WorldWideScience

Sample records for on-line bulk analysis

  1. On-line and bulk analysis for the resource industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, C.S.; Sowerby, B.D.; Tickner, J.R.; Madsen, I.C.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear techniques are the basis of many CSIRO on-line and bulk analysis systems that are now widely used in the mineral and energy industries. The continuous analysis and rapid response of these systems have led to improved control of mining, processing and blending operations. This paper reviews recent developments in neutron, gamma-ray and X-ray techniques for on-line and bulk analysis by CSIRO Minerals including neutron techniques for the on-conveyor belt determination of the composition of cement raw meal, the on-line analysis of composition in pyrometallurgical applications, the on-conveyor belt determination of ash in coal, and the rapid and accurate determination of gold in bulk laboratory samples. The paper also discusses a new gamma-ray technique for the on-line determination of ash in coal and the application of X-ray diffraction techniques for the on-line determination of mineralogy in the cement industry

  2. On-line analysis of bulk materials using pulsed neutron interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebrun, P.; Tourneur, P. Le; Poumarede, B.; Bach, P.; Moeller, H.

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of our joint experience in neutronics for SODERN and in cement plant engineering for KRUPP POLYSIUS, we have developed a new on-line bulk materials analyser for the cement industry. This equipment includes a pulsed neutron generator GENIE 16, some gamma ray and neutron detectors, specially designed electronics with high counting rate, software delivering the mean elemental composition of raw material, and adequate shielding. This material is transported through the equipment on a conveyor belt, the size of which is adapted to the requirements. This paper briefly describes the equipment and some results, as obtained in dynamic test from a demonstrator installed in Germany

  3. On-line analysis of bulk materials using pulsed neutron interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun, P.; Tourneur, P. Le; Poumarede, B.; Möller, H.; Bach, P.

    1999-06-01

    On the basis of our joint experience in neutronics for SODERN and in cement plant engineering for KRUPP POLYSIUS, we have developed a new on-line bulk materials analyser for the cement industry. This equipment includes a pulsed neutron generator GENIE 16, some gamma ray and neutron detectors, specially designed electronics with high counting rate, software delivering the mean elemental composition of raw material, and adequate shielding. This material is transported through the equipment on a conveyor belt, the size of which is adapted to the requirements. This paper briefly describes the equipment and some results, as obtained in dynamic test from a demonstrator installed in Germany.

  4. On-line and bulk analysis of iron ore and bauxite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.J.; Roczniok, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    A number of analysis techniques based on neutron and gamma radiation have been developed for the mining industry. Current projects include the measurement of annihilation radiation arising from pair production for the on-line determination of the iron content of iron ores, and the construction of a demonstration bauxite analyser based on fast-neutron activation analysis for the simultaneous determination of aluminium and silicon content

  5. Nuclear techniques for the on-line bulk analysis of carbon in coal-fired power stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowerby, B D

    2009-09-01

    Carbon trading schemes usually require large emitters of CO(2), such as coal-fired power stations, to monitor, report and be audited on their CO(2) emissions. The emission price provides a significant additional incentive for power stations to improve efficiency. In the present paper, previous work on the bulk determination of carbon in coal is reviewed and assessed. The most favourable method is that based on neutron inelastic scattering. The potential role of on-line carbon analysers in improving boiler efficiency and in carbon accounting is discussed.

  6. On-line moisture analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cutmore, N G

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of the moisture content of iron ore has become a key issue for controlling moisture additions for dust suppression. In most cases moisture content is still determined by manual or automatic sampling of the ore stream, followed by conventional laboratory analysis by oven drying. Although this procedure enables the moisture content to be routinely monitored, it is too slow for control purposes. This has generated renewed interest in on-line techniques for the accurate and rapid measurement of moisture in iron ore on conveyors. Microwave transmission techniques have emerged over the past 40 years as the dominant technology for on-line measurement of moisture in bulk materials, including iron ores. Alternative technologies have their limitations. Infra-red analysers are used in a variety of process industries, but rely on the measurement of absorption by moisture in a very thin surface layer. Consequently such probes may be compromised by particle size effects and biased presentation of the bulk mater...

  7. On-line moisture analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutmore, N.G.; Mijak, D.G

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of the moisture content of iron ore has become a key issue for controlling moisture additions for dust suppression. In most cases moisture content is still determined by manual or automatic sampling of the ore stream, followed by conventional laboratory analysis by oven drying. Although this procedure enables the moisture content to be routinely monitored, it is too slow for control purposes. This has generated renewed interest in on-line techniques for the accurate and rapid measurement of moisture in iron ore on conveyors. Microwave transmission techniques have emerged over the past 40 years as the dominant technology for on-line measurement of moisture in bulk materials, including iron ores. Alternative technologies have their limitations. Infra-red analysers are used in a variety of process industries, but rely on the measurement of absorption by moisture in a very thin surface layer. Consequently such probes may be compromised by particle size effects and biased presentation of the bulk material. Nuclear-based analysers measure the total hydrogen content in the sample and do not differentiate between free and combined moisture. Such analysers may also be sensitive to material presentation and elemental composition. Very low frequency electromagnetic probes, such as capacitance or conductance probes, operate in the frequency region where the DC conductivity dominates much of the response, which is a function not only of moisture content but also of ionic composition and chemistry. These problems are overcome using microwave transmission techniques, which also have the following advantages, as a true bulk moisture analysis is obtained, because a high percentage of the bulk material is analysed; the moisture estimate is mostly insensitive to any biased presentation of moisture, for example due to stratification of bulk material with different moisture content and because no physical contact is made between the sensor and the bulk material. This is

  8. On-line nuclear analysis of coal (Nucoalyzer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.R.; Gozani, T.; Bozorgmanesh, H.

    1980-01-01

    Control of quality in the coal process stream is increasingly important in both coal preparation facilities and coal fire power plants. Traditional wet chemistry methods of monitoring coal composition are incapable of providing anything approaching real-time analysis of coal. Typically, small samples of the coal stream are laboratory analyzed and the results made available between a day to a week later. By this time the coal is through the process stream, often already burned and no control is possible. The need of real-time analysis of bulk quantities of the coal has long been recognized and this need motivated Science Applications, Inc. to develop, since 1975, a continuous on-line nuclear analyzer of coal (or CONAC). Over the last three years a prototype of this instrument has undergone extensive testing using 200 pound bulk samples of a wide variety of US coal types. The Nucoalyzer has proven capable of measuring the abundances of all the important elemental constituents of coal along with the ash and calorific value. In the past year the first instrument has been installed and undergone testing at Detroit Edison's Monroe Coal blending facility, where it will control the blending of high and low sulfur coal to meet EPA emission regulations

  9. Bulk analysis of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowerby, B.D.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear techniques used in the coal industry to determine specific energy, ash and moisture are outlined. Ash analysis by radioisotope X-ray techniques include a single X-ray measurement using a transmission or backscatter geometry and techniques with compensation for iron variations. Neutron techniques can be used to measure the concentration of some specific elements in coal. The measurement of specific energy, ash and moisture then depends on the correlation of the particular parameter with the measured elemental composition. Carbon can be determined by a combination of a measurement of 4.43 MeV 12 C gamma-rays from neutron inelastic scattering with a separate 60 Co gamma-ray scattering measurement. Sulphur meters are based on the measurement of 5.42 MeV neutron capture of gamma rays

  10. Project development and commercialization of on-line analysis systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    A project team first in the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC) and since 1982 in CSIRO has developed many on-line analysis systems for the mineral and energy industries. The development of these projects has followed a common pattern of laboratory R and D, field trials, commercialisation and technology transfer. This successful pattern is illustrated using examples of the development of systems for the on-line analysis of mineral slurries, for determination of the ash content of coal on conveyors, and for determination of the flow rates of oil, water and gas in pipelines. The first two systems are licensed to Australian companies, Amdel Ltd and Mineral Control Instrumentation Ltd. Both systems are used by industry worldwide, and are the market leaders for radioisotope gauges in their application field. The third system, the multiphase flow meter, was licensed in 1997 to Kvaerner FSSL Ltd of Aberdeen. This meter has even greater potential than the other two systems for economic benefit from its used and for numbers of installations. The on-line analysis systems have been developed to increase the productivity of the Australian mineral and energy industries, and to provide economic benefit to Australia. The economic benefit sought is predominantly improved process control based on use of the instrument, rather than from its sale. Sales of instruments are significant, however, with about A$80 million from the analysis systems and their derivatives since the 1970s. Some of the issues associated with the development of the on-line analysis system are outlined

  11. The rationalization of desulfurization by on-line analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Y; Kohmura, S; Taketomi, H; Matsumura, S; Sasaki, Y

    1986-01-01

    Nippon Kokan uses the Takahax and Sulfiban processes for the desulfurization of coke oven gas. The authors outline the Sulfiban Process and describe a recently developed system for the on-line determination of H/sub 2/S in coke oven gas, and of CO/sub 2/ and monoethanolamine (MEA) in the wash oil. This new on-line analysis system has proved effective in rationalizing the Sulfiban Process via lower MEA production costs and decreased power consumption. The introduction of a computerized control system is now being studied. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. On-Line Synthesis and Analysis by Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Ryan M.; Pulliam, Christopher J.; Raab, Shannon A.; Cooks, R. Graham

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, students learn how to use ESI to accelerate chemical synthesis and to couple it with on-line mass spectrometry for structural analysis. The Hantzsch synthesis of symmetric 1,4-dihydropyridines is a classic example of a one-pot reaction in which multiple intermediates can serve to indicate the progress of the reaction…

  13. Bulk analysis using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsaru, M.; Holmes, R.J.; Mathew, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    Bulk analysis techniques developed for the mining industry are reviewed. Using penetrating neutron and #betta#-radiations, measurements are obtained directly from a large volume of sample (3-30 kg) #betta#-techniques were used to determine the grade of iron ore and to detect shale on conveyor belts. Thermal neutron irradiation was developed for the simultaneous determination of iron and aluminium in iron ore on a conveyor belt. Thermal-neutron activation analysis includes the determination of alumina in bauxite, and manganese and alumina in manganese ore. Fast neutron activation analysis is used to determine silicon in iron ores, and alumina and silica in bauxite. Fast and thermal neutron activation has been used to determine the soil in shredded sugar cane. (U.K.)

  14. Project development and commercialisation of on-line analysis systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    A project team first in the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC) and since 1982 in CSIRO has developed many on-line analysis systems for the mineral and energy industries. The development of these projects, usually lasting 7-10 years, has followed a common pattern of laboratory R and D, field trials, commercialisation and technology transfer. This successful pattern is illustrated using examples of the development of systems for the on-line analysis of mineral slurries, for determination of the ash content of coal on conveyors, and for determination of the flow rates of oil, water and gas in pipelines. The first two systems, licensed to Australian companies, are used world-wide. They are now the market leaders for radioisotope gauges in their application field. The third, the multiphase flow meter, was licensed in 1997 to an international company. This meter has even greater potential than the other two systems for economic benefit from its use and for numbers of installations. (author)

  15. NOASYS, a system for on-line noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massier, H.

    1978-07-01

    This report describes NOASYS, a versatile NOise Analysis SYStem for digital on-line signal processing. The system based on a minicomputer, was originally developed for the analysis of noise signals from nuclear reactors. NOASYS computes various statistical functions e.g. cross- und auto-correlation functions and power spectral densities resp., which may be used for reactor diagnosis and malfunction detection. The system processes up to 16 analog signals with a maximum sampling frequency of 100 kcps (1 channel). The processing of the sampled data is done by a number of software tasks, which may be called from a teletype or linked together for specific measuring programs. The standard configuration contains the often used processing routines e.g. Fast Fourier Transform, complex multiplication, summation etc. In addition NOASYS may be extended by users own tasks (in Assembler or Fortran) to fit for specific applications. (orig.) 891 HP [de

  16. On-line analysis of water contamination by organic compounds; On-line-Analytik der Wasserverschmutzung durch organische Substanzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagt, R. van der; Vos, F. de [Skalar Analytical (Netherlands); Babichenko, S.; Poryvkina, L. [Institute of Ecology, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1999-08-01

    In many environmental applications decomposing the mixture of substances in the water into its various chemical ingredients, for subsequent analysis, is a very complicated task. The most productive approach to on-line diagnosis is to treat the object as an integral spectroscopic sample, characterized by certain specific Spectral Fluorescent Signatures (SFS). The SFS are recorded as a matrix of fluorescent intensity of organic compounds in water, in co-ordinates of excitation and emission spectra, providing a three-dimensional spectrum. Spectral windows of SFS are defined by fluorescent characteristics of basic groups of organic substances in the water sample. The novel Skalar Fluo Imager, based on this principle, is intended for the analysis of organic compounds in natural, domestic, and technological waters in an on-line mode. (orig.) [German] In vielen Umweltschutzanwendungen stellt die Auftrennung eines Substanzgemisches zum Zweck der Analyse eine sehr komplizierte Aufgabe dar. Ein erfolgversprechender Ansatz fuer eine on-line-Diagnostik besteht darin, das Objekt als integrale Spektroskopieprobe zu betrachten, die durch bestimmte spezifische Spektral-Fluoreszenz-Signaturen (SFS) charakterisiert wird. Diese werden als Fluoreszenz-Intensitaets-Matrix organischer Verbindungen in Wasser dargestellt, mit Anregungs- und Emissionsspektren als weiteren Koordinaten, wodurch ein dreidimensionales Spektrum entsteht. Spektrale Fenster der SFS sind definiert als Fluoreszenzcharakteristika von Funktionsgruppen organischer Substanzen in der Wasserprobe. Der auf diesem Prinzip basierende Skalar Fluo Imager ist fuer die on-line-Analyse organischer Bestandteile in natuerlichen, Haus- und technischen Waessern gedacht. (orig.)

  17. Perspectives for on-line analysis of bauxite by neutron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beurton, Gabriel; Ledru, Bertrand; Letourneur, Philippe

    1995-03-01

    The interest in bauxite as a major source of alumina results in a strong demand for on-line instrumentation suitable for sorting, blending, and processing operations at the bauxite mine and for monitoring instrumentation in the Bayer process. The results of laboratory experiments based on neutron interactions with bauxite are described. The technique was chosen in order to overcome the problem of spatial heterogeneity in bulk mineral analysis. The evaluated elements contributed to approximately 99.5% of the sample weight. In addition, the measurements provide valuable information on physical parameters such as density, hygrometry, and material flow. Using a pulsed generator, the analysis system offers potential for on-line measurements (borehole logging or conveyor belt). An overall description of the experimental set-up is given. The experimental data include measurements of natural radioactivity, delayed radioactivity induced by activation, and prompt gamma rays following neutron reaction. In situ applications of neutron interactions provide continuous analysis and produce results which are more statistically significant. The key factors contributing to advances in industrial applications are the development of high count rate gamma spectroscopy and computational tools to design measurement systems and interpret their results.

  18. On-line milk spectrometry: analysis of bovine milk composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Kyle; Kuennemeyer, Rainer; Woolford, Murray; Claycomb, Rod

    2005-04-01

    We present partial least squares (PLS) regressions to predict the composition of raw, unhomogenised milk using visible to near infrared spectroscopy. A total of 370 milk samples from individual quarters were collected and analysed on-line by two low cost spectrometers in the wavelength ranges 380-1100 nm and 900-1700 nm. Samples were collected from 22 Friesian, 17 Jersey, 2 Ayrshire and 3 Friesian-Jersey crossbred cows over a period of 7 consecutive days. Transmission spectra were recorded in an inline flowcell through a 0.5 mm thick milk sample. PLS models, where wavelength selection was performed using iterative PLS, were developed for fat, protein, lactose, and somatic cell content. The root mean square error of prediction (and correlation coefficient) for the nir and visible spectrometers respectively were 0.70%(0.93) and 0.91%(0.91) for fat, 0.65%(0.5) and 0.47%(0.79) for protein, 0.36%(0.49) and 0.45%(0.43) for lactose, and 0.50(0.54) and 0.48(0.51) for log10 somatic cells.

  19. Application status of on-line nuclear techniques in analysis of coal quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Shaohui

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear techniques are favourable for continuous on-line analysis, because they are fast, non-intrusive. They can be used in the adverse circumstances in coal industry. The paper reviews the application status of on-line nuclear techniques in analysis of coal quality and economic benefits derived from such techniques in developed countries

  20. Semi-on-line analysis for fast and precise monitoring of bioreaction processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, L.H.; Marcher, J.; Schulze, Ulrik

    1996-01-01

    Monitoring of substrates and products during fermentation processes can be achieved either by on-line, in situ sensors or by semi-on-line analysis consisting of an automatic sampling step followed by an ex situ analysis of the retrieved sample. The potential risk of introducing time delays...

  1. Gender-Based Analysis On-Line Dialogue. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001

    An online dialogue on gender-based analysis (GBA) was held from February 15 to March 7, 2001. Invitations and a background paper titled "Why Gender-Based Analysis?" were sent to 350 women's organizations and individuals throughout Canada. Efforts were made to ensure that aboriginal and Metis women, visible minority women, and women with…

  2. On-Line Booking Policies and Competitive Analysis of Medical Examination in Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available From the on-line point, we consider the hospital’s medical examination appointment problem with hierarchical machines. This approach eliminates the need for both demand forecasts and a risk-neutrality assumption. Due to different unit revenue, uncertain demand, and arrival of patients, we design on-line booking policies for two kinds of different situations from the perspective of on-line policy and competitive analysis. After that, we prove the optimal competitive ratios. Through numerical examples, we compare advantages and disadvantages between on-line policies and traditional policies, finding that there is different superiority for these two policies under different arrival sequences.

  3. On-line gas chromatographic analysis of airborne particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Susanne V [Berkeley, CA; Goldstein, Allen H [Orinda, CA

    2012-01-03

    A method and apparatus for the in-situ, chemical analysis of an aerosol. The method may include the steps of: collecting an aerosol; thermally desorbing the aerosol into a carrier gas to provide desorbed aerosol material; transporting the desorbed aerosol material onto the head of a gas chromatography column; analyzing the aerosol material using a gas chromatograph, and quantizing the aerosol material as it evolves from the gas chromatography column. The apparatus includes a collection and thermal desorption cell, a gas chromatograph including a gas chromatography column, heated transport lines coupling the cell and the column; and a quantization detector for aerosol material evolving from the gas chromatography column.

  4. Analysis of Worldwide Regulatory Framework for On-Line Maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sang Kyu; Oh, Kyu Myung; Lee, Chang Ju

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing economic pressures being faced and the potential for shortening outage times under the conditions of deregulated electricity markets in the world, licensees are motivated to get an increasing amount of online maintenance (OLM). OLM means a kind of planned maintenance of nuclear reactor facilities, including structure, systems, and components (SSCs), during power operation. In Korea, a similar situation is made up, so it needs to establish a regulatory framework for OLM. A few years ago, foreign countries' practices related to OLM were surveyed by the Working Group on Inspection Practices (WGIP) of OECD/NEA/CNRA. The survey results and additional new information of countries' status will be helpful to establish our own regulatory framework for OLM, which are analyzed in this paper. From the analysis, some considerable points to be addressed for establishing a regulatory framework for OLM are suggested

  5. Intelligent simulations for on-line transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassberger, J.A.; Lee, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    A unique combination of simulation, parameter estimation and expert systems technology is applied to the problem of diagnosing nuclear power plant transients. Knowledge-based reasoning is ued to monitor plant data and hypothesize about the status of the plant. Fuzzy logic is employed as the inferencing mechanism and an implication scheme based on observations is developed and employed to handle scenarios involving competing failures. Hypothesis testing is performed by simulating the behavior of faulted components using numerical models. A filter has been developed for systematically adjusting key model parameters to force agreement between simulations and actual plant data. Pattern recognition is employed as a decision analysis technique for choosing among several hypotheses based on simulation results. An artificial Intelligence framework based on a critical functions approach is used to deal with the complexity of a nuclear plant system. Detailed simulation results of various nuclear power plant accident scenarios are presented to demonstrate the performance and robustness properties of the diagnostic algorithm developed. The system is shown to be successful in diagnosing and identifying fault parameters for a normal reactor scram, loss-of-feedwater (LOFW) and small loss-of-coolant (LOCA) transients occurring together in a scenario similar to the accident at Three Mile Island

  6. On-line analysis of reactor noise using time-series analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGevna, V.G.

    1981-10-01

    A method to allow use of time series analysis for on-line noise analysis has been developed. On-line analysis of noise in nuclear power reactors has been limited primarily to spectral analysis and related frequency domain techniques. Time series analysis has many distinct advantages over spectral analysis in the automated processing of reactor noise. However, fitting an autoregressive-moving average (ARMA) model to time series data involves non-linear least squares estimation. Unless a high speed, general purpose computer is available, the calculations become too time consuming for on-line applications. To eliminate this problem, a special purpose algorithm was developed for fitting ARMA models. While it is based on a combination of steepest descent and Taylor series linearization, properties of the ARMA model are used so that the auto- and cross-correlation functions can be used to eliminate the need for estimating derivatives. The number of calculations, per iteration varies lineegardless of the mee 0.2% yield strength displayed anisotropy, with axial and circumferential values being greater than radial. For CF8-CPF8 and CF8M-CPF8M castings to meet current ASME Code S acid fuel cells

  7. On-line data analysis and monitoring for H1 drift chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düllmann, Dirk

    1992-05-01

    The on-line monitoring, slow control and calibration of the H1 central jet chamber uses a VME multiprocessor system to perform the analysis and a connected Macintosh computer as graphical interface to the operator on shift. Task of this system are: - analysis of event data including on-line track search, - on-line calibration from normal events and testpulse events, - control of the high voltage and monitoring of settings and currents, - monitoring of temperature, pressure and mixture of the chambergas. A program package is described which controls the dataflow between data aquisition, differnt VME CPUs and Macintosh. It allows to run off-line style programs for the different tasks.

  8. Multiparametric amplitude analysis with on-line compression using adaptive orthogonal transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morhac, M; Matousek, V; Turzo, I

    1996-12-31

    The new method of multiparameter amplitude analysis with on-line compression is developed. The proposed method decreases the memory needed to store multidimensional histograms. Examples of employing the algorithms for three-dimensional spectra are presented. 5 refs.

  9. On-line data analysis and monitoring for H1 drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duellmann, D.

    1992-01-01

    The on-line monitoring, slow control and calibration of the H1 central jet chamber uses a VME multiprocessor system to perform the analysis and a connected Macintosh computer as graphical interface to the operator on shift. Tasks of this system are: Analysis of event data including on-line track search; on-line calibration from normal events and testpulse events; control of the high voltage and monitoring of settings and currents; monitoring of temperature, pressure and mixture of the chambergas. A program package is described which controls the dataflow between data aquisition, different VME CPUs and Macintosh. It allows to run off-line style programs for the different tasks. (orig.)

  10. Nuclear techniques for on-line analysis in the mineral and energy industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowerby, B.D.; Watt, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear techniques are the basis of many on-line analysis systems which are now widely used in the mineral and energy industries. Some of the systems developed by the CSIRO depend entirely on nuclear techniques; others use a combination of nuclear techniques and microwave, capacitance, or ultrasonic techniques. The continuous analysis and rapid response of these CSIRO systems has led to improved control of mining, processing and blending operations, with increased productivity valued at A$50 million per year to Australia, and $90 million per year world wide. This paper reviews developments in nuclear on-line analysis systems by the On-Line Analysis Group in CSIRO at Lucas Heights. Commercialised systems based on this work analyse mineral and coal slurries and determine the ash and moisture contents of coal and coke on conveyors. This paper also reviews two on-line nuclear analysis systems recently developed and licensed to industry, firstly for the determination of the mass flow rates of oil/water/gas mixtures in pipelines, and secondly for determination of the moisture, specific energy, ash and fouling index in low rank coals. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  11. Experience gained upon industrial application of on-line activation analysis in flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, H.; Riffel, F.

    1979-01-01

    At the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center an anlyzer was developed which allows continuous evaluation of the valuable minerals content in process streams. Experience is reported which has been gathered in several weeks of industrial application in a fluorspar flotation plant, the first industrial scale application of on-line activation analysis in Europe. The use has shown that with the equipment presented on-line monitoring with the desired accuracy is possible of all the strategically important points. This is of considerable importance for the economy of the process. (orig.) [de

  12. Ecodriver. D23.2: Simulation and analysis document for on-line vehicle algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seewald, P.; Orfila, O.; Saintpierre, G.

    2014-01-01

    This deliverable reports on the simulations and analysis of the on-line vehicle algorithms as well as the ecoDriver Android application. The simulation and field test results give an impression of how the algorithms will perform in the real world trials in SP3. Thus, it is possible to apply

  13. On-line monitoring of Glucose and penicillin by sequential injection analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Min, R.W.; Nielsen, Jens Bredal; Villadsen, John

    1996-01-01

    and a detector. The glucose analyzer is based on an enzymatic reaction using glucose oxidase, which converts glucose to glucono-lactone with formation of hydrogen peroxide and subsequent detection of H2O2 by a chemiluminescence reaction involving luminol. The penicillin analysis is based on formation......A sequential injection analysis (SIA) system has been developed for on-line monitoring of glucose and penicillin during cultivations of the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. The SIA system consists of a peristaltic pump, an injection valve, two piston pumps, two multi-position valves...

  14. Transputer networks for the on-line analysis of fine-grained electromagnetic calorimeter data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girotto, G.L.; Lanceri, L.; Scuri, F.; Zoppolato, E.

    1994-01-01

    Transputer networks, designed to perform parallel computations, are well suited for data acquisition, on-line analysis and second level trigger tasks in high energy physics experiments. Some simple algorithms for the analysis of fine-grained electromagnetic calorimeter data were implemented on two types of transputer networks and tested on real and simulated data from a silicon-tungsten calorimeter. Results are presented on the processing speed, measured in a test setup, and extrapolations to a full size detector and data acquisition system are discussed. ((orig.))

  15. Computer-controlled on-line gamma analysis for krypton-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canuette, R.P.

    1980-03-01

    85 Kr will be evolved from spent nuclear fuel during both the voloxidation and dissolution processes, so a reliable method for on-line analysis of 85 Kr in the off-gas system is needed. Tritium, 14 C, and 129 I were trapped, and the activity of 85 Kr was then measured using a Li-drifted Ge detector. Equipment used to carry out this analysis is described; the PET computer is used. The 85 Kr evolution rate was correlated with the fuel dissolution rate; the close correlation permits one to monitor the fuel dissolution process. 11 figures

  16. On-line and off-line data analysis for the EUSO-TA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotrowski, Lech Wiktor; Casolino, Marco; Conti, Livio; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Fornaro, Claudio; Kawasaki, Yoshiya; Hachisu, Yusuke; Ohmori, Hitoshi; De Santis, Cristian; Shinozaki, Kenji; Takizawa, Yoshiyuki; Uehara, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    We show the principles of the communication protocol, on-line calibration, off-line data format as well as basic visualisation and data analysis software implemented for the EUSO-TA on-ground experiment, being the first step towards implementation in a future space based mission. EUSO-TA is an on-ground detector for measuring UV (290–430 nm) light from extensive air showers induced by cosmic rays. It is a prototype experiment for the JEM-EUSO space-borne mission, built according to the same constraints of low mass, low power consumption and thus low computing power. Nevertheless, it needs to process a huge amount of data in short time, taking 2.5μs exposures for 2304 channels. The low processing power and high time resolution require an efficient communication protocol and simple yet powerful algorithms for on-line analysis. The off-line data format is designed for storing a huge amount of data, at the same time allowing easy access, analysis and sharing. Its structure is scalable and adjustable to different experimental designs. It is independent of the data origin, whether it is hardware or a Monte-Carlo simulator. Use of object-oriented techniques and the ROOT framework allows rapid development of dedicated analysis software, such as a Python based quick-view program described herein. Basic capabilities of the software, such as display of the focal surface, light curves and calibration data are shown in this paper

  17. On-line and off-line data analysis for the EUSO-TA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotrowski, Lech Wiktor, E-mail: lech.piotrowski@riken.jp [RIKEN, Wako (Japan); Casolino, Marco [RIKEN, Wako (Japan); INFN and Univ. Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Conti, Livio [International Telematic University UNINETTUNO, Rome (Italy); Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu [RIKEN, Wako (Japan); Fornaro, Claudio [International Telematic University UNINETTUNO, Rome (Italy); Kawasaki, Yoshiya; Hachisu, Yusuke; Ohmori, Hitoshi [RIKEN, Wako (Japan); De Santis, Cristian [INFN and Univ. Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Shinozaki, Kenji [Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Kepler Center, University of Tübingen, Sand 6, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); RIKEN, Wako (Japan); Takizawa, Yoshiyuki; Uehara, Yoshihiro [RIKEN, Wako (Japan)

    2015-02-11

    We show the principles of the communication protocol, on-line calibration, off-line data format as well as basic visualisation and data analysis software implemented for the EUSO-TA on-ground experiment, being the first step towards implementation in a future space based mission. EUSO-TA is an on-ground detector for measuring UV (290–430 nm) light from extensive air showers induced by cosmic rays. It is a prototype experiment for the JEM-EUSO space-borne mission, built according to the same constraints of low mass, low power consumption and thus low computing power. Nevertheless, it needs to process a huge amount of data in short time, taking 2.5μs exposures for 2304 channels. The low processing power and high time resolution require an efficient communication protocol and simple yet powerful algorithms for on-line analysis. The off-line data format is designed for storing a huge amount of data, at the same time allowing easy access, analysis and sharing. Its structure is scalable and adjustable to different experimental designs. It is independent of the data origin, whether it is hardware or a Monte-Carlo simulator. Use of object-oriented techniques and the ROOT framework allows rapid development of dedicated analysis software, such as a Python based quick-view program described herein. Basic capabilities of the software, such as display of the focal surface, light curves and calibration data are shown in this paper.

  18. Automatic data acquisition and on-line analysis of trace element concentration in serum samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, R.; Paradis, P.; Monaro, S.

    1978-01-01

    A completely automated system has been developed to determine the trace element concentration in biological samples by measuring charged particle induced X-rays. A CDC-3100 computer with ADC and CAMAC interface is employed to control the data collection apparatus, acquire data and perform simultaneously the analysis. The experimental set-up consists of a large square plexiglass chamber in which a commercially available 750H Kodak Carousel is suitably arranged as a computer controlled sample changer. A method of extracting trace element concentrations using reference spectra is presented and an on-line program has been developed to easily and conveniently obtain final results at the end of each run. (Auth.)

  19. Ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials. Fermentation and on-line analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, L.

    1994-04-01

    The fermentation performance of bacteria, yeast and fungi was investigated in lignocellulosic hydrolysates with the aim of finding microorganisms which both withstand the inhibitors and that have the ability to ferment pentoses. Firstly, the performance of Saccharomyces cidri, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis, Escherichia coli and Zymomonas mobilis was investigated in spent sulphite liquor and enzymatic hydrolysate of steam-pretreated willow. Secondly, the performance of natural and recombinant E. coli, Pichia stipitis, recombinant S. cerevisiae, S. cerevisiae in combination with xylose isomerase and Fusarium oxysporum was investigated in a xylose-rich acid hydrolysate of corn cob. Recombinant E. coli was the best alternative for fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates, giving both high yields and productivities. The main drawback was that detoxification was necessary. The kinetics of the fermentation with recombinant E. coli KO11 was investigated in the condensate of steam-pretreated willow. A cost analysis of the ethanol production from willow was made, which predicted an ethanol production cost of 3.9 SEK/l for the pentose fermentation. The detoxification cost constituted 22% of this cost. The monitoring of three monosaccharides and ethanol in lignocellulosic hydro lysates is described. The monosaccharides were determined using immobilized pyranose oxidase in an on-line amperometric analyser. Immobilization and characterization of pyranose oxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium is also described. The ethanol was monitored on-line using a micro dialysis probe as an in situ sampling device. The dialysate components were then separated in a column liquid chromatographic system and the ethanol was selectively detected by an amperometric alcohol bio sensor. The determinations with on-line analysis methods agreed well with off-line methods. 248 refs, 4 figs, 12 tabs

  20. Bulk - Samples gamma-rays activation analysis (PGNAA) with Isotopic Neutron Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HASSAN, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    An overview is given on research towards the Prompt Gamma-ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) of bulk-samples. Some aspects in bulk-sample PGNAA are discussed, where irradiation by isotopic neutron sources is used mostly for in-situ or on-line analysis. The research was carried out in a comparative and/or qualitative way or by using a prior knowledge about the sample material. Sometimes we need to use the assumption that the mass fractions of all determined elements add up to 1. The sensitivity curves are also used for some elements in such complex samples, just to estimate the exact percentage concentration values. The uses of 252 Cf, 241 Arn/Be and 239 Pu/Be isotopic neutron sources for elemental investigation of: hematite, ilmenite, coal, petroleum, edible oils, phosphates and pollutant lake water samples have been mentioned.

  1. Development and Integration of on-line Data Analysis for the ALICE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    The ALICE detector setup is a dedicated experiment in Heavy Ion Physics, located at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)/ Geneva. Its various sub-detectors are electronically read out by a few millions of channels and are expected to provide a huge sample of data for the investigation of strongly interacting matter. A data rate of up to 25 GByte/s imposes a challenge to both storage facilities and subsequent data analysis. On-line data processing is applied in order to reduce the data volume and selection of interesting events is suggested to increase the valuable information in the recorded data. In general, trigger systems cover the task of event selection. As the first signal needs to be available immediately after the collision, often a multi-level triggering scheme is applied. Fast detectors are deployed to generate different levels of hardware triggers. Subsequent software triggers accomplish event selection on the basis of on-line analysis. A High-Lev...

  2. On-line diagnostic techniques for air-operated control valves based on time series analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kenji; Matsuoka, Yoshinori; Minamikawa, Shigeru; Komatsu, Yasuki; Satoh, Takeshi.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research is to study the feasibility of applying on-line diagnostic techniques based on time series analysis to air-operated control valves - numerous valves of the type which are used in PWR plants. Generally the techniques can detect anomalies by failures in the initial stages for which detection is difficult by conventional surveillance of process parameters measured directly. However, the effectiveness of these techniques depends on the system being diagnosed. The difficulties in applying diagnostic techniques to air-operated control valves seem to come from the reduced sensitivity of their response as compared with hydraulic control systems, as well as the need to identify anomalies in low level signals that fluctuate only slightly but continuously. In this research, simulation tests were performed by setting various kinds of failure modes for a test valve with the same specifications as of a valve actually used in the plants. Actual control signals recorded from an operating plant were then used as input signals for simulation. The results of the tests confirmed the feasibility of applying on-line diagnostic techniques based on time series analysis to air-operated control valves. (author)

  3. On-line analysis of hydrogen and other parameters in the mineral and energy industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowerby, B.D.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the project is the development and industrial application of nuclear and microwave techniques for the on-line determination of hydrogen, moisture and other parameters. This document presents progress with respect to the stated objectives. A laboratory feasibility study has been carried out on new and advanced neutron and gamma ray analysis systems for the direct on-conveyor belt analysis of ash in coal. Neutron inelastic scattering and thermal neutron capture gamma ray technique were used in development of an on-belt elemental analyser for cement industry. Microwave based technology has been developed for on-conveyor belt determination of moisture in coal. A fast neutron and gamma-ray transmission technique has been applied for on-belt determination of moisture in lump coke

  4. Integrated analysis software for bulk power system stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T; Nagao, T; Takahashi, K [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents Central Research Inst.of Electric Power Industry - CRIEPI`s - own developed three softwares for bulk power network analysis and the user support system which arranges tremendous data necessary for these softwares with easy and high reliability. (author) 3 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Nuclear techniques for bulk and surface analysis of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agostino, M.D.; Kamykowski, E.A.; Kuehne, F.J.; Padawer, G.M.; Schneid, E.J.; Schulte, R.L.; Stauber, M.C.; Swanson, F.R.

    1978-01-01

    A review is presented summarizing several nondestructive bulk and surface analysis nuclear techniques developed in the Grumman Research Laboratories. Bulk analysis techniques include 14-MeV-neutron activation analysis and accelerator-based neutron radiography. The surface analysis techniques include resonant and non-resonant nuclear microprobes for the depth profile analysis of light elements (H, He, Li, Be, C, N, O and F) in the surface of materials. Emphasis is placed on the description and discussion of the unique nuclear microprobe analytical capacibilities of immediate importance to a number of current problems facing materials specialists. The resolution and contrast of neutron radiography was illustrated with an operating heat pipe system. The figure shows that the neutron radiograph has a resolution of better than 0.04 cm with sufficient contrast to indicate Freon 21 on the inner capillaries of the heat pipe and pooling of the liquid at the bottom. (T.G.)

  6. Modeling and Analysis Methods for an On-line Enrichment Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Leon E.; Jarman, Kenneth D.; Wittman, Richard S.; Zalavadia, Mital A.; March-Leuba, Jose A.

    2016-05-30

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has developed an On-Line Enrichment Monitor (OLEM) as one possible component in a new generation of safeguards measures for uranium enrichment plants. The OLEM measures 235U emissions from the UF6 gas flowing through a unit header pipe using NaI(Tl) spectrometers, and corrects for gas density changes using pressure and temperature sensors in order to determine the enrichment of the gas as a function of time. In parallel with the OLEM instrument development, a Virtual OLEM (VOLEM) software tool has been developed that is capable of producing synthetic gamma-ray, pressure, and temperature data representative of a wide range of enrichment plant operating conditions. VOLEM complements instrument development activities and allows the study of OLEM for scenarios that will be difficult or impossible to evaluate empirically. Uses of VOLEM include: investigation of hardware design options; inter-comparison of candidate gamma-ray spectral analysis and enrichment estimation algorithms; uncertainty budget analysis and performance prediction for typical and atypical operational scenarios; and testing of the OLEM data acquisition, analysis and reporting software. This paper describes the technical foundations of VOLEM and illustrates how it can be used. An overview of the nominal instrument design and deployment scenario for OLEM is provided, with emphasis on the key online-assay measurement challenge: accurately determining the portion of the total 235U signal that comes from a background that includes solid uranium deposits on the piping walls. Monte Carlo modeling tools, data analysis algorithms and uncertainty quantification methods are described. VOLEM is then used to quantitatively explore the uncertainty budgets and predicted instrument performance for a plausible range of typical plant operating parameters, and one set of candidate analysis algorithms. Additionally, a series of VOLEM case studies illustrates how an online

  7. Quantitative on-line analysis of sulfur compounds in complex hydrocarbon matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djokic, Marko R; Ristic, Nenad D; Olahova, Natalia; Marin, Guy B; Van Geem, Kevin M

    2017-08-04

    An improved method for on-line measurement of sulfur containing compounds in complex matrices is presented. The on-line system consists of a specifically designed sampling system connected to a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatograph (GC×GC) equipped with two capillary columns (Rtx ® -1 PONA×SGE BPX50), a flame ionization detector (FID) and a sulfur chemiluminescence detector (SCD). The result is an unprecedented sensitivity down to ppm level (1 ppm-w) for various sulfur containing compounds in very complex hydrocarbon matrices. In addition to the GC×GC-SCD, the low molecular weight sulfur containing compounds such as hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and carbonyl sulfide (COS) can be analyzed using a thermal conductivity detector of a so-called refinery gas analyzer (RGA). The methodology was extensively tested on a continuous flow pilot plant for steam cracking, in which quantification of sulfur containing compounds in the reactor effluent was carried out using 3-chlorothiophene as internal standard. The GC×GC-FID/-SCD settings were optimized for ppm analysis of sulfur compounds in olefin-rich (ethylene- and propylene-rich) hydrocarbon matrices produced by steam cracking of petroleum feedstocks. Besides that is primarily used for analysis of the hydrocarbon matrix, FID of the GC×GC-FID/-SCD set-up serves to double check the amount of added sulfur internal standard which is crucial for a proper quantification of sulfur compounds. When vacuum gas oil containing 780 ppm-w of elemental sulfur in the form of benzothiophenes and dibenzothiophenes is subjected to steam cracking, the sulfur balance was closed, with 75% of the sulfur contained in the feed is converted to hydrogen sulfide, 13% to alkyl homologues of thiophene while the remaining 12% is present in the form of alkyl homologues of benzothiophenes. The methodology can be applied for many other conversion processes which use sulfur containing feeds such as hydrocracking, catalytic cracking, kerogen

  8. Predictions of On-Line Banks' Fraudulent: A Study on Discriminant Analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Joseph Mukungu; Gwangyong Gim

    2014-01-01

    The information and communication technology (ICT) is growing fast in the community along with some risks. The on-line banks' fraudulent are increasing dramatically resulting in the loss of money and retardate the growth on economic development. Some law enforcers like Tanzanian police yet use the traditional prevention technologies to investigate these on-line banks' fraudulent cases mainly known as cyber crimes. For the purpose of this study, 150 data were collected as cyber...

