas. Keywords: colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, ramucirumab, pembrolizumab, target therapy, onartuzumab, AMG 337
McClellan, Molly A; Karumur, Raghav Pavan; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Petzel, Sue V; Cragg, Julie; Chan, Daniel; Jacko, Julie A; Sainfort, François; Geller, Melissa A
A broad-based research team developed a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant educational website for women with ovarian cancer to improve the quality of supportive oncology care. Prior to a randomized clinical trial of the website, initial usability testing was implemented to evaluate the website. The initial review found that 165/247 checklist items had sufficient information to allow for evaluation with the website achieving an overall score of 63%. By category, lowest scores were for the Home Page, Task Orientation, Page Layout & Visual Design, and Help, Feedback & Error Tolerance. Major issues thought to potentially impede actual usage were prioritized in redevelopment and the second usability review, conducted by the same expert, saw an improvement in scores. Incorporating usability concepts from the start of development, fulfilling the positive expectations of end-users and identifying technical and personal factors that optimize use may greatly enhance usage of health websites.
Claire M. Cannon
Full Text Available Naturally occurring tumors in dogs are well-established models for several human cancers. Domestic cats share many of the benefits of dogs as a model (spontaneous cancers developing in an immunocompetent animal sharing the same environment as humans, shorter lifespan allowing more rapid trial completion and data collection, lack of standard of care for many cancers allowing evaluation of therapies in treatment-naïve populations, but have not been utilized to the same degree in the One Medicine approach to cancer. There are both challenges and opportunities in feline compared to canine models. This review will discuss three specific tumor types where cats may offer insights into human cancers. Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma is common, shares both clinical and molecular features with human head and neck cancer and is an attractive model for evaluating new therapies. Feline mammary tumors are usually malignant and aggressive, with the ‘triple-negative’ phenotype being more common than in humans, offering an enriched population in which to examine potential targets and treatments. Finally, although there is not an exact corollary in humans, feline injection site sarcoma may be a model for inflammation-driven tumorigenesis, offering opportunities for studying variations in individual susceptibility as well as preventative and therapeutic strategies.
Winter, A; Vohmann, C; Wawroschek, F; Kieschke, J
In Germany a considerable increase in the number of urological cancers is expected due to demographic change. Small-scale analyses are important for directed planning of uro-oncological health care due to significant regional variability in the demographic development. In this study the number of new urological cancer cases was extrapolated on the county level for Lower Saxony. The incidence rates for penile (C60), prostate (C61), testis (C62), kidney (C64), renal pelvis/ureter (C65-66) and bladder cancer (C67, D09.0, D41.4) were extrapolated for counties and urban communes from 2010 to 2020 and to 2030 based on the regional population forecast of the State Office for Statistics of Lower Saxony (2009-2031) and gender- and 5-year age-specific incidence rates for Lower Saxony (averaged for 2006-2010). From 2010 (n=12.668) to 2020 and 2030, increases of 15% (n = 14.519; men: 15%, women: 10%) and 28% (n=16.201; men: 29%, women: 20%) are expected in urological cancers for Lower Saxony. The greatest rise is predicted for prostate cancer (2030: 31%, n = 9.732; C67 + D09.0 + D41.4: 30%; C60: 28%; C65-66: 27%; C64: 19%). Only testicular carcinomas are expected to decrease (-13%). The increase varies considerably between regions. In the counties the rates range from 7% (2030; C61: 10%) in Osterode am Harz to 63% in Vechta (C61: 70%). In the urban communes the greatest increase is predicted for Oldenburg (total: 40%; C61: 45%) and the lowest increase for Wolfsburg (total: 3%; C61: 3%). Demographic change is expected to lead to a sharp increase in urological cancers. In health care planning (e.g. specialist care) regionally very heterogeneous developments and in particular high growth and close to home care of more and more older and less mobile cancer sufferers, respectively, must be considered for rural areas.
Ratanakaaew, A; Khemapech, N; Laurujisawat, P
The main purpose of this study was to survey the education and training of certified gynecologic oncologists and fellows in Thailand. A secondary objective was to study the problems in fellowship training regarding palliative care for gynecologic cancer patients. A descriptive study was conducted by sending a questionnaire regarding palliative care education to all certified gynecologic oncologists and gynecologic oncology fellows in Thailand. The contents of the survey included fellowship training experience, caring for the dying, patient preparation, attitudes and respondent characteristics. Statistics were analyzed by percentage, mean and standard deviation and chi-square. One hundred seventy completed questionnaires were returned; the response rate was 66%. Most certified gynecologic oncologists and fellows in gynecologic oncology have a positive attitude towards palliative care education, and agree that "psychological distress can result in severe physical suffering". It was found that the curriculum of gynecologic oncology fellowship training equally emphasizes three aspects, namely managing post-operative complications, managing a patient at the end of life and managing a patient with gynecologic oncology. As for experiential training during the fellowship of gynecologic oncology, education regarding breaking bad news, discussion about goals of care and procedures for symptoms control were mostly on-the-job training without explicit teaching. In addition, only 42.9% of respondents were explicitly taught the coping skill for managing their own stress when caring for palliative patients during fellowship training. Most of respondents rated their clinical competency for palliative care in the "moderately well prepared" level, and the lowest score of the competency was the issue of spiritual care. Almost all certified gynecologic oncologists and fellows in gynecologic oncology have a positive attitude towards learning and teaching in palliative care. In this
Adam, Andreas; Kenny, Lizbeth M
Interventional oncology is an evolving branch of interventional radiology, which relies on rapidly evolving, highly sophisticated treatment tools and precise imaging guidance to target and destroy malignant tumours. The development of this field has important potential benefits for patients and the health-care system, but as a new discipline, interventional oncology has not yet fully established its place in the wider field of oncology; its application does not have a comprehensive evidence base, or a clinical or quality-assurance framework within which to operate. In this regard, radiation oncology, a cornerstone of modern cancer care, has a lot of important information to offer to interventional oncologists. A strong collaboration between radiation oncology and interventional oncology, both of which aim to cure or control tumours or to relieve symptoms with as little collateral damage to normal tissue as possible, will have substantial advantages for both disciplines. A close relationship with radiation oncology will help facilitate the development of a robust quality-assurance framework and accumulation of evidence to support the integration of interventional oncology into multidisciplinary care. Furthermore, collaboration between interventional oncology and radiation oncology fields will have great benefits to practitioners, people affected by cancer, and to the wider field of oncology.
McClellan, Mark B; Thoumi, Andrea I
Cancer care is transforming, moving toward increasingly personalized treatment with the potential to save and improve many more lives. Many oncologists and policymakers view current fee-for-service payments as an obstacle to providing more efficient, high-quality cancer care. However, payment reforms create new uncertainties for oncologists and may be challenging to implement. In this article, we illustrate how accountable care payment reforms that directly align payments with quality and cost measures are being implemented and the opportunities and challenges they present. These payment models provide more flexibility to oncologists and other providers to give patients the personalized care they need, along with more accountability for demonstrating quality improvements and overall cost or cost growth reductions. Such payment reforms increase the importance of person-level quality and cost measures as well as data analysis to improve measured performance. We describe key features of quality and cost measures needed to support accountable care payment reforms in oncology. Finally, we propose policy recommendations to move incrementally but fundamentally to payment systems that support higher-value care in oncology.
Hui, David; Bruera, Eduardo
Palliative care aims to improve cancer patients' quality of life through expert symptom management, psychosocial and spiritual care, patient-clinician communication, facilitation of complex decision making, and end-of-life care planning. Over the past few years, there has been increasing interest and evidence to support integration of oncology and palliative care. However, it remains unclear how best to promote integration. The goal of this review is to examine contemporary conceptual models and clinical approaches to integrate oncology and palliative care. Narrative review. Conceptual models are useful to help stakeholders understand the rationale for integration, to compare the risks and benefits among different practices, and to define a vision towards integration. We will review four major conceptual models of integration, including (I) the time-based model which emphasizes on integration based on chronological criterion; (II) the provider-based (palli-centric) model which discusses primary, secondary and tertiary palliative care; (III) the issue-based (onco-centric) model which illustrates the advantages and disadvantages of the solo practice, congress and integrated care approaches; and (IV) the system-based (patient-centric) model which emphasizes automatic referral based on clinical events. Clinical models provide actual data on the feasibility, efficacy and effectiveness of integration in specific settings. The evidence and challenges related to selected clinical models in integrating oncology and palliative care, such as outpatient palliative care clinics and embedded clinics will be discussed. There are multiple conceptual models and clinical models to promote integration. Further research is needed to inform best practices for integration at different healthcare settings.
Plante, Anne; Joannette, Sonia
Quebec's Oncology Nurse Navigators (or "IPOs" after their French acronym) have been integrated in the entire Montérégie health care region. They have been agents of change mandated with implementing a philosophy of care that centres on the patients and their families, and is delivered by oncology teams. The goal of this second article is to describe the role of IPOs in practice, the problems encountered in the various contexts and the solutions brought forward to facilitate their integration. The training of IPOs, the support they receive from administrators, the deployment of interdisciplinary teams dedicated to oncology, the holding of regular structured interdisciplinary meetings and the training of professionals, and development of standardized work instruments are discussed. The observed impacts of introducing IPOs will also be examined.
Palliative care services provided alongside traditional oncology care have been shown to be beneficial to patients and families. This article provides a brief history of palliative care, a pathway to implementing these services into currently established oncology programs, and a brief discussion of common barriers.
Nwozichi, Chinomso Ugochukwu; Ojewole, Foluso; Oluwatosin, Abimbola O.
This article describes the current state of cancer nursing and the various challenges that hinder the provision of effective nursing care to cancer patients in Nigeria. The major issue identified was the lack of specialized oncology nursing education which should actually form a basis for nurses to practice in the oncology setting. Other issues include poor facilities for oncology nursing care, lack of specific cancer centers resulting in the management of cancer patients in non-specialist wards. It is therefore recommended that solidified structure be put in place in order to establish and strengthen the nursing curriculum which has a strong potential for improving the knowledge and skills of nurses to care for people living with cancer in Nigeria. PMID:28217725
Oonk, Maaike H. M.; Planchamp, Francois; Baldwin, Peter; Bidzinski, Mariusz; Brannstrom, Mats; Landoni, Fabio; Mahner, Sven; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Mirza, Mansoor; Petersen, Cordula; Querleu, Denis; Regauer, Sigrid; Rob, Lukas; Rouzier, Roman; Ulrikh, Elena; van der Velden, Jacobus; Vergote, Ignace; Woelber, Linn; van der Zee, Ate G. J.
Objective The aim of this study was to develop clinically relevant and evidence-based guidelines as part of European Society of Gynaecological Oncology's mission to improve the quality of care for women with gynecologic cancers across Europe. Methods The European Society of Gynaecological Oncology
This study investigated the influence of social support, depression and self esteem on the burden of care among informal caregivers of oncology patients. The cross-sectional correlational study included 278 informal oncology caregivers. Results showed a significant main effect of self-esteem (F(1277) = 5.35, p improving the psychological well-being of informal caregivers of oncology patients in the expanding role of family and community members in caring for cancer patients.
Chan, Michael H; Boop, Frederick; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim
As the morbidity and mortality associated with communicable diseases continue to decrease in the developing world, the medical burden of childhood cancer continues to expand. Although international aid and relief groups such as the World Health Organization recognize the importance of childhood cancer, their main emphasis is on the more easily treated malignancies, such as leukemias and lymphomas, and not pediatric brain tumors, which are the second most common malignancy in children and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the pediatric population. Addressing the needs of these children is a growing concern of several professional neuro-oncology-related societies. Thus, the goal of this review is to describe the current state of pediatric neuro-oncology care in the developing world, address the current and future needs of the field, and help guide professional societies' efforts to contribute in a more holistic and multidisciplinary manner. We reviewed the literature to compare the availability of neuro-oncology care in various regions of the developing world with that in higher income nations, to describe examples of successful initiatives, and to present opportunities to improve care. The current challenges, previous successes, and future opportunities to improve neuro-oncology care are presented. The multidisciplinary nature of neuro-oncology depends on large teams of highly specialized individuals, including neuro-oncologists, neurosurgeons, neurologists, radiologists, radiation oncologists, pathologists, palliative care specialists, oncology nurses, physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech therapists, pediatric intensivists, and social workers, among others. Pediatric neuro-oncology is one of the most complex types of medical care to deliver, as it relies on numerous specialists, subspecialists, support staff, and physical resources and infrastructure. However, with increasing collaboration and advancing technologies, developed nations
Yust-Katz, Shlomit; Limon, Dror; Abu-Shkara, Ramez; Siegal, Tali
Neuro-oncology is a subspecialty attracting physicians from medical disciplines such as neurology, neurosurgery, pediatrics, oncology, and radiotherapy. It deals with diagnosis and management of primary brain tumors, as well as metastatic and non-metastatic neurological manifestations that frequently affect cancer patients including brain metastases, paraneoplastic syndromes and neurological complications of cancer treatment. A neuro-oncology unit was established in Davidoff Cancer Center at Rabin Medical Center. It provides a multidisciplinary team approach for management of brain tumors and services, such as expert outpatient clinics and inpatient consultations for the departments of oncology, hematology, bone marrow transplantation and other departments in the Rabin Medical Center. In addition, expert consultation is frequently provided to other hospitals that treat cancer patients with neurological manifestations. The medical disciplines that closely collaborate for the daily management of neuro-oncology patients include radiotherapy, hematology, oncology, neuro-surgery, neuro-radiology and neuro-pathology. The neuro-oncology center is also involved in clinical and laboratory research conducted in collaboration with researchers in Israel and abroad. The new service contributes substantially to the improved care of cancer patients and to the advance of research topics in the field of neuro-oncology.
Bultz, Barry D
In medicine, referral to a medical oncology specialty is based on recent history, physical examination, pathology, surgery reports, imaging, blood work, and the patient's vital signs. By contrast, referral to a psychosocial specialist has typically been based on the patients expressed request for psychosocial support or the health care team's observation of the patient's limited adjustment or poor coping with the diagnosis, treatment, or end-of-life distress. These observations are usually based on clinical acumen not on metrics. In psychosocial oncology, by committing to the science of caring and relying on the use of standardized tools to screen for distress, the multidisciplinary cancer care team assess, communicate, and intervene on what is measured. That is, health care providers can begin to address the patients' identified concerns. Branding distress as the 6th vital sign and incorporating screening for distress into standard cancer practice can be an effective strategy to challenging the resistance in implementation of psychosocial oncology in cancer care institutions. Accreditation agencies are endorsing the need to assess patient distress and better manage symptoms of distress as part of routine and standardized patient care. While many international organizations and societies support the importance of screening, implementing screening for distress still has a long way to go to be operationalized in many cancer care programs. Screening for distress when implemented does, however, create an opportunity for psychosocial oncology to extend its reach into cancer care programs and institutions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Although many children with cancer can be cured, approximately 25 % will die of their disease. These deaths are usually anticipated and preceded by a period of palliative care focused on the end-of-life, usually referred to as the palliative phase. The PRESENCE-study was aimed at a better understand
Sweeney Karl J
Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to investigate the prevalence and predictors of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM use among cancer patients and non-cancer volunteers, and to assess the knowledge of and attitudes toward CAM use in oncology among health care professionals. Methods This is a cross-sectional questionnaire survey conducted in a single institution in Ireland. Survey was performed in outpatient and inpatient settings involving cancer patients and non-cancer volunteers. Clinicians and allied health care professionals were asked to complete a different questionnaire. Results In 676 participants including 219 cancer patients; 301 non-cancer volunteers and 156 health care professionals, the overall prevalence of CAM use was 32.5% (29.1%, 30.9% and 39.7% respectively in the three study cohorts. Female gender (p Conclusions This study demonstrates a similarly high prevalence of CAM use among oncology health care professionals, cancer and non cancer patients. Patients are more likely to disclose CAM usage if they are specifically asked. Health care professionals are interested to learn more about various CAM therapies and have poor evidence-based knowledge on specific oncology treatments. There is a need for further training to meet to the escalation of CAM use among patients and to raise awareness of potential benefits and risks associated with these therapies.
Edwards, Scott J; Abbott, Rick; Edwards, Jonathan; LeBlanc, Michael; Dranitsaris, George; Donnan, Jennifer; Laing, Kara; Whelan, Maria A; MacKinnon, Neil J
The primary goal of seamless care is improved patient outcomes and improved standards of care for patients with cancer. The pharmacy service of the Newfoundland Cancer Treatment and Research Foundation conducted a randomized control study that measured clinical and humanistic outcomes of a pharmacist-directed seamless care program in an ambulatory oncology clinic. This article focuses on the intervention group, particularly the identification of drug-related problems (DRPs) and utilization of health care services as well the satisfaction of 3 types of health professionals with the services provided by the pharmacist-directed seamless care program. Overall, the seamless care pharmacist (SCP) identified an average of 3.7 DRPs per intervention patient; the most common DRP reported was a patient not receiving or taking a drug therapy for which there is an indication. The SCP identified more DRPs in patients receiving adjuvant treatment compared to those receiving palliative treatment. On average, family physicians, oncology nurses, and hospital pharmacists were satisfied with the SCP intervention indicating that they agreed the information collected and distributed by the SCP was useful to them. Pharmacist-directed seamless care services in an ambulatory oncology clinic have a significant impact on clinical outcomes and processes of patient care. The presence of a SCP can help identify and resolve DRPs experienced by patients in an outpatient oncology clinic, ensuring that patients are receiving the highest standard of care.
Home care nursing (HCN) improves the management of symptoms in breast and colorectal cancer patients who take the oral chemotherapy drug capecitabine, according to a study published online November 16 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.
Robson, Mark E; Bradbury, Angela R; Arun, Banu; Domchek, Susan M; Ford, James M; Hampel, Heather L; Lipkin, Stephen M; Syngal, Sapna; Wollins, Dana S; Lindor, Noralane M
The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has long affirmed that the recognition and management of individuals with an inherited susceptibility to cancer are core elements of oncology care. ASCO released its first statement on genetic testing in 1996 and updated that statement in 2003 and 2010 in response to developments in the field. In 2014, the Cancer Prevention and Ethics Committees of ASCO commissioned another update to reflect the impact of advances in this area on oncology practice. In particular, there was an interest in addressing the opportunities and challenges arising from the application of massively parallel sequencing-also known as next-generation sequencing-to cancer susceptibility testing. This technology introduces a new level of complexity into the practice of cancer risk assessment and management, requiring renewed effort on the part of ASCO to ensure that those providing care to patients with cancer receive the necessary education to use this new technology in the most effective, beneficial manner. The purpose of this statement is to explore the challenges of new and emerging technologies in cancer genetics and provide recommendations to ensure their optimal deployment in oncology practice. Specifically, the statement makes recommendations in the following areas: germline implications of somatic mutation profiling, multigene panel testing for cancer susceptibility, quality assurance in genetic testing, education of oncology professionals, and access to cancer genetic services.
Voidey, Aline; Pivot, Xavier; Woronoff, Anne-Sophie; Nallet, Gilles; Cals, Laurent; Schwetterle, Francis; Limat, Samuel
One of the main measures of the French national cancer plan is to encourage physicians to work collectively, and to minimize territorial inequities in access to care by rethinking the geographical distribution of oncologists. For this reason, cancer care services are currently being reorganized at national level. A new infrastructure for multidisciplinary cancer care delivery has been put in place in our region. Patients can receive multidisciplinary health care services nearer their homes, thanks to a mobile team of oncologists. The objective of our study was to assess, using a quality approach, the impact on medical management and on the costs of treating early breast cancer, of the new regional structure for cancer care delivery. Before-and-after study performed from 2007 to 2010, including patients treated for early breast cancer in three hospitals in the region of Franche-Comté in Eastern France. The main outcome measures were quality criteria, namely delayed treatment (>12 weeks), dose-intensity and assessment of adjuvant chemotherapy. Other outcomes were 24-month progression-free survival (PFS) and economic evaluation. This study included 667 patients. The rate of chemotherapy tended to decrease, but not significantly (49.3% before versus 42.2% after, p=0.07), while the use of taxanes increased by 38% across all centres (59.6% before versus 98.0% after, p organization put in place in our region for the provision of care for early breast cancer makes it possible to maintain local community-based treatment, without negative economic consequences. This new structure for cancer care delivery offers cancer services of similar quality with no modification of 24-month PFS in early breast cancer.
Golden, Julia Rose
The role of the pediatric advanced practice registered nurse continues to evolve within the ever-changing field of health care. In response to increased demand for health care services and because of a variety of changes in the health care delivery system, nurse practitioner patient care teams are an emerging trend in acute care settings. Care provided by nurse practitioner teams has been shown to be effective, efficient, and comprehensive. In addition to shorter hospital stays and reduced costs, nurse practitioner teams offer increased quality and continuity of care, and improved patient satisfaction. Nurse practitioner patient care teams are well suited to the field of pediatric oncology, as patients would benefit from care provided by specialized clinicians with a holistic focus. This article provides health care professionals with information about the use of nurse practitioner patient care teams and implications for use in pediatric oncology.
The large majority of children with cancer participate in medical research. This varies from observational studies, to laboratory research on different types of tissue, to drug research, to supportive care studies. As such, pediatric oncology is a field where treatments are often provided in the res
Buti, Sebastiano; Ciccarese, Chiara; Iacovelli, Roberto; Bersanelli, Melissa; Scarpelli, Marina; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Cheng, Liang; Montironi, Rodolfo; Tortora, Giampaolo; Massari, Francesco
The American Society of Clinical Oncology Genitourinary Cancers Symposium, Moscone West Building, San Francisco, CA, USA, 7-9 January 2016 The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Genitourinary Cancers Symposium, held in San Francisco (CA, USA), from 7 to 9 January 2016, focused on 'patient-centric care: translating research to results'. Every year, this meeting is a must for anyone studying genitourinary tumors to keep abreast of the most recent innovations in this field, exchange views on behaviors customarily adopted in daily clinical practice, and discuss future topics of scientific research. This two-part report highlights the key themes presented at the 2016 ASCO Genitourinary Cancers Symposium, with part 1 reporting the main novelties of kidney cancer and part 2 discussing the most relevant issues which have emerged for bladder and prostate tumors.
Pelletier, Wendy; Bona, Kira
Family financial hardship has emerged as a burden of pediatric cancer treatment with negative implications for family well-being. As part of an extensive project to create evidence-based standards for the psychosocial care of children with cancer, we performed a literature review of pediatric cancer-associated financial hardship utilizing six databases, and identified 24 publications for incorporation into this review. Financial hardship during childhood cancer was found to affect a significant proportion of the population and to negatively impact family well-being. Existing literature supports a strong recommendation for assessment of financial hardship as a component of comprehensive psychosocial care in pediatric oncology.
Kline, Ronald M; Muldoon, L Daniel; Schumacher, Heidi K; Strawbridge, Larisa M; York, Andrew W; Mortimer, Laura K; Falb, Alison F; Cox, Katherine J; Bazell, Carol; Lukens, Ellen W; Kapp, Mary C; Rajkumar, Rahul; Bassano, Amy; Conway, Patrick H
The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services developed the Oncology Care Model as an episode-based payment model to encourage participating practitioners to provide higher-quality, better-coordinated care at a lower cost to the nearly three-quarter million fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries with cancer who receive chemotherapy each year. Episode payment models can be complex. They combine into a single benchmark price all payments for services during an episode of illness, many of which may be delivered at different times by different providers in different locations. Policy and technical decisions include the definition of the episode, including its initiation, duration, and included services; the identification of beneficiaries included in the model; and beneficiary attribution to practitioners with overall responsibility for managing their care. In addition, the calculation and risk adjustment of benchmark episode prices for the bundle of services must reflect geographic cost variations and diverse patient populations, including varying disease subtypes, medical comorbidities, changes in standards of care over time, the adoption of expensive new drugs (especially in oncology), as well as diverse practice patterns. Other steps include timely monitoring and intervention as needed to avoid shifting the attribution of beneficiaries on the basis of their expected episode expenditures as well as to ensure the provision of necessary medical services and the development of a meaningful link to quality measurement and improvement through the episode-based payment methodology. The complex and diverse nature of oncology business relationships and the specific rules and requirements of Medicare payment systems for different types of providers intensify these issues. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services believes that by sharing its approach to addressing these decisions and challenges, it may facilitate greater understanding of the model within the oncology
Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Goldsmith, Joy; Ferrell, Betty
Although quality communication has been identified as a necessary component to cancer care, communication skills training programs have yet to focus on the unique role of nurses. This study explored communication barriers as reported by seven nurse managers to better identify communication skills needed for oncology nurses to practice patient-centered care. Thematic analysis of transcripts was used to identify barriers to patient and family communication and desirable patient-centered nursing communication skills. Overall, the nurse managers reported that nurses experience patient and family communication difficulties as a result of inconsistent messages to patients and family from other healthcare staff. Physician assumptions about nursing left nurses feeling uncomfortable asking for clarification, creating a barrier to team communication processes. Patient-centered communication and care cannot be actualized for nurses unless team roles are clarified and nurses receive training in how to communicate with physicians, patients, and family. Therefore, the authors of this article created the COMFORT communication training protocol, and key concepts and resources for nurse communication training through COMFORT are detailed in this article.
Cherny, N; Catane, R; Schrijvers, D; Kloke, M; Strasser, F
In 1999, the National Representatives of European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) created a Palliative Care Working Group to improve the delivery of supportive and palliative care (S + PC) by oncologists, oncology departments and cancer centers. They have addressed this task through initiatives in policy, education, research and incentives. As an incentive program for oncology departments and centers, ESMO developed a program of Designated Centers (DCs) for programs meeting predetermined targets of service development and delivery of a high level of S + PC. The history, accreditation criteria and implementation of the DC incentive program is described. Since 2004, 75 centers have applied for designation and 48 have been accredited including 34 comprehensive cancer centers (CCCs) in general hospitals and seven freestanding CCCs. Perceived benefits accrued from the accreditation included the following: improved status and role identification of the center, positive impact on daily work, positive impact on business activity and positive impact on funding for projects. The accreditation of DCs has been a central to the ESMO initiative to improve the palliative care provided by oncologists and oncology centers. It is likely that many other oncology departments and cancer centers already meet the criteria and ESMO strongly encourages them to apply for accreditation.
Dunn, Jeff; Holland, Jimmie; Hyde, Melissa K; Watson, Maggie
One third of cancer deaths are attributable to modifiable lifestyle, behaviour and psychosocial risk factors. Psycho-oncology can contribute significantly to prevention initiatives such as those described in national cancer control plans (NCCPs), to reduce or eliminate these risk factors. However, the extent to which psycho-oncology expertise has informed prevention objectives in plans is unclear. Accordingly, 35 English language NCCPs were located via existing databases and were searched using Adobe text searches ('psycho', 'social', 'behav' and 'intervention') to identify (a) representations of psycho-oncology, its dimensions (psychological, social and behavioural) and roles (e.g. psychologist); and (b) behaviour/lifestyle change interventions. A third of NCCPs included the term psycho- or psychosocial-oncology; approximately half referred to a psycho-oncology dimension regarding prevention and early detection and half included actions/objectives relating to health professionals and provision of psychosocial care. The majority of cancer plans included prevention outcomes and focussed primarily on smoking cessation and alcohol reduction. Interventions commonly proposed were education, regulation and service provision; however, many were aspirational statements of intent rather than specific interventions. Psycho-oncology was represented in NCCPs but was limited in reference to prevention with few behavioural interventions utilised. Psycho-oncology input is needed to prescribe evidence-based interventions in cancer plans that not only educate, regulate and provide resources but also motivate, empower and create a supportive normative environment for behaviour change. In this manuscript, and throughout this Special Issue on Cancer Prevention, important principles, ideas and evidence within psycho-oncology are outlined which, if properly implemented, can help reduce the global cancer burden. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley
Moran, Diarmaid C
Laparoscopic resection of low rectal cancer poses significant technical difficulties for the surgeon. There is a lack of published follow-up data in relation to the surgical, oncological and survival outcomes in these patients.
Azar, Jose M; Johnson, Cynthia S; Frame, Amie M; Perkins, Susan M; Cottingham, Ann H; Litzelman, Debra K
This pilot study was designed to measure teamwork and the relationship of teamwork to patient perceptions of care among 63 members of 12 oncology teams at a Cancer Centre in the Midwest. Lack of teamwork in cancer care can result in serious clinical errors, fragmentation of care, and poor quality of care. Many oncology team members, highly skilled in clinical care, are not trained to work effectively as members of a care team. The research team administered the Relational Coordination survey to core oncology team members-medical oncologists, nurse coordinators, and clinical secretaries-to measure seven dimensions of team skills (four relating to communication [frequency, timeliness, accuracy, and problem solving] and three relating to relationship [shared goals, shared knowledge, and mutual respect]) averaged to create a Relational Coordination Index. The results indicated that among the team member roles, nurse coordinator relational coordination indices were the strongest and most positively correlated with patient perception of care. Statistically significant correlations were intra-nurse coordinator relational coordination indices and two patient perception of care factors (information and education and patient's preferences). All other nurse coordinator intra-role as well as inter-role correlations were also positively correlated, although not statistically significant.
Wildiers, Hans; Heeren, Pieter; Puts, Martine; Topinkova, Eva; Janssen-Heijnen, Maryska L.G.; Extermann, Martine; Falandry, Claire; Artz, Andrew; Brain, Etienne; Colloca, Giuseppe; Flamaing, Johan; Karnakis, Theodora; Kenis, Cindy; Audisio, Riccardo A.; Mohile, Supriya; Repetto, Lazzaro; Van Leeuwen, Barbara; Milisen, Koen; Hurria, Arti
Purpose To update the International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG) 2005 recommendations on geriatric assessment (GA) in older patients with cancer. Methods SIOG composed a panel with expertise in geriatric oncology to develop consensus statements after literature review of key evidence on the following topics: rationale for performing GA; findings from a GA performed in geriatric oncology patients; ability of GA to predict oncology treatment–related complications; association between GA findings and overall survival (OS); impact of GA findings on oncology treatment decisions; composition of a GA, including domains and tools; and methods for implementing GA in clinical care. Results GA can be valuable in oncology practice for following reasons: detection of impairment not identified in routine history or physical examination, ability to predict severe treatment-related toxicity, ability to predict OS in a variety of tumors and treatment settings, and ability to influence treatment choice and intensity. The panel recommended that the following domains be evaluated in a GA: functional status, comorbidity, cognition, mental health status, fatigue, social status and support, nutrition, and presence of geriatric syndromes. Although several combinations of tools and various models are available for implementation of GA in oncology practice, the expert panel could not endorse one over another. Conclusion There is mounting data regarding the utility of GA in oncology practice; however, additional research is needed to continue to strengthen the evidence base. PMID:25071125
... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162465.html Could a Computer Someday Guide Breast Cancer Care? 'Watson Oncology' agreed ... Dec. 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An artificially intelligent computer system is making breast cancer treatment recommendations on ...
Neamţiu, L; Deandrea, S; Pylkkänen, L; Freeman, C; López Alcalde, J; Bramesfeld, A; Saz-Parkinson, Z; Ulutürk, A; Lerda, D
Psycho-oncology addresses the psychological, social, behavioural, and ethical aspects of cancer. Identification and proper management of the patients' psychosocial needs, as well as the needs of their caregivers and family are essential for a person-centred concept of breast cancer care. The aim of this overview is to describe how psychosocial support in breast cancer is incorporated in cancer-related policy documents, such as national cancer plans and breast cancer care certification schemes.
Basic oral care for hematology-oncology patients and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients: a position paper from the joint task force of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer/International Society of Oral Oncology (MASCC/ISOO) and the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT)
Elad, S.; Raber-Durlacher, J.E.; Brennan, M.T.; Saunders, D.P.; Mank, A.P.; Zadik, Y.; Quinn, B.; Epstein, J.B.; Blijlevens, N.M.A.; Waltimo, T.; Passweg, J.R.; Correa, M.E.; Dahllof, G.; Garming-Legert, K.U.; Logan, R.M.; Potting, C.M.J.; Shapira, M.Y.; Soga, Y.; Stringer, J.; Stokman, M.A.; Vokurka, S.; Wallhult, E.; Yarom, N.; Jensen, S.B.
PURPOSE: Hematology-oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients are at risk for oral complications which may cause significant morbidity and a potential risk of mortality. This emphasizes the importance of basic oral care prior to, during
Basic oral care for hematology-oncology patients and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients: a position paper from the joint task force of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer/International Society of Oral Oncology (MASCC/ISOO) and the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT)
Elad, S.; Raber-Durlacher, J.E.; Brennan, M.T.; Saunders, D.P.; Mank, A.P.; Zadik, Y.; Quinn, B.; Epstein, J.B.; Blijlevens, N.M.A.; Waltimo, T.; Passweg, J.R.; Correa, M.E.P.; Dahllöf, G.; Garming-Legert, K.U.E.; Logan, R.M.; Potting, C.M.J.; Shapira, M.Y.; Soga, Y.; Stringer, J.; Stokman, M.A.; Vokurka, S.; Wallhult, E.; Yarom, N.; Jensen, S.B.
Purpose Hematology-oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients are at risk for oral complications which may cause significant morbidity and a potential risk of mortality. This emphasizes the importance of basic oral care prior to, during
Becker, Janet E.
Members of the Association of Oncology Social Workers completed a survey, which included the Hospice Philosophy Scale (HPS) assessing the likelihood of the worker referring a terminally ill patient to hospice, background and experience, and demographics. The respondents held overwhelmingly favorable attitudes toward hospice philosophy and care,…
Schoot, R. A.; van Ommen, C. H.; Caron, H. N.; Tissing, W. J. E.; van de Wetering, M. D.
Treatment protocols in pediatric oncology have historically known high accrual rates, up to 94 %. Accrual for supportive care studies on the other hand appears to be a challenge. The aim of this study was to search for reasons explaining this poor accrual and for possible interventions to improve pa
Espey, Michael Graham
In 2009, the NCI launched the Physical Sciences - Oncology Centers (PS-OC) initiative with 12 Centers (U54) funded through 2014. The current phase of the Program includes U54 funded Centers with the added feature of soliciting new Physical Science - Oncology Projects (PS-OP) U01 grant applications through 2017; see NCI PAR-15-021. The PS-OPs, individually and along with other PS-OPs and the Physical Sciences-Oncology Centers (PS-OCs), comprise the Physical Sciences-Oncology Network (PS-ON). The foundation of the Physical Sciences-Oncology initiative is a high-risk, high-reward program that promotes a `physical sciences perspective' of cancer and fosters the convergence of physical science and cancer research by forming transdisciplinary teams of physical scientists (e.g., physicists, mathematicians, chemists, engineers, computer scientists) and cancer researchers (e.g., cancer biologists, oncologists, pathologists) who work closely together to advance our understanding of cancer. The collaborative PS-ON structure catalyzes transformative science through increased exchange of people, ideas, and approaches. PS-ON resources are leveraged to fund Trans-Network pilot projects to enable synergy and cross-testing of experimental and/or theoretical concepts. This session will include a brief PS-ON overview followed by a strategic discussion with the APS community to exchange perspectives on the progression of trans-disciplinary physical sciences in cancer research.
PURPOSE: Testicular cancer occurs at a time in a man\\'s life when major social life changes are occurring and when body image, fertility, sexual desire and performance can be central issues. Oncology nurses, as members of the multidisciplinary team, are in an ideal position to address men\\'s concerns. The aim of this study was to investigate oncology nurses\\' self-perceived knowledge and comfort in relation to discussing sexuality concerns with men diagnosed with testicular cancer and to identify the barriers and facilitators to such discussions. METHODS: This study employed a self-completion, anonymous survey design with a sample of registered nurses working in five, randomly chosen, oncology centres in Ireland. RESULTS: In total, 89 questionnaires (45% response rate) were included for analysis. Findings suggest that although nurses were open to addressing concerns, few informed patients they were available to discuss sexual concerns. Nurses reported lacking knowledge of, and discomfort in, discussing the more intimate aspects of sexuality, including: ejaculatory difficulties, erectile dysfunction, impotence, prosthesis options and testicular self examination. CONCLUSIONS: Findings reinforce the need for more comprehensive education on sexuality issues and testicular cancer. Nurses need to take a more proactive approach to sexuality care, as opposed to the \\'passive waiting stance\\' that permeates the current culture of care. Education programmes need to include specific information on sexual issues associated with testicular cancer, and oncology nurses must subsume sexuality as an essential aspect of their role through changes in policies and nursing care planning.
Virginia T LeBaron
Full Text Available Context: Nurses in India often practice in resource-constrained settings and care for cancer patients with high symptom burden yet receive little oncology or palliative care training. Aim: The aim of this study is to explore challenges encountered by nurses in India and offer recommendations to improve the delivery of oncology and palliative care. Methods: Qualitative ethnography. Setting: The study was conducted at a government cancer hospital in urban South India. Sample: Thirty-seven oncology/palliative care nurses and 22 others (physicians, social workers, pharmacists, patients/family members who interact closely with nurses were included in the study. Data Collection: Data were collected over 9 months (September 2011– June 2012. Key data sources included over 400 hours of participant observation and 54 audio-recorded semi-structured interviews. Analysis: Systematic qualitative analysis of field notes and interview transcripts identified key themes and patterns. Results: Key concerns of nurses included safety related to chemotherapy administration, workload and clerical responsibilities, patients who died on the wards, monitoring family attendants, and lack of supplies. Many participants verbalized distress that they received no formal oncology training. Conclusions: Recommendations to support nurses in India include: prioritize safety, optimize role of the nurse and explore innovative models of care delivery, empower staff nurses, strengthen nurse leadership, offer relevant educational programs, enhance teamwork, improve cancer pain management, and engage in research and quality improvement projects. Strong institutional commitment and leadership are required to implement interventions to support nurses. Successful interventions must account for existing cultural and professional norms and first address safety needs of nurses. Positive aspects from existing models of care delivery can be adapted and integrated into general nursing
Valuck, Tom; Blaisdell, David; Dugan, Donna P; Westrich, Kimberly; Dubois, Robert W; Miller, Robert S; McClellan, Mark
Payment for health care services, including oncology services, is shifting from volume-based fee-for-service to value-based accountable care. The objective of accountable care is to support providers with flexibility and resources to reform care delivery, accompanied by accountability for maintaining or improving outcomes while lowering costs. These changes depend on health care payers, systems, physicians, and patients having meaningful measures to assess care delivery and outcomes and to balance financial incentives for lowering costs while providing greater value. Gaps in accountable care measure sets may cause missed signals of problems in care and missed opportunities for improvement. Measures to balance financial incentives may be particularly important for oncology, where high cost and increasingly targeted diagnostics and therapeutics intersect with the highly complex and heterogeneous needs and preferences of cancer patients. Moreover, the concept of value in cancer care, defined as the measure of outcomes achieved per costs incurred, is rarely incorporated into performance measurement. This article analyzes gaps in oncology measures in accountable care, discusses challenging measurement issues, and offers strategies for improving oncology measurement. Discern Health analyzed gaps in accountable care measure sets for 10 cancer conditions that were selected based on incidence and prevalence; impact on cost and mortality; a diverse range of high-cost diagnostic procedures and treatment modalities (e.g., genomic tumor testing, molecularly targeted therapies, and stereotactic radiotherapy); and disparities or performance gaps in patient care. We identified gaps by comparing accountable care set measures with high-priority measurement opportunities derived from practice guidelines developed by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network and other oncology specialty societies. We found significant gaps in accountable care measure sets across all 10 conditions. For
Tremblay, Dominique; Latreille, Jean; Bilodeau, Karine; Samson, Arnaud; Roy, Linda; L'Italien, Marie-France; Mimeault, Christine
This article discusses the case of a 47-year-old woman who underwent primary therapy with curative intent for breast cancer. The case illustrates a number of failure events in transferring information and responsibility from oncology to primary care teams. The article emphasizes the importance of shared leadership, as multiple team members, dispersed in time and space, pursue their own objectives while achieving the common goal of coordinating care for survivors of cancer transitioning across settings. Shared leadership is defined as a team property comprising shared responsibility and mutual influence between the patient and the patient's family, primary care providers, and oncology teams, whereby they lead each other toward quality and safety of care. Teams, including the patient-family, should achieve leadership when their contribution is relevant in managing task interdependence during transition. Shared leadership fosters coordinated actions to enable functioning as an integrated team-of-teams. This article illustrates how shared leadership can make a difference to coordinate interfaces and pathways, from therapy with curative intent to the follow-up and management of survivors of breast cancer. The detailed case is elaborated as a clinical vignette. It can be used by care providers and researchers to consider the need for new models of care for survivors of cancer by addressing the following questions. Who accepts shared leadership, how, with whom, and under what conditions? What is the evidence that supports the answers to these questions? The detailed case is also valuable for medical and allied health professional education.
Kaasa, Stein; Knudsen, Anne Kari; Lundeby, Tonje; Loge, Jon Håvard
With the groundbreaking work of three Milan professors-Bonadonna, Veronesi, and Ventafridda-in the 1980s as the starting point, this article aims to shed light on the potential benefits of a closer and more formal integration between oncology and palliative care. More specifically, we address why integration is needed, how to do it, and the potential benefits to the patients, families, and society. The costs for cancer care are increasing rapidly. Especially during the last year of life, some treatments are futile and expensive without proven benefit for patients in terms of prolonged survival with adequate quality of life (QoL). The latest WHO definition of palliative care supports an upstream introduction of palliative care. More recent studies indicate that such an early integration has the potential to improve the patients' QoL and reduce their symptom burden. Successful integration presupposes formal structures and explicit obligations on how and when to integrate. The Norwegian model for palliative care is presented. It covers the range of oncologic and palliative services from community health care via the local hospital to the tertiary hospital and rests on standardized care pathway as the key instrument to promote integration. Our present state of knowledge indicates that integration does not shorten life; perhaps even the opposite. Futile oncological treatment can be reduced and the QoL of patients and carers improved. We need more evidence on the potential effect upon costs, but present data indicate that integration does not increase them.
Vladimir Araujo Silva; Neide Aparecida Titonelli Alvim; Sonia Silva Marcon
This phenomenological study was structured on Heidegger’s theoretical-philosophical framework, with the objective of unveiling the significances and meanings of the musical identity of patients and relatives under oncological palliative care. Individual interviews were performed with 12 clients (seven patients and five relatives) staying at the support residence of the Maringa Female Network Against Cancer. A total of eight musical meetings were performed between January and February of 2011....
Koch, Abby; Checkley, William
Since the inception of critical care as a formal discipline in the late 1950s, we have seen rapid specialization to many types of intensive care units (ICUs) to accommodate evolving life support technologies and novel therapies in various disciplines of medicine. Indeed, the field has expanded such that specialized ICUs currently exist to address critical care problems in medicine, cardiology, neurology and neurosurgery, trauma, burns, organ transplant and cardiothoracic surgeries. Specializa...
Chang, Kah Hoong
Abstract Background We aimed to investigate the prevalence and predictors of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use among cancer patients and non-cancer volunteers, and to assess the knowledge of and attitudes toward CAM use in oncology among health care professionals. Methods This is a cross-sectional questionnaire survey conducted in a single institution in Ireland. Survey was performed in outpatient and inpatient settings involving cancer patients and non-cancer volunteers. Clinicians and allied health care professionals were asked to complete a different questionnaire. Results In 676 participants including 219 cancer patients; 301 non-cancer volunteers and 156 health care professionals, the overall prevalence of CAM use was 32.5% (29.1%, 30.9% and 39.7% respectively in the three study cohorts). Female gender (p < 0.001), younger age (p = 0.004), higher educational background (p < 0.001), higher annual household income (p = 0.001), private health insurance (p = 0.001) and non-Christian (p < 0.001) were factors associated with more likely CAM use. Multivariate analysis identified female gender (p < 0.001), non-Christian (p = 0.001) and private health insurance (p = 0.015) as independent predictors of CAM use. Most health care professionals thought they did not have adequate knowledge (58.8%) nor were up to date with the best evidence (79.2%) on CAM use in oncology. Health care professionals who used CAM were more likely to recommend it to patients (p < 0.001). Conclusions This study demonstrates a similarly high prevalence of CAM use among oncology health care professionals, cancer and non cancer patients. Patients are more likely to disclose CAM usage if they are specifically asked. Health care professionals are interested to learn more about various CAM therapies and have poor evidence-based knowledge on specific oncology treatments. There is a need for further training to meet to the escalation of CAM use among patients and to raise awareness of
Resident Electives Select pediatric residents may be approved for a 4-week elective rotation at the Pediatric Oncology Branch. This rotation emphasizes the important connection between research and patient care in pediatric oncology. The resident is supervised directly by the Branch’s attending physician and clinical fellows. Residents attend daily in-patient and out-patient rounds, multiple weekly Branch conferences, and are expected to research relevant topics and present a 30-minute talk toward the end of their rotation.
A community oncology nursing programme was developed in Ireland between the hospital and community health services for patients receiving systemic cancer therapy, in response to a service need. A robust evaluation of the pilot programme was undertaken, which found that defined clinical procedures traditionally undertaken in hospitals were safely undertaken in the patient\\'s home with no adverse effects. There was a dramatic decrease in hospital attendances for these defined clinical procedures, and hospital capacity was consequently freed up. Patients valued having aspects of their care delivered at home and reported that it improved their quality of life, including reduced hospital visits and travel time. Community nurses expanded their scope of practice and became partners with oncology day-ward nurses in caring for these patients. Community nurses developed the competence and confidence to safely deliver cancer care in the community. This initiative shows that defined elements of acute cancer care can be safely delivered in the community so long as the training and support are provided. The findings and recommendations of the evaluation resulted in university accreditation and approval for national roll-out of the programme. Integration of services between primary and secondary care is a key priority. This innovative programme is a good example of shared integrated care that benefits both patients and health-care providers.
Full Text Available Oncology acupuncture has become a new and promising field of research because more and more cancer patients have sought non-pharmacological alternatives for symptom management. While different mechanisms have been proposed to explain its efficacy, including theories of the neural system, endocrine cytokine or immunological regulation, its eventual role has become that of alleviating the side effects induced by chemotherapy or radiotherapy. In this paper, we have reviewed the related articles focusing on acupuncture mechanisms and applications in cancer care to provide a quick sketch of acupuncture in cancer care. A detailed search was performed to identify the randomized controlled trials (RCTs and systematic reviews on acupuncture in oncology, using PUBMED and Cochrane. The search terms included: Acupuncture, acupressure, and cancer. Additional terms were used to target specific symptoms (i.e., breast cancer, hot flash, xerostomia, nausea, vomiting, cancer pain, insomnia, fatigue. Two authors independently extracted data for analysis and review. Ultimately, 25 articles underwent full-text review. Recent trials made efforts in studying (a hot flashes in breast cancer, (b xerostomia induced by radiotherapy in head and neck cancer, (c nausea and vomiting post-chemotherapy, (d cancer pain, and (e fatigue and insomnia in cancer patients. Controversial results for acupuncture application in cancer care appeared in different categories, but a trend emerged that acupuncture can palliate cancer-related symptoms. The research to date certainly offers us a valid complementary therapy in treating cancer-related symptoms. Meanwhile, practical strategies with safe measures for enhancing the efficacy are needed in further interventions, as well as continuing research with a validated methodology.
Full Text Available ShuChen Lin,1,* YingChun Xu,2,* ZhiHua Gan,1 Kun Han,1 HaiYan Hu,3 Yang Yao,3 MingZhu Huang,4 DaLiu Min1 1Department of Oncology, Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital East Campus, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 2Department of Oncology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 3Department of Oncology, The Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 4Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Cancer stem cells (CSCs are a small, characteristically distinctive subset of tumor cells responsible for tumor initiation and progression. Several treatment modalities, such as surgery, glycolytic inhibition, driving CSC proliferation, immunotherapy, and hypofractionated radiotherapy, may have the potential to eradicate CSCs. We propose that monitoring CSCs is important in clinical oncology as CSC populations may reflect true treatment response and assist with managing treatment strategies, such as defining optimal chemotherapy cycles, permitting pretreatment cancer surveillance, conducting a comprehensive treatment plan, modifying radiation treatment, and deploying rechallenge chemotherapy. Then, we describe methods for monitoring CSCs. Keywords: cancer stem cells, glycolytic inhibition, watchful waiting, rechallenge, immunotherapy
Lavelle, C; Ismail, M F; Doherty, K; Bowler, A; Mohammad, M M; Cassidy, E M
Psychological distress is common in patients with cancer and psychological well-being is increasingly seen as an important component of cancer care. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between cancer type and subjective distress. The following data were collected from a database of consecutive psycho-oncology referrals to the Liaison Psychiatry service in Cork University Hospital from 2006 to 2015: demographics, cancer diagnosis, Distress Thermometer (DT) score. 2102 out of 2384 referrals were assessed. Of those assessed, the most common cancer diagnoses were breast (23%, n=486) followed by haematological (21%, n=445). There were significant difference in DT score between the different cancer types, (?2(13)=33.685, p=0.001, Kruskal-Wallis test). When adjusted for age, gender and whether or not the cancer was recently diagnosed, there was no significant association between cancer type and psychological distress. In conclusion, cancer type is not associated with level of distress in cancer.
Psychological distress is common in patients with cancer and psychological well-being is increasingly seen as an important component of cancer care. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between cancer type and subjective distress. The following data were collected from a database of consecutive psycho-oncology referrals to the Liaison Psychiatry service in Cork University Hospital from 2006 to 2015: demographics, cancer diagnosis, Distress Thermometer (DT) score. 2102 out of 2384 referrals were assessed. Of those assessed, the most common cancer diagnoses were breast (23%, n=486) followed by haematological (21%, n=445). There were significant difference in DT score between the different cancer types, (χ2(13)=33.685, p=0.001, Kruskal–Wallis test). When adjusted for age, gender and whether or not the cancer was recently diagnosed, there was no significant association between cancer type and psychological distress. In conclusion, cancer type is not associated with level of distress in cancer.