  9. Analysis of flavonoids from propolis by on-line HPLC-electrospray mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Nicola; Bergonzini, Gianluca

    2006-09-26

    , Ethiopia and Kenya. The HPLC-ESI/MS under the experimental conditions illustrated represents a valuable method for the qualitative and quantitative assay of the most relevant components of propolis. On-line HPLC-ESI/MS analysis constitutes an alternative to obtain typical fingerprints of propolis and a reliable identification of a large number of propolis polyphenolic components.

  10. On-line analysis of algae in water by discrete three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nanjing; Zhang, Xiaoling; Yin, Gaofang; Yang, Ruifang; Hu, Li; Chen, Shuang; Liu, Jianguo; Liu, Wenqing

    2018-03-19

    In view of the problem of the on-line measurement of algae classification, a method of algae classification and concentration determination based on the discrete three-dimensional fluorescence spectra was studied in this work. The discrete three-dimensional fluorescence spectra of twelve common species of algae belonging to five categories were analyzed, the discrete three-dimensional standard spectra of five categories were built, and the recognition, classification and concentration prediction of algae categories were realized by the discrete three-dimensional fluorescence spectra coupled with non-negative weighted least squares linear regression analysis. The results show that similarities between discrete three-dimensional standard spectra of different categories were reduced and the accuracies of recognition, classification and concentration prediction of the algae categories were significantly improved. By comparing with that of the chlorophyll a fluorescence excitation spectra method, the recognition accuracy rate in pure samples by discrete three-dimensional fluorescence spectra is improved 1.38%, and the recovery rate and classification accuracy in pure diatom samples 34.1% and 46.8%, respectively; the recognition accuracy rate of mixed samples by discrete-three dimensional fluorescence spectra is enhanced by 26.1%, the recovery rate of mixed samples with Chlorophyta 37.8%, and the classification accuracy of mixed samples with diatoms 54.6%.

  11. Bulk Materials Analysis Using High-Energy Positron Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glade, S C; Asoka-Kumar, P; Nieh, T G; Sterne, P A; Wirth, B D; Dauskardt, R H; Flores, K M; Suh, D; Odette, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews some recent materials analysis results using high-energy positron beams at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We are combining positron lifetime and orbital electron momentum spectroscopic methods to provide electron number densities and electron momentum distributions around positron annihilation sites. Topics covered include: correlation of positron annihilation characteristics with structural and mechanical properties of bulk metallic glasses, compositional studies of embrittling features in nuclear reactor pressure vessel steel, pore characterization in Zeolites, and positron annihilation characteristics in alkali halides

  12. Advanced mathematical on-line analysis in nuclear experiments. Usage of parallel computing CUDA routines in standard root analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzeszczuk, A.; Kowalski, S.

    2015-04-01

    Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) is a parallel computing platform developed by Nvidia for increase speed of graphics by usage of parallel mode for processes calculation. The success of this solution has opened technology General-Purpose Graphic Processor Units (GPGPUs) for applications not coupled with graphics. The GPGPUs system can be applying as effective tool for reducing huge number of data for pulse shape analysis measures, by on-line recalculation or by very quick system of compression. The simplified structure of CUDA system and model of programming based on example Nvidia GForce GTX580 card are presented by our poster contribution in stand-alone version and as ROOT application.

  13. Antioxidants in Raspberry: On-line analysis links antioxidant activity to a diversity of individual metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekwilder, M.J.; Jonker, H.H.; Hall, R.D.; Meer, van der I.M.; Vos, de C.H.

    2005-01-01

    The presence of antioxidant compounds can be considered as a quality parameter for edible fruit. In this paper, we studied the antioxidant compounds in raspberry (Rubus idaeus) fruits by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to an on-line postcolumn antioxidant detection system. Both

  14. On-line structural response analysis: using the extended Kalman estimator/identifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candy, J.V.

    1979-01-01

    This report disucsses the development of on-line state and parameter estimators used to analyze the structural response of buildings. The estimator/identifier is an extended Kalman filter (EKF), which has been applied with great success in other technological areas. It is shown that the EKF can perform quite well on simulated noisy structural response data

  15. Face-to-Face vs On-Line: An Analysis of Profile, Learning, Performance and Satisfaction among Post Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Maldonado, Alberto; Llorens, Susana; Acosta, Hedy; Coo, Cristián

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the differences between face-to-face and on-line students in a post graduate education program. The variables considered are Post Graduate Student's profile, competences and learning outcomes, academic performance and satisfaction. The sample was composed by 47 students (64% face-to-face). Analysis of variance…

  16. Feasibility study of applying a multi-channel analysis model to on-line core monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In, W. K.; Yoo, Y. J.; Hwang, D. H.; Jun, T. H.

    1998-01-01

    A feasibility study was performed to evaluate the effect of implementing a multi-channel analysis model in on-line core monitoring system. A simplified thermal-hydraulic model has been used in the on-line core monitoring system of digital PWR. The design procedure, core thermal margin and computation time were investigated in case of replacing the simplified model with the multi-channel analysis model. For the given ranges of limiting conditions for operation in Yonggwang Unit 3 Cycle 1, the minimum DNBR of the simplified thermal-hydraulic code CETOP-D was compared to that of the multi-channel analysis code MATRA. A CETOP-D tuning is additionally required to ensure the accurate and conservative DNBR calculation but the MATRA tuning is not necessary. MATRA appeared to increase the DNBR overpower margin from 2.5% to 6% over the CETOP-D margin. MATRA took approximately 1 second to compute DNBR on the HP9000 workstation system, which is longer than the DNBR computation time of CETOP-D. It is, however, fast enough to perform the on-line monitoring of DNBR. It can be therefore concluded that the application of the multi-channel analysis model MATRA in the on-line core monitoring system is feasible

  17. Verification test for on-line diagnosis algorithm based on noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaoki, T.; Naito, N.; Tsunoda, T.; Sato, M.; Kameda, A.

    1980-01-01

    An on-line diagnosis algorithm was developed and its verification test was performed using a minicomputer. This algorithm identifies the plant state by analyzing various system noise patterns, such as power spectral densities, coherence functions etc., in three procedure steps. Each obtained noise pattern is examined by using the distances from its reference patterns prepared for various plant states. Then, the plant state is identified by synthesizing each result with an evaluation weight. This weight is determined automatically from the reference noise patterns prior to on-line diagnosis. The test was performed with 50 MW (th) Steam Generator noise data recorded under various controller parameter values. The algorithm performance was evaluated based on a newly devised index. The results obtained with one kind of weight showed the algorithm efficiency under the proper selection of noise patterns. Results for another kind of weight showed the robustness of the algorithm to this selection. (orig.)

  18. Analysis of on-line learning when a moving teacher goes around a true teacher

    OpenAIRE

    Miyoshi, Seiji; Okada, Masato

    2005-01-01

    In the framework of on-line learning, a learning machine might move around a teacher due to the differences in structures or output functions between the teacher and the learning machine or due to noises. The generalization performance of a new student supervised by a moving machine has been analyzed. A model composed of a true teacher, a moving teacher and a student that are all linear perceptrons with noises has been treated analytically using statistical mechanics. It has been proven that ...

  19. An investigation of the parameters affecting continuous on-line neutron activation analysis and its application to process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boswell, C.

    1977-03-01

    A system analysis was made and a description was given of on-line continuous activation analysis. The suitability of the various languages available on the Burroughs B6700 computer for simulation of such systems was assessed. A programme was written in the selected languages to incorporate facilities for specifying the geometry of both activation and detector cells and of the delay line linking the two

  20. A CDC 1700 on-line system for the analysis, data logging and monitoring of big bubble chamber pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyonnet, J.-L.

    1975-01-01

    This work presents the analysis system of large bubble chamber such as Gargamelle, BEBC pictures realized in the heavy liquid bubble chamber group with scanning and measurement stations on-line with a CDC 1700 computer. This work deals with the general characteristics of these stations and of the computer, and puts emphasis on the conception and functions of the analysis programmes: scanning, measurement and data processing. The data acquisition system runs in a context of real time multiprogrammation [fr

  1. On-line analysis of ETA and organic acids in secondary systems of PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurashina, Masahiko; Uzawa, Hideo; Utagawa, Koya; Takaku, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    To reduce the iron concentration in the secondary water of plants with pressurized water reactors (PWRs), ethanolamine (ETA) is used as an alkalizing agent in the secondary cycle. An on-line ion chromatography (IC) monitoring system for monitoring concentrations of ETA and anions of organic acids was developed, its performance was evaluated, and verification tests were conducted at an actual PWR plant. It was demonstrated that the concentration of both ETA and anions of organic acids may be successfully monitored by IC in PWR secondary cycle streams alkalized by ETA. (orig.)

  2. Advanced mathematical on-line analysis in nuclear experiments. Usage of parallel computing CUDA routines in standard root analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzeszczuk A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA is a parallel computing platform developed by Nvidia for increase speed of graphics by usage of parallel mode for processes calculation. The success of this solution has opened technology General-Purpose Graphic Processor Units (GPGPUs for applications not coupled with graphics. The GPGPUs system can be applying as effective tool for reducing huge number of data for pulse shape analysis measures, by on-line recalculation or by very quick system of compression. The simplified structure of CUDA system and model of programming based on example Nvidia GForce GTX580 card are presented by our poster contribution in stand-alone version and as ROOT application.

  3. On line system monitoring and analysis for efficient maintenance management [Paper No.: I-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, R.M.P.

    1981-01-01

    Continuously operating chemical plants and nuclear reactors with huge investments cannot afford unscheduled shut down, costly down time, undesired exposure of people to radiation and high cost of inventory. To obtain cost effectiveness in terms of increased plant availability with increased quality, safety and reliability of plant operations a good maintenance system is required. A preventive maintenance programme, though successful to a greater extent, has got the limitations of being based upon elapsed time, subjective approach or statistical data. Hence, maintenance action is mistimed. Preventive maintenance can become very effective if rational and scientific data on equipment under working conditions are available. It can be achieved through on-line predictive instruments like sound level and vibration analyzers, probologs, corrosmeters, strain gages, thermographic infrared sensors, on-line ferrographs, chromatographs, acoustic emission, eddy current ultrasonic and wireless sensors etc. Instruments help maintenance engineer to diagnose, inspect, monitor, and help in forecasting failures and scheduling the frequencies optimally for overhauls, replacements, lubrication etc. They are also helpful in establishing work load, manpower, resource planning and inventory control. This paper discusses real time computer based system as well as conventional instruments and techniques. (author)

  4. On-line, proximate analysis of ground beef directly at a meat grinder outlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, T; Nilsen, B N; Tøgersen, G; Hammond, R P; Hildrum, K I

    1996-07-01

    The fat, moisture and protein contents of ground beef were determined on-line by a diffuse reflectance near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy instrument at the outlet of a meat grinder. Beef samples in the range of 6.2-21.7% fat, 59.6-72.9% moisture and 18.1-20.7% protein were studied. Calibrations from samples ground with hole diameters of 4, 8, 13 or 19 mm in the grinder plate were validated. In addition, calibrations of combinations of these samples from the different hole diameters were validated. Prediction errors, expressed as root mean square error of cross validation of the beef samples, were 0.73-1.50% for fat, 0.75-1.33% for moisture and 0.23-0.32% for protein, depending on the hole diameter of the grinder plate. Calibrations from samples ground with the smallest hole diameters gave lowest prediction errors. The present prediction error results are only slightly higher compared to reported prediction error results using conventional at- and off-line NIR instruments. It is concluded that the on-line NIR prediction results were acceptable for samples ground with grinder plates of 4, 8 or 13 mm hole diameter.

  5. Phase space analysis for anisotropic universe with nonlinear bulk viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.; Mumtaz, Saadia

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we discuss phase space analysis of locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I universe model by taking a noninteracting mixture of dust like and viscous radiation like fluid whose viscous pressure satisfies a nonlinear version of the Israel-Stewart transport equation. An autonomous system of equations is established by defining normalized dimensionless variables. In order to investigate stability of the system, we evaluate corresponding critical points for different values of the parameters. We also compute power-law scale factor whose behavior indicates different phases of the universe model. It is found that our analysis does not provide a complete immune from fine-tuning because the exponentially expanding solution occurs only for a particular range of parameters. We conclude that stable solutions exist in the presence of nonlinear model for bulk viscosity with different choices of the constant parameter m for anisotropic universe.

  6. Surface inspection of flat products by means of texture analysis: on-line implementation using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Carlos; Platero, Carlos; Campoy, Pascual; Aracil, Rafael

    1994-11-01

    This paper describes some texture-based techniques that can be applied to quality assessment of flat products continuously produced (metal strips, wooden surfaces, cork, textile products, ...). Since the most difficult task is that of inspecting for product appearance, human-like inspection ability is required. A common feature to all these products is the presence of non- deterministic texture on their surfaces. Two main subjects are discussed: statistical techniques for both surface finishing determination and surface defect analysis as well as real-time implementation for on-line inspection in high-speed applications. For surface finishing determination a Gray Level Difference technique is presented to perform over low resolution images, that is, no-zoomed images. Defect analysis is performed by means of statistical texture analysis over defective portions of the surface. On-line implementation is accomplished by means of neural networks. When a defect arises, textural analysis is applied which result in a data-vector, acting as input of a neural net, previously trained in a supervised way. This approach tries to reach on-line performance in automated visual inspection applications when texture is presented in flat product surfaces.

  7. Development of on-line heavy water analysis by vibrating probe density meter and multiple internal reflectance infrared spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, V.D.; Nora, B.

    1984-01-01

    Achieving high productivity in the Savannah River Plant nuclear reactors requires that the heavy water (D 2 O) moderator be maintained at a high purity level. Since the D 2 O purity will degrade with time, a fraction of the moderator must be continually reprocessed to remove H 2 O. This rework process uses a series of fractional distillation columns. The process control is based on laboratory analyses of process samples every four hours. The sample streams, which can range from 0.10 to 99.80 mol % D 2 O, are analyzed using infrared spectrophotometry. An automatic on-line analysis would provide tighter process control and reduce personnel exposure to the tritiated moderator. Two instruments are being evaluated for on-line control; an Anton/Parr DPR 2000 density measuring system and a General Analysis Corporation LAN-I infrared liquid stream monitor

  8. Feasibility analysis of marine ecological on-line integrated monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, D. Z.; Cao, X.; Zhang, S. W.; Wu, N.; Ma, R.; Zhang, L.; Cao, L.

    2017-08-01

    The in-situ water quality sensors were susceptible to biological attachment. Moreover, sea water corrosion and wave impact damage, and many sensors scattered distribution would cause maintenance inconvenience. The paper proposed a highly integrated marine ecological on-line integrated monitoring system, which can be used inside monitoring station. All sensors were reasonably classified, the similar in series, the overall in parallel. The system composition and workflow were described. In addition, the paper proposed attention issues of the system design and corresponding solutions. Water quality multi-parameters and 5 nutrient salts as the verification index, in-situ and systematic data comparison experiment were carried out. The results showed that the data consistency of nutrient salt, PH and salinity was better. Temperature and dissolved oxygen data trend was consistent, but the data had deviation. Turbidity fluctuated greatly; the chlorophyll trend was similar with it. Aiming at the above phenomena, three points system optimization direction were proposed.

  9. Monitoring the metering performance of an electronic voltage transformer on-line based on cyber-physics correlation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhu; Li, Hongbin; Hu, Chen; Jiao, Yang; Tang, Dengping

    2017-01-01

    Metering performance is the key parameter of an electronic voltage transformer (EVT), and it requires high accuracy. The conventional off-line calibration method using a standard voltage transformer is not suitable for the key equipment in a smart substation, which needs on-line monitoring. In this article, we propose a method for monitoring the metering performance of an EVT on-line based on cyber-physics correlation analysis. By the electrical and physical properties of a substation running in three-phase symmetry, the principal component analysis method is used to separate the metering deviation caused by the primary fluctuation and the EVT anomaly. The characteristic statistics of the measured data during operation are extracted, and the metering performance of the EVT is evaluated by analyzing the change in statistics. The experimental results show that the method successfully monitors the metering deviation of a Class 0.2 EVT accurately. The method demonstrates the accurate evaluation of on-line monitoring of the metering performance on an EVT without a standard voltage transformer. (paper)

  10. Monitoring the metering performance of an electronic voltage transformer on-line based on cyber-physics correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhu; Li, Hongbin; Tang, Dengping; Hu, Chen; Jiao, Yang

    2017-10-01

    Metering performance is the key parameter of an electronic voltage transformer (EVT), and it requires high accuracy. The conventional off-line calibration method using a standard voltage transformer is not suitable for the key equipment in a smart substation, which needs on-line monitoring. In this article, we propose a method for monitoring the metering performance of an EVT on-line based on cyber-physics correlation analysis. By the electrical and physical properties of a substation running in three-phase symmetry, the principal component analysis method is used to separate the metering deviation caused by the primary fluctuation and the EVT anomaly. The characteristic statistics of the measured data during operation are extracted, and the metering performance of the EVT is evaluated by analyzing the change in statistics. The experimental results show that the method successfully monitors the metering deviation of a Class 0.2 EVT accurately. The method demonstrates the accurate evaluation of on-line monitoring of the metering performance on an EVT without a standard voltage transformer.

  11. On-line NIR analysis of fat, water and protein in industrial scale ground meat batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøgersen, G; Isaksson, T; Nilsen, B N; Bakker, E A; Hildrum, K I

    1999-01-01

    Fat, water and protein contents in industrial scale meat batches were determined on-line by near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy. The NIR instrument was mounted at the outlet of a large meat grinder, and the measurements were performed in an industrial environment. Beef and pork samples, with chemical compositions of 7-26% fat, 58-75% water and 15-21% protein, were processed with hole diameters of 13mm in the grinder plate. Calibrations were made both for a combined set of beef and pork samples, and for separate sets of beef and pork samples. Validations were either done by full cross validation of the calibration set, or by bias corrected prediction of a test set. Prediction errors for the two sample sets, expressed as root mean square errors of cross validation or standard error of prediction, were in the ranges 0.82-1.49% fat, 0.94-1.33% water and 0.35-0.70% protein, depending of sample set and species of animal. The presented application is an improvement to the existing manual meat standardisation procedure, and has been implemented for regular use in a Norwegian meat manufacturing plant.

  12. Utilization of neutrons in nuclear data measurements and bulk sample analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, S. A.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental investigations were carried out with neutrons in the fields of neutron data measurements and bulk sample analysis based on the interactions of neutron interactions required in the investigations together with some salient features of the sources employed are enumerated. Excitation cross section curves and isomeric cross section ratio of 58 Ni(n,p) 58 Co m , g reaction over the neutron energy range of between 5 and 15 MeV were determined using the activation analysis technique in combination with high-resolution gamma spectroscopy. Characteristics of the incident neutrons produced via the D-T reaction of a neutron generator and D-D reaction of a cyclotron were determined experimentally to account for the contributing effects of background neutrons especially in the 5-13 MeV neutron energy range where existing data are scanty and rather discrepant. The measured data agree well with calculated data using nuclear models but deviate significantly from the recommended data based on existing literature data. The measured δ act and δ m /δ g data made it possible to determine the cross section curve for 58 Ni(n,p) 58 Co m reaction. Furthermore the flux density distributions of thermal and primary fast neutrons in different configurations of bulk samples consisting of water, graphite and coal together with the attenuation characteristics were determined by the activation analysis and pulse height response spectrometry techniques. From the results obtained, an experimental geometry has been proposed for on-line elemental analysis of coal and other minerals. Similarly the total hydrogen content and 0+C/H atomic ratio in household and motor oils as well as crude oil samples of different origins were measured by an improved experimental arrangement based on the thermal neutron reflection technique. A detection limit of 0.12 w % was obtained for hydrogen indicating the possible adaptation of this technique for quality control of petroleum products

  13. Finding You on the Internet: an approach for finding on-line presences of people for fraud risk analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Been, Henry; van Keulen, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Fraud risk analysis on data from formal information sources, being a ‘paper reality', suffers from blindness to false information. Moreover, the very act of providing false information is a strong indicator for fraud. The technology presented in this paper provides one step towards the vision of harnessing real-world data from social media and internet for fraud risk analysis. We introduce a novel iterative search, monitor, and match approach for finding on-line presences of people. A real-wo...

  14. Automated analysis of heterogeneous carbon nanostructures by high-resolution electron microscopy and on-line image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, P.; Farrer, J.K.; Palotas, A.B.; Lighty, J.S.; Eddings, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution electron microscopy is an efficient tool for characterizing heterogeneous nanostructures; however, currently the analysis is a laborious and time-consuming manual process. In order to be able to accurately and robustly quantify heterostructures, one must obtain a statistically high number of micrographs showing images of the appropriate sub-structures. The second step of analysis is usually the application of digital image processing techniques in order to extract meaningful structural descriptors from the acquired images. In this paper it will be shown that by applying on-line image processing and basic machine vision algorithms, it is possible to fully automate the image acquisition step; therefore, the number of acquired images in a given time can be increased drastically without the need for additional human labor. The proposed automation technique works by computing fields of structural descriptors in situ and thus outputs sets of the desired structural descriptors in real-time. The merits of the method are demonstrated by using combustion-generated black carbon samples. - Highlights: ► The HRTEM analysis of heterogeneous nanostructures is a tedious manual process. ► Automatic HRTEM image acquisition and analysis can improve data quantity and quality. ► We propose a method based on on-line image analysis for the automation of HRTEM image acquisition. ► The proposed method is demonstrated using HRTEM images of soot particles

  15. Neutron induced gamma spectrometry for on-line compositional analysis in coal conversion and fluidized-bed combustion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzenberg, C.L.; O'Fallon, N.M.; Yarlagadda, B.S.; Doering, R.W.; Cohn, C.E.; Porges, K.G.; Duffey, D.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear techniques involving relatively penetrating radiation may offer the possibility of non-invasive, continuous on-line instrumental monitoring which is representative of the full process stream. Prompt gamma rays following neutron capture are particularly attractive because the penetrating power of the neutrons and the, typically several MeV, capture gammas makes possible interrogation of material within a pipe. We are evaluating neutron capture gamma techniques for this application, both for elemental composition monitoring and for mass-flow measurement purposes, and this paper will present some recent work on composition analysis by neutron induced gamma spectrometry

  16. A recent source modification for noble gases at the Los Alamos on-line mass analysis facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestrini, S.J.; Forman, L.

    1976-01-01

    The Los Alamos on-line mass analysis experiment at the Godiva-IV burst reactor facility has been modified to determine independent fission yields of noble gases. The gases are released from a stearate target and ionization by electron bombardment. The distance traveled by the gases from the target to the ionization chamber is 20 cm. The efficiency of the electron bombardment source is lower than that of the surface ionization source that was employed to measure the yields of Rb and Cs. But this effect is compensated by the larger quantity of target metal that is possible when using a stearate target. (Auth.)

  17. On-line Analysis of Catalytic Reaction Products Using a High-Pressure Tandem Micro-reactor GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Atsushi; Kim, Young-Min; Hosaka, Akihiko; Watanabe, Chuichi; Teramae, Norio; Ohtani, Hajime; Kim, Seungdo; Park, Young-Kwon; Wang, Kaige; Freeman, Robert R

    2017-01-01

    When a GC/MS system is coupled with a pressurized reactor, the separation efficiency and the retention time are directly affected by the reactor pressure. To keep the GC column flow rate constant irrespective of the reaction pressure, a restrictor capillary tube and an open split interface are attached between the GC injection port and the head of a GC separation column. The capability of the attached modules is demonstrated for the on-line GC/MS analysis of catalytic reaction products of a bio-oil model sample (guaiacol), produced under a pressure of 1 to 3 MPa.

  18. On-Line Investment Analysis and Portfolio Management: Using Learning Outcome Statements To Design Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettijohn, James B.; Ragan, Gay A.; Ragan, Kent P.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an Internet-based project to familiarize students with online investment analysis and stock portfolio management. Outlines a process for writing learning outcomes that address three levels of cognition: knowledge/comprehension, application/analysis, and synthesis/evaluation. (SK)

  19. A dedicated on-line system for the preparation and validation of standard beads in XRF analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yasuyuki; Ogasawara, Noriko; Nakata, Akio; Shoji, Shizuko.

    1995-01-01

    A dedicated on-line system in X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis with glass-bead method was developed in which preparation of standard beads was automated including proper choice of reagents, assignment of bead compositions and validation of the prepared beads. This system features: a. Fundamental Parameter (FP) Method for validation of standard beads. b. An original database of high purity reagents for standards. c. Automatic calculation of suitable composition for each standard bead, by giving a range for each element and the number of standard beads. 1) The calculation is based on random numbers, and makes a random assignment of composition for each bead. 2) The calculation results are automatically stored in a computer as a condition file for quantitative analysis. 3) An amount of a material for a standard mixture is corrected if a valence or a chemical compound for an analysis element is different from that of the standard material in the database. In order to realize these features, many high purity reagents were examined for their purities and other characteristics to test a suitability to use for a standard material, and a software for on-line processings was originally developed. (author)

  20. On-line double isotope dilution laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the quantitative analysis of solid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Beatriz; Rodríguez-González, Pablo; García Alonso, J Ignacio; Malherbe, Julien; García-Fonseca, Sergio; Pereiro, Rosario; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2014-12-03

    We report on the determination of trace elements in solid samples by the combination of on-line double isotope dilution and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The proposed method requires the sequential analysis of the sample and a certified natural abundance standard by on-line IDMS using the same isotopically-enriched spike solution. In this way, the mass fraction of the analyte in the sample can be directly referred to the certified standard so the previous characterization of the spike solution is not required. To validate the procedure, Sr, Rb and Pb were determined in certified reference materials with different matrices, including silicate glasses (SRM 610, 612 and 614) and powdered samples (PACS-2, SRM 2710a, SRM 1944, SRM 2702 and SRM 2780). The analysis of powdered samples was carried out both by the preparation of pressed pellets and by lithium borate fusion. Experimental results for the analysis of powdered samples were in agreement with the certified values for all materials. Relative standard deviations in the range of 6-21% for pressed pellets and 3-21% for fused solids were obtained from n=3 independent measurements. Minimal sample preparation, data treatment and consumption of the isotopically-enriched isotopes are the main advantages of the method over previously reported approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Automated mass spectrometric analysis of urinary free catecholamines using on-line solid phase extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Wilhelmina H. A.; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Kema, I. P.

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine) in plasma and urine is used for diagnosis and treatment of catecholamine-producing tumors Current analytical techniques for catecholamine quantification are laborious, time-consuming and technically demanding Our aim was to

  2. A program-compiling method of nuclear data on-line fast analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shangbai

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses how to perform assembly float point operation by using some subroutine of applesoft system, and a program compiling method of nuclear data fast analysis in apple microcomputer is introduced

  3. Fault Detection Algorithm based on Null-Space Analysis for On-Line Structural Health Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Ai-Min; Golinval, Jean-Claude; Marin, Frédéric

    2005-01-01

    Early diagnosis of structural damages or machinery malfunctions allows to reduce the maintenance cost of systems and to increase their reliability and safety. This paper addresses the damage detection problem by statistical analysis on output-only measurements of structures. The developed method is based on subspace analysis of the Hankel matrices constructed by vibration measurement data. The column active subspace of the Hankel matrix defined by the first principal components is orthonormal...

  4. On-Line GIS Analysis and Image Processing for Geoportal Kielce/poland Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejmanowska, B.; Głowienka, E.; Florek-Paszkowski, R.

    2016-06-01

    GIS databases are widely available on the Internet, but mainly for visualization with limited functionality; very simple queries are possible i.e. attribute query, coordinate readout, line and area measurements or pathfinder. A little more complex analysis (i.e. buffering or intersection) are rare offered. Paper aims at the concept of Geoportal functionality development in the field of GIS analysis. Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) is planned to be implemented in web application. OGC Service is used for data acquisition from the server and results visualization. Advanced GIS analysis is planned in PostGIS and Python programming. In the paper an example of MCE analysis basing on Geoportal Kielce is presented. Other field where Geoportal can be developed is implementation of processing new available satellite images free of charge (Sentinel-2, Landsat 8, ASTER, WV-2). Now we are witnessing a revolution in access to the satellite imagery without charge. This should result in an increase of interest in the use of these data in various fields by a larger number of users, not necessarily specialists in remote sensing. Therefore, it seems reasonable to expand the functionality of Internet's tools for data processing by non-specialists, by automating data collection and prepared predefined analysis.

  5. ON-LINE GIS ANALYSIS AND IMAGE PROCESSING FOR GEOPORTAL KIELCE/POLAND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hejmanowska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available GIS databases are widely available on the Internet, but mainly for visualization with limited functionality; very simple queries are possible i.e. attribute query, coordinate readout, line and area measurements or pathfinder. A little more complex analysis (i.e. buffering or intersection are rare offered. Paper aims at the concept of Geoportal functionality development in the field of GIS analysis. Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE is planned to be implemented in web application. OGC Service is used for data acquisition from the server and results visualization. Advanced GIS analysis is planned in PostGIS and Python programming. In the paper an example of MCE analysis basing on Geoportal Kielce is presented. Other field where Geoportal can be developed is implementation of processing new available satellite images free of charge (Sentinel-2, Landsat 8, ASTER, WV-2. Now we are witnessing a revolution in access to the satellite imagery without charge. This should result in an increase of interest in the use of these data in various fields by a larger number of users, not necessarily specialists in remote sensing. Therefore, it seems reasonable to expand the functionality of Internet's tools for data processing by non-specialists, by automating data collection and prepared predefined analysis.

  6. Econometric Analysis of Bulk Shipping: implications for investment strategies and financial decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Tsolakis

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis provides an econometric analysis of the bulk shipping markets and the implications for shipping investment and financial decision making. Chapter 1 sets the scene by providing a historic analysis of bulk shipping markets over the last 55 years. From this analysis, four

  7. A new type on line fast analysis instrument of uranium ore grade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Maojin.

    1992-01-01

    The instrument is used to analyse the average grade of uranium ore on the belt. Its average analysis speed is about 300 t/h. The physical mechanism of measurement, characteristics, principle of operation and applications in several years are described. The CMOS LSI IC are adopted. The stability, reliability and anti-interference ability are very good

  8. On-line Analysis of Diesel Engine Exhaust Gases by Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, D.; Španěl, Patrik; Dabill, D.; Cocker, J.; Rajan, B.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 18, - (2004), s. 2830-2838 ISSN 0951-4198 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : diesel exhaust analysis * NOx compounds * SIFT-MS Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.750, year: 2004

  9. On-line vibration and analysis system at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herricks, D.M.; Strunk, W.D.

    1987-11-01

    The enrichment facility in Paducah, KY uses a unique hard-wired vibration monitoring and analysis system for gaseous diffusion equipment. The axial flow and centrifugal flow compressors used in uranium enrichment range in size from 6 feet in diameter to less than one foot in diameter. These compressors must operate smoothly and safely, without breech of containment, since the working fluid of gaseous diffusion is gaseous UF 6 . The condition of 1925 compressors is monitored by use of the 2500 point vibration analysis system. Since the failure mechanisms of the compressors are well known and documented, only one accelerometer per machine is needed for most machines. The system is completely automated and can generate spectra or broadband levels in either acceleration or velocity units. Levels are stored for historical review. The analyst can, via a custom telecommunications link, view and analyze data from all monitored points with an office PC. 4 figs

  10. On-line condition monitoring of nuclear systems via symbolic time series analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopalan, V.; Ray, A.; Garcia, H. E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a symbolic time series analysis approach to fault diagnostics and condition monitoring. The proposed technique is built upon concepts from wavelet theory, symbolic dynamics and pattern recognition. Various aspects of the methodology such as wavelet selection, choice of alphabet and determination of depth of D-Markov Machine are explained in the paper. The technique is validated with experiments performed in a Machine Condition Monitoring (MCM) test bed at the Idaho National Laboratory. (authors)

  11. A new method of on-line multiparameter amplitude analysis with compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morhac, M.; matousek, V.

    1996-01-01

    An algorithm of one-line multidimensional amplitude analysis with compression using fast adaptive orthogonal transform is presented in the paper. The method is based on a direct modification of multiplication coefficients of the signal flow graph of the fast Cooley-Tukey's algorithm. The coefficients are modified according to a reference vector representing the processed data. The method has been tested to compress three parameter experimental nuclear data. The efficiency of the derived adaptive transform is compared with classical orthogonal transforms. (orig.)

  12. Distributive On-line Processing, Visualization and Analysis System for Gridded Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptoukh, G.; Berrick, S.; Liu, Z.; Pham, L.; Rui, H.; Shen, S.; Teng, W.; Zhu, T.

    2004-01-01

    The ability to use data stored in the current Earth Observing System (EOS) archives for studying regional or global phenomena is highly dependent on having a detailed understanding of the data's internal structure and physical implementation. Gaining this understanding and applying it to data reduction is a time- consuming task that must be undertaken before the core investigation can begin. This is an especially difficult challenge when science objectives require users to deal with large multi-sensor data sets that are usually of different formats, structures, and resolutions, for example, when preparing data for input into modeling systems. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) has taken a major step towards meeting this challenge by developing an infrastructure with a Web interface that allows users to perform interactive analysis online without downloading any data, the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure or "Giovanni." Giovanni provides interactive, online, analysis tools for data users to facilitate their research. There have been several instances of this interface created to serve TRMM users, Aerosol scientists, Ocean Color and Agriculture applications users. The first generation of these tools support gridded data only. The user selects geophysical parameters, area of interest, time period; and the system generates an output on screen in a matter of seconds. The currently available output options are: Area plot averaged or accumulated over any available data period for any rectangular area; Time plot time series averaged over any rectangular area; Time plots image view of any longitude-time and latitude-time cross sections; ASCII output for all plot types; Image animation for area plot. In the future, we will add correlation plots, GIS-compatible outputs, etc. This allow user to focus on data content (i.e. science parameters) and eliminate the need for expensive learning

  13. Characterization of the Mucor circinelloides life cycle by on-line image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübbehüsen, Tina Louise; Nielsen, Jens; Mcintyre, Mhairi

    2003-01-01

    in and between the different morphological forms of the organism.Methods and Results: Mycelial growth and the transformation of hyphae into chains of arthrospores were characterized by image analysis techniques and described quantitatively. The influence of the nature (glucose and xylose) and concentration......-through cell, and combined with fluorescent microscopy which allowed new insights to bud formation. Additionally, numbers and distribution of nuclei in arthrospores, hyphae and yeasts were studied.Conclusions: The results give essential information on the morphological development of the organism...

  14. Thomson Parabola Spectrometer: a powerful tool for on-line plasma analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altana, C. [LNS - INFN and Dip.di Fisica e Astronomia - Catania (Italy); Muoio, A. [LNS - INFN and Dip.di Fisica e di Scienze della Terra - Messina (Italy); Schillaci, F. [LNS - INFN, Cirrone G.A.P. LNS - INFN, Lanzalone G. LNS - INFN and Univ. Kore di Enna (Italy); Tudisco, S. [LNS - INFN (Italy); Brandi, F. [ILIL - INO-CNR and IIT Genova (Italy); Cristoforetti, G.; Koester, P.; Fulgentini, L. [ILIL - INO-CNR (Italy); Labate, L.; Gizzi, L.A. [ILIL - INO-CNR and INFN-Pisa (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we report on a new powerful and self-consistent analysis technique aimed in order to get information online on laser generated plasmas. Performance of the method has been carried out during two set of measurement by using two different lasers. The first set of data has been collected at LENS Laboratory of INFN-LNS in Catania by using a laser which produces pulses having energies of 2 J and temporal duration of 6 ns, while the second set of data has been collected at ILIL of INO-CNR in Pisa with a laser system capable of delivering pulses of up to 10 mJ in 40 fs. (authors)

  15. New method of analysis wave processes in pulse generators based on lines with distributed parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sleptsov, S N; Sleptsov, A N [NSC ' Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2001-07-01

    Structure and superconductivity of thick polycrystalline niobium-carbon coatings (Nb{sub 1-x}C{sub x}, O {<=} x < 0.3) deposited from low-energy self-ion-atomic Nb- and C- fluxes onto substrates with the temperature range 500...650 K were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction, TEM of oxidic replicas and resistivity measurement method at low temperature. It is founded, that Nb{sub 1-x}C{sub x} coatings with carbon concentration range 9...15 at.% have an unusual high superconducting transition temperature T{sub C} approx 12 K. Dependency of critical current density of these coatings on temperature is not monotonous and have a sharp bend near T{sub C} approx approx 9.5 K Structural analysis of these coatings has revealed they have a quasi-ternary phase composition consisting of Nb(b.c.c.), sub-carbide Nb{sub 2}C(c.p.h.) and metastable carbide 'Nbc{sub x}' with f.c.c. structure. The results obtained are discussed from a point of view of 'NbC{sub x}' phase forming at Nb and Nb{sub 2}C phases interface. It is also shown, that Nb{sub 1-x}C{sub x} coatings with carbon concentration less than 5 at.% revealed supersaturated solid solution and have T{sub C} approx approx 9.5 K. Kinetics of diffusive decomposition of niobium-carbon coatings during isothermal annealing was also investigated.

  16. Baseline correction combined partial least squares algorithm and its application in on-line Fourier transform infrared quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiangtao; Peng, Silong; Xie, Qiong; Wei, Jiping

    2011-04-01

    In order to eliminate the lower order polynomial interferences, a new quantitative calibration algorithm "Baseline Correction Combined Partial Least Squares (BCC-PLS)", which combines baseline correction and conventional PLS, is proposed. By embedding baseline correction constraints into PLS weights selection, the proposed calibration algorithm overcomes the uncertainty in baseline correction and can meet the requirement of on-line attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) quantitative analysis. The effectiveness of the algorithm is evaluated by the analysis of glucose and marzipan ATR-FTIR spectra. BCC-PLS algorithm shows improved prediction performance over PLS. The root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) on marzipan spectra for the prediction of the moisture is found to be 0.53%, w/w (range 7-19%). The sugar content is predicted with a RMSECV of 2.04%, w/w (range 33-68%). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Position-specific isotope analysis by on-line pyrolysis coupled to IRMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, A.; Suda, K.; Yamada, K.; Ueno, Y.; Yoshida, N.