Marilia Fornaciari Grabois
Full Text Available Cancer in children and adolescents is rare and highly curable if treatment is started early, yet it is still the main cause of death from disease in this age group. The aim of this study is to discuss access to health services for cancer patients under 19 years of age in Brazil, mapping deaths and treatment modalities in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS. Data from 2000 to 2007 were analyzed according to health regions. Maps of cancer mortality rates and cancer care indicators - hospitalizations, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy financed by the national health system - revealed inequality in access, based on the small number of procedures for children in poorer regions of the country. Even with the usual concentration of specialized services in more heavily populated areas, access begins with clinical suspicion in primary care, followed by referral to more complex levels, where the diagnosis is made and treatment begins. Training pediatricians in clinical suspicion of childhood cancer and definition of more streamlined patient flows could improve the situation, thereby increasing the odds of cure.O câncer em crianças e adolescentes é raro e altamente curável se o tratamento for iniciado precocemente, no entanto representa a principal causa de óbito por doença nesse grupo. O objetivo deste estudo é discutir o acesso aos serviços de saúde de menores de 18 anos de idade com câncer no Brasil, a partir do mapeamento de óbitos e modalidades de tratamento no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS. Os dados do período de 2000-2007 foram analisados por regional de saúde. Os mapas das taxas de mortalidade por câncer e indicadores de assistência - internações, quimioterapias e radioterapias - mostraram desigualdade no acesso pelo pequeno volume de tratamentos para residentes nas regiões mais carentes do país. Mesmo com a usual concentração de serviços especializados onde é maior a população, o acesso começa com a suspeita cl
Eunice Mmbone Keiza
Full Text Available Objective: Adequate knowledge of parents' perception of quality of pediatric cancer care helps to identify the areas of care improvement which would contribute to disease outcome in regard to the quality of life and satisfaction with the care provided. The aim of the study was to assess the parents' perception of the quality of Pediatric Oncology Inpatient Care at Kenyatta National Hospital. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive quantitative and qualitative study was undertaken using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire and a focused group discussion guide. Assessment of parents' perception of quality of care was done in relation to the institution's structures and care delivery processes. These included the ward environment, resources for cancer treatment, care processes, service providers, and parents' knowledge empowerment. Participants were systematically selected. Parents' perception was defined as satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the care provided. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp. and presented as frequencies and percentages. Chi-square was used to test the significant association between variables. Level of significance was set at a P ≤ 0.05. Results: A total of 107 respondents were interviewed and 57.9% were satisfied with the overall quality of care they received. The determinants of overall satisfaction in this study were found to be related to resources for cancer treatment (odds ratio [OR] =3.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.39–6.90; P = 0.005, care delivery processes (OR = 2.87; 95% CI = 1.28–6.43; P = 0.009, and the ward environment (OR = 2.59; 95% CI = 1.17–5.74; P = 0.018. Conclusions: The parents were moderately satisfied with the oncology care services their children received. The gaps identified in service delivery included those related to the availability of the required resources for efficient care delivery and also educational as well as psychosocial needs of the
Ligibel, Jennifer A; Alfano, Catherine M; Courneya, Kerry S; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Burger, Robert A; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Fabian, Carol J; Gucalp, Ayca; Hershman, Dawn L; Hudson, Melissa M; Jones, Lee W; Kakarala, Madhuri; Ness, Kirsten K; Merrill, Janette K; Wollins, Dana S; Hudis, Clifford A
Rates of obesity have increased significantly over the last three decades in the United States and globally. In addition to contributing to heart disease and diabetes, obesity is a major unrecognized risk factor for cancer. Obesity is associated with worsened prognosis after cancer diagnosis and also negatively affects the delivery of systemic therapy, contributes to morbidity of cancer treatment, and may raise the risk of second malignancies and comorbidities. Research shows that the time after a cancer diagnosis can serve as a teachable moment to motivate individuals to adopt risk-reducing behaviors. For this reason, the oncology care team--the providers with whom a patient has the closest relationships in the critical period after a cancer diagnosis--is in a unique position to help patients lose weight and make other healthy lifestyle changes. The American Society of Clinical Oncology is committed to reducing the impact of obesity on cancer and has established a multipronged initiative to accomplish this goal by 1) increasing education and awareness of the evidence linking obesity and cancer; 2) providing tools and resources to help oncology providers address obesity with their patients; 3) building and fostering a robust research agenda to better understand the pathophysiology of energy balance alterations, evaluate the impact of behavior change on cancer outcomes, and determine the best methods to help cancer survivors make effective and useful changes in lifestyle behaviors; and 4) advocating for policy and systems change to address societal factors contributing to obesity and improve access to weight management services for patients with cancer. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Bellinger, Andrew M; Arteaga, Carlos L; Force, Thomas; Humphreys, Benjamin D; Demetri, George D; Druker, Brian J; Moslehi, Javid J
Cardio-oncology (the cardiovascular care of cancer patients) has developed as a new translational and clinical field based on the expanding repertoire of mechanism-based cancer therapies. Although these therapies have changed the natural course of many cancers, several may also lead to cardiovascular complications. Many new anticancer drugs approved over the past decade are "targeted" kinase inhibitors that interfere with intracellular signaling contributing to tumor progression. Unexpected cardiovascular and cardiometabolic effects of patient treatment with these inhibitors have provided unique insights into the role of kinases in human cardiovascular biology. Today, an ever-expanding number of cancer therapies targeting novel kinases and other specific cellular and metabolic pathways are being developed and tested in oncology clinical trials. Some of these drugs may affect the cardiovascular system in detrimental ways and others perhaps in beneficial ways. We propose that the numerous ongoing oncology clinical trials are an opportunity for closer collaboration between cardiologists and oncologists to study the cardiovascular and cardiometabolic changes caused by the modulation of these pathways in patients. In this regard, cardio-oncology represents an opportunity and a novel platform for basic and translational investigation and can serve as a potential avenue for optimization of anticancer therapies and for cardiovascular research and drug discovery.
Full Text Available Vivek Arora, Shannon Philp, Kathryn Nattress, Selvan Pather, Christopher Dalrymple, Kenneth Atkinson, Sofia Smirnova, Stephen Cotterell, Jonathan CarterSydney Gynecological Oncology Group, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, University of Sydney, Sydney, AustraliaPurpose: Patient satisfaction with the provision of hospital oncology services can have a significant impact on their overall treatment experience.Aims: To assess patient satisfaction with the inpatient hospital services in the gynecological oncology setting using the IN-PATSAT32 questionnaire developed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC.Methods: A modified version of the IN-PATSAT32 questionnaire with additional 16 items was administered to 52 adult surgical inpatients admitted with the Sydney Gynecological Oncology Group. All participants were provided with an information leaflet regarding the survey and written consent obtained.Results: A high response rate (100% from patients with varied social, ethnic, and educational backgrounds confirmed the acceptability of the survey. Standard of medical care provided, frequency of doctors’ visits, exchange of information with doctors, friendliness of the staff, and state of the room ranked highly (>95% on the patient satisfaction scales. Problems were identified with ease of access to and within the hospital, quality of food, and exchange of information with other hospital staff.Conclusions: Overall the satisfaction with inpatient care was rated very highly in most areas. Deficiencies in certain elements of provision of medical care to the patients were identified and steps have been taken to improve upon these shortcomings.Keywords: patient satisfaction, EORTC, IN-PATSAT32, gynecological oncology, survey
The paper reports a case of a 25-year-old male with a new diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia admitted in a predominantly older adult cancer ward. It explores the emerging area of adolescent oncology. Despite the advances of modern cancer medicine in both survival and outcomes, these adolescent and young adult cancer patients are an underserved group. Their medical, physical, psychological, and emotional needs are different and ought to be managed differently, just like pediatric or geriatric subpopulations. Cancer adds an enormous burden to the already turbulent period of adolescence. Cancer incidence in the 15-29-year age group is at least three times than that of those younger than 15 years of age, and it kills more young adults than any disease except depression-induced suicide. The need for optimizing and personalizing care in this age group is highlighted.
Full Text Available Fei-Min Yang,1 Zhi-Hong Ye,2 Lei-Wen Tang,3 Wei-Lan Xiang,3 Lin-Juan Yan,4 Min-Li Xiang5 1Department of General Surgery, 2Department of Nursing, 3Department of Nursing Education, 4Department of Surgical Oncology, 5Department of Medical Oncology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China Objective: To examine factors that are associated with the apprehension levels of oncology nurses toward hospice care. Factors examined in this study included demographics, nursing experience, education levels, title and post, personal experiences, and attitudes toward end-of-life care. Methods: Questionnaires were provided to nurses (n=201 from three first-tier hospitals in China. A quantitative scale, Professional End-of-life Care Attitude Scale (PEAS, was used to assess personal and professional apprehension levels toward hospice care. The PEAS was translated to Chinese with terms adapted to the cultural environment in China. Statistical analyses were performed to examine the relationships between the apprehension levels and various factors. Results: The total PEAS scores exhibited internal consistency and reliability, with a Cronbach α=0.897 and Pearson’s r=0.9030. Of the 201 nurses, 184 provided a valid response (91.5%. Education level was significantly correlated with personal (P<0.01 and professional apprehension levels (P<0.05. Higher apprehension level was found in nurses with less education. Conclusion: The PEAS quantitative survey is useful for evaluating apprehension levels of nurses toward hospice care. Nurses with more education experienced less anxiety when providing care for terminally ill patients. The findings suggested that education programs on hospice care could be strengthened to help nurses cope with negative attitudes toward end-of-life care. Keywords: end of life, nurses’ perspective, communication, palliative care, cancer patients, terminally ill
Yap, Kiryu K; Neuhaus, Susan J
Dyes share an intricate relationship with oncology. Dyes can cause cancer as chemical carcinogens, but can also be harnessed against cancer when used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents. Histopathology, imaging, and newer molecular diagnostics all rely on dyes, and their use in sentinel lymph node biopsies and intra-operative imaging has helped drive a paradigm shift in cancer surgery towards minimally-invasive and organ sparing approaches with enhanced resection accuracy. As therapeutic agents, the cytotoxicity of specific dyes can be employed in direct chemo-ablation or in photodynamic therapy. The same agent can have dual functionalities in cancer detection and treatment, in a novel field known as theranostics. This is facilitated by newer generation dyes conjugated with tumour-targeting probes such as antibodies, and these bio-conjugate agents can also incorporate nanotechnology or radio-isotopes. Further advances will be closely aligned with our increasing understanding of molecular oncology, and will form a new generation of cancer detection and treatment agents that promote precision medicine for cancer. Dyes and their roles have evolved and been reinvented, but they remain relevant as ever. This review explores the fascinating history of dyes, and their place in the state-of-the-art of oncology.
Buti, Sebastiano; Ciccarese, Chiara; Iacovelli, Roberto; Bersanelli, Melissa; Scarpelli, Marina; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Cheng, Liang; Montironi, Rodolfo; Tortora, Giampaolo; Massari, Francesco
The American Society of Clinical Oncology Genitourinary Cancers Symposium, Moscone West Building, San Francisco, CA, USA, 7-9 January 2016 The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Genitourinary Cancers Symposium, held in San Francisco (CA, USA), from 7 to 9 January 2016, focused on 'patient-centric care: translating research to results'. Every year, this meeting is a must for anyone studying genitourinary tumors to keep abreast of the most recent innovations in this field, exchange views on behaviors customarily adopted in daily clinical practice and discuss future topics of scientific research. This two-part report highlights the key themes presented at the 2016 ASCO Genitourinary Cancers Symposium, with part 1 reporting the main novelties of kidney cancer and part 2 discussing the most relevant issues which have emerged for bladder and prostate tumors.
Dobos Gustav J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant breast neoplasms are among the most frequent forms of cancer in the Western world. Conventional treatment of breast cancer may include surgery, hormonal therapy, chemotherapy, radiation and/or immunotherapy, all of which are often accompanied by severe side effects. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM treatments have been shown to be effective in alleviating those symptoms. Furthermore, with patient survival rates increasing, oncologists, psychologists and other therapists have to become more sensitive to the needs of cancer survivors that go beyond than the mere alleviation of symptoms. Many CAM methods are geared to treat the patient in a holistic manner and thus are also concerned with the patient’s psychological and spiritual needs. Discussion The use of certain CAM methods may become problematic when, as frequently occurs, patients use them indiscriminately and without informing their oncologists. Herbal medicines and dietary supplements, especially, may interfere with primary cancer treatments or have other detrimental effects. Thus, expertise in this highly specialized field of integrative medicine should be available to patients so that they can be advised about the benefits and negative effects of such preparations and practices. Being a beneficial combination of conventional and CAM care, integrative oncology makes possible the holistic approach to cancer care. The concept of integrative oncology for breast cancer is jointly practiced by the Department of Internal and Integrative Medicine, Kliniken Essen-Mitte, academic teaching hospital of the University of Duisburg-Essen, and the Breast Center at Kliniken Essen-Mitte in Germany. This model is introduced here; its scope is reviewed, and its possible implications for the practice of integrative medicine are discussed. Summary Evidence-based integrative care is crucial to the field of oncology in establishing state-of-the-art care for breast
Sasaki, Tsubasa; Ohta, Syuji; Seki, Nobuhiko; Eguchi, Kenji
A team approach is efficient in palliative care for cancer patients. People suffered from cancer have a right to receive high-quality palliative care earlier in cancer treatment. In Japan the National Act for Strategy against Cancer was enacted in 2007. Systematic educational programs supported by the Ministry of Health Labor and Welfare has been conducted for medical staffs, home care staffs, local pharmacists, care managers etc. at core institutes in each district. Pain control is still major target for cancer palliative medicine. Recently various types of opioids can be used routinely in daily clinical setting for Japanese cancer patients. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) may also effective in some patients but further study for proving scientific evidence in CAM should be warranted. Tailor-maid pain control will be established in the near future with molecular based pharmacogenomics.
Bakhshinejad, Babak; Karimi, Marzieh; Sadeghizadeh, Majid
Targeted gene therapy of cancer is of paramount importance in medical oncology. Bacteriophages, viruses that specifically infect bacterial cells, offer a variety of potential applications in biomedicine. Their genetic flexibility to go under a variety of surface modifications serves as a basis for phage display methodology. These surface manipulations allow bacteriophages to be exploited for targeted delivery of therapeutic genes. Moreover, the excellent safety profile of these viruses paves the way for their potential use as cancer gene therapy platforms. The merge of phage display and combinatorial technology has led to the emergence of phage libraries turning phage display into a high throughput technology. Random peptide libraries, as one of the most frequently used phage libraries, provide a rich source of clinically useful peptide ligands. Peptides are known as a promising category of pharmaceutical agents in medical oncology that present advantages such as inexpensive synthesis, efficient tissue penetration and the lack of immunogenicity. Phage peptide libraries can be screened, through biopanning, against various targets including cancer cells and tissues that results in obtaining cancer-homing ligands. Cancer-specific peptides isolated from phage libraries show huge promise to be utilized for targeting of various gene therapy vectors towards malignant cells. Beyond doubt, bacteriophages will play a more impressive role in the future of medical oncology.
Tey, J; Baggarley, S; Lee, KM
Singapore is a small country, but it is ideally and centrally located to conveniently serve not only its population but also patients from the surrounding regions. It’s economy is sufficiently strong to maintain highly sophisticated and expensive equipment to manage a high level of healthcare, including oncology services. Cancer incidences in Singapore are on an upward trend based on the report of the Singapore Cancer Registry for the period of 2001-2005. Cancer is the number one cause of dea...
Otis-Green, Shirley; Jones, Barbara; Zebrack, Brad; Kilburn, Lisa; Altilio, Terry A; Ferrell, Betty
ExCEL in Social Work: Excellence in Cancer Education & Leadership was a multi-year National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded grant for the development and implementation of an innovative educational program for oncology social workers. The program's curriculum focused upon six core competencies of psychosocial-spiritual support necessary to meet the standard of care recommended by the 2008 Institute of Medicine (IOM) Report: Cancer Care for the Whole Patient: Meeting Psychosocial Health Needs. The curriculum was delivered through a collaborative partnership between the City of Hope National Medical Center and the two leading professional organizations devoted exclusively to representing oncology social workers--the Association of Oncology Social Work and the Association of Pediatric Oncology Social Workers. Initial findings support the feasibility and acceptability of this tailored leadership skills-building program for participating oncology social workers.
de Vries Martine C; Houtlosser Mirjam; Wit Jan M; Engberts Dirk P; Bresters Dorine; Kaspers Gertjan JL; van Leeuwen Evert
Abstract Background Pediatric oncology has a strong research culture. Most pediatric oncologists are investigators, involved in clinical care as well as research. As a result, a remarkable proportion of children with cancer enrolls in a trial during treatment. This paper discusses the ethical consequences of the unprecedented integration of research and care in pediatric oncology from the perspective of parents and physicians. Methodology An empirical ethical approach, combining (1) a narrati...
Alvarez, Elysia; Keegan, Theresa; Johnston, Emily E; Haile, Robert; Sanders, Lee; Saynina, Olga; Chamberlain, Lisa J
Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) ages 15 to 39 years with cancer continue to experience disparate survival outcomes compared with their younger and older counterparts. This may be caused in part by differential access to specialized cancer centers (SCCs), because treatment at SCCs has been associated with improved overall survival. The authors examined social and clinical factors associated with AYA use of SCCs (defined as Children's Oncology Group-designated or National Cancer Institute-designated centers). A retrospective, population-based analysis was performed on all hospital admissions of AYA oncology patients in California during 1991 through 2014 (n = 127,250) using the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development database. Multivariable logistic regression analyses examined the contribution of social and clinical factors on always receiving care from an SCC (vs sometimes or never). Results are presented as adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Over the past 20 years, the percentage of patients always receiving inpatient care at an SCC increased over time (from 27% in 1991 to 43% in 2014). In multivariable regression analyses, AYA patients were less likely to always receive care from an SCC if they had public insurance (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.62-0.66), were uninsured (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.46-0.56), were Hispanic (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.85-0.91), lived > 5 miles from an SCC, or had a diagnosis other than leukemia and central nervous system tumors. Receiving care at an SCC was influenced by insurance, race/ethnicity, geography, and tumor type. Identifying the barriers associated with decreased SCC use is an important first step toward improving outcomes in AYA oncology patients. Cancer 2017;123:2516-23. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
Ashbury, Fredrick D; Madlensky, Lisa; Raich, Peter; Thompson, Mark; Whitney, Geoff; Hotz, Ken; Kralj, Boris; Edell, William S
To describe patterns of antidepressant (ADs) prescribing in community oncology practice. Data were collected using an electronic medical record on all staged breast, colon, and lung cancer patients in three community-based oncology practices. The data were analyzed retrospectively, using descriptive and bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression modeling. There were 850 breast, 299 colon, and 473 lung cancer patients identified in this analysis. Overall, 19.2% of breast, 11% of colon, and 13.7% of lung cancer patients had been prescribed ADs during the 2-year period. The clinic in which cancer treatment was received predicted AD prescribing. The relationship between AD administration and age proved to be nonlinear; the pattern exhibited an "inverted U" shape. Patients with comorbidities and on pain medications were more likely to be administered ADs. Colon cancer patients on pain medications were five times more likely to be administered ADs than those not on pain medications. While some predictors of AD prescribing appear to be consistent with other studies, such as being on pain medication, there is still a great amount of variability in prescribing patterns across community practices, age groups, and cancer diagnoses. This study demonstrates that prescriptions of ADs seem to be influenced by parameters other than psychopathology. Given the importance of major depression in oncology care, diagnosis of psychiatric disorders and prescription patterns of psychotropics should be part of the routine monitoring and quality management in oncology patient care.
Fischer, Cheryl; Petriccione, Mary; Donzelli, Maria; Pottenger, Elaine
Brain tumors represent the most common solid tumors in childhood, accounting for almost 25% of all childhood cancer, second only to leukemia. Pediatric central nervous system tumors encompass a wide variety of diagnoses, from benign to malignant. Any brain tumor can be associated with significant morbidity, even when low grade, and mortality from pediatric central nervous system tumors is disproportionately high compared to other childhood malignancies. Management of children with central nervous system tumors requires knowledge of the unique aspects of care associated with this particular patient population, beyond general oncology care. Pediatric brain tumor patients have unique needs during treatment, as cancer survivors, and at end of life. A multidisciplinary team approach, including advanced practice nurses with a specialty in neuro-oncology, allows for better supportive care. Knowledge of the unique aspects of care for children with brain tumors, and the appropriate interventions required, allows for improved quality of life.
Rocque, Gabrielle B.; Barnett, Anne E.; Illig, Lisa C.; Eickhoff, Jens C.; Bailey, Howard H.; Campbell, Toby C.; Stewart, James A.; Cleary, James F.
Introduction: Despite advances in the care of patients with cancer over the last 10 years, cancer remains the second leading cause of death in the United States. Many patients receive aggressive, in-hospital end-of-life care at high cost. There are few data on outcomes after unplanned hospitalization of patients with metastatic cancer. Methods: In 2000 and 2010, data were collected on admissions, interventions, and survival for patients admitted to an academic inpatient medical oncology service. Results: The 2000 survey included 191 admissions of 151 unique patients. The 2010 survey assessed 149 admissions of 119 patients. Lung, GI, and breast cancers were the most common cancer diagnoses. In the 2010 assessment, pain was the most common chief complaint, accounting for 28%. Although symptoms were the dominant reason for admission in 2010, procedures and imaging were common in both surveys. The median survival of patients after discharge was 4.7 months in 2000 and 3.4 months in 2010. Despite poor survival in this patient population, hospice was recommended in only 23% and 24% of patients in 2000 and 2010, respectively. Seventy percent of patients were discharged home without additional services. Conclusion: On the basis of our data, an unscheduled hospitalization for a patient with advanced cancer strongly predicts a median survival of fewer than 6 months. We believe that hospital admission represents an opportunity to commence and/or consolidate appropriate palliative care services and end-of-life care. PMID:23633971
Head, Barbara A; Schapmire, Tara; Earnshaw, Lori; Faul, Anna; Hermann, Carla; Jones, Carol; Martin, Amy; Shaw, Monica Ann; Woggon, Frank; Ziegler, Craig; Pfeiffer, Mark
For students of the health care professions to succeed in today's health care environment, they must be prepared to collaborate with other professionals and practice on interdisciplinary teams. As most will care for patients with cancer, they must also understand the principles of palliative care and its integration into oncology. This article reports the success of one university's effort to design and implement an interdisciplinary curriculum teaching team-based palliative care in oncology which was mandatory for medical, nursing, social work, and chaplaincy students. Quantitative evaluation indicated that students made significant improvements related to palliative care knowledge and skills and readiness for interprofessional education. Qualitative feedback revealed that students appreciated the experiential aspects of the curriculum most, especially the opportunity to observe palliative teams at work and practice team-based skills with other learners. While there exist many obstacles to interprofessional education and hands-on learning, the value of such experiences to the learners justifies efforts to initiate and continue similar programs in the health sciences.
Groenvold, Mogens; Petersen, Morten Aagaard; Damkier, Anette
BACKGROUND: Beneficial effects of early palliative care have been found in advanced cancer, but the evidence is not unequivocal. AIM: To investigate the effect of early specialist palliative care among advanced cancer patients identified in oncology departments. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: The Danish...... Palliative Care Trial (DanPaCT) (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01348048) is a multicentre randomised clinical trial comparing early referral to a specialist palliative care team plus standard care versus standard care alone. The planned sample size was 300. At five oncology departments, consecutive patients...
França, Jael Rúbia Figueiredo de Sá; da Costa, Solange Fátima Geraldo; Lopes, Maria Emilia Limeira; da Nóbrega, Maria Miriam Lima; de França, Inacia Sátiro Xavier
to investigate and analyze communication in palliative care contexts from the perspective of nurses, based on Humanistic Nursing Theory. this is a field study with a qualitative approach, in which ten nurses working in the pediatric oncology unit of a Brazilian public hospital participated. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. The testimonies were qualitatively analyzed using Humanistic Nursing Theory and based on the five phases of Nursing Phenomenology. two thematic categories emerged from the analysis of the study's empirical material: "strategy to humanize nursing care, with an emphasis on relieving the child's suffering" and "strategy to strengthen ties of trust established between nurse and child." communication is an efficacious element in the care provided to the child with cancer and is extremely important to promoting palliative care when it is based on Humanistic Nursing Theory.
Yeliz İrem Tunçel
Full Text Available Objective: Burnout is common in intensive care units (ICU because of high demands and difficult working conditions. The aim of this study was to analyse nurses’ burnout in our oncology ICU and to determine which factors are associated with. Material and Method: The study was carried out in Ankara Oncology Hospital ICU. A self- reporting questionnaire in an envelope was used for the evaluation of burnout (Turkish- language version of Maslach Burnout Inventory and depression (Beck Depression Scale. Results: From a total of 37 ICU nurses, 35 participated in the study (%94,5 response rate. High levels of emotional exhaustion in 82% and depersonalization in 51,4% of nurses was determined. Personal accomplishment was higher at 80%. Mild to moderate emotional state and mild anxiety was revealed. Years in profession,finding salary insufficient, finding the profession in its proper, choosing the profession of his own accord, work environment satisfaction and finding the social activity adequate were associated with burnout (p≤0.05. Conclusion: In our study, intensive care unit nurses’ burnout scores were found to be higher. Burnout was rare in nurses that choose the profession of his own accord, find the nursing profession in its proper, and social activity adequate and are satisfied with the work environment. Therefore, we believe that attention should be given to individual needs and preferences in the selection of ICU staff.
Paper-Based Survivorship Care Plans May be Less Helpful for Cancer Patients Who Search for Disease-Related Information on the Internet: Results of the Registrationsystem Oncological Gynecology (ROGY) Care Randomized Trial
Nicolaije, K.A.; Ezendam, N.P.; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.; Boll, D.; Vos, M.C.; Kruitwagen, R.F.; Poll-Franse, L.V. van de
BACKGROUND: The Institute of Medicine recommends Survivorship Care Plans (SCPs) for all cancer survivors. However, it is unclear whether certain patient groups may or may not benefit from SCPs. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess whether the effects of an automatically generated paper SCP on patients'
McLeod, Deborah L; Tapp, Dianne M; Moules, Nancy J; Campbell, Mary E
Families are acknowledged as a focus of care in oncology nursing in many countries but the meaning of "family nursing" in this practice setting has received little attention from researchers and theorists. In this article, we report the findings of a study that explored family nursing practices in three adult cancer care settings: ambulatory care (medical and radiation oncology clinics), a palliative care service, and an in-patient unit. Data included in-depth interviews with 30 nurses and 19 families, as well as participant observations in each practice setting. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and the analyses guided by philosophical hermeneutics. We identified several narratives related to family nursing practices, and in this article we offer the interpretations of two of these narratives: 1) knowing the family and being known; and 2) addressing family concerns and distress. In knowing the family and being known nurses opened relational space for families to become involved in the care of their loved ones and gained an understanding of the family by "reading" non-verbal and para-verbal cues. Knowing the family created opportunities for nurses to address family concerns and distress in meaningful ways. These included guiding families by being a bridge, helping families to conserve relationships, and negotiating competing family agendas. Nurses relied on questioning practices to create relational space with, and among, family members. Implications for the development of family nursing practice, theory, and education are discussed. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Music therapy is a significant modality in the treatment of patients with cancer, who suffer emotional and spiritual distress as well as chemotherapy side effects that impair their quality of life. In this article, we present a case study of a patient challenged with recurrent ovarian cancer who received, concomitant with chemotherapy, a special form of music therapy based on anthroposophic medicine (AM aimed at alleviating anxiety and improving her general well-being. AM-centered music therapy goals are discussed in regard to two modes of treatment: receptive listening and clinical composition. Next, these two treatment modes are discussed in a broader context by reviewing conventional music therapy interventions during chemotherapy on two axes: a. standardized vs. individualized treatment; b. patient’s involvement on a passive to active continuum. In conclusion, psycho-oncology care can be enriched by adding anthroposophic medicine-oriented music therapy integrated within patients’ supportive care.
Ben-Arye, Eran; Ben-Arye, Yotam; Barak, Yael
Music therapy is a significant modality in the treatment of patients with cancer, who suffer emotional and spiritual distress as well as chemotherapy side effects that impair their quality of life. In this article, we present a case study of a patient challenged with recurrent ovarian cancer who received, concomitant with chemotherapy, a special form of music therapy based on anthroposophic medicine (AM) aimed at alleviating anxiety and improving her general well-being. AM-centered music therapy goals are discussed in regard to two modes of treatment: receptive listening and clinical composition. Next, these two treatment modes are discussed in a broader context by reviewing conventional music therapy interventions during chemotherapy on two axes: a. standardized vs. individualized treatment; b. patient's involvement on a passive to active continuum. In conclusion, psycho-oncology care can be enriched by adding anthroposophic medicine-oriented music therapy integrated within patients' supportive care.
Kennedy Sheldon, Lisa
When Vice President Joe Biden's son, Beau, died of a brain tumor in May 2015, the Vice President's grief was profound. Yet, his grief generated an idea, a big idea: Let's collaborate and focus the talent and resources in our country to eliminate cancer as we know it. When Vice President Biden shared his idea with President Barack Obama in the fall of 2015, not only did President Obama endorse the idea, he announced the National Cancer Moonshot Initiative during his January 2016 State of the Union Address. The goal is to double progress against cancer and break down silos that prevent science and industry from working together. The initiative centers around the development and implementation of new vaccine-based immunotherapies to target individual tumors based on their genomic signature.
Vladimir Araujo de Silva
Full Text Available This phenomenological study was structured on Heidegger’s theoretical-philosophical framework, with the objective of unveiling the significances and meanings of the musical identity of patients and relatives under oncological palliative care. Individual interviews were performed with 12 clients (seven patients and five relatives staying at the support residence of the Maringa Female Network Against Cancer. A total of eight musical meetings were performed between January and February of 2011. I understood that the musical identity of the evidenced beings refers to the religious and country music styles, that their significances and meanings are connected to their spirituality and the significant events of their historicity, and that their mood and reflection intermediated by music can influence their musical choice. I gave evidence to the need to consider the music identity and empowerment in musical choices, which carries existential, social, cultural, spiritual and family aspects as qualifying elements of nursing in palliative care. Descriptors: Nursing Care; Oncology Nursing; Music; Music Therapy; Palliative Care.
Cultural competence in oncology requires the acquisition of specific knowledge, clinical skills, and attitudes that facilitate effective cross-cultural negotiation in the clinical setting, thus, leading to improved therapeutic outcomes and decreased disparities in cancer care. Cultural competence in oncology entails a basic knowledge of different cultural attitudes and practices of communication of the truth and of decision-making styles throughout the world. Cultural competence always presupposes oncology professionals' awareness of their own cultural beliefs and values. To be able to communicate with cancer patients in culturally sensitive ways, oncologists should have knowledge of the concept of culture in its complexity and of the risks of racism, classism, sexism, ageism, and stereotyping that must be avoided in clinical practice. Oncologists should develop a sense of appreciation for differences in health care values, based on the recognition that no culture can claim hegemony over others and that cultures are evolving under their reciprocal influence on each other. Medical schools and oncology training can teach communication skills and cultural competence, while fostering in all students and young doctors those attitudes of humility, empathy, curiosity, respect, sensitivity, and awareness that are needed to deliver effective and culturally sensitive cancer care.
Lichosik, Danuta; Caruso, Rosario
European cancer nurses have to face many challenges as a result of the rapidly changing economic and political context in which balancing health care needs has become strategic for healthcare delivery. Currently, cancer nurses must overcome many obstacles arising from clinical, organisational, and educational issues. Within this scenario, the European Oncology Nursing Society (EONS) shaped its tenth congress programme to boost discussion and reflections, to share experiences and research, and to see how cancer nurses try to anticipate and embrace changes. The aim of this was to promote innovative solutions and to address the many issues involved with cancer care. EONS10 was held on 17–18 October in Dublin, Ireland. The congress was attended by more than 500 delegates. The programme covered the following themes: caring for families and carers, inequalities and access to cancer care, caring for patients with haematological cancers, palliative care, communication and information exchange, community cancer care (i.e. parallel sessions), roles and responsibility for advanced nursing practice, International Psycho-Oncology Society (IPOS)-Academy workshops (i.e. workshops), cancer survivorship, clinical leadership and new roles, oncology nursing research, symptom experiences and management, palliative care (i.e. proffered papers), poster presentations, and satellite symposia. The aim of this paper is to highlight and discuss the contents of the EONS10 congress. PMID:28144284
Partridge, Ann H; Seah, Davinia S E; King, Tari; Leighl, Natasha B; Hauke, Ralph; Wollins, Dana S; Von Roenn, Jamie Hayden
Palliative care is a fundamental component of cancer care. As part of the 2011 to 2012 Leadership Development Program (LDP) of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), a group of participants was charged with advising ASCO on how to develop a service model integrating palliative care throughout the continuum of cancer care. This article presents the findings of the LDP group. The group focused on the process of palliative care delivery in the oncology setting. We identified key elements for models of palliative care in various settings to be potentially equitable, sustainable, feasible, and acceptable, and here we describe a dynamic model for the integrated, simultaneous implementation of palliative care into oncology practice. We also discuss critical considerations to better integrate palliative care into oncology, including raising consciousness and educating both providers and the public about the importance of palliative care; coordinating palliative care efforts through strengthening affiliations and/or developing new partnerships; prospectively evaluating the impact of palliative care on patient and provider satisfaction, quality improvement, and cost savings; and ensuring sustainability through adequate reimbursement and incentives, including linkage of performance data to quality indicators, and coordination with training efforts and maintenance of certification requirements for providers. In light of these findings, we believe the confluence of increasing importance of incorporation of palliative care education in oncology education, emphasis on value-based care, growing use of technology, and potential cost savings makes developing and incorporating palliative care into current service models a meaningful goal.
Nai-Si Huang; Jiong Wu
Objective:To evaluate the oncologic safety of nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) for breast cancer patients based on current literature.Data Sources:A comprehensive literature search ofMedline,Embase databases was conducted for studies published through March 2014.Study Selection:Our search criteria included English-language studies that focused on NSM at nipple-areola complex (NAC) involvement,patient selection,and recurrence.Prophylaxis NSM,case series or reports that based on very small population were excluded.In the end,42 studies concerning NSM and oncological safety were included into the review.Results:NSM is a surgical procedure that allows the preservation of the skin and NAC in breast cancer patients or in patients with prophylactic mastectomy.However,the oncologic safety and patient selection criteria associated with NSM are still under debate.The incidence of NAC involvement of breast cancer in recent studies ranges from 9.5％ to 24.6％,which can be decreased through careful patient selection.Tumour-nipple distance,tumour size,lymph node involvement and molecular characteristics can be evaluated preoperatively by clinical examinations,imaging studies and biopsies to predict the risk of NAC involvement.Currently,there is no available standard protocol for surgical approaches to NSM or pathological examination of NSM specimens.The local recurrence (ranges from 0％ to 24％) of NSM is not significantly higher than that of traditional mastectomy in selected patients based on long-term follow-up.The role of radiotherapy in NSM is still controversial and is not universally accepted.Conclusions:NSM appears to be oncologically safe following careful patient selection and assessment of margins.
Moral distress is defined as knowing the right thing to do when policy constraints do not allow for appropriate choices. The purpose of the current study was to explore the existence of moral distress in oncology nurses with a cross-sectional survey completed by nurses working on inpatient units at a midwestern cancer hospital. Investigators distributed the Moral Distress Scale-Revised to all direct care staff nurses. The main research variables were moral distress, level of education, age, and type of unit. Most of the 73 nurses had low to moderate scores, and two had high scores. No significant correlations were observed among age or years of experience. Type of unit and level of moral distress were correlated, and an inverse relationship between level of education and moral distress was found. Moral distress exists in nurses who work on oncology units irrespective of experience in oncology or the specific unit. Nurses must be aware of the existence of moral distress and finds ways to reduce potential emotional problems.
Travado, Luzia; Breitbart, William; Grassi, Luigi; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Patenaude, Andrea; Baider, Lea; Connor, Stephen; Fingeret, Michelle
The International Psycho-Oncology Society (IPOS) Human Rights Task Force has been working since 2008 to raise awareness and support, for the relevance of psychosocial cancer care as a human rights issue. In 2014 the "Lisbon Declaration: Psychosocial Cancer Care as a Universal Human Right" was fully endorsed by IPOS. Subsequently, the IPOS Standard on Quality Cancer Care, endorsed by 75 cancer organizations worldwide, has been updated and now includes 3 core principles: Psychosocial cancer care should be recognised as a universal human right; Quality cancer care must integrate the psychosocial domain into routine care; Distress should be measured as the 6th vital sign. The President's plenary held at the 2015 World Congress of Psycho-Oncology in Washington DC was devoted to discussing psychosocial care as a human rights issue. Many challenges and opportunities are illustrated in different continents and contexts: from Africa where resources for basic cancer treatment are scarce and children and their parents face significant difficulties with hospital detention practices; to Europe where for many countries psychosocial care is still seen as a luxury; and the Middle East where Muslim women face stigma and a culture of silence over cancer. We further discuss how to move the Lisbon Declaration forward towards its implementation into clinical practice globally, using the successful example of the World Health Assembly resolution supporting palliative care as a human right which has achieved widespread approval, and identifying the vital role the IPOS Federation of National Psychoncology Societies plays worldwide to move this agenda forward. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Travado, Luzia; Breitbart, William; Grassi, Luigi; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Patenaude, Andrea; Baider, Lea; Connor, Stephen; Fingeret, Michelle
The International Psycho-Oncology Society (IPOS) Human Rights Task Force has been working since 2008 to raise awareness and support, for the relevance of psychosocial cancer care as a human rights issue. In 2014 the “Lisbon Declaration: Psychosocial Cancer Care as a Universal Human Right” was fully endorsed by IPOS. Subsequently, the IPOS Standard on Quality Cancer Care, endorsed by 75 cancer organizations worldwide, has been updated and now includes 3 core principles: Psychosocial cancer care should be recognised as a universal human right; Quality cancer care must integrate the psychosocial domain into routine care; Distress should be measured as the 6th vital sign. The President's plenary held at the 2015 World Congress of Psycho-Oncology in Washington DC was devoted to discussing psychosocial care as a human rights issue. Many challenges and opportunities are illustrated in different continents and contexts: from Africa where resources for basic cancer treatment are scarce and children and their parents face significant difficulties with hospital detention practices; to Europe where for many countries psychosocial care is still seen as a luxury; and the Middle East where Muslim women face stigma and a culture of silence over cancer. We further discuss how to move the Lisbon Declaration forward towards its implementation into clinical practice globally, using the successful example of the World Health Assembly resolution supporting palliative care as a human right which has achieved widespread approval, and identifying the vital role the IPOS Federation of National Psychoncology Societies plays worldwide to move this agenda forward. PMID:27530206
Reygan, Finn C G
OBJECTIVE: The international literature points to the specific cancer risks and palliative care needs of lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) populations. However, with the exception of a programme in the USA, there is a lack of training internationally for health and social care professionals providing oncological and palliative care to LGB patients. In Ireland, a training project funded by the Irish Cancer Society, the Irish Hospice Foundation and the Health Service Executive developed a training pilot programme for health and social care professionals providing oncological and palliative care to LGB patients. METHODS: Over 200 (N = 201) oncology and palliative care staff participated in 17 brief, 50-min trainings in pilot sites. Evaluation of the training included self-report questionnaires at the end of each training and an evaluation interview with one participant from each of the four sites. RESULTS: The majority of participants reported that they would recommend the training to their colleagues, were interested in further training in the area and found the training useful for their practice. They also reported becoming more familiar with LGB-related language and terminology, became more knowledgeable of LGB health issues and reported becoming more confident in providing care to LGB patients. CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations are that the training be made available across the health services in Ireland and included in postgraduate courses for trainee health and social care professionals. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Pergert, Pernilla; Ekblad, Solvig; Enskär, Karin; Björk, Olle
This qualitative study explores the caring situation of families with an immigrant background within the context of pediatric oncology care from the perspective of health care staff. Five focus group interviews and 5 complementary individual interviews were conducted after purposive and theoretical sampling, respectively. Grounded theory methodology revealed that obstacles to transcultural caring relationships are a main concern of the health care staff. These obstacles are divided into 4 main categories: linguistic, cultural and religious, social, and organizational. When health care staff fail to recognize obstacles to transcultural caring relationships, the result is inequity in care of families with an immigrant background. Equity in care for all does not mean identical treatment but, rather, care adjusted to the needs of the individual family regardless of background.
Ligibel, Jennifer A; Alfano, Catherine M; Hershman, Dawn; Ballard, Rachel M; Bruinooge, Suanna S; Courneya, Kerry S; Daniels, Elvan C; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Frank, Elizabeth S; Goodwin, Pamela J; Irwin, Melinda L; Levit, Laura A; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Minasian, Lori M; O'Rourke, Mark A; Pierce, John P; Stein, Kevin D; Thomson, Cynthia A; Hudis, Clifford A
Observational evidence has established a relationship between obesity and cancer risk and outcomes. Interventional studies have demonstrated the feasibility and benefits of lifestyle change after cancer diagnosis, and guidelines recommend weight management and regular physical activity in cancer survivors; however, lifestyle interventions are not a routine part of cancer care. The ASCO Research Summit on Advancing Obesity Clinical Trials in Cancer Survivors sought to identify the knowledge gaps that clinical trials addressing energy balance factors in cancer survivors have not answered and to develop a roadmap for the design and implementation of studies with the potential to generate data that could lead to the evidence-based incorporation of weight management and physical activity programs into standard oncology practice. Recommendations highlight the need for large-scale trials evaluating the impact of energy balance interventions on cancer outcomes, as well as the concurrent conduct of studies focused on dissemination and implementation of interventions in diverse populations of cancer survivors, including answering critical questions about the degree of benefit in key subgroups of survivors. Other considerations include the importance of incorporating economic metrics into energy balance intervention trials, the need to establish intermediate biomarkers, and the importance of integrating traditional and nontraditional funding sources. Establishing lifestyle change after cancer diagnosis as a routine part of cancer care will require a multipronged effort to overcome barriers related to study development, funding, and stakeholder engagement. Given the prevalence of obesity and inactivity in cancer survivors in the United States and elsewhere, energy balance interventions hold the potential to reduce cancer morbidity and mortality in millions of patients, and it is essential that we move forward in determining their role in cancer care with the same care and
The number of people receiving systemic anti-cancer treatment and presenting at emergency departments with treatment-related problems is rising. Nurses will be the first point of contact for most patients and need to be able to recognise oncological emergencies to initiate urgent assessment of patients and referral to the acute oncology team so that the most appropriate care can be delivered promptly. This article discusses the role of acute oncology services, and provides an overview of the most common acute oncological emergencies.
... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000929.htm Your cancer care team To use the sharing features on this page, ... help your body heal. Working with Your Care Team Each member of your care team plays an ...
Ferris, Linda W; Farber, Matthew; Guidi, Teri Ursin; Laffey, William J
Cancer leaders assess the impact on the cancer patient of the historic passage of Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (HR 3590) (PPACA). The Association of Cancer Executives, a national organization for leadership development of oncology executives and improvements in patient care delivery, and the Association of Community Cancer Centers, a leading education and advocacy organization for the cancer team, weigh in on the impact of PPACA. Oncology leaders assess the impact of PPACA on cancer patients and families, cancer programs in the United States, and provider relations. The provisions of PPACA most impacting cancer patients are reviewed, including reimbursement changes, expansion of prevention and screening services, the development of accountable care organizations, physician relations, and the implementation of integrated electronic health records. Cancer executives prepare their programs for PPACA by changing the care delivery model to ensure the economic survival of private practices and hospital-based programs.
Graciano, Agnaldo José; Sonagli, Marina; da Silva, Ana Gabriela Clemente; Fischer, Carlos Augusto; Chone, Carlos Takahiro
Most patients with laryngeal carcinoma present tumors in the glottis that can be treated by different treatment modalities. Some authors consider open partial laryngectomy as obsolete, while others still deem this as a viable and cost-efficient option. To compare the oncological and functional results of a series of patients undergoing partial laryngectomy vs. external radiotherapy for the treatment of glottic cancer. Historical cohort study with a series of glottic carcinoma patients undergoing partial laryngectomy or external radiotherapy during a period of ten years. Sixty-two patients with glottic carcinoma were included. Group A comprised those submitted to partial laryngectomy (n=30), and Group B, those who underwent radiotherapy (n=32). They were homogeneous in the comparison of mean age, 56.4 vs. 60.4 years (p=0.12) and distribution in pathological stage (p=0.91). With regard to oncological outcome, there were no differences in distant metastasis rates, or second primary tumor between groups (p=1.0), as well as in disease-free time, laryngeal rescue-free time, and overall five-year survival. Severe complication rates were also similar between groups. Open partial laryngectomy had complication rates and oncological results similar to those of radiotherapy for patients with glottic carcinomas and should still be considered among the main available therapeutic options. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available René-Jean Bensadoun,1 Phillipe Humbert,2 Jean Krutman,3 Thomas Luger,4 Raoul Triller,5 André Rougier,6 Sophie Seite,6 Brigitte Dreno71Department of Radiation Oncology, CHU Poitiers, Poitiers Cedex, 2Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Besançon, Besançon, France; 3IUF-Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Heinrich-Heine University, Düsseldorf, 4Department of Dermatology, University of Münster, Münster, Germany; 5Centre of Dermatology, Hertford British Hospital, Levallois-Perret, 6La Roche-Posay Laboratoire Pharmaceutique, Asnières, 7Department of Cancero-Dermatology, Hôtel Dieu, CHU Nantes, FranceAbstract: Skin reactions due to radiotherapy and chemotherapy are a significant problem for an important number of cancer patients. While effective for treating cancer, they disturb cutaneous barrier function, causing a reaction soon after initiation of treatment that impacts patient quality of life. Managing these symptoms with cosmetics and nonpharmaceutical skin care products for camouflage or personal hygiene may be important for increasing patient self-esteem. However, inappropriate product choice or use could worsen side effects. Although recommendations exist for the pharmaceutical treatment of skin reactions, there are no recommendations for the choice or use of dermatologic skin care products for oncology patients. The present guidelines were developed by a board of European experts in dermatology and oncology to provide cancer care professionals with guidance for the appropriate use of non-pharmaceutical, dermocosmetic skin care management of cutaneous toxicities associated with radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy, including epidermal growth factor inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies. The experts hope that these recommendations will improve the management of cutaneous side effects and hence quality of life for oncology patients.Keywords: skin care, cosmetic, dermatological toxicity, folliculitis
Hassett, Michael J; McNiff, Kristen K; Dicker, Adam P; Gilligan, Timothy; Hendricks, Carolyn B; Lennes, Inga; Murray, Thomas; Krzyzanowska, Monika K
Most cancer quality measures focus on individual cancers, assess specific providers, and evaluate processes of care. Although important, these efforts are not sufficient. A more comprehensive measure set is needed to address gaps in care, focus on patients rather than providers, and assess the cross-cutting aspects of care that are relevant to all patients with cancer throughout the trajectory of their illness. With the long-term goal of developing a more comprehensive oncology measure set, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) organized a collaborative measure summit that used an iterative consensus approach to identify priorities for the development of new cancer quality measures. The summit, which included professional societies and patient/consumer advocacy organizations, was held during the ASCO Quality Care Symposium in December 2012. This effort, which brought together 12 diverse stakeholders, identified 10 high-priority topics for cancer quality measure development that cross-cut cancer diagnoses and care settings and addressed patient-centered concerns. Topics of particular interest included planning and counseling before therapy, interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary coordinated care, comprehensive symptom assessment, patient experience of care, and use of palliative care and hospice services. This is an important first step in the development of patient-centered, cross-cutting cancer quality measures. Addressing the high-priority topics identified by this effort will help fill the gaps left by existing cancer quality measures, including care coordination and transitions, quality of life, safety, experience of care, and outcomes. More work will be needed to specify, implement, and validate measures based on these topics. Copyright © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Kuglin Jones, Ann
Oncology nurses are at high risk for burnout and compassion fatigue. Self-care is an essential element that oncology nurses should incorporate into their daily lives but, instead, is often deprioritized. As a result, nurses do not seek out educational opportunities that focus on self-care or personal growth. This article describes the curriculum that was developed for an oncology nurse retreat that promoted self-care and building personal resilience using tools that could be adapted for use with patients and families. .