    2016-12-01

    Position-specific isotopic analyses (PSIA) provide unique information regarding the sources, sinks and processes related to natural molecules. For instance, PSIA of short-chain hydrocarbons could lead to temperature of formation and maturity of natural gas reservoirs [1][2]. In the last decade, quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) specrometry has been used for PSIA of organic molecules such as glucose or n-alkanes [3][4]. However, due to its low sensitivity, application to low amount geochemical samples remains challenging. In 1997, Corso & Brenna proposed to adapt a pyrolysis furnace to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer, making it possible the thermal degradation of the target molecule and the subsequent analysis of the d13C values of the fragments formed [5]. Starting from fatty acid methyl esters they demonstrated the absence of rearrangement during pyrolytic degradation and could determine the d13C value of carboxyl C-atom position. We adapted the system for the full characterization of position-specific isotope composition of small molecules (ethanol, acetic acid, alanine, propane). Nanomole amount of sample can be analyzed with a precision on intramolecular d13C values of 1‰ or lower [2]. We recently analyzed abiotic and thermogenic propane samples both from the field and from lab simulations. PSIA of propane shows systematic differences of position-specific isotope composition between thermogenic and abiotic samples. While the former show 13C-depletion on the terminal C-atom position - consistent with thermal cracking kinetic models [6] - abiotic samples show little or no preference for terminal or central 13C-isotopomer. These results emphasize the potential of PSIA to trace the the processes associated with organic molecules production. [1] Piasecki et al. 2016 GCA 188, 58 [2] Gilbert et al. 2016 GCA 177, 205 [3] Gilbert et al. 2012 PNAS, 109, 18204 [4] Gilbert et al. 2013 Org. Geochem, 62, 56 [5] Corso & Brenna 1997 PNAS, 94, 1049 [6] Tang et

  18. Simulation and analysis of microwave heating while joining bulk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ATHARVA

    Processing of bulk metallic materials using microwave energy is challenging. ... The distributed power and heat source were computed in a stationary, .... the heat transfer equation is used in order to get the temperature distributions and other system properties. ... equation (2) to obtain the distribution of the E and H fields.

  19. On-line measurement with automatic emulsion analysis system and off-line data processing (E531 neutrino experiment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyanishi, Motoaki

    1984-01-01

    The automatic emulsion analysis system developed by Nagoya cosmic ray observation group was practically used for the experiment (FNAL-E531) on determining the lifetime of charm particles for the first time in the world, and achieved a great successful result. The system consists of four large precise coordinate-measuring stages capable of conducting simultaneous measurement and multiple (currently four) DOMS (digitized on-line microscope), supported with one mini-computer (ECLIPS S/130). The purpose of E531 experiment was the determination of charm particle lifetime. The experiment was carried out at FNAL, USA, and by the irradiation of wide band ν sub(μ) beam equivalent to 7 x 10 18 of 350 GeV/c protons. The detector was a hybrid system of emulsions and a counter spectrometer. The scan of neutrino reaction, the scan of charm particles, and charm event measurement were analyzed in emulsions, and the on-line programs for-respective analyses were created. Nagoya group has found 726 neutrino reactions in the first run, obtained 37 charm particle candidates, and found 1442 neutrino reactions in the second run, and obtained 56 charm particle candidates. The capability of the automatic emulsion analysis system in terms of the time equired for analysis is in total 3.5 hours per event; 15 minutes for C.S. scan, 15 minutes for coupling to module, 20 minutes for tracing to vertex, 1 hour for neutrino reaction measurement, 10 minutes for offline data processing and 1.5 hours for charm particle scanning. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  20. On-line immunoaffinity column-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for trace analysis of diuron in wastewater treatment plant effluent sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuli; Martens, Dieter; Krämer, Petra M; Kettrup, Antonius A; Liang, Xinmiao

    2006-11-10

    An on-line immunoaffinity column with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (IAC-LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of diuron in water matrices was described. This method used a sol-gel immunoaffinity column (20 mm x 4 mm I.D.) for on-line sample cleanup and enrichment, a monolithic analytical column (100 mm x 4.6 mm I.D.) for separation, and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for quantitation. The major challenges for the on-line set-up were discussed. The optimized on-line protocol was emphasized by the fact that low limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 1.0 ng/L was achieved with only 2.5-mL sample. In addition, a satisfactory accuracy ( approximately 90% of recovery) and precision (effect, the on-line IAC-LC-MS/MS analysis method can reliably determine diuron in wastewater treatment plant effluent sample.

  1. Quantitative analysis of higher hydrocarbons in natural gas using coupled solid-phase extraction / supercritiacal fluid extraction with on-line GC analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, J.G.M.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.; Meulen-Kuijk, van der L.; Smit, A.L.C.; Sandra, P.; Devos, G.

    1993-01-01

    Characterisation of natural gas with respect to the hydrocarbon content is a challenging analytical problem due to the extremely low concentrations and the complexity of the matrix. In this publication a method is described for fully on-line preconcentration and analysis of n-nonane and higher

  2. Research on on-line monitoring technology for steel ball's forming process based on load signal analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-jun; Ai, Chang-sheng; Men, Xiu-hua; Zhang, Cheng-liang; Zhang, Qi

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a novel on-line monitoring technology to obtain forming quality in steel ball's forming process based on load signal analysis method, in order to reveal the bottom die's load characteristic in initial cold heading forging process of steel balls. A mechanical model of the cold header producing process is established and analyzed by using finite element method. The maximum cold heading force is calculated. The results prove that the monitoring on the cold heading process with upsetting force is reasonable and feasible. The forming defects are inflected on the three feature points of the bottom die signals, which are the initial point, infection point, and peak point. A novel PVDF piezoelectric force sensor which is simple on construction and convenient on installation is designed. The sensitivity of the PVDF force sensor is calculated. The characteristics of PVDF force sensor are analyzed by FEM. The PVDF piezoelectric force sensor is fabricated to acquire the actual load signals in the cold heading process, and calibrated by a special device. The measuring system of on-line monitoring is built. The characteristics of the actual signals recognized by learning and identification algorithm are in consistence with simulation results. Identification of actual signals shows that the timing difference values of all feature points for qualified products are not exceed ±6 ms, and amplitude difference values are less than ±3%. The calibration and application experiments show that PVDF force sensor has good static and dynamic performances, and is competent at dynamic measuring on upsetting force. It greatly improves automatic level and machining precision. Equipment capacity factor with damages identification method depends on grade of steel has been improved to 90%.

  3. Analysis of plant hormones by microemulsion electrokinetic capillary chromatography coupled with on-line large volume sample stacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zongbao; Lin, Zian; Zhang, Lin; Cai, Yan; Zhang, Lan

    2012-04-07

    A novel method of microemulsion electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEEKC) coupled with on-line large volume sample stacking was developed for the analysis of six plant hormones including indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, indole-3-propionic acid, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid, abscisic acid and salicylic acid. Baseline separation of six plant hormones was achieved within 10 min by using the microemulsion background electrolyte containing a 97.2% (w/w) 10 mM borate buffer at pH 9.2, 1.0% (w/w) ethyl acetate as oil droplets, 0.6% (w/w) sodium dodecyl sulphate as surfactant and 1.2% (w/w) 1-butanol as cosurfactant. In addition, an on-line concentration method based on a large volume sample stacking technique and multiple wavelength detection was adopted for improving the detection sensitivity in order to determine trace level hormones in a real sample. The optimal method provided about 50-100 fold increase in detection sensitivity compared with a single MEEKC method, and the detection limits (S/N = 3) were between 0.005 and 0.02 μg mL(-1). The proposed method was simple, rapid and sensitive and could be applied to the determination of six plant hormones in spiked water samples, tobacco leaves and 1-naphthylacetic acid in leaf fertilizer. The recoveries ranged from 76.0% to 119.1%, and good reproducibilities were obtained with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 6.6%.

  4. Development of on-line electrochemical sample pretreatment methods for the analysis of thallium and uranium by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, F.; Van Berkel, G.J.; Morton, S.J.; Duckworth, D.C.; Adeniyi, W.K.; Keller, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Anodic and adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AWV and AdSV, respectively) were performed on-line with a mercury thin-film electrode (MTFE) to effect the selective accumulation and detection of thallium and uranium, respectively. ASV-ICP-MS experiments using thallium as the test element were performed to characterize the behavior of the on-line system for low level and quantitative determinations. Excellent linearity in response was demonstrated for thallium standards ranging from 0.25 ng/L to 50 microg/L. The 1.0 pg/L detection limit calculated from this data for thallium (3σ/sensitivity) was 400 times lower than that of conventional ICP-MS. The ability to overcome sample matrix effects in quantitative determinations was demonstrated by the analysis of an undiluted synthetic urine sample. AdSV-ICP-MS experiments were performed using uranium as the test element to demonstrate the utility of this method for the determination of radiologically important elements. A uranium(VI)-cupferron complex was used to effect adsorptive accumulation of uranium from a 10 microg/L standard solution onto the MTFE. The uranium was chemically stripped from the electrode for subsequent downstream detection by the ICP-MS. The quantitative nature of this method and a modest enhancement of signal levels (∼X10) over those levels obtained with conventional ICP-MS for samples in the microgram/liter concentration range were demonstrated. Modifications to the current system to provide low flow rate operation will allow further optimization of the ASV-ICP-MS and AdSV-ICP-MS combinations

  5. On-line/on-site analysis of heavy metals in water and soils by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Deshuo; Zhao, Nanjing; Wang, Yuanyuan; Ma, Mingjun; Fang, Li; Gu, Yanhong; Jia, Yao; Liu, Jianguo

    2017-11-01

    The enrichment method of heavy metal in water with graphite and aluminum electrode was studied, and combined with plasma restraint device for improving the sensitivity of detection and reducing the limit of detection (LOD) of elements. For aluminum electrode enrichment, the LODs of Cd, Pb and Ni can be as low as several ppb. For graphite enrichment, the measurement time can be less than 3 min. The results showed that the graphite enrichment and aluminum electrode enrichment method can effectively improve the LIBS detection ability. The graphite enrichment method combined with plasma spatial confinement is more suitable for on-line monitoring of industrial waste water, the aluminum electrode enrichment method can be used for trace heavy metal detection in water. A LIBS method and device for soil heavy metals analysis was also developed, and a mobile LIBS system was tested in outfield. The measurement results deduced from LIBS and ICP-MS had a good consistency. The results provided an important application support for rapid and on-site monitoring of heavy metals in soil. (Left: the mobile LIBS system for analysis of heavy metals in soils. Top right: the spatial confinement device. Bottom right: automatic graphite enrichment device for on0line analysis of heavy metals in water).

  6. Real-time on-line space research laboratory environment monitoring with off-line trend and prediction analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.

    2007-06-01

    With the International Space Station currently operational, a significant amount of acceleration data is being down-linked, processed and analyzed daily on the ground on a continuous basis for the space station reduced gravity environment characterization, the vehicle design requirements verification and science data collection. To help understand the impact of the unique spacecraft environment on the science data, an artificial intelligence monitoring system was developed, which detects in near real time any change in the reduced gravity environment susceptible to affect the on-going experiments. Using a dynamic graphical display, the monitoring system allows science teams, at any time and any location, to see the active vibration disturbances, such as pumps, fans, compressor, crew exercise, re-boost and extra-vehicular activities that might impact the reduced gravity environment the experiments are exposed to. The monitoring system can detect both known and unknown vibratory disturbance activities. It can also perform trend analysis and prediction by analyzing past data over many increments (an increment usually lasts 6 months) collected onboard the station for selected disturbances. This feature can be used to monitor the health of onboard mechanical systems to detect and prevent potential systems failures. The monitoring system has two operating modes: online and offline. Both near real-time on-line vibratory disturbance detection and off-line detection and trend analysis are discussed in this paper.

  7. On-line analysis of biosignals for the automation of total and specific sleep deprivation in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENNIO A VIVALDI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A computer-based system that automates sleep studies, including sleep deprivation paradigms, is described. The system allows for total or REM-specific sleep deprivation and is based on a reliable, fast-responding, on-line state detection algorithm linked to a dependable intervention device. Behavioral state detection is achieved by dimensión reduction of short-term EEG power spectrum. Interventions are made by serial outputs to servomotors that move a cage with different patterns and variable intensity. The system can adapt itself to individual characteristics and to changes in recording conditions. Customized protocols can be designed by defining the states or stages to be deprived, including scheduling temporal patterns. A detailed analysis of the relevant signáis during and after deprivation is readily available. Data is presented from two experimental designs in rats. One consisted of specific REM-sleep short-term deprivation and the other of 10-hour total sleep deprivation. An outline of conceptual and practical considerations involved in the automation of laboratory set-ups oriented to biosignal analysis is provided. Careful monitoring of sleep EEG variables during sleep deprivation suggests peculiarities of brain functioning in that condition. A corollary is that sleep deprivation should not be considered to be merely a forced prolonged wakefulness.

  8. Analysis of electrophoretic soil humic acids fractions by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with on-line absorbance and fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubetskoj, Oleg A; Richard, Claire; Guyot, Ghislain; Voyard, Guillaume; Trubetskaya, Olga E

    2012-06-22

    A combination of reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP HPLC) with on-line absorbance and fluorescence detection was used for analysis of chernozem soil humic acids (HAs) and their fractions A, B and C+D with different electrophoretic mobility (EM) and molecular size (MS). Samples were injected onto the column at the identical volume and absorbance. All chromatograms exhibit the resolution of seven peaks. The estimation of relative recovery of HAs and fractions from the reverse-phase column has been done. High MS fraction A, which possesses the low EM, is essentially more hydrophobic (73% of the fraction amount remained adsorbed on the column) and aliphatic than medium MS and EM fraction B (33% of the fraction amount remained adsorbed on the column). The most hydrophilic and aromatic properties belong to low MS fraction C+D, which possess the highest EM and practically was not adsorbed on the column. The hydrophobicity of the bulk HAs lies within the range of fractions hydrophobicity. The absorption spectra of bulk HAs, electrophoretic fractions A, B, C+D and corresponding RP HPLC peaks were featureless but had differences in the values of absorbance ratio at 300 and 400 nm (A3/A4). For fractions A and B this ratio gradually decreased from peak 1 to 7 (from 3.05 to 2.80 and 3.00 to 2.40, respectively). This trend was less pronounced in HAs and practically absent in fraction C+D, where ratio A3/A4 varied within a small range. The strong relationship between fluorescence properties, EM, MS, polarity and aliphaticity/aromaticity of HAs fractions was found. Humic and protein-like fluorescence had different polarity nature. The protein-like fluorescence is located in humic material which irreversibly adsorbed on the reverse-phase column and not subjected to RP HPLC characterization. The humic-like fluorescence at Ex/Em 270/450 nm is mostly located in the hydrophilic peak of low MS fraction C+D. Taking into account that high MS fraction A consisted

  9. Targets for bulk hydrogen analysis using thermal neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Csikai, J; Buczko, C M

    2002-01-01

    The reflection property of substances can be characterized by the reflection cross-section of thermal neutrons, sigma subbeta. A combination of the targets with thin polyethylene foils allowed an estimation of the flux depression of thermal neutrons caused by a bulk sample containing highly absorbing elements or compounds. Some new and more accurate sigma subbeta values were determined by using the combined target arrangement. For the ratio, R of the reflection and the elastic scattering cross-sections of thermal neutrons, R=sigma subbeta/sigma sub E sub L a value of 0.60+-0.02 was found on the basis of the data obtained for a number of elements from H to Pb. Using this correlation factor, and the sigma sub E sub L values, the unknown sigma subbeta data can be deduced. The equivalent thicknesses, to polyethylene or hydrogen, of the different target materials were determined from the sigma subbeta values.

  10. Broadband network on-line data acquisition system with web based interface for control and basic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkowski, Marcin; Grad, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Passive seismic experiment "13BB Star" is operated since mid 2013 in northern Poland and consists of 13 broadband seismic stations. One of the elements of this experiment is dedicated on-line data acquisition system comprised of both client (station) side and server side modules with web based interface that allows monitoring of network status and provides tools for preliminary data analysis. Station side is controlled by ARM Linux board that is programmed to maintain 3G/EDGE internet connection, receive data from digitizer, send data do central server among with additional auxiliary parameters like temperatures, voltages and electric current measurements. Station side is controlled by set of easy to install PHP scripts. Data is transmitted securely over SSH protocol to central server. Central server is a dedicated Linux based machine. Its duty is receiving and processing all data from all stations including auxiliary parameters. Server side software is written in PHP and Python. Additionally, it allows remote station configuration and provides web based interface for user friendly interaction. All collected data can be displayed for each day and station. It also allows manual creation of event oriented plots with different filtering abilities and provides numerous status and statistic information. Our solution is very flexible and easy to modify. In this presentation we would like to share our solution and experience. National Science Centre Poland provided financial support for this work via NCN grant DEC-2011/02/A/ST10/00284.

  11. Surface quality monitoring for process control by on-line vibration analysis using an adaptive spline wavelet algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, G. Y.; Osypiw, D.; Irle, M.

    2003-05-01

    The dynamic behaviour of wood machining processes affects the surface finish quality of machined workpieces. In order to meet the requirements of increased production efficiency and improved product quality, surface quality information is needed for enhanced process control. However, current methods using high price devices or sophisticated designs, may not be suitable for industrial real-time application. This paper presents a novel approach of surface quality evaluation by on-line vibration analysis using an adaptive spline wavelet algorithm, which is based on the excellent time-frequency localization of B-spline wavelets. A series of experiments have been performed to extract the feature, which is the correlation between the relevant frequency band(s) of vibration with the change of the amplitude and the surface quality. The graphs of the experimental results demonstrate that the change of the amplitude in the selective frequency bands with variable resolution (linear and non-linear) reflects the quality of surface finish, and the root sum square of wavelet power spectrum is a good indication of surface quality. Thus, surface quality can be estimated and quantified at an average level in real time. The results can be used to regulate and optimize the machine's feed speed, maintaining a constant spindle motor speed during cutting. This will lead to higher level control and machining rates while keeping dimensional integrity and surface finish within specification.

  12. Analysis of Pressure-Volume Relationship for Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Rai

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between compression (V/V0 and pressure have been studied for five bulk metallic glasses (BMGs viz. Zr41Ti14Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5, Zr41Ti14Cu12.5Ni9Be22.5C1, Zr48Nb8Cu12Fe8Be24, (Zr0.59Ti0.06Cu0.22Ni0.1385.7Al14.3 and SiO2.TiO2 in the compression ranges of V/V0 =1.00 to V/V0 = 0.10. Six forms of equation of state reported in the literature have been used in the present study to calculate pressure corresponding to different values of compressions. The comparison of graph plotted between the logarithms of calculated value of pressure to logarithm of calculated value of compression (V/V0 reveals that the agreement of Brennan-Stacey equation of state (EOS and Poirier-Tarantolla equation of state are not good. It has been found that the assumptions, on which these equations are based, do not satisfy well in case of given BMGs.

  13. On-line I{sup −}/Te{sup −} separation for the AMS analysis of {sup 125}I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, C.R.J., E-mail: christopher.charles@uottawa.ca [Andre E. Lalonde Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Advanced Research Complex, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton Street, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Cornett, R.J.; Zhao, X.-L. [Andre E. Lalonde Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Advanced Research Complex, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton Street, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Litherland, A.E. [IsoTrace Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 1A7 (Canada); Kieser, W.E. [Andre E. Lalonde Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Advanced Research Complex, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton Street, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2015-10-15

    The isobar separator for anions (ISA) was used together with a 3 MV tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) to demonstrate the real time (on-line) separation of Te{sup −} from I{sup −}. Following the ion source mass spectrometry and major retardation to tens of eV, the ISA uses a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) ion guide to confine and direct I{sup −} and associated Te{sup −} isobar anions through a gas-reaction cell, where chemical reactions occur at eV energies with the electronegative gas NO{sub 2}. Anions are subsequently reaccelerated out of the ISA to near original ion source extraction energies for AMS analysis. At 5 mTorr NO{sub 2} in the ISA gas-reaction cell, {sup 125}Te{sup −} was observed to be attenuated by a factor of ∼10{sup 7} as compared to {sup 127}I{sup −} that did not experience significant (<50%) losses. A comparative test using {sup 37}Cl{sup −} and {sup 32}S{sup −} (having similar chemical properties to iodine and tellurium) showed a {sup 32}S{sup −} attenuation of >10{sup 7} relative to {sup 37}Cl{sup −} under the same ISA–AMS conditions. The preferential destruction of Te{sup −} (and S{sup −}) at eV energies in the ISA is likely due to a larger favorable destruction cross-section with NO{sub 2}. This study is the first demonstration of I–Te anion separation for AMS, and makes possible the use of {sup 125}I, free of the contaminant {sup 125}Te isobar after suitable sample purification, for future {sup 129}I/{sup 125}I carrier-free analyses of natural samples at ultra-low trace levels.

  14. Neutron activation analysis of bulk samples from Chinese ancient porcelain to provenance research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian Zhu; Wentao Hao; Jianming Zhen; Tongxiu Zhen; Glascock, M.D.

    2013-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is an important technique to determine the provenance of ancient ceramics. The most common technique used for preparing ancient samples for NAA is to grind them into a powder and then encapsulate them before neutron irradiation. Unfortunately, ceramic materials are typically very hard making it a challenge to grind them into a powder. In this study we utilize bulk porcelain samples cut from ancient shards. The bulk samples are irradiated by neutrons alongside samples that have been conventionally ground into a powder. The NAA for both the bulk samples and powders are compared and shown to provide equivalent information regarding their chemical composition. Also, the multivariate statistical have been employed to the analysis data for check the consistency. The findings suggest that NAA results are less dependent on the state of the porcelain sample, and thus bulk samples cut from shards may be used to effectively determine their provenance. (author)

  15. On-line ion chemistry for the AMS analysis of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 135,137}Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliades, J. [IsoTrace Laboratory, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON, M5S 1A7 (Canada); Zhao, X.-L. [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Litherland, A.E. [IsoTrace Laboratory, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON, M5S 1A7 (Canada); Kieser, W.E., E-mail: liam.kieser@utoronto.ca [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    The analysis of {sup 90}Sr by AMS has so far required the use of very large tandem accelerators in order to separate the isobar {sup 90}Zr by the rate-of-energy-loss method. The analysis of {sup 135,137}Cs by AMS has never been attempted as the separation of the isobars {sup 135,137}Ba by the traditional method requires even higher energies, so that this approach would become prohibitively expensive for routine analysis. Following the successful demonstration of Cl{sup -}-S{sup -} separation by the Isobar Separator, the same apparatus was used to test the separation of other pairs of isobars. Surprisingly effective results were obtained with NO{sub 2} gas in the cases of SrF{sub 3}{sup -}-ZrF{sub 3}{sup -} and CsF{sub 2}{sup -}-BaF{sub 2}{sup -} separations. Reduction factors of {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} for ZrF{sub 3}{sup -}/SrF{sub 3}{sup -} and {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} for BaF{sub 2}{sup -}/CsF{sub 2}{sup -} were measured. SrF{sub 3}{sup -} and CsF{sub 2}{sup -} are both super-halogen anions and are preferentially produced in the ion source rather than ZrF{sub 3}{sup -} and BaF{sub 2}{sup -} when using the PbF{sub 2} matrix-assisted method. Reduction factors for ion source production with such targets of {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} for ZrF{sub 3}{sup -}-SrF{sub 3}{sup -} and {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} for BaF{sub 2}{sup -}-CsF{sub 2}{sup -} were found. The combined methods would suggest a theoretical detection sensitivity for {sup 90}Sr/Sr {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -16}, {sup 135}Cs/Cs {approx}7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} and {sup 137}Cs/Cs {approx}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -14}, assuming 10 ppm Zr and Ba contamination in the AMS targets. In addition to the earlier Cl{sup -}-S{sup -} separation work, these measurements further illustrate the potential of on-line ion chemical methods for broadening the analytical scope of small AMS systems.

  16. Bulk density estimation using a 3-dimensional image acquisition and analysis system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyduk Adam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a concept of dynamic bulk density estimation of a particulate matter stream using a 3-d image analysis system and a conveyor belt scale. A method of image acquisition should be adjusted to the type of scale. The paper presents some laboratory results of static bulk density measurements using the MS Kinect time-of-flight camera and OpenCV/Matlab software. Measurements were made for several different size classes.

  17. Speeding up stochastic analysis of bulk water supply systems using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-22

    Oct 22, 2013 ... It is possible to analyse the reliability of municipal storage tanks through stochastic analysis, in which the user demand, fire water demand and pipe failures are simulated using Monte Carlo analysis. While this technique could in principle be used to find the optimal size of a municipal storage tank, ...

  18. Speeding up stochastic analysis of bulk water supply systems using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is possible to analyse the reliability of municipal storage tanks through stochastic analysis, in which the user demand, fire water demand and pipe failures are simulated using Monte Carlo analysis. While this technique could in principle be used to find the optimal size of a municipal storage tank, in practice the high ...

  19. High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy applied to bulk sample analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosanke, K.L.; Koch, C.D.; Wilson, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    A high resolution Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectrometer has been installed and made operational for use in routine bulk sample analysis by the Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC) geochemical analysis department. The Ge(Li) spectrometer provides bulk sample analyses for potassium, uranium, and thorium that are superior to those obtained by the BFEC sodium iodide spectrometer. The near term analysis scheme permits a direct assay for uranium that corrects for bulk sample self-absorption effects and is independent of the uranium/radium disequilibrium condition of the sample. A more complete analysis scheme has been developed that fully utilizes the gamma-ray data provided by the Ge(Li) spectrometer and that more properly accounts for the sample self-absorption effect. This new analysis scheme should be implemented on the BFEC Ge(Li) spectrometer at the earliest date

  20. On-line HPLC Analysis System for Metabolism and Inhibition Studies in Precision-Cut Liver Slices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Midwoud, Paul M.; Janssen, Joost; Merema, M.T.; de Graaf, Inge A. M.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; Verpoorte, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    A novel approach for on-line monitoring of drug metabolism in continuously perifused, precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) in a microfluidic system has been developed using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV). In this approach, PCLS are incubated in a microfluidic device

  1. On-line combination of liquid chromatography and capillary gas chromatography : preconcentration and analysis of organic compounds in aqueous samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noij, T.H.M.; Weiss, E.; Herps, T.; Cruchten, van H.; Rijks, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a new, versatile, and low-cost on-line LC-GC interface that allows the fast and reliable introduction of large sample volumes onto a capillary GC column. The sample introduction procedure consists successively of: evaporation of the entire sample (LC fraction),

  2. Analysis of microcontaminants in aqueous samples by fully automated on-line solid-phase extraction-gas chromatography-mass selective detection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louter, A.J.H.; van Beekvelt, C.A.; Cid Montanes, P.; Slobodník, J.; Vreuls, J.J.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    1996-01-01

    The trace-level analysis of unknown organic pollutants in water requires the use of fast and sensitive methods which also provide structural information. In the present study, an on-line technique was used which combines sample preparation by means of solid-phase extraction (SPE) on a small

  3. On-line Speciation of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) by Flow Injection Analysis With Spectrophotometric Detection and Chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diacu, Elena; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2003-01-01

    A flow injection system has been developed, for on-line speciation. of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) by the Diphenylcarbazide (DPC) method with H2O2 oxidation followed by spectrophotometric detection at the 550 nm wavelength. The data thus obtained were subjected to a chemometric analysis (PLS), which showe...

  4. SWOT analysis for safer carriage of bulk liquid chemicals in tankers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ozcan; Er, Ismail Deha

    2008-06-15

    The application of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis to formulation of strategy concerned with the safe carriage of bulk liquid chemicals in maritime tankers was examined in this study. A qualitative investigation using SWOT analysis has been implemented successfully for ships that are designed to carry liquid chemicals in bulk. The originality of this study lies in the use of SWOT analysis as a management tool to formulate strategic action plans for ship management companies, ship masters and officers for the carriage of dangerous goods in bulk. With this transportation-based SWOT analysis, efforts were made to explore the ways and means of converting possible threats into opportunities, and changing weaknesses into strengths; and strategic plans of action were developed for safer tanker operation.

  5. On-line filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkerk, C.

    1978-01-01

    Present day electronic detectors used in high energy physics make it possible to obtain high event rates and it is likely that future experiments will face even higher data rates than at present. The complexity of the apparatus increases very rapidly with time and also the criteria for selecting desired events become more and more complex. So complex in fact that the fast trigger system cannot be designed to fully cope with it. The interesting events become thus contaminated with multitudes of uninteresting ones. To distinguish the 'good' events from the often overwhelming background of other events one has to resort to computing techniques. Normally this selection is made in the first part of the analysis of the events, analysis normally performed on a powerful scientific computer. This implies however that many uninteresting or background events have to be recorded during the experiment for subsequent analysis. A number of undesired consequences result; and these constitute a sufficient reason for trying to perform the selection at an earlier stage, in fact ideally before the events are recorded on magnetic tape. This early selection is called 'on-line filtering' and it is the topic of the present lectures. (Auth.)

  6. Speciation analysis of inorganic arsenic by magnetic solid phase extraction on-line with inductively coupled mass spectrometry determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro Leal, P; Vereda Alonso, E; López Guerrero, M M; Cordero, M T Siles; Cano Pavón, J M; García de Torres, A

    2018-07-01

    Arsenic, one of the main environmental pollutants and potent natural poison, is a chemical element that is spread throughout the Earth's crust. It is well known that the toxicity of arsenic is highly dependent on its chemical forms. Generally, the inorganic species are more toxic than its organics forms, and As(III) is 60 times more toxic than As(V). In environmental waters, arsenic exists predominantly in two chemical forms: As(III) and As(V). In view of these facts, fast, sensitive, accurate and simple analytical methods for the speciation of inorganic arsenic in environmental waters are required. In this work, a new magnetic solid phase extraction with a hydride generation system was coupled on line with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MSPE-HG-ICP-MS). The new system was based on the retention of As(III) and As(V) in two knotted reactors filled with (Fe 3 O 4 ) magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with [1,5-bis (2-pyridyl) 3-sulfophenylmethylene] thiocarbonohydrazide (PSTH-MNPs). As(III) and total inorganic As were sequentially eluted in different reduction conditions. The concentration of As(V) was obtained by subtracting As(III) from total As. The system runs in a fully automated way and the method has proved to have a wide linear range and to be precise, sensitive and fast. The detection limits found were 2.7 and 3.2 ng/L for As(III) and total As, respectively; with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.5% and 2.7% and a sample throughput of 14.4 h -1 . In order to validate the developed method, several certified reference samples of environmental waters including sea water, were analyzed and the determined values were in good agreement with the certified values. The proposed method was successfully applied to the speciation analysis of inorganic arsenic in well-water and sea water. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. New on-line method for water isotope analysis of speleothem fluid inclusions using laser absorption spectroscopy (WS-CRDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, S.; Fleitmann, D.; Leuenberger, M.

    2014-01-01

    A new online method to analyse water isotopes of speleothem fluid inclusions using a wavelength scanned cavity ring down spectroscopy (WS-CRDS) instrument is presented. This novel technique allows us to simultaneously measure hydrogen and oxygen isotopes for a released aliquot of water. To do so, we designed a new simple line that allows the on-line water extraction and isotope analysis of speleothem samples. The specificity of the method lies in the fact that fluid inclusions release is made on a standard water background, which mainly improves the δD reliability. To saturate the line, a peristaltic pump continuously injects standard water into the line that is permanently heated to 140 °C and flushed with dry nitrogen gas. This permits instantaneous and complete vaporisation of the standard water resulting in an artificial water background with well-known δD and δ18O values. The speleothem sample is placed into a copper tube, attached to the line and after system stabilisation is crushed using a simple hydraulic device to liberate speleothem fluid inclusions water. The released water is carried by the nitrogen/standard water gas stream directly to a Picarro L1102-i for isotope determination. To test the accuracy and reproducibility of the line and to measure standard water during speleothem measurements a syringe injection unit was added to the line. Peak evaluation is done similarly as in gas chromatography to obtain δD and δ18O isotopic composition of measured water aliquots. Precision is better than 1.5‰ for δD and 0.4‰ for δ18O for water measurement for an extended range (-210 to 0‰ for δD and -27 to 0‰ for δ18O) primarily dependent on the amount of water released from speleothem fluid inclusions and secondarily on the isotopic composition of the sample. The results show that WS-CRDS technology is suitable for speleothem fluid inclusion measurements and gives results that are comparable to Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) technique.

  8. Gamma self-shielding correction factors calculation for aqueous bulk sample analysis by PGNAA technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasrabadi, M.N.; Mohammadi, A.; Jalali, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper bulk sample prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (BSPGNAA) was applied to aqueous sample analysis using a relative method. For elemental analysis of an unknown bulk sample, gamma self-shielding coefficient was required. Gamma self-shielding coefficient of unknown samples was estimated by an experimental method and also by MCNP code calculation. The proposed methodology can be used for the determination of the elemental concentration of unknown aqueous samples by BSPGNAA where knowledge of the gamma self-shielding within the sample volume is required.

  9. Neutron activation analysis for bulk and trace elements in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelis, R.; Speecke, A.; Hoste, J.

    1975-01-01

    Problems in sampling urine for trace element analysis by neutron activation are systematically examined. Collection, storage, sample preparation and contamination hazards during irradiation are studied in detail. Three different sizes of urine samples are prepared for analysis, depending on the concentration and nuclear properties of the elements, and suitable multielement doped urine standards are used. As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Hg, I, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Se and Zn are determined. The extreme care given to sample collection, use of ''ultra-clean'' vials, and work in a dust-free room allows consistent values to be obtained over long periods of time. A literature review of the amounts of forty elements present in urine per day is also given

  10. Peculiarities of Communicative Style in The Advertisement Genre in English and Russian University On-line Communication Discourse Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Милана Евгеньевна Куприянова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural communicative competence is one of the integral parts of translators’ skills. The article analyses national and cultural peculiarities of English and Russian communicative styles in the advertisement speech genre in university on-line communication to address the problem of translatability of lexical units. Furthermore, the study explains the use of particular linguistic means and communication strategies as related to the specific features of Anglo-Saxon and Russian linguistic cultures.

  11. Pressurized capillary electrochromatographic analysis of water-soluble vitamins by combining with on-line concentration technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Li; Liu, Yaling; Du, Yanyan; Xing, Da

    2007-06-22

    A pressurized capillary electrochromatography (pCEC) system was developed for the separation of water-soluble vitamins, in which UV absorbance was used as the detection method and a monolithic silica-ODS column as the separation column. The parameters (type and content of organic solvent in the mobile phase, type and concentration of electrolyte, pH of the electrolyte buffer, applied voltage and flow rate) affecting the separation resolution were evaluated. The combination of two on-line concentration techniques, namely, solvent gradient zone sharpening effect and field-enhanced sample stacking, was utilized to improve detection sensitivity, which proved to be beneficial to enhance the detection sensitivity by enabling the injection of large volumes of samples. Coupling electrokinetic injection with the on-line concentration techniques was much more beneficial for the concentration of positively charged vitamins. Comparing with the conventional injection mode, the enhancement in the detection sensitivities of water-soluble vitamins using the on-line concentration technique is in the range of 3 to 35-fold. The developed pCEC method was applied to evaluate water-soluble vitamins in corns.

  12. Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA): Technique of choice for nondestructive bulk analysis of returned comet samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstrom, D.J.; Lindstrom, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) is a well-developed analytical technique. The technique involves irradiation of samples in an external neutron beam from a nuclear reactor, with simultaneous counting of gamma rays produced in the sample by neutron capture. Capture of neutrons leads to excited nuclei which decay immediately with the emission of energetic gamma rays to the ground state. PGAA has several advantages over other techniques for the analysis of cometary materials: (1) It is nondestructive; (2) It can be used to determine abundances of a wide variety of elements, including most major and minor elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni), volatiles (H, C, N, F, Cl, S), and some trace elements (those with high neutron capture cross sections, including B, Cd, Nd, Sm, and Gd); and (3) It is a true bulk analysis technique. Recent developments should improve the technique's sensitivity and accuracy considerably

  13. Dynamic analysis of bulk-fill composites: Effect of food-simulating liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eweis, Ahmed Hesham; Yap, Adrian U-Jin; Yahya, Noor Azlin

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of food simulating liquids on visco-elastic properties of bulk-fill restoratives using dynamic mechanical analysis. One conventional composite (Filtek Z350 [FZ]), two bulk-fill composites (Filtek Bulk-fill [FB] and Tetric N Ceram [TN]) and a bulk-fill giomer (Beautifil-Bulk Restorative [BB]) were evaluated. Specimens (12 × 2 × 2mm) were fabricated using customized stainless steel molds. The specimens were light-cured, removed from their molds, finished, measured and randomly divided into six groups. The groups (n = 10) were conditioned in the following mediums for 7 days at 37°C: air (control), artificial saliva (SAGF), distilled water, 0.02N citric acid, heptane, 50% ethanol-water solution. Specimens were assessed using dynamic mechanical testing in flexural three-point bending mode and their respective mediums at 37°C and a frequency range of 0.1-10Hz. The distance between the supports were fixed at 10mm and an axial load of 5N was employed. Data for elastic modulus, viscous modulus and loss tangent were subjected to ANOVA/Tukey's tests at significance level p food-simulating liquids on the visco-elastic properties of bulk-fill composites was material and medium dependent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. On-line liquid chromatography-gas chromatography: A novel approach for the analysis of phytosterol oxidation products in enriched foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Birgit; Wocheslander, Stefan; Lander, Vera; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2015-05-29

    A novel methodology for the automated qualitative and quantitative determination of phytosterol oxidation products in enriched foods via on-line liquid chromatography-gas chromatography (LC-GC) was established. The approach is based on the LC pre-separation of acetylated phytosterols and their corresponding oxides using silica as stationary phase and a mixture of n-hexane/methyl tert-butyl ether/isopropanol as eluent. Two LC-fractions containing (i) 5,6-epoxy- and 7-hydroxyphytosterols, and (ii) 7-ketophytosterols are transferred on-line to the GC for the analysis of their individual compositions on a medium polar trifluoropropylmethyl polysiloxane capillary column. Thus, conventionally employed laborious off-line purification and enrichment steps can be avoided. Validation data, including recovery, repeatability, and reproducibility of the method, were elaborated using an enriched margarine as example. The margarine was subjected to a heating procedure in order to exemplarily monitor the formation of phytosterol oxidation products. Quantification was performed using on-line LC-GC-FID, identification of the analytes was based on on-line LC-GC-MS. The developed approach offers a new possibility for the reliable and fast analysis of phytosterol oxidation products in enriched foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Recent advances in on-line coupling of capillary electrophoresis to atomic absorption and fluorescence spectrometry for speciation analysis and studies of metal-biomolecule interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yan; Yin Xuebo; Yan Xiuping

    2008-01-01

    Speciation information is vital for the understanding of the toxicity, mobility and bioavailability of elements in environmental or biological samples. Hyphenating high resolving power of separation techniques and element-selective detectors provides powerful tools for studying speciation of trace elements in environmental and biological systems. During the last five years several novel hybrid techniques based on capillary electrophoresis (CE) and atomic spectrometry have been developed for speciation analysis and metal-biomolecule interaction study in our laboratory. These techniques include CE on-line coupled with atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), chip-CE on-line coupled with AFS, CE on-line coupled with flame heated quartz furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (FHF-AAS), and CE on-line coupled with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The necessity for the development of these techniques, their interface design, and applications in speciation analysis and metal-biomolecule interaction study are reviewed. The advantages and limitations of the developed hybrid techniques are critically discussed, and further development is also prospected

  16. STRATEGIES OF MARKETING OF A COMPANY SUPPLIER OF GRATUITOUS SERVICES ON-LINE ANALYSIS OF THEIMPORTÂNCIA-DESEMPENHO MATRIX

    OpenAIRE

    PAULA CASTRO PIRES DE SOUZA CHIMENTI

    2001-01-01

    O trabalho busca analisar uma empresa provedora de serviços gratuitos on-line, Elefante Internet, à luz da matriz Importância-Desempenho. Através de revisão bibliográfica e pesquisa com grupo de foco, chegou-se a um conjunto preliminar de 44 atributos. Uma pesquisa com 700 respostas posicionou estes atributos na matriz, gerando 4 conjuntos de atributos, baseados em desempenho e importância. Com base na matriz, foi possível tecer análises sobre o posicionamento e...

  17. Tandem on-line continuous separations for atomic spectroscopic indirect analysis: iodide determination by ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, A.M.; Sanchez Uria, J.E.; Sanz-Medel, A.; Quintero Ortega, M.C.; Bautista, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    A sensitive and selective indirect determination of iodide by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) based on the principle of tandem on-line continuous separations as an alternative means of introducing samples into plasmas is proposed. Iodide is continuously extracted as an ion-pair into xylene by mixing the sample with Hg(II) and dipyridil solutions. The organic phase (containing the analyte in [Hg(Dipy) 2 ]I 2 form) is on-line continuously mixed with NaBH 4 (in DMF) and acetic acid solutions. Mercury vapour continuously generated from this organic phase is separated in a classical U-type gas-liquid separation device. The system has been optimized for the continuous extraction of KI, for the direct generation of cold mercury vapour from xylene and for the final ICP-AES determination of mercury. The optimised method has been applied to the determination of iodide (detection limit 20 ng/ml of iodide) in table salt and in synthetic samples. Very good agreement between found and certified results was observed. The usefulness and convenience of such alternative sample chemical pretreatment/presentation to the ICP is thus demonstrated for indirect determinations to be carried out by atomic spectroscopy methods. (authors)

  18. A Framework for the Comparative Assessment of Neuronal Spike Sorting Algorithms towards More Accurate Off-Line and On-Line Microelectrode Arrays Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalia, Giulia; Coelli, Stefania; Biffi, Emilia; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal spike sorting algorithms are designed to retrieve neuronal network activity on a single-cell level from extracellular multiunit recordings with Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs). In typical analysis of MEA data, one spike sorting algorithm is applied indiscriminately to all electrode signals. However, this approach neglects the dependency of algorithms' performances on the neuronal signals properties at each channel, which require data-centric methods. Moreover, sorting is commonly performed off-line, which is time and memory consuming and prevents researchers from having an immediate glance at ongoing experiments. The aim of this work is to provide a versatile framework to support the evaluation and comparison of different spike classification algorithms suitable for both off-line and on-line analysis. We incorporated different spike sorting "building blocks" into a Matlab-based software, including 4 feature extraction methods, 3 feature clustering methods, and 1 template matching classifier. The framework was validated by applying different algorithms on simulated and real signals from neuronal cultures coupled to MEAs. Moreover, the system has been proven effective in running on-line analysis on a standard desktop computer, after the selection of the most suitable sorting methods. This work provides a useful and versatile instrument for a supported comparison of different options for spike sorting towards more accurate off-line and on-line MEA data analysis.

  19. Use of thermal neutron reflection method for chemical analysis of bulk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, A.; Csikai, J.

    2014-01-01

    Microscopic, σ β , and macroscopic, Σ β , reflection cross-sections of thermal neutrons averaged over bulk samples as a function of thickness (z) are given. The σ β values are additive even for bulk samples in the z=0.5–8 cm interval and so the σ βmol (z) function could be given for hydrogenous substances, including some illicit drugs, explosives and hiding materials of ∼1000 cm 3 dimensions. The calculated excess counts agree with the measured R(z) values. For the identification of concealed objects and chemical analysis of bulky samples, different neutron methods need to be used simultaneously. - Highlights: • Check the proposed analytical expression for the description of the flux. • Determination of the reflection cross-sections averaged over bulk samples. • Data rendered to estimate the excess counts for various materials

  20. Use of thermal neutron reflection method for chemical analysis of bulk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, A., E-mail: papppa@atomki.hu [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, (ATOMKI), 4001 Debrecen, Pf. 51 (Hungary); Csikai, J. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, (ATOMKI), 4001 Debrecen, Pf. 51 (Hungary); Institute of Experimental Physics, University Debrecen (IEP), 4010 Debrecen-10, Pf. 105 (Hungary)

    2014-09-11

    Microscopic, σ{sub β}, and macroscopic, Σ{sub β}, reflection cross-sections of thermal neutrons averaged over bulk samples as a function of thickness (z) are given. The σ{sub β} values are additive even for bulk samples in the z=0.5–8 cm interval and so the σ{sub βmol}(z) function could be given for hydrogenous substances, including some illicit drugs, explosives and hiding materials of ∼1000 cm{sup 3} dimensions. The calculated excess counts agree with the measured R(z) values. For the identification of concealed objects and chemical analysis of bulky samples, different neutron methods need to be used simultaneously. - Highlights: • Check the proposed analytical expression for the description of the flux. • Determination of the reflection cross-sections averaged over bulk samples. • Data rendered to estimate the excess counts for various materials.

  1. On-line transmission electron microscopic image analysis of chromatin texture for differentiation of thyroid gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriete, A; Schäffer, R; Harms, H; Aus, H M

    1987-06-01

    Nuclei of the cells from the thyroid gland were analyzed in a transmission electron microscope by direct TV scanning and on-line image processing. The method uses the advantages of a visual-perception model to detect structures in noisy and low-contrast images. The features analyzed include area, a form factor and texture parameters from the second derivative stage. Three tumor-free thyroid tissues, three follicular adenomas, three follicular carcinomas and three papillary carcinomas were studied. The computer-aided cytophotometric method showed that the most significant differences were the statistics of the chromatin texture features of homogeneity and regularity. These findings document the possibility of an automated differentiation of tumors at the ultrastructural level.

  2. Analysis of a Kalman filter based method for on-line estimation of atmospheric dispersion parameters using radiation monitoring data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drews, Martin; Lauritzen, Bent; Madsen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    A Kalman filter method is discussed for on-line estimation of radioactive release and atmospheric dispersion from a time series of off-site radiation monitoring data. The method is based on a state space approach, where a stochastic system equation describes the dynamics of the plume model...... parameters, and the observables are linked to the state variables through a static measurement equation. The method is analysed for three simple state space models using experimental data obtained at a nuclear research reactor. Compared to direct measurements of the atmospheric dispersion, the Kalman filter...... estimates are found to agree well with the measured parameters, provided that the radiation measurements are spread out in the cross-wind direction. For less optimal detector placement it proves difficult to distinguish variations in the source term and plume height; yet the Kalman filter yields consistent...

  3. Finite element analysis and simulation of rheological properties of bulk molding compound (BMC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, M. Fatih; Aydin, Ismail

    2013-12-01

    Bulk molding compound (BMC) is one of the important composite materials with various engineering applications. BMC is a thermoset plastic resin blend of various inert fillers, fiber reinforcements, catalysts, stabilizers and pigments that form a viscous, molding compound. Depending on the end-use application, bulk molding compounds are formulated to achieve close dimensional control, flame and scratch resistance, electrical insulation, corrosion and stain resistance, superior mechanical properties, low shrink and color stability. Its excellent flow characteristics, dielectric properties, and flame resistance make this thermoset material well-suited to a wide variety of applications requiring precision in detail and dimensions as well as high performance. When a BMC is used for these purposes, the rheological behavior and properties of the BMC is the main concern. In this paper, finite element analysis of rheological properties of bulk molding composite material was studied. For this purpose, standard samples of composite material were obtained by means of uniaxial hot pressing. 3 point flexural tests were then carried out by using a universal testing machine. Finite element analyses were then performed with defined material properties within a specific constitutive material behavior. Experimental and numerical results were then compared. Good correlation between the numerical simulation and the experimental results was obtained. It was expected with this study that effects of various process parameters and boundary conditions on the rheological behavior of bulk molding compounds could be determined by means of numerical analysis without detailed experimental work.

  4. Superconductors, analysis and applications, with special reference to the utilisation of bulk (Re)BCO materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, T.A., E-mail: tac1000@cam.ac.u [University of Cambridge, Department of Engineering, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-01

    The Electrical Power and Energy Conversion (EPEC) superconductivity group at Cambridge University has been working on the application of superconductivity to large scale devices. This work is taking place over a range of areas which cover FCLs, motors and generators, SMES, accelerator magnets and MRI. The research is underpinned by advanced modelling techniques using both pure Critical State models and E-J models to analyse the behaviour of the superconductors. As part of the device design we are concentrating on the analysis of AC losses in complicated geometries such as are found in motor windings and the magnetisation of bulk superconductors to enable their full potential to be realised. We are interested in the full range of high-temperature superconductors and have measured and predicted the performance of YBCO, MgB{sub 2} and BSCCO at a range of temperatures and in wire, tape and bulk forms. This paper concentrates on recent work which includes: modelling of coils using formulations based on H and A. A critical state model for the analysis of coils in SMES; crossed field effects in bulk superconductors; a magnetic model together with experimental results which explain and describe the method of flux pumping whereby a bulk superconductor can be magnetised to a high flux density using a repeatedly applied field of low flux density and finally a new configuration for MRI magnets

  5. High-Efficiency On-Line Solid-Phase Extraction Coupling to 15-150 um I.D. Column Liquid Chromatography for Proteomic Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yufeng; Moore, Ronald J.; Zhao, Rui; Blonder, Josip; Auberry, Deanna L.; Masselon, Christophe D.; Pasa Tolic, Ljiljana; Hixson, Kim K.; Auberry, Kenneth J.; Smith, Richard D.

    2003-01-01

    Flexible manipulation of various properties of proteomic samples is important for proteomic analyses, but it has been little explored for newly developed approaches based on liquid chromatography (LC) in combination with mass spectrometry (MS). With miniaturization of the LC column inner diameter dimensions (required for improving the analysis sensitivity), this issue becomes more challenging due to the small flow rates and the increasing effects of extra column volume on the separation quality and its use for resolving complex proteomic mixtures. In this study, we used commercial switching valves (150-mm channels) to implement the on-line coupling of capillary LC columns with relatively large solid phase extraction (SPE) columns operated at 10,000 psi. With optimized column connections, switching modes, and SPE column dimensions, high-efficiency on-line SPE-capillary and nanoscale LC separations were obtained with peak capacities of ∼1000 for capillaries having inner diameters between 15 to 150 mm. The on-line coupled SPE columns increased the sample processing capabilities by ∼400-fold for sample solution volume and ∼10-fold for sample mass. The proteomic applications of this on-line SPE-capillary LC system were evaluated for analysis of both soluble and membrane protein tryptic digests. Used with an ion trap tandem MS we could typically identify 1100-1500 peptides for analyses in a single 5-hour run. Peptides extracted on the SPE column and eluted from the LC column covered a hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity range that include an estimated ∼98% of all the tryptic peptides. The present implementation also facilitates automation and enables use of both disposable SPE columns and electrospray emitters, providing a robust basis for routine proteomic analyses.

  6. DianaHealth.com, an On-Line Database Containing Appraisals of the Clinical Value and Appropriateness of Healthcare Interventions: Database Development and Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfill, Xavier; Osorio, Dimelza; Solà, Ivan; Pijoan, Jose Ignacio; Balasso, Valentina; Quintana, Maria Jesús; Puig, Teresa; Bolibar, Ignasi; Urrútia, Gerard; Zamora, Javier; Emparanza, José Ignacio; Gómez de la Cámara, Agustín; Ferreira-González, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    To describe the development of a novel on-line database aimed to serve as a source of information concerning healthcare interventions appraised for their clinical value and appropriateness by several initiatives worldwide, and to present a retrospective analysis of the appraisals already included in the database. Database development and a retrospective analysis. The database DianaHealth.com is already on-line and it is regularly updated, independent, open access and available in English and Spanish. Initiatives are identified in medical news, in article references, and by contacting experts in the field. We include appraisals in the form of clinical recommendations, expert analyses, conclusions from systematic reviews, and original research that label any health care intervention as low-value or inappropriate. We obtain the information necessary to classify the appraisals according to type of intervention, specialties involved, publication year, authoring initiative, and key words. The database is accessible through a search engine which retrieves a list of appraisals and a link to the website where they were published. DianaHealth.com also provides a brief description of the initiatives and a section where users can report new appraisals or suggest new initiatives. From January 2014 to July 2015, the on-line database included 2940 appraisals from 22 initiatives: eleven campaigns gathering clinical recommendations from scientific societies, five sets of conclusions from literature review, three sets of recommendations from guidelines, two collections of articles on low clinical value in medical journals, and an initiative of our own. We have developed an open access on-line database of appraisals about healthcare interventions considered of low clinical value or inappropriate. DianaHealth.com could help physicians and other stakeholders make better decisions concerning patient care and healthcare systems sustainability. Future efforts should be focused on

  7. DianaHealth.com, an On-Line Database Containing Appraisals of the Clinical Value and Appropriateness of Healthcare Interventions: Database Development and Retrospective Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Bonfill

    Full Text Available To describe the development of a novel on-line database aimed to serve as a source of information concerning healthcare interventions appraised for their clinical value and appropriateness by several initiatives worldwide, and to present a retrospective analysis of the appraisals already included in the database.Database development and a retrospective analysis. The database DianaHealth.com is already on-line and it is regularly updated, independent, open access and available in English and Spanish. Initiatives are identified in medical news, in article references, and by contacting experts in the field. We include appraisals in the form of clinical recommendations, expert analyses, conclusions from systematic reviews, and original research that label any health care intervention as low-value or inappropriate. We obtain the information necessary to classify the appraisals according to type of intervention, specialties involved, publication year, authoring initiative, and key words. The database is accessible through a search engine which retrieves a list of appraisals and a link to the website where they were published. DianaHealth.com also provides a brief description of the initiatives and a section where users can report new appraisals or suggest new initiatives. From January 2014 to July 2015, the on-line database included 2940 appraisals from 22 initiatives: eleven campaigns gathering clinical recommendations from scientific societies, five sets of conclusions from literature review, three sets of recommendations from guidelines, two collections of articles on low clinical value in medical journals, and an initiative of our own.We have developed an open access on-line database of appraisals about healthcare interventions considered of low clinical value or inappropriate. DianaHealth.com could help physicians and other stakeholders make better decisions concerning patient care and healthcare systems sustainability. Future efforts should be

  8. [Analysis of phthalate esters in plastic-packaging bags on-line sample stacking-microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jia; Huang, Ying; Wang, Minyi; Chen, Guonan

    2012-09-01

    Two convenient, effective, and reproducible methods using microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC)-normal stacking mode (NSM) and reversed electrode polarity stacking mode (REPSM) were developed for the on-line sample stacking of phthalate esters (PAEs). REPSM coupled with MEEKC increased the sensitivity of 937.5 to 7,143 times for four PAEs compared to the conventional MEEKC. The separating conditions in the MEEKC method were studied, and many factors influencing the two sample stacking processes were investigated in detail. The optimum sample matrices for the two stacking methods were as follows: 30 mmol/L sodium cholate (SC) and 30.0 mmol/L borate (pH 8.5). Additionally, sample injections as large as 3.45 kPa x 40 s and 3.45 kPa x 90 s were applied for NSM-MEEKC and REPSM-MEEKC, respectively. The linear relationship and reproducibility were also examined. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limits (S/N = 3) of the PAEs were in the ranges of 0.021 - 0.33 mg/L and 0.7 - 4 microg/L for NSM-MEEKC and REPSM-MEEKC, respectively. The proposed REPSM-MEEKC has been successfully applied to determine PAEs in plastic-packaging bags, and the spiked recoveries were in the range of 89.1% - 105.6% with satisfactory results.

  9. On-line determination of glucose and lactate concentrations in animal cell culture based on fibre optic detection of oxygen in flow-injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dremel, B A; Li, S Y; Schmid, R D

    1992-01-01

    A flow-injection analysis (FIA) system based on fibre optic detection of oxygen consumption using immobilized glucose oxidase (GOD) and lactate oxidase (LOD) is described for the on-line monitoring of glucose and lactate concentrations in animal cell cultures. The consumption of oxygen was determined via dynamic quenching by molecular oxygen of the fluorescence of an indicator. GOD and LOD were immobilized on controlled pore glass (CPG) in enzyme reactors which were directly linked to a specially designed fibre optic flow-through cell covering the oxygen optrode. The system is linear for 0-30 mM glucose, with an r.s.d. of 5% at 30 mM (five measurements) and for 0-30 mM lactate, with an r.s.d. of 5% at 30 mM (five measurements). The enzyme reactors used were stable for more than 4 weeks in continuous operation, and it was possible to analyse up to 20 samples per hour. The system has been successfully applied to the on-line monitoring of glucose and lactate concentrations of an animal cell culture designed for the production of recombinant human antithrombine III (AT-III). Results of the on-line measurement obtained by the FIA system were compared with the off-line results obtained by a glucose and lactate analyser from Yellow Springs Instrument Company (YSI).

  10. On-line and in-situ x-ray diffraction analysis of the crystallisation of important pharmaceutical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, S.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The crystallisation process is an important unit operation for the separation and purification of many chemical products, particularly in the pharmaceutical industry. Variations in the conditions of crystallisation can lead to the formation of different polymorphic forms which are often meta-stable phases which results in phase conversion at different rates to the stable form. Our group, in collaboration with many industrial sponsors, have developed a number of online techniques which help to optimise the processing conditions of many of these specialty materials. In particular, on-line and in-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been used to monitor the crystallisation of pharmaceutical materials. Several novel in-situ X-ray cells have been developed, in particular; a solution cell, which allows us to control and hence optimise crystallographic conditions such as temperature and pH whilst monitoring the crystal structure of the sample as it crystallises from solution. In conjunction with XRD data information on turbidity (% light transmittance) is taken to analyse solvent-mediated crystallisation. This technique gives information on the temperatures at which the system crystallises and dissolves. From this the meta-stable zone width (MSZW) can be calculated and then directly related to the crystal structure of the particles formed. The current system being studied is the crystallisation of stearic acid, a common pharmaceutical excipient, in various polar and non-polar solvents in order to ascertain the effect that the polarity of the solvent has on the polymorphic form crystallised. By combining such kinetic assessment with measurements of resulting particle structure the potential to optimise the process to produce optimal particle properties is obtainable. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  11. Nuclear techniques for bulk ore analysis and their application to quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    Bulk analysis techniques developed for the mining industry in which analyses are obtained directly from 3-30kg ore samples or from ore on conveyor belts are outlined. They include the determination of iron in iron ores from backscattered gamma radiation, shale in sedimentary iron ores from natural gamma activity, iron from a thermal-neutron capture reaction, and aluminium from the thermal neutron activation reaction

  12. Analysis on approach of safeguards implementation at research reactor handling item count and bulk material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Jo; Lee, Sung Ho; Lee, Byung Doo; Jung, Juang

    2016-01-01

    KiJang research reactor (KJRR) will be constructed to produce the radioisotope such as Mo-99 etc., provide the neutron transmutation doping (NTD) service of silicon, and develop the core technologies of research reactor. In this paper, the features of the process and nuclear material flow are reviewed and the material balance area (MBA) and key measurement point (KMP) are established based on the nuclear material flow. Also, this paper reviews the approach on safeguards and nuclear material accountancy at the facility level for Safeguards-by-Design at research reactor handling item count and bulk material. In this paper, MBA and KMPs are established through the analysis on facility features and major process at KJRR handling item count and bulk material. Also, this paper reviews the IAEA safeguards implementation and nuclear material accountancy at KJRR. It is necessary to discuss the safeguards approach on the fresh FM target assemblies and remaining uranium in the intermediate level liquid wastes

  13. Analysis on approach of safeguards implementation at research reactor handling item count and bulk material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Jo; Lee, Sung Ho; Lee, Byung Doo; Jung, Juang [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    KiJang research reactor (KJRR) will be constructed to produce the radioisotope such as Mo-99 etc., provide the neutron transmutation doping (NTD) service of silicon, and develop the core technologies of research reactor. In this paper, the features of the process and nuclear material flow are reviewed and the material balance area (MBA) and key measurement point (KMP) are established based on the nuclear material flow. Also, this paper reviews the approach on safeguards and nuclear material accountancy at the facility level for Safeguards-by-Design at research reactor handling item count and bulk material. In this paper, MBA and KMPs are established through the analysis on facility features and major process at KJRR handling item count and bulk material. Also, this paper reviews the IAEA safeguards implementation and nuclear material accountancy at KJRR. It is necessary to discuss the safeguards approach on the fresh FM target assemblies and remaining uranium in the intermediate level liquid wastes.

  14. Glass Formation, Chemical Properties and Surface Analysis of Cu-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihisa Inoue

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the influence of alloying elements Mo, Nb, Ta and Ni on glass formation and corrosion resistance of Cu-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs. In order to obtain basic knowledge for application to the industry, corrosion resistance of the Cu–Hf–Ti–(Mo, Nb, Ta, Ni and Cu–Zr–Ag–Al–(Nb bulk glassy alloy systems in various solutions are reported in this work. Moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analysis is performed to clarify the surface-related chemical characteristics of the alloy before and after immersion in the solutions; this has lead to a better understanding of the correlation between the surface composition and the corrosion resistance.

  15. Comparative analysis among deterministic and stochastic collision damage models for oil tanker and bulk carrier reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Campanile

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of collision damage models on oil tanker and bulk carrier reliability is investigated considering the IACS deterministic model against GOALDS/IMO database statistics for collision events, substantiating the probabilistic model. Statistical properties of hull girder residual strength are determined by Monte Carlo simulation, based on random generation of damage dimensions and a modified form of incremental-iterative method, to account for neutral axis rotation and equilibrium of horizontal bending moment, due to cross-section asymmetry after collision events. Reliability analysis is performed, to investigate the incidence of collision penetration depth and height statistical properties on hull girder sagging/hogging failure probabilities. Besides, the incidence of corrosion on hull girder residual strength and reliability is also discussed, focussing on gross, hull girder net and local net scantlings, respectively. The ISSC double hull oil tanker and single side bulk carrier, assumed as test cases in the ISSC 2012 report, are taken as reference ships.

  16. Automated on-line solid phase extraction coupled to HPLC-APCI-MS detection as a versatile tool for the analysis of phenols in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissiack, R.

    2001-05-01

    In this work a liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-APCI-MS) technique was developed for the determination of phenols and anilines in waste water samples. All relevant parameters were optimized for liquid chromatographic (LC) separation and mass spectrometric (MS) detection. Mass spectrometric detection was used in either negative ionization (NI) or positive ionization (PI) mode, which was depending on the physicochemical properties of the analyte. For screening analysis, full scan mode (SCAN) was used, while selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode of acquisition was used for maximum sensitivity. The optimal interface parameters and solvent compositions were evaluated, which mainly determined the ionization of analytes thus strongly influencing the sensitivity. The quasi-molecular ions were the most abundant signals both for phenols ([M-H]- in NI) and for anilines ([M+H]+ in PI). In general, fragmentation was hardly observed for one-ring phenols. Only fragmentation due to neutral losses of NO, HCl, NH3, CO2, CHO or CO from the functional groups were obtained via collision induced dissociation (CID) in a single quadrupole mass spectrometer. A further source of structural information was the relative intensity of positive and negative ions for one analyte: Only in the case of para-methyl substituted phenols, detection was also possible in positive ionization mode with reasonable sensitivity. In contrast to the phenols, anilines offered somewhat higher structural information due to increased fragmentation through CID, when detected in the positive ionization mode. The main goal of this work was the development of a method for the determination of US EPA priority phenols in different environmental matrices. As highest sensitivity and selectivity was required for this task, a preconcentrating step was necessary, and consequently solid phase extraction (SPE) was coupled on-line to HPLC-APCI-MS. The optimized method allowed the

  17. Finding You on the Internet: an approach for finding on-line presences of people for fraud risk analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, Henry; van Keulen, Maurice

    Fraud risk analysis on data from formal information sources, being a ‘paper reality', suffers from blindness to false information. Moreover, the very act of providing false information is a strong indicator for fraud. The technology presented in this paper provides one step towards the vision of

  18. Actinides analysis in emergency situation by on-line coupling between a calix[6]arene-based chromatography column and an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghdadi, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    In the event of a nuclear crisis, involving actinides (U, Pu, Am) it is important to have fast analysis methods available in order to identify people that could be contaminated. Usually, they are performed in urine or faeces. Even though, analytical methods used with alpha detection are reliable they are lengthy and tedious to set up. This work consisted in developing an on-line coupling method between a calix[6]arene-based chromatography column and an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). To do so, a speciation study of actinides in mineralised urine was developed to understand the chemical equilibria happening during the actinides extraction. A protocol was elaborated to extract simultaneously all three actinides at pH = 5, then co-elute them with 0.25 mol.L -1 H 3 PO 4 . Recovery was 56 %, 74 % and 85 % for U, Pu and Am respectively. The column was then coupled to the ICP-MS. A parameter study helped defining mineralisation duration, extraction and elution flow-rates. It was then possible to propose an on-line coupling system allowing reaching detection limits lower than 0.5 mBq.L-1 for 238 U and 243 Am and lower than 5 mBq.L -1 for 239 Pu and 241 Am, for analysis duration lower than 6 hours. These analytical performances show the interest of this technique for a use in a nuclear crisis situation. (author)

  19. Rapid identification of lettuce seed germination mutants by bulked segregant analysis and whole genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Heqiang; Henry, Isabelle M; Coppoolse, Eric R; Verhoef-Post, Miriam; Schut, Johan W; de Rooij, Han; Vogelaar, Aat; Joosen, Ronny V L; Woudenberg, Leo; Comai, Luca; Bradford, Kent J

    2016-11-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seeds exhibit thermoinhibition, or failure to complete germination when imbibed at warm temperatures. Chemical mutagenesis was employed to develop lettuce lines that exhibit germination thermotolerance. Two independent thermotolerant lettuce seed mutant lines, TG01 and TG10, were generated through ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis. Genetic and physiological analyses indicated that these two mutations were allelic and recessive. To identify the causal gene(s), we applied bulked segregant analysis by whole genome sequencing. For each mutant, bulked DNA samples of segregating thermotolerant (mutant) seeds were sequenced and analyzed for homozygous single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Two independent candidate mutations were identified at different physical positions in the zeaxanthin epoxidase gene (ABSCISIC ACID DEFICIENT 1/ZEAXANTHIN EPOXIDASE, or ABA1/ZEP) in TG01 and TG10. The mutation in TG01 caused an amino acid replacement, whereas the mutation in TG10 resulted in alternative mRNA splicing. Endogenous abscisic acid contents were reduced in both mutants, and expression of the ABA1 gene from wild-type lettuce under its own promoter fully complemented the TG01 mutant. Conventional genetic mapping confirmed that the causal mutations were located near the ZEP/ABA1 gene, but the bulked segregant whole genome sequencing approach more efficiently identified the specific gene responsible for the phenotype. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Analysis of Patterns of Interaction and Knowledge Construction in On-Line Learning Environments: A Methodological Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benilde García Cabrero

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A model of analysis of interaction and construction of knowledge in educational environments based on computer-mediated communication (CMC is proposed. This proposal considers: 1 the contextual factors that constitute the input and the scenario of interaction, 2 the interaction processes: types of interaction and its contents (Garrison, Anderson and Archer, 2000 as well as the discursive strategies (Lemke, 1997, and 3 learning results that involve the quality of the knowledge constructed by the participants (Gunawardena, Lowe and Anderson, 1997. This model was applied to the analysis of the interaction among a group of participants in two web forums (with or without the presence of a teacher, during the teaching of a PhD in Psychology program. The results show evidence of the model’s viability to describe the patterns of interaction and the levels of construction of knowledge in web forums.

  1. The new on-line marketing medium: viral marketing. Analysis of the field through two case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Sasigain Salvador, Miren

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper synthesizes the emerging literature on viral marketing through the analysis of two case studies and identifies and evaluates important factors that need to be considered when organizing a viral marketing campaign nowadays; the elements used the implemented strategy, the impact and results. The companies to be studied have been successful developing viral marketing strategies even they differ in size, sector and product offered. Literature Review: Definition of tradition...

  2. Selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry for on-line trace gas analysis in biology and medicine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Španěl, Patrik; Smith, D.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2007), s. 77-82 ISSN 1469-0667 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0776 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : selected ion flow tube mass spectroscopy (SIFT-MS) * breath analysis * breath metabolities * flowing afterglow mass spectrometry (FA-MS) Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.198, year: 2007

  3. Automated on-line liquid–liquid extraction system for temporal mass spectrometric analysis of dynamic samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Kai-Ta; Liu, Pei-Han [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Rd, Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Urban, Pawel L. [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Rd, Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Institute of Molecular Science, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Rd, Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China)

    2015-09-24

    Most real samples cannot directly be infused to mass spectrometers because they could contaminate delicate parts of ion source and guides, or cause ion suppression. Conventional sample preparation procedures limit temporal resolution of analysis. We have developed an automated liquid–liquid extraction system that enables unsupervised repetitive treatment of dynamic samples and instantaneous analysis by mass spectrometry (MS). It incorporates inexpensive open-source microcontroller boards (Arduino and Netduino) to guide the extraction and analysis process. Duration of every extraction cycle is 17 min. The system enables monitoring of dynamic processes over many hours. The extracts are automatically transferred to the ion source incorporating a Venturi pump. Operation of the device has been characterized (repeatability, RSD = 15%, n = 20; concentration range for ibuprofen, 0.053–2.000 mM; LOD for ibuprofen, ∼0.005 mM; including extraction and detection). To exemplify its usefulness in real-world applications, we implemented this device in chemical profiling of pharmaceutical formulation dissolution process. Temporal dissolution profiles of commercial ibuprofen and acetaminophen tablets were recorded during 10 h. The extraction-MS datasets were fitted with exponential functions to characterize the rates of release of the main and auxiliary ingredients (e.g. ibuprofen, k = 0.43 ± 0.01 h{sup −1}). The electronic control unit of this system interacts with the operator via touch screen, internet, voice, and short text messages sent to the mobile phone, which is helpful when launching long-term (e.g. overnight) measurements. Due to these interactive features, the platform brings the concept of the Internet-of-Things (IoT) to the chemistry laboratory environment. - Highlights: • Mass spectrometric analysis normally requires sample preparation. • Liquid–liquid extraction can isolate analytes from complex matrices. • The proposed system automates

  4. Automated on-line liquid–liquid extraction system for temporal mass spectrometric analysis of dynamic samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Kai-Ta; Liu, Pei-Han; Urban, Pawel L.

    2015-01-01

    Most real samples cannot directly be infused to mass spectrometers because they could contaminate delicate parts of ion source and guides, or cause ion suppression. Conventional sample preparation procedures limit temporal resolution of analysis. We have developed an automated liquid–liquid extraction system that enables unsupervised repetitive treatment of dynamic samples and instantaneous analysis by mass spectrometry (MS). It incorporates inexpensive open-source microcontroller boards (Arduino and Netduino) to guide the extraction and analysis process. Duration of every extraction cycle is 17 min. The system enables monitoring of dynamic processes over many hours. The extracts are automatically transferred to the ion source incorporating a Venturi pump. Operation of the device has been characterized (repeatability, RSD = 15%, n = 20; concentration range for ibuprofen, 0.053–2.000 mM; LOD for ibuprofen, ∼0.005 mM; including extraction and detection). To exemplify its usefulness in real-world applications, we implemented this device in chemical profiling of pharmaceutical formulation dissolution process. Temporal dissolution profiles of commercial ibuprofen and acetaminophen tablets were recorded during 10 h. The extraction-MS datasets were fitted with exponential functions to characterize the rates of release of the main and auxiliary ingredients (e.g. ibuprofen, k = 0.43 ± 0.01 h"−"1). The electronic control unit of this system interacts with the operator via touch screen, internet, voice, and short text messages sent to the mobile phone, which is helpful when launching long-term (e.g. overnight) measurements. Due to these interactive features, the platform brings the concept of the Internet-of-Things (IoT) to the chemistry laboratory environment. - Highlights: • Mass spectrometric analysis normally requires sample preparation. • Liquid–liquid extraction can isolate analytes from complex matrices. • The proposed system automates the

  5. Building a Community Infrastructure for Scalable On-Line Performance Analysis Tools around Open|SpeedShop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galarowicz, James E. [Krell Institute, Ames, IA (United States); Miller, Barton P. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Computer Sciences Dept.; Hollingsworth, Jeffrey K. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Computer Sciences Dept.; Roth, Philip [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Future Technologies Group, Computer Science and Math Division; Schulz, Martin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC)

    2013-12-19

    In this project we created a community tool infrastructure for program development tools targeting Petascale class machines and beyond. This includes tools for performance analysis, debugging, and correctness tools, as well as tuning and optimization frameworks. The developed infrastructure provides a comprehensive and extensible set of individual tool building components. We started with the basic elements necessary across all tools in such an infrastructure followed by a set of generic core modules that allow a comprehensive performance analysis at scale. Further, we developed a methodology and workflow that allows others to add or replace modules, to integrate parts into their own tools, or to customize existing solutions. In order to form the core modules, we built on the existing Open|SpeedShop infrastructure and decomposed it into individual modules that match the necessary tool components. At the same time, we addressed the challenges found in performance tools for petascale systems in each module. When assembled, this instantiation of community tool infrastructure provides an enhanced version of Open|SpeedShop, which, while completely different in its architecture, provides scalable performance analysis for petascale applications through a familiar interface. This project also built upon and enhances capabilities and reusability of project partner components as specified in the original project proposal. The overall project team’s work over the project funding cycle was focused on several areas of research, which are described in the following sections. The reminder of this report also highlights related work as well as preliminary work that supported the project. In addition to the project partners funded by the Office of Science under this grant, the project team included several collaborators who contribute to the overall design of the envisioned tool infrastructure. In particular, the project team worked closely with the other two DOE NNSA

  6. Simulation and System Analysis of Flow Pulsation at Normal and Emergency for Advanced On-line Monitoring and Control of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proskouriakov, K.N.; Moukhine, V.S.

    2002-01-01

    In addition to investigation of thermal-hydraulic processes on NPP with use of computer codes the new system analysis of flow pulsation is worked out. System analysis shows that properties of heat rejection circuits of NPP as oscillatory system are not equal the sum of properties of its separate elements but gives the new properties which must be taken into account. Methods have been worked out for calculating and identifying the sources of thermal-hydraulic disturbances are intended to improve the means of early diagnostics of anomalies in the technological process, to forecast their development, to improve the efficiency of overhauling operations and safety in operation, and also to create advanced on-line monitoring and control of NPP. Conception of the control system development presents. Proposal for main topics R and D areas for advanced NPP monitoring, diagnostic and control are identified. (authors)

  7. Implementation of a neural network for digital pulse shape analysis on a FPGA for on-line identification of heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, R., E-mail: naharro@uhu.es [Departamento de Ingenieria Eletronica, Sistemas Informaticos y Automatica, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Sanchez-Raya, M.; Gomez-Galan, J.A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Eletronica, Sistemas Informaticos y Automatica, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Flores, J.L. [Departamento Ingenieria Electrica y Termica, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Duenas, J.A.; Martel, I. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

    2012-05-11

    Pulse shape analysis techniques for the identification of heavy ions produced in nuclear reactions have been recently proposed as an alternative to energy loss and time of flight methods. However this technique requires a large amount of memory for storing the shapes of charge and current signals. We have implemented a hardware solution for fast on-line processing of the signals producing the relevant information needed for particle identification. Since the pulse shape analysis can be formulated in terms of a pattern recognition problem, a neural network has been implemented in a FPGA device. The design concept has been tested using {sup 12,13}C ions produced in heavy ion reactions. The actual latency of the system is about 20 {mu}s when using a clock frequency of 50 MHz.

  8. Simultaneous on-line size and chemical analysis of gas phase and particulate phase of mainstream tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAughey, J; McGrath, C; Adam, T; Mocker, C; Zimmermann, R

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco smoke is a complex and dynamic physical and chemical matrix in which about 4800 components have been identified. It is known that deposition efficiencies of smoke particles in the lung in the lung (60-80%) are greater than expected for smoke particles of 150-- 250 nm count median diameter (CMD). Various mechanisms have been put forward to explain this enhanced deposition pattern, including coagulation, hygroscopic growth, condensation and evaporation, changes in composition, or changes in inhalation behaviour. This paper represents one of three studies seeking to better quantify smoke chemistry, inhalation behaviour and cumulative particle growth. This information will improve dosimetry estimates in quantitative risk assessment tools as part of a harm reduction process. In this study smoke particle size and chemistry were measured simultaneously in real-time using electrical mobility spectrometry and soft-ionisation, time-of-flight mass spectrometry respectively. Qualitative puff-by-puff resolved yields of three selected compounds (acetaldehyde, phenol, and styrene) are shown and compared with particle number and count median diameter from different smoking intensities and filter ventilation. Yields of chemical analysis, particle diameter and concentration are in good agreement with the intensity of the smoking regime and the dilution of smoke by filter ventilation.

  9. Analysis, design, and implementation of PHENIX on-line computing systems software using Shlaer-Mellor object-oriented analysis and recursive design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, T.; Desmond, E.; Haggerty, J.

    1997-01-01

    An early prototype of the core software for on-line computing systems for the PHENIX detector at RHIC has been developed using the Shlaer-Mellor OOA/RD method, including the automatic generation of C++ source code using a commercial translation engine and open-quotes architectureclose quotes

  10. Managing Electrochemical Noise Data by Exception Application of an On Line EN Data Analysis Technique to Data From a High Level Nuclear Waste Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDGEMON, G.L.

    2003-01-01

    Electrochemical noise has been used a t the Hanford Site for a number of years to monitor in real time for pitting corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) mechanisms in high level nuclear waste tanks. Currently the monitoring technique has only been implemented on three of the 177 underground storage tanks on the site. Widespread implementation of the technique has been held back for of a number of reasons, including issues around managing the large volume of data associated with electrochemical noise and the complexity of data analysis. Expert review of raw current and potential measurements is the primary form of data analysis currently used at the Hanford site. This paper demonstrates the application of an on-line data filtering and analysis technique that could allow data from field applications of electrochemical noise to be managed by exception, transforming electrochemical noise data into a process parameter and focusing data analysis efforts on the important data. Results of the analysis demonstrate a data compression rate of 95%; that is, only 5% of the data would require expert analysis if such a technique were implemented. It is also demonstrated that this technique is capable of identifying key periods where localized corrosion activity is apparent

  11. On-line solid-phase extraction coupled to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of cyanotoxins in algal blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayad, Paul B; Roy-Lachapelle, Audrey; Duy, Sung Vo; Prévost, Michèle; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2015-12-15

    An analytical method based on on-line SPE-LC-HESI-MS/MS has been developed for the detection and quantification of eight selected cyanotoxins in algal bloom waters that include mycrocystins, anatoxin-a and cylindrospermopsin. The injection volume was 2 mL according to the expected concentration of cyanotoxins in matrix. The method provides an analysis time of 7 min per sample, acceptable recovery values (91-101%), good precision (RSD cyanotoxins. All of the targeted cyanotoxins were detected with the exception of cylindrospermopsin. In addition, it was found that total microcystin concentrations in several surface water samples exceeded the proposed guidelines established by the province of Québec in Canada of 1.5 μg L(-1) as well as the World Health Organization of 1 μg L(-1) for both free and cell-bound microcystin-LR equivalent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of imidaclopride removal from aqueous solution by adsorption onto granular activated carbon using an on-line spectrophotometric analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daneshvar, N.; Aber, S.; Khani, A.; Khataee, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    The removal of imidaclopride as a pesticide by granular activated carbon (GAC) and its adsorption kinetics were studied at different pH values and temperatures. In all experiments, the amount of GAC and initial concentration of imidaclopride were 2 g and 25 ppm, respectively. The adsorption process was followed by an on-line spectrophotometric analysis system, which consisted of UV-spectrophotometer, a designed absorption cell, peristaltic pump and special glassy reactor. The effect of pH and temperature on adsorption was studied over 90 min adsorption periods. The obtained data were treated according to various kinetic models. The results showed that second order model was the most suitable one on the overall. The our results also showed that the adsorption rate constants for first order, second order and intraparticle diffusion models followed decreasing order: pH = 7 > 4 > 10 > 1, T = 25 > 35 > 45 > 55 deg. C

  13. Study of imidaclopride removal from aqueous solution by adsorption onto granular activated carbon using an on-line spectrophotometric analysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daneshvar, N. [Water and Wastewater Treatment Research Laboratory, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: nezam_daneshvar@yahoo.com; Aber, S. [Water and Wastewater Treatment Research Laboratory, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: soheil_aber@yahoo.com; Khani, A. [Water and Wastewater Treatment Research Laboratory, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: alikhani_chemwt@yahoo.com; Khataee, A.R. [Water and Wastewater Treatment Research Laboratory, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: ar_khataee@yahoo.com

    2007-06-01

    The removal of imidaclopride as a pesticide by granular activated carbon (GAC) and its adsorption kinetics were studied at different pH values and temperatures. In all experiments, the amount of GAC and initial concentration of imidaclopride were 2 g and 25 ppm, respectively. The adsorption process was followed by an on-line spectrophotometric analysis system, which consisted of UV-spectrophotometer, a designed absorption cell, peristaltic pump and special glassy reactor. The effect of pH and temperature on adsorption was studied over 90 min adsorption periods. The obtained data were treated according to various kinetic models. The results showed that second order model was the most suitable one on the overall. The our results also showed that the adsorption rate constants for first order, second order and intraparticle diffusion models followed decreasing order: pH = 7 > 4 > 10 > 1, T = 25 > 35 > 45 > 55 deg. C.