Wu, Eijean; Rogers, Anna; Ji, Lingyun; Sposto, Richard; Church, Terry; Roman, Lynda; Tripathy, Debu; Lin, Yvonne G
Use of oncology-related services is increasingly scrutinized, yet precisely which services are actually rendered to patients, particularly at the end of life, is unknown. This study characterizes the end-of-life use of medical services by patients with gynecologic cancer at a safety-net hospital. Oncologic history and metrics of medical use (eg, hospitalizations, chemotherapy infusions, procedures) for patients with gynecologic oncology who died between December 2006 and February 2012 were evaluated. Mixed-effect regression models were used to test time effects and construct usage summaries. Among 116 subjects, cervical cancer accounted for the most deaths (42%). The median age at diagnosis was 55 years; 63% were Hispanic, and 65% had advanced disease. Only 34% died in hospice care. The median times from do not resuscitate/do not intubate documentation and from last therapeutic intervention to death were 9 days and 55 days, respectively. Significant time effects for all services (eg, hospitalizations, diagnostics, procedures, treatments, clinic appointments) were detected during the patient's final year (P care used significantly fewer resources toward the end of life. To our knowledge, this is the first report enumerating medical services obtained by patients with gynecologic cancer in a large, public hospital during the end of life. Marked changes in interventions in the patient's final 2 months highlight the need for cost-effective, evidence-based metrics for delivering cancer care. Our data emphasize continuity of care as a significant determinant of oncologic resource use during this critical period. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Kazak, Anne E; Noll, Robert B
Childhood cancers are life-threatening diseases that are universally distressing and potentially traumatic for children and their families at diagnosis, during treatment, and beyond. Dramatic improvements in survival have occurred as a result of increasingly aggressive multimodal therapies delivered in the context of clinical research trials. Nonetheless, cancers remain a leading cause of death in children, and their treatments have short- and long-term impacts on health and well-being. For over 35 years, pediatric psychologists have partnered with pediatric oncology teams to make many contributions to our understanding of the impact of cancer and its treatment on children and families and have played prominent roles in providing an understanding of treatment-related late effects and in improving quality of life. After discussing the incidence of cancer in children, its causes, and the treatment approaches to it in pediatric oncology, we present seven key contributions of psychologists to collaborative and integrated care in pediatric cancer: managing procedural pain, nausea, and other symptoms; understanding and reducing neuropsychological effects; treating children in the context of their families and other systems (social ecology); applying a developmental perspective; identifying competence and vulnerability; integrating psychological knowledge into decision making and other clinical care issues; and facilitating the transition to palliative care and bereavement. We conclude with a discussion of the current status of integrating knowledge from psychological research into practice in pediatric cancer. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Bombard, Yvonne; Bach, Peter B; Offit, Kenneth
There is increasing enthusiasm for genomics and its promise in advancing personalized medicine. Genomic information has been used to personalize health care for decades, spanning the fields of cardiovascular disease, infectious disease, endocrinology, metabolic medicine, and hematology. However, oncology has often been the first test bed for the clinical translation of genomics for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic applications. Notable hereditary cancer examples include testing for mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 in unaffected women to identify those at significantly elevated risk for developing breast and ovarian cancers, and screening patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer for mutations in 4 mismatch repair genes to reduce morbidity and mortality in their relatives. Somatic genomic testing is also increasingly used in oncology, with gene expression profiling of breast tumors and EGFR testing to predict treatment response representing commonly used examples. Health technology assessment provides a rigorous means to inform clinical and policy decision-making through systematic assessment of the evidentiary base, along with precepts of clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and consideration of risks and benefits for health care delivery and society. Although this evaluation is a fundamental step in the translation of any new therapeutic, procedure, or diagnostic test into clinical care, emerging developments may threaten this standard. These include "direct to consumer" genomic risk assessment services and the challenges posed by incidental results generated from next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. This article presents a review of the evidentiary standards and knowledge base supporting the translation of key cancer genomic technologies along the continuum of validity, utility, cost-effectiveness, health service impacts, and ethical and societal issues, and offers future research considerations to guide the responsible introduction of
Bensadoun, René-Jean; Humbert, Phillipe; Krutman, Jean; Luger, Thomas; Triller, Raoul; Rougier, André; Seite, Sophie; Dreno, Brigitte
Skin reactions due to radiotherapy and chemotherapy are a significant problem for an important number of cancer patients. While effective for treating cancer, they disturb cutaneous barrier function, causing a reaction soon after initiation of treatment that impacts patient quality of life. Managing these symptoms with cosmetics and nonpharmaceutical skin care products for camouflage or personal hygiene may be important for increasing patient self-esteem. However, inappropriate product choice or use could worsen side effects. Although recommendations exist for the pharmaceutical treatment of skin reactions, there are no recommendations for the choice or use of dermatologic skin care products for oncology patients. The present guidelines were developed by a board of European experts in dermatology and oncology to provide cancer care professionals with guidance for the appropriate use of non-pharmaceutical, dermocosmetic skin care management of cutaneous toxicities associated with radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy, including epidermal growth factor inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies. The experts hope that these recommendations will improve the management of cutaneous side effects and hence quality of life for oncology patients.
Cancer control aims to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of cancer and to improve the quality of life of cancer patients. For rural populations this presents particular problems. This article covers challenges of oncology care in rural areas and solutions via applying information communication technology with specialty telemedicine for overcoming problems in prevention, early diagnosis, treatment, and palliative care. In addition, telecommunications infrastructures and frameworks for implementation of telemedicine are described.
Grassi, Luigi; Caruso, Rosangela; Sabato, Silvana; Massarenti, Sara; Nanni, Maria G; The UniFe Psychiatry Working Group Coauthors
Psychiatric and psychosocial disorders among cancer patients have been reported as a major consequence of the disease and treatment. The problems in applying a pure psychiatric approach have determined the need for structuring more defined methods, including screening for distress and emotional symptoms and a more specific psychosocial assessment, to warrant proper care to cancer patients with psychosocial problems. This review examines some of the most significant issues related to these two steps, screening and assessment of psychosocial morbidity in cancer and palliative care. With regard to this, the many different variables, such as the factors affecting individual vulnerability (e.g., life events, chronic stress and allostatic load, well-being, and health attitudes) and the psychosocial correlates of medical disease (e.g., psychiatric disturbances, psychological symptoms, illness behavior, and quality of life) which are possibly implicated not only in "classical" psychiatric disorders but more broadly in psychosocial suffering. Multidimensional tools [e.g., and specific psychosocially oriented interview (e.g., the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research)] represent a way to screen for and assess emotional distress, anxiety and depression, maladaptive coping, dysfunctional attachment, as well as other significant psychosocial dimensions secondary to cancer, such as demoralization and health anxiety. Cross-cultural issues, such as language, ethnicity, race, and religion, are also discussed as possible factors influencing the patients and families perception of illness, coping mechanisms, psychological response to a cancer diagnosis.
Full Text Available Psychiatric and psychosocial disorders among cancer patients have been reported as a major consequence of the disease and treatment. The problems in applying a pure psychiatric approach have determined the need for structuring more defined methods, including screening for distress and emotional symptoms and a more specific psychosocial assessment, to warrant proper care to cancer patients with psychosocial problems. This review examines some of the most significant issues related to these two steps, screening and assessment of psychosocial morbidity in cancer and palliative care. With regard to this , the many different variables, such as the factors affecting individual vulnerability (e.g. life events, chronic stress and allostatic load, well-being, and health attitudes and the psychosocial correlates of medical disease (e.g. psychiatric disturbances, psychological symptoms, illness behavior, and quality of life which are possibly implicated not only in classical psychiatric disorders but more broadly in psychosocial suffering. Multidimensional tools (e.g. and specific psychosocially oriented interview (e.g. the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research - DCPR represent a way to screen for and assess emotional distress, anxiety and depression, maladaptive coping, dysfunctional attachment, as well as other significant psychosocial dimensions secondary to cancer, such as demoralization and health anxiety. Cross-cultural issues, such as language, ethnicity, race, and religion, are also discussed as possible factors influencing the patients and families perception of illness, coping mechanisms, psychological response to a cancer diagnosis.
Vogelzang, Nicholas J; Benowitz, Steven I; Adams, Sylvia; Aghajanian, Carol; Chang, Susan Marina; Dreyer, Zoann Eckert; Janne, Pasi A; Ko, Andrew H; Masters, Greg A; Odenike, Olatoyosi; Patel, Jyoti D; Roth, Bruce J; Samlowski, Wolfram E; Seidman, Andrew D; Tap, William D; Temel, Jennifer S; Von Roenn, Jamie H; Kris, Mark G
A message from ASCO'S President. It has been forty years since President Richard Nixon signed the National Cancer Act of 1971, which many view as the nation's declaration of the "War on Cancer." The bill has led to major investments in cancer research and significant increases in cancer survival. Today, two-thirds of patients survive at least five years after being diagnosed with cancer compared with just half of all diagnosed patients surviving five years after diagnosis in 1975. The research advances detailed in this year's Clinical Cancer Advances demonstrate that improvements in cancer screening, treatment, and prevention save and improve lives. But although much progress has been made, cancer remains one of the world's most serious health problems. In the United States, the disease is expected to become the nation's leading cause of death in the years ahead as our population ages. I believe we can accelerate the pace of progress, provided that everyone involved in cancer care works together to achieve this goal. It is this viewpoint that has shaped the theme for my presidential term: Collaborating to Conquer Cancer. In practice, this means that physicians and researchers must learn from every patient's experience, ensure greater collaboration between members of a patient's medical team, and involve more patients in the search for cures through clinical trials. Cancer advocates, insurers, and government agencies also have important roles to play. Today, we have an incredible opportunity to improve the quality of cancer care by drawing lessons from the real-world experiences of patients. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) is taking the lead in this area, in part through innovative use of health information technology. In addition to our existing quality initiatives, ASCO is working with partners to develop a comprehensive rapid-learning system for cancer care. When complete, this system will provide physicians with personalized, real
Shalimov, S O; Lishchyshyna, O M
Legislative documents of Ukraine as well as manuals of international organizations dealing with state regulation and social guaranties in Health Care have been analyzed. The use of standards in oncology institution in Ukraine has been studied. It was established that there is discrepancy in standards being used, lack of financing directed to oncology institutions. Controversial points concerning theoretical aspects were found as follows: the regulation of negative figures and selection of the complex of diagnostic and treatment procedures. The requirements to branch standards and principles of standardization of medical care provided to oncological patients.
Montserrat Cordero Ponce
Full Text Available Constipation is a problem relatively common even in healthy people, mainly in the western world, influenced mainly by the nutritional diets and the diminution of the physical activity. It is a symptom of difficult valuation by its subjective nature and the difficulty to establish a normality pattern.The incidence is high. It is observed in a 70 - 80% of the patients in terminal situation, the 40 - 50% of the patients with disease outpost and in 90% of the patients dealing with opiate.As nurses in of a palliative care unit we detected the high number of patients which they present/display the symptom and the time that takes in its diagnose and treatment, increasing the incidence-appearance of fecal impactación and intestinal obstruction. It is one of the symptoms that worry to our patients more.We take too frequently the “rectal measures,” being more painful and a little shameful for these patients, instead of using preventive measures, precocious oral treatment and continuous evaluation of the symptom. The knowledge that these patients have of the constipation is in many deficient cases. In order to be able to educate and to take care of to the oncology terminal patient in terminal state with constipation it is essential that we know its physiopathology, causes and complications. Also we will deepen in the most suitable treatment according to the consistency, the effort that the patient must make when defecating and the symptoms that presents/displays, trying that the treatment is customized and individual, although starting off of a previous protocol of performance decided by the health professionals who are going to treat the patient.
Full Text Available Alysa Fairchild,1 Sharon Watanabe,1 Carole Chambers,2 Janice Yurick,3 Lisa Lem,4 Patty Tachynski51Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, 2Department of Pharmacy, Alberta Health Services, 3Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, 4Department of Respiratory Therapy, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, 5Department of Clinical Nutrition, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta, CanadaPurpose: The optimal setting for interprofessional education (IPE for prelicensure health care trainees is unclear, especially in a field as complex and emotionally challenging as oncology. In this article, the authors describe the initiation of the Cross Cancer Institute Multidisciplinary Summer Studentship in Palliative and Supportive Care in Oncology, a 6-week, multidisciplinary team-based clinical placement in supportive care, designed to incorporate features of best practice cooperative learning.Methods: A steering committee established goals, structure, eligibility criteria, application process, funding, and a consensus approach to instruction and evaluation for the IPE program. Studentship components included mandatory and flexible clinical time, an exploratory investigation, discussion groups, and a presentation. Two senior students per iteration were selected from clinical nutrition, medicine, nursing, occupational therapy, pharmacy, physiotherapy, respiratory therapy, social work, and speech–language pathology applicants. These students completed questionnaires investigating their views of their own and others' professions at baseline, at the end of the rotation, and 6 months after the studentship.Results: Eight students from medicine, clinical nutrition, occupational therapy, physiotherapy, and speech–language pathology have participated to date. At the elective's end, students have described a more positive view of multidisciplinary team practice, with each participating discipline perceived as
Rotegård, Ann Kristin; Ruland, Cornelia M; Fagermoen, May Solveig
Health assets, a term that refers to patients' strengths and potentials, has emerged as an important aspect of health care. A conceptual analysis of health assets revealed five core dimensions: mobilization, motivational, relational, volitional, and protective strengths. How nurses experience and use patients' health assets, however, is unknown. In this qualitative study, 26 expert nurses in cancer care participated in focus group interviews. The nurses had a large repertoire of experiences with cancer patients' health assets. When the data were subjected to thematic analysis, three new core dimensions were revealed: cognitive, emotional, and physical strengths. Balancing processes within and among health assets--identified as an overriding theme--appeared to be affected by individual and contextual variations. The nurses realized that patients' health assets could be better used and voiced a need for the clinical and organizational support to do so. New issues about health assets raised in this study may be caused by its novel context (e.g., expert nurses in oncology care). More research is needed on health assets in other contexts, such as patients with different health problems, and of possible strategies to support nurses' use of health assets.
Hack, Thomas F; Crooks, Dauna; Plohman, James; Kepron, Emma
The purpose of this study was to conduct a historical review of psycho-oncology and supportive care research in Canada using citation analysis and to review the clinical impact of the research conducted by the most highly cited researchers. The lifetime journal publication records of 109 psycho-oncology and supportive care researchers in Canada were subject to citation analysis using the Scopus database, based on citations since 1996 of articles deemed relevant to psychosocial oncology and supportive care, excluding self-citations. Three primary types of analysis were performed for each individual: the number of citations for each journal publication, a summative citation count of all published articles, and the Scopus h-index. The top 20 psycho-oncology/supportive care researchers for each of five citation categories are presented: the number of citations for all publications; the number of citations for first-authored publications; the most highly cited first-authored publications; the Scopus h-index for all publications; and the Scopus h-index for first-authored publications. The three most highly cited Canadian psycho-oncology researchers are Dr. Kerry Courneya (University of Alberta), Dr. Lesley Degner, (University of Manitoba), and Dr. Harvey Chochinov (University of Manitoba). Citation analysis is useful for examining the research performance of psycho-oncology and supportive care researchers and identifying leaders among them.
... ency/patientinstructions/000822.htm Your cancer survivorship care plan To use the sharing features on this page, ... get one. What Is a Cancer Survivorship Care Plan? A cancer survivorship care plan is a document ...
Vries, M.C. de; Houtlosser, M.; Wit, J.M.; Engberts, D.P.; Bresters, D.; Kaspers, G.J.L.; Leeuwen, E. van
BACKGROUND: Pediatric oncology has a strong research culture. Most pediatric oncologists are investigators, involved in clinical care as well as research. As a result, a remarkable proportion of children with cancer enrolls in a trial during treatment. This paper discusses the ethical consequences o
Vries, M.C. de; Houtlosser, M.; Wit, J.M.; Engberts, D.P.; Bresters, D.; Kaspers, G.J.L.; Leeuwen, E. van
BACKGROUND: Pediatric oncology has a strong research culture. Most pediatric oncologists are investigators, involved in clinical care as well as research. As a result, a remarkable proportion of children with cancer enrolls in a trial during treatment. This paper discusses the ethical consequences
Vries, M.C. de; Houtlosser, M.; Wit, J.M.; Engberts, D.P.; Bresters, D.; Kaspers, G.J.L.; Leeuwen, E. van
BACKGROUND: Pediatric oncology has a strong research culture. Most pediatric oncologists are investigators, involved in clinical care as well as research. As a result, a remarkable proportion of children with cancer enrolls in a trial during treatment. This paper discusses the ethical consequences o
Mitchell, A. J.; Chan, M.; Bhatti, H.;
. Methods We searched Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, and Web of Knowledge for studies that examined well-defined depression, anxiety, and adjustment disorder in adults with cancer in oncological, haematological, and palliative-care settings. We restricted studies to those using psychiatric interviews. Studies...
陆宇晗; 国仁秀; 刘莉
目的:了解肿瘤科护士对照顾终末期癌症患者的态度.方法:采用自行编制的"护士照顾终末期癌症患者的态度评估量表",对全国19家医院的463名肿瘤科护士进行调查,内容包括护士对照顾终末期癌症患者的职责认同程度以及工作中的负性感受两个维度,每个维度均包括症状控制、心理辅导以及家属支持3个方面的测量.结果:①护士对症状控制、心理辅导以及家属支持3方面的职责普遍认同,但在心理辅导方面.对帮助患者应对疾病状况和死亡的职责的认同分值不高,存在不确定性.②护士在3方面的实践中负性感受均较高,其中在帮助家属应对悲伤过程中的负性感受最强,对症状控制的无能为力感受次之.心理辅导方面,护士在帮助患者应对当前疾病状况和谈论死亡问题上感到困难.③护士在症状控制和心理辅导两方面的职责认同程度与工作中的负性感受呈负相关.结论:肿瘤姑息护理的继续教育仍需进一步加强,帮助更多的肿瘤科护士明确职责,更新理念,提高专科护理知识水平和能力,才能为终末期癌症患者提供更加专业、有效的护理,同时也有助于减轻工作中的负性感受和压力.%Objective: To explore oncology nurses' attitudes on caring for dying cancer patients. Methods: Totally 463 oncology nurses from 19 nationwide hospitals were investigated by a self-designed scale. The scale was comprised of two subscales to evaluate respondents' agreement with their responsibilities and negative experience in caring for dying cancer patients. There were three dimensions in each subscale, including symptom management, psychological counseling and family support. Results: ① Generally oncology nurses agreed with their responsibilities in the three aspects of caring for dying patients. But lower scores were reported in the responsibility of helping patients to deal with dying and death. ② Oncology
Irwin, Kelly E; Henderson, David C; Knight, Helen P; Pirl, William F
Individuals with schizophrenia are a vulnerable population that has been relatively neglected in health disparities research. Despite having an equivalent risk of developing most cancers, patients with schizophrenia are more likely to die of cancer than the general population. Cancer care disparities are likely the result of patient-, provider-, and systems-level factors and influenced by the pervasive stigma of mental illness. Individuals with schizophrenia have higher rates of health behaviors linked with cancer mortality including cigarette smoking. They also have significant medical comorbidity, are less likely to have up-to-date cancer screening, and may present at more advanced stages of illness. Patients with schizophrenia may be less likely to receive chemotherapy or radiotherapy, have more postoperative complications, and have less access to palliative care. However, opportunities exist for the interdisciplinary team, including medical, surgical, and radiation oncologists; psychiatrists; and primary care physicians, to intervene throughout the continuum of cancer care to promote survival and quality of life. This review summarizes data on overall and cancer-specific mortality for individuals with schizophrenia and reviews specific disparities across the cancer care continuum of screening, diagnosis, treatment, and end-of-life care. Using a case, the authors illustrate clinical challenges for this population including communication, informed consent, and risk of suicide, and provide suggestions for care. Finally, recommendations for research to address the disparities in cancer care for individuals with schizophrenia are discussed. Despite significant challenges, with collaboration between oncology and mental health teams, individuals with schizophrenia can receive high-quality cancer care.
Wildiers, Hans; Heeren, Pieter; Puts, Martine; Topinkova, Eva; Janssen-Heijnen, Maryska L. G.; Extermann, Martine; Falandry, Claire; Artz, Andrew; Brain, Etienne; Colloca, Giuseppe; Flamaing, Johan; Karnakis, Theodora; Kenis, Cindy; Audisio, Riccardo A.; Mohile, Supriya; Repetto, Lazzaro; Van Leeuwen, Barbara; Milisen, Koen; Hurria, Arti
Purpose To update the International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG) 2005 recommendations on geriatric assessment (GA) in older patients with cancer. Methods SIOG composed a panel with expertise in geriatric oncology to develop consensus statements after literature review of key evidence on the
Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst; Sørensen, Jens Benn
Benefits and risks of computed tomography lung cancer screening are discussed with specific focus on oncologic and financial issues. Earlier disease stage at diagnosis implies that more patients are treated surgically, but the changes in oncologic treatment will not be dramatic. The crucial issue...
Wildiers, Hans; Heeren, Pieter; Puts, Martine; Topinkova, Eva; Janssen-Heijnen, Maryska L. G.; Extermann, Martine; Falandry, Claire; Artz, Andrew; Brain, Etienne; Colloca, Giuseppe; Flamaing, Johan; Karnakis, Theodora; Kenis, Cindy; Audisio, Riccardo A.; Mohile, Supriya; Repetto, Lazzaro; Van Leeuwen, Barbara; Milisen, Koen; Hurria, Arti
Purpose To update the International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG) 2005 recommendations on geriatric assessment (GA) in older patients with cancer. Methods SIOG composed a panel with expertise in geriatric oncology to develop consensus statements after literature review of key evidence on the
Full Text Available Terrah L Foster,1,2 Cynthia J Bell,1 Carey F McDonald,2 Joy S Harris,3 Mary Jo Gilmer,1,21Vanderbilt University School of Nursing, Nashville, 2Monroe Carell Jr Children's Hospital at Vanderbilt, Nashville, 3Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USAAbstract: Pediatric palliative care aims to enhance life and decrease suffering of children and adolescents living with life-threatening conditions and their loved ones. Oncology nurses are instrumental in providing palliative care to pediatric oncology populations. This paper describes pediatric palliative care and provides an overview of literature related to the physical, psychological, social, and spiritual domains of palliative nursing care for children and adolescents with cancer. Nurses can provide optimal palliative care by accounting for children's understanding of death, encouraging early initiation of palliative care services, and improving utilization of pediatric palliative care in cancer settings. Specific roles of registered nurses and advanced practice nurses in pediatric palliative care will be addressed. Recommendations for future research are made to further advance the science of pediatric palliative care and decrease suffering for children and teens with cancer.Keywords: pediatric palliative care, pediatric cancer, oncology, child, suffering
Brennan, Michael T.; Elting, Linda S.; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.
Oral complications are commonly experienced by patients undergoing cancer therapies. The Oral Care Study Group of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer/International Society of Oral Oncology (MASCC/ISOO) has completed nine systematic reviews including Bisphosphonate
Kessel, Kerstin A; Vogel, Marco Me; Schmidt-Graf, Friederike; Combs, Stephanie E
Mobile apps are an evolving trend in the medical field. To date, few apps in an oncological context exist. The aim was to analyze the attitude of health care professionals (HCPs) toward telemedicine, mHealth, and mobile apps in the field of oncology. We developed and conducted an online survey with 24 questions evaluating HCPs' general attitude toward telemedicine and patients using medical mobile apps. Specific questions on the possible functionality for patients and the resulting advantages and disadvantages for both the patients' and HCPs' daily clinical routine were evaluated. A total of 108 HCPs completed the survey. In all, 88.9% (96/108) considered telemedicine useful and 84.3% (91/108) supported the idea of an oncological app complementing classical treatment. Automatic reminders, timetables, and assessment of side effects and quality of life during therapy were rated as the most important functions. In contrast, uncertainty regarding medical responsibility and data privacy were reasons mostly named by critics. Most (64.8%, 70/108) were in favor of an alert function due to data input needing further clarification, and 94% (66/70) were willing to contact the patient after a critical alert. In all, 93.5% (101/108) supported the idea of using the collected data for scientific research. Moreover, 75.0% (81/108) believed establishing a mobile app could be beneficial for the providing hospital. A majority of HCPs are in favor of telemedicine and the use of oncological apps by patients. Assessing side effects can lead to quicker response and thus lower inconvenience for patients. Clinical data, such as life quality and treatment satisfaction, could be used to evaluate and improve the therapy workflow. Eventually, a mobile app would enhance the patients' relationship to their treating department because they are in permanent contact.
Noordman, J.; Driesenaar, J.A.; Henselmans, I.; Heijmans, M.; Verboom, J.; Dulmen, S. van
Objective: To enhance patient participation during (oncological) encounters, this study aims to gain insight into communication barriers and supportive interventions experienced by elderly patients with cancer. Method: A mixed method design, including both quantitative (secondary survey data
Ferreira, Carlos Gil; Achatz, Maria Isabel; Ashton-Prolla, Patricia; Begnami, Maria Dirlei; Marchini, Fabricio K; Stefani, Stephen Doral
A growing understanding of the molecular pathology of tumours combined with a surge of new drugs and associated diagnostic technologies (ie, precision medicine) has translated into substantial improvements in survival for patients with cancer. However, to achieve the promise that precision medicine has to offer will require overcoming hurdles within a national health-care system in which it is to be implemented. Brazil is one such nation, an emerging middle-income country with a very complex health-care system. To address the challenges associated with implementing precision medicine into a country such as Brazil, a group of experts convened (Nov 16-18, 2015, Miami) to discuss challenges related to precision medicine within an oncology setting. Complex regulatory hurdles, a shortage of human and technical resources, and the complexities of a two-tiered health-care delivery system were all identified as the main shortcomings to effectively implementing this new field of medicine. A path forward was proposed that relies on active collaboration between clinicians, private organisations, and government. It seems entirely possible that, despite many intrinsic economic and political problems, Brazil can readily emerge as a model for other countries in Latin America for the potential benefits of precision medicine and companion diagnostics.
Lopez-Acevedo, Micael; Lowery, William J; Lowery, Ashlei W; Lee, Paula S; Havrilesky, Laura J
Despite the increasing availability of palliative care, oncology providers often misunderstand and underutilize these resources. The goals of palliative care are relief of suffering and provision of the best possible quality of life for both the patient and her family, regardless of where she is in the natural history of her disease. Lack of understanding and awareness of the services provided by palliative care physicians underlie barriers to referral. Oncologic providers spend a significant amount of time palliating the symptoms of cancer and its treatment; involvement of specialty palliative care providers can assist in managing the complex patient. Patients with gynecologic malignancies remain an ideal population for palliative care intervention. This review of the literature explores the current state of palliative care in the treatment of gynecologic cancers and its implications for the quality and cost of this treatment.
Brown, E; Gorman, D; Knowles, G; Taylor, F; Jere, Y; Bates, J; Masamba, L
In response to the growing incidence of cancer in Malawi, a new oncology unit was established at the Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre. The unit opened in 2010, the first in the country, and is led by a single consultant oncologist. In 2012, a healthcare partnership was formed between the oncology and palliative care unit at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital and the Edinburgh Cancer Centre, UK. The principal objective of the partnership is to help develop high quality multidisciplinary cancer care in Malawi. Methods A needs assessment identified three priority areas for further improvement of cancer services: nurse-led treatment delivery; management of clinical data; and multidisciplinary working. The partnership received grant funding from the Scottish Government Malawi Development Programme in 2013 and a three year project plan was implemented. This has been conducted through a series of reciprocal training visits. Results Key achievements have been completion of a programme of oncology nursing education attended by 32 oncology nurses and other healthcare professionals, which has resulted in increased experience in cancer practice and standardisation of chemotherapy delivery procedures; development of a clinical database that enables prospective collection of data of all new patients with cancer and which links to the Malawi Cancer Registry; development of weekly multidisciplinary meetings involving oncology, gynaecology and surgery that has enabled a cross-specialty approach to patient care. Conclusion The Edinburgh Malawi Cancer Partnership is supporting nursing education, data use and cross-specialty collaboration that we are confident will improve cancer care in Malawi. Future work will focus on the further development of multidisciplinary breast cancer care and the development of a radiotherapy service for patients in Malawi.
Poder, Thomas G; Lemieux, Renald
The effects of cancer and associated treatments have a considerable impact on the well-being and quality of life of pediatric oncology patients. To support children and their families, complementary and alternative medicines are seen by nurses and doctors as practical to integrate to the services offered by hospitals. The purpose of this paper is to examine if the practice of complementary and alternative medicine, specifically spiritual care and treatments based on body manipulation, is likely to improve the health and well-being of children suffering from cancer. This objective is achieved through a systematic review of the literature. The level of evidence associated with each practice of complementary and alternative medicine was assessed according to the methodological design used by the studies reviewed. Studies reviewed are of a methodological quality that could be described as fair due to the small sample size of patients and the existence of a number of biases in the conduct and analysis of these studies. However, results obtained are consistent from one study to another, allowing us to make certain recommendations. It is thus advisable to consider the introduction of hypnotherapy in pediatric oncology services. Based on the data collected, it is the complementary and alternative medicine with the most evidence in favor of effectiveness of the well-being of pediatric oncology patients, especially during painful procedures. It is also recommended to use art therapy and music therapy. Conversely, too little evidence is present to be able to recommend the use of acupuncture, chiropractic or osteopathy.
Cancer, poverty and human development: challenges for nursing care in oncology Cáncer, pobreza y desarrollo humano: desafios para la atención en enfermería oncológica Câncer, pobreza e desenvolvimento humano: desafios para a assistência de enfermagem em oncologia
Maria de Fátima Batalha de Menezes
Full Text Available This is a reflection on poverty, human development and their interfaces with Oncology Nursing Care. Objectives: identify the prevailing types of cancer per region; point the challenges posed to nursing care; discuss the possibilities for Oncology Nursing actions in this context. In light of the demographic, epidemiologic and socio-cultural distribution of cancer in Brazil, a systematic articulation of the Oncology care, in situations of poverty and of low human development, represents a challenge for Nursing, as the necessary actions for prevention, early detection, treatment, and rehabilitation, range from low to high complexity. This conception opens the possibility of meeting this population's diverse demands made to the specialized services in Oncology, which are not restricted only to the antineoplastic treatment access, but include needs inherent to socio-economic-cultural factors.Una reflexión sobre el problema de la pobreza, el desarrollo humano y su relación con la atención de Enfermería Oncológica. Objetivos: identificar los principales tipos de cáncer por región; señalar los desafíos para la atención de enfermería; discutir las posibilidades de actuación de enfermería oncológica en este contexto. Considerando la distribución demográfica, epidemiológica y sociocultural del cáncer en Brasil, articular de manera sistemática el cuidado de oncología en situaciones de pobreza y de escaso desarrollo humano. Esta operación constituye un desafío para la enfermería, ya que las acciones necesarias para la prevención, detección temprana, tratamiento y rehabilitación, van desde baja hasta alta complejidad. En esta concepción, se abre la posibilidad de atender a las demandas de la población, que llega hasta los servicios especializados de oncología con una diversidad de necesidades, que no se encuentran restringidas al tratamiento antineoplásico, pero también abarcan una serie de carencias inherentes a los factores
Waters, Teresa M; Webster, Jennifer A; Stevens, Laura A; Li, Tao; Kaplan, Cameron M; Graetz, Ilana; McAneny, Barbara L
Although the patient-centered medical home is a well-established model of care for primary care providers, adoption by specialty providers has been relatively limited. Recently, there has been particular interest in developing specialty medical homes in medical oncology because of practice variation, care fragmentation, and high overall costs of care. In 2012, the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation awarded Innovative Oncology Business Solutions a 3-year grant for their Community Oncology Medical Home (COME HOME) program to implement specialty medical homes in seven oncology practices across the country. We report our early experience and lessons learned.Through September 30, 2014, COME HOME has touched 16,353 unique patients through triage encounters, patient education visits, or application of clinical pathways. We describe the COME HOME model and implementation timeline, profile use of key services, and report patient satisfaction. Using feedback from practice sites, we highlight patient-centered innovations and overall lessons learned.COME HOME incorporates best practices care driven by triage and clinical pathways, team-based care, active disease management, enhanced access and care, as well as financial support for the medical home infrastructure. Information technology plays a central role, supporting both delivery of care and performance monitoring. Volume of service use has grown steadily over time, leveling out in second quarter 2014. The program currently averages 1,265 triage encounters, 440 extended hours visits, and 655 patient education encounters per month.COME HOME offers a patient-centered model of care to improve quality and continuity of care. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Hansson, Helena; Hallström, Inger; Kjaergaard, Hanne
Hospital-based home care (HBHC) is widely applied in Pediatric Oncology. We reviewed the potential effect of HBHC on children's physical health and risk of adverse events, parental and child satisfaction, quality of life of children and their parents, and costs. A search of PubMed, CINAHL...... for children with cancer....
As the leading organization representing cancer specialists involved in patient care and clinical research, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) reaffirms its commitment to integrating cancer risk assessment and management, including molecular analysis of cancer predisposition genes, into the practice of oncology and preventive medicine. The primary goal of this effort is to foster expanded access to, and continued advances in, medical care provided to patients and families affected by hereditary cancer syndromes. The 1996 ASCO Statement on Genetic Testing for Cancer Susceptibility set forth specific recommendations relating to clinical practice, research needs, educational opportunities, requirement for informed consent, indications for genetic testing, regulation of laboratories, and protection from discrimination, as well as access to and reimbursement for cancer genetics services. In updating this Statement, ASCO endorses the following principles: Indications for Genetic Testing: ASCO recommends that genetic testing be offered when 1) the individual has personal or family history features suggestive of a genetic cancer susceptibility condition, 2) the test can be adequately interpreted, and 3) the results will aid in diagnosis or influence the medical or surgical management of the patient or family members at hereditary risk of cancer. ASCO recommends that genetic testing only be done in the setting of pre- and post-test counseling, which should include discussion of possible risks and benefits of cancer early detection and prevention modalities. Special Issues in Testing Children for Cancer Susceptibility: ASCO recommends that the decision to offer testing to potentially affected children should take into account the availability of evidence-based risk-reduction strategies and the probability of developing a malignancy during childhood. Where risk-reduction strategies are available or cancer predominantly develops in childhood, ASCO believes that
Bakitas, Marie; Lyons, Kathleen Doyle; Hegel, Mark T; Ahles, Tim
The purpose of this study was to understand oncology clinicians' perspectives about the care of advanced cancer patients following the completion of the ENABLE II (Educate, Nurture, Advise, Before Life Ends) randomized clinical trial (RCT) of a concurrent oncology palliative care model. This was a qualitative interview study of 35 oncology clinicians about their approach to patients with advanced cancer and the effect of the ENABLE II RCT. Oncologists believed that integrating palliative care at the time of an advanced cancer diagnosis enhanced patient care and complemented their practice. Self-assessment of their practice with advanced cancer patients comprised four themes: (1) treating the whole patient, (2) focusing on quality versus quantity of life, (3) “some patients just want to fight,” and (4) helping with transitions; timing is everything. Five themes comprised oncologists' views on the complementary role of palliative care: (1) “refer early and often,” (2) referral challenges: “Palliative” equals “hospice”; “Heme patients are different,” (3) palliative care as consultants or co-managers, (4) palliative care “shares the load,” and (5) ENABLE II facilitated palliative care integration. Oncologists described the RCT as holistic and complementary, and as a significant factor in adopting concurrent care as a standard of care.
Corrigan, Dale M; Walker, Mary P; Liu, Ying; Mitchell, Tanya Villalpando
The purpose of this study was to identify predictors and/or factors associated with medically compromised patients seeking dental care in the oncology dental support clinic (ODSC) at the University of Missouri-Kansas City (UMKC) School of Dentistry. An 18-item survey was mailed to 2,541 patients who were new patients to the clinic from 2006 to 2011. The response rate was approximately 18% (n = 450). Analyses included descriptive statistics of percentages/frequencies as well as predictors based on correlations. Fifty percent of participants, 100 females and 119 males, identified their primary medical diagnosis as cancer. Total household income (p dental care (p dental health. Perceived overall health (p < .001) also had a significant association with cancer status and the need for organ transplants. This study provided the ODSC at UMKC and other specialty clinics with vital information that can contribute to future planning efforts.
Lemonde, Manon; Payman, Naghmeh
The Canadian Association of Nurses in Oncology (CANO) Standards of Care (2001) provides a framework that delineates oncology nursing roles and responsibilities. The purpose of this study was to explore how oncology nurses perceive their roles and responsibilities compared to the CANO Standards of Care. Six focus groups were conducted and 21 registered nurses (RNs) from a community-based hospital participated in this study. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative inductive content analysis. Three themes were identified: (1) Oncology nurses perceive a gap between their defined roles and the reality of daily practice, as cancer care becomes more complex and as they provide advanced oncology care to more patients while there is no parallel adaptation to the health care system to support them, such as safe staffing; (2) Oncology nursing, as a specialty, requires sustained professional development and leadership roles; and (3) Oncology nurses are committed to providing continuous care as a reference point in the health care team by fostering interdisciplinary collaboration andfacilitating patient's navigation through the system. Organizational support through commitment to appropriate staffing and matching scope ofpractice to patient needs may lead to maximize the health and well-being of nurses, quality of patient care and organizational performance.
Dancik, Garrett M.; Theodorescu, Dan
Summary Sir William Osler has been quoted as saying “If it were not for the great variability among individuals, medicine might as well be a science and not an art”. Molecular profiles, be they host or those providing insight into the genomic changes that define a cancerous cell, together possess the predictive ability required for the various aspects of individualized care: risk assessment, patient prognosis, and prediction of therapeutic responses. Such profiles, obtained by RNA, DNA and protein microarrays, SNP arrays, methylation screens, and high throughput or targeted gene sequencing can provide patient- and tumor-specific information that details the biological complexity of a particular cancer and can be exploited to understand its clinical implications and glean therapeutic insights. This knowledge is also being combined with host factors to begin formulating an understanding at the system level of how the tumor interacts with the host and how this relationship can be exploited therapeutically or for biomarker development. Here we discuss these advances and how they may relate to urologic oncology. PMID:22489325
Boucher, Jean; Habin, Karleen; Underhill, Meghan
Cancer genetics and genomics are rapidly evolving, with new discoveries emerging in genetic mutations, variants, genomic sequencing, risk-reduction methods, and targeted therapies. To educate patients and families, state-of-the-art care requires nurses to understand terminology, scientific and technological advances, and pharmacogenomics. Clinical application of cancer genetics and genomics involves working in interdisciplinary teams to properly identify patient risk through assessing family history, facilitating genetic testing and counseling services, applying risk-reduction methods, and administering and monitoring targeted therapies.
Halperin, Edward C
Paleo-oncology is the study of carcinomas and sarcomas in ancient human populations and their hominid precursors. These populations are informative concerning the possible influences on cancer of morphologic and functional evolution, diet, lifestyle, and other environmental factors. The prevalence of cancer in ancient populations might have differed from that in modern humans, because of substantial differences in tobacco and alcohol use, diet, life expectancy, and the availability of treatment. The available physical data concerning cancer in antiquity includes evidence of its existence in animal fossils and ancient humans and their precursors. The difficulties of paleo-oncologic research include a limited soft tissue record. In evaluating cancer in ancient remains, one must also deal with the problem of pseudopathology: whether an observed tissue change is all antemortem pathologic lesion or a postmortem artifact. Future archeological discoveries and the application of improved diagnostic techniques may enable paleo-oncology to make further contributions to our understanding of cancer.
Full Text Available Aims: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the factors influencing nurse-patient communication in cancer care in Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted with a qualitative conventional content analysis approach in oncology wards of hospitals in Tabriz. Data was collected through purposive sampling by semi-structured deep interviews with nine patients, three family members and five nurses and analyzed simultaneously. Robustness of data analysis was evaluated by the participants and external control. Results: The main theme of the research emerged as "three-factor effects" that demonstrates all the factors related to the patient, nurse, and the organization and includes three categories of "Patient as the center of communication", "Nurse as a human factor", and "Organizational structures". The first category consists of two sub-categories of "Imposed changes by the disease" and "the patient′s particular characteristics". The second category includes sub-categories of "sense of vulnerability" and "perception of professional self: Pre-requisite of patient-centered communication". The third category consists of the sub-categories of "workload and time imbalance", "lack of supervision", and "impose duties in context of neglecting nurse and patient needs". Characteristics of the patients, nurses, and care environment seemed to be the influential factors on the communication. Conclusions: In order to communicate with cancer patients effectively, changes in philosophy and culture of the care environment are essential. Nurses must receive proper trainings which meet their needs and which focus on holistic and patient-centered approach.
Buswell, Lori A; Ponte, Patricia Reid; Shulman, Lawrence N
Physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants often work in teams to deliver cancer care in ambulatory oncology practices. This is likely to become more prevalent as the demand for oncology services rises, and the number of providers increases only slightly.
Teshima, Teruki; Numasaki, Hodaka; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Nishio, Masamichi; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Ito, Hisao; Sekiguchi, Kenji; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Koizumi, Masahiko; Tago, Masao; Nagata, Yasushi; Masaki, Hidekazu; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Yamada, Shogo
To evaluate the structure of radiation oncology in Japan in terms of equipment, personnel, patient load, and geographic distribution to identify and improve any deficiencies. A questionnaire-based national structure survey was conducted between March 2006 and February 2007 by the Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. These data were analyzed in terms of the institutional stratification of the Patterns of Care Study. The total numbers of new cancer patients and total cancer patients (new and repeat) treated with radiotherapy in 2005 were estimated at approximately 162,000 and 198,000, respectively. In actual use were 765 linear accelerators, 11 telecobalt machines, 48 GammaKnife machines, 64 60Co remote-controlled after-loading systems, and 119 192Ir remote-controlled after-loading systems. The linear accelerator systems used dual-energy function in 498 systems (65%), three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in 462 (60%), and intensity-modulated radiotherapy in 170 (22%). There were 426 Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology-certified radiation oncologists, 774 full-time equivalent radiation oncologists, 117 medical physicists, and 1,635 radiation therapists. Geographically, a significant variation was found in the use of radiotherapy, from 0.9 to 2.1 patients/1,000 population. The annual patient load/FTE radiation oncologist was 247, exceeding the Blue Book guidelines level. Patterns of Care Study stratification can clearly discriminate the maturity of structures according to their academic nature and caseload. The Japanese structure has clearly improved during the past 15 years in terms of equipment and its use, although the shortage of manpower and variations in maturity disclosed by this Patterns of Care Study stratification remain problematic. These constitute the targets for nationwide improvement in quality assurance and quality control.
Full Text Available Aims: To analyze the impact of two cancer support groups in the treatment and abandonment of childhood cancer. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective review of children with cancer funded and non-funded who were treated at Kanchi Kamakoti CHILDS Trust Hospital from 2010 to 2013. A total of 100 patients were funded, 57 by Ray of Light Foundation and 43 by Pediatric Lymphoma Project and 70 non-funded. Results: The total current survival of 80%, including those who have completed treatment and those currently undergoing treatment, is comparable in both the groups. Abandonment of treatment after initiating therapy was not seen in the financially supported group whereas abandonment of treatment after initiation was seen in one child in the non-funded group. Conclusions: Besides intensive treatment with good supportive care, financial support also has an important impact on compliance and abandonment in all socioeconomic strata of society. Financial support from private cancer support groups also has its impact beyond the patient and family, in reducing the burden on government institutions by non-governmental funding in private sector. Improvement in the delivery of pediatric oncology care in developing countries could be done by financial support from the private sector.
Wessels, H.; Wynia, K.; Sixma, H.J.; de Heus, M.; Schipper, M.; Woltjer, G.T.; Teunissen, S.C.; Voest, E.E.
Patients and methods: Items were generated using 10 focus group interviews with 51 cancer patients. A preliminary questionnaire was handed out to 681 patients of seven Dutch departments of medical oncology. Explorative factor analysis was carried out on the 386 returned questionnaires (response 57%)
As cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide, every nurse will be required to care for patients with the condition at some point in his\\/her career. However, non-specialized oncology nurses are often ill-prepared to nurse patients suffering from cancer. This literature review aims to provide an overview of current trends and developments in cancer care nursing in an attempt to identify the range of previous research pertaining to caring for patients with cancer on non-specialist wards. The review finds that non-specialized cancer nurses report a lack of education and training with regard to cancer care and cancer treatments, which acts as a barrier to providing quality nursing care. Emotional and communication issues with patients and their families can also cause non-specialist nurses significant distress. International research has shown that specialist oncology nurses make a considerable difference to physical and psychosocial patient care. It is therefore paramount that non-speciality nurses\\' educational needs are met to develop clinical competence and to provide supportive holistic care for both patients and their families.
Love, R R; Stone, H L; Hughes, B
In response to increased public interest in cancer prevention and rapidly escalating health care costs, the National Cancer Institute supported the development of cancer prevention courses for health professionals. A multidisciplinary group of physicians, behavioral scientists, and educators developed, field-tested, revised, and evaluated a 12-module, 24-classroom-hour clinical preventive oncology course for primary care physicians. A rationale for education in cancer prevention is presented, the new clinical discipline of preventive oncology is defined, and contributory disciplines are identified. A curriculum based upon detailed learning objectives is described, short-term evaluation data are presented, and a methodology for incorporating a didactic course into a residency program is suggested. The positive reception given to this course by residents warrants optimism concerning application of a biopsychosocial or self-regulative model rather than the traditional biomedical one to clinical medicine and its teaching.
The purpose of this quantitative correlation study was to examine the predictors of user behavioral intention on the decision of oncology care providers to adopt or reject the clinical decision support system. The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) formed the foundation of the research model and survey instrument. The…
The purpose of this quantitative correlation study was to examine the predictors of user behavioral intention on the decision of oncology care providers to adopt or reject the clinical decision support system. The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) formed the foundation of the research model and survey instrument. The…
Elad, Sharon; Raber-Durlacher, Judith E; Brennan, Michael T;
PURPOSE: Hematology-oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients are at risk for oral complications which may cause significant morbidity and a potential risk of mortality. This emphasizes the importance of basic oral care prior to, during...
Pasquali, S; Sommariva, A; Spillane, A J; Bilimoria, K Y; Rossi, C R
In an attempt to ensure high standards of cancer care, there is increasing interest in determining and monitoring the quality of interventions in surgical oncology. In recent years, this has been particularly the case for melanoma surgery. The vast majority of patients with melanoma undergo surgery. Usually, this is with combinations of wide excision, sentinel lymph node biopsy and lymphadenectomy. The indications for these procedures evolved during a time when no effective systemic adjuvant therapy was available, and whilst the rationale has been sound, the justification for differences in extent and thoroughness has generally been supported by inadequate or low-level evidence. This has led to a substantial variation among melanoma centres or even among surgeons within a centre in how these procedures are done. With recent rapid progress in the efficacy of systemic treatments that are impacting on overall survival, the prospect of long-term survival in these previously high risk patients means that more than ever long-term locoregional control of melanoma is imperative. Furthermore, the understanding of effects of systemic therapy on locoregional disease will only be interpretable if surgeons use standardized, high quality techniques. This article focuses on standardization and evolution of quality indicators for melanoma surgery and how these might have a positive impact on patient care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ the Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.
Horlait, M; Van Belle, S; Leys, M
Palliative care is considered an integral part of oncology and communicating this with patients is an unavoidable task for oncologists. This contribution investigated to what extent communication skills for communicating palliative care with patients are trained in the formal academic training program in medical oncology in Flanders, Belgium. The programme is based on the recommendations for a Global Core Curriculum in Medical Oncology, developed by The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) together with the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO). For this qualitative study, data were collected using document analysis from the ESMO/ASCO recommendations and the documents of the Flanders' medical oncology programme complemented with interviews with Flemish medical oncology trainees. Few recommendations for training communication skills to communicate about palliative care were found in the ASMO/ASCO recommendations and even less in the Flanders' programme documents. Trainees are mainly exposed to palliative care communication during the clinical practice of their training. Only very few lectures or seminars are devoted to palliative care and even less on communication about palliative care. They reported several barriers to communicate about palliative care. This study revealed promising developments for the training of Flemish medical oncologists to discuss palliative care. However, there is still a need for more theoretical training on palliative care complemented with communication skills trainings. Communication training in general needs to be fully integrated as a core skill within the medical curriculum at large and should be promoted as lifelong learning and competency development.
L. M. Aleksandrova
Full Text Available Malignant neoplasms (MN are the second cause of death for the population of Russia, resulted in 15.5% of all deaths in 2015. Their share in the structure of the male population mortality rate was 16.4%, female — 14.4%. Among both sexes, deaths of working age, the proportion of deaths from MN was 16.0%, among women of reproductive age — 16.3%. More than half of the working age population of deaths in Russia falls on the disease from the group of preventable death, and a third — to preventable causes, depending on the primary and secondary prevention, quality of care, along with a high prevalence of behavioral risk factors (RF, demographic characteristics, marked medical and social reasons for the high mortality rate of the MN: late uptake of the population for health care, lack of alertness in oncology healthcare professionals, patients defects in routing.The leading factor in increasing life expectancy is prevention. Today, prevention is regarded as active method of strengthening and preservation of health, and the currently existing approaches in promoting healthy life mostly only directed at the prevention of behavioral risk factors: tobacco use, poor diet, physical inactivity and harmful use of alcohol. Experts estimate the impact on them will prevent, at least 40% of the cases of MN.In Russia we have a 3-step system of health care. In general preventive health orientation is implemented on the 1st level: in the provision of primary health care. In this regard, particular attention should be paid to the implementation of measures for specific clinical examination of the adult population, which plays an important role in the early detection of both the disease and the risk factors for their development. Properly organized conduct of the clinical examination can provide a substantial, up to 30%, the contribution to the reduction of total mortality, including mortality from MN. The necessity of increasing the role of the oncology service
Taylor, Jolyn S; Brown, Alaina J; Prescott, Lauren S; Sun, Charlotte C; Ramondetta, Lois M; Bodurka, Diane C
To identify disparities in utilization of end of life (EoL) resources by gynecologic oncology (GO) patients. This retrospective analysis of the medical records of GO patients treated 1/2007-12/2011 and deceased 1/2012-8/2014 evaluated patient demographics, disease characteristics, and utilization of EoL resources. Chi-square, Fisher's exact test, Mann Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for statistical analysis. Of 189 patients analyzed, 113 (60%) were white, 38 (20%) Hispanic, 31 (16%) black, and seven (4%) Asian. Ninety-five (48%) had ovarian cancer, 51 (26%) uterine, 47 (23%) cervical, seven (3%) vulvar/vaginal. In the last 30days of life (DoL), 18 (10%) had multiple hospital admissions, 10 (5%) admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), 30 (16%) multiple Emergency Room (ER) visits, 45 (24%) received aggressive medical care and eight (4%) received chemotherapy in the final 14 DoL. Furthermore, 54 (29%) had no Supportive Care referral and 29 (15%) no hospice referral. Only 46 (24%) had a Medical Power of Attorney (PoA) or Living Will (LW) on file. Non-white race was associated with increased odds of dying without hospice (OR 3.07; 95%CI [1.27, 2.46], p=0.013). However, non-white patients who enrolled in hospice did so earlier than white patients (42 v. 27days before death, p=0.054). Non-white patients were also significantly less likely to have PoA/LW documentation (24% v. 76%, p=0.009) even if enrolled in hospice (12% v. 31%, p=0.007). Significant racial disparities in hospice enrollment and PoA/LW documentation were seen in GO patients. This warrants further study to identify barriers to use of EoL resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Valdagni, Riccardo; Scardino, Peter T; Denis, Louis
The European School of Oncology (ESO) Inside Track Conference, "Predictive Modeling in Prostate Cancer," the first event ever dedicated to prediction in prostate cancer, was organized in collaboration with the Prostate Program of Milan National Cancer Institute and the American Italian Cancer Foundation in the wonderful scenario of the Excelsior Lido Hotel in Venice on April 17 through 19, 2008. More than 240 participants from 23 countries attended this 3-day conference, which convened an exceptional group of experts from all over the world whose presentations provided a framework for understanding the state of the art in predictive modeling of prostate cancer and displayed future research trends in the uro-oncologic community. Cancer 2009;115(13 suppl):3035-8. (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.
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Poplack, David G; Fordis, Michael; Landier, Wendy; Bhatia, Smita; Hudson, Melissa M; Horowitz, Marc E
Survivors of childhood cancer are at risk of long-term adverse effects and late effects of the disease and/or its treatment. In response to national recommendations to improve evidence-based follow-up care, a web-based support system for clinical decision making, the Passport for Care (PFC), was developed for use at the point of care to produce screening recommendations individualized to the survivor. To date, the PFC has been implemented in over half of the nearly 200 clinics affiliated with the Children's Oncology Group across the USA. Most clinician users report that the PFC has been integrated into clinic workflows, and that it fosters improved conversations with survivors about the potential late effects a survivor might experience and about the screening and/or behavioural interventions recommended to improve health status. Furthermore, clinicians using the PFC have indicated that they adhered more closely to follow-up care guidelines. Perspectives on the challenges encountered and lessons learned during the development and deployment of the PFC are reviewed and contrasted with other nationwide approaches to the provision of guidance on survivor follow-up care; furthermore, the implications for the care of childhood cancer survivors are discussed.
Siegel, Robert D.; Castro, Kathleen M.; Eisenstein, Jana; Stallings, Holley; Hegedus, Patricia D.; Bryant, Donna M.; Kadlubek, Pam J.; Clauser, Steven B.
Purpose: The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Community Cancer Centers Program (NCCCP) began in 2007; it is a network of community-based hospitals funded by the NCI. Quality of care is an NCCCP priority, with participation in the American Society of Clinical Oncology Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI) playing a fundamental role in quality assessment and quality improvement (QI) projects. Using QOPI methodology, performance on quality measures was analyzed two times per year over a 3-year period to enhance our implementation of quality standards at NCCCP hospitals. Methods: A data-sharing agreement allowed individual-practice QOPI data to be electronically sent to the NCI. Aggregated data with the other NCCCP QOPI participants were presented to the network via Webinars. The NCCCP Quality of Care Subcommittee selected areas in which to focus subsequent QI efforts, and high-performing practices shared voluntarily their QI best practices with the network. Results: QOPI results were compiled semiannually between fall 2010 and fall 2013. The network concentrated on measures with a quality score of ≤ 0.75 and planned voluntary group-wide QI interventions. We identified 13 measures in which the NCCCP fell at or below the designated quality score in fall 2010. After implementing a variety of QI initiatives, the network registered improvements in all parameters except one (use of treatment summaries). Conclusion: Using the NCCCP as a paradigm, QOPI metrics provide a useful platform for group-wide measurement of quality performance. In addition, these measurements can be used to assess the effectiveness of QI initiatives. PMID:25538082
Odeniyi, Folasade; Nathanson, Pamela G; Schall, Theodore E; Walter, Jennifer K
The families of oncology patients requiring intensive care often face increasing complexity in communication with their providers, particularly when patients are cared for by providers from different disciplines. To describe experiences and challenges faced by pediatric oncologists and intensivists and how the oncologist-intensivist relationship impacts communication and initiation of goals of care discussions (GCDs). We conducted semi-structured interviews with a convenience sample of ten physicians, including pediatric oncology and intensive care attendings and fellows. We identified key themes (3 barriers, 4 facilitators) to having GCDs with families of oncology patients who have received intensive care. Barriers included challenges to communication within teams because of hierarchy and between teams due to incomplete sharing of information and confusion about who should initiate GCDs; provider experiences of internal conflict about how to engage parents in decision making and about the "right thing to do" for patients; and lack of education and training in communication. Facilitators included team preparation for family meetings; skills for partnering with families; the presence of palliative care specialists; and informal education in communication and willingness for further training in communication. Notably, the education theme was identified as both a barrier and a resource. We identified barriers to communication with families both within and between teams and for individual physicians. Formal communication training and processes that standardize communication to ensure completeness and role delineation between clinical teams may improve oncologists' and intensivists' ability to initiate GCDs, thereby fulfilling their ethical obligations of decision support. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Manley, Stephen, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Last, Andrew; Fu, Kenneth; Greenham, Stuart; Kovendy, Andrew; Shakespeare, Thomas P [North Coast Cancer Institute, Lismore, New South Wales (Australia)
Radiation Oncology Practice Standards have been developed over the last 10 years and were published for use in Australia in 2011. Although the majority of the radiation oncology community supports the implementation of the standards, there has been no mechanism for uniform assessment or governance. North Coast Cancer Institute's public radiation oncology service is provided across three main service centres on the north coast of NSW. With a strong focus on quality management, we embraced the opportunity to demonstrate conformity with the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards. The Local Health District's Clinical Governance units were engaged to perform assessments of our conformity with the standards and this was signed off as complete on 16 December 2013. The process of demonstrating conformity with the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards has enhanced the culture of quality in our centres. We have demonstrated that self-assessment utilising trained auditors is a viable method for centres to demonstrate conformity. National implementation of the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards will benefit individual centres and the broader radiation oncology community to improve the service delivered to our patients.
Walsh, Karin S; Noll, Robert B; Annett, Robert D; Patel, Sunita K; Patenaude, Andrea F; Embry, Leanne
As the mortality of pediatric cancers has decreased, focus on neuropsychological morbidities of treatment sequelae have increased. Neuropsychological evaluations are essential diagnostic tools that assess cognitive functioning and neurobiological integrity. These tests provide vital information to support ongoing medical care, documenting cognitive morbidity and response to interventions. We frame standards for neuropsychological monitoring of pediatric patients with CNS malignancy or who received cancer-directed therapies involving the CNS and discuss billing for these services in the United States in the context of clinical research. We describe a cost-effective, efficient model of neuropsychological monitoring that may increases access to neuropsychological care.
Harten, van W.H.; Stanta, G.; Bussolati, G.; Riegman, P.; Hoefler, G.; Becker, K.F.; Folprecht, G.; Truini, M.; Haybaeck, J.; Buiga, R.; Dono, M.; Bagg, A.; Lopez Guerrero, J.A.; Zupo, S.; Lemare, F.; Lorenzo, de F.; Goedbloed, N.; Razavi, D.; Lovey, J.; Cadariu, P.A.; Rollandi, G.A.; Paparo, F.; Pierotti, M.; Ciuleanu, T.; de Paoli, P.; Weiner, G.; Saghatchian, M.; Lombardo, Claudio
The 2014 OECI Oncology Days was held at the ‘Prof. Dr. Ion Chiricuta’ Oncology Institute in Cluj, Romania, from 12 to 13 June. The focus of this year’s gathering was on developments in personalised medicine and other treatment advances which have made the cost of cancer care too high for many region
Komiyama, Shinichi; Katabuchi, Hidetaka; Mikami, Mikio; Nagase, Satoru; Okamoto, Aikou; Ito, Kiyoshi; Morishige, Kenichiro; Suzuki, Nao; Kaneuchi, Masanori; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Udagawa, Yasuhiro; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki
The fourth edition of the Japan Society of Gynecologic Oncology guidelines for the treatment of ovarian cancer including primary peritoneal cancer and fallopian tube cancer was published in 2015. The guidelines contain seven chapters and six flow charts. The major changes in this new edition are as follows-(1) the format has been changed from reviews to clinical questions (CQ), and the guidelines for optimal clinical practice in Japan are now shown as 41 CQs and answers; (2) the 'flow charts' have been improved and placed near the beginning of the guidelines; (3) the 'basic points', including tumor staging, histological classification, surgical procedures, chemotherapy, and palliative care, are described before the chapter; (4) the FIGO surgical staging of ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer, and primary peritoneal cancer was revised in 2014 and the guideline has been revised accordingly to take the updated version of this classification into account; (5) the procedures for examination and management of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer are described; (6) information on molecular targeting therapy has been added; (7) guidelines for the treatment of recurrent cancer based on tumor markers alone are described, as well as guidelines for providing hormone replacement therapy after treatment.
Shannahoff-Khalsa, David S
The ancient system of Kundalini Yoga (KY) includes a vast array of meditation techniques. Some were discovered to be specific for treating psychiatric disorders and others are supposedly beneficial for treating cancers. To date, 2 clinical trials have been conducted for treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The first was an open uncontrolled trial and the second a single-blinded randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing a KY protocol against the Relaxation Response and Mindfulness Meditation (RRMM) techniques combined. Both trials showed efficacy on all psychological scales using the KY protocol; however, the RCT showed no efficacy on any scale with the RRMM control group. The KY protocol employed an OCD-specific meditation technique combined with other techniques that are individually specific for anxiety, low energy, fear, anger, meeting mental challenges, and turning negative thoughts into positive thoughts. In addition to OCD symptoms, other symptoms, including anxiety and depression, were also significantly reduced. Elements of the KY protocol other than the OCD-specific technique also may have applications for psycho-oncology patients and are described here. Two depression-specific KY techniques are described that also help combat mental fatigue and low energy. A 7-part protocol is described that would be used in KY practice to affect the full spectrum of emotions and distress that complicate a cancer diagnosis. In addition, there are KY techniques that practitioners have used in treating cancer. These techniques have not yet been subjected to formal clinical trials but are described here as potential adjunctive therapies. A case history demonstrating rapid onset of acute relief of intense fear in a terminal breast cancer patient using a KY technique specific for fear is presented. A second case history is reported for a surviving male diagnosed in 1988 with terminal prostate cancer who has used KY therapy long term as part of a self
Broom, Alex; Doron, Assa; Tovey, Philip
India has an eclectic health system that incorporates biomedical as well as traditional, complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM). Our understanding of the co-existence of these therapeutic modalities in this diverse, postcolonial and developing nation is extremely limited, and in the context of cancer care, to our knowledge no sociological work has been carried out. Contemporary Indian oncology represents a fascinating site for examining the interplay and articulation of forms of tradition/modernity, economic progress/structural constraint and individual beliefs/cultural norms. In a context of an increase in the prevalence and impact of cancer in an ageing Indian population, this paper reports on a qualitative investigation of a group of oncology clinicians' accounts of 'pluralism' in India. The results illustrate the embeddedness of patient disease and therapeutic trajectories in vast social inequalities and, indeed, the intermingling of therapeutic pluralism and the politics of social value. We conclude that notions of pluralism, so often espoused by global health organisations, may conceal important forms of social inequality and cultural divides, and that sociologists should play a critical role in highlighting these issues.
Gosselin, Tracy K; Ireland, Anne M; Newton, Susie; O'Leary, Colleen
Our commitment to advancing nursing practice and quality care for our patients must be at the forefront of our minds. Nursing's role in designing and implementing new innovations is integral to the advancement of healthcare delivery across the country.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Caring is the essence of nursing. Caring to be meaningful needs to be based on mutual agreement between nurses and patients as to what constitutes nurse caring behaviors. As a result, healthcare professional can enhance patients' satisfaction of care by providing appropriate caring behavior. However, previous research that combined multiple types of patients, nurses and institutions demonstrated disagreement in prioritizing important behaviors. This paper reports a study that aimed at determining the caring behaviors which oncology patients and oncology nurses perceive to be the most important. Methods This study is a comparative descriptive design that was conducted in an Iranian oncology centre. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 200 patients and 40 nurses to take part in the study. Data were collected over a period of 4 months in 2009 using the Caring Assessment Questionnaire, developed by Larson. Caring behaviors (n = 57 were ranked on a 5-point Likert-type scale and ordered in six subscales: "Being accessible", "Explains and facilitates", "Comforts", "Anticipates", "Trusting relationship", "Monitors and follows through". The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 13.0. The overall mean was calculated for each subscale to determine the rank distribution of the subscales. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test analysis of variables was used to compare patients' and nurses' scores on subscales. Results The results demonstrate that both groups considered the same order of importance of caring, the high ranking of "Monitors and Follows through and "Being Accessible" and the low ranking of "Comforts" and "Trusting Relationships". Also, Patients only ranked "Being accessible" (p = 0.04 and "Explains and facilitates" (p = 0.03 higher than nurses. Conclusions The oncology patients and nurses perceived highly physical aspects of caring and the results provide for nurses to be aware of the need, during their
Case management in oncology rehabilitation (CAMON: The effect of case management on the quality of life in patients with cancer after one year of ambulant rehabilitation. A study protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial in oncology rehabilitation
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer diseases and their therapies have negative effects on the quality of life. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of case management in a sample of oncological outpatients with the intent of rehabilitation after cancer treatment. Case management wants to support the complex information needs of the patients in addition to the segmented structure of the health care system. Emphasis is put on support for self-management in order to enhance health - conscious behaviour, learning to deal with the burden of the illness and providing the opportunity for regular contacts with care providers. We present a study protocol to investigate the efficacy of a case management in patients following oncology rehabilitation after cancer treatment. Methods The trial is a multicentre, two-arm randomised controlled study. Patients are randomised parallel in either 'usual care' plus case management or 'usual care' alone. Patients with all types of cancer can be included in the study, if they have completed the therapy with chemo- and/or radiotherapy/surgery with curative intention and are expected to have a survival time >1 year. To determine the health-related quality of life the general questionnaire FACT G is used. The direct correlation between self-management and perceived self-efficacy is measured with the Jerusalem & Schwarzer questionnaire. Patients satisfaction with the care received is measured using the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care 5 As (PACIC-5A. Data are collected at the beginning of the trial and after 3, 6 and 12 months. The power analysis revealed a sample size of 102 patients. The recruitment of the centres began in 2009. The inclusion of patients began in May 2010. Discussion Case management has proved to be effective regarding quality of life of patients with chronic diseases. When it comes to oncology, case management is mainly used in cancer treatment, but it is not yet common in the
O'Malley, Denalee; Hudson, Shawna V; Nekhlyudov, Larissa; Howard, Jenna; Rubinstein, Ellen; Lee, Heather S; Overholser, Linda S; Shaw, Amy; Givens, Sarah; Burton, Jay S; Grunfeld, Eva; Parry, Carly; Crabtree, Benjamin F
This study describes the experiences of early implementers of primary care-focused cancer survivorship delivery models. Snowball sampling was used to identify innovators. Twelve participants (five cancer survivorship primary care innovators and seven content experts) attended a working conference focused on cancer survivorship population strategies and primary care transformation. Data included meeting discussion transcripts/field notes, transcribed in-depth innovator interviews, and innovators' summaries of care models. We used a multistep immersion/crystallization analytic approach, guided by a primary care organizational change model. Innovative practice models included: (1) a consultative model in a primary care setting; (2) a primary care physician (PCP)-led, blended consultative/panel-based model in an oncology setting; (3) an oncology nurse navigator in a primary care practice; and (4) two subspecialty models where PCPs in a general medical practice dedicated part of their patient panel to cancer survivors. Implementation challenges included (1) lack of key stakeholder buy-in; (2) practice resources allocated to competing (non-survivorship) change efforts; and (3) competition with higher priority initiatives incentivized by payers. Cancer survivorship delivery models are potentially feasible in primary care; however, significant barriers to widespread implementation exist. Implementation efforts would benefit from increasing the awareness and potential value-add of primary care-focused strategies to address survivors' needs. Current models of primary care-based cancer survivorship care may not be sustainable. Innovative strategies to provide quality care to this growing population of survivors need to be developed and integrated into primary care settings.
Jiagge, Evelyn; Bensenhaver, Jessica M; Oppong, Joseph K; Awuah, Baffour; Newman, Lisa A
Disparities in breast cancer incidence and outcome between African American and white American women are multifactorial in etiology. The increased frequency of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) in African American patients suggests the possible contribution of hereditary factors related to African ancestry. The University of Michigan (UM)-Komfo Anoyke Teaching Hospital (KATH) Breast Cancer Research Collaborative and International Breast Registry was established in 2004. It features epidemiologic information, tumor tissue, and germline DNA specimens from African American, white American, and Ghanaian women. This research collaborative has generated valuable findings regarding the pathogenesis and patterns of TNBC while concomitantly improving the standard of breast oncology care in Ghana. This partnership has also yielded important opportunities for academic and educational exchange. It has expanded to involve other sites in Africa and Haiti. The UM-KATH collaborative is a model for demonstrating the research and academic exchange value of international partnerships.
Lenneman, Carrie G; Sawyer, Douglas B
Through the success of basic and disease-specific research, cancer survivors are one of the largest growing subsets of individuals accessing the healthcare system. Interestingly, cardiovascular disease is the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer survivors after recurrent malignancy. This recognition has helped stimulate a collaboration between oncology and cardiology practitioners and researchers, and the portmanteau cardio-oncology (also known as onco-cardiology) can now be found in many medical centers. This collaboration promises new insights into how cancer therapies impact cardiovascular homeostasis and long-term effects on cancer survivors. In this review, we will discuss the most recent views on the cardiotoxicity related to various classes of chemotherapy agents and radiation. We will also discuss broadly the current strategies for treating and preventing cardiovascular effects of cancer therapy.
Fang, J; Cai, C; Wang, Q; Lin, P
Massive cancer genomics data have facilitated the rapid revolution of a novel oncology drug discovery paradigm through targeting clinically relevant driver genes or mutations for the development of precision oncology. Natural products with polypharmacological profiles have been demonstrated as promising agents for the development of novel cancer therapies. In this study, we developed an integrated systems pharmacology framework that facilitated identifying potential natural products that target mutated genes across 15 cancer types or subtypes in the realm of precision medicine. High performance was achieved for our systems pharmacology framework. In case studies, we computationally identified novel anticancer indications for several US Food and Drug Administration‐approved or clinically investigational natural products (e.g., resveratrol, quercetin, genistein, and fisetin) through targeting significantly mutated genes in multiple cancer types. In summary, this study provides a powerful tool for the development of molecularly targeted cancer therapies through targeting the clinically actionable alterations by exploiting the systems pharmacology of natural products. PMID:28294568
van Meurs, Jacqueline; Smeets, Wim; Vissers, Kris C P; Groot, Marieke; Engels, Yvonne
Attention for spirituality should be an integral part of professionals' caregiving. Particularly, nurses caring for patients with cancer might have opportunities to give attention to this dimension. The aim of this study was to gain insight in the way and extent to which nurses during daily caregiving observe and explore spiritual issues of hospitalized patients with cancer. We performed an ethnographic study with participant observation. Data were collected in 2015 during 4 shifts at the medical oncology department of a university hospital. The researcher, a spiritual care provider (chaplain) wearing the same kind of uniform as the nurses, observed the nurses, participated in their actions, and interviewed them after the shift. Although the patients did send many implicit and explicit messages concerning spiritual issues, the nurses did not explore them. If noticed, 3 barriers for exploring spiritual issues were mentioned by the nurses: lack of time, conflict with their mindset, and being reserved to talk about such issues. During their daily caregiving to patients with a life-threatening illness, nurses have many opportunities to explore spiritual issues, but they do not often recognize them. If they do, they tend not to explore the spiritual issues. Communication training for nurses is necessary to develop skills for exploring the spiritual dimension in patients with cancer. In such training, attention to the misconception that such a conversation requires a lot of time and for recognizing signals from patients inviting an exploration of their concerns is necessary.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.
Ghaljeh, Mahnaz; Iranmanesh, Sedigheh; Nayeri, Nahid Dehghan; Tirgari, Batool; Kalantarri, Behjat
End of life (EOL) care is newly established in the Iranian context. Context, in this case, refers to the internal and external manifestation of the nurse values, norms and experiences that are learnt throughout life. The aim of this study was to explore nurses' experiences of caring for dying patients in Iran. A phenomenological hermeneutic approach, influenced by the philosophy of Ricoeur, was used to analyse 10 oncology nurses' experiences of caring for dying persons. Three themes emerged from the analysis: 1) seeing the patient as unique person, 2) being present and open to seeing patients as unique persons and 3) personal and professional development as a result of closeness between nurse and patient. Caring for dying persons means assisting them at the end of their lives. Caring relationships underlie professional palliative care and are essential in EOL care. Proper palliative education and professionally led supervision should be included in the Iranian nursing curriculum.
Brédart, A; Kop, J-L; Efficace, F; Beaudeau, A; Brito, T; Dolbeault, S; Aaronson, N
Cancer care is increasingly provided in the outpatient setting, requiring specific monitoring of care quality. The patients' perspective is an important indicator of care quality and needs to be assessed with well designed, psychometrically sound questionnaires. We performed a systematic literature review of currently available patient satisfaction measures for use in cancer outpatient care settings. We carried out MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Scopus searches of papers published over the past 15 years that describe cancer patient satisfaction questionnaires for use in the outpatient setting. We used the adapted COSMIN checklist to assess the quality of the questionnaires' measurement properties. A total of 6677 citations were identified and 76 relevant articles were read, of which 55 were found either not to be relevant or to provide insufficient psychometric information. The remaining 21 studies pertained to 14 patient satisfaction questionnaires. Continuity and transition, accessibility, and involvement of family/friends were less frequently addressed despite their relevance in outpatient oncology. Almost half of the psychometric studies did not provide information on item level missing data. Most internal consistency estimates (Cronbach's α) were satisfactory. Few studies reported test-retest assessment (n = 5), used confirmatory factor analysis (n = 2), or assessed fit to a graded response item response theory model (n = 3). Only three questionnaires were cross-culturally validated. Important aspects of care may be missed by current patient satisfaction questionnaires for use in the cancer outpatient setting. Additional evidence is needed of their psychometric performance, especially for cross-cultural comparative assessments. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Erikson, Clese; Schulman, Stacey; Kosty, Michael; Hanley, Amy
The supply of oncologists is projected to increase by 14%, but the demand for oncology visits is projected to increase by 48% because of a growing aging population and an increase in the number of cancer survivors. Multiple strategies must be implemented to ensure continued access to quality cancer care, such as increasing the number of oncology training positions.
Millard, Trish; Kunk, Paul R; Ramsdale, Erika; Rahma, Osama E
Despite the considerable amount of research in the field, the management of locally advanced rectal cancer remains a subject to debate. To date, effective treatment centers on surgical resection with the standard approach of total mesorectal resection. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy have been incorporated in order to decrease local and systemic recurrence. While it is accepted that a multimodality treatment regimen is indicated, there remains significant debate for how best to accomplish this in regards to order, dosing, and choice of agents. Preoperative radiation is the standard of care, yet remains debated with the option for chemoradiation, short course radiation, and even ongoing studies looking at the possibility of leaving radiation out altogether. Chemotherapy was traditionally incorporated in the adjuvant setting, but recent reports suggest the possibility of improved efficacy and tolerance when given upfront. In this review, the major studies in the management of locally advanced rectal cancer will be discussed. In addition, future directions will be considered such as the role of immunotherapy and ongoing trials looking at timing of chemotherapy, inclusion of radiation, and non-operative management.
Johnston, Donna L; Halton, Jacqueline; Bassal, Mylène; Klaassen, Robert J; Mandel, Karen; Ramphal, Raveena; Simpson, Ewurabena; Peckan, Li
Providing the best care in both the inpatient and outpatient settings to pediatric oncology patients is all programs goal. Using continuous improvement methodologies, we changed from a solely team-based physician care model to a hybrid model. All patients were assigned a dedicated oncologist. There would then be 2 types of weeks of outpatient clinical service. A "Doc of the Day" week where each oncologist would have a specific day in clinic when their assigned patients would be scheduled, and then a "Doc of the Week" week where one physician would cover clinic for the week. Patient satisfaction surveys done before and 14 months after changing the model of care showed that patients were very satisfied with the care they received in both models. A questionnaire to staff 14 months after changing showed that the biggest effect was increased continuity of care, followed by more efficient clinic workflow and increased consistency of care. Staff felt it provided better planning and delivery of care. A hybrid model of care with a primary physician for each patient and assigned clinic days, alternating with weeks of single physician coverage is a feasible model of care for a medium-sized pediatric oncology program.
Wortzel, Joshua; Spiegel, David
Cancer affects a growing proportion of the population as survival improves. The illness and its treatment brings a substantial burden of symptoms, including pain, anxiety, insomnia, and grief. Here, the uses of hypnosis in the treatment of these cancer-related problems will be reviewed. The utility of measuring hypnotizability in the clinical setting will be discussed. The current neurobiology of hypnotizability and hypnosis will be reviewed. Methods and results of using hypnosis for pain control in acute and chronic settings will be presented. Effects of hypnotic analgesia in specific brain regions associated with pain reduction, notably the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and the somatosensory cortex, underlies its utility as a potent and side-effect free analgesic. Methods for helping those with cancer to better manage their anxiety, insomnia, and grief will be described. These involve facing disease-related stressors while dissociating the experience from somatic arousal. Given the serious complications of medications widely used to treat pain, anxiety, and insomnia, this article provides methods and an evidence base for wider use of techniques involving hypnosis in cancer care. Altering patients' perception of pain, disease-related stress, and anxiety can help change the reality of their life with cancer.
Kim, Sue; Park, Eun-young; Kim, Jung-Hee
The purpose of this study was to develop a sexual health care knowledge scale for oncology nurses and to evaluate its psychometric properties using Rasch analysis and the known-groups technique. Although sexual oncology has become a popular topic and sexual health care is now promoted, there has been a lack of instruments supported by psychometric evaluations to measure nurses' knowledge of sexual health issues. The initial 72 items were compiled to form the Sexual Health Care Scale - Knowledge (SHCS-K) for oncology nurses using a literature review and analysis of existing research tools. After a specialist panel verified content validity, the questionnaire was shortened to 58 items. The data were analyzed using a Rasch model to investigate the items with respect to unidimensionality of fit and difficulty and reliability distribution. Discriminant validity was examined using the known-groups technique. Two items did not fit with the Rasch model. Person and item separation-index ratios were 3.33 and 9.45, respectively, which confirmed that the SHCS-K functioned well. The reliability was good, at 0.99. Significant differences in marital status, levels of education, and participation in SHC training were observed between groups. The final version of the questionnaire consisted of 55 items, with a total score range of 0-55. The SHCS-K was found to be a valid and reliable measure for evaluating levels of sexual health care knowledge among this sample of oncology nurses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Helen Hughes; Vikram Swaminathan; Alice Pellegrini; Riccardo Audisio
.... In this article, we review the current field of geriatric oncology. We highlight that age is not a contradiction to cancer treatment but geriatric assessment is needed to identify which treatment a patient may tolerate and benefit from.
Ghadjar, P.; Briganti, A.; Visschere, P.J. De; Futterer, J.J.; Giannarini, G.; Isbarn, H.; Ost, P.; Sooriakumaran, P.; Surcel, C.I.; Bergh, R.C. van den; Oort, I.M. van; Yossepowitch, O.; Ploussard, G.
PURPOSE: To determine the oncologic benefit or otherwise of local treatment of the prostate in patients with primary metastatic prostate cancer. METHODS: A review of the literature was performed in April 2014 using the Medline/PubMed database. Studies were identified using the search terms "prostate
Schneider, Henriette; Geginat, Gernot; Hogardt, Michael; Kramer, Alexandra; Dürken, Matthias; Schroten, Horst; Tenenbaum, Tobias
We analyzed an outbreak of invasive infections with an exotoxin U positive Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain within a pediatric oncology care unit. Environmental sampling and molecular characterization of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains led to identification of the outbreak source. An errant water jet into the sink within patient rooms was observed. Optimized outbreak management resulted in an abundance of further Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections within the pediatric oncology care unit.
Kaye, Deborah R; Mullins, Jeffrey K; Carter, H Ballentine; Bivalacqua, Trinity J
Surgical robotic use has grown exponentially in spite of limited or uncertain benefits and large costs. In certain situations, adoption of robotic technology provides value to patients and society. In other cases, however, the robot provides little or no increase in surgical quality, with increased expense, and, therefore, does not add value to health care. The surgical robot is expensive to purchase, maintain and operate, and can contribute to increased consumerism in relation to surgical procedures, and increased reliance on the technology, thus driving future increases in health-care expenditure. Given the current need for budget constraints, the cost-effectiveness of specific procedures must be evaluated. The surgical robot should be used when cost-effective, but traditional open and laparoscopic techniques also need to be continually fostered.
afflicts many organisms and systems. In humans the ... cancer would become a major clinical and public health issue in ... supporting cancer registration, and supporting various types of .... “A Global Problem: Cancer Pain from the Laboratory.
Lara, Pedro; Calvo, Felipe A; Guedea, Ferran; Bilbao, Pedro; Biete, Alberto
Most medical schools in Spain (80%) offer undergraduate training in oncology. This education is highly variable in terms of content (theory and practical training), number of credits, and the medical specialty and departmental affiliation of the professors. Much of this variability is due to university traditions in the configuration of credits and programmes, and also to the structure of the hospital-based practical training. Undergraduate medical students deserve a more coherent and modern approach to education with a strong emphasis on clinical practice. Oncology is an interdisciplinary science that requires the input of professors from multiple specialties to provide the primary body of knowledge and skills needed to obtain both a theoretical and clinical understanding of cancer. Clinical skills should be a key focus due to their importance in the current model of integrated medical management and care. Clinical radiation oncology is a traditional and comprehensive hospital-based platform for undergraduate education in oncology. In Spain, a significant number (n = 80) of radiation oncology specialists have a contractual relationship to teach university courses. Most Spanish universities (80%) have a radiation oncologist on staff, some of whom are department chairs and many others are full professors who have been hired and promoted under competitive conditions of evaluation as established by the National Agency for Quality Evaluation. The Spanish Society of Radiation Oncology (SEOR) has identified new opportunities to improve undergraduate education in oncology. In this article, we discuss proposals related to theoretical (20 items) and practical clinical training (9 items). We also describe the SEOR University Forum, which is an initiative to develop a strategic plan to implement and organize cancer education at the undergraduate level in an interdisciplinary teaching spirit and with a strong contribution from radiation oncologists.
Huang, Chenxi; Gögenur, Ismail; Tvilling Madsen, Michael
Sleep disturbances are a prevalent and disabling problem for patients with cancer. Sleep disturbances are present throughout the cancer trajectory, especially during oncological treatment. Previously sleep disturbances have primarily been quantified with subjective rating scales. Actigraphy...... is an easy to use, non-invasive method for objective measurement of sleep. We systematically reviewed the literature for studies using actigraphy to measure sleeping habits of patients with cancer, undergoing oncological treatment. Our study furthermore reviewed studies with interventions designed to reduce...... sleep disturbances in the patient population. 19 studies were included in the final review of which 13 had a descriptive study design and six included some kind of intervention. The studies were primarily performed in patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. We found that sleep disturbances...
Shete, Harshad K; Vyas, Swati S; Patravale, Vandana B; Disouza, John I
Mortality associated with lung cancer and its metastasis has outnumbered those related to other forms of cancer. Despite being a directly accessible organ, conventional oncological strategies exhibiting prolific outcome in treatment and prevention of lung cancer is far from reality. This is attributed to numerous challenges posed by lung environment. The extracellular aura of lung comprises immensely complicated structures, ciliary escalators, omnipresence of mucus and alveolar fluid, and macrophagial uptake which presents an array of impediments to the arrival of therapeutic moiety at the tumor site. Besides these, intracellular obstacles viz enzymatic degradation, cell membrane translocation, endosomal escape and/or nuclear entry also limit superior therapeutic efficacy. The current review elaborates wide-ranging challenges to lung cancer treatment and its circumvention by latest developments in multifunctional nano-oncological modules delivered via the pulmonary route-which smartly deal with the abovementioned issues and bestow positivity to this complication.
Full Text Available Background: The transition in oncology to electronic charting offers the potential to improve the quality of patient care and value of observational research. Data fields that are more complete, have common standards, and are searchable are critical to help meet these goals. As a key data field, and proof-of-concept we studied the additional gain in recorded stage and agreement in cancer staging by adding ‘missing’ stage information into an oncology practice’s electronic medical records (EMR from a state cancer registry. Methods: In this observational study, patient records were matched and compared between a practice-based (EMR database (Georgia Cancer Specialists [GCS] and a state cancer registry (Georgia Comprehensive Cancer Registry [GCCR]. Impact on recorded cancer stage following a merge of the EMR and registry data was assessed. Eligible patients had ≥1 visit to any GCS practice site during the study period (1/1/2005-12/31/2008 and a diagnosis of a primary, malignant solid neoplasm (except brain or spine. Results: The final sample included 38,248 patients from GCS files, with 13,486 matched to patients with a solid malignant tumor in the GCCR files. There were 3,424 (25% patients without staging information prior to GCCR integration, which was reduced to 12% after GCCR integration - a relative gain of 52%. Differences between initial GCS stage and initial GCCR stage occurred in 45% of the sample, and varied by cancer type. Conclusions: Adding information from external data sources can help create more complete patient records. The concept is feasible and has the potential to improve data quality. Patient data collected in different systems for different reasons will often be discordant.
Dimigen, M; Vinod, S K; Lim, K
Increasingly complex imaging techniques, such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans are being used by radiation oncologists to improve the accuracy of their radiotherapy planning contours, despite limited formal training in diagnostic imaging. This study aimed to assess whether the availability of an 'in-house' radiologist would be beneficial in enhancing the interpretation of oncological imaging and accuracy of contouring. A radiology/oncology fellow was based in the oncology department, providing radiological advice on diagnostic and planning images, for two sessions per week over a 9 month period. Oncology staff were able to book a time slot with the radiologist on a MOSAIQ cancer database and record the reason for the consultation and its outcome. The radiologist also reviewed the accuracy of the patient's contours for the weekly quality assurance audit meetings. The radiologist reviewed 56 scans during the 49 consultation sessions. Advice over diagnostic images and target volume delineation were the main reasons for the consultations, which resulted in a change of practice in 45% of cases, ranging from changing target volumes (25%) to carrying out further imaging (20%). For the quality assurance audit meetings, the radiologist's review of 99 patients' planning contours resulted in a significant change in management in 6% of cases. This is the first study to attempt to formally quantify the clinical benefit of having a dedicated 'in-house' radiologist within a radiation oncology department, clearly showing the valuable impact of such a role. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zweigenhaft, Burt; Bosserman, Linda; Kenney, James T; Lawless, Grant D; Marsland, Thomas A; Deligdish, Craig K; Burgoyne, Douglas S; Knopf, Kevin B; Long, Douglas M; McKercher, Patrick; Owens, Gary M; Hennessy, John E; Lang, James R; Malin, Jennifer; Natelson, Leonard; Palmgren, Matthew C; Slotnik, Jayson; Shockney, Lillie D; Vogenberg, F Randy
The AVBCC Annual Meeting experiences exponential growth in attendance and participation as oncologists, payers, employers, managed care executives, patient advocates, and drug manufacturers convened in Hollywood, FL, on May 2-5, 2013, for the Third Annual Conference of the Association for Value-Based Cancer Care (AVBCC). The conference presented an all-inclusive open forum for stakeholder dialogue and integration across the cancer care continuum, facilitating an open dialogue among the various healthcare stakeholders to align their perspectives around the urgent need to address value in cancer care, costs, patient education, safety, outcomes, and quality. The AVBCC 2013 Steering Committee was held on the first day of the conference to define value in cancer care. The committee was divided into 7 groups, each representing a key stakeholder in oncology. The goal of the Steering Committee was to define value from the particular point of view of each of the stakeholder groups and to suggest how that particular perspective can contribute to the value proposition in oncology, by balancing cost, quality, and access to care to improve overall patient outcomes. The following summary highlights the major points addressed by each group.
Hirsch, Ariel E; Singh, Deeptej; Ozonoff, Al; Slanetz, Priscilla J
Multidisciplinary cancer care requires the integration of teaching across established educational boundaries. Because exposure to oncology and radiation oncology is limited in the undergraduate medical curriculum, the authors introduced an oncology education initiative at their institution. They report on the addition of structured multidisciplinary oncology education to the required radiology core clerkship. An institutional-based cohort study of fourth-year medical students rotating through a required clerkship in radiology at Boston University School of Medicine was conducted, beginning with the class of 2007. An educational questionnaire measuring the perceived quality of oncology education before and after exposure to a structured didactic program was administered. Of the 149 fourth-year students, 121 (81%) have completed the didactics of the initiative. Although 68 of 121 (56%) students reported having limited exposure to cancer care in the clinical years, 107 of 121 (88%) were motivated to learn more about the subject, and 100 of 121 (83%) reported a better understanding of the multidisciplinary nature of cancer care after this oncology education initiative. One hundred ten of 121 (91%) felt that the radiology clerkship was an opportune time to receive oncology and radiation oncology teaching. As a result of the initiative, 32% of the students pursued advanced training in radiation oncology. Of students who before the initiative were not planning on taking oncology electives, 70 of 99 (71%) agreed or strongly agreed that the lecture motivated them to learn more about the subject, and 43 of 99 (43%) agreed or strongly agreed that the lecture motivated them to take oncology electives. Systematic exposure to multidisciplinary oncology education as part of a radiology core clerkship provides an excellent opportunity for the integrated teaching of oncologic principles and patient management. This type of experience addresses an important yet underrepresented
AIM: To explore the oncological outcomes of unresectable lung metastases without extrapulmonary metastases in colorectal cancer. METHODS: Patients with unresectable isolated lung metastases from colorectal cancer were prospectively collected in a single institution during a 5-year period. All patients received either the fluorouracil/leucovorin plus oxaliplatin, fluorouracil/leucovorin plus irinotecan or capecitabine plus oxaliplatin regimen as first-line treatment. The resectability after preoperative chem...
Loeffen, E A H; Kremer, L C M; Mulder, R L; Font-Gonzalez, A; Dupuis, L L; Sung, L; Robinson, P D; van de Wetering, M D; Tissing, W J E
As cure rates in pediatric oncology have improved substantially over the last decades, supportive care has become increasingly important to reduce morbidity and mortality and improve quality of life in children with cancer. Currently, large variations exist in pediatric oncology supportive care practice, which might negatively influence care. This plea underlines the importance of development and implementation of trustworthy supportive care clinical practice guidelines, which we believe is the essential next step towards better supportive care practice, and thus a higher quality of care. To facilitate international development and endorsement, the International Pediatric Oncology Guidelines in Supportive Care Network has been established.
Sherer, Eric A.; Fisher, Deborah A; Barnd, Jeffrey; Jackson, George L.; Provenzale, Dawn; Haggstrom, David A.
Background The National Comprehensive Cancer Network and the American Society of Clinical Oncology have established guidelines for the treatment and surveillance of colorectal cancer (CRC), respectively. Considering these guidelines, an accurate and efficient method is needed to measure receipt of care. Methods The accuracy and completeness of Veterans Health Administration (VA) administrative data were assessed by comparing them with data manually abstracted during the Colorectal Cancer Care...
Schiffman, Joshua D; Breen, Matthew
Over 1.66 million humans (approx. 500/100,000 population rate) and over 4.2 million dogs (approx. 5300/100,000 population rate) are diagnosed with cancer annually in the USA. The interdisciplinary field of comparative oncology offers a unique and strong opportunity to learn more about universal cancer risk and development through epidemiology, genetic and genomic investigations. Working across species, researchers from human and veterinary medicine can combine scientific findings to understand more quickly the origins of cancer and translate these findings to novel therapies to benefit both human and animals. This review begins with the genetic origins of canines and their advantage in cancer research. We next focus on recent findings in comparative oncology related to inherited, or genetic, risk for tumour development. We then detail the somatic, or genomic, changes within tumours and the similarities between species. The shared cancers between humans and dogs that we discuss include sarcoma (osteosarcoma, soft tissue sarcoma, histiocytic sarcoma, hemangiosarcoma), haematological malignancies (lymphoma, leukaemia), bladder cancer, intracranial neoplasms (meningioma, glioma) and melanoma. Tumour risk in other animal species is also briefly discussed. As the field of genomics advances, we predict that comparative oncology will continue to benefit both humans and the animals that live among us.
Schiffman, Joshua D.; Breen, Matthew
Over 1.66 million humans (approx. 500/100 000 population rate) and over 4.2 million dogs (approx. 5300/100 000 population rate) are diagnosed with cancer annually in the USA. The interdisciplinary field of comparative oncology offers a unique and strong opportunity to learn more about universal cancer risk and development through epidemiology, genetic and genomic investigations. Working across species, researchers from human and veterinary medicine can combine scientific findings to understand more quickly the origins of cancer and translate these findings to novel therapies to benefit both human and animals. This review begins with the genetic origins of canines and their advantage in cancer research. We next focus on recent findings in comparative oncology related to inherited, or genetic, risk for tumour development. We then detail the somatic, or genomic, changes within tumours and the similarities between species. The shared cancers between humans and dogs that we discuss include sarcoma (osteosarcoma, soft tissue sarcoma, histiocytic sarcoma, hemangiosarcoma), haematological malignancies (lymphoma, leukaemia), bladder cancer, intracranial neoplasms (meningioma, glioma) and melanoma. Tumour risk in other animal species is also briefly discussed. As the field of genomics advances, we predict that comparative oncology will continue to benefit both humans and the animals that live among us. PMID:26056372
Oskvarek, Jonathan; Braunstein, Steve; Farnan, Jeanne; Ferguson, Mark K; Hahn, Olwen; Henderson, Tara; Hong, Susan; Levine, Stacie; Rosenberg, Carol A; Golden, Daniel W
Despite increasing numbers of cancer survivors, non-oncology physicians report discomfort and little training regarding oncologic and survivorship care. This pilot study assesses medical student comfort with medical oncology, surgical oncology, radiation oncology, hospice/palliative medicine, and survivorship care. A survey was developed with input from specialists in various fields of oncologic care at a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center. The survey included respondent demographics, reports of experience with oncology, comfort ratings with oncologic care, and five clinical vignettes. Responses were yes/no, multiple choice, Likert scale, or free response. The survey was distributed via email to medical students (MS1-4) at two US medical schools. The 105 respondents were 34 MS1s (32 %), 15 MS2s and MD/PhDs (14 %), 26 MS3s (25 %), and 30 MS4s (29 %). Medical oncology, surgical oncology, and hospice/palliative medicine demonstrated a significant trend for increased comfort from MS1 to MS4, but radiation oncology and survivorship care did not. MS3s and MS4s reported the least experience with survivorship care and radiation oncology. In the clinical vignettes, students performed the worst on the long-term chemotherapy toxicity and hospice/palliative medicine questions. Medical students report learning about components of oncologic care, but lack overall comfort with oncologic care. Medical students also fail to develop an increased self-assessed level of comfort with radiation oncology and survivorship care. These pilot results support development of a formalized multidisciplinary medical school oncology curriculum at these two institutions. An expanded national survey is being developed to confirm these preliminary findings.
Kulkarni, Ketan P
The survival outcome of childhood cancers in developing nations has failed to keep pace with that of developed nations. Technological advances offer a unique and radical opportunity to develop programs and strategies to improve outcomes of childhood cancer globally. The novel field of 'techno-oncology' has a broad scope and the potential to phenomenally impact, revamp and model the care of pediatric cancer patients in the developing world. Many frontiers and opportunities in the area remain to be explored as well as many challenges to be surmounted.
van de Bovenkamp, Hester M; Trappenburg, Margo J
Because family members take on caring tasks and also suffer as a consequence of the illness of the patient, communication between health-care professionals and family members of the patient is important. This review compares communication practices between these two parties in three different parts of health care: oncology, nursing home care, and mental health care. It shows that there are important differences between sectors. Mental health stands out because contacts between family members and professionals are considered problematic due to the autonomy and confidentiality of the patient. The article explores several explanations for this, and, by comparing the three health sectors, distils lessons to improve the relationship between family members and health-care professionals.
Holliday, Emma B. [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Ahmed, Awad A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Yoo, Stella K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Jagsi, Reshma [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Hoffman, Karen E., E-mail: KHoffman1@mdanderson.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)
Purpose: Quality cancer care is best delivered through a multidisciplinary approach requiring awareness of current evidence for all oncologic specialties. The highest impact journals often disseminate such information, so the distribution and characteristics of oncology studies by primary intervention (local therapies, systemic therapies, and targeted agents) were evaluated in 10 high-impact journals over a 20-year period. Methods and Materials: Articles published in 1994, 2004, and 2014 in New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association, Lancet Oncology, Journal of Clinical Oncology, Annals of Oncology, Radiotherapy and Oncology, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, Annals of Surgical Oncology, and European Journal of Surgical Oncology were identified. Included studies were prospectively conducted and evaluated a therapeutic intervention. Results: A total of 960 studies were included: 240 (25%) investigated local therapies, 551 (57.4%) investigated systemic therapies, and 169 (17.6%) investigated targeted therapies. More local therapy trials (n=185 [77.1%]) evaluated definitive, primary treatment than systemic (n=178 [32.3%]) or targeted therapy trials (n=38 [22.5%]; P<.001). Local therapy trials (n=16 [6.7%]) also had significantly lower rates of industry funding than systemic (n=207 [37.6%]) and targeted therapy trials (n=129 [76.3%]; P<.001). Targeted therapy trials represented 5 (2%), 38 (10.2%), and 126 (38%) of those published in 1994, 2004, and 2014, respectively (P<.001), and industry-funded 48 (18.9%), 122 (32.6%), and 182 (54.8%) trials, respectively (P<.001). Compared to publication of systemic therapy trial articles, articles investigating local therapy (odds ratio: 0.025 [95% confidence interval: 0.012-0.048]; P<.001) were less likely to be found in high-impact general medical journals. Conclusions: Fewer studies evaluating local therapies, such as surgery and radiation, are published in
This project was done at specialist cancer hospital in Qatar. At a haematology-oncology inpatient department most patients were not getting access to palliative care unless they were at the very end stages of life. Data collected from 2008-2011 showed significant numbers of patients were dying within one month of their transfer to palliative care. There was no standard measure to identify the prospective palliative care patients. A multidisciplinary team developed a Palliative care referral screening tool based on the National Cancer Care Network guideline. Retrospective medical record review done from January to April 2012 showed a mean of 68% of patients who scored more than five were not consulted, 32% of patients who scored more than seven were not transferred to palliative care and seven percent died without any referral. The team used various kinds of quality planning, analysis and improvement tools in the form of process mapping, value analysis, Fish Bone diagrams, stakeholders' analysis and communication, physician survey, "Pareto's principal" (80 / 20 rule, the law of vital few) and other data collection tools. The palliative care referral process was standardised by preparing and implementing an objective scoring tool based on international best practice. It changed the referral culture and helped manage the psychological barriers of patients, families and caregivers. Extensive orientation and education of all key stakeholders was implemented. Monthly auditing of patient records was carried out. The aim has been achieved, exceeded and sustained, and we reduced the percentage of patients who scored more than five without palliative consultation from a mean of 68% to 16% and those who scored more than seven without palliative care transfer from a mean of thirty two percent to three percent, after four months of the project's implementation. Standardising the referral process and creating an objective referral tool is needed to facilitate safe, collaborative
Medical Student Rotations Select 4th-year medical students may be approved for a 4-week elective rotation at the Pediatric Oncology Branch. This rotation emphasizes the important connection between research and patient care in pediatric oncology. The student is supervised directly by the Branch’s attending physician and clinical fellows. Students attend daily in-patient and out-patient rounds and multiple weekly Branch conferences, and are expected to research relevant topics and present a 30-minute talk near the end of their rotation.
Götte, Miriam; Taraks, Silke; Boos, Joachim
Malignant disease and anticancer therapy dramatically affect daily life activities and participation in grassroots and high-performance sports. Specifically in childhood and adolescence such activities are relevant factors of individual development and social life. This review focuses on the inherent reduction of normal physical activity in pediatric oncology because this cutback additionally contributes to the level of burden of malignancies. Maintaining normality requires detailed analyses of disease-related and therapy-related restrictions and their justification. Relevant efforts should be stepped up to maintain physical activity levels during pediatric cancer therapy. Another aspect addresses direct therapeutic implications. Feasibility studies, nonrandomized as well as randomized investigations addressed therapeutic effects in acute hospital care, in bone marrow transplant settings, and in outpatient therapy. The overall summary shows positive effects on clinical and psychosocial outcome. Even if the basis of the data for children is still limited, there will be no doubt about a general impact of physical activity on acute side effects as well as late effects. In the areas of tension between context-related restrictions, the right to maintain normality wherever possible and the positive therapeutic and psychosocial perspectives of sports, strong efforts are needed to support physical activity wherever indicated, clarify contraindications, and overcome structural limitations.
Cancer mortality in Japan is forecasted to become high; thus, learning about cancer, cancer prevention, and cancer treatment will be indispensable for the Japanese. Recognition of the increasing rates of cancer has initiated a discussion regarding the introduction of cancer education into the regular educational curriculum for the younger generation. The importance of cancer education is noww idely recognized, and the 2nd Basic Plan to Promote Cancer Control Programs is directed at early initiation of education. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology is nowreview ing the detailed plan, with an intention to draw a conclusion by the end of the 2016 business year. However, ongoing debates have revealed that there are many obstacles in the way of this practice. Much effort should be directed at solving these issues in the most realistic way. This paper reviews potential actions by oncology specialists, and attempts to clarify the possible role of an academic society for oncology specialists in the development of cancer education systems at school.
Earlier detection and newer treatments now make breast cancer highly survivable, and breast cancer survivors are the largest female cancer survivor group in the United States. With earlier detection, more women are being diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer and need follow-up care. With the increasing number of breast cancer survivors, there is a projected shortage in the workforce of oncology specialists to care for these women. The American Society of Clinical Oncology recommends that breast cancer follow-up care can be provided by an oncologist or primary care provider, as long as the primary care provider has spoken to the oncologist about appropriate follow-up care. Several studies have shown that primary care providers and oncologists have comparable outcomes for follow-up care of women with early-stage breast cancer. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) are considered the gold standard for breast cancer treatment and follow-up. These guidelines are clear and straightforward. Using knowledge of the NCCN Guidelines, primary care providers can fill the gap for follow-up care of women with early-stage breast cancer.