  14. Looking into individual coffee beans during the roasting process: direct micro-probe sampling on-line photo-ionisation mass spectrometric analysis of coffee roasting gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz-Schünemann, Romy; Streibel, Thorsten; Ehlert, Sven; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2013-09-01

    A micro-probe (μ-probe) gas sampling device for on-line analysis of gases evolving in confined, small objects by single-photon ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SPI-TOFMS) was developed. The technique is applied for the first time in a feasibility study to record the formation of volatile and flavour compounds during the roasting process within (inside) or in the direct vicinity (outside) of individual coffee beans. A real-time on-line analysis of evolving volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOC and SVOC) as they are formed under the mild pyrolytic conditions of the roasting process was performed. The soft-ionisation mass spectra depict a molecular ion signature, which is well corresponding with the existing knowledge of coffee roasting and evolving compounds. Additionally, thereby it is possible to discriminate between Coffea arabica (Arabica) and Coffea canephora (Robusta). The recognized differences in the roasting gas profiles reflect the differences in the precursor composition of the coffee cultivars very well. Furthermore, a well-known set of marker compounds for Arabica and Robusta, namely the lipids kahweol and cafestol (detected in their dehydrated form at m/z 296 and m/z 298, respectively) were observed. If the variation in time of different compounds is observed, distinctly different evolution behaviours were detected. Here, phenol (m/z 94) and caffeine (m/z 194) are exemplary chosen, whereas phenol shows very sharp emission peaks, caffeine do not have this highly transient behaviour. Finally, the changes of the chemical signature as a function of the roasting time, the influence of sampling position (inside, outside) and cultivar (Arabica, Robusta) is investigated by multivariate statistics (PCA). In summary, this pilot study demonstrates the high potential of the measurement technique to enhance the fundamental knowledge of the formation processes of volatile and semi-volatile flavour compounds inside the individual coffee bean.

  15. Environment-oriented life cycle analysis of bulk materials, applied in solar cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geelen, H.

    1994-04-01

    In the solar cell technology several bulk materials (glass, steel, aluminium, concrete, copper, zinc and synthetic materials) are applied intensively. By means of a life cycle analysis (LCA) the environmental effects and bottlenecks of the use of these materials is investigated in this report. Also attention is paid to the options to reduce the environmental effects of photovoltaic (PV) systems by changing processes and/or by redesign of the PV systems. Two systems are studied: solar cells, integrated in pitched roofs, and solar cells on the ground in solar cell arrays. The study is focused on the use of bulk materials in the solar module, the cables and the supporting construction. After brief introductions on the environment-oriented LCA method, the standard construction of PV modules and the principles of solar cells, an overview is given of the present and future material input for the above-mentioned PV-systems. Next, attention is paid to the energy consumption and the most important emissions of the production of the bulk materials. Based on these data three environmental effect scores of the PV systems are calculated and analyzed: the energy consumption, the greenhouse effect or global warming equivalent, and the acidifying effect or acidification equivalent. Also a fourth effect, for which the so-called environmental indicator human toxicity is defined, is described. By means of this indicator the hazardous effects for the public health can be indicated. The sum of the four indicators is a measure for the environmental profile of the roof PV-system and the ground PV-array system. Recommendations are given by which the systems and their environmental profiles can be improved. 29 figs., 50 tabs., 5 appendices, refs

  16. On line portal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this presentation is to examine the various imaging devices that have been developed for portal imaging, describe some of the image registration methods that have been developed to determine geometric errors quantitatively, and discuss how portal imaging has been incorporated into clinical practice. Discussion: Verification of patient positioning has always been an important aspect of external beam radiation therapy. Over the past decade many portal imaging devices have been developed by individual investigators and most accelerator manufacturers now offer 'on-line' portal imaging systems. The commercial devices include T.V. camera-based systems, liquid ionisation chamber systems, and shortly, flat panel systems. The characteristics of these imaging systems will be discussed. In addition, other approaches such as the use of kilovoltage x-ray sources, video monitoring, and ultrasound have been proposed for improving patient positioning. Some of the advantages of these approaches will be discussed. One of the major advantages of on-line portal imaging is that many quantitative techniques have been developed to detect errors in patient positioning. The general approach is to register anatomic structures on a portal image with the same structures on a digitized simulator film. Once the anatomic structures have been registered, any discrepancies in the position of the patient can be identified. One problem is finding a common frame of reference for the simulator and portal images, since the location of the radiation field within the pixel matrix may differ for the two images. As a result, a common frame of reference has to be established before the anatomic structures in the images can be registered - generally by registering radiation field edges identified in the simulator and portal images. In addition, distortions in patient geometry or rotations out of the image plane can confound the image registration techniques. Despite the

  17. On line portal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this presentation is to examine the various imaging devices that have been developed for portal imaging; describe some of the image registration methods that have been developed to determine geometric errors quantitatively; discuss some of the ways that portal imaging has been incorporated into routine clinical practice; describe quality assurance procedures for these devices, and discuss the use of portal imaging devices for dosimetry applications. Discussion: Verification of patient positioning has always been an important aspect of external beam radiation therapy. Over the past decade many portal imaging devices have been developed by individual investigators and most accelerator manufacturers now offer 'on-line' portal imaging systems. The commercial devices can be classified into three categories: T.V. camera-based systems, liquid ionisation chamber systems, and amorphous silicon systems. Many factors influence the quality of images generated by these portal imaging systems. These include factors which are unavoidable (e.g., low subject contrast), factors which depend upon the individual imaging device forming the image (e.g., dose utilisation, spatial resolution) as well as factors which depend upon the characteristics of the linear accelerator irradiating the imaging system (x-ray source size, image magnification). The characteristics of individual imaging systems, such as spatial resolution, temporal response, and quantum utilisation will be discussed. One of the major advantages of on-line portal imaging is that many quantitative techniques have been developed to detect errors in patient positioning. The general approach is to register anatomic structures on a portal image with the same structures on a digitized simulator film. Once the anatomic structures have been registered, any discrepancies in the position of the patient can be identified. However, the task is not nearly as straight-forward as it sounds. One problem

  18. An integrated sample pretreatment platform for quantitative N-glycoproteome analysis with combination of on-line glycopeptide enrichment, deglycosylation and dimethyl labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Yejing; Qu, Yanyan; Jiang, Hao; Wu, Qi [National Chromatographic Research and Analysis Center, Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, Lihua, E-mail: lihuazhang@dicp.ac.cn [National Chromatographic Research and Analysis Center, Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Yuan, Huiming [National Chromatographic Research and Analysis Center, Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Zhou, Yuan [National Chromatographic Research and Analysis Center, Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Yukui [National Chromatographic Research and Analysis Center, Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2014-06-23

    Highlights: • An integrated platform for quantitative N-glycoproteome analysis was established. • On-line enrichment, deglycosylation and labeling could be achieved within 160 min. • A N{sub 2}-assisted interface was applied to improve the compatibility of the platform. • The platform exhibited improved quantification accuracy, precision and throughput. - Abstract: Relative quantification of N-glycoproteomes shows great promise for the discovery of candidate biomarkers and therapeutic targets. The traditional protocol for quantitative analysis of glycoproteomes is usually off-line performed, and suffers from long sample preparation time, and the risk of sample loss or contamination due to manual manipulation. In this study, a novel integrated sample preparation platform for quantitative N-glycoproteome analysis was established, with combination of online N-glycopeptide capture by a HILIC column, sample buffer exchange by a N{sub 2}-assisted HILIC–RPLC interface, deglycosylation by a hydrophilic PNGase F immobilized enzymatic reactor (hIMER) and solid dimethyl labeling on a C18 precolumn. To evaluate the performance of such a platform, two equal aliquots of immunoglobulin G (IgG) digests were sequentially pretreated, followed by MALDI-TOF MS analysis. The signal intensity ratio of heavy/light (H/L) labeled deglycosylated peptides with the equal aliquots was 1.00 (RSD = 6.2%, n = 3), much better than those obtained by the offline protocol, with H/L ratio as 0.76 (RSD = 11.6%, n = 3). Additionally, the total on-line sample preparation time was greatly shortened to 160 min, much faster than that of offline approach (24 h). Furthermore, such an integrated pretreatment platform was successfully applied to analyze the two kinds of hepatocarcinoma ascites syngeneic cell lines with high (Hca-F) and low (Hca-P) lymph node metastasis rates. For H/L labeled Hca-P lysates with the equal aliquots, 99.6% of log 2 ratios (H/L) of quantified glycopeptides ranged from −1

  19. Non-chromatographic speciation analysis of mercury by flow injection on-line preconcentration in combination with chemical vapor generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Hong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry and Key Laboratory of MOE for Life Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Department of Chemistry, Xuzhou Normal University, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Jin Yan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry and Key Laboratory of MOE for Life Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Han Weiying [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry and Key Laboratory of MOE for Life Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Miao, Qiang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry and Key Laboratory of MOE for Life Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Bi Shuping [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry and Key Laboratory of MOE for Life Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)]. E-mail: bisp@nju.edu.cn

    2006-07-15

    A novel non-chromatographic approach for direct speciation of mercury, based on the selective retention inorganic mercury and methylmercury on the inner wall of a knotted reactor by using ammonium diethyl dithiophosphate and dithizone as complexing agents respectively, was developed for flow injection on-line sorption preconcentration coupled with chemical vapor generation non-dispersive atomic fluorescence spectrometry. With the sample pH kept at 2.0, the preconcentration of inorganic mercury on the inner walls of the knotted reactor was carried out based on the exclusive retention of Hg-DDP complex in the presence of methylmercury via on-line merging the sample solution with ammonium diethyl dithiophosphate solution, and selective preconcentration methylmercury was achieved with dithizone instead of ammonium diethyl dithiophosphate. A 15% (v/v) HCl was introduced to elute the retained mercury species and merge with KBH{sub 4} solution for atomic fluorescence spectrometry detection. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the sample throughputs of inorganic mercury and methylmercury were 30 and 20 h{sup -1} with the enhancement factors of 13 and 24. The detection limits were found to be 3.6 ng l{sup -1} for Hg{sup 2+} and 2.0 ng l{sup -1} for CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +}. The precisions (RSD) for the 11 replicate measurements of each 0.2 {mu}g l{sup -1} of Hg{sup 2+} and CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +} were 2.2% and 2.8%, respectively. The developed method was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials (simulated natural water, rice flour and pork) and by recovery measurements on spiked samples, and was applied to the determination of inorganic mercury and methylmercury in biological and environmental water samples.

  20. Analysis of drug-protein binding using on-line immunoextraction and high-performance affinity microcolumns: Studies with normal and glycated human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Ryan; Jobe, Donald; Beyersdorf, Jared; Hage, David S

    2015-10-16

    A method combining on-line immunoextraction microcolumns with high-performance affinity chromatography (HPAC) was developed and tested for use in examining drug-protein interactions with normal or modified proteins. Normal human serum albumin (HSA) and glycated HSA were used as model proteins for this work. High-performance immunoextraction microcolumns with sizes of 1.0-2.0 cm × 2.1mm i.d. and containing anti-HSA polyclonal antibodies were developed and tested for their ability to bind normal HSA or glycated HSA. These microcolumns were able to extract up to 82-93% for either type of protein at 0.05-0.10 mL/min and had a binding capacity of 0.34-0.42 nmol HSA for a 1.0 cm × 2.1mm i.d. microcolumn. The immunoextraction microcolumns and their adsorbed proteins were tested for use in various approaches for drug binding studies. Frontal analysis was used with the adsorbed HSA/glycated HSA to measure the overall affinities of these proteins for the drugs warfarin and gliclazide, giving comparable values to those obtained previously using similar protein preparations that had been covalently immobilized within HPAC columns. Zonal elution competition studies with gliclazide were next performed to examine the specific interactions of this drug at Sudlow sites I and II of the adsorbed proteins. These results were also comparable to those noted in prior work with covalently immobilized samples of normal HSA or glycated HSA. These experiments indicated that drug-protein binding studies can be carried out by using on-line immunoextraction microcolumns with HPAC. The same method could be used in the future with clinical samples and other drugs or proteins of interest in pharmaceutical studies or biomedical research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Non-chromatographic speciation analysis of mercury by flow injection on-line preconcentration in combination with chemical vapor generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hong; Jin Yan; Han Weiying; Miao, Qiang; Bi Shuping

    2006-01-01

    A novel non-chromatographic approach for direct speciation of mercury, based on the selective retention inorganic mercury and methylmercury on the inner wall of a knotted reactor by using ammonium diethyl dithiophosphate and dithizone as complexing agents respectively, was developed for flow injection on-line sorption preconcentration coupled with chemical vapor generation non-dispersive atomic fluorescence spectrometry. With the sample pH kept at 2.0, the preconcentration of inorganic mercury on the inner walls of the knotted reactor was carried out based on the exclusive retention of Hg-DDP complex in the presence of methylmercury via on-line merging the sample solution with ammonium diethyl dithiophosphate solution, and selective preconcentration methylmercury was achieved with dithizone instead of ammonium diethyl dithiophosphate. A 15% (v/v) HCl was introduced to elute the retained mercury species and merge with KBH 4 solution for atomic fluorescence spectrometry detection. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the sample throughputs of inorganic mercury and methylmercury were 30 and 20 h -1 with the enhancement factors of 13 and 24. The detection limits were found to be 3.6 ng l -1 for Hg 2+ and 2.0 ng l -1 for CH 3 Hg + . The precisions (RSD) for the 11 replicate measurements of each 0.2 μg l -1 of Hg 2+ and CH 3 Hg + were 2.2% and 2.8%, respectively. The developed method was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials (simulated natural water, rice flour and pork) and by recovery measurements on spiked samples, and was applied to the determination of inorganic mercury and methylmercury in biological and environmental water samples

  2. On line portal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this presentation is to review the physics of imaging with high energy x-ray beams; examine the various imaging devices that have been developed for portal imaging; describe some of the image registration methods that have been developed to determine errors in patient positioning quantitatively; and discuss some of the ways that portal imaging has been incorporated into routine clinical practice. Verification of patient positioning has always been an important aspect of external beam radiation therapy. Checks of patient positioning have generally been done with film, however, film suffers from a number of drawbacks, such as poor image display and delays due to film development. Over the past decade many portal imaging devices have been developed by individual investigators and most accelerator manufacturers now offer 'on-line' portal imaging systems, which are intended to overcome the limitations of portal films. The commercial devices can be classified into three categories: T.V. camera-based systems, liquid ionisation chamber systems, and amorphous silicon systems. Many factors influence the quality of images generated by these portal imaging systems. These include factors which are unavoidable (e.g., low subject contrast), factors which depend upon the individual imaging device forming the image (e.g., dose utilisation, spatial resolution) as well as factors which depend upon the characteristics of the linear accelerator irradiating the imaging system (x-ray source size, image magnification). The fundamental factors which limit image quality and the characteristics of individual imaging systems, such as spatial resolution, temporal response, and quantum utilisation will be discussed. One of the major advantages of on-line portal imaging is that many quantitative techniques have been developed to detect errors in patient positioning. The general approach is to register anatomic structures on a portal image with the same

  3. Bulk velocity measurements by video analysis of dye tracer in a macro-rough channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghilardi, T; Franca, M J; Schleiss, A J

    2014-01-01

    Steep mountain rivers have hydraulic and morphodynamic characteristics that hinder velocity measurements. The high spatial variability of hydraulic parameters, such as water depth (WD), river width and flow velocity, makes the choice of a representative cross-section to measure the velocity in detail challenging. Additionally, sediment transport and rapidly changing bed morphology exclude the utilization of standard and often intrusive velocity measurement techniques. The limited technical choices are further reduced in the presence of macro-roughness elements, such as large, relatively immobile boulders. Tracer tracking techniques are among the few reliable methods that can be used under these conditions to evaluate the mean flow velocity. However, most tracer tracking techniques calculate bulk flow velocities between two or more fixed cross-sections. In the presence of intense sediment transport resulting in an important temporal variability of the bed morphology, dead water zones may appear in the few selected measurement sections. Thus a technique based on the analysis of an entire channel reach is needed in this study. A dye tracer measurement technique in which a single camcorder visualizes a long flume reach is described and developed. This allows us to overcome the problem of the presence of dead water zones. To validate this video analysis technique, velocity measurements were carried out on a laboratory flume simulating a torrent, with a relatively gentle slope of 1.97% and without sediment transport, using several commonly used velocity measurement instruments. In the absence of boulders, salt injections, WD and ultrasonic velocity profiler measurements were carried out, along with dye injection technique. When boulders were present, dye tracer technique was validated only by comparison with salt tracer. Several video analysis techniques used to infer velocities were developed and compared, showing that dye tracking is a valid technique for bulk velocity

  4. Automated Clean Chemistry for Bulk Analysis of Environmental Swipe Samples - FY17 Year End Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ticknor, Brian W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Metzger, Shalina C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McBay, Eddy H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hexel, Cole R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tevepaugh, Kayron N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bostick, Debra A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-11-30

    Sample preparation methods for mass spectrometry are being automated using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment to shorten lengthy and costly manual chemical purification procedures. This development addresses a serious need in the International Atomic Energy Agency’s Network of Analytical Laboratories (IAEA NWAL) to increase efficiency in the Bulk Analysis of Environmental Samples for Safeguards program with a method that allows unattended, overnight operation. In collaboration with Elemental Scientific Inc., the prepFAST-MC2 was designed based on COTS equipment. It was modified for uranium/plutonium separations using renewable columns packed with Eichrom TEVA and UTEVA resins, with a chemical separation method based on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) NWAL chemical procedure. The newly designed prepFAST-SR has had several upgrades compared with the original prepFAST-MC2. Both systems are currently installed in the Ultra-Trace Forensics Science Center at ORNL.

  5. Use of muonic x rays for nondestructive analysis of bulk samples for low Z constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reidy, J.J.; Hutson, R.L.; Daniel, H.; Springer, K.

    1978-01-01

    Muonic x rays have been used in quantitative analysis on bulk samples of ''tissue equivalent'' material whose primary constituents are low Z elements (Z less than or equal to 20). The muonic x-ray spectrum resulting from negative muons stopping in ''tissue equivalent'' materials has been obtained. Relative muonic x-ray intensities were determined and correlated with atomic abundances in these materials. A comparison of the results for the various samples is presented. This work establishes the usefulness of this technique for analyses of gross specimens (greater than or equal to few grams) for elements with 6 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 20 and atomic abundances greater than 0.15 percent

  6. A novel fiber-packed column for on-line preconcentration and speciation analysis of chromium in drinking water with flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monasterio, Romina P; Altamirano, Jorgelina C; Martínez, Luis D; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G

    2009-02-15

    A novel on-line preconcentration and determination system based on a fiber-packed column was developed for speciation analysis of Cr in drinking water samples prior to its determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). All variables involved in the development of the preconcentration method including, pH, eluent type, sample and eluent flow rates, interfering effects, etc., were studied in order to achieve the best analytical performance. A preconcentration factor of 32 was obtained for Cr(VI) and Cr(III). The levels of Cr(III) species were calculated by difference of total Cr and Cr(VI) levels. Total Cr was determined after oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) with hydrogen peroxide. The calibration graph was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.999 at levels near the detection limit and up to at least 50 microg L(-1). The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) was 4.3% (C=5 microg L(-1) Cr(VI), n=10, sample volume=25 mL). The limit of detection (LOD) for both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) species was 0.3 microg L(-1). Verification of the accuracy was carried out by the analysis of a standard reference material (NIST SRM 1643e "Trace elements in natural water"). The method was successfully applied to the determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) species in drinking water samples.

  7. Analysis of hydroxamate siderophores in soil solution using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry with on-line sample preconcentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Madelen A; Bylund, Dan

    2015-10-01

    A liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method was developed to quantitatively and qualitatively analyze 13 hydroxamate siderophores (ferrichrome, ferrirubin, ferrirhodin, ferrichrysin, ferricrocin, ferrioxamine B, D1 , E and G, neocoprogen I and II, coprogen and triacetylfusarinine C). Samples were preconcentrated on-line by a switch-valve setup prior to analyte separation on a Kinetex C18 column. Gradient elution was performed using a mixture of an ammonium formate buffer and acetonitrile. Total analysis time including column conditioning was 20.5 min. Analytes were fragmented by applying collision-induced dissociation, enabling structural identification by tandem mass spectrometry. Limit of detection values for the selected ion monitoring method ranged from 71 pM to 1.5 nM with corresponding values of two to nine times higher for the multiple reaction monitoring method. The liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry method resulted in a robust and sensitive quantification of hydroxamate siderophores as indicated by retention time stability, linearity, sensitivity, precision and recovery. The analytical error of the methods, assessed through random-order, duplicate analysis of soil samples extracted with a mixture of 10 mM phosphate buffer and methanol, appears negligible in relation to between-sample variations. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Analysis of multivariate stochastic signals sampled by on-line particle analyzers: Application to the quantitative assessment of occupational exposure to NOAA in multisource industrial scenarios (MSIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Ipiña, J M López; Vaquero, C; Gutierrez-Cañas, C; Pui, D Y H

    2015-01-01

    In multisource industrial scenarios (MSIS) coexist NOAA generating activities with other productive sources of airborne particles, such as parallel processes of manufacturing or electrical and diesel machinery. A distinctive characteristic of MSIS is the spatially complex distribution of aerosol sources, as well as their potential differences in dynamics, due to the feasibility of multi-task configuration at a given time. Thus, the background signal is expected to challenge the aerosol analyzers at a probably wide range of concentrations and size distributions, depending of the multisource configuration at a given time. Monitoring and prediction by using statistical analysis of time series captured by on-line particle analyzersin industrial scenarios, have been proven to be feasible in predicting PNC evolution provided a given quality of net signals (difference between signal at source and background). However the analysis and modelling of non-consistent time series, influenced by low levels of SNR (Signal-Noise Ratio) could build a misleading basis for decision making. In this context, this work explores the use of stochastic models based on ARIMA methodology to monitor and predict exposure values (PNC). The study was carried out in a MSIS where an case study focused on the manufacture of perforated tablets of nano-TiO 2 by cold pressing was performed. (paper)

  9. A Robust Analysis Method For Δ13c Signal Of Bulk Organic Matter In Speleothems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, F.; Blyth, A. J.; Smith, C.; Baker, A.

    2017-12-01

    Speleothems preserve organic matter that is derived from both the surface soil and cave environments. This organic matter can be used to understand paleoclimate and paleoenvironments. However, a stable and quick micro-analysis method to measure the δ13C signals from speleothem organic matter separate from the total δ13C remains absent. And speleothem organic geochemistry is still relatively unexplored compared to inorganic geochemistry. In this research, for the organic matter analysis, bulk homogeneous power samples were obtained from one large stalagmite. These were dissolved by phosphoric acid to produce the aqueous solution. Then, the processed solution was degassed through a rotational vacuum concentrator. A liquid chromatograph was coupled to IRMS to control the oxidization and the measurement of analytes. This method is demonstrated to be robust for the analysis of speleothem d13C organic matter analysis under different preparation and instrumental settings, with the low standard deviation ( 0.2‰), and low sample consumption (<25 mg). Considering the complexity of cave environments, this method will be useful in further investigations the δ13C of entrapped organic matter and environmental controls in other climatic and ecological contexts, including the determination of whether vegetation or soil microbial activity is the dominant control on speleothem d13C of organic matter.

  10. Multi-Sensor Distributive On-line Processing, Visualization, and Analysis Infrastructure for an Agricultural Information System at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences DAAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, W.; Berrick, S.; Leptoukh, G.; Liu, Z.; Rui, H.; Pham, L.; Shen, S.; Zhu, T.

    2004-12-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) is developing an Agricultural Information System (AIS), evolved from an existing TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS), which will operationally provide precipitation and other satellite data products and services. AIS outputs will be integrated into existing operational decision support systems for global crop monitoring, such as that of the U.N. World Food Program. The ability to use the raw data stored in the GES DAAC archives is highly dependent on having a detailed understanding of the data's internal structure and physical implementation. To gain this understanding is a time-consuming process and not a productive investment of the user's time. This is an especially difficult challenge when users need to deal with multi-sensor data that usually are of different structures and resolutions. The AIS has taken a major step towards meeting this challenge by incorporating an underlying infrastructure, called the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure or "Giovanni," that integrates various components to support web interfaces that allow users to perform interactive analysis on-line without downloading any data. Several instances of the Giovanni-based interface have been or are being created to serve users of TRMM precipitation, MODIS aerosol, and SeaWiFS ocean color data, as well as agricultural applications users. Giovanni-based interfaces are simple to use but powerful. The user selects geophysical parameters, area of interest, and time period; and the system generates an output on screen in a matter of seconds. The currently available output options are (1) area plot - averaged or accumulated over any available data period for any rectangular area; (2) time plot - time series averaged over any rectangular area; (3) Hovmoller plots - longitude-time and latitude-time plots; (4) ASCII

  11. An Analysis of Electronic Commerce Acquisition Systems: Comparison of a New Pure Electronic Purchasing and Exchange System (Electronic Storefront) and Other Legacy On-line Purchasing Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rowe, Arthur

    2002-01-01

    ... as they relate to contracting and purchasing of supplies and services, The issues and concerns with legacy on-line procurement systems will be compared to a newly developed Pure Electronic Ordering System...

  12. Analysis of recombinant Schistosoma mansoni antigen rSmp28 by on-line liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klarskov, K.; Roecklin, D.; Bouchon, B.; Sabatie, J.; Van Dorsselaer, A.; Bischoff, Rainer

    1994-01-01

    A recombinant Schistosoma mansoni antigen produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and purified by glutathione-Sepharose affinity chromatography was analyzed by tryptic peptide mapping using on-line reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography pneumatically assisted electrospray mass

  13. Relationship between climatic variables and the variation in bulk tank milk composition using canonical correlation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stürmer, Morgana; Busanello, Marcos; Velho, João Pedro; Heck, Vanessa Isabel; Haygert-Velho, Ione Maria Pereira

    2018-06-04

    A number of studies have addressed the relations between climatic variables and milk composition, but these works used univariate statistical approaches. In our study, we used a multivariate approach (canonical correlation) to study the impact of climatic variables on milk composition, price, and monthly milk production at a dairy farm using bulk tank milk data. Data on milk composition, price, and monthly milk production were obtained from a dairy company that purchased the milk from the farm, while climatic variable data were obtained from the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET). The data are from January 2014 to December 2016. Univariate correlation analysis and canonical correlation analysis were performed. Few correlations between the climatic variables and milk composition were found using a univariate approach. However, using canonical correlation analysis, we found a strong and significant correlation (r c  = 0.95, p value = 0.0029). Lactose, ambient temperature measures (mean, minimum, and maximum), and temperature-humidity index (THI) were found to be the most important variables for the canonical correlation. Our study indicated that 10.2% of the variation in milk composition, pricing, and monthly milk production can be explained by climatic variables. Ambient temperature variables, together with THI, seem to have the most influence on variation in milk composition.

  14. Analysis of phenolic compounds from different morphological parts of Helichrysum devium by liquid chromatography with on-line UV and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Sandra C; Castilho, Paula C

    2009-12-01

    A simple and rapid method has been used for the screening and identification of the main phenolic compounds from Helichrysum devium using high-performance liquid chromatography with on-line UV and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection (LC-DAD/ESI-MS(n)). The total aerial parts and different morphological parts of the plant, namely leaves, flowers and stems, were analyzed separately. A total of 34 compounds present in the methanolic extract from Helichrysum devium were identified or tentatively characterized based on their UV and mass spectra and retention times. Three of these compounds were positively identified by comparison with reference standards. The phenolic compounds included derivatives of quinic acid, O-glycosylated flavonoids, a caffeic acid derivative and a protocatechuic acid derivative. The characteristic loss of 206 Da from malonylcaffeoyl quinic acid was used to confirm the malonyl linkage to the caffeoyl group. This contribution presents one of the first reports on the analysis of phenolic compounds from Helichrysum devium using LC-DAD/ESI-MS(n) and highlights the prominence of quinic acid derivatives as the main group of phenolic compounds present in these extracts. We also provide evidence that the methanolic extract from the flowers was significantly more complex when compared to that of other morphological parts. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. On-line immunoaffinity solid-phase extraction capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry using Fab´antibody fragments for the analysis of serum transthyretin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pont, Laura; Benavente, Fernando; Barbosa, José; Sanz-Nebot, Victoria

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes an on-line immunoaffinity solid-phase extraction capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry (IA-SPE-CE-MS) method using an immunoaffinity sorbent with Fab' antibody fragments (Fab'-IA) for the analysis of serum transthyretin (TTR), a homotetrameric protein (M r ~56,000) involved in different types of amyloidosis. The IA sorbent was prepared by covalent attachment of Fab' fragments obtained from a polyclonal IgG antibody against TTR to succinimidyl silica particles. The Fab'-IA-SPE-CE-MS methodology was first established analyzing TTR standard solutions. Under optimized conditions, repeatability and reproducibility were acceptable, the method was linear between 1 and 25µgmL -1 , limits of detection (LODs) were around 0.5µgmL -1 (50-fold lower than by CE-MS, ~25µgmL -1 ) and different TTR conformations were observed (folded and unfolded). The applicability of the developed method to screen for familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy type I (FAP-I), which is the most common hereditary systemic amyloidosis, was evaluated analyzing serum samples from healthy controls and FAP-I patients. For the analysis of sera, the most abundant proteins were precipitated with 5% (v/v) of phenol before Fab'-IA-SPE-CE-MS. The current method enhanced our previous results for the analysis of TTR using intact antibodies immobilized on magnetic beads. It allowed a slight improvement on LODs (2-fold), the detection of proteoforms found at lower concentrations and the preparation of microcartridges with extended durability. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Trace metals analysis in estuarine and seawater by ICP-MS using on line preconcentration and matrix elimination with chelating resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaı, M; Rosin, C; Tousset, N; Nicolai, Y

    1999-09-13

    The main difficulties of trace metals analysis in estuarine and seawater stem from their very low concentration (mug/l to sub-mug/l), and, by contrast, the high salt content (up to 38 g/l in the Mediterranean Sea). ICP-MS allows multi-elemental analysis and offers great sensitivity, but may be strongly affected by matrix effects induced by high salt contents (> 1 g/l). To perform trace metals analysis both in riverine, estuarine and seawater, we have developed a hyphenated method: ion chelation chromatography coupled on-line with ICP-MS. Iminodiacetate resin, Metpac CC-1 (Dionex), was used to concentrate most of the trace metals, and to separate them from alkaline and alkaline-earth metals. Behaviour of 17 elements (Pb, Cu, Cd, Ni, U, Cr, Mn, Al, Co, Ga, In, Zn, V, Tl, Bi, Ag and Sn) towards the resin was qualitatively investigated. A method validation, partly derived from AFNOR standard XPT 90-210, was carried out on 12 elements (Pb, Cu, Cd, Ni, U, Cr, Mn, Al, Co, Ga, Bi and In). Replicate measurements of multi-elemental standard solutions were used to check linearity, and to determine repeatability and detection limits. Method accuracy was then assessed by analysing two certified materials: a synthetic freshwater (SRM 1643d), and a natural filtered coastal seawater (NRCC CASS-3). An application assay of natural samples from the Rhône river (France) was eventually carried out, and the analytical results were found to be consistent with previous works.

  17. Analysis of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by on-line coupled supercritical fluid extraction-liquid chromatography-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimmo, Masahiko; Adler, Heidi; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Hartonen, Kari; Kulmala, Markku; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    An on-line supercritical fluid extraction-liquid chromatography-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SFE-LC-GC-MS) method was developed for the analysis of the particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The limits of detection of the system for the quantification standards were in the range of 0.25-0.57 ng, while the limits of determinations for filter samples varied from 0.02 to 0.04 ng m -3 (24 h sampling). The linearity was excellent from 5 to 300 ng ( R2>0.967). The analysis could be carried out in a closed system without tedious manual sample pretreatment and with no risk of errors by contamination or loss of the analytes. The results of the SFE-LC-GC-MS method were comparable with those for Soxhlet and shake-flask extractions with GC-MS. The new method was applied to the analysis of PAHs collected by high-volume filter in the Helsinki area to study the seasonal trend of the concentrations. The individual PAH concentrations varied from 0.015 to more than 1 ng m -3, while total PAH concentrations varied from 0.81 to 5.68 ng m -3. The concentrations were generally higher in winter than in summer. The mass percentage of the total PAHs in total suspended particulates ranged from 2.85×10 -3% in July to 15.0×10 -3% in December. Increased emissions in winter, meteorological conditions, and more serious artefacts during the sampling in summer season may explain the concentration profiles.

  18. Pursuit of improvement in uranium bulk analysis at the clear facility for safeguards environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, S.; Takahashi, M.; Sakakibara, T.; Magara, M.; Kurosawa, S.; Esaka, F.; Takai, K.; Watanabe, K.; Usuda, S.; Adachi, T.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In order to contribute to the IAEA strengthened safeguards system, a project started in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) in 1998. Consequently, a clean room facility called as CLEAR, the Clean Laboratory for Environmental Analysis and Research, was constructed in June 2001 at JAERI Tokai and the analytical techniques of ultra-trace nuclear materials in environmental samples are being developed. As for the bulk analysis, performance of inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was mainly examined because sample preparation for ICP-MS is simpler than that for thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Interference of polyatomic ion (such as PtAr + ) and coexisting element (such as Na) on the uranium ions, as well as mass bias caused by ICP-MS operating conditions, has been investigated for precise measurement on uranium isotope ratio. The authors have also studied on the uranium blanks during sample treatment process. The blank value below 10 pg uranium per sample treatment was obtained: dominant origins were elution from Teflon vessel surface in acid heating process of the sample to dry up. The work is in progress to minimize the blank. Compared with the process blank and the minimum uranium amount for isotope ratio measurement by ICP-MS (ca. 10 pg for natural uranium), the swipe cotton (Texwipe-304) which is currently used for IAEA Environmental Sampling includes much more amount of natural uranium in several nano-grams. If the amount of uranium collected on Texwipe-304 is small, sensitive and reliable measurement on isotope ratio will be impossible by bulk analysis. The authors are seeking alternative swipe materials with less amount of uranium. Recently, one of the authors devised an effective technique for recovery of uranium-containing particles from Texwipe-304. The technique, named as Vacuum Suction Method, uses a combination of polycarbonate membrane filters and a macro-pipette tip, which is connected to a vacuum pump

  19. Comparative Visual Analysis of Structure-Performance Relations in Complex Bulk-Heterojunction Morphologies

    KAUST Repository

    Aboulhassan, A.

    2017-07-04

    The structure of Bulk-Heterojunction (BHJ) materials, the main component of organic photovoltaic solar cells, is very complex, and the relationship between structure and performance is still largely an open question. Overall, there is a wide spectrum of fabrication configurations resulting in different BHJ morphologies and correspondingly different performances. Current state-of-the-art methods for assessing the performance of BHJ morphologies are either based on global quantification of morphological features or simply on visual inspection of the morphology based on experimental imaging. This makes finding optimal BHJ structures very challenging. Moreover, finding the optimal fabrication parameters to get an optimal structure is still an open question. In this paper, we propose a visual analysis framework to help answer these questions through comparative visualization and parameter space exploration for local morphology features. With our approach, we enable scientists to explore multivariate correlations between local features and performance indicators of BHJ morphologies. Our framework is built on shape-based clustering of local cubical regions of the morphology that we call patches. This enables correlating the features of clusters with intuition-based performance indicators computed from geometrical and topological features of charge paths.

  20. Comparative Visual Analysis of Structure-Performance Relations in Complex Bulk-Heterojunction Morphologies

    KAUST Repository

    Aboulhassan, A.; Sicat, R.; Baum, D.; Wodo, O.; Hadwiger, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The structure of Bulk-Heterojunction (BHJ) materials, the main component of organic photovoltaic solar cells, is very complex, and the relationship between structure and performance is still largely an open question. Overall, there is a wide spectrum of fabrication configurations resulting in different BHJ morphologies and correspondingly different performances. Current state-of-the-art methods for assessing the performance of BHJ morphologies are either based on global quantification of morphological features or simply on visual inspection of the morphology based on experimental imaging. This makes finding optimal BHJ structures very challenging. Moreover, finding the optimal fabrication parameters to get an optimal structure is still an open question. In this paper, we propose a visual analysis framework to help answer these questions through comparative visualization and parameter space exploration for local morphology features. With our approach, we enable scientists to explore multivariate correlations between local features and performance indicators of BHJ morphologies. Our framework is built on shape-based clustering of local cubical regions of the morphology that we call patches. This enables correlating the features of clusters with intuition-based performance indicators computed from geometrical and topological features of charge paths.

  1. Inheritance and Bulked Segregant Analysis of Leaf Rust and Stem Rust Resistance in Durum Wheat Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun, Meriem; Kolmer, James A; Rouse, Matthew N; Chao, Shiaoman; Bulbula, Worku Denbel; Elias, Elias M; Acevedo, Maricelis

    2017-12-01

    Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina, and stem rust, caused by P. graminis f. sp. tritici, are important diseases of durum wheat. This study determined the inheritance and genomic locations of leaf rust resistance (Lr) genes to P. triticina race BBBQJ and stem rust resistance (Sr) genes to P. graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKSK in durum accessions. Eight leaf-rust-resistant genotypes were used to develop biparental populations. Accessions PI 192051 and PI 534304 were also resistant to P. graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKSK. The resulting progenies were phenotyped for leaf rust and stem rust response at seedling stage. The Lr and Sr genes were mapped in five populations using single-nucleotide polymorphisms and bulked segregant analysis. Five leaf-rust-resistant genotypes carried single dominant Lr genes whereas, in the remaining accessions, there was deviation from the expected segregation ratio of a single dominant Lr gene. Seven genotypes carried Lr genes different from those previously characterized in durum. The single dominant Lr genes in PI 209274, PI 244061, PI387263, and PI 313096 were mapped to chromosome arms 6BS, 2BS, 6BL, and 6BS, respectively. The Sr gene in PI 534304 mapped to 6AL and is most likely Sr13, while the Sr gene in PI 192051 could be uncharacterized in durum.