Full Text Available Objective: To assess prescription of oncology medications in municipal public health network of Rosario for its appropriateness to clinical practice guidelines. Methods: Descriptive pharmacoepidemiological study in adult patients in an Oncology Service between January and June 2012. Compliance requirements with clinical practice guidelines were evaluated. Results: 51.8% of diagnoses had at least one prescription medication that did not match recommendation by at least one of the guides considered. Prescriptions of doxorrubicine and ifosfamide did not agree with the recommendation of any reference guides. 5.4% of prescriptions weren´t considered by local guides, nor 7.7% by national on es. Regarding comparison with international guidelines: 4.2% of prescriptions weren ´t considered by the European Society for Medical Oncology guidelines, 2.3% not considered by the American Cancer Society and only 1.9% were not considered by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network ones. Conclusions: Prescription of oncology treatments is closer to international reference guides. One reason could be that there is still no standard definition in the management of tumor diseases by the National State.
Lefor, Alan T
Oncology research has traditionally been conducted using techniques from the biological sciences. The new field of computational oncology has forged a new relationship between the physical sciences and oncology to further advance research. By applying physics and mathematics to oncologic problems, new insights will emerge into the pathogenesis and treatment of malignancies. One major area of investigation in computational oncology centers around the acquisition and analysis of data, using improved computing hardware and software. Large databases of cellular pathways are being analyzed to understand the interrelationship among complex biological processes. Computer-aided detection is being applied to the analysis of routine imaging data including mammography and chest imaging to improve the accuracy and detection rate for population screening. The second major area of investigation uses computers to construct sophisticated mathematical models of individual cancer cells as well as larger systems using partial differential equations. These models are further refined with clinically available information to more accurately reflect living systems. One of the major obstacles in the partnership between physical scientists and the oncology community is communications. Standard ways to convey information must be developed. Future progress in computational oncology will depend on close collaboration between clinicians and investigators to further the understanding of cancer using these new approaches.
Full Text Available SUMMARY Objective: To describe the clinical and sociodemographic profile of cancer patients admitted to the Emergency Center for High Complexity Oncologic Assistance, observing the coverage of palliative and home care. Method: Cross sectional study including adult cancer patients admitted to the emergency service (September-December/2011 with a minimum length of hospital stay of two hours. Student’s t-test and Pearson chi-square test were used to compare the means. Results: 191 patients were enrolled, 47.6% elderly, 64.4% women, 75.4% from the city of Recife and greater area. The symptom prevalent at admission was pain (46.6%. 4.2% of patients were linked to palliative care and 2.1% to home care. The most prevalent cancers: cervix (18.3%, breast (13.6% and prostate (10.5%; 70.7% were in advanced stages (IV, 47.1%; 39.4% without any cancer therapy. Conclusion: Patients sought the emergency service on account of pain, probably due to the incipient coverage of palliative and home care. These actions should be included to oncologic therapy as soon as possible to minimize the suffering of the patient/family and integrate the skills of oncologists and emergency professionals.
Chaoul, Alejandro; Milbury, Kathrin; Sood, Anil K; Prinsloo, Sarah; Cohen, Lorenzo
Being diagnosed with a life-threatening disease such as cancer and undergoing treatment can cause unwanted distress and interferes with quality of life. Uncontrolled stress can have a negative effect on a number of biological systems and processes leading to negative health outcomes. While some distress is normal, it is not benign and must be addressed, as failure to do so may compromise health and QOL outcomes. We present the evidence for the role of stress in cancer biology and mechanisms demonstrating how distress is associated with worse clinical outcomes. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network states that all patients be screened with the single-item distress thermometer and to also indicate the source of distress and to get appropriate referral. In addition to the many conventional approaches for managing distress from the fields of psychology and psychiatry, many patients are seeking strategies to manage their distress that are outside conventional medicine such as mind-body techniques. Mind-body techniques such as meditation, yoga, tai chi, and qigong have been found to lower distress and lead to improvements in different aspects of quality of life. It is essential that the standard of care in oncology include distress screening and the delivery of different techniques to help patients manage the psychosocial challenges of diagnosis and treatment of cancer.
Deng, Gary; Cassileth, Barrie
Integrative oncology, the diagnosis-specific field of integrative medicine, addresses symptom control with nonpharmacologic therapies. Known commonly as "complementary therapies" these are evidence-based adjuncts to mainstream care that effectively control physical and emotional symptoms, enhance physical and emotional strength, and provide patients with skills enabling them to help themselves throughout and following mainstream cancer treatment. Integrative or complementary therapies are rational and noninvasive. They have been subjected to study to determine their value, to document the problems they ameliorate, and to define the circumstances under which such therapies are beneficial. Conversely, "alternative" therapies typically are promoted literally as such; as actual antitumor treatments. They lack biologic plausibility and scientific evidence of safety and efficacy. Many are outright fraudulent. Conflating these two very different categories by use of the convenient acronym "CAM," for "complementary and alternative therapies," confuses the issue and does a substantial disservice to patients and medical professionals. Complementary and integrative modalities have demonstrated safety value and benefits. If the same were true for "alternatives," they would not be "alternatives." Rather, they would become part of mainstream cancer care. This manuscript explores the medical and sociocultural context of interest in integrative oncology as well as in "alternative" therapies, reviews commonly-asked patient questions, summarizes research results in both categories, and offers recommendations to help guide patients and family members through what is often a difficult maze. Combining complementary therapies with mainstream oncology care to address patients' physical, psychologic and spiritual needs constitutes the practice of integrative oncology. By recommending nonpharmacologic modalities that reduce symptom burden and improve quality of life, physicians also enable
Beamer, Laura Curr; Linder, Lauri; Wu, Bohua; Eggert, Julia
Since 2003, genetics and genomics information has led to exciting new diagnostics, prognostics, and treatment options in oncology practice. Profiling of cancers offers providers insight into treatment and prognostic factors. Germline testing provides an individual with information for surveillance or therapy that may help them prevent cancer in their lifetime and options for family members as yet untouched by malignancy. This offers a challenge for oncology nurses and other oncology health care providers to become comfortable with incorporating education about genetics/genomics into their clinical practice and patient education.
Bakitas, Marie A; Tosteson, Tor D; Li, Zhigang; Lyons, Kathleen D; Hull, Jay G; Li, Zhongze; Dionne-Odom, J Nicholas; Frost, Jennifer; Dragnev, Konstantin H; Hegel, Mark T; Azuero, Andres; Ahles, Tim A
Randomized controlled trials have supported integrated oncology and palliative care (PC); however, optimal timing has not been evaluated. We investigated the effect of early versus delayed PC on quality of life (QOL), symptom impact, mood, 1-year survival, and resource use. Between October 2010 and March 2013, 207 patients with advanced cancer at a National Cancer Institute cancer center, a Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and community outreach clinics were randomly assigned to receive an in-person PC consultation, structured PC telehealth nurse coaching sessions (once per week for six sessions), and monthly follow-up either early after enrollment or 3 months later. Outcomes were QOL, symptom impact, mood, 1-year survival, and resource use (hospital/intensive care unit days, emergency room visits, chemotherapy in last 14 days, and death location). Overall patient-reported outcomes were not statistically significant after enrollment (QOL, P = .34; symptom impact, P = .09; mood, P = .33) or before death (QOL, P = .73; symptom impact, P = .30; mood, P = .82). Kaplan-Meier 1-year survival rates were 63% in the early group and 48% in the delayed group (difference, 15%; P = .038). Relative rates of early to delayed decedents' resource use were similar for hospital days (0.73; 95% CI, 0.41 to 1.27; P = .26), intensive care unit days (0.68; 95% CI, 0.23 to 2.02; P = .49), emergency room visits (0.73; 95% CI, 0.45 to 1.19; P = .21), chemotherapy in last 14 days (1.57; 95% CI, 0.37 to 6.7; P = .27), and home death (27 [54%] v 28 [47%]; P = .60). Early-entry participants' patient-reported outcomes and resource use were not statistically different; however, their survival 1-year after enrollment was improved compared with those who began 3 months later. Understanding the complex mechanisms whereby PC may improve survival remains an important research priority. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Chen, Daniel S; Mellman, Ira
The genetic and cellular alterations that define cancer provide the immune system with the means to generate T cell responses that recognize and eradicate cancer cells. However, elimination of cancer by T cells is only one step in the Cancer-Immunity Cycle, which manages the delicate balance between the recognition of nonself and the prevention of autoimmunity. Identification of cancer cell T cell inhibitory signals, including PD-L1, has prompted the development of a new class of cancer immunotherapy that specifically hinders immune effector inhibition, reinvigorating and potentially expanding preexisting anticancer immune responses. The presence of suppressive factors in the tumor microenvironment may explain the limited activity observed with previous immune-based therapies and why these therapies may be more effective in combination with agents that target other steps of the cycle. Emerging clinical data suggest that cancer immunotherapy is likely to become a key part of the clinical management of cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Honda, Keigo; Asato, Ryo; Tsuji, Jun; Miyazaki, Masakazu; Kada, Shinpei; Tsujimura, Takashi; Kataoka, Michiko
Although the functional merits of preserving cervical nerves in neck dissection for head and neck cancer have been reported, the oncologic safety has not yet been determined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of cervical nerve preservation. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients with head and neck cancer who had been treated by neck dissection between 2009 and 2014 at Kyoto Medical Center. Management of cervical nerves and clinical results were analyzed. A total of 335 sides of neck dissection had been performed in 222 patients. Cervical nerves were preserved in 175 neck sides and resected in 160 sides. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method was 71%. The 5-year neck control rate was 95% in cervical nerve preserved sides and 89% in cervical nerve resected sides. Preserving cervical nerves in neck dissection is oncologically safe in selected cases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mossanen, Matthew; Izard, Jason; Wright, Jonathan L.; Harper, Jonathan D.; Porter, Michael P.; Daratha, Kenn B.; Holt, Sarah K.; Gore, John L.
BACKGROUND The delivery of urologic oncology care is susceptible to regional variation. In the current study, the authors sought to define patterns of care for patients undergoing genitourinary cancer surgery to identify underserved areas for urologic cancer care in Washington State. METHODS The authors accessed the Washington State Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System from 2003 through 2007. They identified patients undergoing radical prostatectomy, radical cystectomy (RC), partial nephrectomy (PN), radical nephrectomy, and transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). TURP was included for comparison as a reference procedure indicative of access to urologic care. Hospital service areas (HSAs) are where the majority of local patients are hospitalized; hospital referral regions (HRR) are where most patients receive tertiary care. The authors created multivariate hierarchical logistic regression models to examine patient and HSA characteristics associated with the receipt of urologic oncology care out of the HRR for each procedure RESULTS Greater than one-half of patients went out of their HRR in 7 HSAs (11%) for radical prostatectomy, 3 HSAs (5%) for radical nephrectomy, 10 HSAs (15%) for PN, and 14 HSAs (22%) for RC. No HSAs had high export rates for TURP. Few patient factors were found to be associated with surgical care out of the HRR. High-export HSAs for PN and RC exhibited lower socioeconomic characteristics than low-export HSAs, adjusting for HSA population, race, and HSA procedure rates for PN and RC. CONCLUSIONS Patients living in areas with lower socioeconomic status have a greater need to travel for complex urologic surgery. Consideration of geographic delineation in the delivery of urologic oncology care may aid in regional quality improvement initiatives. PMID:24523042
Nadeau, Katie; Pinner, Kerri; Murphy, Katie; Belderson, Kristin M
The primary nursing care model optimizes relationship-based care. Despite using a primary nursing model on a pediatric hematology/oncology inpatient unit, it was hypothesized patients and nurses were dissatisfied with the structure of primary care teams and inconsistency of primary assignments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate patient/family and nurse perceptions of our current care model through assessing gaps in its operationalization and satisfaction. This study used a descriptive cross-sectional design featuring patient/family and nurse surveys. Of the 59 patient/family respondents, 93.2% prefer to have a primary nurse care for them and 85% are satisfied with how often they are assigned a primary care team member. Similarly, 63% of the 57 nurse respondents are satisfied with the current implementation of our primary nursing model and 61% state the model reflects good continuity of care. Yet 80.7% of nurses believe safety would improve for a patient whose nurse works shifts consecutively even if not a primary nurse. Overall, patients, families, and nurses value care continuity and meaningful nurse-patient relationships, which is fundamental to primary nursing.
Bakitas, Marie; Lyons, Kathleen Doyle; Hegel, Mark T.; Ahles, Tim
Purpose To understand oncology clinicians’ perspectives about the care of advanced cancer patients following the completion of the ENABLE II (Educate, Nurture, Advise, Before Life Ends) randomized clinical trial (RCT) of a concurrent oncology palliative care model. Methods Qualitative interview study of 35 oncology clinicians about their approach to patients with advanced cancer and the effect of the ENABLE II RCT. Results Oncologists believed that integrating palliative care at the time of an advanced cancer diagnosis enhanced patient care and complemented their practice. Self-assessment of their practice with advanced cancer patients comprised four themes: 1) treating the whole patient, 2) focusing on quality versus quantity of life, 3) “some patients just want to fight”, and 4) helping with transitions; timing is everything. Five themes comprised oncologists’ views on the complementary role of palliative care: 1) “refer early and often”, 2) referral challenges: “Palliative” equals hospice; “Heme patients are different”, 3) palliative care as consultants or co-managers, 4) palliative care “shares the load”, and 5) ENABLE II facilitated palliative care integration. Conclusions Oncologists described the RCT as holistic and complementary, and as a significant factor in adopting concurrent care as a standard of care. PMID:23040412
Kenney, Lisa B; Cohen, Laurie E; Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Metzger, Monika L; Lockart, Barbara; Hijiya, Nobuko; Duffey-Lind, Eileen; Constine, Louis; Green, Daniel; Meacham, Lillian
The majority of children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with cancer will become long-term survivors. Although cancer therapy is associated with many adverse effects, one of the primary concerns of young male cancer survivors is reproductive health. Future fertility is often the focus of concern; however, it must be recognized that all aspects of male health, including pubertal development, testosterone production, and sexual function, can be impaired by cancer therapy. Although pretreatment strategies to preserve reproductive health have been beneficial to some male patients, many survivors remain at risk for long-term reproductive complications. Understanding risk factors and monitoring the reproductive health of young male survivors are important aspects of follow-up care. The Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancer (COG-LTFU Guidelines) were created by the COG to provide recommendations for follow-up care of survivors at risk for long-term complications. The male health task force of the COG-LTFU Guidelines, composed of pediatric oncologists, endocrinologists, nurse practitioners, a urologist, and a radiation oncologist, is responsible for updating the COG-LTFU Guidelines every 2 years based on literature review and expert consensus. This review summarizes current task force recommendations for the assessment and management of male reproductive complications after treatment for childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancers. Issues related to male health that are being investigated, but currently not included in the COG-LTFU Guidelines, are also discussed. Ongoing investigation will inform future COG-LTFU Guideline recommendations for follow-up care to improve health and quality of life for male survivors.
Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; El-Saghir, Nagi S; Cufer, Tanja; Cazap, Eduardo; de Guzman, Roselle; Othieno-Abinya, Nicholas Anthony; Sanchez, Jose Angel; Pyle, Doug
Despite much progress in the management of malignant diseases, the number of new cases and cancer-related deaths continues to rise around the world. More than half of new cases occur in economically developing countries, where more than two thirds of cancer deaths are expected. However, implementation of all necessary steps to accomplish the dissemination of state-of-the-art prevention, diagnosis, and management will require increased allocation of resources, and, more importantly, harmonization of the efforts of hundreds of national and international public health agencies, policy-setting bodies, governments, pharmaceutical companies, and philanthropic organizations. More than 30% of the members of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) reside and practice outside US borders, and more than half of attendees at all of the scientific congresses and symposia organized by ASCO are international. As cancer has become an increasingly global disease, ASCO has evolved as a global organization. The ASCO Board of Directors currently includes members from France, Brazil, and Canada. In 2013, the ASCO Board of Directors identified a number of strategic priorities for the future. Recognizing the importance of non-US members to the society, their first strategic priority was improving the society's service to non-US members and defining these members' identity in the international oncology community. This article reviews current ASCO activities in the international arena and its future plans in global oncology.
Full Text Available Head and neck cancer patients suffer from high levels of psychological comorbidity and often do not receive adequate psychological assistance. Therefore, speech therapists are frequently confronted with specific psychosocial challenges beyond the scope of their standard professional education. The following aspects were examined via a mixed-methods approach to explore their own perceptions of these challenges and their skills to deal with them: 1 The experiences and problems of speech therapists working with head and neck cancer patients; 2 the self-assessment of speech therapists' skills in cancer patient care; 3 the experiences and observations of psychologists supervising case discussions in oncology with speech therapists; 4 the communication skills of speech therapists working with emotionally distressed patients in oncology Our results show that therapists are acutely aware of their patients' distress. They agree that there is a need for patients to receive psychosocial counseling and that a significant portion of their speech therapy sessions is often dedicated to talking about personal problems. This difficult situation leads to: 1 deficiencies in speech therapists' ability to address patients' demands and deficiencies in distancing themselves from their patients; 2 speech therapists feeling overwhelmed with excessive demands and experiencing mental distress themselves. The psycho-oncological knowledge and communication skills among speech therapists were often deficient in light of such demands. There is a need for further training in psychological and social skills for speech therapists working with head and neck cancer patients. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1001220
Maltoni, M; Amadori, D
Traditionally, medical oncology and palliative care have been considered two distinct and separate disciplines, both as regards treatment objectives and delivery times. Palliative care in terminal stages, aimed exclusively at evaluating and improving quality of life, followed antitumor therapies, which concentrated solely on quantitative results (cure, prolongation of life, tumoral mass shrinkage). Over the years, more modern concepts have developed on the subject. Medical oncology, dealing with the skills and strategic co-ordination of oncologic interventions from primary prevention to terminal phases, should also include assessment and treatment of patients' subjective needs. Anticancer therapies should be evaluated in terms of both the quantitative and qualititative impact on patients' lives. Hence, the traditional view of palliative care has to be modified: it constitutes a philosophical and methodological approach to be adopted from the early phases of illness. It is not the evident cultural necessity of integrating medical oncology with palliative medicine that may be a matter of argument, but rather the organizational models needed to put this combined care into practice: should continuous care be guaranteed by a single figure, the medical oncologist, or rather by an interdisciplinary providers' team, including full-time doctors well-equipped for palliative care? In this paper the needs of cancer patients and the part that a complete oncologist should play to deal with such difficult and far-reaching problems are firstly described. Then, as mild provocation, data and critical considerations on the ever increasing needs of palliative care, the present shortcomings in quality of life and pain assessment and management by medical oncologists, and the uncertain efficacy of interventional programmes to change clinical practice are described. Finally, a model of therapeutic continuity is presented. which in our view is realistic and feasible: an Oncologic
Smith, C B; Nelson, J E; Berman, A R; Powell, C A; Fleischman, J; Salazar-Schicchi, J; Wisnivesky, J P
Integration of palliative care with standard oncologic care improves quality of life and survival of lung cancer patients. We surveyed physicians to identify factors influencing their decisions for referral to palliative care. We provided a self-administered questionnaire to physicians caring for lung cancer patients at five medical centers. The questionnaire asked about practices and views with respect to palliative care referral. We used multiple regression analysis to identify predictors of low referral rates (consultation. Multivariate analysis, controlling for provider characteristics, found that low referral rates were associated with physicians' concerns that palliative care referral would alarm patients and families [odds ratio (OR) 0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21-0.98], while the belief that palliative care specialists have more time to discuss complex issues (OR 3.07, 95% CI 1.56-6.02) was associated with higher rates of referral. Although palliative care consultation is increasingly available and recommended throughout the trajectory of lung cancer, our data indicate it is underutilized. Understanding factors influencing decisions to refer can be used to improve integration of palliative care as part of lung cancer management.
Silva, Adriana Ferreira da; Issi, Helena Becker; Motta, Maria da Graça Corso da; Botene, Daisy Zanchi de Abreu
To reveal the perceptions, expertise and practices of multi-professional teams providing palliative care to children in a paediatric oncology unit. The research questions were based on everyday care, facilitations and difficulties, essential aspects of professional approaches, and the inter-disciplinary focus of care for children in palliative care and their families. Qualitative, exploratory and descriptive research. Data were collected from June to October 2013 from nine professional multidisciplinary team members by means of a semi-structured interview submitted to thematic analysis. The following four themes emerged from analysis: palliative care: conceptions of the multi-professional team; the construction of singular care; the facilitations and difficulties experienced by the team and significant lessons learned. The subjects revealed that the team also suffers with the death of a child and, like the family, moves toward the construction of coping mechanisms for the elaboration of mourning. Paradoxically, the team shares knowledge to determine the foundations of a singular therapeutic project and inserts the family in this process so that it can be the protagonist of the child's care.
Randall, Thomas C; Ghebre, Rahel
Virtually all cases of invasive cervical cancer are associated with infection by high-risk strains of human papilloma virus. Effective primary and secondary prevention programs, as well as effective treatment for early-stage invasive cancer have dramatically reduced the burden of cervical cancer in high-income countries; 85% of the mortality from cervical cancer now occurs in low- and middle-income countries. This article provides an overview of challenges to cervical cancer care in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and identifies areas for programmatic development to meet the global development goal to reduce cancer-related mortality. Advanced stage at presentation and gaps in prevention, screening, diagnostic, and treatment capacities contribute to reduced cervical cancer survival. Cost-effective cervical cancer screening strategies implemented in low resource settings can reduce cervical cancer mortality. Patient- and system-based barriers need to be addressed as part of any cervical cancer control program. Limited human capacity and infrastructure in SSA are major barriers to comprehensive cervical cancer care. Management of early-stage, locally advanced or metastatic cervical cancer involves multispecialty care, including gynecology oncology, medical oncology, radiology, pathology, radiation oncology, and palliative care. Investment in cervical cancer care programs in low- and middle-income countries will need to include effective recruitment programs to engage women in the community to access cancer screening and diagnosis services. Though cervical cancer is a preventable and treatable cancer, the challenges to cervical control in SSA are great and will require a broadly integrated and sustained effort by multiple stakeholders before meaningful progress can be achieved.
Krebber Anne-Marie H; Leemans C; de Bree Remco; van Straten Annemieke; Smit Filip; Smit Egbert F; Becker Annemarie; Eeckhout Guus M; Beekman Aartjan TF; Cuijpers Pim; Leeuw Irma M
Abstract Background Psychological distress is common in cancer survivors. Although there is some evidence on effectiveness of psychosocial care in distressed cancer patients, referral rate is low. Lack of adequate screening instruments in oncology settings and insufficient availability of traditional models of psychosocial care are the main barriers. A stepped care approach has the potential to improve the efficiency of psychosocial care. The aim of the study described herein is to evaluate e...
Cancer care in the United States is being transformed by a number of medical and economic trends, including rising drug costs, increasing availability of targeted therapies and oral oncolytic agents, healthcare reform legislation, changing reimbursement practices, a growing emphasis on comparative effectiveness research (CER), the emerging role of accountable care organizations (ACOs), and the increased role of personalization of cancer care. To examine the attitudes of health plan payers and pharmacy benefit managers (PBMs) toward recent changes in cancer care, current cost-management strategies, and anticipated changes in oncology practice during the next 5 years. An online survey with approximately 200 questions was conducted by Reimbursement Intelligence in 2011. The survey was completed by 24 medical directors and 31 pharmacy directors from US national and regional health plans and 8 PBMs. All respondents are part of a proprietary panel of managed care decision makers and are members of the Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committees of their respective plans, which together manage more than 150 million lives. Survey respondents received an honorarium for completing the survey. The survey included quantitative and qualitative questions about recent developments in oncology management, such as the impact on their plans or PBMs of healthcare reform, quality improvement initiatives, changes in reimbursement and financial incentives, use of targeted and oral oncolytics, and personalized medicine. Respondents were treated as 1 group, because there were no evident differences in responses between medical and pharmacy directors or PBMs. Overall, survey respondents expressed interest in monitoring and controlling the costs of cancer therapy, and they anticipated increased use of specialty pharmacy for oncology drugs. When clinical outcomes are similar for oral oncolytics and injectable treatments, 93% prefer the oral agents, which are covered under the specialty tier by 59
Gillman, Lucia; Adams, Jillian; Kovac, Robyn; Kilcullen, Anne; House, Annita; Doyle, Claire
Cancer care nursing is perceived as personally and professionally demanding. Developing effective coping skills and resilience has been associated with better health and wellbeing for nurses, work longevity and improved quality of patient care. The objective of this systematic review was to identify personal and organizational strategies that promote coping and resilience in oncology and palliative care nurses caring for adult patients with malignancy. The search strategy identified published and unpublished studies from 2007 to 2013. Individual search strategies were developed for the 12 databases accessed and search alerts established. The review considered qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies that assessed personal or organizational interventions, programs or strategies that promoted coping and resilience. These included studies employing clinical supervision, staff retreats, psycho-educational programs, compassion fatigue resilience programs, stress inoculation therapy and individual approaches that reduced the emotional impact of cancer care work. The outcomes of interest were the experience of factors that influence an individual's coping and resilience and outcomes of validated measures of coping or resilience. Methodological quality of studies was independently assessed by two reviewers prior to inclusion in the review using standardized critical appraisal instruments developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Standardized Joanna Briggs Institute tools were also used to extract data. Agreement on the synthesis of the findings from qualitative studies was reached through discussion. The results of quantitative studies could not be statistically pooled given the different study designs, interventions and outcome measures. These studies were presented in narrative form. Twenty studies were included in the review. Ten studies examined the experience of nurse's caring for the dying, the emotional impact of palliative care and oncology work and
Schachtschneider, Kyle M.; Schwind, Regina M.; Newson, Jordan
in bridging the gap between fundamental diagnostic and therapeutic discoveries and human clinical trials. Such animal models offer insights into all aspects of the basic science-clinical translational cancer research continuum (screening, detection, oncogenesis, tumor biology, immunogenicity, therapeutics......-the Oncopig Cancer Model (OCM)-as a next-generation large animal platform for the study of hematologic and solid tumor oncology. With mutations in key tumor suppressor and oncogenes, TP53R167H and KRASG12D , the OCM recapitulates transcriptional hallmarks of human disease while also exhibiting clinically...
Bekhtereva, E I; Tseĭlikman, E G; Vazhenin, A V; Dinerman, M Z; Kuklenko, L P
102 cases of primary multiple breast cancer (bilateral and multicentric tumors-61; synchronous tumors of the breast and genitals-12) were treated at the Regional Oncological Dispensary in Chelyabinsk in 1976-83. Tumors generally occurred in patients of the 40-50 years bracket at an interval of 5.2 +/- 0.3 years. A certain role in the pathogenesis of primary multiple breast cancer was played by reproductive function as well as previous treatment modality (gamma-therapy, cytostatic treatment and ovariectomy).
Petersen, Cheryl L; Callahan, Margaret Faut; McCarthy, Donna O; Hughes, Ronda G; White-Traut, Rosemary; Bansal, Naveen K
This study evaluated the potential impact of an online spiritual care educational program on pediatric nurses' attitudes toward and knowledge of spiritual care and their competence to provide spiritual care to children with cancer at the end of life. It was hypothesized that the intervention would increase nurses' positive attitudes toward and knowledge of spiritual care and increase nurses' level of perceived spiritual care competence. A positive correlation was expected between change in nurses' perceived attitudes toward and knowledge of spiritual care and change in nurses' perceived spiritual care competence. A prospective, longitudinal design was employed, and analyses included one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance, linear regression, and partial correlation. Statistically significant differences were found in nurses' attitudes toward and knowledge of spiritual care and nurses' perceived spiritual care competence. There was a positive relationship between change scores in nurses' attitudes toward and knowledge of spiritual care and nurses' spiritual care competence. Online spiritual care educational programs may exert a lasting impact on nurses' attitudes toward and knowledge of spiritual care and their competence to provide spiritual care to children with cancer at the end of life. Additional studies are required to evaluate the direct effects of educational interventions patient outcomes.
Levenhagen, Kimberly; Davies, Claire; Perdomo, Marisa; Ryans, Kathryn
Introduction: The Oncology Section of APTA developed a clinical practice guideline to aid the clinician in diagnosing secondary upper-quadrant cancer-related lymphedema. Methods: Following a systematic review of published studies and a structured appraisal process, recommendations were written to guide the physical therapist and other health care clinicians in their diagnostic process. Overall, clinical practice recommendations were formulated on the basis of the evidence for each diagnostic method and were assigned a grade based on the strength of the evidence for different patient presentations and clinical utility. Recommendations: In an effort to make these clinically applicable, recommendations were based on the characteristics as to the location and stage of a patient's upper-quadrant lymphedema. PMID:28748128
Shukla, Gaurav; Khera, Harvinder Kour; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Khare, Piush; Patidar, Rahul; Saxena, Rajiv
Stem cell research is a rapidly developing field that offers effective treatment for a variety of malignant and non-malignant diseases. Stem cell is a regenerative medicine associated with the replacement, repair, and restoration of injured tissue. Stem cell research is a promising field having maximum therapeutic potential. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are the cells within the tumor that posses capacity of selfrenewal and have a root cause for the failure of traditional therapies leading to re-occurrence of cancer. CSCs have been identified in blood, breast, brain, and colon cancer. Traditional therapies target only fast growing tumor mass, but not slow-dividing cancer stem cells. It has been shown that embryonic pathways such as Wnt, Hedgehog and Notch, control self-renewal capacity and involved in cancer stem cell maintenance. Targeting of these pathways may be effective in eradicating cancer stem cells and preventing chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistance. Targeting CSCs has become one of the most effective approaches to improve the cancer survival by eradicating the main root cause of cancer. The present review will address, in brief, the importance of cancer stem cells in targeting cancer as better and effective treatment along with a concluding outlook on the scope and challenges in the implication of cancer stem cells in translational oncology.
Rustoen, Tone; Geerling, Jenske I.; Pappa, Theodora; Rundstrom, Carina; Weisse, Isolde; Williams, Sian C.; Zavratnik, Bostjan; Kongsgaard, Ulf E.; Wengstrom, Yvonne
Purpose of the research: Breakthrough cancer pain (BTCP) is a prevalent type of pain in which the nurse can play an important role in improving patients' pain symptoms and overall well-being. Nurses' experience with BTCP (number of patients, and estimates of severity and frequency), the treatment of
Yan-Fang Guan; Gai-Rui Li; Rong-Jiao Wang; Yu-Ting Yi; Ling Yang; Dan Jiang; Xiao-Ping Zhang; Yin Peng
With the development and improvement of new sequencing technology,next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been applied increasingly in cancer genomics research over the past decade.More recently,NGS has been adopted in clinical oncology to advance personalized treatment of cancer.NGS is used to identify novel and rare cancer mutations,detect familial cancer mutation carriers,and provide molecular rationale for appropriate targeted therapy.Compared to traditional sequencing,NGS holds many advantages,such as the ability to fully sequence all types of mutations for a large number of genes (hundreds to thousands) in a single test at a relatively low cost.However,significant challenges,particularly with respect to the requirement for simpler assays,more flexible throughput,shorter turnaround time,and most importantly,easier data analysis and interpretation,will have to be overcome to translate NGS to the bedside of cancer patients.Overall,continuous dedication to apply NGS in clinical oncology practice will enable us to be one step closer to personalized medicine.
Courtney-Brooks, Madeleine; Pelkofski, Elizabeth B; Engelhard, Carolyn L; Duska, Linda R
Many gynecologic oncology (GO) patients in Virginia are low income and their care is supplemented by Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) funds. Our objective is to estimate how many new GO patients may lose access to care if the state forgoes Medicaid expansion. New patients referred to the GO service between July 1, 2010 and July 1, 2012 were identified. Data were collected regarding age, race, referral diagnosis, payor, and state pay scale. Pay scale 1 (PS1) is equal to the federal poverty level (FPL). Assumptions included the following: (1) pay scale is a surrogate for income, (2) PS1 patients will be ineligible for discounted insurance through the exchanges, and (3) decreasing DSH funds will result in a reduction of the free-care pool. There were 1623 referrals to the GO service and the majority (83%) was Caucasian. The payor distribution was 44% commercial insurance, 5.6% Medicaid, 31% Medicare, and 10.4% uninsured. Among the 361 women who were PS1, 32% were uninsured. Thirty percent of PS1 patients were minorities and 47.4% had a malignancy. Of note, 52% of new patients with cervical cancer were PS1. Seven percent of new GO patients are PS1 and uninsured. This population contains a disproportionate number of minorities and women with cancer. These women will have difficulty affording care as DSH funding decreases, particularly in states with lean Medicaid that opt out of Medicaid expansion. The burden of lack of access to care will be shouldered by an unfortunate few. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Patricia; Tai; Edward; Yu
Esophageal cancer treatment has evolved from single modality to trimodality therapy.There are some controversies of the role,target volumes and dose of radiotherapy(RT)in the literature over decades.The present review focuses primarily on RT as part of the treatment modalities,and highlight on the RT volume and its dose in the management of esophageal cancer.The randomized adjuvant chemoradiation(CRT)trial,intergroup trial(INT 0116)enrolled 559 patients with resected adenocarcinoma of the stomach or gastroesophageal junction.They were randomly assigned to surgery plus postoperative CRT or surgery alone.Analyses show robust treatment benefit of adjuvant CRT in most subsets for postoperative CRT.The Chemoradiotherapy for Oesophageal Cancer Followed by Surgery Study(CROSS)used a lower RT dose of41.4 Gray in 23 fractions with newer chemotherapeutic agents carboplatin and paclitaxel to achieve an excellent result.Target volume of external beam radiation therapy and its coverage have been in debate for years among radiation oncologists.Pre-operative and postoperative target volumes are designed to optimize for disease control.Esophageal brachytherapy is effective in the palliation of dysphagia,but should not be given concomitantly with chemotherapy or external beam RT.The role of brachytherapy in multimodality management requires further investigation.On-going studies of multidisciplinary treatment in locally advanced cancer include:ZTOG1201 trial(a phaseⅡtrial of neoadjuvant and adjuvant CRT)and QUINTETT(a phaseⅢtrial of neoadjuvant vs adjuvant therapy with quality of life analysis).These trials hopefully will shed more light on the future management of esophageal cancer.
Dittus, Kim L.; Lakoski, Susan G.; Savage, Patrick D.; Kokinda, Nathan; Toth, Michael; Stevens, Diane; Woods, Kimberly; O’Brien, Patricia; Ades, Philip A.
PURPOSE The value of exercise and rehabilitative interventions for cancer survivors is increasingly clear and oncology rehabilitation programs could provide these important interventions. However, a pathway to create oncology rehabilitation has not been delineated. Community-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs staffed by health care professionals with experience in providing rehabilitation and secondary prevention services to individuals with coronary heart disease are widely available and provide a potential model and location for oncology rehabilitation programs. Our purpose is to outline the rehabilitative needs of cancer survivors and demonstrate how oncology rehabilitation can be created using a cardiac rehabilitation model. METHODS We identify the impairments associated with cancer and its therapy that respond to rehabilitative interventions. Components of the CR model that would benefit cancer survivors are described. An example of an oncology rehabilitation program using a CR model is presented. RESULTS Cancer survivors have impairments associated with cancer and its therapy that improve with rehabilitation. Our experience demonstrates that effective rehabilitation services can be provided utilizing an existing CR infrastructure. Few adjustments to current cardiac rehabilitation models would be needed to provide oncology rehabilitation. Preliminary evidence suggests that cancer survivors participating in an oncology rehabilitation program experience improvements in psychological and physiologic parameters. CONCLUSIONS Utilizing the CR model of rehabilitative services and disease management provides a much needed mechanism to bring oncology rehabilitation to larger numbers of cancer survivors. PMID:25407596
Rogers, Miriam P.
A study determined the learning needs of office oncology nurses (n=290)as a critical first step in planning education programs. Participants ranked cancer-care topics similarly, regardless of age, background, or experience. The highest-ranked needs were clustered in the areas of cancer nursing practice, major cancers, and cancer treatment.…
Costa, Patrícia de Oliveira; Atta, Elias Hallack; Silva, André Ricardo Araújo da
This study aimed at evaluating the predictors and outcomes associated with multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacterial (MDR-GNB) infections in an oncology pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Data were collected relating to all episodes of GNB infection that occurred in a PICU between January of 2009 and December of 2012. GNB infections were divided into two groups for comparison: (1) infections attributed to MDR-GNB and (2) infections attributed to non-MDR-GNB. Variables of interest included age, gender, presence of solid tumor or hematologic disease, cancer status, central venous catheter use, previous Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, healthcare-associated infection, neutropenia in the preceding 7 days, duration of neutropenia, length of hospital stay before ICU admission, length of ICU stay, and the use of any of the following in the previous 30 days: antimicrobial agents, corticosteroids, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy. Other variables included initial appropriate antimicrobial treatment, definitive inadequate antimicrobial treatment, duration of appropriate antibiotic use, time to initiate adequate antibiotic therapy, and the 7- and 30-day mortality. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed significant relationships between MDR-GNB and hematologic diseases (odds ratio [OR] 5.262; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.282-21.594; p=0.021) and healthcare-associated infection (OR 18.360; 95% CI 1.778-189.560; p=0.015). There were significant differences between MDR-GNB and non-MDR-GNB patients for the following variables: inadequate initial empirical antibiotic therapy, time to initiate adequate antibiotic treatment, and inappropriate antibiotic therapy. Hematologic malignancy and healthcare-associated infection were significantly associated with MDR-GNB infection in this sample of pediatric oncology patients. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Araujo, Sergio Eduardo Alonso; Seid, Victor Edmond; Klajner, Sidney
Laparoscopic rectal surgery continues to be a challenging operation associated to a steep learning curve. Robotic surgical systems have dramatically changed minimally invasive surgery. Three-dimensional, magnified and stable view, articulated instruments, and reduction of physiologic tremors leading to superior dexterity and ergonomics. Therefore, robotic platforms could potentially address limitations of laparoscopic rectal surgery. It was aimed at reviewing current literature on short-term clinical and oncological (pathological) outcomes after robotic rectal cancer surgery in comparison with laparoscopic surgery. A systematic review was performed for the period 2002 to 2014. A total of 1776 patients with rectal cancer underwent minimally invasive robotic treatment in 32 studies. After robotic and laparoscopic approach to oncologic rectal surgery, respectively, mean operating time varied from 192-385 min, and from 158-297 min; mean estimated blood loss was between 33 and 283 mL, and between 127 and 300 mL; mean length of stay varied from 4-10 d; and from 6-15 d. Conversion after robotic rectal surgery varied from 0% to 9.4%, and from 0 to 22% after laparoscopy. There was no difference between robotic (0%-41.3%) and laparoscopic (5.5%-29.3%) surgery regarding morbidity and anastomotic complications (respectively, 0%-13.5%, and 0%-11.1%). Regarding immediate oncologic outcomes, respectively among robotic and laparoscopic cases, positive circumferential margins varied from 0% to 7.5%, and from 0% to 8.8%; the mean number of retrieved lymph nodes was between 10 and 20, and between 11 and 21; and the mean distal resection margin was from 0.8 to 4.7 cm, and from 1.9 to 4.5 cm. Robotic rectal cancer surgery is being undertaken by experienced surgeons. However, the quality of the assembled evidence does not support definite conclusions about most studies variables. Robotic rectal cancer surgery is associated to increased costs and operating time. It also seems to be
Élide Sbardellotto Mariano da Costa
Full Text Available Summary Objective: To analyze the health care costs specifically related to cardiovascular diseases, which were spent by patients of a private healthcare provider in southern Brazil, after their diagnosis of cancer. Method: We developed an observational, cross-sectional, retrospective study, with a qualitative-quantitative strategy, through the activity of analytical internal audit of medical accounts. Results: 860 accounts from 2012 to 2015 were analyzed, 73% referred to female users, with average age of 62.38 years, and a total direct cost of BRL 241,103.72. There was prevalence of 37% of breast cancer, 15% of prostate cancer and 9% of colon cancer. In relation to the cardiovascular care, 44% were consultations, 44% were complementary exams, 10% were emergency care, and 3% were hospitalizations. Regarding the health care costs with cardiovascular services, higher costs were in hospitalizations (51%, followed by complementary exams (37%, consultations (8% and emergency care (4%. Conclusion: The cancer survivors commonly use health care in other specialties such as cardiology, and the main cost refers to hospitalization. It is recommended to invest in prevention (consultation and complementary exam as well as in programs of chronic disease management to reduce costs and improve the quality of health care.
The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study Original Version provides background for the curriculum and identifies gaps in current and desired comprehensive cancer care.
Eav, S; Schraub, S; Dufour, P; Taisant, D; Ra, C; Bunda, P
Cambodia, a country of 14 million inhabitants, was devastated during the Khmer Rouge period and thereafter. The resources of treatment are rare: only one radiotherapy department, renovated in 2003, with an old cobalt machine; few surgeons trained to operate on cancer patients; no hematology; no facilities to use intensive chemotherapy; no nuclear medicine department and no palliative care unit. Cervical cancer incidence is one of the highest in the world, while in men liver cancer ranks first (20% of all male cancers). Cancers are seen at stage 3 or 4 for 70% of patients. There is no prevention program - only a vaccination program against hepatitis B for newborns - and no screening program for cervical cancer or breast cancer. In 2010, oncology, recognized as a full specialty, was created to train the future oncologists on site at the University of Phnom Penh. A new National Cancer Center will be built in 2013 with modern facilities for radiotherapy, medical oncology, hematology and nuclear medicine. Cooperation with foreign countries, especially France, and international organizations has been established and is ongoing. Progress is occurring slowly due to the shortage of money for Cambodian institutions and the lay public.
Gobbi, Chiara; Hsuan, Juliana
The paper presents the findings of a case study research conducted within the Danish healthcare system aimed at analyzing how modularity is deployed in the process of delivery cancer care. Three cancer packages are presented into detailed describing the process of defining the diagnosis and treat...
Feldmann, Georg; Rauenzahn, Sherri; Maitra, Anirban
Background Pancreatic cancer is a disease of near uniform fatality and the overwhelming majority of patients succumb to their advanced malignancy within a few months of diagnosis. Despite considerable advances in our understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying pancreatic carcinogenesis, this knowledge has not yet been fully translated into clinically available treatment strategies that yield significant improvements in disease free or overall survival. Objective Cell line-based in vitro model systems provide powerful tools to identify potential molecular targets for therapeutic intervention as well as for initial pre-clinical evaluation of novel drug candidates. Here we provide a brief overview of recent literature on cell line-based model systems of pancreatic cancer and their application in the search for novel therapeutics against this vicious disease. Conclusion While in vitro models of pancreatic cancer are of tremendous value for genetic studies and initial functional screenings in drug discovery, they carry several imanent drawbacks and are often poor in predicting therapeutic response in humans. Therefore, in most instances they are successfully exploited to generate hypothesis and identify molecular targets for novel therapeutics, which are subsequently subject to further in-depth characterization using more advanced in vivo model systems and clinical trials. PMID:20160967
Razavi, D; Delvaux, N
The important prevalence of psychosocial problems and psychiatric disturbances that have been reported in oncology, underlines the need for comprehensive psychosocial support for cancer patients and their families. Psychosocial support is designed to preserve, restore or enhance quality of life. Quality of life refers not only to psychosocial distress and adjustment-related problems but also to the management of cancer symptoms and treatment side-effects. Psychosocial interventions designed for this purpose should be divided into five categories: prevention, early detection, restoration, support and palliation. Firstly, preventive interventions are designed to avoid the development of predictable morbidity secondary to treatment and/or disease. Secondly, early detection of patients' needs or problems refers to the assumption that early interventions' could have therapeutic results superior to those of delayed support, both for quality of life and survival. Thirdly, restorative interventions refer to actions used when a cure is likely, the aim being the control or elimination of residual cancer disability. Fourthly, supportive rehabilitation is planned to lessen disability related to chronic disease, characterised by cancer illness remission and progression, and to active treatment. Fifthly, palliation is required when curative treatments are likely to no longer be effective, and when maintaining or improving comfort becomes the main goal. Psychological interventions are often multidisciplinary, with a variety of content. The type of psychological intervention ranges from information and education to more sophisticated support programmes including directive (behavioural or cognitive) therapies, or non-directive (dynamic or supportive) therapies. Social interventions usually include financial, household, equipment, and transport assistance depending on individual and family needs and resources. These interventions may be combined with the prescription of
Ellimoottil, Chandy; Miller, David C
The Affordable Care Act seeks to overhaul the US health care system by providing insurance for more Americans, improving the quality of health care delivery, and reducing health care expenditures. Although the law's intent is clear, its implementation and effect on patient care remains largely undefined. Herein, we discuss major components of the Affordable Care Act, including the proposed insurance expansion, payment and delivery system reforms (e.g., bundled payments and Accountable Care Organizations), and other reforms relevant to the field of urologic oncology. We also discuss how these proposed reforms may affect patients with urologic cancers.
Hansson, Eva Helena; Kjaergaard, H; Schmiegelow, K
. Our study highlights the importance of providing hospital-based home care with consideration for the family members' need for the sense of security achieved by home care by experienced paediatric oncology nurses and regular contact with the doctor. In future studies, interviews with children......The study aims to describe the experiences of a hospital-based home care programme in the families of children with cancer. Fourteen parents, representing 10 families, were interviewed about their experiences of a hospital-based home care programme during a 4-month period in 2009 at a university...... hospital in Denmark. Five children participated in all or part of the interview. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis. The findings indicate that hospital-based home care enabled the families to remain intact throughout the course of treatment...
Grigorescu, Alexandru C.
Objectives First objective was better understanding of the indications of chemotherapy in elderly with advanced cancer, tolerability and toxicity of chemotherapy in this age group. The second objective was to define current practice in chemotherapy for elderly people with advanced cancer for a selected group of patients treated in Institute of Oncology Bucharest (IOB). Materials and Methods The study makes a clinical analysis of medical records of 27 patients from the archive of Institute of Oncology Bucharest treated by the same doctor. Patients were selected according to: age ≥ 65 years, ECOG performance status 0–1, normal blood counts and blood biochemistry, histological confirmation of the diagnosis of cancer, patients should received at least 3 cycles of chemotherapy. We extract characteristics of the patients to see if they were a homogeneous group of patients and to compare them with data from the literature. Overall survival was calculated by the Kaplan Meyer curve. Results 295 patients more then 65 years were treated in our site in 2 years 2011, 2012. 93 patients received chemotherapy and only 27 patients were enrolled in this study following inclusion criteria. Common sites of cancer were lung and breast. The most used cytostatics for lung cancer was gemcitabine and carboplatine and cyclophosphamide, metotrexat and 5 fluorouracil for breast cancer. Toxicity was mild with the prevalence of hematologic toxicity. Overall survival without taking into account the type of cancer was 27.7 month. Conclusions For selected patients, chemotherapy was well tolerated and appears to prolong survival regardless of the location of cancer. The relatively small number of elderly patients who received chemotherapy is probably due to lack of compliance to treatment, the increased number of co-morbidities and evaluation of performance status only by the ECOG index known not to be good enough to establish the indication of chemotherapy. PMID:27847881
Raíla de Souza Santos
Full Text Available O município do Rio de Janeiro apresenta grandes taxas de mortalidade para o câncer de mama e colo uterino. Analisou-se a trajetória dos óbitos por câncer de mama e colo uterino no município do Rio de Janeiro e relacionaram-se a oferta de serviços de saúde e o fluxo de pacientes entre o local de residência e o hospital. Estudo ecológico de base populacional que analisou óbitos por câncer de mama e colo uterino no município do Rio de Janeiro, no período de 2005-2008, mapeando os fluxos de casos da residência para os serviços de saúde. O Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade registrou, no período analisado, 3.384 óbitos por câncer de mama e 771 óbitos por câncer do colo de útero. A localização geográfica dos estabelecimentos de saúde define uma distribuição espacial dos óbitos extremamente desigual, alternando padrões de escassez em algumas áreas (periferia da cidade e excesso em outras (Centro.La ciudad de Rio de Janeiro tiene altas tasas de mortalidad por cáncer de mama y cuello uterino. Se analizó la trayectoria de las muertes por cáncer de mama y cáncer cervico-uterino en Rio de Janeiro y se vinculó la prestación de servicios de salud y el flujo de pacientes entre la residencia y el hospital. Estudio ecológico basado en la población que examinó las muertes de cáncer de mama y el cáncer cervical en la ciudad de Rio de Janeiro, en el período 2005-2008. El Sistema de Información sobre la mortalidad ha registrado en el período analizado 3.384 muertes por cáncer de mama y 771 muertes por cáncer de cáncer de cuello uterino. La ubicación geográfica de los centros de salud definió una distribución espacial de las muertes extremadamente desigual, alternando los padrones de escasez en algunas zonas (fuera de la ciudad y el exceso en los demás (Central.The city of Rio de Janeiro has high rates of mortality for breast cancer and uterine cervix. In this study was analyzed the trajectory of deaths
Buthion, Valérie; Moumjid, Nora; Margier, Jennifer
OBJECTIVES In the context of cancer, non-medical supportive care improves quality of life. While policymakers expect it to be cheaper than high-tech medical care, we hypothesized that it is in fact embedded in and camouflaged by hospital medical services. METHODS In a cross-sectional descriptive study, we conducted qualitative interviews with healthcare providers, patients and family caregivers in France. We first performed a functional analysis to identify non-medical supportive care functio...
Geue, Kristina; Buttstädt, Marianne; Richter, Robert; Böhler, Ursula; Singer, Susanne
In this paper the formal and contentual structure of the outpatient art education programme for oncological patients is presented. The group intervention was comprised of 22 separate sessions. The course consisted of 3 phases. The first unit helped to foster mutual understanding and to learn various experimental drawing techniques using a given topic. The second unit merged into the shaping of personal thoughts and feelings with the aim of encouraging self-perception and reflection. The aim in the third phase is to create a personal book. The effects of the intervention for the participants were examined in studies. The art therapist as well as the supervisor sees development of better coping strategies, contact with other patients and enhancement of scope of action through the regular activities as main effects. Participants reported the enlargement of means of expression, emotional stabilization, coping with illness, personal growth and contacts with other patients as meanings. This art education course enlarges the field of psycho-oncological interventions in outpatient care with a low-treshhold and resource-oriented creative programme.
A. P. Gnatyuk
Full Text Available Abstract:The globally increased concern with the situation, existing in oncology, is conditioned by a steady incidence rate of malignant neoplasms, having a tendency to its growth. Annually over 7 million people die in the world due to cancer, by 2020, according to WHO estimations, this index will increase to 10 million. By the end of the 2013 report year patient population with cancer, registered in cancer care facilities of the Russian Federation, is 3 098 855 (2 995 566 in 2012, i. e. 2,1% of the population of the country. The system of cancer care delivery to the population in the Russian Federation and in Moscow is aimed at an early diagnostics and prevention of malignant neoplasms. Municipal cancer care service establishes the patients’ routes at suspicion on oncological disease and determines the functions of all links of health care for this type of patients. Stateof-the-art delivery of oncological specialty care has been built up with account of modern demands and is functionally structured in accordance with tree-level municipal health care system.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The ageing of the population is expected to bring an enormous growth in demand for oncological health care. In order to anticipate and respond to future trends, cancer care needs to be critically evaluated. The present study explores the possibility of conducting representative and population-based research on cancer care on the basis of data drawn from the Cancer Registry. Methods A population-based state-wide cohort study (OVIS has been carried out in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. All patients with malignant melanoma, breast, or prostate cancer were identified in the Cancer Registry. Epidemiological data were obtained for all the patients and screened for study eligibility. A postal questionnaire requesting information on diagnosis, therapy, QoL and aftercare was sent to eligible patients. Results A total of 11,489 persons diagnosed with the cancer types of interest in the period from January 2002 to July 2004 were registered in the Cancer Registry. Of the 5,354 (47% patients who gave consent for research, 4,285 (80% of consenters completed the questionnaire. In terms of relevant epidemiological variables, participants with melanoma were not found to be different from non-participants with the same diagnosis. However, participants with breast or prostate cancer were slightly younger and had smaller tumours than patients who did not participate in our study. Conclusion Population-based cancer registry data proved to be an invaluable resource for both patient recruitment and non-participant analysis. It can help improve our understanding of the strength and nature of differences between participants and non-respondents. Despite minor differences observed in breast and prostate cancer, the OVIS-sample seems to represent the source population adequately.
Treatment for Cancer Patients with Oral Mucositis: Assessment Based on the Mucositis Study Group of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer in International Society of Oral Oncology (MASCC/ISOO) in 2013 and Proposal of Possible Novel Treatment with a Japanese Herbal Medicine.
Miyano, Kanako; Ueno, Takao; Yatsuoka, Wakako; Uezono, Yasuhito
The cancer patients who received chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hematopoietic stem cell transplant and terminal care often have a wide range of stomatitis, which induces severe pain and limits fundamental life behaviors such as "eating, drinking and talking". In addition, oral mucositis frequently leads to systemic infection through opportunistic microorganisms, which causes extension of hospitalization. Severe oral mucositis often causes cancer patients to partially or completely discontinue/modify cancer therapy regimen, which adversely affects the curative effects of cancer. Therefore, the control of oral mucositis is important and indispensable for improvement of quality of life and prognosis. In this review, we introduce recent trends of the oral mucositis management in cancer patients, according to the following sentences; 1) pathophysiological mechanisms of oral mucositis, 2) assessment, 3) risk factors, 4) prevention and treatment, and 5) development of novel therapy for oral mucositis.
Maloney, Cristine; Lyons, Kathleen Doyle; Li, Zhongze; Hegel, Mark; Ahles, Tim A; Bakitas, Marie
ENABLE (Educate, Nurture, Advise Before Life Ends) II was one of the first randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effects of a concurrent oncology palliative care intervention on quality of life, mood, and symptom control for advanced cancer patients and their caregivers. However, little is known about how participants experience early palliative care and the benefits and burdens of participating in a palliative care clinical trial. To gain a deeper understanding of participants' perspectives of the intervention and palliative care trial participation. A qualitative descriptive study using thematic analysis to determine benefits and burdens of a new palliative care intervention and trial participation. Of the 72 participants who were alive when the study commenced, 53 agreed to complete an in-depth, semi-structured interview regarding the ENABLE II intervention and clinical trial participation. Participants' perceptions of intervention benefits were represented by four themes: enhanced problem-solving skills, better coping, feeling empowered, and feeling supported or reassured. Three themes related to trial participation: helping future patients and contributing to science, gaining insight through completion of questionnaires, and trial/intervention aspects to improve. The benefits of the intervention and the positive aspects of trial participation outweighed trial "burdens". This study raises additional important questions relevant to future trial design and intervention development: when should a palliative care intervention be initiated and what aspects of self-care and healthy living should be offered in addition to palliative content for advanced cancer patients when they are feeling well?
Hui, David; Bruera, Eduardo
Over the past five decades, palliative care has evolved from serving patients at the end of life into a highly specialized discipline focused on delivering supportive care to patients with life-limiting illnesses throughout the disease trajectory. A growing body of evidence is now available to inform the key domains in the practice of palliative care, including symptom management, psychosocial care, communication, decision-making, and end-of-life care. Findings from multiple studies indicate that integrating palliative care early in the disease trajectory can result in improvements in quality of life, symptom control, patient and caregiver satisfaction, illness understanding, quality of end-of-life care, survival, and costs of care. In this narrative Review, we discuss various strategies to integrate oncology and palliative care by optimizing clinical infrastructures, processes, education, and research. The goal of integration is to maximize patient access to palliative care and, ultimately, to improve patient outcomes. We provide a conceptual model for the integration of supportive and/or palliative care with primary and oncological care. We also discuss how health-care systems and institutions need to tailor integration based on their resources, size, and the level of primary palliative care available.
Full Text Available Abstract During the past decade, genomic microarrays have been applied with some success to the molecular profiling of breast tumours, which has resulted in a much more detailed classification scheme as well as in the identification of potential gene signature sets. These gene sets have been applied to both the prognosis and prediction of outcome to treatment and have performed better than the current clinical criteria. One of the main limitations of microarray analysis, however, is that frozen tumour samples are required for the assay. This imposes severe limitations on access to samples and precludes large scale validation studies from being conducted. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, on the other hand, can be used with degraded RNAs derived from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tumour samples, the most important and abundant source of clinical material available. More recently, the novel DASL (cDNA-mediated Annealing, Selection, extension and Ligation assay has been developed as a high throughput gene expression profiling system specifically designed for use with FFPE tumour tissue samples. However, we do not believe that genomics is adequate as a sole prognostic and predictive platform in breast cancer. The key proteins driving oncogenesis, for example, can undergo post-translational modifications; moreover, if we are ever to move individualization of therapy into the practical world of blood-based assays, serum proteomics becomes critical. Proteomic platforms, including tissue micro-arrays (TMA and protein chip arrays, in conjunction with surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF/MS, have been the technologies most widely applied to the characterization of tumours and serum from breast cancer patients, with still limited but encouraging results. This review will focus on these genomic and proteomic platforms, with an emphasis placed on the utilization
Vassal, Gilles; Rousseau, Raphaël; Blanc, Patricia; Moreno, Lucas; Bode, Gerlind; Schwoch, Stefan; Schrappe, Martin; Skolnik, Jeffrey; Bergman, Lothar; Bradley-Garelik, Mary Brigid; Saha, Vaskar; Pearson, Andy; Zwierzina, Heinz
Seven years after the launch of the European Paediatric Medicine Regulation, limited progress in paediatric oncology drug development remains a major concern amongst stakeholders - academics, industry, regulatory authorities, parents, patients and caregivers. Restricted increases in early phase paediatric oncology trials, legal requirements and regulatory pressure to propose early Paediatric Investigation Plans (PIPs), missed opportunities to explore new drugs potentially relevant for paediatric malignancies, lack of innovative trial designs and no new incentives to develop drugs against specific paediatric targets are some unmet needs. Better access to new anti-cancer drugs for paediatric clinical studies and improved collaboration between stakeholders are essential. The Cancer Drug Development Forum (CDDF), previously Biotherapy Development Association (BDA), with Innovative Therapy for Children with Cancer Consortium (ITCC), European Society for Paediatric Oncology (SIOPE) and European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents (ENCCA) has created a unique Paediatric Oncology Platform, involving multiple stakeholders and the European Union (EU) Commission, with an urgent remit to improve paediatric oncology drug development. The Paediatric Oncology Platform proposes to recommend immediate changes in the implementation of the Regulation and set the framework for its 2017 revision; initiatives to incentivise drug development against specific paediatric oncology targets, and repositioning of drugs not developed in adults. Underpinning these changes is a strategy for mechanism of action and biology driven selection and prioritisation of potential paediatric indications rather than the current process based on adult cancer indications. Pre-competitive research and drug prioritisation, early portfolio evaluation, cross-industry cooperation and multi-compound/sponsor trials are being explored, from which guidance for innovative trial designs will be
Heins, M.J.; Lorenzi, M.F.; Korevaar, J.C.; McBride, M.L.
Background: Children diagnosed with cancer often require extensive care for medical, psychosocial and educational problems during and after therapy. Part of this care is provided by family physicians and non-cancer specialists, but their involvement in the first years after diagnosis has barely been
Coleman, C Norman
Technical advances in radiation oncology including CT-simulation, 3D- conformal and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivery techniques, and brachytherapy have allowed greater treatment precision and dose escalation. The ability to intensify treatment requires the identification of the critical targets within the treatment field, recognizing the unique biology of tumor, stroma and normal tissue. Precision is technology based while accuracy is biologically based. Therefore, the intensity of IMRT will undoubtedly mean an increase in both irradiation dose and the use of biological agents, the latter considered in the broadest sense. Radiation oncology has the potential and the opportunity to provide major contributions to the linkage between molecular and functional imaging, molecular profiling and novel therapeutics for the emerging molecular targets for cancer treatment. This process of 'credentialing' of molecular targets will require multi disciplinary imaging teams, clinicians and basic scientists. Future advances will depend on the appropriate integration of biology into the training of residents, continuing post graduate education, participation in innovative clinical research and commitment to the support of basic research as an essential component of the practice of radiation oncology.
Jonker, J M; Smorenburg, C H; Schiphorst, A H; van Rixtel, B; Portielje, J E A; Hamaker, M E
To identify ways to improve cancer care for older patients, we set out to examine how older patients in the Netherlands are currently being evaluated prior to oncological treatment and to explore the potential obstacles in the incorporation of a geriatric evaluation, using a web-based survey sent to Dutch medical oncology specialists and oncology nursing specialists. The response rate was 34% (183 out of 544). Two-thirds of respondents reported that a geriatric evaluation was being used, although primarily on an ad hoc basis only. Most respondents expressed a desire for a routine evaluation or more intensive collaboration with the geriatrician and 86% of respondents who were not using a geriatric evaluation expressed their interest to do so. The most important obstacles were a lack of time or personnel and insufficient availability of a geriatrician to perform the assessment. Thus, over 30% of oncology professionals in the Netherlands express an interest in geriatric oncology. Important obstacles to a routine implementation of a geriatric evaluation are a lack of time, or insufficient availability of geriatricians; this could be overcome with policies that acknowledge that quality cancer care for older patients requires the investment of time and personnel.
Hurria, Arti; Levit, Laura A; Dale, William; Mohile, Supriya G; Muss, Hyman B; Fehrenbacher, Louis; Magnuson, Allison; Lichtman, Stuart M; Bruinooge, Suanna S; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Tew, William P; Postow, Michael A; Cohen, Harvey J
The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) convened a subcommittee to develop recommendations on improving the evidence base for treating older adults with cancer in response to a critical need identified by the Institute of Medicine. Older adults experience the majority of cancer diagnoses and deaths and make up the majority of cancer survivors. Older adults are also the fastest growing segment of the US population. However, the evidence base for treating this population is sparse, because older adults are underrepresented in clinical trials, and trials designed specifically for older adults are rare. The result is that clinicians have less evidence on how to treat older adults, who represent the majority of patients with cancer. Clinicians and patients are forced to extrapolate from trials conducted in younger, healthier populations when developing treatment plans. This has created a dearth of knowledge regarding the risk of toxicity in the average older patient and about key end points of importance to older adults. ASCO makes five recommendations to improve evidence generation in this population: (1) Use clinical trials to improve the evidence base for treating older adults with cancer, (2) leverage research designs and infrastructure for generating evidence on older adults with cancer, (3) increase US Food and Drug Administration authority to incentivize and require research involving older adults with cancer, (4) increase clinicians' recruitment of older adults with cancer to clinical trials, and (5) use journal policies to improve researchers' reporting on the age distribution and health risk profiles of research participants.
Easley, Julie; Miedema, Baukje; Carroll, June C; Manca, Donna P; O'Brien, Mary Ann; Webster, Fiona; Grunfeld, Eva
To explore health care provider (HCP) perspectives on the coordination of cancer care between FPs and cancer specialists. Qualitative study using semistructured telephone interviews. Canada. A total of 58 HCPs, comprising 21 FPs, 15 surgeons, 12 medical oncologists, 6 radiation oncologists, and 4 GPs in oncology. This qualitative study is nested within a larger mixed-methods program of research, CanIMPACT (Canadian Team to Improve Community-Based Cancer Care along the Continuum), focused on improving the coordination of cancer care between FPs and cancer specialists. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, telephone interviews were conducted with HCPs involved in cancer care. Invitations to participate were sent to a purposive sample of HCPs based on medical specialty, sex, province or territory, and geographic location (urban or rural). A coding schema was developed by 4 team members; subsequently, 1 team member coded the remaining transcripts. The resulting themes were reviewed by the entire team and a summary of results was mailed to participants for review. Communication challenges emerged as the most prominent theme. Five key related subthemes were identified around this core concept that occurred at both system and individual levels. System-level issues included delays in medical transcription, difficulties accessing patient information, and physicians not being copied on all reports. Individual-level issues included the lack of rapport between FPs and cancer specialists, and the lack of clearly defined and broadly communicated roles. Effective and timely communication of medical information, as well as clearly defined roles for each provider, are essential to good coordination of care along the cancer care trajectory, particularly during transitions of care between cancer specialist and FP care. Despite advances in technology, substantial communication challenges still exist. This can lead to serious consequences that affect clinical decision making
Shum, Kelly; Solivan, Amber; Parto, Parham; Polin, Nichole; Jahangir, Eiman
Because of the improvements in survival rates, patients with breast cancer are now more likely to die from cardiovascular disease than from cancer. Thus, providing appropriate preventive cardiovascular care to patients with cancer is of the utmost importance. We retrospectively compared the cardiovascular risk and management of 146 women treated at the Cardio-Oncology (Cardio-Onc) and the Obstetrics and Gynecology (Ob-Gyn) clinics. We calculated cardiovascular risk using the American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk calculator and the Framingham Risk Score Calculator. We also determined the prevalence of appropriate statin use according to both the 2013 ACC/AHA and the 2002 Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III lipid guidelines. The 10-year ASCVD risk score was not significantly different between the 2 cohorts. More patients in the Ob-Gyn cohort with an ASCVD risk score >7.5% were already appropriately on statins compared to patients in the Cardio-Onc cohort (60.9% vs 31.0%, respectively, P=0.003), but after the first Cardio-Onc visit, 4 additional patients with breast cancer were prescribed statins (44.8% total). Fourteen (19.2%) Cardio-Onc patients had a high Framingham Risk Score compared to 6 (8.2%) Ob-Gyn patients. We demonstrated that the ASCVD risk is similar between women with breast cancer attending the Cardio-Onc clinic and the women without breast cancer attending the Ob-Gyn clinic, but the Cardio-Onc cohort had significantly more patients with a high Framingham Risk Score. Both clinics had similarly poor rates of appropriate statin prescribing rates according to the ATP III guidelines.
Terret, Catherine; Albrand, Gilles; Jeanton, Martine; Courpron, Philippe; Droz, Jean-Pierre
Remarkably, although 60% of new cancer cases and over 70% of cancer deaths occur in patients aged 65 years and older in Europe, standard treatment strategies have been mostly validated in younger adults. This demographic trend has led to the emergence of a new medical discipline, geriatric oncology and the development worldwide of geriatric oncology programs for the individualized management of elderly cancer patients. Elderly cancer patients represent an increasing share of the population and strategies for treating cancer must evolve to face this ineluctable reality. Treatment should take into account the highly heterogeneous physiological age of the elderly, their individual life expectancy, functional reserves, social support and preferences. French geriatric oncology programs have been mostly based on the interdependence of geriatricians, oncologists and auxiliary nursing people. This approach represent the best way to offer patients optimal management; oncologists and geriatricians collaborate to assess both global health status by means of Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) and tumor stage by means of Comprehensive Tumor Assessment (CTA) and to initiate individualized care plans, involving comprehensive management and follow-up of all identified problems. This paper focuses on progress observed in the field of geriatric oncology both in France and worldwide.
Köhler, Christhardt; Foiato, Tariane; Marnitz, Simone; Schneider, Achim; Le, Xin; Dogan, Nasuh Utku; Pfiffer, Tatiana; Jacob, Anna Elena; Mölgg, Andrea; Hagemann, Ingke; Favero, Giovanni
Skin tattoos on the feet, legs, and lower abdominal wall are progressively gaining popularity. Consequently, the number of tattooed women with cervical cancer has significantly increased in the last decade. However, pigments of tattoo ink can be transported to regional lymph nodes and potentially clog lymphatic pathways that might also be used by sentinel labeling substances. Therefore, here we report whether the presence of tattoo ink affected pelvic lymph nodes in women with early cervical cancer and discuss its potential oncologic and surgical consequences. Prospective observational study. University Hospital in Hamburg, Germany (Canadian Task Force classification II2). Women affected by cervical cancer. Between January 2014 and May 2016, 267 laparoscopic oncologic operations, including at least a pelvic sentinel or complete lymphadenectomy, were performed in the Department of Advanced Surgical and Oncologic Gynecology, Asklepios Hospital, Hamburg, Germany. Among these, 191 patients were affected by cervical cancer. Data of patients in whom dyed lymph nodes without the use of patent blue as a sentinel marker or different from blue-colored pelvic lymph nodes in the case of sentinel procedure were identified and prospectively collected. In 9 patients, skin tattoos localized in the lower extremities caused discoloration of at least 1 pelvic lymph node. This effect was observed in 40% of women (9/23) with tattoos in this area of the body. Mean patient age was 34 years (range, 27-56). All women had cutaneous tattoos on their feet or legs, and in 1 woman an additional tattoo situated on the inferior abdominal wall was observed. The stage of cervical cancer was FIGO IB1 in all cases. One woman was at the 16th week of gestation at the time of cancer diagnosis. On average, 26 pelvic lymph nodes (range, 11-51) were harvested from both pelvic basin sides. None of the removed lymph nodes was tumor involved. Three patients (33%) developed postoperatively infected
Burg, Mary Ann; Adorno, Gail; Hidalgo, Jorge
This is a qualitative study of listserv postings by members of the Social Work Oncology Network (SWON) in response to the Commission on Cancer's 2011 guidelines for distress screening of cancer patients. Archived listserv postings for the period of December 2010 to November 2011 were deidentified and a sample was derived by a list of keywords for the analysis. Aims of the study included describing the general categories and themes of the postings devoted to the new distress screening standard and examining the process of facilitation of mutual support and information exchange by oncology social workers in response to the new screening standards. During the 12-month timeframe there were 242 unique listserv postings sampled for the analysis. Oncology social worker (OSW) discussion of the distress screening guidelines remained a constant topic over the 12 months, and major themes that emerged from the data included processes of implementation of distress screening in cancer centers, screening policies and protocols, screening tool choice, and oncology social worker professional identity. The SWON listserv members used the listserv as a mechanism to post their requests for information on screening, to share their experiences in the beginning stages of implementing the guidelines, and to build support for legitimizing oncology social workers as the lead profession in the implementation of the guidelines in member cancer centers.
Christiansen, Heather L; Bingen, Kristin; Hoag, Jennifer A; Karst, Jeffrey S; Velázquez-Martin, Blanca; Barakat, Lamia P
Experiences with peers constitute an important aspect of socialization, and children and adolescents with cancer may experience reduced social interaction due to treatment. A literature review was conducted to investigate the evidence to support a standard of care evaluating these experiences. Sixty-four articles were reviewed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Moderate quality of evidence suggest that social interaction can be beneficial to increase knowledge, decrease isolation, and improve adjustment and constitute an important, unmet need. The evidence supports a strong recommendation for youth with cancer to be provided opportunities for social interaction following a careful assessment of their unique characteristics and preferences.
Donis Canet, F; Sánchez Gallego, M D; Arias Fúnez, F; Duque Ruíz, G; Laso, I; Brasero Burgos, J; Lorca Álvaro, J; Gómez Dos Santos, V; Rodríguez Patrón, R; Burgos Revilla, F J
The increasingly early diagnosis of prostate cancer requires a search for therapeutic alternatives with good oncological results that in turn facilitate a good long-term quality of life. This review analyses 2 minimally invasive therapies for treating localised prostate cancer in terms of oncological and functional results, as well as the complications resulting from the therapies. A systematic literature review was conducted of the treatment of localised prostate cancer with 2 ablative techniques as the primary therapy: cryosurgery or cryotherapy and high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). We included patients who underwent procedures that included the entire gland, with hemiablation or focal therapy, which were indicated for low to intermediate-risk prostate cancer according to the D'Amico criteria. We excluded patients with high-risk prostate cancer and those who underwent any prior treatment for prostate cancer. After conducting the literature search and excluding the studies that did not meet the protocol criteria, we reviewed a total of 14 studies, with a total of 350 patients treated using cryotherapy and 1107 treated with HIFU. All studies were either prospective or retrospective and were not randomised. The patients' mean age was younger than 75 years. Overall, the rate of disease recurrence in the patients treated with cryotherapy varied between 13.2% and 26%, while the rate for those treated with HIFU varied between 7.3% and 67.9%. The overall demonstrated continence at 12 months was 97.6-100% for cryotherapy and 96-100% for HIFU. In terms of sexual potency rates, cryotherapy showed complete potency at 12 months for 86-100% of the patients treated with focal cryotherapy and slightly lower rates for hemiablation (76.9-100%) and total therapy (39%). HIFU showed potency rates of 89%, 52-80% and 33-78% for focal therapy, hemiablation and total therapy, respectively. Both techniques have comparable functional results, although the somewhat poorer
Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Cai, Yong; Larson, Eric H.; Dobie, Sharon A.; Wright, George E.; Goodman, David C.; Matthews, Barbara; Hart, L. Gary
Context: Cancer care requires specialty surgical and medical resources that are less likely to be found in rural areas. Purpose: To examine the travel patterns and distances of rural and urban colorectal cancer (CRC) patients to 3 types of specialty cancer care services--surgery, medical oncology consultation, and radiation oncology consultation.…
de Vries Martine C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pediatric oncology has a strong research culture. Most pediatric oncologists are investigators, involved in clinical care as well as research. As a result, a remarkable proportion of children with cancer enrolls in a trial during treatment. This paper discusses the ethical consequences of the unprecedented integration of research and care in pediatric oncology from the perspective of parents and physicians. Methodology An empirical ethical approach, combining (1 a narrative review of (primarily qualitative studies on parents' and physicians' experiences of the pediatric oncology research practice, and (2 comparison of these experiences with existing theoretical ethical concepts about (pediatric research. The use of empirical evidence enriches these concepts by taking into account the peculiarities that ethical challenges pose in practice. Results Analysis of the 22 studies reviewed revealed that the integration of research and care has consequences for the informed consent process, the promotion of the child's best interests, and the role of the physician (doctor vs. scientist. True consent to research is difficult to achieve due to the complexity of research protocols, emotional stress and parents' dependency on their child's physician. Parents' role is to promote their child's best interests, also when they are asked to consider enrolling their child in a trial. Parents are almost never in equipoise on trial participation, which leaves them with the agonizing situation of wanting to do what is best for their child, while being fearful of making the wrong decision. Furthermore, a therapeutic misconception endangers correct assessment of participation, making parents inaccurately attribute therapeutic intent to research procedures. Physicians prefer the perspective of a therapist over a researcher. Consequently they may truly believe that in the research setting they promote the child's best interests, which maintains the
Brennan, Michael T.; Elting, Linda S.; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.
Oral complications are commonly experienced by patients undergoing cancer therapies. The Oral Care Study Group of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer/International Society of Oral Oncology (MASCC/ISOO) has completed nine systematic reviews including Bisphosphonate Osteonecrosi
Castellino, Sharon; Muir, Andrew; Shah, Ami; Shope, Sheila; McMullen, Kevin; Ruble, Kathy; Barber, Ashley; Davidoff, Andrew; Hudson, Melissa M
Curative therapy for childhood and adolescent cancer translates to 1 in 640 young adults being a survivor of cancer. Although acute hepato-biliary toxicity occurs commonly during pediatric cancer therapy, the impact of antineoplastic therapy on long-term liver health in childhood/adolescent cancer survivors is unknown. This article reviews the medical literature on late liver dysfunction following treatment for childhood/adolescent cancer. We also outline the Children's Oncology Group (COG) guidelines for screening and follow-up of hepato-biliary sequelae. As the population of survivors grow and age, vigilance for risks to hepatic health needs to continue based on specific exposures during curative cancer therapy.
Mezouri, Imane; Berhili, Soufiane; Mouhajir, Nawal; Bellefqih, Sara; Elkacemi, Hanan; Kebdani, Tayeb; Benjaafar, Noureddine
Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological cancer in the Western world. It affects mainly postmenopausal women. The aim of our study is to report the experience of the radiotherapy department of the National Oncology Institute (INO) in the treatment of endometrial cancer. We retrospectively analyzed 52 cases of endometrial cancer treated in the INO radiotherapy department between 2007-2009. Data obtained from the patient medical records were related to the epidemiologic, clinical, therapeutic and evolutionary aspects of this cancer. The median age of the patients was 57 years, 87% were postmenopausal. The median of consultation time was six months. The main symptom was metrorrhagia (51 patients). Histological diagnosis was based on biopsic curettage of uterine endometrium in 51% of the cases. Anatomo-pathological examination showed an endometrioid adenocarcinoma in 92% of the cases. After the assessment, 27% of the patients were stage I, 30% stage II, 20% stage III and 1% stage IVA, according to the International Federation of Gynecological and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage classification. After surgery, 51% of the patients received postoperative external radiotherapy. The delivered dose was 46 Gray (Gy). All patients received internal vaginal brachytherapy. From an evolutionary perspective, 83% of the patients had no recurrences during the follow-up period, 8% of patients had a local recurrence and 4% of patients had distant metastases. Therefore, surgery is the main treatment for endometrial cancer. Radiotherapy is the primary adjuvant treatment.
Cantiello, Francesco; Cicione, Antonio; Salonia, Andrea; Autorino, Riccardo; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Briganti, Alberto; Gandaglia, Giorgio; Dell'Oglio, Paolo; Capogrosso, Paolo; Damiano, Rocco
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of several metabolic abnormalities, its prevalence is increasing worldwide. To summarize the most recent evidence regarding the relationship between metabolic syndrome, its components and the oncological outcomes in bladder cancer patients, a National Center for Biotechnology Information PubMed search for relevant articles either published or e-published up to March 2014 was carried out by combining the following Patient population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome terms: metabolic syndrome, obesity, body mass index, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, bladder cancer, risk, mortality, cancer specific survival, disease recurrence and progression. Metabolic syndrome is a complex, highly prevalent disorder, and central obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension are its main components. Published findings would suggest that metabolic syndrome per se might be associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer in male patients, but it did not seem to confer a risk of worse prognosis. Considering the primary components of metabolic syndrome (hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia), available data are uncertain, and it is no possible to reach a conclusion yet on either a direct or an indirect association with bladder cancer risk and prognosis. Only with regard to type 2 diabetes mellitus, available data would suggest a potential negative correlation. However, as the evaluation of bladder cancer risk and prognosis in patients with metabolic disorders is certainly complex, further studies are urgently required to better assess the actual role of these metabolic disorders. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.
Brown, Jeremy; Grudzen, Corita; Kyriacou, Demetrios N; Obermeyer, Ziad; Quest, Tammie; Rivera, Donna; Stone, Susan; Wright, Jason; Shelburne, Nonniekaye
To identify research priorities and appropriate resources and to establish the infrastructure required to address the emergency care of patients with cancer, the National Institutes of Health's National Cancer Institute and the Office of Emergency Care Research sponsored a one-day workshop, "Cancer and Emergency Medicine: Setting the Research Agenda," in March 2015 in Bethesda, MD. Participants included leading researchers and clinicians in the fields of oncology, emergency medicine, and palliative care, and representatives from the National Institutes of Health. Attendees were charged with identifying research opportunities and priorities to advance the understanding of the emergency care of cancer patients. Recommendations were made in 4 areas: the collection of epidemiologic data, care of the patient with febrile neutropenia, acute events such as dyspnea, and palliative care in the emergency department setting.
Sampedro, Frederic; Escalera, Sergio; Domenech, Anna; Carrio, Ignasi
In this work we present a comprehensive computational framework to help in the clinical assessment of cancer response from a pair of time consecutive oncological PET-CT scans. In this scenario, the design and implementation of a supervised machine learning system to predict and quantify cancer progression or response conditions by introducing a novel feature set that models the underlying clinical context is described. Performance results in 100 clinical cases (corresponding to 200 whole body PET-CT scans) in comparing expert-based visual analysis and classifier decision making show up to 70% accuracy within a completely automatic pipeline and 90% accuracy when providing the system with expert-guided PET tumor segmentation masks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing (NGS technology has expanded in the last decades with significant improvements in the reliability, sequencing chemistry, pipeline analyses, data interpretation and costs. Such advances make the use of NGS feasible in clinical practice today. This review describes the recent technological developments in NGS applied to the field of oncology. A number of clinical applications are reviewed, i.e., mutation detection in inherited cancer syndromes based on DNA-sequencing, detection of spliceogenic variants based on RNA-sequencing, DNA-sequencing to identify risk modifiers and application for pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, cancer somatic mutation analysis, pharmacogenetics and liquid biopsy. Conclusive remarks, clinical limitations, implications and ethical considerations that relate to the different applications are provided.
McDaniel, Anna M.; Champion, Victoria L.; Kroenke, Kurt
Transdisciplinary health research training has been identified as a major initiative to achieve the vision for research teams of the future as articulated in the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research. To address the need for scientists who can integrate diverse scientific approaches and work in transdisciplinary teams to solve complex health problems, Indiana University has designed an innovative training program that will provide the didactic and research experiences to enable trainees to establish productive careers in behavioral oncology and cancer control research. Development of a successful transdisciplinary training program requires mentorship, research, and a specialized curriculum that encompass a broad range of disciplines. The program capitalizes on a unique set of existing and emerging training opportunities resulting from the collaborative activities of the Indiana University (IU) Simon Cancer Center, the IU Schools of Nursing and Medicine, and multiple research institutes and academic centers located in Indiana and neighboring states. PMID:18501750
Full Text Available Laparoscopic surgery for middle and lower rectal cancer remain controversial because anatomical and complex surgical procedures specifically influence oncologic outcomes. This study analyzes the long-term outcomes of laparoscopic versus open surgery for middle and lower rectal cancer.Patients (laparoscopic: n = 129, open: n = 152 who underwent curative resection for middle and lower rectal cancer from 2003 to 2008 participated in the study. The same surgical team performed all operations. The mean follow up time of all patients was 74.3 months.No statistical difference in local recurrence rate (7.8% vs. 7.2%; log-rank = 0.024; P = 0.876 and distant recurrence rate (20.9% vs.16.4%; log-rank = 0.699; P = 0.403 between laparoscopic and open groups were observed within 5 years. The 5-year overall survival rates of the laparoscopic and open groups were 72.9% and 75.7%, respectively; no significant statistical difference was observed between them (log-rank = 0.163; P = 0.686. The 5-year survival rates between groups were not different between stages: Stage I (92.6% vs. 86.7%; log-rank = 0.533; P = 0.465; stage II (75.8% vs. 80.5%; log-rank = 0.212; P = 0.645; and Stage III (63.8% vs. 69.1%, log-rank = 0272;P = 0.602. However, significant statistical difference amongst different stages were observed (log-rank = 1.802; P = 0.003.Laparoscopic and open surgery for middle and lower rectal cancer offer equivalent long-term oncologic outcomes. Laparoscopic surgery is feasible in these patients.
Knobf, M Tish
Being adequately prepared for an experience such as cancer empowers patients, lowers distress, improves coping, supports self-management, promotes recovery, and improves quality of life. However, patients with cancer report unmet informational and support needs across the cancer trajectory. The purpose of this article is to describe the relationship of information preparation and patient outcomes, identify information and support needs across the cancer trajectory, and describe the role of oncology nurses in the delivery of high-quality patient-centered cancer care. The middle range theory of "Carrying On" was used to identify information and support needs during different phases of the cancer trajectory from treatment to survivorship. The authors concluded that nurses should engage the patient in a relational exchange of information; provide concrete, understandable information across specific times in the cancer experience; and use creative approaches to minimize barriers in meeting patient needs to achieve high-quality patient-centered cancer care.
Chulkova, V A; Pesterëva, E V
In providing psychological care to an oncological patient a physician and a medical psychologist come from a variety of professional positions that require different approaches and methods. It is proposed a three-phase model of the dynamics of the psychological state of the person in the situation of cancer reflecting the process of psychological adaptation of a particular patient. Focusing on this model, the authors conclude that psychological care to cancer patient, performed by a doctor and a medical psychologist, are different kinds of psychological care that does not replace but complement each other.
Kyle M. Schachtschneider
Full Text Available Despite an improved understanding of cancer molecular biology, immune landscapes, and advancements in cytotoxic, biologic, and immunologic anti-cancer therapeutics, cancer remains a leading cause of death worldwide. More than 8.2 million deaths were attributed to cancer in 2012, and it is anticipated that cancer incidence will continue to rise, with 19.3 million cases expected by 2025. The development and investigation of new diagnostic modalities and innovative therapeutic tools is critical for reducing the global cancer burden. Toward this end, transitional animal models serve a crucial role in bridging the gap between fundamental diagnostic and therapeutic discoveries and human clinical trials. Such animal models offer insights into all aspects of the basic science-clinical translational cancer research continuum (screening, detection, oncogenesis, tumor biology, immunogenicity, therapeutics, and outcomes. To date, however, cancer research progress has been markedly hampered by lack of a genotypically, anatomically, and physiologically relevant large animal model. Without progressive cancer models, discoveries are hindered and cures are improbable. Herein, we describe a transgenic porcine model—the Oncopig Cancer Model (OCM—as a next-generation large animal platform for the study of hematologic and solid tumor oncology. With mutations in key tumor suppressor and oncogenes, TP53R167H and KRASG12D, the OCM recapitulates transcriptional hallmarks of human disease while also exhibiting clinically relevant histologic and genotypic tumor phenotypes. Moreover, as obesity rates increase across the global population, cancer patients commonly present clinically with multiple comorbid conditions. Due to the effects of these comorbidities on patient management, therapeutic strategies, and clinical outcomes, an ideal animal model should develop cancer on the background of representative comorbid conditions (tumor macro- and microenvironments. As
Full Text Available Nádia Nara Rolim Lima,1 Vânia Barbosa do Nascimento,1 Sionara Melo Figueiredo de Carvalho,1 Modesto Leite Rolim Neto,2 Marcial Moreno Moreira,2 Aline Quental Brasil,2 Francisco Telésforo Celestino Junior,2 Gislene Farias de Oliveira,2 Alberto Olavo Advíncula Reis3 1Health Sciences Postgraduate Program, ABC Region Medical School, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Department of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, Barbalha, Ceará, Brazil; 3Public Health Postgraduate Program, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: To deal with the suffering caused by childhood cancer, patients and their families use different coping strategies, among which, spirituality appears a way of minimizing possible damage. In this context, the purpose of the present study was to analyze the influence of spirituality in childhood cancer care, involving biopsychosocial aspects of the child, the family, and the health care team facing the disease. To accomplish this purpose, a nonsystematic review of literature of articles on national and international electronic databases (Scientific Electronic Library Online [SciELO], PubMed, and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [LILACS] was conducted using the search terms “spirituality,” “child psychology,” “child,” and “cancer,” as well as on other available resources. After the search, 20 articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in the final sample. Our review showed that the relation between spirituality and health has lately become a subject of growing interest among researchers, as a positive influence of spirituality in the people's welfare was noted. Studies that were retrieved using the mentioned search strategy in electronic databases, independently assessed by the authors according to the systematic review, showed that spirituality emerges as a driving force that helps pediatric patients and their families in coping with cancer. Health care workers
Full Text Available Introduction and aim: Antioxidant therapy with chemotherapy and radiotherapy in cervical cancer patients is controversial. While some evidence suggests that the use of antioxidants diminishes side effects from anticancer therapy, there is also data to suggest that antioxidants increase the risk of recurrence by affecting oncology treatments. Methods: We conducted a controlled clinical trial in cervical cancer patients supplemented with an antioxidant mixture or a placebo during four years after their antineoplastic treatment was completed and the effect on recurrence. We also conducted data on used hemoglobin and albumin levels. Differences between groups were analyzed using chi-square test. Survival was calculated by the Multivariate COX regression with omnibus test and the enter method. Results: 103 treated patients were in clinical stages IIB and IIIB of cervical cancer, 48% (n = 49 of the patients were treated with antioxidant supplementation and 52% (n =54 of the patients were in the placebo group. Of the original 103 patients, were able to follow up on 88 patients for an additional four years.23.9% (n = 21 of the patients presented cancer recurrence and 76.1% (n = 67 did not, 21.6% (n = 19 patients showed metastasis. 8% (n = 7 patients were in the antioxidant group and 15.9% (n = 14 were in the placebo group (p > 0.05. Regarding implications of cancer survivors, antioxidant supplementation apparently seems not to have interference with recurrence in cervical cancer patients but there is not enough evidence to prove it. A different dosage may have the expected effect; however, further studies with another dosage and criteria are necessary. Conclusions: Supplementation with antioxidants during treatment of cervical cancer has no effect on cancer recurrence after 4 years of follow-up.
Full Text Available Purpose: Because of its rarity in any oncology centre, the clinical trends of male breast cancer specific to its geographical distribution have remained relatively unexplored. This study was done to analyze the clinico-pathological data, treatment given and survival patterns of male breast cancer patients visiting our tertiary medical centre and compare our results with available literature. Methods: All male breast cancer patients registered at our clinic from 2003 to 2009 were included. Frequency distribution analysis of the demographic and clinico-pathological data and treatment variables was done. Treatment outcome was examined from Kaplan-Meir survival estimates. Results: Thirty-three male breast cancer patients were encountered. The median age of presentation was sixty years. Mostly (87.9% they presented with lump in breast or axilla and were clinically staged to be ‘3’ (57.6%.Obesity and alcohol were the commonest risk factors identified. Modified radical mastectomy was the commonest (69.6% definitive therapy rendered with (only for clinically staged 3 patients or without neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was identified in most cases. Twenty-two patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and twenty-four received adjuvant radiotherapy. Eighteen (54.5% patients were hormone-receptor positive and received tamoxifen. The median Overall survival (OS and Progression-free survival (PFS came out to be 14.3 months (standard error, SE of 1.185; 95% confidence interval, CI 12-16.6 and 15.7 (SE 5.35, 95% CI 5.2-26.19 months respectively.Conclusion: Male breast cancers usually carry a poor prognosis due to presentation at later stages. Most of our results correlate with previous literature. Multi-centric prospective studies are required to validate the etiological factors and prognostic determinants of survival.-----------------------------Cite this article as: Mukherjee A, Saha A, Chattopadhyay S, Sur P. Clinical trends and
Ishida, Yasushi; Hatao, Masahiko; Fukushima, Osamu; Mori, Michiko; Isozaki, Fumiko; Okuyama, Asako
Japanese physicians' attitudes regarding the education of nurse practitioners (NPs) are not well described. A survey was mailed to 1,094 board members of the Japanese Society of Clinical Oncology (JSCO) and the Japanese Primary Care Association (JPCA), and the directors of the clinical training program for physicians. The physicians of JSCO were classified as the cancer specialist group, and both the board members of JPCA and the directors of the clinical training program for physicians constituted the general physician group. We compared the responses of cancer specialists and general physicians. The survey response rate was 25.9% (69 of 266) in the cancer specialist group and 19.4% (161 of 828) in the general physician group. The median age of respondents was 53 and 55 years, respectively, of which 84 and 79%, respectively, were men. We found that the percentages of respondents who considered NP education necessary were almost identical in the 2 groups (r = 0.898, p Education items considered necessary for NPs by >80% respondents in both groups included many symptoms, emergency management, basic procedures, general screening, palliative care including management against adverse effects, health education, and communication. More cancer specialists than general physicians (p educated in multidisciplinary practice and palliative care, including management against adverse effects. Our study suggests that cancer specialists expect NPs to provide symptom management and psychosocial support, clarify information, provide education, and work as a member of a multidisciplinary team.
Salins, Naveen; Ramanjulu, Raghavendra; Patra, Lipika; Deodhar, Jayita; Muckaden, Mary Ann
Introduction: World Health Organization and American Society of Clinical Oncology recommend early integration of specialist palliative care in patients with cancer. This paper focuses on critical review of evidence on integration of early specialist palliative care in cancer care and patient-related outcomes. Methods: The question for the literature search was – Does integration of early specialist palliative care in cancer care influences patient-related outcomes? 31 articles related to literature search review question were included in this paper. Results: Ten patient-related outcomes of early specialist palliative care in adult cancer care was studied. Studies by Temel et al. (2012), Bakitas et al. (2009), Zimmermann et al. (2014), Rugno et al. (2014), Lowery et al. (2013) and Walker et al. (2014) showed early specialist palliative care improves health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Studies by Pirl et al. (2012), Lowery et al. (2013), and Walker et al. (2014) showed early specialist palliative care improved mood depression and anxiety. Studies by Zimmermann et al. and Rugno et al. (2014) showed symptom control benefit of early specialist palliative care. Studies by Temel (2010), Bakitas (2015) and Rugno et al. (2014) showed survival improvement with early specialist palliative care. All these studies were carried in ambulatory palliative care setting. No survival benefit of palliative care intervention was seen in inpatient palliative care setting. The studies by Geer et al. (2012), Rugno et al. (2014), and Lowery et al. (2013) showed that early palliative care intervention positively influences treatment decision making. All the studies showed that palliative care intervention group received less intravenous chemotherapy in last few weeks of life. Studies by Yoong et al. and Temel et al. (2011) shows early specialist palliative care improves advanced care planning. Studies by Temel et al. (2010), Greer et al. (2012), McNamara et al. (2013), Hui et al. (2014
Weldon, Christine B; Friedewald, Sarah M; Kulkarni, Swati A; Simon, Melissa A; Carlos, Ruth C; Strauss, Jonathan B; Bunce, Mikele M; Small, Art; Trosman, Julia R
Radiologists aspire to improve patient experience and engagement, as part of the Triple Aim of health reform. Patient engagement requires active partnerships among health providers and patients, and rigorous teamwork provides a mechanism for this. Patient and care team engagement are crucial at the time of cancer diagnosis and care initiation but are complicated by the necessity to orchestrate many interdependent consultations and care events in a short time. Radiology often serves as the patient entry point into the cancer care system, especially for breast cancer. It is uniquely positioned to play the value-adding role of facilitating patient and team engagement during cancer care initiation. The 4R approach (Right Information and Right Care to the Right Patient at the Right Time), previously proposed for optimizing teamwork and care delivery during cancer treatment, could be applied at the time of diagnosis. The 4R approach considers care for every patient with cancer as a project, using project management to plan and manage care interdependencies, assign clear responsibilities, and designate a quarterback function. The authors propose that radiology assume the quarterback function during breast cancer care initiation, developing the care initiation sequence, as a project care plan for newly diagnosed patients, and engaging patients and their care teams in timely, coordinated activities. After initial consultations and treatment plan development, the quarterback function is transitioned to surgery or medical oncology. This model provides radiologists with opportunities to offer value-added services and solidifies radiology's relevance in the evolving health care environment. To implement 4R at cancer care initiation, it will be necessary to change the radiology practice model to incorporate patient interaction and teamwork, develop 4R content and local adaption approaches, and enrich radiology training with relevant clinical knowledge, patient interaction
Gantt, Gerald A; Ashburn, Jean; Kiran, Ravi P; Khorana, Alok A; Kalady, Matthew F
Delaying initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy more than 8 weeks after surgical resection for colorectal cancer adversely affects overall patient survival. The effect of a laparoscopic surgical approach on initiation of chemotherapy has not been studied. The goal of this study was to determine if a laparoscopic approach to colon cancer resection affects the timing of adjuvant chemotherapy and outcomes. Patients who underwent curative surgery for stage II or III colon cancer and received adjuvant chemotherapy between 2003 and 2010 were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Patients were categorized according to surgical approach: open or laparoscopic. Patient demographics, clinicopathologic variables, postoperative complications, time from surgery to initiation of chemotherapy, and long-term oncologic outcomes were compared. Age, gender, ASA class, BMI, tumor stage, and postoperative complications were similar for laparoscopic and open cases, while length of stay was 2 days shorter for laparoscopic cases (5.4 vs 7.6 days, p < 0.01). The proportion of patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy more than 8 weeks after surgery did not differ between the groups (35.6 % open vs 38.7 % laparoscopic, p = 0.77). In the open group, delay in chemotherapy after surgery was associated with decreased disease-free and overall survival (p = 0.01, 0.01, respectively). However, delay in chemotherapy more than 8 weeks did not affect disease-free or overall survival in the laparoscopy group (p = 0.93, 0.51, respectively). The benefits of quicker recovery after laparoscopic surgery did not translate into earlier initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy in this retrospective study. However, a laparoscopic approach negated the inferior oncologic outcomes of patients who received delayed initiation of chemotherapy.
Lindsay, Colin R; Shaw, Emily; Walker, Ian; Johnson, Peter W M
The implementation of stratified medicine in modern cancer care presents substantial opportunity to refine diagnosis and treatment but also numerous challenges. Through experience in a UK tumor profiling initiative, we have gained valuable insights into the complexities and possible solutions for routine delivery of stratified cancer medicine.
Abdulrahman, Ganiy Opeyemi
Over the past 15 years, the multidisciplinary team management of many medical conditions especially cancers has increasingly taken a prominent role in patient management in many hospitals and medical centres in the developed countries. In the United Kingdom, it began to gain prominence following the Calman-Heine report in 1995 which suggested that each Cancer Unit in a hospital should have in place arrangements for non-surgical oncological input into services, with a role for a non-surgical oncologist. The report further suggested that a lead clinician with a well established interest in cancer care should be appointed to organise and coordinate the whole range of cancer services provided within the Cancer Unit. Many people have argued that the multidisciplinary team management of patients has resulted in better care and improved survival. However, there are barriers to the optimal effectiveness of the multidisciplinary team. This paper aims to review various studies on the effectiveness of the multidisciplinary team in the management of cancer patients and also discuss some of the barriers to the multidisciplinary team.
Díaz-Molina, Juan P; Rodrigo, Juan P; Alvarez-Marcos, Cesar; Llorente, José L; Costales, María; Suárez, Carlos
The gold standard of treatment of cancer of the lateral wall of the oropharynx continues to be unclear, especially in advanced stages. In this study, we report our experience with surgical treatment of these cancers and describe the functional and oncological results of the procedures. Retrospective review. A total of 155 previously untreated patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lateral wall of the oropharynx who underwent a surgical resection of the lesion at our department from January 1990 to January 2008 were included. Sixty-seven percent of these patients received postoperative radiotherapy. The records of these patients were reviewed to obtain measures such as local and regional control, disease-specific survival, and speech and swallowing function. Six patients had a stage I disease, 15 had a stage II disease, 31 had a stage III disease, 86 had a stage IVA, and 17 had stage IVB disease. The overall recurrence rate was 60%, and the local recurrence rate was 40%. The 5-year overall survival and disease-specific survival rates were 33% and 43%, respectively. Five-year disease-specific survival rates by stage were as follows: 100%, 59%, 57%, 31%, and 33% for stages I to IVB, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed two parameters that were independent predictors of a reduced disease-specific survival: cervical lymph node metastases pN2-3 (P = .027) and primary tumor classified as pT3-4 (P = .029). In 122 patients, a tracheotomy was performed, and it couldn't be sealed in 23% of them. Oral alimentation was successfully recovered in 93% of the patients. Surgical treatment of cancer of the lateral wall of the oropharynx provides acceptable oncological and functional results, especially in early and moderately advanced stages (stages I-III). In advanced stages (stage IV), we obtained good functional preservation rates but poor oncological outcomes. Consequently, these groups of patients could be considered for another treatment modality, such as
Laidsaar-Powell, R; Butow, P; Bu, S; Fisher, A; Juraskova, I
Family members (FMs) regularly attend cancer consultations with patients, may assume an array of roles (e.g. emotional, informational) and their involvement may result in benefits and/or challenges. Little is currently known about how oncology health professionals (HPs) view FMs who accompany a patient in consultations. This study aimed to explore the attitudes and practices of Australian oncologists and oncology nurses regarding family involvement in consultations. Eleven oncologists and 10 nurses from a range of subspecialties and tumour streams participated in semi-structured interviews. Interviews were transcribed and qualitatively analysed using framework analysis methods. Five relevant themes were identified: (1) the varied and dynamic nature of family roles during consultations; (2) positivity towards FMs; (3) the benefits of family involvement to the FM themselves; (4) current HP practices to facilitate positive family involvement; and (5) the challenges of family involvement in consultations and HP practices to manage them. Overall, participants held mostly positive attitudes towards family involvement. Although they identified a number of challenges which can arise when family are involved, many noted these situations are the exception, that there are strategies which can help to overcome the challenges, and that the benefits of family involvement typically outweigh the costs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
In the long term, about 75% of all cancer patients will need palliative care, but the curricula in courses of study leading to qualifications in the caring professions take no account of this, being concerned exclusively with curative strategies. Precise definition of palliative care as a medical discipline is needed, followed by an insistence on proper funding and instruction. In addition, palliation should be integrated into the early stages of patient contact, e.g., prevention, diagnosis, treatment planning, and not only implemented when attempts at curative therapy have failed. Public and political awareness must be promoted; in particular it should be recognized that the care givers themselves need support. There is a growing need for well-run hospices with purpose-trained staff. While "mercy killing" might be considered out of charity and humanity, the death of a terminally ill patient should be neither hastened nor postponed.