  2. Cell wall elasticity: I. A critique of the bulk elastic modulus approach and an analysis using polymer elastic principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H. I.; Spence, R. D.; Sharpe, P. J.; Goeschl, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    The traditional bulk elastic modulus approach to plant cell pressure-volume relations is inconsistent with its definition. The relationship between the bulk modulus and Young's modulus that forms the basis of their usual application to cell pressure-volume properties is demonstrated to be physically meaningless. The bulk modulus describes stress/strain relations of solid, homogeneous bodies undergoing small deformations, whereas the plant cell is best described as a thin-shelled, fluid-filled structure with a polymer base. Because cell walls possess a polymer structure, an alternative method of mechanical analysis is presented using polymer elasticity principles. This initial study presents the groundwork of polymer mechanics as would be applied to cell walls and discusses how the matrix and microfibrillar network induce nonlinear stress/strain relationships in the cell wall in response to turgor pressure. In subsequent studies, these concepts will be expanded to include anisotropic expansion as regulated by the microfibrillar network.

  3. Implementation of Mass Spectrometry for Bulk Analysis of Environmental and Nuclear Material Inspection Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulyha, S.; Cunningham, A.; Koepf, A.; Macsik, Z.; Poths, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the frame of the ECAS project (Enhancing Capabilities of Safeguards Analytical Services) the IAEA Office of Safeguards Analytical Services has implemented the latest-generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometers, or ICP-MS, for (i) bulk analysis of uranium and plutonium isotopes in environmental inspection samples and (ii) impurity analyzes in uranium samples. The measurement accuracy for n(U-235)/ n(U-238) ratios has been improved by approximately five times with the new multi-collector ICP-MS equipment. Use of modern ICP-MS enabled also an improvement of instrumental detection limits for U-233 and U-236 and Pu isotopes by at least one order of magnitude in comparison to the values, which had been achieved with the previously used methods. The improved accuracy and precision for isotope ratio measurements is mainly due to the higher sensitivity and the possibility to simultaneously detect several U isotopes with a multi-collector detector block. Implementation of the ICP-MS has also demonstrated a possibility for an increased sample throughput. In parallel to the implementation of the ICP-MS, a new version of the ''modified total evaporation'' (MTE) method has been developed for isotopic analysis of uranium samples by multi-collector thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). The MTE method provides a measurement performance which is, in particular for minor uranium isotopes, by several orders of magnitude superior compared to the commonly used ''total evaporation'' method. The new mass spectrometric techniques significantly improve the capability of the IAEA safeguards laboratories to detect the presence of non-natural uranium and plutonium isotopes in environmental swipe samples and to identify previously imperceptible differences in nuclear ''signatures''. Thus, they enhance the IAEA's ability to obtain independent, timely and quality-assured safeguards-relevant data and ensure

  4. Bulk-Flow Analysis of Hybrid Thrust Bearings for Advanced Cryogenic Turbopumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanAndres, Luis

    1998-01-01

    A bulk-flow analysis and computer program for prediction of the static load performance and dynamic force coefficients of angled injection, orifice-compensated hydrostatic/hydrodynamic thrust bearings have been completed. The product of the research is an efficient computational tool for the design of high-speed thrust bearings for cryogenic fluid turbopumps. The study addresses the needs of a growing technology that requires of reliable fluid film bearings to provide the maximum operating life with optimum controllable rotordynamic characteristics at the lowest cost. The motion of a cryogenic fluid on the thin film lands of a thrust bearing is governed by a set of bulk-flow mass and momentum conservation and energy transport equations. Mass flow conservation and a simple model for momentum transport within the hydrostatic bearing recesses are also accounted for. The bulk-flow model includes flow turbulence with fluid inertia advection, Coriolis and centrifugal acceleration effects on the bearing recesses and film lands. The cryogenic fluid properties are obtained from realistic thermophysical equations of state. Turbulent bulk-flow shear parameters are based on Hirs' model with Moody's friction factor equations allowing a simple simulation for machined bearing surface roughness. A perturbation analysis leads to zeroth-order nonlinear equations governing the fluid flow for the thrust bearing operating at a static equilibrium position, and first-order linear equations describing the perturbed fluid flow for small amplitude shaft motions in the axial direction. Numerical solution to the zeroth-order flow field equations renders the bearing flow rate, thrust load, drag torque and power dissipation. Solution to the first-order equations determines the axial stiffness, damping and inertia force coefficients. The computational method uses well established algorithms and generic subprograms available from prior developments. The Fortran9O computer program hydrothrust runs

  5. The study of the dynamic behaviour and safety of nuclear power plants by means of on-line, real time noise signal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.G.

    1973-01-01

    This paper describes an on-line data acquisition system designed to carry out the above funtions. Preliminary results obtained during the monitoring of the HIFAR reactor of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission are reported and discussed. The relationships between experimental measurements and basic stochastic models are explored. (author)

  6. Validation of a high performance liquid chromatography analysis for the determination of noradrenaline and adrenaline in human urine with an on-line sample purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Kristiansen, J; Nielsen, J L

    1999-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with fluorescence detection including an on-line purification was established for determination of catecholamines in human urine. The method was evaluated using samples of pooled urine spiked with catecholamines and validated for measurements...

  7. An automated method for the analysis of phenolic acids in plasma based on ion-pairing micro-extraction coupled on-line to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with in-liner derivatisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S.; Kaal, E.; Horsting, I.; Janssen, H.-G.

    2012-01-01

    A new method is presented for the analysis of phenolic acids in plasma based on ion-pairing ‘Micro-extraction in packed sorbent’ (MEPS) coupled on-line to in-liner derivatisation-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The ion-pairing reagent served a dual purpose. It was used both to improve

  8. On-line solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for insect repellent residue analysis in surface waters using atmospheric pressure photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molins-Delgado, Daniel; García-Sillero, Daniel; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2018-04-06

    Insect repellents (IRs) are a group of organic chemicals whose function is to prevent the ability of insects of landing in a surface. These compounds have been found in the environment and may pose a risk to non-target organisms. In this study, an on-line solid phase extraction - high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry multiresidue method was developed using an atmospheric photoionization source (SPE-HPLC-(APPI)-MS/MS). The use of the APPI as an alternative ionization technique to electrospray (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) allowed expanding the range of analytical techniques suitable for the analysis of IRs, so far relied in gas chromatography. High sensitivity and precision was reached with method limits of quantification between 0.2 and 4.6 ng l -1 and interday and intraday precision equal or below 15%. The validated method was applied to the study of surface water samples from three European river basins with different flow regime (Adige River in Italy, Sava River in the Balkans, and Evrotas River in Greece). The results showed that two IRs (DEET and Bayrepel) were ubiquitous in the Sava and Evrotas basins, reaching concentrations as high as 105 μg l -1 of Bayrepel in the Sava River, and 5 μg l -1 of DEET in the Evrotas River. Densely populated areas and effluent waste waters are pointed out as the responsible for this pollution. In the alpine river Adige, only three samples showed low levels of IRs (6.01-37.8 ng l -1 ). The concentrations measured were used to perform an environmental risk assessment based on the hazard quotients (HQs) estimation approach by using the chronic and acute eco-toxicity data available. The results revealed that despite the high frequency and eventually high concentrations of these IRs determined in the three basins, only few sites were at risk, with 1 < HQs < 3.3. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Return on Investment Analysis of Health Experts onLine at Portsmouth: A 2-Year Review of the Navy's Newest Teleconsultation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Andrew H; Welstead, Bethany L; Morey, Brittany L; Mahnke, C Becket; Cole, Jacob H; Johnston, Michael G

    2017-05-01

    Health Experts onLine at Portsmouth (HELP) is a web-based teleconsultation system launched in June 2014 to facilitate communication between specialists at Naval Medical Center Portsmouth and providers assigned to both the fleet forces and primary care clinics across the eastern United States, Europe, and the Middle East. Specialist consultations through the HELP system purport to improve access to care for patients who otherwise might be referred to the civilian network or medically evacuated (MEDEVACed) to Naval Medical Center Portsmouth for specialized care. If HELP-facilitated communications help avoid civilian referrals or MEDEVACs, the associated costs of that care should be reduced. We evaluated cost savings associated with prevented MEDEVACs by analyzing both tangible savings (prevented costs of flights, per diems, and consults) and intangible savings (reduced lost productivity time). We compared these savings to the costs of maintaining and utilizing the HELP system: startup costs, administrative costs, and provider time costs. We used patient and provider data from the HELP database to evaluate clinical consult cases. Before this analysis, a panel of 3 physicians associated with HELP reviewed each consult to determine whether a case qualified as a prevented MEDEVAC. Data from the Military Health System (MHS) Management and Analysis Reporting Tool and the MHS Data Repository were used to estimate costs associated with provider time, patient time, and direct care medical encounters. The HELP program delivered measurable, positive returns on investment (ROIs) between June 2014 and December 2015. In that time frame, 559 consult cases occurred in the HELP system. Of the 559 total consult cases, 50 consults prevented MEDEVACs. Incorporating only tangible savings, HELP produced an 80% ROI on the basis of prevented medical evacuations; the addition of intangible savings such as reduced lost productivity increased the ROI to 250%. The dollar values of these savings

  10. Bulk hydrogen analysis, using neutrons. Final report of the first research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    There are many situations when hydrogen is required to be measured in a bulk medium. For this reason neutrons are used due to their high penetrating power in dense material. In addition, the mass attenuation coefficient for neutrons in hydrogen is significantly larger than for all other elements, meaning that neutrons have a higher probability of interacting with hydrogen than with other elements in the sample matrix. This CRP was recommended for further development of the techniques and new applications in the following areas: Fast Neutron/Gamma Transmission Technique; Digital Neutron Imaging; Hydrogen Detection by Epithermal Neutrons; Microscopic Behaviour of Hydrogen in Bulk Materials

  11. On-line pre-reduction of pentavalent arsenicals by thioglycolic acid for speciation analysis by selective hydride generation-cryotrapping-atomic absorption spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musil, Stanislav; Matoušek, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 6 (2008), s. 685-691 ISSN 0584-8547 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400310507 Grant - others:NIH-FIRCA(US) 1 R03 TW007057-01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : HG-AAS * methylated arsenic species * on-line pre-reduction Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.853, year: 2008

  12. Evaluation and Analysis of Cotton Bedding as a Bulking Agent in an Aerobic Food Waste Composting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, A. S. L.

    2017-12-01

    Food wastage is a prominent issue in Hong Kong that should be addressed. Here at The Independent Schools Foundation Academy, we are continuously looking for ways to improve, including that of food waste. In 2013 the school installed an A900 Rocket Food Composter, in hopes of reducing carbon footprint. Since the installation, the school has tested various elements of the food composter to further improve upon it to make it increasingly more sustainable and effective. These improvements vary from the revamping of the odour control system, increasing the nitrogen content and the installation of an improved grease trap. The school composts the food waste through combining a variety of substances together: coffee, compost, food waste, and a bulking agent - which will be tested in this study. Recently, the school has changed the compost bulking agent from wood shavings and cardboard to cotton bedding - a side product of the production of UK passports. In this study, I will evaluate the effectiveness of cotton bedding as a bulking agent in an aerobic composting system, focusing primarily on three points: a) microbial activity - the identification of cellulose digesting bacteria and the associated kinetics, b) the soil gas composition - the data shall be collected through the use of the Gasmet DX 4015, and c) the chemical analysis of the compost - specifically the amount of aluminum in the compost and whether or not it is significant enough to discredit cotton bedding as an effective bulking agent. The the analysis of cotton bedding using these three specifications will allow ISF Academy to evaluate the overall effectiveness of cotton bedding as a bulking agent.

  13. On-line monitoring for calibration reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Mario; Gran, Frauke Schmitt; Thunem, Harald P-J.

    2004-04-01

    On-Line Monitoring (OLM) of a channel's calibration state evaluates instrument channel performance by assessing its consistency with other plant indications. Industry and experience at several plants has shown this overall approach to be very effective in identifying instrument channels that are exhibiting degrading or inconsistent performance characteristics. The Halden Reactor Project has developed the signal validation system PEANO, which can be used to assist with the tasks of OLM. To further enhance the PEANO System for use as a calibration reduction tool, the following two additional modules have been developed; HRP Prox, which performs pre-processing and statistical analysis of signal data, Batch Monitoring Module (BMM), which is an off-line batch monitoring and reporting suite. The purpose and functionality of the HRP Prox and BMM modules are discussed in this report, as well as the improvements made to the PEANO Server to support these new modules. The Halden Reactor Project has established a Halden On-Line Monitoring User Group (HOLMUG), devoted to the discussion and implementation of on-line monitoring techniques in power plants. It is formed by utilities, vendors, regulatory bodies and research institutes that meet regularly to discuss implementation aspects of on-line monitoring, technical specification changes, cost-benefit analysis and regulatory issues. (Author)

  14. Analysis of atomic mobility in a Cu38Zr46Ag8Al8 bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, J.C.; Pelletier, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Atomic mobility in Cu 38 Zr 46 Ag 8 Al 8 bulk metallic glass have been investigated by DMA. ► Loss factor is directly connected to the energy lost during application of the stress. ► Structural relaxation and crystallization induces a decrease of the atomic mobility. ► The concentration of quasi-point defects links to atomic mobility in metallic glasses. - Abstract: Atomic mobility in as-cast and annealed Cu 38 Zr 46 Ag 8 Al 8 bulk metallic glass samples is analyzed by performing dynamic mechanical analysis. The loss factor is directly connected to the energy lost during application of the stress. Structural relaxation process and crystallization lead to a decrease of the atomic mobility in the bulk metallic glass. A physical model, based on the concept of quasi point defects is introduced, to describe the atomic mobility. Movements in amorphous materials are correlated. The correlation factor χ reflects the atomic mobility in bulk metallic glasses: structural relaxation and crystallization lead to a decrease of χ, implying the reduction of atomic mobility. The evolution of elastic, visco-elastic and viscoplastic components after structural relaxation and partial crystallization state during the mechanical response has been obtained. Compared with as-cast state, structural relaxation induced an increase of elastic component and a decrease of visco-elastic component in the metallic glass.

  15. CERN Video News on line

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The latest CERN video news is on line. In this issue : an interview with the Director General and reports on the new home for the DELPHI barrel and the CERN firemen's spectacular training programme. There's also a vintage video news clip from 1954. See: www.cern.ch/video or Bulletin web page

  16. The potential of dielectric analysis as an on-line cure monitoring technique in the manufacture of advanced fibre reinforced composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIlhagger, A.T.

    2002-02-01

    Composite manufacturing processes such as RTM, are being developed in the aerospace industry in order to promote and reduce the cost of advanced fibre reinforced composites. The aerospace industry has identified the need for a cure monitoring system to be utilised in this production, to improve the efficiency and reliability of processing. The system must be able to determine through-thickness properties of the composite, on-line and without affecting the integrity of the finished component. Literature has shown that a number of techniques are available but these do not address all of the requirements of industry. The most important process parameters in RTM are the resin flow, point of minimum viscosity, gelation and subsequent completion of cure. These 'key cure parameters' are often difficult to control accurately in the manufacturing environment. Although dielectric analysis has been around for many years, literature identified an urgent requirement for research on the interpretation of dielectric sensor data relating to these main process parameters. A dielectric laboratory instrument, operated in the parallel plate sensor configuration was utilised to simulate a standard RTM cure cycle. The important transitions in the resin, namely minimum viscosity, gelation, vitrification and completion of cure, were identified. The parallel plate dielectric technique was applied to composites containing conductive and non-conductive reinforcement fibres. The appropriate dielectric signals and frequency were determined based on the sensor configuration, insulating layer and resin/fabric type. Correlations have been demonstrated between dielectric results and other established thermal (DSC and. DMA) and mechanical test techniques (tensile, flexural and interlaminar shear). Test methods were designed and investigated to provide information to compare with dielectric data. The parallel plate configuration was used to investigate the effect of composite thickness variation on

  17. Independent principal component analysis for simulation of soil water content and bulk density in a Canadian Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaba Boluwade

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate characterization of soil properties such as soil water content (SWC and bulk density (BD is vital for hydrologic processes and thus, it is importance to estimate θ (water content and ρ (soil bulk density among other soil surface parameters involved in water retention and infiltration, runoff generation and water erosion, etc. The spatial estimation of these soil properties are important in guiding agricultural management decisions. These soil properties vary both in space and time and are correlated. Therefore, it is important to find an efficient and robust technique to simulate spatially correlated variables. Methods such as principal component analysis (PCA and independent component analysis (ICA can be used for the joint simulations of spatially correlated variables, but they are not without their flaws. This study applied a variant of PCA called independent principal component analysis (IPCA that combines the strengths of both PCA and ICA for spatial simulation of SWC and BD using the soil data set from an 11 km2 Castor watershed in southern Quebec, Canada. Diagnostic checks using the histograms and cumulative distribution function (cdf both raw and back transformed simulations show good agreement. Therefore, the results from this study has potential in characterization of water content variability and bulk density variation for precision agriculture.

  18. Bulk hydrogen analysis, using neutrons. Final report of the second research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    The aims of the Second Co-ordination Meting (RCM) of the Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) were to report on and review progress against the work programme set at the beginning of the CRP and to discuss the work plans for the second half of the programme. In many cases hydrogen is required to be measured in a bulk medium rather than merely at a surface. For this reason neutrons are used due to their high penetrating power in dense material. In addition, the mass attenuation coefficient for neutrons in hydrogen is significantly larger than for all other elements, meaning that neutrons have a higher probability of interacting with hydrogen than with other elements in the sample matrix. Neutrons have been used in the following areas: Fast Neutron Transmission, Scattering and Activation Technique; Digital Neutron Imaging; Hydrogen Detection by Epithermal Neutrons; Microscopic Behaviour of Hydrogen in Bulk Materials

  19. Contribution of bulk mass spectrometry isotopic analysis to characterization of materials in the framework of CMX-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchkin, A.; Stebelkov, V.; Zhizhin, K.; Lierse von Gostomski, Ch.; Kardinal, Ch.; Loi, E.; Keegan, E.; Kristo, M.J.

    2018-01-01

    Seven laboratories used the results of bulk uranium isotopic analysis by either inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) for characterization of the samples in the Nuclear Forensic International Technical Working Group fourth international collaborative material exercise, CMX-4. Comparison of the measured isotopic compositions of uranium in three exercise samples is implemented for identifying any differences or similarities between the samples. The role of isotopic analyses in the context of a real nuclear forensic investigation is discussed. Several limitations in carrying out ICP-MS or TIMS analysis in CMX-4 are noted. (author)

  20. Acute phosphine poisoning on board a bulk carrier: analysis of factors leading to a fatal case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loddé, Brice; Lucas, David; Letort, Jean-Marie; Jegaden, Dominique; Pougnet, Richard; Dewitte, Jean-Dominique

    2015-01-01

    To determine accidental factors, clinical presentation and medical care in cases of seafarers presenting phosphine poisoning symptoms on board a bulk carrier. To consider primary prevention of this pathology, which can have extremely severe consequences. To analyse circumstances resulting in toxic exposure to phosphine in the sea transport sector. To obtain information from medical reports regarding the seafarer's rescue. To identify the causes of this accidental poisoning and how to establish an early, appropriate diagnosis thus avoiding other cases. In February 2008, on board a bulk carrier with a cargo of peas, a 56-year-old seafarer with intense abdominal and chest pains, associated with dizziness, was rescued by helicopter 80 miles away from the coast. Despite being admitted rapidly to hospital, his heart rate decreased associated with respiratory distress. He lost consciousness and convulsed. He finally died of pulmonary oedema, major metabolic acidosis and acute multi organ failure. The following day, the captain issued a rescue call from the same vessel for a 41-year-old man also with abdominal pain, vomiting and dizziness. The ECG only revealed type 1 Brugada syndrome. Then 11 other seafarers were evacuated for observation. 3 showed clinical abnormalities. Collective poisoning was suspected. Medical team found out that aluminium phosphide pellets had been put in the ship's hold for pest control before the vessel's departure. Seafarers were poisoned by phosphine gas spreading through cabins above the hold. It was found that the compartments and ducts were not airtight. Unfortunately, a seafarer on board a bulk carrier died in 2008 because of acute phosphine poisoning. Fumigation performed using this gas needs to be done with extreme care. Systematic checks need to be carried out before sailing to ensure that the vessel's compartments are airtight.

  1. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of products from on-line pyrolysis/silylation of plant gums used as binding media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiantore, Oscar; Riedo, Chiara; Scalarone, Dominique

    2009-07-01

    Plant gums are complex polysaccharides used in the field of cultural heritage especially as binding media. Classification of polysaccharides may be achieved on the basis of monosaccharides composition after cleavage of glycosidic bond. Characterization of plant gums in works of art is complicated by the necessity of to use a method minimally invasive and requiring a small mount of sample. Pyrolisys is an useful method to obtain polysaccharides decomposition and generally pyrolysis products can be identified by the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This paper describes a method where two plant gums, arabic and tragacanth, were pyrolized in presence of silylating agents (HMDS e BSTFA alone and with TMCS as catalyst) using an on-line Py-GC/MS apparatus. Some characteristic trimethylsilyl derivatives of monosaccharides were identified on the basis of mass spectra. The presence of characteristic pyrolysis products of sugars allows to distinguish the two gums.

  2. Epoxidized soy bean oil migrating from the gaskets of lids into food packed in glass jars. Analysis by on-line liquid chromatography-gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankhauser-Noti, Anja; Fiselier, Katell; Biedermann-Brem, Sandra; Grob, Koni

    2005-08-05

    The migration of epoxidized soy bean oil (ESBO) from the gasket in the lids of glass jars into foods, particularly those rich in edible oil, often far exceeds the legal limit (60 mg/kg). ESBO was determined through a methyl ester isomer of diepoxy linoleic acid. Transesterification occurred directly in the homogenized food. From the extracted methyl esters, the diepoxy components were isolated by normal-phase LC and transferred on-line to gas chromatography with flame ionization detection using the on-column interface in the concurrent solvent evaporation mode. The method involves verification elements to ensure the reliability of the results for every sample analyzed. The detection limit is 2-5 mg/kg, depending on the food. Uncertainty of the procedure is below 10%.

  3. Automation in trace-element chemistry - Development of a fully automated on-line preconcentration device for trace analysis of heavy metals with atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, M.R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Scope of this work was the development of an automated system for trace element preconcentration to be used and integrated to analytic atomic spectroscopic methods like flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) or atomic emission spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES). Based on the newly developed cellulose-based chelating cation exchangers ethylene-diamin-triacetic acid cellulose (EDTrA-Cellulose) and sulfonated-oxine cellulose a flexible, computer-controlled instrument for automation of preconcentration and/or of matrix separation of heavy metals is described. The most important properties of these materials are fast exchange kinetics, good selectivity against alkaline and alkaline earth elements, good flow characteristics and good stability of the material and the chelating functions against changes in pH-values of reagents necessary in the process. The combination of the preconcentration device for on-line determinations of Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Fe, Co, Mn, V, Cu, La, U, Th is described for FAAS and for ICP-AES with a simultaneous spectrometer. Signal enhancement factors of 70 are achieved from preconcentration of 10 ml and on-line determination with FAAS due to signal quantification in peak-height mode. For GFAAS and for sequential ICP methods for off-line preconcentration are given. The optimization and adaption of the interface to the different characteristics of the analytical instrumentation is emphasized. For evaluation and future developments with respect to determination and/or preconcentration of anionic species like As, Se, Sb etc. instrument modifications are proposed and a development software is described. (Author)

  4. On the pinning performance analysis in bulk RE-123 twin-free superconductors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirsa, Miloš; Petrenko, Pavlo; Yao, X.; Muralidhar, M.

    463-465, - (2007), s. 353-356 ISSN 0921-4534. [International Symposium on Superconductivity /19./. Nagoya, 01.10.2006-03.10.2006] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05ME728 Grant - others:MOST(CN) 2006CB601003; SSTC(CN) 055207077 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : Penk effect * bulk RE-123 superconductors * pinning force scaling * pinning classification Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.079, year: 2007

  5. Analysis on the phase transition behavior of Cu base bulk metallic glass by electrical resistivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Young Su; Chung, Sung Jae; Ok, Myoung-Ryul; Hong, Kyung Tae; Suh, Jin-Yoo; Byeon, Jai Won; Yoon, Jin-Kook; Lee, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Kyung Sub

    2007-01-01

    The crystallization behavior of Cu 43 Zr 43 Al 7 Ag 7 (numbers indicate at.%) bulk metallic glass was investigated using the isothermal electrical resistivity measurements at 450 deg. C in the supercooled liquid region. The crystallization process is a single step phase transformation. To analyze the electrical resistivity reduction, microstructure evolutions were analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. The Avrami parameter of the electrical resistivity reduction step was 1.73, indicating that the crystallization process is a diffusion-controlled growth of intermetallic compounds with decreasing nucleation rate

  6. A simple method using on-line continuous leaching and ion exchange chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the speciation analysis of bio-accessible arsenic in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Nolan S; Beauchemin, Diane

    2012-03-02

    A simple method for the speciation analysis of bio-accessible arsenic (As) in rice was developed using a continuous on-line leaching method to release the bio-accessible fraction. The continuous on-line leaching method has several advantages over commonly used batch methods including quicker and easier sample preparation, reduced risk of contamination and access to real time leaching data. The bio-accessibility of As in the samples was monitored using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results from a certified reference material as well as cooked and uncooked white rice showed that the majority of As was leached by saliva. Results obtained using the continuous on-line leaching method were comparable to those obtained using a batch method. Speciation analysis of the saliva leachate was performed using ion exchange chromatography coupled to ICP-MS. The four most toxic forms of As (As(III), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and As(V)) were clearly separated within 5 min in a single chromatographic run. Over 92% of bio-accessible As in the certified reference material and uncooked white rice sample was in the form of DMA and As(V), whereas it was present as DMA and As(III) in the cooked white rice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. On line ultrasonic integrated backscatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landini, L.; Picano, E.; Mazzarisi, A.; Santarelli, F.; Benassi, A.; De Pieri, G.

    1988-01-01

    A new equipment for on-line evaluation of index based on two-dimensional integrated backscatter from ultrasonic images is described. The new equipment is fully integrated into a B-mode ultrasonic apparatus which provides a simultaneous display of conventional information together with parameters of tissue characterization. The system has been tested with a backscattering model of microbubbles in polysaccharide solution, characterized by a physiological exponential time decay. An exponential fitting to the experimental data was performed which yielded r=0.95

  8. On-line nuclear orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, K.S.

    1990-01-01

    This grant has as its overall goal the pursuit of on-line nuclear orientation experiments for the purpose of eliciting details of nuclear structure from the decays of neutron-deficient nuclei, such as those produced by the Holifield Heavy-Ion Research Facility at Oak Ridge and extracted by the UNISOR Isotope Separator. This paper discusses: refrigerator development; the decay of 184 Au; the decay of 191 Hg to 191 Au; the decay of 189 Pt to 189 Ir; the decays of 109,111 Pd; the decay of 172 Er; and solid angle corrections

  9. On-Line Voltage Stability Assessment based on PMU Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; P. Da Silva, Luiz C.; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method for on-line monitoring of risk voltage collapse based on synchronised phasor measurement. As there is no room for intensive computation and analysis in real-time, the method is based on the combination of off-line computation and on-line monitoring, which are correlat...

  10. Analysis of heterocyclic amines in hair by on-line in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography−tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Tsutomu; Saito, Keita; Kato, Hisato; Masuda, Kazufumi

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amines are accumulated in the hair of smoker. -- Highlights: •On-line in-tube solid-phase microextraction of heterocyclic amines was optimized. •Fourteen heterocyclic amines were simultaneously determined by LC–MS/MS. •Pico gram levels of heterocyclic amines could be easily analyzed within 15 min. •Heterocyclic amines could be quantitatively analyzed from several milligrams of hair. •The method is useful for the assessment of long-term exposure to heterocyclic amines. -- Abstract: Mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are formed during heating of various proteinaceous foods, but human exposure to HCAs has not yet been elucidated in detail. To assess long-term exposure to HCAs, we developed a simple and sensitive method for measuring HCAs in hair by automated on-line in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). Using a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C8 column, 16 HCAs were analyzed within 15 min. The optimum in-tube SPME conditions were 20 draw/eject cycles of 40 μL sample at a flow rate of 200 μL min −1 using a Supel-Q PLOT capillary column as an extraction device. The extracted HCAs were easily desorbed from the column by passage of the mobile phase, with no carryover observed. This in-tube SPME LC–MS/MS method showed good linearity for HCAs in the range of 10–2000 pg mL −1 , with correlation coefficients above 0.9989 (n = 18), using stable isotope-labeled HCA internal standards. The detection limits (S/N = 3) of 14 HCAs except for MeAαC and Glu-P-1 were 0.10–0.79 pg mL −1 . This method was successfully utilized to analyze 14 HCAs in hair samples without any interference peaks, with quantitative limits (S/N = 10) of about 0.17–1.32 pg mg −1 hair. Using this method, we evaluated the exposure to HCAs in cigarette smoke and the suitability of using hair HCAs as exposure biomarkers

  11. Computational analysis of the atomic size effect in bulk metallic glasses and their liquid precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokotin, V.; Hermann, H.

    2008-01-01

    The atomic size effect and its consequences for the ability of multicomponent liquid alloys to form bulk metallic glasses are analyzed in terms of the generalized Bernal's model for liquids, following the hypothesis that maximum density in the liquid state improves the glass-forming ability. The maximum density that can be achieved in the liquid state is studied in the 2(N-1) dimensional parameter space of N-component systems. Computer simulations reveal that the size ratio of largest to smallest atoms are most relevant for achieving the maximum packing for N = 3-5, whereas the number of components plays a minor role. At small size ratio, the maximum packing density can be achieved by different atomic size distributions, whereas for medium size ratios the maximum density is always correlated to a concave size distribution. The relationship of the results to Miracle's efficient cluster packing model is also discussed

  12. Analysis of equations of state and temperature dependence of thermal expansivity and bulk modulus for silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandya, Tushar C; Bhatt, Apoorva D; Thakar, Nilesh A

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper an attempt has been made for the comparative study of different equations of state for silicon (Phase-1, cubic diamond structure) in the pressure range of 0-11 GPa. We compare the results of different equations of state (EOS) with available experimental data. The Kwon and Kim EOS is found to give far better agreement with the available experimental data. Results obtained by Poirier-Tarantola, Vinet, Tait and Suzuki's equations of state are not giving satisfactory agreement with the available experimental data. In the present study simple methods based on thermodynamic functions are presented to investigate the temperature dependence of thermal expansivity and bulk modulus for silicon. The results are reported for silicon. The calculated values of thermal expansivity are in good agreement with experimental data.

  13. Dynamic characteristics and finite element analysis of a magnetic levitation system using a YBCO bulk superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, H; Ishiyama, A

    2004-01-01

    We have been developing a magnetic levitating device with two-dimensional movement, namely a 'levitating X-Y transporter'. For the real design of a levitating X-Y transporter, it is necessary to clarify the levitation characteristics, such as the lift, the levitation height and the stability against mechanical disturbances. Furthermore various kinds of force may be applied to the levitating part and cause mechanical oscillation. Therefore the characteristics of oscillation are also important factors in the dynamic stability of such a levitation system. In this paper, we examine experimentally the lift and the restoring force and develop a new simulation code based on the three-dimensional hybrid finite and boundary element method to analyse the dynamic electromagnetic behaviour of the HTS bulk. We have investigated a suitable permanent-magnet arrangement to enhance the levitation characteristics through experiment and numerical simulation. We can then determine the suitable conditions for stable levitation from those results

  14. Homogenate-assisted Vacuum-powered Bubble Extraction of Moso Bamboo Flavonoids for On-line Scavenging Free Radical Capacity Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yinnan; Yang, Kui; Cao, Qin; Sun, Jinde; Xia, Yu; Wang, Yinhang; Li, Wei; Ma, Chunhui; Liu, Shouxin

    2017-07-11

    A homogenate-assisted vacuum-powered bubble extraction (HVBE) method using ethanol was applied for extraction of flavonoids from Phyllostachys pubescens (P. pubescens) leaves. The mechanisms of homogenate-assisted extraction and vacuum-powered bubble generation were discussed in detail. Furthermore, a method for the rapid determination of flavonoids by HPLC was established. HVBE followed by HPLC was successfully applied for the extraction and quantification of four flavonoids in P. pubescens , including orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin. This method provides a fast and effective means for the preparation and determination of plant active components. Moreover, the on-line antioxidant capacity, including scavenging positive ion and negative ion free radical capacity of different fractions from the bamboo flavonoid extract was evaluated. Results showed that the scavenging DPPH ˙ free radical capacity of vitexin and isovitexin was larger than that of isoorientin and orientin. On the contrary, the scavenging ABTS⁺ ˙ free radical capacity of isoorientin and orientin was larger than that of vitexin and isovitexin.

  15. On-line dynamic fractionation and automatic determination of inorganic phosphorous in environmental solid substrates exploiting sequential injection microcolumn extraction and flow injection analysi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buanuam, Janya; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2006-01-01

    Sequential injection microcolumn extraction (SI-MCE) based on the implementation of a soil containing microcartridge as external reactor in a sequential injection network is, for the first time, proposed for dynamic fractionation of macronutrients in environmental solids, as exemplified by the pa......Sequential injection microcolumn extraction (SI-MCE) based on the implementation of a soil containing microcartridge as external reactor in a sequential injection network is, for the first time, proposed for dynamic fractionation of macronutrients in environmental solids, as exemplified...... by the partitioning of inorganic phosphorous in agricultural soils. The on-line fractionation method capitalises on the accurate metering and sequential exposure of the various extractants to the solid sample by application of programmable flow as precisely coordinated by a syringe pump. Three different soil phase...... associations for phosphorus, that is, exchangeable, Al- and Fe-bound and Ca-bound fractions, were elucidated by accommodation in the flow manifold of the 3 steps of the Hietjles-Litjkema (HL) scheme involving the use of 1.0 M NH4Cl, 0.1 M NaOH and 0.5 M HCl, respectively, as sequential leaching reagents...

  16. Accelerated solvent extraction followed by on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to ion trap LC/MS/MS for analysis of benzalkonium chlorides in sediment samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, I.; Furlong, E.T.

    2002-01-01

    Benzalkonium chlorides (BACs) were successfully extracted from sediment samples using a new methodology based on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) followed by an on-line cleanup step. The BACs were detected by liquid chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry (LC/MS) or tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using an electrospray interface operated in the positive ion mode. This methodology combines the high efficiency of extraction provided by a pressurized fluid and the high sensitivity offered by the ion trap MS/MS. The effects of solvent type and ASE operational variables, such as temperature and pressure, were evaluated. After optimization, a mixture of acetonitrile/water (6:4 or 7:3) was found to be most efficient for extracting BACs from the sediment samples. Extraction recoveries ranged from 95 to 105% for C12 and C14 homologues, respectively. Total method recoveries from fortified sediment samples, using a cleanup step followed by ASE, were 85% for C12BAC and 79% for C14-BAC. The methodology developed in this work provides detection limits in the subnanogram per gram range. Concentrations of BAC homologues ranged from 22 to 206 ??g/kg in sediment samples from different river sites downstream from wastewater treatment plants. The high affinity of BACs for soil suggests that BACs preferentially concentrate in sediment rather than in water.

  17. High efficiency cell-recycle continuous sodium gluconate production by Aspergillus niger using on-line physiological parameters association analysis to regulate feed rate rationally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fei; Li, Chao; Wang, Zejian; Zhao, Wei; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a system of cell-recycle continuous fermentation for sodium gluconate (SG) production by Aspergillus niger (A. niger) was established. Based on initial continuous fermentation result (100.0h) with constant feed rate, an automatic feedback strategy to regulate feed rate using on-line physiological parameters (OUR and DO) was proposed and applied successfully for the first time in the improved continuous fermentation (240.5h). Due to less auxiliary time, highest SG production rate (31.05±0.29gL(-1)h(-1)) and highest yield (0.984±0.067molmol(-1)), overall SG production capacity (975.8±5.8gh(-1)) in 50-L fermentor of improved continuous fermentation increased more than 300.0% compared to that of batch fermentation. Improvement of mass transfer and dispersed mycelia morphology were the two major reasons responsible for the high SG production rate. This system had been successfully applied to industrial fermentation and SG production was greatly improved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging, Y-12 National Security Complex, Model ES-3100 Package with Bulk HEU Contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, James [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Goins, Monty [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Paul, Pran [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilkinson, Alan [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, David [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-03

    This safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) presents the results of the safety analysis prepared in support of the Consolidated Nuclear Security, LLC (CNS) request for licensing of the Model ES-3100 package with bulk highly enriched uranium (HEU) contents and issuance of a Type B(U) Fissile Material Certificate of Compliance. This SARP, published in the format specified in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 7.9 and using information provided in UCID-21218 and NRC Regulatory Guide 7.10, demonstrates that the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) ES-3100 package with bulk HEU contents meets the established NRC regulations for packaging, preparation for shipment, and transportation of radioactive materials given in Title 10, Part 71, of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) [10 CFR 71] as well as U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations for packaging and shipment of hazardous materials given in Title 49 CFR. To protect the health and safety of the public, shipments of adioactive materials are made in packaging that is designed, fabricated, assembled, tested, procured, used, maintained, and repaired in accordance with the provisions cited above. Safety requirements addressed by the regulations that must be met when transporting radioactive materials are containment of radioactive materials, radiation shielding, and assurance of nuclear subcriticality.

  19. A simple method of genomic DNA extraction suitable for analysis of bulk fungal strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y J; Zhang, S; Liu, X Z; Wen, H A; Wang, M

    2010-07-01

    A simple and rapid method (designated thermolysis) for extracting genomic DNA from bulk fungal strains was described. In the thermolysis method, a few mycelia or yeast cells were first rinsed with pure water to remove potential PCR inhibitors and then incubated in a lysis buffer at 85 degrees C to break down cell walls and membranes. This method was used to extract genomic DNA from large numbers of fungal strains (more than 92 species, 35 genera of three phyla) isolated from different sections of natural Ophiocordyceps sinensis specimens. Regions of interest from high as well as single-copy number genes were successfully amplified from the extracted DNA samples. The DNA samples obtained by this method can be stored at -20 degrees C for over 1 year. The method was effective, easy and fast and allowed batch DNA extraction from multiple fungal isolates. Use of the thermolysis method will allow researchers to obtain DNA from fungi quickly for use in molecular assays. This method requires only minute quantities of starting material and is suitable for diverse fungal species.