Poelaert, Filip; Decaestecker, Karel; Claeys, Tom; Dhondt, Bert; Lumen, Nicolaas [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Urology, Ghent (Belgium); Fonteyne, Valerie; Ost, Piet [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent (Belgium); Troyer, Bart de [AZ Nikolaas, Department of Urology, Sint-Niklaas (Belgium); Meerleer, Gert de [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiation Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); Visschere, Pieter de [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ghent (Belgium)
The goal of this work was to investigate the oncological outcome of whole pelvis radiotherapy (wpRT) in pathologic pelvic lymph node-positive (pN1) prostate cancer (PCa), evaluate the location of relapse, and identify potential prognostic factors. All patients undergoing pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) since the year 2000 at a single tertiary care center were evaluated. A total of 154 patients with pN1 PCa were treated with wpRT (39 in an adjuvant setting) and 2-3 years of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to estimate biochemical recurrence-free survival (bRFS), clinical progression-free survival (cPFS), and prostate cancer-specific survival (CSS). Uni- and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors. Estimated bRFS was 67%, cPFS was 71%, and CSS was 96% at 5 years. Median follow-up was 55 months (interquartile range 25-87). Multivariate analysis identified having only 1 positive lymph node, a shorter time between diagnosis and PLND, and older age as independent favorable prognostic factors for biochemical and clinical recurrence. The number of positive lymph nodes was prognostic for CSS (hazard ratio [HR] 1.34, 95% confidence interval 1.17-1.54) and OS (HR 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.10-1.36). Bone metastases were the most frequent location of PCa relapse (n = 32, 64%). Patients with pN1 PCa treated with wpRT and 2-3 years ADT have an encouraging 5-year CSS. Understaging of the disease extent may be the most important enemy in definitive pN1 PCa treatment. (orig.) [German] Das Ziel dieser Studie war es, das onkologische Outcome der Bestrahlung des gesamten Beckens (wpRT) beim histologisch gesicherten nodal metastasierten Prostatakarzinom zu untersuchen, die Lokalisation eines eventuellen Rezidivs zu charakterisieren und moegliche prognostische Faktoren zu identifizieren. Alle Patienten, bei denen seit dem Jahr 2000 eine pelvine Lymphknotendissektion (PLND) durchgefuehrt worden war
Kopp, Bettina; Schierl, Rudolf; Nowak, Dennis
Many antineoplastic drugs are classified as carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic for humans. Therefore, minimization of exposure is required to reduce health risks to employees. The aim of this study was to evaluate working practices and safety measures during drug administration and to assess workplace contamination in outpatient oncology health care settings. Questionnaires about working procedures were sent to 137 day hospitals and private practices. Workplace contamination with 5-fluorouracil, platinum, gemcitabine, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, methotrexate, docetaxel and paclitaxel was assessed using wipe samples. Forty institutions participated in the study, and in 28 departments, wipe samples were taken. Depending on the kind of activity, working procedures often (5-80%) were not confirmed with recommendations for safe handling of antineoplastic drugs. Altogether, 60.9% of the sampling results were above the limit of detection (LOD). Most frequent loads were detected with 5-FU (93.5%) and platinum (88.4%). Contamination was detected on all surfaces and the results ranged between drugs handled and the extent of surface contamination. However, specific working practices resulting in a lower number of positive wipe samples could be identified (e.g., use of closed infusion systems). Workplace contamination with antineoplastic drugs is still present. As patients have to be considered as a potential source of contamination, surface contamination is difficult to avoid. However, our study revealed that it is possible to administer a large number of preparations without causing high workplace contamination.
Keegan, Kirk A; Penson, David F
In March 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act as well as its amendments were signed into law. This sweeping legislation was aimed at controlling spiraling healthcare costs and redressing significant disparities in healthcare access and quality. Cancer diagnoses and their treatments constitute a large component of rising healthcare expenditures and, not surprisingly, the legislation will have a significant influence on cancer care in the USA. Because genitourinary malignancies represent an impressive 25% of all cancer diagnoses per year, this legislation could have a profound impact on urologic oncology. To this end, we will present key components of this landmark legislation, including the proposed expansion to Medicaid coverage, the projected role of Accountable Care Organizations, the expected creation of quality reporting systems, the formation of an independent Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute, and enhanced regulation on physician-owned practices. We will specifically address the anticipated effect of these changes on urologic cancer care. Briefly, the legal ramifications and current barriers to the statutes will be examined.
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Zhi-Ling Zhang; Pei Dong; Yong-Hong Li; Zhuo-Wei Liu; Kai Yao; Hui Han; Zi-Ke Qin; Fang-Jian Zhou
Few large scale studies have reported the oncologic outcome of radical cystectomy for treating bladder cancer in China; hence, we lack long-term prognostic information. The aim of the current study was to determine the survival rate and prognostic factors of patients who underwent radical cystectomy for bladder cancer in a Chinese medical center. We retrospectively analyzed clinicopathologic data from 271 bladder cancer patients who underwent radical cystectomy between 2000 and 2011. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify independent prognostic predictors for this cohort. Median follow-up was 31.7 months (range, 0.2-139.1 months). Thirty-day mortality was (1.4%). The 5-year recurrence-free survival, cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival rates were 61.6%, 72.9%, and 68.0%, respectively. The 5-year CSS rates of patients with T1-T4 disease were 90.7%, 85.0%, 51.0%, and 18.0%, respectively. Patients with organ-confined disease had a higher 5-year CSS rate than those with extravesical disease (81.4%vs. 34.9%, P<0.001). For the 38 patients (14%) with lymph node involvement, the 5-year CSS rate was 27.7%-significantly lower than that of patients without lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001). The 5-year CSS rate was much higher in patients with low grade tumor than in those with high grade tumor (98.1%vs. 68.1%, P<0.001). Multivariate Cox regression showed that patient age (hazard ratio, 2.045; P = 0.013) and T category (hazard ratio, 2.213; P < 0.001) were independent predictors for CSS. These results suggest that radical cystectomy is a safe and effective method for treating bladder cancer in Chinese patients. Old age and high T category were associated with poor prognosis in bladder cancer patients who underwent radical cystectomy.
Henry, Elizabeth; Silva, Abigail; Tarlov, Elizabeth; Czerlanis, Cheryl; Bernard, Margie; Chauhan, Cynthia; Schalk, Denise; Stewart, Greg
Cancer care delivery is highly complex. Treatment involves coordination within oncology health-care teams and across other teams of referring primary and specialty providers (a team of teams). Each team interfaces with patients and caregivers to offer component parts of comprehensive care. Because patients frequently obtain specialty care from divergent health-care systems resulting in cross-system health-care use, oncology teams need mechanisms to coordinate and collaborate within and across health-care systems to optimize clinical outcomes for all cancer patients. Transactive memory is one potential strategy that can help improve comprehensive patient care delivery. Transactive memory is a process by which two or more team professionals develop a shared system for encoding, storing, and retrieving information. Each professional is responsible for retaining only part of the total information. Applying this concept to a team of teams results in system benefits wherein all teams share an understanding of specialized knowledge held by each component team. The patient's role as the unifying member of the team of teams is central to successful treatment delivery. This clinical case presents a patient who is receiving oral treatment for advanced prostate cancer within two health systems. The case emphasizes the potential for error when multiple teams function without a point team (the team coordinating efforts of all other primary and specialty teams) and when the specialty knowledge of providers and patients is not well integrated into all phases of the care delivery process.
Elfiky, Aymen; Zhang, Dongyang; Krishnan Nair, Hari K
Given the drive toward personalized, value-based, and coordinated cancer care delivery, modern knowledge-based practice is being shaped within the context of an increasingly technology-driven healthcare landscape. The ultimate promise of 'precision medicine' is predicated on taking advantage of the range of new capabilities for integrating disease- and individual-specific data to define new taxonomies as part of a systems-based knowledge network. Specifically, with cancer being a constantly evolving complex disease process, proper care of an individual will require the ability to seamlessly integrate multi-dimensional 'omic' and clinical data. Importantly, however, the challenges of curating knowledge from multiple dynamic data sources and translating to practice at the point-of-care highlight parallel needs. As patients, caregivers, and their environments become more proactive in clinical care and management, practical success of precision medicine is equally dependent on the development of proper infrastructures for evolving data integration, platforms for knowledge representation in a clinically-relevant context, and implementation within a provider's work-life and workflow.
Fernando Campaña Castillo
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the satisfaction regarding care of patients suffering advanced stage cancer admitted in Hospital Sant Jaume de Calella, Sant Rafael de Barcelona and San Lorenzo de Viladecans, subject to the presence or absence of Palliative Care Unit during 2012. An observational, descriptive and transversal study will be conducted.The assessed population are patients admitted to these centers that meet the requirements for inclusion and exclusion.In the Hospital Sant Jaume de Calella, which provides Palliative Care service, patients will be check into the Internal Medicine unit and the Medium-Stay unit. In the other two hospitals, there isn’t any Palliative Care Service and patients will be admitted in the Internal Medicine units of both hospitals. Data will be collected during one year with a sample of 200 patients and non-probably sampling case row.The main variables to consider are the presence or absence of palliative service, satisfaction of care and quality of life of patients to be studied. The secondaries are sex, age, pap score, reason for admission, cancer diagnosis and origin. For the collection of the data we used the questionnaire EORTC IN-PASAT32 modified by the research team and the EORTC QLQ C-15 PAL.The analysis of the quantitative variables will be done through centralization and dispersal parameters. Categorical variables satisfaction of care and quality of life will be analysed using frequencies and joined together by the Chi square. The statistical program SPSS v 16.0 will be used.
Full Text Available Introduction. The clinical course of renal cancer remains difficult to predict. Attempts to appoint new independent prognostic factors (IPFs and comparisons of already identified ones among populations are inevitable to develop more effective prognostic instruments. The aim of this study was to evaluate IPFs of overall survival in a given population of patients with renal cancer.Materials and methods. Retrospective analysis of 148 patients with renal cancer treated at the Oncological Institute in Cracow from 2000 to 2007 was performed. Mean follow–up was 51 months. Using the log–rang test, a group of clinicopathological and biochemical features was analyzed in respect to their influence on overall survival. Results were presented as Kaplan–Meier curves. Final identification of IPFs was made by multivariate Cox regression analysis.Results. Overall survival rate at 1, 2, and 5–year follow–up was 58.8%, 38.2%, and 21.4%, respectively. The set of identified IPFs consisted of performance status, smoking history, hemoglobin concentration, anatomical staging, tumor grade, and the presence of microvascular invasion. It was confirmed that only nephrectomy increases significantly overall survival.Conclusions. Apart from smoking history, the role of all other IPFs identified in our study is well documented in the literature. Smoking history seems to be a new IPF with strong negative impact on survival in patients with RCC.
彭昕; 闻曲; 毛菲; 包莹琦
Based on the latest published 2015 NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology Pallitive Care,this paper introduced the research progress on palliative care,which included overview,the first and overall assessment of palliative care. Besides,this paper introduced interventions of palliative care,so as to promote the development of palliative care in China.%文章基于2015版肿瘤姑息治疗指南，综述了肿瘤姑息治疗的进展，包括姑息治疗的概述，姑息治疗的首次评估、全面评估和姑息治疗的干预措施，以期促进我国护理姑息治疗的发展。
Beets, Geerard; Sebag-Montefiore, David; Andritsch, Elisabeth; Arnold, Dirk; Beishon, Marc; Crul, Mirjam; Dekker, Jan Willem; Delgado-Bolton, Roberto; Fléjou, Jean-François; Grisold, Wolfgang; Henning, Geoffrey; Laghi, Andrea; Lovey, Jozsef; Negrouk, Anastassia; Pereira, Philippe; Roca, Pierre; Saarto, Tiina; Seufferlein, Thomas; Taylor, Claire; Ugolini, Giampaolo; Velde, Cornelis van de; Herck, Bert van; Yared, Wendy; Costa, Alberto; Naredi, Peter
ECCO essential requirements for quality cancer care (ERQCC) are checklists and explanations of organisation and actions that are necessary to give high-quality care to patients who have a specific tumour type. They are written by European experts representing all disciplines involved in cancer care. ERQCC papers give oncology teams, patients, policymakers and managers an overview of the elements needed in any healthcare system to provide high quality of care throughout the patient journey. References are made to clinical guidelines and other resources where appropriate, and the focus is on care in Europe. Colorectal cancer: essential requirements for quality care CONCLUSION: Taken together, the information presented in this paper provides a comprehensive description of the essential requirements for establishing a high-quality CRC service. The ECCO expert group is aware that it is not possible to propose a 'one size fits all' system for all countries, but urges that access to multidisciplinary units or centres must be guaranteed for all those with CRC. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jones, Martyn C; Wells, Mary; Gao, Chuan; Cassidy, Bernadette; Davie, Jackie
Staff working in oncology report high levels of work-related stress. This arises partly from the nature of clinical work, including practitioner perceptions of high demand and low control or high effort and low reward. This comparative study investigated the correlates of work stress in a multidisciplinary group of staff and the associations between staff perceptions of the work environment, emotional distress, job satisfaction and work-based social support. This questionnaire study combined quantitative and qualitative assessment in a cohort sample of multidisciplinary staff (N = 85) working in a cancer centre in North East Scotland. Ethical approval was granted by the local Research Ethics Committee. This paper reports on the quantitative element of the study, Response rate was 50.6% (N = 85). Older, female and nursing and support staff were more likely to participate. Support staff reported the lowest perceptions of control, job satisfaction and managerial support. Radiographers reported the highest levels of job satisfaction, co-worker and managerial support. Nurses perceived lower decision control and job satisfaction than allied health professionals or doctors. In general, perceptions of decisional control and reward were protective of job satisfaction, particularly when work demands were high. Co-worker support was associated with perceptions of reduced effort, greater reward and increased satisfaction. Managerial support was also associated with greater control beliefs. Overall, sickness absence exceeded the 5% rates seen in other National Health Service surveys, whereas turnover intention rates were similar. The development and introduction of multilevel strategies to reduce demand, improve control and support perceptions are warranted, particularly for support staff. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Luta, Gheorghe; Sheppard, Vanessa; Isaacs, Claudine; Cohen, Harvey J.; Muss, Hyman B.; Yung, Rachel; Clapp, Jonathan D.; Winer, Eric; Hudis, Clifford; Tallarico, Michelle; Wang, Julhy; Barry, William T.; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.
Purpose Survivorship care plans (SCP) are recommended for all cancer patients and could be especially useful to survivors 65 years and over (“older”). This study examined receipt of SCPs among older breast cancer survivors and whether SCPs were associated with improved patient-reported outcomes. Methods Three hundred and twenty-eight older women diagnosed with invasive, nonmetastatic breast cancer between 2007–2011 were recruited from 78 cooperative-group sites. Participants completed telephone interviews at baseline and 1-year posttreatment. Regression analyses examined SCP receipt (yes/no) and functioning (EORTC-QLQ-C30), cancer worry, and experiences of survivorship care (care coordination, knowledge). Results Only 35 % of women received SCPs. For each 1-year increase in age, there was a 5 % lower odds of receiving an SCP (odds ratio (OR)=0.94, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.91–0.98, p=0.007). Besides age, no other factor predicted SCPs. SCP receipt was associated with greater knowledge and understanding of requisite follow-up care (p<0.05); however, functioning was not significantly different among those with vs. without SCPs. Conclusions Receipt of care plans was limited. SCPs improved understanding of breast cancer follow-up care among older survivors, but did not impact functioning one year post-treatment. Implications for Cancer Survivors To impact functioning and salient needs of the growing cohort of older survivors, survivorship care plans likely should be tailored to geriatric-specific issues. To improve functioning, SCP content should expand to include exercise, nutrition, polypharmacy, social support and management of symptom burden from cancer, and other comorbid conditions. To improve follow-up care for cancer survivors, SCPs should delineate shared care roles between oncology and primary care in managing recurrence surveillance, screening, and cancer sequelae. PMID:24917307
Meyskens, Frank L.; Bajorin, Dean F.; George, Thomas J.; Jeter, Joanne M.; Khan, Shakila; Tyne, Courtney A.; William, William N.
Purpose To assist in determining barriers to an oncology career incorporating cancer prevention, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Cancer Prevention Workforce Pipeline Work Group sponsored surveys of training program directors and oncology fellows. Methods Separate surveys with parallel questions were administered to training program directors at their fall 2013 retreat and to oncology fellows as part of their February 2014 in-training examination survey. Forty-seven (67%) of 70 training directors and 1,306 (80%) of 1,634 oncology fellows taking the in-training examination survey answered questions. Results Training directors estimated that ≤ 10% of fellows starting an academic career or entering private practice would have a career focus in cancer prevention. Only 15% of fellows indicated they would likely be interested in cancer prevention as a career focus, although only 12% thought prevention was unimportant relative to treatment. Top fellow-listed barriers to an academic career were difficulty in obtaining funding and lower compensation. Additional barriers to an academic career with a prevention focus included unclear career model, lack of clinical mentors, lack of clinical training opportunities, and concerns about reimbursement. Conclusion Reluctance to incorporate cancer prevention into an oncology career seems to stem from lack of mentors and exposure during training, unclear career path, and uncertainty regarding reimbursement. Suggested approaches to begin to remedy this problem include: 1) more ASCO-led and other prevention educational resources for fellows, training directors, and practicing oncologists; 2) an increase in funded training and clinical research opportunities, including reintroduction of the R25T award; 3) an increase in the prevention content of accrediting examinations for clinical oncologists; and 4) interaction with policymakers to broaden the scope and depth of reimbursement for prevention counseling and
Chappidi, Meera R; Kates, Max; Stimson, C J; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Pierorazio, Phillip M
We quantified the underestimation of hospital readmission rates that can occur with institutional databases and the incidence of care fragmentation among patients undergoing urological oncology procedures in a nationally representative database. The 2013 Nationwide Readmissions Database was queried for patients undergoing prostatectomy, cystectomy, nephroureterectomy, nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for urological malignancies. Nationally representative 30 and 90-day readmission and care fragmentation rates were calculated for all procedures. Readmission rates with and without nonindex hospital readmissions were compared with Pearson's chi-square test. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify predictors of care fragmentation at 90-day followup. For all surgical procedures readmission rates were consistently underestimated by 17% to 29% at 90-day followup. The rates of care fragmentation among readmitted patients were similar for all procedures, ranging from 24% to 34% at 90-day followup. Overall 1 in 4 readmitted patients would not be captured in institutional databases and 1 in 3 readmitted patients experienced care fragmentation. Multivariable models did not identify a predictor of care fragmentation that was consistent across all procedures. The high rate of underestimation of readmission rates across all urological oncology procedures highlights the importance of linking institutional and payer claims databases to provide more accurate estimates of perioperative outcomes and health care utilization. The high rate of care fragmentation across all procedures emphasizes the need for future efforts to understand the clinical relevance of care fragmentation in patients with urological malignancies, and to identify patients at risk along with potentially modifiable risk factors for care fragmentation. Copyright Â© 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier
Santos, Erika Maria Monteiro; Edwards, Quannetta T; Floria-Santos, Milena
cancer syndromes, epigenetics factors, and management of care considerations. METHODS: Peer-reviewed literature and expert professional guidelines were reviewed to address concepts of genetics-genomics in cancer care. FINDINGS: Cancer is now known to be heterogeneous at the molecular level, with genetic...
Sternick, Edward S
The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Improvement Act was signed into law in 1987 to advance US business competitiveness and economic growth. Administered by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the Act created the Baldrige National Quality Program, recently renamed the Baldrige Performance Excellence Program. The comprehensive analytical approaches referred to as the Baldrige Healthcare Criteria, are very well-suited for the evaluation and sustainable improvement of radiation oncology management and operations. A multidisciplinary self-assessment approach is used for radiotherapy program evaluation and development in order to generate a fact-based, knowledge-driven system for improving quality of care, increasing patient satisfaction, enhancing leadership effectiveness, building employee engagement, and boosting organizational innovation. This methodology also provides a valuable framework for benchmarking an individual radiation oncology practice's operations and results against guidelines defined by accreditation and professional organizations and regulatory agencies.
Full Text Available The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Improvement Act was signed into law in 1987 to advance U.S. business competitiveness and economic growth. Administered by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, the Act created the Baldrige National Quality Program, recently renamed the Baldrige Performance Excellence Program. The comprehensive analytical approaches referred to as the Baldrige Healthcare Criteria, are very well-suited for the evaluation and sustainable improvement of radiation oncology management and operations. A multidisciplinary self-assessment approach is used for radiotherapy program evaluation and development in order to generate a fact-based, knowledge-driven system for improving quality of care, increasing patient satisfaction, enhancing leadership effectiveness, building employee engagement and boosting organizational innovation. This methodology also provides a valuable framework for benchmarking an individual radiation oncology practice’s operations and results against guidelines defined by accreditation and professional organizations and regulatory agencies.
Fomsgaard, A; Høiby, Niels; Friis, H M
. Bacterial isolates from 794 Danish patients were tested and compared to 8,625 isolates from European patients. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of eight different antibiotics were determined using a microdilution plate. Similar to findings in European countries, the most common source of bacterial...... ICUs) or Enterococcus spp. and Klebsiella spp. (from hematology/oncology units), are the most prominent pathogens in these units today. Indicator organisms of antibiotic consumption (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus) were more......The prevalence and antibiotic sensitivity patterns of bacteria collected consecutively from medical and surgical intensive care units (ICUs) and from hematology/oncology units in nine hospitals in Denmark were determined and compared to data collected simultaneously in 12 other European countries...
Palliative care has evolved from end-of-life care following exhaustion of curative therapy to care across the cancer-management continuum. Often initiated concurrently with curative care at the time of diagnosis, palliative care ensures both effective symptom management and the best possible quality of life in four key domains-physical, psychological, social, and spiritual. The significant growth and development of palliative care in the United States is evident in that one in four hospitals now has a palliative care program, palliative medicine is now recognized as an official medical subspecialty by the American Board of Medical Specialties, and national programs offer comprehensive continuing education in palliative care for nurses and physicians. The oncology nurse who provides palliative care does so as part of a multidisciplinary team that includes not only physicians but also can involve chaplains, massage therapists, pharmacists, nutritionists, and other specialists. This article provides resources and reviews and highlights pertinent palliative care issues to guide oncology nurses managing newly diagnosed cancer patients.
Maree, Johanna Elizabeth; Mulonda, Jennipher Kombe
Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the experiences of Zambian nurses caring for women with advanced breast cancer. Methods: We used a qualitative descriptive design and purposive sampling. Seventeen in-depth interviews were conducted with registered nurses practicing in the Cancer Diseases Hospital and the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia, and analyzed using thematic analyses. Results: Two themes emerged from the data - caring for women with advanced breast cancer is challenging and the good outweighs the bad. The majority of the participants agreed that caring for women with advanced breast cancer and witnessing their suffering were challenging. Not having formal education and training in oncology nursing was disempowering, and one of the various frustrations participants experienced. The work environment, learning opportunities, positive patient outcomes, and the opportunity to establish good nurse–patient experiences were positive experiences. Conclusions: Although negative experiences seemed to be overwhelming, participants reported some meaningful experiences while caring for women with advanced breast cancer. The lack of formal oncology nursing education and training was a major factor contributing to their negative experiences and perceived as the key to rendering the quality of care patients deserved. Ways to fulfill the educational needs of nurses should be explored and instituted, and nurses should be remunerated according to their levels of practice. PMID:28217726
Viswanathan, Akila N
Radiation plays an integral role in the management of gynecologic cancers. The specific regimen must be carefully coordinated based on the details of a patient's personal history and pathologic findings. An integrated multidisciplinary approach that merges pathology, radiology, medical oncology, gynecologic oncology, and radiation oncology results in a greater understanding and, ideally, better outcomes for women suffering from gynecologic cancer.
Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this discussion is to explore the theory, evidence base, and practice of Qigong for individuals with cancer. Questions addressed are: What is qigong? How does it work? What evidence exists supporting its practice in integrative oncology? What barriers to wide-spread programming access exist? Methods: Sources for this discussion include a review of scholarly texts, the Internet, PubMed, field observations, and expert opinion. Results: Qigong is a gentle, mind/body exercise integral within Chinese medicine. Theoretical foundations include Chinese medicine energy theory, psychoneuroimmunology, the relaxation response, the meditation effect, and epigenetics. Research supports positive effects on quality of life (QOL, fatigue, immune function and cortisol levels, and cognition for individuals with cancer. There is indirect, scientific evidence suggesting that qigong practice may positively influence cancer prevention and survival. No one Qigong exercise regimen has been established as superior. Effective protocols do have common elements: slow mindful exercise, easy to learn, breath regulation, meditation, emphasis on relaxation, and energy cultivation including mental intent and self-massage. Conclusions: Regular practice of Qigong exercise therapy has the potential to improve cancer-related QOL and is indirectly linked to cancer prevention and survival. Wide-spread access to quality Qigong in cancer care programming may be challenged by the availability of existing programming and work force capacity.
The National Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) Steering Committees review concepts for clinical trials to control cancer symptoms and cancer treatment side effects, and concepts for studies of cancer care delivery.
Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines care transition experiences of cancer patients and assesses barriers to effective transitions.Methods: Participants were adult Hebrew, Arabic, or Russian speaking oncology patients and health care providers from hospital and community settings. Qualitative (n=77 and quantitative (n=422 methods such as focus groups, interviews and self-administered questionnaires were used. Qualitative analysis showed that patients faced difficulties navigating a complex and fragmented healthcare system.Results: Mechanisms to overcome barriers included informal routes such as personal relationships, coordinating roles by nurse coordinators and the patients' general practitioners (GPs. The most significant variable was GPs involvement, which affected transition process quality as rated on the CTM (p<0.001. Our findings point to the important interpersonal role of oncology nurses to coordinate and facilitate the care transition process.Conclusion: Interventions targeted towards supporting the care transition process should emphasize ongoing counseling throughout a patient’s care, during and after hospitalization.-----------------------------------------Cite this article as: Admi H, Muller E, Shadmi E. Transition from Hospital to Community Care: The Experience of Cancer Patients. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2015; 3(4:34011.[This abstract was presented at the BIT’s 8th Annual World Cancer Congress, which was held from May 15-17, 2015 in Beijing, China.
Sergio Cantoreggi speaks to Henry Ireland, Commissioning Editor: Sergio Cantoreggi, PhD, is the Chief Scientific Officer and Global Head of Research and Development of the Helsinn Group, a mid-sized pharmaceutical company headquartered in Lugano, Switzerland, and focused on providing cancer supportive care solutions to oncology patients worldwide. Dr Cantoreggi has overall responsibility for all R&D activities of the Helsinn Group and has contributed to six major regulatory approvals of cancer supportive care agents in the USA, Europe and Japan. Dr Cantoreggi joined Helsinn Healthcare in 2000 as drug development scientist and was appointed Head of R&D in 2005. In 2010, he was promoted to his current role. From 1994 to 2000 he worked as toxicologist and regulatory scientist for Du Pont, Sandoz and Novartis. Prior to joining industry, Dr Cantoreggi completed a postdoctoral fellowship and earned a Master of Science degree in chemistry and a Doctoral degree in natural sciences with a thesis on the mechanism of chemical carcinogenesis from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich, Switzerland. Sergio Cantoreggi discusses Helsinn's role in cancer supportive care, describing current treatment options for patients, the company's pipeline and Helsinn's work in supporting the field as a whole.
Full Text Available Background Today, with improvements in laparoscopy technique, surgery of rectal cancer is performed by laparoscopy. Objectives This study was performed to evaluate oncologic results of open versus laparoscopic surgery of rectal cancer in terms of resection margins, removal of lymph nodes and recurrence rate. Patients and Methods This descriptive-analytic study was performed on 88 patients with middle and lower rectal cancer in the two equivalent groups of laparoscopic and open surgery in Mashhad Ghaem and Omid hospitals during 2011 - 2013. Information including age, sex, number of removed and involved lymph nodes, proximal, distal, and radial margins, tumor stage and location, recurrence and disease-free survival collected in the questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics and frequency distribution tables and t-test. Results Both groups of open and laparoscopic surgery had similar characteristics of age, sex, recurrence and disease-free survival, tumor margins and one-year mortality. The number of removed and involved lymph nodes was higher in the laparoscopic group (5.16 vs. 3.55, respectively, with P < 0.050, and 1.74 vs. 0.59 with P = 0.023, but the ratio of involved lymph nodes to the total number of removed lymph nodes was not different between the two groups (LNR (P = 0.071. Tumor stage was higher in the laparoscopic group and most were in stages II and III (P < 0.001. Conclusions Laparoscopic surgery is an effective technique for safe margin and removing lymph nodes in rectal cancer.
DiStasio, Susan A
Although yoga has been practiced in Eastern culture for thousands of years as part of life philosophy, classes in the United States only recently have been offered to people with cancer. The word yoga is derived from the Sanskrit root yuj, meaning to bind, join, and yoke. This reflection of the union of the body, mind, and spirit is what differentiates yoga from general exercise programs. Yoga classes in the United States generally consist of asanas (postures), which are designed to exercise every muscle, nerve, and gland in the body. The postures are combined with pranayama, or rhythmic control of the breath. As a complementary therapy, yoga integrates awareness of breath, relaxation, exercise, and social support--elements that are key to enhancing quality of life in patients with cancer. Yoga practice may assist cancer survivors in managing symptoms such as depression, anxiety, insomnia, pain, and fatigue. As with all exercise programs, participants need to be aware of potential risks and their own limitations. The purpose of this article is to familiarize nurses with yoga as a complementary therapy, including current research findings, types of yoga, potential benefits, safety concerns, teacher training, and ways to integrate yoga into cancer care.
Increasing weight and body fat composition has an impact on cancer detection and staging. Obese women are less likely to engage in breast and cervical screening practices. Excessive adipose tissue makes physical assessment more difficult, and patients with a BMI greater than 35 kg/m2 may have deeper and wider pelvic structures, which make internal examinations problematic. A retrospective review of 324 primary surgical patients found that patients with a BMI greater than 40 kg/m2 are seven times less likely to undergo complete surgical staging for endometrial cancer compared with individuals with a BMI less than 40 kg/m2. In addition, healthcare provider bias against the need for screening, feelings of discomfort and embarrassment, as well as patient's fears of guilt, humiliation, and shame pose significant barriers to addressing the issue of obesity in clinical care with patients and family members. .
Personalized medicine is revolutionizing cancer care and creating new expectations among oncologists and patients. At present the benefit is still marginal, however, and must be understood as incremental. In addition, cultural and resource disparities limit the sustainability of new cancer therapies on a global scale. Adequate instruments are needed to enable our exercise of sound and honest judgment in distinguishing breakthrough treatments from those that yield only marginal or doubtful improvements, and to develop strategies for formulation and correct application of balanced guidelines for sustainable cancer care. Professionalism requires that the acquisition of knowledge and skills go hand in hand with moral education in the intellectual virtues of humility, perseverance, adaptability, communicativeness, and commitment to resist self-deception or conflicts of interest. Hidden curricula undermine the moral values of medicine: these must be understood and uncovered. We should possess a special body of knowledge, skills, and values that allow us to change our practices when appropriate and to be stewards of society's limited resources through proper communication with our patients and families. In the era of personalized oncology and global issues of sustainability, professional authenticity and integrity in cancer clinical practice are key to bridging the gaps between true and false expectations of patients and the public.
A catalog of posts from NCI’s Cancer Currents blog on research related to survivorship and supportive care. Includes posts on the physical, psychosocial, and economic issues faced by cancer survivors and their caregivers.
Li, Wen-Hua; Peng, Jun-Jie; Xiang, Jia-Qing; Chen, Wei; Cai, San-Jun; Zhang, Wen
AIM: To explore the oncological outcomes of unresectable lung metastases without extrapulmonary metastases in colorectal cancer. METHODS: Patients with unresectable isolated lung metastases from colorectal cancer were prospectively collected in a single institution during a 5-year period. All patients received either the fluorouracil/leucovorin plus oxaliplatin, fluorouracil/leucovorin plus irinotecan or capecitabine plus oxaliplatin regimen as first-line treatment. The resectability after preoperative chemotherapy was evaluated. Patients’ outcome and predictive factors for overall survival were also investigated by univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: A total of 70 patients were included in the study. After standardized first-line chemotherapy, only 4 patients (5.7%) were converted to resectable disease. The median overall survival time in all patients was 19 mo (95% CI: 12.6-25.4), with a 2-year overall survival rate of 38.8%. No survival difference was found among different first-line chemotherapeutic regimens. Prognostic analysis demonstrated that only the first response assessment for first-line treatment was the independent factor for predicting overall survival. The median survival time in partial response, stable disease and progressive disease patients were 27 mo, 16 mo and 8 mo (P = 0.00001). CONCLUSION: Pulmonary metastasectomy can only be performed in a small part of unresectable lung metastases patients after chemotherapy. Patients’ first response assessment is an important prognostic factor. PMID:20614489
Patel, Sandip P; Schwaederle, Maria; Daniels, Gregory A; Fanta, Paul T; Schwab, Richard B; Shimabukuro, Kelly A; Kesari, Santosh; Piccioni, David E; Bazhenova, Lyudmila A; Helsten, Teresa L; Lippman, Scott M; Parker, Barbara A; Kurzrock, Razelle
Tumor sequencing has revolutionized oncology, allowing for detailed interrogation of the molecular underpinnings of cancer at an individual level. With this additional insight, it is increasingly apparent that not only do tumors vary within a sample (tumor heterogeneity), but also that each patient's individual tumor is a constellation of unique molecular aberrations that will require an equally unique personalized therapeutic regimen. We report here the results of 439 patients who underwent Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment (CLIA)-certified next generation sequencing (NGS) across histologies. Among these patients, 98.4% had a unique molecular profile, and aside from three primary brain tumor patients with a single genetic lesion (IDH1 R132H), no two patients within a given histology were molecularly identical. Additionally, two sets of patients had identical profiles consisting of two mutations in common and no other anomalies. However, these profiles did not segregate by histology (lung adenocarcinoma-appendiceal cancer (KRAS G12D and GNAS R201C), and lung adenocarcinoma-liposarcoma (CDK4 and MDM2 amplification pairs)). These findings suggest that most advanced tumors are molecular singletons within and between histologies, and that tumors that differ in histology may still nonetheless exhibit identical molecular portraits, albeit rarely.
Kohrt, Holbrook E; Tumeh, Paul C; Benson, Don; Bhardwaj, Nina; Brody, Joshua; Formenti, Silvia; Fox, Bernard A; Galon, Jerome; June, Carl H; Kalos, Michael; Kirsch, Ilan; Kleen, Thomas; Kroemer, Guido; Lanier, Lewis; Levy, Ron; Lyerly, H Kim; Maecker, Holden; Marabelle, Aurelien; Melenhorst, Jos; Miller, Jeffrey; Melero, Ignacio; Odunsi, Kunle; Palucka, Karolina; Peoples, George; Ribas, Antoni; Robins, Harlan; Robinson, William; Serafini, Tito; Sondel, Paul; Vivier, Eric; Weber, Jeff; Wolchok, Jedd; Zitvogel, Laurence; Disis, Mary L; Cheever, Martin A
The efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 targeted therapies in addition to anti-CTLA-4 solidifies immunotherapy as a modality to add to the anticancer arsenal. Despite raising the bar of clinical efficacy, immunologically targeted agents raise new challenges to conventional drug development paradigms by highlighting the limited relevance of assessing standard pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD). Specifically, systemic and intratumoral immune effects have not consistently correlated with standard relationships between systemic dose, toxicity, and efficacy for cytotoxic therapies. Hence, PK and PD paradigms remain inadequate to guide the selection of doses and schedules, both starting and recommended Phase 2 for immunotherapies. The promise of harnessing the immune response against cancer must also be considered in light of unique and potentially serious toxicities. Refining immune endpoints to better inform clinical trial design represents a high priority challenge. The Cancer Immunotherapy Trials Network investigators review the immunodynamic effects of specific classes of immunotherapeutic agents to focus immune assessment modalities and sites, both systemic and importantly intratumoral, which are critical to the success of the rapidly growing field of immuno-oncology.
Rodrigo, Juan P; Díaz-Molina, Juan Pablo; Moreno, Carla; Suárez, Carlos
The optimal treatment for base of tongue cancer remains unclear, especially in advanced stages. We retrospectively review 84 previously untreated patients that underwent a transhyoid resection of a base of tongue carcinoma. Sixty-four patients (76%) underwent postoperative radiotherapy. Five patients had stage II disease, 6 had stage III, 58 had stage IVA, and 15 had stage IVB. The overall recurrence rate was 68%. Five-year disease-specific survival rates by stage were 100%, 67%, 27%, and 8% for stage II to IVB, respectively (p = .0007). Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of lymph node metastases was an independent predictor of reduced disease-specific survival rates (p = .02). All patients maintained an intelligible voice, and oral alimentation was successfully recovered in 97.5% of them. The transhyoid approach allowed adequate resection of base of tongue cancers with low morbidity and acceptable functional results, but the oncologic outcomes in advanced stages are poor. Head Neck, 2011. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Reynolds, J V
The curative approach to oesophageal cancer carries significant risks and a cure is achieved in approximately 20 per cent. There has been a recent trend internationally to observe improved operative and oncological outcomes. This report audits modern outcomes from a high volume centre with a prospective database for the period 2004-08. 603 patients were referred and 310 (52%) were treated with curative intent. Adenocarcinoma represented 68% of the cohort, squamous cell cancer 30%. Of the 310 cases, 227 (73%) underwent surgery, 105 (46%) underwent surgery alone, and 122 (54%) had chemotherapy or combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The postoperative mortality rate was 1.7%. The median and 5-year survival of the 310 patients based on intention to treat was 36 months and 36%, respectively, and of the 181 patients undergoing R0 resection, 52 months and 42%, respectively. An in-hospital postoperative mortality rate of less than 2 per cent, and 5-year survival of between 35 and 42% is consistent with benchmarks from international series.
Head, Barbara A; Schapmire, Tara; Hermann, Carla; Earnshaw, Lori; Faul, Anna; Jones, Carol; Kayser, Karen; Martin, Amy; Shaw, Monica Ann; Woggon, Frank; Pfeifer, Mark
Background: Interprofessional education is necessary to prepare students of the health professions for successful practice in today's health care environment. Because of its expertise in interdisciplinary practice and team-based care, palliative care should be leading the way in creating educational opportunities for students to learn the skills for team practice and provision of quality patient-centered care. Multiple barriers exist that can discourage those desiring to create and implement truly interdisciplinary curriculum. An interdisciplinary faculty team planned and piloted a mandatory interdisciplinary palliative oncology curriculum and responded to formative feedback. The project took place at a large public metropolitan university. Medical, nursing, and social work students and chaplains completing a clinical pastoral education internship participated in the curriculum. Formative feedback was received via the consultation of an interdisciplinary group of palliative education experts, focus groups from students, and student evaluations of each learning modality. Multiple barriers were experienced and successfully addressed by the faculty team. Curricular components were redesigned based on formative feedback. Openness to this feedback coupled with flexibility and compromise enabled the faculty team to create an efficient, sustainable, and feasible interdisciplinary palliative oncology curriculum. Interdisciplinary palliative education can be successful if faculty teams are willing to confront challenges, accept feedback on multiple levels, and compromise while maintaining focus on desired learner outcomes.
Jakobsen, Erik Winther; Green, Anders; Oesterlind, Kell
To improve prognosis and quality of lung cancer care the Danish Lung Cancer Group has developed a strategy consisting of national clinical guidelines and a clinical quality and research database. The first edition of our guidelines was published in 1998 and our national lung cancer registry...... was opened for registrations in 2000. This article describes methods and results obtained by multidisciplinary collaboration and illustrates how quality of lung cancer care can be improved by establishing and monitoring result and process indicators....
Morris, Carl R.; Hickman, Mary Johne
The University of Tennessee has established a training program for clinical pharmacists dealing with cancer chemotherapy patients. Health-care settings are described in which these individuals can contribute as unique health-care team members in oncology. (Author/LBH)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Teamwork is a key component of the health care renewal strategy emphasized in Quebec, elsewhere in Canada and in other countries to enhance the quality of oncology services. While this innovation would appear beneficial in theory, empirical evidences of its impact are limited. Current efforts in Quebec to encourage the development of local interdisciplinary teams in all hospitals offer a unique opportunity to assess the anticipated benefits. These teams working in hospital outpatient clinics are responsible for treatment, follow-up and patient support. The study objective is to assess the impact of interdisciplinarity on cancer patients and health professionals. Methods/Design This is a quasi-experimental study with three comparison groups distinguished by intensity of interdisciplinarity: strong, moderate and weak. The study will use a random sample of 12 local teams in Quebec, stratified by intensity of interdisciplinarity. The instrument to measure the intensity of the interdisciplinarity, developed in collaboration with experts, encompasses five dimensions referring to aspects of team structure and process. Self-administered questionnaires will be used to measure the impact of interdisciplinarity on patients (health care utilization, continuity of care and cancer services responsiveness and on professionals (professional well-being, assessment of teamwork and perception of teamwork climate. Approximately 100 health professionals working on the selected teams and 2000 patients will be recruited. Statistical analyses will include descriptive statistics and comparative analysis of the impact observed according to the strata of interdisciplinarity. Fixed and random multivariate statistical models (multilevel analyses will also be used. Discussion This study will pinpoint to what extent interdisciplinarity is linked to quality of care and meets the complex and varied needs of cancer patients. It will ascertain to what extent
Muscatello, M R A; Bruno, A; Carroccio, C; Cedro, C; La Torre, D; Di Rosa, A E; Zoccali, R; Aragona, M; La Torre, F; Mattei, A; Angelone, A M; Di Orio, F
The prevalence of burnout in oncology staff was compared with that of the ophthalmology staff, who normally present a low prevalence of burnout as described in this literature. The correlation of burnout with the emotion of anger was also investigated. Thirty-six subjects working in an oncology department and 32 working in an ophthalmology department were examined using the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory. The oncology group showed higher mean scores on the MBI Emotive Exhaustion and Depersonalization scales with respect to ophthalmology staff. Correlation analysis showed that increasing burnout was associated with higher anger expressed towards the environment and loss of anger control. Anger, as a response to frustration, appears to be a feature constantly associated with the clinical expression of burnout and it should not be underestimated in theoretical and preventive contexts.
Campbell, Colleen P
Ambulatory oncology nurses struggle to meet the increasing demands placed on them. Increased volume of patients, more complex treatments and symptom management, an older population with multiple co-morbidities combined with fiscal and human resource restraints has created job dissatisfaction and the feeling of powerlessness in the current environment. The Appreciative Inquiry process enables nurses to become engaged in planning and creating positive change based on their knowledge, experiences and clinical expertise, as oncology professionals. Through surveys and group work, nurses in this project were able to turn theory into positive practice change, inspiring a new paradigm of primary oncology nursing. Through the promotion of innovation, we have inspired hope while advocating for our profession.
Nyirő, Judit; Hauser, Péter; Zörgő, Szilvia; Hegedűs, Katalin
Adequate communication by medical personnel is especially important at certain points during the treatment of childhood cancer patients. To investigate the timing and manner of communication with parents concerning the introduction of palliative care in pediatric oncology. Structured interviews, containing 14 questions, were carried out with physicians working in pediatric oncology (n = 22). Codes were generated inductively with the aid of Atlas.ti 6.0 software. Interviews show a tendency of a one-step transition to palliative care following curative therapy. Another expert is usually involved in communication, most likely a psychologist. Regarding communication, there are expressions utilized or avoided, such as expressing clarity, self-defense and empathy. The communication of death and dying was the most contradictory. This was the first investigation regarding communication in pediatric palliative care in Hungary. Our results show that a modern perspective of palliative communication is present, but necessitates more time to become entrenched. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(30): 1175-1181.
Giard, Raimond W M
The continual and increasing complexity of diagnostic and treatment options in oncology demands careful communication, coordination and decision making. Cancer care could be improved by multidisciplinary teamwork. Although this sort of teamwork has many advantages in theory, we know very little about its effectiveness in practice. We have to answer questions such as how teams can accomplish their task most effectively and how we must manage organizations in such a way that team-based working contributes optimally to organizational effectiveness.
Kim, Do Yeun; Lee, Yun Gyoo; Kim, Bong-Seog
This study was conducted to investigate the current role of medical oncologists in cancer care with a focus on increasing the recognition of medical oncology as an independent specialty. Questionnaires modified from the Medical Oncology Status in Europe Survey dealing with oncology structure, resources, research, and patterns of care given by medical oncologists were selected. Several modifications were made to the questionnaire after feedback from the insurance and policy committee of the Korean Association for Clinical Oncology (KACO). The online survey was then sent to KACO members. A total of 214 medical oncologists (45.8% of the total inquiries), including 71 directors of medical oncology institutions, took the survey. Most institutions had various resources, including a medical oncology department (94.1%) and a department of radiation oncology (82.4%). There was an average of four medical oncologists at each institution. Medical oncologists were involved in various treatments from diagnosis to end-of-life care. They were also chemotherapy providers from a wide range of institutions that treated many types of solid cancers. In addition, 86.2% of the institutions conducted research. This is the first national survey in Korea to show that medical oncologists are involved in a wide range of cancer treatments and care. This survey emphasizes the contributions and proper roles of medical oncologists in the evolving health care environment in Korea.
Lim, Jia Wei; Yeap, Frances Sh; Chan, Yiong Huak; Yeoh, Allen Ej; Quah, Thuan Chong; Tan, Poh Lin
Introduction: One of the most feared complications of childhood cancer treatment is second malignant neoplasms (SMNs). This study evaluates the incidence, risk factors and outcomes of SMNs in a tertiary paediatric oncology centre in Singapore. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was conducted on patients diagnosed with childhood cancer under age 21 and treated at the National University Hospital, Singapore, from January 1990 to 15 April 2012. Case records of patients with SMNs were reviewed. Results: We identified 1124 cases of childhood cancers with a median follow-up of 3.49 (0 to 24.06) years. The most common primary malignancies were leukaemia (47.1%), central nervous system tumours (11.7%) and lymphoma (9.8%). Fifteen cases developed SMNs, most commonly acute myeloid leukaemia/myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 7). Median interval between the first and second malignancy was 3.41 (0.24 to 18.30) years. Overall 20-year cumulative incidence of SMNs was 5.3% (95% CI, 0.2% to 10.4%). The 15-year cumulative incidence of SMNs following acute lymphoblastic leukaemia was 4.4% (95% CI, 0% to 8.9%), significantly lower than the risk after osteosarcoma of 14.2% (95% CI, 0.7% to 27.7%) within 5 years (P <0.0005). Overall 5-year survival for SMNs was lower than that of primary malignancies. Conclusion: This study identified factors explaining the epidemiology of SMNs described, and found topoisomerase II inhibitor use to be a likely risk factor in our cohort. Modifications have already been made to our existing therapeutic protocols in osteosarcoma treatment. We also recognised the importance of other risk management strategies, including regular long-term surveillance and early intervention for detected SMNs, to improve outcomes of high risk patients.
Justin Y Jeon
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To evaluate the impact of diabetes on outcomes in colorectal cancer patients and to examine whether this association varies by the location of tumor (colon vs. rectum. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study includes 4,131 stage I-III colorectal cancer patients, treated between 1995 and 2007 (12.5% diabetic, 53% colon, 47% rectal in South Korea. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to determine the prognostic influence of DM on survival endpoints. RESULTS: Colorectal cancer patients with DM had significantly worse disease-free survival (DFS [hazard ratio (HR 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.00-1.37] compared with patients without DM. When considering colon and rectal cancer independently, DM was significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS (HR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.11-1.92, DFS (HR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.15-1.84 and recurrence-free survival (RFS (HR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.98-1.76 in colon cancer patients. No association for OS, DFS or RFS was observed in rectal cancer patients. There was significant interaction of location of tumor (colon vs. rectal cancer with DM on OS (P = 0.009 and DFS (P = 0.007. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that DM negatively impacts survival outcomes of patients with colon cancer but not rectal cancer.
Schofield, Nicola G; Green, Claire; Creed, Francis
Communication skills' training has been placed high on the agenda by the National Institute of Clinical Excellence guidelines and the National Health Service in the UK. The paper reviews the importance of good communication skills in cancer care for the patient and describes research that has identified ways in which health-care professionals (HCP) can improve their communication with patients. The evidence as to why there is a lack of facilitative skills is reviewed along with what skills are required in order to improve communication with patients. The paper describes evidence of increased facilitative skills post-training, discusses whether there is evidence of transfer of these skills into clinical practice and how this might be best achieved. To conclude, research evidence would support the fact that training in communication skills needs to provide the best possible outcomes for HCP and their patients. Patient concerns, needs and preferences need to be elicited and the impact of concerns identified, so that the HCP can appropriately tailor their information giving, advice, treatment and plan of care.
Barón Duarte, F J; Rodríguez Calvo, M S; Amor Pan, J R
Aggressiveness criteria proposed in the scientific literature a decade ago provide a quality judgment and are a reference in the care of patients with advanced cancer, but their use is not generalized in the evaluation of Oncology Services. In this paper we analyze the therapeutic aggressiveness, according to standard criteria, in 1.001 patients with advanced cancer who died in our Institution between 2010 and 2013. The results seem to show that aggressiveness at the end of life is present more frequently than experts recommend. About 25% of patients fulfill at least one criterion of aggressiveness. This result could be explained by a liquid Oncology which does not prioritize the patient as a moral subject in the clinical appointment. Medical care is oriented to necessities and must be articulated in a model focused on dignity and communication. Its implementation through Advanced Care Planning, consideration of patient's values and preferences, and Limitation of therapeutic effort are ways to reduce aggressiveness and improve clinical practice at the end of life. We need to encourage synergic and proactive attitudes, adding the best of cancer research with the best clinical care for the benefit of human being, moral subject and main goal of Medicine.
De Paoli, Paolo; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Ferrarini, Manlio; Pelicci, PierGiuseppe; Dellabona, Paolo; De Lorenzo, Francesco; Mantovani, Alberto; Musto, Pellegrino; Opocher, Giuseppe; Picci, Piero; Ricciardi, Walter; De Maria, Ruggero
Alliance Against Cancer (ACC) was established in Rome in 2002 as a consortium of six Italian comprehensive cancer centers (Founders). The aims of ACC were to promote a network among Italian oncologic institutions in order to develop specific, advanced projects in clinical and translational research. During the following years, many additional full and associate members joined ACC, that presently includes the National Institute of Health, 17 research-oriented hospitals, scientific and patient organizations. Furthermore, in the last three years ACC underwent a reorganization process that redesigned the structure, governance and major activities. The present goal of ACC is to achieve high standards of care across Italy, to implement and harmonize principles of modern personalized and precision medicine, by developing cost effective processes and to provide tailored information to cancer patients. We herein summarize some of the major initiatives that ACC is currently developing to reach its goal, including tumor genetic screening programs, establishment of clinical trial programs for cancer patients treated in Italian cancer centers, facilitate their access to innovative drugs under development, improve quality through an European accreditation process (European Organization of Cancer Institutes), and develop international partnerships. In conclusion, ACC is a growing organization, trying to respond to the need of networking in Italy and may contribute significantly to improve the way we face cancer in Europe.
Snipelisky, David; Park, Jae Yoon; Lerman, Amir; Mulvagh, Sharon; Lin, Grace; Pereira, Naveen; Rodriguez-Porcel, Martin; Villarraga, Hector R; Herrmann, Joerg
Cardiovascular demands to the care of cancer patients are common and important given the implications for morbidity and mortality. As a consequence, interactions with cardiovascular disease specialists have intensified to the point of the development of a new discipline termed cardio-oncology. As an additional consequence, so-called cardio-oncology clinics have emerged, in most cases staffed by cardiologists with an interest in the field. This article addresses this gap and summarizes key points in the development of a cardio-oncology clinic.
SANTOSH K CHATURVEDI
Full Text Available Communication is a core aspect of psycho-oncology care. This article examines key psychosocial, cultural, and technological factors that affect this communication. Drawing from advances in clinical work and accumulating bodies of empirical evidence, the authors identify determining factors for high quality, efficient, and sensitive communication and support for those affected by cancer. Cancer care in India is highlighted as a salient example. Cultural factors affecting cancer communication in India include beliefs about health and illness, societal values, integration of spiritual care, family roles, and expectations concerning disclosure of cancer information, and rituals around death and dying. The rapidly emerging area of e-health significantly impacts cancer communication and support globally. In view of current globalization, understanding these multidimensional psychosocial, and cultural factors that shape communication are essential for providing comprehensive, appropriate and sensitive cancer care.
Chaturvedi, Santosh K; Strohschein, Fay J; Saraf, Gayatri; Loiselle, Carmen G
Communication is a core aspect of psycho-oncology care. This article examines key psychosocial, cultural, and technological factors that affect this communication. Drawing from advances in clinical work and accumulating bodies of empirical evidence, the authors identify determining factors for high quality, efficient, and sensitive communication and support for those affected by cancer. Cancer care in India is highlighted as a salient example. Cultural factors affecting cancer communication in India include beliefs about health and illness, societal values, integration of spiritual care, family roles, and expectations concerning disclosure of cancer information, and rituals around death and dying. The rapidly emerging area of e-health significantly impacts cancer communication and support globally. In view of current globalization, understanding these multidimensional psychosocial, and cultural factors that shape communication are essential for providing comprehensive, appropriate, and sensitive cancer care.
De Fiore, Luciano; Costantini, Anna; Di Maio, Massimo; Gori, Stefania; Lorusso, Domenica; Rosti, Giovanni; Pinto, Carmine
Films that feature characters with cancer have become a familiar sight for movie-goers. 148 movies treating tumors were selected, produced all over the world since the Thirties, in which cancer had "prompt", "relevant", or "plot" character. In order to clearly understand each film's peculiar message about cancer, we recollected data such as genealogy, year and country of production, main characters' age and gender, and kind of tumor. Movies deal with cancer through very relevant questions, as well as themes and contexts that have great influence on oncologist's mind and consciousness. Specially in recent years, films have tackled some of the most important issues around cancer, such as his epidemiology and environmental causes; the economic implications of therapies; the management of symptoms and side effects; the psychological dynamics; the care toward the ending of life. The most frequent treatment mentioned in the movies was chemotherapy followed by antalgic therapy. Very often the ill person on the screen doesn't get over the disease and his death is somehow useful to the plot's outcome. This pattern is so strongly standardized that it persists in spite of real progress of treatments. Movies use disease, and other tragedies, as a dramatic device, and since drama is what we expect of the medium, should we be concerned that there is a gap between fiction and reality? Movies represent an essential step of educational process, but their potential has been fully exploited only in recent times. By watching movies on cancer, oncologists could become more conscious of problems they are already facing in the therapeutic setting: cancer and sexuality, the relationship between the ill person and the medical staff, side effects of therapies. Some films simply make us reflect upon the meaning of life and death. This is useful for the sharing of cancer care, from personal or familiar problems to issues of collective relevance.
Current status and recommendations for the future of research, teaching, and testing in the biological sciences of radiation oncology: report of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force, executive summary.
Wallner, Paul E; Anscher, Mitchell S; Barker, Christopher A; Bassetti, Michael; Bristow, Robert G; Cha, Yong I; Dicker, Adam P; Formenti, Silvia C; Graves, Edward E; Hahn, Stephen M; Hei, Tom K; Kimmelman, Alec C; Kirsch, David G; Kozak, Kevin R; Lawrence, Theodore S; Marples, Brian; McBride, William H; Mikkelsen, Ross B; Park, Catherine C; Weidhaas, Joanne B; Zietman, Anthony L; Steinberg, Michael
In early 2011, a dialogue was initiated within the Board of Directors (BOD) of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) regarding the future of the basic sciences of the specialty, primarily focused on the current state and potential future direction of basic research within radiation oncology. After consideration of the complexity of the issues involved and the precise nature of the undertaking, in August 2011, the BOD empanelled a Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force (TF). The TF was charged with developing an accurate snapshot of the current state of basic (preclinical) research in radiation oncology from the perspective of relevance to the modern clinical practice of radiation oncology as well as the education of our trainees and attending physicians in the biological sciences. The TF was further charged with making suggestions as to critical areas of biological basic research investigation that might be most likely to maintain and build further the scientific foundation and vitality of radiation oncology as an independent and vibrant medical specialty. It was not within the scope of service of the TF to consider the quality of ongoing research efforts within the broader radiation oncology space, to presume to consider their future potential, or to discourage in any way the investigators committed to areas of interest other than those targeted. The TF charge specifically precluded consideration of research issues related to technology, physics, or clinical investigations. This document represents an Executive Summary of the Task Force report.
Current Status and Recommendations for the Future of Research, Teaching, and Testing in the Biological Sciences of Radiation Oncology: Report of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force, Executive Summary
Wallner, Paul E., E-mail: email@example.com [21st Century Oncology, LLC, and the American Board of Radiology, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Anscher, Mitchell S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Barker, Christopher A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Bassetti, Michael [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Bristow, Robert G. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Biophysics, Princess Margaret Cancer Center/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Cha, Yong I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Norton Cancer Center, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Formenti, Silvia C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University, New York, New York (United States); Graves, Edward E. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania (United States); Hei, Tom K. [Center for Radiation Research, Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Kimmelman, Alec C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kozak, Kevin R. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan (United States); Marples, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oakland University, Oakland, California (United States); and others
In early 2011, a dialogue was initiated within the Board of Directors (BOD) of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) regarding the future of the basic sciences of the specialty, primarily focused on the current state and potential future direction of basic research within radiation oncology. After consideration of the complexity of the issues involved and the precise nature of the undertaking, in August 2011, the BOD empanelled a Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force (TF). The TF was charged with developing an accurate snapshot of the current state of basic (preclinical) research in radiation oncology from the perspective of relevance to the modern clinical practice of radiation oncology as well as the education of our trainees and attending physicians in the biological sciences. The TF was further charged with making suggestions as to critical areas of biological basic research investigation that might be most likely to maintain and build further the scientific foundation and vitality of radiation oncology as an independent and vibrant medical specialty. It was not within the scope of service of the TF to consider the quality of ongoing research efforts within the broader radiation oncology space, to presume to consider their future potential, or to discourage in any way the investigators committed to areas of interest other than those targeted. The TF charge specifically precluded consideration of research issues related to technology, physics, or clinical investigations. This document represents an Executive Summary of the Task Force report.
... as cancer, may cause spiritual distress. Religious and spiritual values are important to patients coping with cancer. ... both. Serious illness, such as cancer, may cause spiritual distress. Serious illnesses like cancer may cause patients ...
Winkfield, Karen M; Flowers, Christopher R; Patel, Jyoti D; Rodriguez, Gladys; Robinson, Patricia; Agarwal, Amit; Pierce, Lori; Brawley, Otis W; Mitchell, Edith P; Head-Smith, Kimberly T; Wollins, Dana S; Hayes, Daniel F
In December 2016, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Board of Directors approved the ASCO Strategic Plan to Increase Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Oncology Workforce. Developed through a multistakeholder effort led by the ASCO Health Disparities Committee, the purpose of the plan is to guide the formal efforts of ASCO in this area over the next three years (2017 to 2020). There are three primary goals: (1) to establish a longitudinal pathway for increasing workforce diversity, (2) to enhance ASCO leadership diversity, and (3) to integrate a focus on diversity across ASCO programs and policies. Improving quality cancer care in the United States requires the recruitment of oncology professionals from diverse backgrounds. The ASCO Strategic Plan to Increase Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Oncology Workforce is designed to enhance existing programs and create new opportunities that will move us closer to the vision of achieving an oncology workforce that reflects the demographics of the US population it serves.
Nurses need up-to-date knowledge of colorectal cancer. This article provides an overview of the aetiology and risk factors for this disease, diagnostic and staging investigations, treatment options and future care. Managing colorectal cancer is complex. Patients can have a range of healthcare needs. Nurses play an increasingly important role in informing, supporting and coordinating care to improve patients' quality of life.
Skolarus, Ted A; Holmes-Rovner, Margaret; Northouse, Laurel L; Fagerlin, Angela; Garlinghouse, Carol; Demers, Raymond Y; Rovner, David R; Darwish-Yassine, May; Wei, John T
Although the effectiveness of prostate cancer screening is controversial, screening rates have risen dramatically among primary care providers in the United States. The authors' findings suggest more collaboration among primary care and specialty organizations, especially with respect to decision aid endorsement, is needed to achieve more discriminatory and patient-centered prostate cancer screening.
Schulenburg, Axel; Blatt, Katharina; Cerny-Reiterer, Sabine; Sadovnik, Irina; Herrmann, Harald; Marian, Brigitte; Grunt, Thomas W; Zielinski, Christoph C; Valent, Peter
Since their description and identification in leukemias and solid tumors, cancer stem cells (CSC) have been the subject of intensive research in translational oncology. Indeed, recent advances have led to the identification of CSC markers, CSC targets, and the preclinical and clinical evaluation of the CSC-eradicating (curative) potential of various drugs. However, although diverse CSC markers and targets have been identified, several questions remain, such as the origin and evolution of CSC, mechanisms underlying resistance of CSC against various targeted drugs, and the biochemical basis and function of stroma cell-CSC interactions in the so-called 'stem cell niche.' Additional aspects that have to be taken into account when considering CSC elimination as primary treatment-goal are the genomic plasticity and extensive subclone formation of CSC. Notably, various cell fractions with different combinations of molecular aberrations and varying proliferative potential may display CSC function in a given neoplasm, and the related molecular complexity of the genome in CSC subsets is considered to contribute essentially to disease evolution and acquired drug resistance. In the current article, we discuss new developments in the field of CSC research and whether these new concepts can be exploited in clinical practice in the future.
Nekhlyudov, Larissa; Wenger, Neil
In order to evaluate and address the deficiencies in the U.S. cancer care system, particularly affecting the growing elderly population, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) convened a panel representing oncology providers, surgeons, primary care providers, researchers, policy makers and patients. The Committee concluded that cancer care is on the brink of crisis and issued recommendations targeting all stakeholders involved in cancer care. General internists play a critical role in the care of cancer patients, from the time of diagnosis, through treatment, survivorship and end of life care. We review the IOM recommendations, highlight those that are particularly relevant to the general internist, and outline clinical, research and educational opportunities where general internists should take an expanded role.
Sarah María Regueira Betancourt
Full Text Available Cancer pain can be caused by a malignant tumor, by the therapy used to treat it, or by both causes. It begins with an acute onset that goes towards healing or chronicity. Together with the manifestations of a chronic pain, acute episodes may appear. A bibliographic study was carried out on the oncological pain, using the resources available in the Infomed network, specifically Ebsco, The Cochrane Librery, PubMed, Hinari and SciELO, by means of which the following databases were accessed: MEDLINE, AcademicSearch Premier and MedicLatina. The presence of pain in an oncological process is variable and it depends on the type and extension of the disease, as well as on each person's own individual tolerance. The terminal intense oncological pain is a circumstance both foreseeable and necessarily avoidable. Its relief is a priority in the cancer program of the World Health Organization. To know the classification of pain, its causes, the assessment scales and the way in which it may be described provides a comprehensive treatment for cancer pain. It also helps to optimize the comprehensive care to the patients suffering from this condition and improve their quality of life.
A narration of the development of staff, infrastructure and buildings in the various parts of the country is given in this paper. The role of universities and other institutions of learning, public health, palliative care, nuclear medicine and cancer registries is described together with the networking that has been developed between the government, non-governmental organisations and private hospitals. The training of skilled manpower and the commencement of the Master of Clinical Oncology in the University of Malaya is highlighted. Efforts taken to improve the various aspects of cancer control which includes prevention of cancer, early detection, treatment and palliative care are covered. It is vital to ensure that cancer care services must be accessible and affordable throughout the entire health system, from the primary care level up to the centres for tertiary care, throughout the whole country.
Rosenthal, Seth A; Bittner, Nathan H J; Beyer, David C; Demanes, D Jeffrey; Goldsmith, Brian J; Horwitz, Eric M; Ibbott, Geoffrey S; Lee, W Robert; Nag, Subir; Suh, W Warren; Potters, Louis
Transperineal permanent prostate brachytherapy is a safe and efficacious treatment option for patients with organ-confined prostate cancer. Careful adherence to established brachytherapy standards has been shown to improve the likelihood of procedural success and reduce the incidence of treatment-related morbidity. A collaborative effort of the American College of Radiology (ACR) and American Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) has produced a practice guideline for permanent prostate brachytherapy. The guideline defines the qualifications and responsibilities of all the involved personnel, including the radiation oncologist, physicist and dosimetrist. Factors with respect to patient selection and appropriate use of supplemental treatment modalities such as external beam radiation and androgen suppression therapy are discussed. Logistics with respect to the brachytherapy implant procedure, the importance of dosimetric parameters, and attention to radiation safety procedures and documentation are presented. Adherence to these practice guidelines can be part of ensuring quality and safety in a successful prostate brachytherapy program.
Heather B Neuman
Full Text Available The 2013 Institute of Medicine report investigating cancer care concluded that the cancer care delivery system is in crisis due to an increased demand for care, increasing complexity of treatment, decreasing work force and rising costs. Engaging patients and incorporating evidence-based care into routine clinical practice are essential components of a high quality cancer delivery system. However, a gap currently exists between the identification of beneficial research findings and application in clinical practice. Implementation research strives to address this gap. In this review, we discuss key components of high quality implementation research. We then apply these concepts to a current cancer care delivery challenge in women’s health, specifically the implementation of a surgery decision aid for women newly diagnosed with breast cancer.
Favero, Giovanni; Miglino, Giovanni; Köhler, Christhardt; Pfiffer, Tatiana; Silva e Silva, Alexandre; Ribeiro, Altamiro; Le, Xin; Anton, Cristina; Baracat, Edmund Chada; Carvalho, Jesus Paula
To evaluate the operative and oncologic outcomes of an innovative technique for organ morcellation in patients scheduled for laparoscopic treatment of uterine malignancies. Endoscopy is currently considered the standard of care for the operative treatment of endometrial cancer; however, the use of minimal invasive surgery (MIS) is restricted in patients with a bulky uterus or narrow vagina. Conventional unprotected intraperitoneal uterine fragmentation is indeed contraindicated in these cases. Consequently, oncologically safe methods to render these patients eligible for MIS are urgently needed. Prospective study of women with histologically proven endometrial cancer in which uterus removal was a realistic concern owing to both organ size and proportionality. The patients underwent laparoscopic staging, including retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy, total hysterectomy, and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, followed by vaginal morcellation of the uterus inside a protective pouch (LapSac). In our series of 30 cases, we achieved successful completion in all patients, without conversion to laparotomy. No surgery-related casualty or intraoperative morbidity was observed. The mean organ size was 246 g (range, 148-420 g), and the average additional operative time related to vaginal morcellation was 16 minutes (range, 9-28 minutes). Proper histopathological staging according to 2009 FIGO staging guidelines could be performed in all specimens. Two patients (6%) presented with significant postoperative complications, 1 each with vesicovaginal fistula and vaginal vault dehiscence. Fourteen patients (46%) needed adjuvant therapy. After a median follow-up of 20 months (range, 6-38 months), the 12-month and 24-month overall survival was 100% and 73.4% (95% confidence interval, 51%-96%), respectively. Four patients with positive lymph nodes died of distant metastasis. No case of pelvic or local relapse was observed. Vaginal morcellation following oncologic principles is a feasible
Paoloni, Melissa C; Khanna, Chand
The value of comparative oncology has been increasingly recognized in the field of cancer research, including the identification of cancer-associated genes; the study of environmental risk factors, tumor biology, and progression; and, perhaps most importantly, the evaluation of novel cancer therapeutics. The fruits of this effort are expected to be the creation of better and more specific drugs to benefit veterinary and human patients who have cancer. The state of the comparative oncology field is outlined in this article, with an emphasis on cancer in dogs.
Full Text Available Background: A supportive needs assessment is an essential component of any care program. There is no research evidence regarding the supportive care needs of cancer patients in Iran or other Middle Eastern countries. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the supportive care needs of Iranian cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in a referral medical center in the northwest of Iran. A total of 274 cancer patients completed the Supportive Care Needs Survey (SCNS-59. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Results: In 18 items of the SCNS, more than 50% of the participants reported that their needs were unmet. Most frequently, unmet needs were related to the health system, information, physical, and daily living domains, and most met needs were related to sexuality, patient care, and support domains. Conclusions: Iranian cancer patients experience many unmet needs and there is an urgent need for establishing additional supportive care services in Iran.
Menendez, Javier A
The current global portfolio of oncology drugs is unlikely to produce durable disease remission for millions of cancer patients worldwide. This is due, in part, to the existence of so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs), a particularly aggressive type of malignant cell that is capable of indefinite self-replication, is refractory to conventional treatments, and is skilled at spreading and colonizing distant organs. To date, no drugs from big-league Pharma companies are capable of killing CSCs. Why? Quite simply, a classic drug development approach based on mutated genes and pathological protein products cannot efficiently target the plastic, epigenetic proclivity of cancer tissues to generate CSCs. Recent studies have proposed that certain elite metabolites (oncometabolites) and other common metabolites can significantly influence the establishment and maintenance of epigenetic signatures of stemness and cancer. Consequently, cellular metabolism and the core epigenetic codes, DNA methylation and histone modification, can be better viewed as an integrated metaboloepigenetic dimension of CSCs, which we have recently termed cancer metabostemness. By targeting weaknesses in the bridge connecting metabolism and epigenetics, a new generation of metabostemnessspecific drugs can be generated for potent and long-lasting elimination of life-threatening CSCs. Here I evaluate the market potential of re-modeling the oncology drug pipeline by discovering and developing new metabolic approaches able to target the apparently undruggable epigenetic programs that dynamically regulate the plasticity of non-CSC and CSC cellular states.
Mayr, Nina A., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington (United States); Hu, Kenneth S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Liao, Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Viswanathan, Akila N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Wall, Terry J. [St. Luke' s Cancer Institute, Kansas City, Missouri (United States); Amendola, Beatriz E. [Innovative Cancer Institute, Miami, Florida (United States); Calaguas, Miriam J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke' s Medical Center, Quezon City (Philippines); Palta, Jatinder R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Yue, Ning J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Rengan, Ramesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington (United States); Williams, Timothy R. [Lynn Cancer Institute, Boca Raton Regional Hospital, Boca Raton, Florida (United States)
In this era of globalization and rapid advances in radiation oncology worldwide, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) is committed to help decrease profound regional disparities through the work of the International Education Subcommittee (IES). The IES has expanded its base, reach, and activities to foster educational advances through a variety of educational methods with broad scope, in addition to committing to the advancement of radiation oncology care for cancer patients around the world, through close collaboration with our sister radiation oncology societies and other educational, governmental, and organizational groups.
Jones, Barbara; Phillips, Farya; Head, Barbara Anderson; Hedlund, Susan; Kalisiak, Angela; Zebrack, Brad; Kilburn, Lisa; Otis-Green, Shirley
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) Report-Cancer Care for the Whole Patient: Meeting Psychosocial Health Needs-provided recommendations for meeting the palliative care needs of our growing population of older Americans. The IOM report highlights the demand for social work leadership across all aspects of the health care delivery system. Social workers are core interdisciplinary members of the health care team and it is important for them to be well prepared for collaborative leadership roles across health care settings. The ExCEL in Social Work: Excellence in Cancer Education & Leadership education project was created as a direct response to the 2008 IOM Report. This article highlights a sampling of palliative care projects initiated by outstanding oncology social work participants in the ExCEL program. These projects demonstrate the leadership of social workers in palliative care oncology.
Soysal, E; Lee, H‐J; Zhang, Y; Huang, L‐C; Chen, X; Wei, Q; Zheng, W; Chang, JT; Cohen, T; Sun, J
Despite the existence of various databases cataloging cancer drugs, there is an emerging need to support the development and application of personalized therapies, where an integrated understanding of the clinical factors and drug mechanism of action and its gene targets is necessary. We have developed CATTLE (CAncer Treatment Treasury with Linked Evidence), a comprehensive cancer drug knowledge base providing information across the complete spectrum of the drug life cycle. The CATTLE system collects relevant data from 22 heterogeneous databases, integrates them into a unified model centralized on drugs, and presents comprehensive drug information via an interactive web portal with a download function. A total of 2,323 unique cancer drugs are currently linked to rich information from these databases in CATTLE. Through two use cases, we demonstrate that CATTLE can be used in supporting both research and practice in personalized oncology. PMID:28296354
Leslie J. Waltke
Full Text Available Medical management for malignant neoplastic diseases includes surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and hormonal and biological therapies. Each of these antineoplastic interventions has unique impacts on physiological, musculoskeletal and functional performance. Cancer rehabilitation is the area of physical medicine responsible for addressing impairments associated with cancer treatment and survivorship, advanced disease and end of life. Although it is expected that more than one-half of persons being treated for cancer will suffer moderate pain and physical and functional decline, and that most will describe fatigue, referrals to rehabilitation are traditionally low. Evidence suggests that referrals to rehabilitation before, during and after treatment for neoplastic disease may improve physiological and functional performance, quality of life and survival outcomes. Oncology practitioners are encouraged to refer patients undergoing cancer treatment to a rehabilitation professional at the peridiagnosis period.
Müller-Ramírez, Claudio; Squibb, Katherine; McDiarmid, Melissa
Antineoplastic drugs are known to cause detrimental effects to health care workers who are exposed through work tasks. Environmental monitoring studies are an excellent approach to measure the extent of surface contamination produced by the handling of antineoplastic drugs in the workplace and to assess the potential for occupational exposures in oncology health care settings. The main aim of the study was to establish the extent of surface contamination produced by the handling of antineoplastic drugs in a limited-resource oncology health care facility in Colombia by conducting an environmental monitoring study using affordable analytical instrumentation. Contamination with antineoplastic drugs was widespread in the health care facility under evaluation, which could result in health care worker exposure to antineoplastic drugs. A comprehensive review of current safety guidelines and protocols including assessment of adherence in the health care facility should be done.
Rivera, F; Andres, R; Felip, E; Garcia-Campelo, R; Lianes, P; Llombart, A; Piera, J M; Puente, J; Rodriguez, C A; Vera, R; Virizuela, J A; Martin, M; Garrido, P
The SEOM Future Plan is aimed at identifying the main challenges, trends and needs of the medical oncology speciality over the next years, including potential oncologist workforce shortages, and proposing recommendations to overcome them. The estimations of the required medical oncologists workforce are based on an updated Medical Oncologist Register in Spain, Medical Oncology Departments activity data, dedication times and projected cancer incidence. Challenges, needs and future recommendations were drawn from an opinion survey and an advisory board. A shortage of 211 FTE medical oncologist specialists has been established. To maintain an optimal ratio of 158 new cases/FTE, medical oncology workforce should reach 1881 FTE by 2035. Main recommendations to face the growing demand and complexity of oncology services include a yearly growth of 2.5% of medical oncologist's workforce until 2035, and development and application of more accurate quality indicators for cancer care and health outcomes measure.
Teckie, Sewit; McCloskey, Susan A; Steinberg, Michael L
In the current health care system, high costs without proportional improvements in quality or outcome have prompted widespread calls for change in how we deliver and pay for care. Value-based health care delivery models have been proposed. Multiple impediments exist to achieving value, including misaligned patient and provider incentives, information asymmetries, convoluted and opaque cost structures, and cultural attitudes toward cancer treatment. Radiation oncology as a specialty has recently become a focus of the value discussion. Escalating costs secondary to rapidly evolving technologies, safety breaches, and variable, nonstandardized structures and processes of delivering care have garnered attention. In response, we present a framework for the value discussion in radiation oncology and identify approaches for attaining value, including economic and structural models, process improvements, outcome measurement, and cost assessment.
Hlubocky, Fay J; Rose, Miko; Epstein, Ronald M
Oncology clinician burnout has become a noteworthy issue in medical oncology directly affecting the quality of patient care, patient satisfaction, and overall organizational success. Due to the increasing demands on clinical time, productivity, and the evolving medical landscape, the oncology clinician is at significant risk for burnout. Long hours in direct care with seriously ill patients/families, limited control over daily responsibilities, and endless electronic documentation, place considerable professional and personal demands on the oncologist. As a result, the oncology clinician's wellness is adversely impacted. Physical/emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and feelings of ineffectiveness evolve as core signs of burnout. Unaddressed burnout may affect cancer clinician relationships with their patients, the quality of care delivered, and the overall physical and emotional health of the clinician. Oncology clinicians should be encouraged to build upon their strengths, thrive in the face of adversity and stress, and learn to positively adapt to the changing cancer care system. Fostering individual resilience is a key protective factor against the development of and managing burnout. Empowering clinicians at both the individual and organizational level with tailored resilience strategies is crucial to ensuring clinician wellness. Resilience interventions may include: burnout education, work-life balance, adjustment of one's relationship to work, mindful practice, and acceptance of the clinical work environment. Health care organizations must act to provide institutional solutions through the implementation of: team-based oncology care, communication skills training, and effective resiliency training programs in order to mitigate the effects of stress and prevent burnout in oncology.
Kim, Yu Jung; Kim, Mi-Jung; Cho, Young-Jae; Park, Jong Sun; Kim, Jin Won; Chang, Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Lee, Keun-Wook; Kim, Jee Hyun; Yoon, Ho Il; Bang, Soo-Mee; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Choon-Taek; Lee, Jong Seok
Critical care for advanced lung cancer patients is still controversial, and the appropriate method for the selection of patients who may benefit from intensive care unit (ICU) care is not clearly defined. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of stage IIIB-IV lung cancer patients admitted to the medical ICU of a university hospital in Korea between 2003 and 2011. Of 95 patients, 64 (67%) had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS)≥2, and 79 (84%) had non-small-cell lung cancer. In total, 28 patients (30%) were newly diagnosed or were receiving first-line treatment, and 22 (23%) were refractory or bedridden. Mechanical ventilation was required in 85 patients (90%), and ICU mortality and hospital mortality were 57 and 78%, respectively. According to a multivariate analysis, a PaO2/FiO2 ratiocare. Oncologists should try to discuss palliative care and end-of-life issues in advance to avoid futile care.
Huhmann, Maureen B; August, David A
This review article, the second in a series of articles to examine the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) Guidelines for the Use of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition in Adult and Pediatric Patients, evaluates the evidence related to the use of nutrition support in surgical oncology patients. Cancer patients develop complex nutrition issues. Nutrition support may be indicated in malnourished cancer patients undergoing surgery, depending on individual patient characteristics. As with the first article in this series, this article provides background concerning nutrition issues in cancer patients, as well as discusses the role of nutrition support in the care of surgical cancer patients. The goal of this review is to enrich the discussion contained in the clinical guidelines as they relate to recommendations made for surgical patients, cite the primary literature more completely, and suggest updates to the guideline statements in light of subsequently published studies.
Salz, Talya; Baxi, Shrujal
After completing treatment for cancer, the coordination of oncology and primary care presents a challenge for cancer survivors. Many survivors need continued oncology follow-up, and all survivors require primary care. Coordinating the shared care of a cancer survivor, or facilitating an informed handoff from oncology to primary care, is essential for cancer survivors. Survivorship care plans are personalized documents that summarize cancer treatment and outline a plan of recommended ongoing care, with the goal of facilitating the coordination of post-treatment care. Despite their face validity, five trials have failed to demonstrate the effectiveness of survivorship care plans. We posit that these existing trials have critical shortcomings and do not adequately address whether survivorship care plans improve care coordination. Moving forward, we propose four criteria for future trials of survivorship care plans: focusing on high-needs survivor populations, tailoring the survivorship care plan to the care setting, facilitating implementation of the survivorship care plan in clinical practice, and selecting appropriate trial outcomes to assess care coordination. When trials meet these criteria, we can finally assess whether survivorship care plans help cancer survivors receive optimal oncology and primary care.
Full Text Available In 2008, an Integrative Oncology Program (IOP, aiming to improve patients’ quality of life during chemotherapy and advanced cancer, was launched within the Clalit Health Organization's oncology service at the Lin Medical Center, Haifa, Israel. The IOP clinical activity is documented using a research-based registry protocol. In this study, we present an analysis of the registry protocol of 15 Arab patients with cancer who were referred to the IOP. Analysis of patients’ reported outcomes using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale suggests that integrative medicine care improves fatigue (=0.024, nausea (=0.043, depression (=0.012, anxiety (=0.044, appetite (=0.012, and general well-being (=0.031. Barriers to integration of traditional and complementary medicine in supportive care of Arab patients are discussed followed by six practical recommendations aimed at improving accessibility of patients to integrative supportive care, as well as compliance with treatments.
Senthil P Kumar
Full Text Available Objective: A common disorder requiring symptom palliation in palliative and end-of-life care is cancer. Cancer pain is recognized as a global health burden. This paper sought to systematically examine the extent to which there is an adequate scientific research base on cancer pain and its reporting characteristics in the palliative care journal literature. Materials and Methods: Search conducted in MEDLINE and CINAHL sought to locate all studies published in 19 palliative/ hospice/ supportive/ end-of-life care journals from 2009 to 2010. The journals included were: American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care, BMC Palliative Care, Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care, End of Life Care Journal, European Journal of Palliative Care, Hospice Management Advisor, Indian Journal of Palliative Care, International Journal of Palliative Nursing, Internet Journal of Pain Symptom Control and Palliative Care, Journal of Pain and Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy, Journal of Palliative Care, Journal of Palliative Medicine, Journal of Social Work in End-of-life and Palliative Care, Journal of Supportive Oncology, Palliative Medicine, Palliative and Supportive Care, and Supportive Care in Cancer. Journal contents were searched to identify studies that included cancer pain in abstract. Results: During the years 2009 and 2010, of the selected 1,569 articles published in the journals reviewed, only 5.86% (92 articles were on cancer pain. Conclusion: While researchers in the field of palliative care have studied cancer pain, the total percentage for studies is still a low 5.86%. To move the field of palliative care forward so that appropriate guidelines for cancer pain management can be developed, it is critical that more research be reported upon which to base cancer pain therapy in an evidence-based palliative care model.
Gregg, Justin R; Emeruwa, Curran; Wong, Johnson;
PURPOSE: We investigated oncologic and urinary outcomes after anterior exenteration for urothelial cell carcinoma in females, identifying tumor characteristics associated with female pelvic organ involvement. We hypothesized that a lack of trigonal or bladder floor tumor, intraoperative palpable ...
Degen, C; Möller, D; Schlechter, C
The following study examines the influencing factors on the satisfaction of oncological patients with their primary care physician, specialist physician, hospital and health insurance provider. Individual patient satisfaction with cross-sectoral collaboration is examined based on the satisfaction with these sectors. 12 specialist practices from 8 federal states participated in the patient survey. Altogether, 516 patients took part during the investigation period 2011-2012. The results were evaluated by multiple regression analysis. The results show that patients are content with cross-sectoral collaboration if they are satisfied with their health insurance and the specialist physician. With regard to satisfaction with the primary care physician and the specialist physician, trust is perceived to be the most important influencing factor. For hospitals, the most significant influencing factor is interest in and time for patients. Regarding health insurance, providing the patients with information leads to a greater degree of satisfaction. Psychosocial factors are of key importance for the patient's perceptions of satisfaction with the different sectors. This contains for instance factors like to 'putting confidence in physicians' or 'talking about patients' fears'. The sectors considered in this study should therefore give more consideration to these factors during patient care. A health insurance provider can take on the role of a competent point of contact, providing quality-assured information in the context of oncological diseases. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Radhika R Pai
Setting and design: A cross sectional descriptive survey was conducted among 158 staff nurses working in oncology related areas from 4 different hospitals of Dakshina Kannada district and Udupi district of Karnataka state, India. Statistical Analysis: descriptive and inferential statistics was used by using SPSS 16 version. Results: Majority 81 (51.3% of the staff nurses had poor knowledge of oral care in cancer patients whereas 87 (55.1% reported that knowledge acquired through basic education in oral care is not sufficient. Most of the staff nurses 115 (72.8% did not receive basic education in oral care of cancer patients. There was significant association between knowledge and variables such as designation (.005, years of work experience (.040 and years of experience in cancer wards (.000 at 0.05 levels. Conclusion: Lack of knowledge suggest the need to develop and implement continuing nursing education programs on oral care specifically for patients receiving cancer treatments, for improving knowledge of staff nurses′ in order to render comprehensive care to the patients. This study also recommends the importance of inclusion of cancer patient specific oral care in the curriculum which can enhance competency of the qualified nurses in cancer wards.
Full Text Available Multidisciplinary care of prostate cancer is increasingly offered in specialised cancer centres. It requires the optimisation of medical and operational processes and the integration of the different medical and non-medical stakeholders.To develop a standardised operational process assessment tool basing on the capability maturity model integration (CMMI able to implement multidisciplinary care and improve process quality and efficiency.Information for model development was derived from medical experts, clinical guidelines, best practice elements of renowned cancer centres, and scientific literature. Data were organised in a hierarchically structured model, consisting of 5 categories, 30 key process areas, 172 requirements, and more than 1500 criteria. Compliance with requirements was assessed through structured on-site surveys covering all relevant clinical and management processes. Comparison with best practice standards allowed to recommend improvements. 'Act On Oncology'(AoO was applied in a pilot study on a prostate cancer unit in Europe.Several best practice elements such as multidisciplinary clinics or advanced organisational measures for patient scheduling were observed. Substantial opportunities were found in other areas such as centre management and infrastructure. As first improvements the evaluated centre administration described and formalised the organisation of the prostate cancer unit with defined personnel assignments and clinical activities and a formal agreement is being worked on to have structured access to First-Aid Posts.In the pilot study, the AoO approach was feasible to identify opportunities for process improvements. Measures were derived that might increase the operational process quality and efficiency.
Tomasone, J.R.; Zwaal, C.; Kim, G.; Yuen, D.; Sussman, J.; Segal, R.
The need for an improved understanding of the rehabilitation services landscape in Ontario and for promotion of Cancer Care Ontario’s newly developed Exercise for People with Cancer guideline brought Cancer Care Ontario’s Psychosocial Oncology and Survivorship Programs together to host a knowledge translation and exchange event. The primary objectives of the event were to understand recommendations from Cancer Care Ontario’s new exercise guideline, to discuss key considerations and determine strategies for the implementation of the guideline recommendations, and to explore the current state and future directions of cancer rehabilitation in Ontario. The event was attended by 124 stakeholders, including clinicians, allied health care professionals, administrators, patients, community partners, and academics representing each of the 13 regional cancer programs in Ontario. Attendees participated in two small-group activities that focused on determining the best approach for implementing the guideline recommendations into practice and discussing current barriers and the future state of cancer rehabilitation in Ontario. The activities allowed for networking and collaboration between attendees. The event provided an opportunity for the Psychosocial Oncology and Survivorship Programs to learn about the types of goals and plans that could be feasible in implementing the guideline in each region, and about ways to prioritize gaps in access to rehabilitation services and the types of implementation strategies that might be used to address the gaps. Overall, attendees were highly satisfied with the event, and the findings are being used to help inform research and practice activities with respect to guideline implementation and rehabilitation practice.
Dossett, Lesly A; Hudson, Janella N; Morris, Arden M; Lee, M Catherine; Roetzheim, Richard G; Fetters, Michael D; Quinn, Gwendolyn P
Although they are critical to models of coordinated care, the relationship and communication between primary care providers (PCPs) and cancer specialists throughout the cancer continuum are poorly understood. By using predefined search terms, the authors conducted a systematic review of the literature in 3 databases to examine the relationship and communication between PCPs and cancer specialists. Among 301 articles identified, 35 met all inclusion criteria and were reviewed in-depth. Findings from qualitative, quantitative, and disaggregated mixed-methods studies were integrated using meta-synthesis. Six themes were identified and incorporated into a preliminary conceptual model of the PCP-cancer specialist relationship: 1) poor and delayed communication between PCPs and cancer specialists, 2) cancer specialists' endorsement of a specialist-based model of care, 3) PCPs' belief that they play an important role in the cancer continuum, 4) PCPs' willingness to participate in the cancer continuum, 5) cancer specialists' and PCPs' uncertainty regarding the PCP's oncology knowledge/experience, and 6) discrepancies between PCPs and cancer specialists regarding roles. These data indicate a pervasive need for improved communication, delineation, and coordination of responsibilities between PCPs and cancer specialists. Future interventions aimed at these deficiencies may improve patient and physician satisfaction and cancer care coordination. CA Cancer J Clin 2017;67:156-169. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
Digue, Laurence; Pedeboscq, Stéphane
In medical oncology, how can we be sure that the right drug is being administered to the right patient at the right time? The implementation of quality assurance criteria is important in medical oncology, in order to ensure that the patient receives the best treatment safely. There is very little literature about quality assurance in medical oncology, as opposed to radiotherapy or cancer surgery. Quality assurance must cover the entire patient care process, from the diagnosis, to the therapeutic decision and drug distribution, including its selection, its preparation and its delivery to the patient (administration and dosage), and finally the potential side effects and their management. The dose-intensity respect is crucial, and its reduction can negatively affect overall survival rates, as shown in breast and testis cancers for example. In head and neck medical oncology, it is essential to respect the few well-standardized recommendations and the dose-intensity, in a population with numerous comorbidities. We will first review quality assurance criteria for the general medical oncology organization and then focus on head and neck medical oncology. We will then describe administration specificities of head and neck treatments (chemoradiation, radiation plus cetuximab, postoperative chemoradiation, induction and palliative chemotherapy) as well as their follow-up. Lastly, we will offer some recommendations to improve quality assurance in head and neck medical oncology.
Jagsi, Reshma, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bekelman, Justin E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Brawley, Otis W. [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Emory University, and American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Deasy, Joseph O. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Le, Quynh-Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Michalski, Jeff M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Movsas, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Thomas, Charles R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oregon Health and Sciences University, Portland, OR (United States); Lawton, Colleen A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)
Purpose: To promote the rational use of scarce research funding, scholars have developed methods for the systematic identification and prioritization of health research needs. The Radiation Oncology Institute commissioned an independent, comprehensive assessment of research needs for the advancement of radiation oncology care. Methods and Materials: The research needs assessment used a mixed-method, qualitative and quantitative social scientific approach, including structured interviews with diverse stakeholders, focus groups, surveys of American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) members, and a prioritization exercise using a modified Delphi technique. Results: Six co-equal priorities were identified: (1) Identify and develop communication strategies to help patients and others better understand radiation therapy; (2) Establish a set of quality indicators for major radiation oncology procedures and evaluate their use in radiation oncology delivery; (3) Identify best practices for the management of radiation toxicity and issues in cancer survivorship; (4) Conduct comparative effectiveness studies related to radiation therapy that consider clinical benefit, toxicity (including quality of life), and other outcomes; (5) Assess the value of radiation therapy; and (6) Develop a radiation oncology registry. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this prioritization exercise is the only comprehensive and methodologically rigorous assessment of research needs in the field of radiation oncology. Broad dissemination of these findings is critical to maximally leverage the impact of this work, particularly because grant funding decisions are often made by committees on which highly specialized disciplines such as radiation oncology are not well represented.
Goodman, Karyn A., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Khalid, Najma [Quality Research in Radiation Oncology, American College of Radiology Clinical Research Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Kachnic, Lisa A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Minsky, Bruce D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD, Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Crozier, Cheryl; Owen, Jean B. [Quality Research in Radiation Oncology, American College of Radiology Clinical Research Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Devlin, Phillip M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Thomas, Charles R. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Knight Cancer Institute at the Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States)
Background: The specific aim was to determine national patterns of radiation therapy (RT) practice in patients treated for stage IB-IV (nonmetastatic) gastric cancer (GC). Methods and Materials: A national process survey of randomly selected US RT facilities was conducted which retrospectively assessed demographics, staging, geographic region, practice setting, and treatment by using on-site record review of eligible GC cases treated from 2005 to 2007. Three clinical performance measures (CPMs), (1) use of computed tomography (CT)-based treatment planning; (2) use of dose volume histograms (DVHs) to evaluate RT dose to the kidneys and liver; and (3) completion of RT within the prescribed time frame; and emerging quality indicators, (i) use of intensity modulated RT (IMRT); (ii) use of image-guided tools (IGRT) other than CT for RT target delineation; and (iii) use of preoperative RT, were assessed. Results: CPMs were computed for 250 eligible patients at 45 institutions (median age, 62 years; 66% male; 60% Caucasian). Using 2000 American Joint Committee on Cancer criteria, 13% of patients were stage I, 29% were stage II, 32% were stage IIIA, 10% were stage IIIB, and 12% were stage IV. Most patients (43%) were treated at academic centers, 32% were treated at large nonacademic centers, and 25% were treated at small to medium sized facilities. Almost all patients (99.5%) underwent CT-based planning, and 75% had DVHs to evaluate normal tissue doses to the kidneys and liver. Seventy percent of patients completed RT within the prescribed time frame. IMRT and IGRT were used in 22% and 17% of patients, respectively. IGRT techniques included positron emission tomography (n=20), magnetic resonance imaging (n=1), respiratory gating and 4-dimensional CT (n=22), and on-board imaging (n=10). Nineteen percent of patients received preoperative RT. Conclusions: This analysis of radiation practice patterns for treating nonmetastatic GC indicates widespread adoption of CT
Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz; Darewicz, Barbara; Kudelski, Jacek; Werel, Tadeusz; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Skrzydlewski, Zdzisław; Gabrylewski, Wojciech
Many studies have been carried out to develop unfailing diagnostic methods that could improve cancer detection. There are available cancer markers of relatively low sensitivity and specificity, which makes a reason why they not always let detect neoplasm at their earliest stage. There is a new protease cysteine enzyme named cancer procoagulant (CP) isolated from rabbit V2 Ca neoplasm and characterized by Gordon et al in 1975. Because of its exclusive presentation in the cancer tissues and blood serum of the patients with tumor, this neoplasm-cell-originated protein seems to be a new biochemical cancer disease marker. The elevated activity of CP was found in the cancers of pancreatic, breast, lung, alimentary and urinary system. The blood serum CP activity levels in the patients with renal, bladder, and prostate cancers were determined statistically higher as compared to controls but the difference varied depending on the mentioned organ of the urinary system. The CP highest activity levels was determined in the patients with prostate cancer, lower ones in bladder carcinoma ones and the lowest ones in individuals with renal tumours. That is why it appears to be justifiable to apply the determination of the CP in the oncological diagnosis in the urinary system.
Cristiane Decat Bergerot
Full Text Available Purpose: It has become crucial to translate scientific findings and to find ways by which to mobilize local resources to improve the quality and accessibility of cancer care in developing countries. This study seeks to provide insight into challenge through examining differences in clinician documentation of patients with cancer treated at a Brazilian Public University Hospital. Methods: ASCO Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI measures were used to examine the care provided in the departments of breast, colorectal, lymphoma, gynecology, and lung cancers. For this study, data from a representative sample of patients receiving chemotherapy in the previous month were extracted and quality of cancer care indicators examined. Results: Certain elements of medical care were consistently and appropriately documented, including cancer diagnosis and stage, chemotherapy planning, administration, and summary. In general, considering the specific cancer management measures, patients received recommended care in accordance with recognized guidelines. Despite this, a number of important gaps in care were identified, including the assessment and treatment of pain, documentation of chemotherapy intention, symptom and toxicity management, patients’ psychosocial status, and provision of a treatment summary at care completion. Conclusion: These findings are encouraging in terms of adherence to core treatment guidelines in cancer care in Brazil. However, results suggest important opportunities for improving care across a number of domains, many of which represent a challenge throughout both developing and developed countries. This study may also provide preliminary guidance for enhancing educational and training programs for professionals and students alike, to implement high-quality, comprehensive cancer care.
Full Text Available Abstract Background During the 1990s, health care restructuring in Nova Scotia resulted in downsized hospitals, reduced inpatient length of stay, capped physician incomes and restricted practice locations. Concurrently, the provincial homecare program was redeveloped and out-of-hospital cancer deaths increased from 20% (1992 to 30% (1998. These factors all pointed to a transfer of end-of-life inpatient hospital care to more community-based care. The purpose of this study was to describe the trends in the provision of Family Physician (FP visits to advanced cancer patients in Nova Scotia (NS during the years of health care restructuring. Methods Design Secondary multivariate analysis of linked population-based datafiles including the Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre Oncology Patient Information System (NS Cancer Registry, Vital Statistics, the NS Hospital Admissions/Separations file and the Medical Services Insurance Physician Services database. Setting Nova Scotia, an eastern Canadian province (population: 950,000. Subjects: All patients who died of lung, colorectal, breast or prostate cancer between April 1992 and March 1998 (N = 7,212. Outcome Measures Inpatient and ambulatory FP visits, ambulatory visits by location (office, home, long-term care facility, emergency department, time of day (regular hours, after hours, total length of inpatient hospital stay and number of hospital admissions during the last six months of life. Results In total, 139,641 visits were provided by family physicians: 15% of visits in the office, 10% in the home, 5% in the emergency department (ED, 5% in a long-term-care centre and 64% to hospital inpatients. There was no change in the rate of FP visits received for office, home and long-term care despite the fact that there were 13% fewer hospital admissions, and length of hospital stay declined by 21%. Age-sex adjusted estimates using negative binomial regression indicate a decline in hospital inpatient FP
Baden, Lindsey Robert; Swaminathan, Sankar; Angarone, Michael; Blouin, Gayle; Camins, Bernard C; Casper, Corey; Cooper, Brenda; Dubberke, Erik R; Engemann, Ashley Morris; Freifeld, Alison G; Greene, John N; Ito, James I; Kaul, Daniel R; Lustberg, Mark E; Montoya, Jose G; Rolston, Ken; Satyanarayana, Gowri; Segal, Brahm; Seo, Susan K; Shoham, Shmuel; Taplitz, Randy; Topal, Jeffrey; Wilson, John W; Hoffmann, Karin G; Smith, Courtney
Infectious diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Prevention and Treatment of Cancer-Related Infections characterize the major pathogens to which patients with cancer are susceptible, with a focus on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of major common and opportunistic infections. This portion of the guidelines highlights the sections on antifungal and antiviral prophylaxis. Antifungal and antiviral prophylaxis recommendations have expanded over the past few years. New agents for the treatment of fungal infections and incorporation of therapeutic drug monitoring are presented. Antiviral prophylaxis for hepatitis B and management considerations for hepatitis C and HIV have been further developed.
Ramy F. Youssef
Full Text Available Purpose To report the outcomes of patients with pathologic T4 UTUC and investigate the potential impact of peri-operative chemotherapy combined with radical nephroureterectomy (RNU and regional lymph node dissection (LND on oncologic outcomes. Materials and Methods Patients with pathologic T4 UTUC were identified from the cohort of 1464 patients treated with RNU at 13 academic centers between 1987 and 2007. Oncologic outcomes were stratified according to utilization of perioperative systemic chemotherapy and regional LND as an adjunct to RNU. Results The study included 69 patients, 42 males (61% with median age 73 (range 43-98. Median follow-up was 17 months (range: 6-88. Lymphovascular invasion was found in 47 (68% and regional lymph node metastases were found in 31 (45%. Peri-operative chemotherapy was utilized in 29 (42% patients. Patient