  20. Straining Ge bulk and nanomembranes for optoelectronic applications: a systematic numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scopece, Daniele; Montalenti, Francesco; Bonera, Emiliano; Bollani, Monica; Chrastina, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Germanium is known to become a direct band gap material when subject to a biaxial tensile strain of 2% (Vogl et al 1993 Phys. Scr. T49B 476) or uniaxial tensile strain of 4% (Aldaghri et al 2012 J. Appl. Phys. 111 053106). This makes it appealing for the integration of optoelectronics into current CMOS technology. It is known that the induced strain is highly dependent on the geometry and composition of the whole system (stressors and substrate), leaving a large number of variables to the experimenters willing to realize this transition and just a trial-and-error procedure. The study in this paper aims at reducing this freedom. We adopt a finite element approach to systematically study the elastic strain induced by different configurations of lithographically-created SiGe nanostructures on a Ge substrate, by focusing on their composition and geometries. We numerically investigate the role played by the Ge substrate by comparing the strain induced on a bulk or on a suspended membrane. These results and their interpretation can provide the community starting guidelines to choose the appropriate subset of parameters to achieve the desired strain. A case of a very large optically active area of a Ge membrane is reported. (paper)

  1. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGE SUBJECTED TO CLOSURE TORQUES AND SEQUENTIAL IMPACTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T; Paul Blanton, P; Kurt Eberl, K

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a finite-element technique to simulate the structural responses and to evaluate the cumulative damage of a radioactive material packaging requiring bolt closure-tightening torque and subjected to the scenarios of the Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) defined in the Code of Federal Regulations Title 10 part 71 (10CFR71). Existing finite-element methods for modeling closure stresses from bolt pre-load are not readily adaptable to dynamic analyses. The HAC events are required to occur sequentially per 10CFR71 and thus the evaluation of the cumulative damage is desirable. Generally, each HAC event is analyzed separately and the cumulative damage is partially addressed by superposition. This results in relying on additional physical testing to comply with 10CFR71 requirements for assessment of cumulative damage. The proposed technique utilizes the combination of kinematic constraints, rigid-body motions and structural deformations to overcome some of the difficulties encountered in modeling the effect of cumulative damage. This methodology provides improved numerical solutions in compliance with the 10CFR71 requirements for sequential HAC tests. Analyses were performed for the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) designed by Savannah River National Laboratory to demonstrate the applications of the technique. The methodology proposed simulates the closure bolt torque preload followed by the sequential HAC events, the 30-foot drop and the 30-foot dynamic crush. The analytical results will be compared to the package test data

  2. High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Analysis of Almotriptan Malate in Bulk and Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Bala Sekaran

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A simple RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the determination of almotriptan malate (ATM in bulk and tablets. Methods: Chromatographic separation of ATM was achieved by using a Thermo Scientific C18 column. A Mobile phase containing a mixture of methanol, water and acetic acid (4:8:0.1 v/v was pumped at the flow rate of 1 mL/min. Detection was performed at 227 nm. According to ICH guidelines, the method was validated. Results: The calibration curve was linear in the concentration range 5–60 μg/mL for the ATM with regression coefficient 0.9999. The method was precise with RSD <1.2%. Excellent recoveries of 99.60 - 100.80% proved the accuracy of the method. The limits of detection and quantification were found to be 0.025 and 0.075 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: The method was successfully applied for the quantification of ATM in tablets with acceptable accuracy and precision.

  3. AlGaAs/GaAs quasi-bulk effect mixers: Analysis and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yngvesson, K. S.; Yang, J.-X.; Agahi, F.; Dai, D.; Musante, C.; Grammer, W.; Lau, K. M.

    1992-01-01

    The lowest noise temperature for any receiver in the 0.5 to 1 THz range has been achieved with the bulk InSb hot electron mixer, which unfortunately suffers from the problem of having a very narrow bandwidth (1-2 MHz). We have demonstrated a three order of magnitude improvement in the bandwidth of hot electron mixers, by using the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) medium at the hetero-interface between AlGaAs and GaAs. We have tested both inhouse MOCVD-grown material, and MBE materials, with similar results. The conversion loss (L(sub c)) at 94 GHz is presently 18 dB for a mixer operating at 20 K, and calculations indicate that L(sub c) can be decreased to about 10 dB in future devices. Calculated and measured curves of L(sub c), versus PLO and IDC, respectively, agree well. We argue that there are several different configurations of hot electron mixers, which will also show wide bandwidth, and that these devices are likely to become important as low-noise THz receivers in the future.

  4. On-line neutron activation analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flahaut, V.; Colmon, A.

    1999-01-01

    A neutronic analyser has been designed to determine the composition of the flow of raw materials entering a cement factory on the conveyor belt. This new system gives a reliable analysis of the whole cargo that outdates the sampling or the usual surface analysis based on fluorescence spectrometry. The accuracy is about 1%.The neutrons interact with the materials on an average depth of 25 cm and are absorbed by nuclei, these nuclei produce photons whose energy is characteristic of the chemical element itself. The composition can be deduced by measuring the number of photons emitted and their energy. The analysis is made on-line and can concern the search for about 10 compounds. In the case of cement the list of compounds is: SiO 2 , CaO, Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 , MgO, Na 2 O, TiO 2 , S, Mn 2 O 3 , K 2 O, and H 2 O. The neutron generator involves a deuterium ion source whose deuterium ions are accelerated by means of an electrical field and impinge on a tritiated target, the nuclear reactions between deuterium and tritium produce 14 MeV neutrons. This neutron analysing technique can be adapted to any need of on-line composition determination. (A.C.)

  5. 1-D and 2-D processing for on-line control and data analysis assistance for the multidetector 4π INDRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkirane, A.

    1994-02-01

    The first part of the thesis is concerned with the quality control of the detection modules and three analysis methods are studied and compared: spectral analysis, distribution function method and correlation form measurement; implementation of the spectral analysis technique is then described. The second part is concerned with the non controlled identification of the Z lines; an image processing approach is adopted which handles the peak line recognition problem as an edge detection problem. A contextual edge detection system with a-priori knowledge is presented. Examples of implementation and integration are given. 44 figs., 59 refs

  6. On-line data display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Sherman Y. T.; Brooks, Martin; Gauthier, Marc; Wein, Marceli

    1993-05-01

    A data display system for embedded realtime systems has been developed for use as an operator's user interface and debugging tool. The motivation for development of the On-Line Data Display (ODD) have come from several sources. In particular the design reflects the needs of researchers developing an experimental mobile robot within our laboratory. A proliferation of specialized user interfaces revealed a need for a flexible communications and graphical data display system. At the same time the system had to be readily extensible for arbitrary graphical display formats which would be required for data visualization needs of the researchers. The system defines a communication protocol transmitting 'datagrams' between tasks executing on the realtime system and virtual devices displaying the data in a meaningful way on a graphical workstation. The communication protocol multiplexes logical channels on a single data stream. The current implementation consists of a server for the Harmony realtime operating system and an application written for the Macintosh computer. Flexibility requirements resulted in a highly modular server design, and a layered modular object- oriented design for the Macintosh part of the system. Users assign data types to specific channels at run time. Then devices are instantiated by the user and connected to channels to receive datagrams. The current suite of device types do not provide enough functionality for most users' specialized needs. Instead the system design allows the creation of new device types with modest programming effort. The protocol, design and use of the system are discussed.

  7. Status of software for PGNAA bulk analysis by the Monte Carlo - Library Least-Squares (MCLLS) approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, R.P.; Zhang, W.; Metwally, W.A.

    2005-01-01

    The Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes (CEAR) has been working for about ten years on the Monte Carlo - Library Least-Squares (MCLLS) approach for treating the nonlinear inverse analysis problem for PGNAA bulk analysis. This approach consists essentially of using Monte Carlo simulation to generate the libraries of all the elements to be analyzed plus any other required libraries. These libraries are then used in the linear Library Least-Squares (LLS) approach with unknown sample spectra to analyze for all elements in the sample. The other libraries include all sources of background which includes: (1) gamma-rays emitted by the neutron source, (2) prompt gamma-rays produced in the analyzer construction materials, (3) natural gamma-rays from K-40 and the uranium and thorium decay chains, and (4) prompt and decay gamma-rays produced in the NaI detector by neutron activation. A number of unforeseen problems have arisen in pursuing this approach including: (1) the neutron activation of the most common detector (NaI) used in bulk analysis PGNAA systems, (2) the nonlinearity of this detector, and (3) difficulties in obtaining detector response functions for this (and other) detectors. These problems have been addressed by CEAR recently and have either been solved or are almost solved at the present time. Development of Monte Carlo simulation for all of the libraries has been finished except the prompt gamma-ray library from the activation of the NaI detector. Treatment for the coincidence schemes for Na and particularly I must be first determined to complete the Monte Carlo simulation of this last library. (author)

  8. 2DCOS and PCMW2D analysis of FT-IR/ATR spectra measured at variable temperatures on-line to a polyurethane polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Patrick; Unger, Miriam; Siesler, Heinz W.

    2018-01-01

    In the present communication the potential of 2DCOS analysis and the spin-off technique perturbation-correlation moving window 2D (PCMW2D) analysis is illustrated with reference to spectroscopic changes observed in a data set recorded by in-line fiber-coupled FT-IR spectroscopy in the attenuated total reflection (ATR) mode during a polyurethane solution polymerization at different temperatures. In view of the chemical functionalities involved, hydrogen bonding plays an important role in this polymerization reaction. Based on the 2DCOS and PCMW2D analysis, the sequence of hydrogen bonding changes accompanying the progress of polymerization and precipitation of solid polymer can be determined. Complementary to the kinetic data derived from the original variable-temperature spectra in a previous publication the results provide a more detailed picture of the investigated solution polymerization.

  9. On-line LC-GC and comprehensive two-dimensional LCxGC-ToF MS for the analysis of complex samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, Hans-Gerd [Central Analytical Science, Unilever Research and Development, P.O. Box 114, 3130 AC, Vlaardingen (Netherlands); Koning, Sjaak de [Separation Science Group, LECO Instrumente GmbH, Marie-Bernays-Ring 31, 41199, Moenchengladbach (Germany); Brinkman, Udo A.Th. [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy, Free University, De Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-04-01

    LC x GC is a logical extension of LC-GC. Unlike LC-GC, which only allows detailed analysis of one group of analytes from a complex sample, LC x GC enables detailed mapping of the entire sample. Due to the high degree of orthogonality and the complementary nature of the two dimensions, the method has a very high resolving power. Comprehensive LC x GC chromatograms often show ordered structures which allow group-wise integration as well as detailed target compound analysis. Hyphenation with mass spectrometry is straightforward, which further widens the application range of the technique. (orig.)

  10. Analysis of glycoprotein-derived oligosaccharides in glycoproteins detected on two-dimensional gel by capillary electrophoresis using on-line concentration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamoda, Satoru; Nakanishi, Yasuharu; Kinoshita, Mitsuhiro; Ishikawa, Rika; Kakehi, Kazuaki

    2006-02-17

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is an effective tool to analyze carbohydrate mixture derived from glycoproteins with high resolution. However, CE has a disadvantage that a few nanoliters of a sample solution are injected to a narrow capillary. Therefore, we have to prepare a sample solution of high concentration for CE analysis. In the present study, we applied head column field-amplified sample stacking method to the analysis of N-linked oligosaccharides derived from glycoprotein separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Model studies demonstrated that we achieved 60-360 times concentration effect on the analysis of carbohydrate chains labeled with 3-aminobenzoic acid (3-AA). The method was applied to the analysis of N-linked oligosaccharides from glycoproteins separated and detected on PAGE gel. Heterogeneity of alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), i.e. glycoforms, was examined by 2D-PAGE and N-linked oligosaccharides were released by in-gel digestion with PNGase F. The released oligosaccharides were derivatized with 3-AA and analyzed by CE. The results showed that glycoforms having lower pI values contained a larger amount of tetra- and tri-antennary oligosaccharides. In contrast, glycoforms having higher pI values contained bi-antennary oligosaccharides abundantly. The result clearly indicated that the spot of a glycoprotein glycoform detected by Coomassie brilliant blue staining on 2D-PAGE gel is sufficient for quantitative profiling of oligosaccharides.

  11. Development of an automated on-line pepsin digestion-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry configuration for the rapid analysis of protein adducts of chemical warfare agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carol-Visser, J.; van der Schans, M.; Fidder, A.; Huist, A.G.; van Baar, B.L.M.; Irth, H.; Noort, D.

    2008-01-01

    Rapid monitoring and retrospective verification are key issues in protection against and non-proliferation of chemical warfare agents (CWA). Such monitoring and verification are adequately accomplished by the analysis of persistent protein adducts of these agents. Liquid chromatography-mass

  12. Study and development of the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the realization of field measurements: application to analysis on-line of metals in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosado, J.C.D.

    2013-01-01

    Metal contamination of water is a major public health issue. Controls and treatments are more drastic and performed on them for human consumption. It is essential for this to possess reliable and sensitive analytical tools adapted to the existing regulations and flexible enough to use. The technique of 'Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy' (LIBS), proven for the analysis of solids, including exo-terrestrial explorations, this very interesting advantages for liquids including, for example, are multi-character elementary and the possibility of in-situ measurements of water contamination by metals. A first part of this study thesis allowed to explore the potential (LIBS) for the analysis of dissolved metals or suspensions in water. Study has found an important effect related to the particle size in the analysis of suspensions. A second prong is to look at the effects of organic matrix represented by humic acid and those natural minerals represented by the bentonite and alumina particles. The matrix effect observed was corrected by normalization by internal standard. (author) [fr

  13. Analysis of Dietary Pattern Impact on Weight Status for Personalised Nutrition through On-Line Advice: The Food4Me Spanish Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Brennan, Lorraine; Walsh, Marianne; Lovegrove, Julie A; Daniel, Hannelore; Saris, Wim H M; Traczyk, Iwonna; Manios, Yannis; Gibney, Eileen R; Gibney, Michael J; Mathers, John C; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2015-11-17

    Obesity prevalence is increasing. The management of this condition requires a detailed analysis of the global risk factors in order to develop personalised advice. This study is aimed to identify current dietary patterns and habits in Spanish population interested in personalised nutrition and investigate associations with weight status. Self-reported dietary and anthropometrical data from the Spanish participants in the Food4Me study, were used in a multidimensional exploratory analysis to define specific dietary profiles. Two opposing factors were obtained according to food groups' intake: Factor 1 characterised by a more frequent consumption of traditionally considered unhealthy foods; and Factor 2, where the consumption of "Mediterranean diet" foods was prevalent. Factor 1 showed a direct relationship with BMI (β = 0.226; r² = 0.259; p dietary patterns, which were characterized by high-density foods consumption, showed positive associations with overweight prevalence. Further analysis showed that prevention of overweight must focus on limiting the intake of known deleterious foods rather than exclusively enhance healthy products.

  14. Analysis of Dietary Pattern Impact on Weight Status for Personalised Nutrition through On-Line Advice: The Food4Me Spanish Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo San-Cristobal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity prevalence is increasing. The management of this condition requires a detailed analysis of the global risk factors in order to develop personalised advice. This study is aimed to identify current dietary patterns and habits in Spanish population interested in personalised nutrition and investigate associations with weight status. Self-reported dietary and anthropometrical data from the Spanish participants in the Food4Me study, were used in a multidimensional exploratory analysis to define specific dietary profiles. Two opposing factors were obtained according to food groups’ intake: Factor 1 characterised by a more frequent consumption of traditionally considered unhealthy foods; and Factor 2, where the consumption of “Mediterranean diet” foods was prevalent. Factor 1 showed a direct relationship with BMI (β = 0.226; r2 = 0.259; p < 0.001, while the association with Factor 2 was inverse (β = −0.037; r2 = 0.230; p = 0.348. A total of four categories were defined (Prudent, Healthy, Western, and Compensatory through classification of the sample in higher or lower adherence to each factor and combining the possibilities. Western and Compensatory dietary patterns, which were characterized by high-density foods consumption, showed positive associations with overweight prevalence. Further analysis showed that prevention of overweight must focus on limiting the intake of known deleterious foods rather than exclusively enhance healthy products.

  15. On-Line Organic Solvent Field Enhanced Sample Injection in Capillary Zone Electrophoresis for Analysis of Quetiapine in Beagle Dog Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqing Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and sensitive capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE method with field enhanced sample injection (FESI was developed and validated for the determination of quetiapine fumarate in beagle dog plasma, with a sample pretreatment by LLE in 96-well deep format plate. The optimum separation was carried out in an uncoated 31.2 cm × 75 μm fused-silica capillary with an applied voltage of 13 kV. The electrophoretic analysis was performed by 50 mM phosphate at pH 2.5. The detection wavelength was 210 nm. Under these optimized conditions, FESI with acetonitrile enhanced the sensitivity of quetiapine about 40–50 folds in total. The method was suitably validated with respect to stability, specificity, linearity, lower limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision and extraction recovery. Using mirtazapine as an internal standard (100 ng/mL, the response of quetiapine was linear over the range of 1–1000 ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification was 1 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions for the assay were within 4.8% and 12.7%, respectively. The method represents the first application of FESI-CZE to the analysis of quetiapine fumarate in beagle dog plasma after oral administration.

  16. The AutoAssociative Neural Network in signal analysis: II. Application to on-line monitoring of a simulated BWR component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marseguerra, M.; Zoia, A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, Robust AutoAssociative Neural Networks (RAANN) are applied to a series of signals produced by the Halden simulator of the 1200MWe BWR Forsmark-3 plant in Sweden. The applications concern: - correction of drifts and gross errors in sensors, for diagnostic and control purposes, - cluster analysis, to individuate a failed component and the intensity of the failure, - forecasting system signals, for safety or economic purposes, - reconstruction of unmeasured signals (virtual sensors). In the attainment of the above results, the geometric interpretation of the mapping performed by the network, propounded in Part I of this work, has provided a reasoned choice of the most critical free parameter, i.e., the number f of nodes of the bottleneck layer, thus allowing a deep understanding of the network functioning and also avoiding the traditional and troubling procedure of selection by trial-and-error. The theoretical basis of this analysis, discussed in details in the companion paper, is founded on the idea of dimension and in particular of fractal dimension, which has been used as a numerical estimator of f

  17. Rietveld refinement and FTIR analysis of bulk ceramic Co3-xMnxO4 compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, P. L.; Kumar, Ravi; Sreenivas, K.

    2013-02-01

    Co3-xMnxO4 (x = 0.0, 0.6, 1.2) prepared by solid state reaction method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Lattice parameters (a), oxygen parameter (u), and ionic radii of cations have been determined through Rietveld analysis. Both a and u parameters are related to expansion of octahedral site as Mn content in Co3O4. Analysis of XRD data show that Mn (x ≤ 1.2) is accommodated at the octahedral site, while retaining the cubic spinel structure. FTIR results also confirm the same and signify strong interactions due to overlapping of Co and Mn octahedra.

  18. A procedure for partitioning bulk sediments into distinct grain-size fractions for geochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbanti, A.; Bothner, Michael H.

    1993-01-01

    A method to separate sediments into discrete size fractions for geochemical analysis has been tested. The procedures were chosen to minimize the destruction or formation of aggregates and involved gentle sieving and settling of wet samples. Freeze-drying and sonication pretreatments, known to influence aggregates, were used for comparison. Freeze-drying was found to increase the silt/clay ratio by an average of 180 percent compared to analysis of a wet sample that had been wet sieved only. Sonication of a wet sample decreased the silt/clay ratio by 51 percent. The concentrations of metals and organic carbon in the separated fractions changed depending on the pretreatment procedures in a manner consistent with the hypothesis that aggregates consist of fine-grained organic- and metal-rich particles. The coarse silt fraction of a freeze-dried sample contained 20–44 percent higher concentrations of Zn, Cu, and organic carbon than the coarse silt fraction of the wet sample. Sonication resulted in concentrations of these analytes that were 18–33 percent lower in the coarse silt fraction than found in the wet sample. Sonication increased the concentration of lead in the clay fraction by an average of 40 percent compared to an unsonicated sample. Understanding the magnitude of change caused by different analysis protocols is an aid in designing future studies that seek to interpret the spatial distribution of contaminated sediments and their transport mechanisms.

  19. Use of an Open Port Sampling Interface Coupled to Electrospray Ionization for the On-Line Analysis of Organic Aerosol Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Kenneth D.; Worth, Anne L.; Glish, Gary L.

    2018-02-01

    A simple design for an open port sampling interface coupled to electrospray ionization (OPSI-ESI) is presented for the analysis of organic aerosols. The design uses minimal modifications to a Bruker electrospray (ESI) emitter to create a continuous flow, self-aspirating open port sampling interface. Considerations are presented for introducing aerosol to the open port sampling interface including aerosol gas flow and solvent flow rates. The device has been demonstrated for use with an aerosol of nicotine as well as aerosol formed in the pyrolysis of biomass. Upon comparison with extractive electrospray ionization (EESI), this device has similar sensitivity with increased reproducibility by nearly a factor of three. The device has the form factor of a standard Bruker/Agilent ESI emitter and can be used without any further instrument modifications.

  20. Study on the influence of X-ray tube spectral distribution on the analysis of bulk samples and thin films: Fundamental parameters method and theoretical coefficient algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitko, Rafal

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of X-ray tube spectral distribution is necessary in theoretical methods of matrix correction, i.e. in both fundamental parameter (FP) methods and theoretical influence coefficient algorithms. Thus, the influence of X-ray tube distribution on the accuracy of the analysis of thin films and bulk samples is presented. The calculations are performed using experimental X-ray tube spectra taken from the literature and theoretical X-ray tube spectra evaluated by three different algorithms proposed by Pella et al. (X-Ray Spectrom. 14 (1985) 125-135), Ebel (X-Ray Spectrom. 28 (1999) 255-266), and Finkelshtein and Pavlova (X-Ray Spectrom. 28 (1999) 27-32). In this study, Fe-Cr-Ni system is selected as an example and the calculations are performed for X-ray tubes commonly applied in X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF), i.e., Cr, Mo, Rh and W. The influence of X-ray tube spectra on FP analysis is evaluated when quantification is performed using various types of calibration samples. FP analysis of bulk samples is performed using pure-element bulk standards and multielement bulk standards similar to the analyzed material, whereas for FP analysis of thin films, the bulk and thin pure-element standards are used. For the evaluation of the influence of X-ray tube spectra on XRF analysis performed by theoretical influence coefficient methods, two algorithms for bulk samples are selected, i.e. Claisse-Quintin (Can. Spectrosc. 12 (1967) 129-134) and COLA algorithms (G.R. Lachance, Paper Presented at the International Conference on Industrial Inorganic Elemental Analysis, Metz, France, June 3, 1981) and two algorithms (constant and linear coefficients) for thin films recently proposed by Sitko (X-Ray Spectrom. 37 (2008) 265-272)

  1. Facile green synthesis of graphene-Au nanorod nanoassembly for on-line extraction and sensitive stripping analysis of methyl parathion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Wenxin; Liu, Wei; Li, Tianbao; Yue, Xiaoyue; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Wentao; Yu, Shaoxuan; Zhang, Daohong; Wang, Jianlong

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration for the facile green fabrication of GN-AuNRs/GCE and its application for the extraction and electroanalysis of MP. - Highlights: • This paper described a facile green electrochemical approach to synthesize graphene-AuNRs nanocomposite. • The as-synthesized sensor shows low LOD and wide linear concentration range towards MP. • The sensor can be well used for the determination of MP in water and kiwi fruits samples. • This paper further enlarges the scope of facile green synthetic methods of GN-based hybrids. - Abstract: This paper described a facile green electrochemical approach to synthesize graphene-AuNRs nanocomposite (GN-AuNRs) onto glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for electrocatalytic analysis of methyl parathion (MP). This electrochemical synthesis of GN-AuNRs hybrid is environmentally friendly for not involving the chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) and facile for just on the basis of electrostatic interaction between GO and AuNRs, as well as electrochemical reduction of GO-AuNRs to GN-AuNRs. Combined the high conductivity, large surface area, good adsorption capacity towards aromatic rings and high catalytic ability of graphene with the excellent electronic properties and adsorption capacity of AuNRs, the high sensitive methyl parathion sensor was fabricated with the GN-AuNRs nanocomposite. The limit of detection (LOD) of the proposed sensor was calculated to be 0.82 ng/mL, which was lower than many previously reported enzyme or nonenzyme-based sensors. In the meantime, the linear detection range of this sensor was from 10 to 500 ng/mL and 750 to 4000 ng/mL, which was also wider than many other enzyme or enzymeless sensors. Furthermore, the facile and green electrochemical reduction strategy provided here could also be used to construct more GN-based hybrids. And the GN-based hybrid might be a new and highly efficient SPE factor, which opens new opportunities for green, facile and sensitive analysis of

  2. Studies on thermal neutron perturbation factor needed for bulk sample activation analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Csikai, J; Sanami, T; Michikawa, T

    2002-01-01

    The spatial distribution of thermal neutrons produced by an Am-Be source in a graphite pile was measured via the activation foil method. The results obtained agree well with calculated data using the MCNP-4B code. A previous method used for the determination of the average neutron flux within thin absorbing samples has been improved and extended for a graphite moderator. A procedure developed for the determination of the flux perturbation factor renders the thermal neutron activation analysis of bulky samples of unknown composition possible both in hydrogenous and graphite moderators.

  3. Molecularly imprinted polymer cartridges coupled on-line with high performance liquid chromatography for simple and rapid analysis of dextromethorphan in human plasma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moein, Mohammad Mahdi; Javanbakht, Mehran; Akbari-Adergani, Behrouz

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, a novel method is described for automated determination of dextromethorphan in biological fluids using molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) as a sample clean-up technique combined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The water-compatible molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were prepared using methacrylic acid as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker, chloroform as porogen and dextromethorphan as template molecule. These imprinted polymers were used as solid-phase extraction sorbent for the extraction of dextromethorphan from human plasma samples. Various parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the MIP cartridges were evaluated. The high selectivity of the sorbent coupled to the high performance liquid chromatographic system permitted a simple and rapid analysis of this drug in plasma samples with limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of 0.12 ng/mL and 0.35 ng/mL, respectively. The MIP selectivity was evaluated by analyzing of the dextromethorphan in presence of several substances with similar molecular structures and properties. Results from the HPLC analyses showed that the recoveries of dextromethorphan using MIP cartridges from human plasma samples in the range of 1-50 ng/mL were higher than 87%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sample dependent response of a LaCl{sub 3}:Ce detector in prompt gamma neutron activation analysis of bulk hydrocarbon samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A., E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Matouq, Faris A.; Khiari, F.Z. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Isab, A.A. [Department of Chemistry, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Khateeb-ur-Rehman,; Raashid, M. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-08-11

    The response of a LaCl{sub 3}:Ce detector has been found to depend upon the hydrogen content of bulk samples in prompt gamma analysis using 14 MeV neutron inelastic scattering. The moderation of 14 MeV neutrons from hydrogen in the bulk sample produces thermal neutrons around the sample which ultimately excite chlorine capture gamma rays in the LaCl{sub 3}:Ce detector material. Interference of 6.11 MeV chlorine gamma rays from the detector itself with 6.13 MeV oxygen gamma rays from the bulk samples makes the intensity of the 6.13 MeV oxygen gamma ray peak relatively insensitive to variations in oxygen concentration. The strong dependence of the 1.95 MeV doublet chlorine gamma ray yield on hydrogen content of the bulk samples confirms fast neutron moderation from hydrogen in the bulk samples as a major source of production of thermal neutrons and chlorine gamma rays in the LaCl{sub 3}:Ce detector material. Despite their poor oxygen detection capabilities, these detectors have nonetheless excellent detection capabilities for hydrogen and carbon in benzene, butyl alcohol, propanol, propanic acid, and formic acid bulk samples using 14 MeV neutron inelastic scattering.

  5. Latent class analysis of bulk tank milk PCR and ELISA testing for herd level diagnosis of Mycoplasma bovis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Kantsø; Petersen, Mette Bisgaard; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2015-01-01

    of this study was to evaluate the herd-level diagnostic performance of an indirect ELISA test by comparison to a real-time PCR test when diagnosing M. bovis in cattle herds of bulk tank milk. Bulk tank milk samples from Danish dairy herds (N=3437) were analysed with both the antibody detecting BIO K 302 M...

  6. Potential of capillary-column-switching liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the quantitative trace analysis of small molecules. Application to the on-line screening of drugs in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarch, Elena; Hernandez, Felix; ten Hove, Jan; Meiring, Hugo; Niesing, Willem; Dijkman, Ellen; Stolker, Linda; Hogendoorn, Elbert

    2004-03-26

    We have investigated the potential of capillary-column-switching liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (cLC-MS-MS) for the quantitative on-line trace analysis of target compounds in aqueous solutions. The technical design of the nano-scale cLC system developed at our Institute for peptide and protein identification has been tested and evaluated for the direct trace analysis of drugs in water samples. Sulphametoxazole, bezafibrate, metoprolol, carbamazepine and bisoprolol occurring frequently in Dutch waters, were selected as test compounds. Adequate conditions for trapping, elution and MS-MS detection were investigated by employing laboratory made 200 microm i.d. capillary columns packed with 5 microm aqua C18 material. In the final cLC-MS-MS conditions, a 1 cm length trapping column and a 4 cm length analytical column were selected. Under these conditions, the target compounds could be directly determined in water down to a level of around 50 ng/l employing only 25 microl of water sample. Validation was done by recovery experiments in ground-, surface- and drinking-water matrices as well as by the analysis of water samples with incurred residues and previously analyzed with a conventional procedure involving off-line solid-phase extraction and narrow-bore LC with MS-MS detection. The new methodology provided recoveries (50-500 ng/l level) between 50 and 114% with RSDs (n = 3, each level) below 20% for most of the compounds. Despite the somewhat less analytical performance in comparison to the conventional procedure, the on-line approach of the new methodology is very suitable for screening of drugs in aqueous samples.

  7. Theoretical analysis of time-dependent neutron spectra in bulk assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Tadashi; Ogawa, Yuichi; Togawa, Orihiko.

    1988-01-01

    Time-dependent neutron spectra in an iron assembly and in a graphite assembly are obtained with the one-dimensional S N calculation, in order an attempt to investigate the availability of these spectra to the benchmark test by the LINAC-TOF method for evaluation of nuclear data and numerical methods. The group constants are taken from the JAERI FAST SET Version 1, 2 and the ABBN SET. It was demonstrated by a sensitivity test that the time-dependent neutron spectra are sensitive to changes in the inelastic scattering cross section data in the iron assembly and to changes in the elastic scattering cross section data in the graphite assembly. Moreover, it is shown that the time-dependent spectra in the graphite assembly are sensitive to the group structure. Because some information about the neutron transport phenomena which has not been obtained in the stationary spectra is observed in the time-dependent spectra, the availability of the benchmark test based on the time-dependent spectra is indicated from the theoretical analysis. (author)

  8. Software for on-line experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanchenko, I.M.

    1981-01-01

    A review of nowadays development state of software of on-line electron experiments is presented. The principles of organization of real time systems on second generation computer base are considered. The following methods for projections search are considered: combinator methods, global methods, methods of tracking, methods of a supporting band. The following methods for determining parameter estimates based on the Lorentz equation are analysed: analytical simulation of trajectories, determination of parameters by the iterative method using the technique of calculation of recycled integrals, multidimensional statistical analysis. For the purpose of successful usage and development of software the technique of selfdocumented programs is created and the computer is applied for preparing, revising and circulation of external descriptions which as program complexes are constructed according to the hierarchical principle [ru

  9. Use of portable X-ray fluorescence instrument for bulk alloy analysis on low corroded indoor bronzes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šatović, D.; Desnica, V.; Fazinić, S.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most often used non-destructive methods for elemental analysis when performing field measurements on bronze sculptures is X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis based on portable instrumentation. However, when performing routine in-situ XRF analysis on corroded objects obtained results are sometimes considerably influenced by the corrosion surface products. In this work the suitability of portable XRF for bulk analysis of low corroded bronzes, which were initially precisely characterized using sophisticated and reliable laboratory methods, was investigated and some improvements in measuring technique and data processing were given. Artificially corroded bronze samples were analyzed by a portable XRF instrument using the same methodology and procedures as when performing in-situ analysis on real objects. The samples were first investigated using sophisticated complementary laboratory techniques: Scanning Electron Microscopy, Proton-Induced X-ray Emission Spectroscopy and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry, in order to gain precise information on the formation of the corrosion product layers and in-depth elemental profile of corrosion layers for different aging parameters. It has been shown that for corrosion layers of up to ca. 25 μm a portable XRF can yield very accurate quantification results. - Highlights: • XRF quantification is very accurate for bronze corrosion layers of up to ca. 25 μm. • Corrosion layer formation on bronze described in two phases. • Corrosion layers precisely characterized using PIXE, RBS and SEM. • Corrosion approximated as CuO for layer thickness calculations via X-ray attenuations • Increasingly lighter corrosion matrix may cause SnLα radiation intensity inversion

  10. Use of portable X-ray fluorescence instrument for bulk alloy analysis on low corroded indoor bronzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šatović, D., E-mail: dsatovic@alu.hr [Department of Conservation and Restoration, Academy of Fine Arts, Ilica 85, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Desnica, V. [Department of Conservation and Restoration, Academy of Fine Arts, Ilica 85, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Fazinić, S. [Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2013-11-01

    One of the most often used non-destructive methods for elemental analysis when performing field measurements on bronze sculptures is X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis based on portable instrumentation. However, when performing routine in-situ XRF analysis on corroded objects obtained results are sometimes considerably influenced by the corrosion surface products. In this work the suitability of portable XRF for bulk analysis of low corroded bronzes, which were initially precisely characterized using sophisticated and reliable laboratory methods, was investigated and some improvements in measuring technique and data processing were given. Artificially corroded bronze samples were analyzed by a portable XRF instrument using the same methodology and procedures as when performing in-situ analysis on real objects. The samples were first investigated using sophisticated complementary laboratory techniques: Scanning Electron Microscopy, Proton-Induced X-ray Emission Spectroscopy and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry, in order to gain precise information on the formation of the corrosion product layers and in-depth elemental profile of corrosion layers for different aging parameters. It has been shown that for corrosion layers of up to ca. 25 μm a portable XRF can yield very accurate quantification results. - Highlights: • XRF quantification is very accurate for bronze corrosion layers of up to ca. 25 μm. • Corrosion layer formation on bronze described in two phases. • Corrosion layers precisely characterized using PIXE, RBS and SEM. • Corrosion approximated as CuO for layer thickness calculations via X-ray attenuations • Increasingly lighter corrosion matrix may cause SnLα radiation intensity inversion.

  11. Oak ridge national laboratory automated clean chemistry for bulk analysis of environmental swipe samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, Debra A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hexel, Cole R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ticknor, Brian W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tevepaugh, Kayron N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Metzger, Shalina C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    To shorten the lengthy and costly manual chemical purification procedures, sample preparation methods for mass spectrometry are being automated using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment. This addresses a serious need in the nuclear safeguards community to debottleneck the separation of U and Pu in environmental samples—currently performed by overburdened chemists—with a method that allows unattended, overnight operation. In collaboration with Elemental Scientific Inc., the prepFAST-MC2 was designed based on current COTS equipment that was modified for U/Pu separations utilizing Eichrom™ TEVA and UTEVA resins. Initial verification of individual columns yielded small elution volumes with consistent elution profiles and good recovery. Combined column calibration demonstrated ample separation without crosscontamination of the eluent. Automated packing and unpacking of the built-in columns initially showed >15% deviation in resin loading by weight, which can lead to inconsistent separations. Optimization of the packing and unpacking methods led to a reduction in the variability of the packed resin to less than 5% daily. The reproducibility of the automated system was tested with samples containing 30 ng U and 15 pg Pu, which were separated in a series with alternating reagent blanks. These experiments showed very good washout of both the resin and the sample from the columns as evidenced by low blank values. Analysis of the major and minor isotope ratios for U and Pu provided values well within data quality limits for the International Atomic Energy Agency. Additionally, system process blanks spiked with 233U and 244Pu tracers were separated using the automated system after it was moved outside of a clean room and yielded levels equivalent to clean room blanks, confirming that the system can produce high quality results without the need for expensive clean room infrastructure. Comparison of the amount of personnel time necessary for successful manual vs

  12. Using of dimensional analysis to determine the parameters of gravity separator table device to minimize impurities in bulk lentils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Bagheri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Lentil (Lens culinaris medic is an important and highly nutritious crop belonging to the family of legumes. Lentil is cultivated worldwide but competition with weeds is a problem affecting production and can reduce yield by more than 80%. The study on the separation of impurities in bulk lentils (Euphorbia helioscopia weed, Wild oat weed and etc. by a gravity separator has an extreme importance. Since no study has been done to date, in this study, the effects of different parameters of a gravity separator (longitudinal and latitudinal slopes, oscillation frequency and amplitude on the separation of foreign matters in lentil seeds were evaluated. A dimensionless number (v/aω which shows ration of air current velocity blown to lentil to the maximum velocity of table oscillation, was considered in ratio of separation. Materials and Methods In this research, lentil samples were taken from farms in Ardebil Province (Bileh-Savar cultivar. A gravity separator apparatus was also used for separating impurities from lentil seeds. A Laboratory Gravity Separator Type LA-K (Westrup A/S Denmark was used to separate impurities from bulk lentils. In this machine, table settings were as follows; longitudinal slope parameters (1°,1.5°, 1.75°, 2° and 2.5°, latitudinal slope (0.5°, 1°, and 1.5°, frequency of oscillation (380, 400, 420 and 450 cycles min-1, and amplitude of oscillation (5 and 7 mm, these settings were all adjustable. Similarly, the instrument had 5 boxes whereby, through proper adjustment, the heavier material was transferred toward the right side of the table and lighter material moved toward the left side. Through proper adjustment of the main parameters of the instrument, the impurities were separated from bulk lentils. Then using an electronic seed counter, five groups of seed which each group containing 100 seeds were counted and selected. Results and Discussion The results of variance analysis of the factorial design with

  13. Tensions and contraditions of polydocent work in teacher training in the on line education: an analysis of the programa nacional escola de gestores at the Federal University Of Ouro Preto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breynner Ricardo de Oliveira

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the tensions and contradictions that permeate the work performed by the training team of the Programa Escola de Gestores, at the Federal University of Ouro Preto (PNEG / UFOP, one of the programs that conform the National Teaching Training Policy in Brazil, dismantled by the budget contingency since 2016. Based on the tasks, routines and perceptions of the polyteaching team responsible for the training, 26 structured interviews were conducted with the professionals that took part of this team between 2013 and 2016. The content analysis was assisted by NVivo,® a software used in qualitative research. The interviews show that, regarding the policy of continuous training of teachers via education on line, the working conditions and budgetary issues reveal the fragility and precariousness with which this type of policy has been implemented in Brazil.

  14. Trace analysis of three antihistamines in human urine by on-line single drop liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction coupled to sweeping micellar electrokinetic chromatography and its application to pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenhua; Chen, Yunsheng; Chen, Gaopan; Xi, Jing; Chen, Yaowen; Yang, Jianying; Xu, Ning

    2012-09-01

    A rapid and efficient dual preconcentration method of on-line single drop liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (SD-LLLME) coupled to sweeping micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) was developed for trace analysis of three antihistamines (mizolastine, chlorpheniramine and pheniramine) in human urine. Three analytes were firstly extracted from donor phase (4 mL urine sample) adjusted to alkaline condition (0.5 M NaOH). The unionized analytes were subsequently extracted into a drop of n-octanol layered over the urine sample, and then into a microdrop of acceptor phase (100 mM H(3)PO(4)) suspended from a capillary inlet. The enriched acceptor phase was on-line injected into capillary with a height difference and then analyzed directly by sweeping MEKC. Good linear relationships were obtained for all analytes in a range of 6.25 × 10(-6) to 2.5 × 10(-4)g/L with correlation coefficients (r) higher than 0.987. The proposed method achieved limits of detections (LOD) varied from 1.2 × 10(-7) to 9.5 × 10(-7)g/L based on a signal-to-noise of 3 (S/N=3) with 751- to 1372-fold increases in detection sensitivity for analytes, and it was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of three antihistamines in human urine after an oral administration. The results demonstrated that this method was a promising combination for the rapid trace analysis of antihistamines in human urine with the advantages of operation simplicity, high enrichment factor and little solvent consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. On-Line Coolant Chemistry Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LM Bachman

    2006-01-01

    Impurities in the gas coolant of the space nuclear power plant (SNPP) can provide valuable indications of problems in the reactor and an overall view of system health. By monitoring the types and amounts of these impurities, much can be implied regarding the status of the reactor plant. However, a preliminary understanding of the expected impurities is important before evaluating prospective detection and monitoring systems. Currently, a spectroscopy system is judged to hold the greatest promise for monitoring the impurities of interest in the coolant because it minimizes the number of entry and exit points to the plant and provides the ability to detect impurities down to the 1 ppm level

  16. Research on activation analysis using short-lived isotopes and a multi-purpose isotopic neutron irradiator. Part of a coordinated programme on on-line X-ray and neutron techniques for industrial process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozek, F.

    1981-02-01

    A method of cyclic activation analysis (CA) has been studied and applied. A theoretical comparison between cyclic and conventional neutron activation analysis of gold has been made. The optimum number of cycles in cyclic activation have been investigated and an equation for the rapid calculation of the number of cycles is proposed. The isotopic neutron irradiation system including the 5Ci Pu-Be neutron source was designed and constructed. The system is flexible and transportable and is capable of carrying out prompt and conventional delay gamma-ray analysis and cyclic activation of bulk materials. The advantages as well as the disadvantages of neutron activation analysis with the use of short-lived nuclides were considered, and can be summarized as follows: Advantages: saturation factor approaches unity, speed of analysis, low cost of analysis, increased selectivity, reduced matrix activities. Disadvantages: proximity of neutron source, chemical separation hardly possible or impossible, total number of counts low. Low counting rates can be substantially increased by applying the technique of ''cyclic activation'', which is another reason by the use of short-lived isotopes in neutron activation analysis is steadily becoming more attractive

  17. A fast and sensitive method for the simultaneous analysis of a wide range of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in indoor dust using on-line solid phase extraction-ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Sánchez, Juan Antonio; Haug, Line Småstuen

    2016-05-06

    A fast and sensitive method for simultaneous determination of 18 traditional and 6 alternative per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) using solid-liquid extraction (SLE), off-line clean-up using activated carbon and on-line solid phase extraction-ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (on-line SPE-UHPLC-TOF-MS) was developed. The extraction efficiency was studied and recoveries in range the 58-114% were obtained. Extraction and injection volumes were also optimized to 2mL and 400μL, respectively. The method was validated by spiking dust from a vacuum cleaner bag that had been found to contain low levels of the PFASs in focus. Low method detection limits (MDLs) and method quantification limits (MQLs) in the range 0.008-0.846ngg(-1) and 0.027-2.820ngg(-1) were obtained, respectively. For most of the PFASs, the accuracies were between 70 and 125% in the range from 2 to100ngg(-1) dust. Intra-day and inter-day precisions were in general well below 30%. Analysis of a Standard Reference Material (SRM 2585) showed high accordance with results obtained by other laboratories. Finally, the method was applied to seven indoor dust samples, and PFAS concentrations in the range 0.02-132ngg(-1) were found. The highest median concentrations were observed for some of the alternative PFASs, such as 6:2-diPAP (25ngg(-1)), 8:2-diPAP (49ngg(-1)), and PFOPA (23ngg(-1)), illustrating the importance of inclusion of new PFASs in the analytical methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of biogenic carbonates by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Flow injection on-line solid-phase preconcentration for trace element determination in fish otoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Z; Paulson, A J

    2002-04-01

    The aragonite deposits within the ear bones (otoliths) of teleost fish retain a chemical signal reflecting the life history of fish (similar to rings of trees) and the nature of fish habitats. Otoliths dissolved in acid solutions contain high concentrations of calcium and a variety of proteins. Elimination of matrix salts and organic interferences during preconcentration is essential for accurate determination of trace elements in otolith solutions by inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometry. An iminodiacetate-based chelating resin (Toyopearl AF-Chelate 650 M) has been used for on-line preconcentration and matrix separation for the determination of 31 transition and rare elements. Successful preconcentration of the elements was achieved at pH 5 by on-line buffering, except Mn which required pH 8.8. Sample solutions were loaded on to the column for 1 min at 3.2 mL min(-1), and then eluted directly into the mass spectrometer with 4% v/v nitric acid. This procedure enabled up to 25-fold preconcentration with successful removal of the calcium matrix. The effect of heat-assisted oxidation with concentrated nitric acid was investigated to eliminate the organic matrix. It was found that heating to dryness after dissolution and further mineralization with the acid significantly improved the retention of the transition elements. The method was validated by analysis of a certified reference material produced from saggittal otoliths of emperor snapper ( Lutjanus sebae), and then applied to the determination of trace metal concentrations in juvenile bluefin tuna ( Thunnus thynnus) from the Western Pacific Ocean.

  19. Calibration, field-testing, and error analysis of a gamma-ray probe for in situ measurement of dry bulk density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertuzzi, P.; Bruckler, L.; Gabilly, Y.; Gaudu, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a new gamma-ray probe for measuring dry bulk density in the field. This equipment can be used with three different tube spacings (15, 20 and 30 cm). Calibration procedures and local error analyses are proposed for two cases: (1) for the case where the access tubes are parallel, calibration equations are given for three tube spacings. The linear correlation coefficient obtained in the laboratory is satisfactory (0.999), and a local error analysis shows that the standard deviation in the measured dry bulk density is small (+/- 0.02 g/cm 3 ); (2) when the access tubes are not parallel, a new calibration procedure is presented that accounts for and corrects measurement bias due to the deviating probe spacing. The standard deviation associated with the measured dry bulk density is greater (+/- 0.05 g/cm 3 ), but the measurements themselves are regarded as unbiased. After comparisons of core samplings and gamma-ray probe measurements, a field validation of the gamma-ray measurements is presented. Field validation was carried out on a variety of soils (clay, clay loam, loam, and silty clay loam), using gravimetric water contents that varied from 0.11 0.27 and dry bulk densities ranging from 1.30-1.80 g°cm -3 . Finally, an example of dry bulk density field variability is shown, and the spatial variability is analyzed in regard to the measurement errors

  20. Calculation of thermal neutron self-shielding correction factors for aqueous bulk sample prompt gamma neutron activation analysis using the MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasrabadi, M.N.; Jalali, M.; Mohammadi, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this work thermal neutron self-shielding in aqueous bulk samples containing neutron absorbing materials is studied using bulk sample prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (BSPGNAA) with the MCNP code. The code was used to perform three dimensional simulations of a neutron source, neutron detector and sample of various material compositions. The MCNP model was validated against experimental measurements of the neutron flux performed using a BF 3 detector. Simulations were performed to predict thermal neutron self-shielding in aqueous bulk samples containing neutron absorbing solutes. In practice, the MCNP calculations are combined with experimental measurements of the relative thermal neutron flux over the sample's surface, with respect to a reference water sample, to derive the thermal neutron self-shielding within the sample. The proposed methodology can be used for the determination of the elemental concentration of unknown aqueous samples by BSPGNAA where knowledge of the average thermal neutron flux within the sample volume is required

  1. FTIR and multivariate analysis to study the effect of bulk and nano copper oxide on peanut plant leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suresh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article the potential variation in biochemical constituents of peanut plant leaves affect by presoaking peanut seeds in copper oxide nanoparticles suspension has been studied and compared with its bulk counterpart. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM studies. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR analysis shows the most prominent peaks at ∼2923 cm−1, ∼1636 cm−1 and ∼1033 cm−1, which correspond to lipids, protein and carbohydrate content in leaf samples respectively. The calculated mean ratio of the peak intensities for various frequency regions and total band area calculation for various band regions explain the variation in lipid, protein and carbohydrate content of leaf samples. Further the FTIR spectra were processed by de-convolution and curve fitting to quantitatively examine the chemical contents and structure changing of the secondary structure of protein. The calculated integrated band area of β – sheet, β – turn and α – helix secondary structure of protein varies to greater extent in all samples compared to control. Principal component analysis (PCA has been carried out to explain the total variance in secondary structure of protein content in peanut plant leaves. Principal component 1 (PC1 accounts for 63.50% variation in secondary structure of protein whereas principal component 2 (PC2 accounts for 29.56%. The application of nanoparticles via presoaking method implies potential variation in biochemical constituents but doesn't affect the growth of plants considerably.

  2. Clinical performance of bulk-fill and conventional resin composite restorations in posterior teeth: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, Sirley Raiane Mamede; Lemos, Cleidiel Aparecido Araújo; de Moraes, Sandra Lúcia Dantas; do Egito Vasconcelos, Belmiro Cavalcanti; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza; de Melo Monteiro, Gabriela Queiroz

    2018-03-28

    The purpose of this systematic review was to compare the clinical performance of bulk-fill resin composites with conventional resin composites used for direct restorations of posterior teeth. This review followed the PRISMA statement. This review was registered at PROSPERO (registration number CRD42016053436). A search of the scientific literature was performed by two independent reviewers using the PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases from commencement until January 2018. The research question was "Do bulk-fill resin composites have a clinical performance comparable to conventional resin composites in posterior restorations?" Only studies evaluating class I and II direct restorations in permanent teeth with a follow-up period of at least 1 year were included. The RevMan 5 program was used for meta-analysis, calculating the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the dichotomous outcome (restoration failure or success). Ten articles were selected, comprising 941 analyzed restorations. The mean follow-up period was 33.6 months (12-72 months). No statistically significant differences in the failure rate were observed between conventional and base/flowable bulk-fill resin composites (p = 0.31; RR 1.49; 95% CI 0.69-3.25) or full-body/sculptable bulk-fill resin composites (p = 0.12; RR 1.89; 95% CI 0.84-4.24). The present systematic review and meta-analysis indicate similar clinical performances of bulk-fill and conventional resin composites over a follow-up period of 12 to 72 months. Based on the results of this study, the bulk-fill resin composites could be an alternative for direct restorations in posterior teeth. However, clinical trials of longer duration are required.

  3. Bulk segregant analysis by high-throughput sequencing reveals a novel xylose utilization gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared W Wenger

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation of xylose is a fundamental requirement for the efficient production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass sources. Although they aggressively ferment hexoses, it has long been thought that native Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains cannot grow fermentatively or non-fermentatively on xylose. Population surveys have uncovered a few naturally occurring strains that are weakly xylose-positive, and some S. cerevisiae have been genetically engineered to ferment xylose, but no strain, either natural or engineered, has yet been reported to ferment xylose as efficiently as glucose. Here, we used a medium-throughput screen to identify Saccharomyces strains that can increase in optical density when xylose is presented as the sole carbon source. We identified 38 strains that have this xylose utilization phenotype, including strains of S. cerevisiae, other sensu stricto members, and hybrids between them. All the S. cerevisiae xylose-utilizing strains we identified are wine yeasts, and for those that could produce meiotic progeny, the xylose phenotype segregates as a single gene trait. We mapped this gene by Bulk Segregant Analysis (BSA using tiling microarrays and high-throughput sequencing. The gene is a putative xylitol dehydrogenase, which we name XDH1, and is located in the subtelomeric region of the right end of chromosome XV in a region not present in the S288c reference genome. We further characterized the xylose phenotype by performing gene expression microarrays and by genetically dissecting the endogenous Saccharomyces xylose pathway. We have demonstrated that natural S. cerevisiae yeasts are capable of utilizing xylose as the sole carbon source, characterized the genetic basis for this trait as well as the endogenous xylose utilization pathway, and demonstrated the feasibility of BSA using high-throughput sequencing.

  4. Quantification of Hydrogen Concentrations in Surface and Interface Layers and Bulk Materials through Depth Profiling with Nuclear Reaction Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Markus; Ohno, Satoshi; Ogura, Shohei; Fukutani, Katsuyuki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-29

    Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) via the resonant (1)H((15)N,αγ)(12)C reaction is a highly effective method of depth profiling that quantitatively and non-destructively reveals the hydrogen density distribution at surfaces, at interfaces, and in the volume of solid materials with high depth resolution. The technique applies a (15)N ion beam of 6.385 MeV provided by an electrostatic accelerator and specifically detects the (1)H isotope in depths up to about 2 μm from the target surface. Surface H coverages are measured with a sensitivity in the order of ~10(13) cm(-2) (~1% of a typical atomic monolayer density) and H volume concentrations with a detection limit of ~10(18) cm(-3) (~100 at. ppm). The near-surface depth resolution is 2-5 nm for surface-normal (15)N ion incidence onto the target and can be enhanced to values below 1 nm for very flat targets by adopting a surface-grazing incidence geometry. The method is versatile and readily applied to any high vacuum compatible homogeneous material with a smooth surface (no pores). Electrically conductive targets usually tolerate the ion beam irradiation with negligible degradation. Hydrogen quantitation and correct depth analysis require knowledge of the elementary composition (besides hydrogen) and mass density of the target material. Especially in combination with ultra-high vacuum methods for in-situ target preparation and characterization, (1)H((15)N,αγ)(12)C NRA is ideally suited for hydrogen analysis at atomically controlled surfaces and nanostructured interfaces. We exemplarily demonstrate here the application of (15)N NRA at the MALT Tandem accelerator facility of the University of Tokyo to (1) quantitatively measure the surface coverage and the bulk concentration of hydrogen in the near-surface region of a H2 exposed Pd(110) single crystal, and (2) to determine the depth location and layer density of hydrogen near the interfaces of thin SiO2 films on Si(100).

  5. Shawnee Mission's On-Line Cataloging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Wasby Miller

    1971-03-01

    Full Text Available An on-line cataloging pilot project for two elementary schools is discussed. The system components are 2740 terminals, upper-lower-case input, IBM's FASTER generalized software package, and usual cards/labels output. Reasons for choosing FASTER, software and hardware features, operating procedures, system performance and costs are detailed. Future expansion to cataloging 100,000 annual K-12 acquisitions, on-line circulation, retrospective conversion, and union book catalogs is set forth.

  6. Monte Carlo aided treatments of the nonlinear inverse PGNAA measurement problem for various continuous on-line applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, R.P.; Guo, P.; Sood, A.; Mayo, C.W.; Dobbs, C.L.

    1998-01-01

    A review of our work on the application of the PGNAA method as applied to five industrial applications is given. Some introductory material is first given on the importance and use of Monte Carlo simulation in this area, some comments on the place of PGNAA in elemental analysis, and a brief description of the Monte Carlo - Library Least-Squares (MCLLS) approach to the nonlinear inverse PGNAA analysis problem. Then the applications of PGNAA are discussed for: (1) on-line bulk coal analysis, (2) nuclear oil well logging, (3) vitrified waste, (4) the analysis of sodium and aluminium in 'green liquor' in the presence of chlorine, and (5) the conveyor belt sorting of aluminum alloy samples. It is concluded that PGNAA is a rapidly emerging important new technology and measurement approach. (author)

  7. INIS retrieval service, towards on-line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebinuma, Yukio; Komatsubara, Yasutoshi

    1983-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute executes the retrieval service of INIS atomic energy information by batch system in cooperation with Genshiryoku Kozaikai. This service is very popular to the users in whole Japan, but the demand of on-line service has increased recently. Therefore, it was decided to begin the INIS on-line service from January, 1984, through the on-line information retrieval system of the Japan Information Center of Science and Technology. It is expected that when the operation will be started, the utilization of INIS atomic energy information in Japan will drastically increase. Also Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has carried out the retrieval service by on-line system for those in the institute besides the batch system, accordingly, at this opportunity, the state of utilization of both systems and their distinction to use effectively, and the operation and the method of utilization of the on-line information retrieval system of JICST are explained. In the on-line system, the users are accessible to the data base themselves, and immediate information retrieval is possible, while in the batch system, the related information can be retrieved without fail, and the troublesome operation of equipment is not necessary. (Kako, I.)

  8. Determination of the main solid-state form of albendazole in bulk drug, employing Raman spectroscopy coupled to multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Natalia L; Arias, Juan M; Altabef, Aída Ben; Maggio, Rubén M; Kaufman, Teodoro S

    2016-09-10

    Albendazole (ALB) is a broad-spectrum anthelmintic, which exhibits two solid-state forms (Forms I and II). The Form I is the metastable crystal at room temperature, while Form II is the stable one. Because the drug has poor aqueous solubility and Form II is less soluble than Form I, it is desirable to have a method to assess the solid-state form of the drug employed for manufacturing purposes. Therefore, a Partial Least Squares (PLS) model was developed for the determination of Form I of ALB in its mixtures with Form II. For model development, both solid-state forms of ALB were prepared and characterized by microscopic (optical and with normal and polarized light), thermal (DSC) and spectroscopic (ATR-FTIR, Raman) techniques. Mixtures of solids in different ratios were prepared by weighing and mechanical mixing of the components. Their Raman spectra were acquired, and subjected to peak smoothing, normalization, standard normal variate correction and de-trending, before performing the PLS calculations. The optimal spectral region (1396-1280cm(-1)) and number of latent variables (LV=3) were obtained employing a moving window of variable size strategy. The method was internally validated by means of the leave one out procedure, providing satisfactory statistics (r(2)=0.9729 and RMSD=5.6%) and figures of merit (LOD=9.4% and MDDC=1.4). Furthermore, the method's performance was also evaluated by analysis of two validation sets. Validation set I was used for assessment of linearity and range and Validation set II, to demonstrate accuracy and precision (Recovery=101.4% and RSD=2.8%). Additionally, a third set of spiked commercial samples was evaluated, exhibiting excellent recoveries (94.2±6.4%). The results suggest that the combination of Raman spectroscopy with multivariate analysis could be applied to the assessment of the main crystal form and its quantitation in samples of ALB bulk drug, in the routine quality control laboratory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All

  9. On-Line 1D and 2D PLOT/LC-ESI-MS Using 10 μm i.d. Poly(styrene–divinylbenzene) Porous Layer Open Tubular (PLOT) Columns For Ultrasensitive Proteomic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Quanzhou; Yue, Guihua; Valaskovic, Gary A; Gu, Ye; Wu, Shiaw-Lin; Karger, Barry L.

    2008-01-01

    Following on our recent work, on-line one dimensional (1D) and two dimensional (2D) PLOT/LC-ESI-MS platforms using 3.2 m × 10 μm i.d. poly(styrenedivinylbenzene) (PS-DVB) porous layer open tubular (PLOT) columns have been developed to provide robust, high performance and ultrasensitive proteomic analysis. Using a PicoClear tee, the dead volume connection between a 50 μm i.d. PS-DVB monolithic microSPE column and the PLOT column was minimized. The microSPE/PLOT column assembly provided a separation performance similar to that obtained with direct injection onto the PLOT column at a mobile phase flow rate of 20 nL/min. The trace analysis potential of the platform was evaluated using an in-gel tryptic digest sample of a gel fraction (15 to 40 kDa) of a cervical cancer (SiHa) cell line. As an example of the sensitivity of the system, ∼2.5 ng of protein in 2 μL solution, an amount corresponding to 20 SiHa cells, was subjected to on-line microSPE-PLOT/LC-ESIMS/MS analysis using a linear ion trap MS. 237 peptides associated with 163 unique proteins were identified from a single analysis when using stringent criteria associated with a false positive rate less than 1% . The number of identified peptides and proteins increased to 638 and 343, respectively, as the injection amount was raised to ∼45 ng of protein, an amount corresponding to 350 SiHa cells. In comparison, only 338 peptides and 231 unique proteins were identified (false positive rate again less than 1%) from 750 ng of protein from the identical gel fraction, an amount corresponding to 6000 SiHa cells, using a typical 15 cm × 75 μm i.d. packed capillary column. The greater sensitivity, higher recovery, and higher resolving power of the PLOT column resulted in the increased number of identifications from only ∼5% of the injected sample amount. The resolving power of the microSPE/PLOT assembly was further extended by 2D chromatography via combination of the high-efficiency reversed phase PLOT column

  10. Analysis of threshold current of uniaxially tensile stressed bulk Ge and Ge/SiGe quantum well lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jialin; Sun, Junqiang; Gao, Jianfeng; Zhang, Ruiwen

    2017-10-30

    We propose and design uniaxially tensile stressed bulk Ge and Ge/SiGe quantum well lasers with the stress along direction. The micro-bridge structure is adapted for introducing uniaxial stress in Ge/SiGe quantum well. To enhance the fabrication tolerance, full-etched circular gratings with high reflectivity bandwidths of ~500 nm are deployed in laser cavities. We compare and analyze the density of state, the number of states between Γ- and L-points, the carrier injection efficiency, and the threshold current density for the uniaxially tensile stressed bulk Ge and Ge/SiGe quantum well lasers. Simulation results show that the threshold current density of the Ge/SiGe quantum well laser is much higher than that of the bulk Ge laser, even combined with high uniaxial tensile stress owing to the larger number of states between Γ- and L- points and extremely low carrier injection efficiency. Electrical transport simulation reveals that the reduced effective mass of the hole and the small conduction band offset cause the low carrier injection efficiency of the Ge/SiGe quantum well laser. Our theoretical results imply that unlike III-V material, uniaxially tensile stressed bulk Ge outperforms a Ge/SiGe quantum well with the same strain level and is a promising approach for Si-compatible light sources.

  11. Analysis of the Panamax bulk carrier charter market 1989-1994 in relation to the design characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnolst, N.; Bartelds, M.

    1995-01-01

    Panamax bulk carriers form the largest homogeneous shiptype-group in the world fleet. The H. Clarkson database contained in 1994, 834 of these ships, in a dead-weight range of 50.000-76.000 tons. The dimensions of panamax vessels are restricted by the dimensions of the locks of the Panama Canal,

  12. Spectrum response and analysis of 77 GHz band collective Thomson scattering diagnostic for bulk and fast ions in LHD plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishiura, M.; Kubo, S.; Tanaka, K.

    2014-01-01

    A collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic was developed and used to measure the bulk and fast ions originating from 180 keV neutral beams in the Large Helical Device (LHD). Electromagnetic waves from a gyrotron at 77 GHz with 1 MW power output function as both the probe and electron cyclot...

  13. Specialization processes in on-line unsupervised learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biehl, M.; Freking, A.; Reents, G.; Schlösser, E.

    1998-01-01

    From the recent analysis of supervised learning by on-line gradient descent in multilayered neural networks it is known that the necessary process of student specialization can be delayed significantly. We demonstrate that this phenomenon also occurs in various models of unsupervised learning. A

  14. Effect of sample moisture and bulk density on performance of the 241Am-Be source based prompt gamma rays neutron activation analysis setup. A Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almisned, Ghada

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were carried out using the dependence of gamma ray yield on the bulk density and moisture content for five different lengths of Portland cement samples in a thermal neutron capture based Prompt Gamma ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) setup for source inside moderator geometry using an 241 Am-Be neutron source. In this study, yields of 1.94 and 6.42 MeV prompt gamma rays from calcium in the five Portland cement samples were calculated as a function of sample bulk density and moisture content. The study showed a strong dependence of the 1.94 and 6.42 MeV gamma ray yield upon the sample bulk density but a weaker dependence upon sample moisture content. For an order of magnitude increase in the sample bulk density, an order of magnitude increase in the gamma rays yield was observed, i.e., a one-to-one correspondence. In case of gamma ray yield dependence upon sample moisture content, an order of magnitude increase in the moisture content of the sample resulted in about 16-17% increase in the yield of 1.94 and 6.42 MeV gamma rays from calcium. (author)

  15. Approaches for on-line coupling of extraction and chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyoetylaeinen, Tuulia; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, 00014, Helsinki (Finland)

    2004-04-01

    This review provides an overview of the approaches available in order to perform on-line coupling of various extraction techniques with liquid and gas chromatography, for the analysis of semivolatile and nonvolatile analytes in liquid and solid samples. The main focus is on the instrumental set-up of these techniques. Selected real applications are described by way of illustration. The extraction methods suitable for on-line coupling covered in this review are: liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, membrane-based techniques, pressurised liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, and microwave- and sonication-assisted extractions. The following systems are not covered in this review: on-line coupled solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography, purge-and-trap-GC, and membrane extraction with a sorbent interface-GC. (orig.)

  16. Monte Carlo calculations and neutron spectrometry in quantitative prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of bulk samples using an isotopic neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spyrou, N.M.; Awotwi-Pratt, J.B.; Williams, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    An activation analysis facility based on an isotopic neutron source (185 GBq 241 Am/Be) which can perform both prompt and cyclic activation analysis on bulk samples, has been used for more than 20 years in many applications including 'in vivo' activation analysis and the determination of the composition of bio-environmental samples, such as, landfill waste and coal. Although the comparator method is often employed, because of the variety in shape, size and elemental composition of these bulk samples, it is often difficult and time consuming to construct appropriate comparator samples for reference. One of the obvious problems is the distribution and energy of the neutron flux in these bulk and comparator samples. In recent years, it was attempted to adopt the absolute method based on a monostandard and to make calculations using a Monte Carlo code (MCNP4C2) to explore this further. In particular, a model of the irradiation facility has been made using the MCNP4C2 code in order to investigate the factors contributing to the quantitative determination of the elemental concentrations through prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) and most importantly, to estimate how the neutron energy spectrum and neutron dose vary with penetration depth into the sample. This simulation is compared against the scattered and transmitted neutron energy spectra that are experimentally and empirically determined using a portable neutron spectrometry system. (author)

  17. Non-destructive bulk analysis of the Buggenum sword by neutron resonance capture analysis and neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postma, H.; Clarijs, M.; Borella, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Kamermans, H.

    2010-01-01

    Two neutron based techniques, neutron resonance capture analysis (NRCA) and time-of-flight neutron-diffraction (TOF-ND) have been used to determine the elemental composition and structure of a precious and very well preserved all-metal sword from the Bronze Age. This Buggenum sword was on loan from the National Museum of Antiquities (NMA) in Leiden (NL). NRCA and TOF-ND experiments have been carried out at a number of more or less identical positions of the sword. The tin-bronze ratio and the relative amounts of some minor elements (Sb, As, Ag, In) have been determined. The results of neutron diffraction measurements showed considerable tin-segregation, and clear indications of hardening on the edges of the blade. In addition, radiographs using Bremsstrahlung revealed the construction of the hilt-blade connection. The work was carried out at the EC Joint Research Centre IRMM in Geel (B) and at the ISIS facility of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK). (author)

  18. Determination of Lubricant Bulk Modulus in Metal Forming by Means of a Simple Laboratory Test and Inverse FEM Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hafis, S. M.; Christiansen, P.; Martins, P. A. F.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of workpiece surface topography on friction, lubrication and final surface equality in metal forming operations is well known and has been pointed out by many researchers.This is especially the case when liquid lubricants are applied in situations, where increased surface roughness ...... couples lubricant flow with plastic deformation of the metal directly. Results show that the proposed procedure allows determining an approximate bulk modulus for the lubricant.......The influence of workpiece surface topography on friction, lubrication and final surface equality in metal forming operations is well known and has been pointed out by many researchers.This is especially the case when liquid lubricants are applied in situations, where increased surface roughness...... facilitates the lubricant entrainment, pressurization and possible escape by micro-plasto-hydrodynamic lubrication. In order to model these mechanisms an important lubricant propertyd esignated as the bulk modulus is needed for characterizing the compressibility of the lubricant. The present paper describes...

  19. Analysis for impedance electrochemistry 'on-line' of membrane/electrode assemble (MEA) of protons exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC); Analise por impedancia eletroquimica 'on-line' de conjuntos eletrodos/membrana (MEA) de celulas a combustivel a membrana polimetrica (PEMFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Antonio Rodolfo dos

    2007-07-01

    This work reports results of studies and characterization on membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Some cell operation conditions and different processes of MEA production were investigated. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique (EIS) (in situ - 0 to 16 A) was used 'on-line' as a tool for diagnosis, concerning the cell performance. The EIS measurements were carried out with a FC350 Fuel Cell EIS System (GAMRY), coupled to a PC4 potentiostat/galvanostat and connected to the electronic load (TDI) for 'on-line' EIS experiments (100 mHz - 10 kHz, dU = 5 mV). MEAs with 25 cm{sup 2} surface area, using PtM/C 20% (M Ru, Sn or Ni) electrocatalysts were manufactured using the alcohol reduction process (ARP). The catalytic ink was applied directly into the carbon cloth (GDL) and pressed in the Nafion membrane (105). MEAs using Pt/C and Pt Ru/C 20% from E-TEK electrocatalysts were manufactured by comparison. All the cathodes were sprayed with Pt/C 20% from E-TEK. The noble metal concentrations used were set to 0.4 mg Pt.cm{sup -2} at the anode and 0.6 mg Pt.cm{sup -2} at the cathode (E-TEK). Nyquist diagrams of the MEAs with Pt/C and PtRu/C from E-TEK or PtM/C (M = Ru, Sn or Ni) ARP showed essentially the same ohmic resistances for the MEAs. This fact can be explained by suppression of agglomerates during the MEA preparation process or by the homogeneity of the anchored electrocatalysts at the carbon surface. It could also be observed, at low current densities, that there was a significant performance difference between the electrocatalysts from E-TEK and those prepared with the alcohol reduction process. The polarization curves results confirmed that the Pt M/C (M = Ru, Sn or Ni) ARP showed an activity increase for the methanol and ethanol fed cells. The technique of EIE was shown efficient for the evaluation of the method preparation of MEAs and the acting of the cell, the results of EIE

  20. Analysis for impedance electrochemistry 'on-line' of membrane/electrode assemble (MEA) of protons exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC); Analise por impedancia eletroquimica 'on-line' de conjuntos eletrodos/membrana (MEA) de celulas a combustivel a membrana polimetrica (PEMFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Antonio Rodolfo dos

    2007-07-01

    This work reports results of studies and characterization on membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Some cell operation conditions and different processes of MEA production were investigated. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique (EIS) (in situ - 0 to 16 A) was used 'on-line' as a tool for diagnosis, concerning the cell performance. The EIS measurements were carried out with a FC350 Fuel Cell EIS System (GAMRY), coupled to a PC4 potentiostat/galvanostat and connected to the electronic load (TDI) for 'on-line' EIS experiments (100 mHz - 10 kHz, dU = 5 mV). MEAs with 25 cm{sup 2} surface area, using PtM/C 20% (M Ru, Sn or Ni) electrocatalysts were manufactured using the alcohol reduction process (ARP). The catalytic ink was applied directly into the carbon cloth (GDL) and pressed in the Nafion membrane (105). MEAs using Pt/C and Pt Ru/C 20% from E-TEK electrocatalysts were manufactured by comparison. All the cathodes were sprayed with Pt/C 20% from E-TEK. The noble metal concentrations used were set to 0.4 mg Pt.cm{sup -2} at the anode and 0.6 mg Pt.cm{sup -2} at the cathode (E-TEK). Nyquist diagrams of the MEAs with Pt/C and PtRu/C from E-TEK or PtM/C (M = Ru, Sn or Ni) ARP showed essentially the same ohmic resistances for the MEAs. This fact can be explained by suppression of agglomerates during the MEA preparation process or by the homogeneity of the anchored electrocatalysts at the carbon surface. It could also be observed, at low current densities, that there was a significant performance difference between the electrocatalysts from E-TEK and those prepared with the alcohol reduction process. The polarization curves results confirmed that the Pt M/C (M = Ru, Sn or Ni) ARP showed an activity increase for the methanol and ethanol fed cells. The technique of EIE was shown efficient for the evaluation of the method preparation of MEAs and the acting of the cell, the results of EIE showed coherence in the

  1. On-line monitoring for calibration reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, M.

    2005-09-01

    On-Line Monitoring evaluates instrument channel performance by assessing its consistency with other plant indications. Elimination or reduction of unnecessary field calibrations can reduce associated labour costs, reduce personnel radiation exposure, and reduce the potential for calibration errors. On-line calibration monitoring is an important technique to implement a state-based maintenance approach and reduce unnecessary field calibrations. In this report we will look at how the concept is currently applied in the industry and what the arising needs are as it becomes more commonplace. We will also look at the PEANO System, a tool developed by the Halden Project to perform signal validation and on-line calibration monitoring. Some issues will be identified that are being addressed in the further development of these tools to better serve the future needs of the industry in this area. An outline for how to improve these points and which aspects should be taken into account is described in detail. (Author)

  2. An empirical analysis of freight rate and vessel price volatility transmission in global dry bulk shipping market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Dai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Global dry bulk shipping market is an important element of global economy and trade. Since newbuilding and secondhand vessels are often traded as assets and the freight rate is the key determinant of vessel price, it is important for shipping market participants to understand the market dynamics and price transmission mechanism over time to make suitable strategic decisions. To address this issue, a multi-variate GARCH model was applied in this paper to explore the volatility spillover effects across the vessel markets (including newbuilding and secondhand vessel markets and freight market. Specifically, the BEKK parameterization of the multi-variate GARCH model (BEKK GARCH was proposed to capture the volatility transmission effect from the freight market, newbuilding and secondhand vessel markets in the global dry bulk shipping industry. Empirical results reveal that significant volatility transmission effects exist in each market sector, i.e. capesize, panamax, handymax and handysize. Besides, the market volatility transmission mechanism varies among different vessel types. Moreover, some bilateral effects are found in the dry bulk shipping market, showing that lagged variances could affect the current variance in a counterpart market, regardless of the volatility transmission. A simple ratio is proposed to guide investors optimizing their portfolio allocations. The findings in this paper could provide unique insights for investors to understand the market and hedge their portfolios well.

  3. Simultaneous analysis of aspartame and its hydrolysis products of Coca-Cola Zero by on-line postcolumn derivation fluorescence detection and ultraviolet detection coupled two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cheanyeh; Wu, Shing-Chen

    2011-05-20

    An innovative two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography system was developed for the simultaneous analysis of aspartame and its hydrolysis products of Coca-Cola Zero. A C8 reversed-phase chromatographic column with ultraviolet detection was used as the first dimension for the determination of aspartame, and a ligand-exchange chromatographic column with on-line postcolumn derivation fluorescence detection was employed as the second dimension for the analysis of amino acid enantiomers. The fluorimetric derivative reagent of amino acid enantiomers was o-phthaldialdehyde. The hydrolysis of aspartame in Coca-Cola Zero was induced by electric-heating or microwave heating. Aspartame was quantified by the matrix matched external standard calibration curve with a linear concentration range of 0-50 μg mL(-1) (r(2)=0.9984). The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were 1.3 μg mL(-1) and 4.3 μg mL(-1), respectively. The amino acid enantiomers was analyzed by the matrix matched internal standard calibration method (D-leucine as the internal standard) with a linear concentration range of 0-10 μg mL(-1) (r(2)=0.9988-0.9997). The LODs and LOQs for L- and D-aspartic acid and L- and D-phenylalanine were 0.16-0.17 μg mL(-1) and 0.52-0.55 μg mL(-1), respectively, that was 12-13 times more sensitive than ultraviolet detection. The overall analysis accuracy for aspartame and amino acid enantiomers was 90.2-99.2% and 90.4-96.2%, respectively. The overall analysis precision for aspartame and amino acid enantiomers was 0.1-1.7% and 0.5-6.7%, respectively. Generally, the extent of aspartame hydrolysis increases with the increase of electro-thermal temperature, microwave power, and the duration of hydrolysis time. D-aspartic acid and D-phenylalanine can be observed with the electro-thermal racemization at the hydrolysis temperature 120°C for 1 day and only D-aspartic acid can be observed at the hydrolysis temperature 90°C for 2 and 3 days. For

  4. On-line signal trend identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tambouratzis, T.; Antonopoulos-Domis, M.

    2004-01-01

    An artificial neural network, based on the self-organizing map, is proposed for on-line signal trend identification. Trends are categorized at each incoming signal as steady-state, increasing and decreasing, while they are further classified according to characteristics such signal shape and rate of change. Tests with model-generated signals illustrate the ability of the self-organizing map to accurately and reliably perform on-line trend identification in terms of both detection and classification. The proposed methodology has been found robust to the presence of white noise

  5. On line routing per mobile phone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieding, Thomas; Görtz, Simon; Klose, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    On-line routing is concerned with building vehicle routes in an ongoing fashion in such a way that customer requests arriving dynamically in time are efficiently and effectively served. An indispensable prerequisite for applying on-line routing methods is mobile communication technology....... Additionally it is of utmost importance that the employed communication system is suitable integrated with the firm’s enterprise application system and business processes. On basis of a case study, we describe in this paper a system that is cheap and easy to implement due to the use of simple mobile phones...

  6. On-line atomic data access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, D.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Nash, J.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The need for atomic data is one which continues to expand in a wide variety of applications including fusion energy, astrophysics, laser- produced plasma research, and plasma processing. Modern computer database and communications technology nables this data to be placed on-line and obtained by users of the Internet. Presented here is a summary of the observations and conclusions regarding such on-line atomic data access derived from a forum held at the Tenth APS Topical Conference on Atomic Processes in Plasmas.

  7. Increased Cortical Thickness in Professional On-Line Gamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Gi Jung; Shin, Yong Wook; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Jin, Seong Nam

    2013-01-01

    Objective The bulk of recent studies have tested whether video games change the brain in terms of activity and cortical volume. However, such studies are limited by several factors including cross-sectional comparisons, co-morbidity, and short-term follow-up periods. In the present study, we hypothesized that cognitive flexibility and the volume of brain cortex would be correlated with the career length of on-line pro-gamers. Methods High-resolution magnetic resonance scans were acquired in twenty-three pro-gamers recruited from StarCraft pro-game teams. We measured cortical thickness in each individual using FreeSurfer and the cortical thickness was correlated with the career length and the performance of the pro-gamers. Results Career length was positively correlated with cortical thickness in three brain regions: right superior frontal gyrus, right superior parietal gyrus, and right precentral gyrus. Additionally, increased cortical thickness in the prefrontal cortex was correlated with winning rates of the pro-game league. Increased cortical thickness in the prefrontal and parietal cortices was also associated with higher performance of Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Conclusion Our results suggest that in individuals without pathologic conditions, regular, long-term playing of on-line games is associated with volume changes in the prefrontal and parietal cortices, which are associated with cognitive flexibility. PMID:24474988

  8. Towards risk-based management of critical infrastructures : enabling insights and analysis methodologies from a focused study of the bulk power grid.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, Bryan T.; LaViolette, Randall A.; Cook, Benjamin Koger

    2008-02-01

    This report summarizes research on a holistic analysis framework to assess and manage risks in complex infrastructures, with a specific focus on the bulk electric power grid (grid). A comprehensive model of the grid is described that can approximate the coupled dynamics of its physical, control, and market components. New realism is achieved in a power simulator extended to include relevant control features such as relays. The simulator was applied to understand failure mechanisms in the grid. Results suggest that the implementation of simple controls might significantly alter the distribution of cascade failures in power systems. The absence of cascade failures in our results raises questions about the underlying failure mechanisms responsible for widespread outages, and specifically whether these outages are due to a system effect or large-scale component degradation. Finally, a new agent-based market model for bilateral trades in the short-term bulk power market is presented and compared against industry observations.

  9. On-line monitoring of the U(VI) concentration in 30 vol.% TBP/kerosene: an evaluation of real-time analysis in polyetheretherketone (PEEK) containers via Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Bai; Ding-Ming Li; Zhi-Yuan Chang; De-Jun Fan; Jin-Ping Liu; Hui Wang

    2015-01-01

    In order to evaluate the practicability of Raman spectroscopy for on-line U(VI) concentration monitoring in 30 vol.% TBP/kerosene within polyetheretherketone containers, laboratory scale experiments were performed and several influencing factors for real-time determination were investigated. A method of internal standard was employed for the first time. Software developed for real-time concentration data display can give the U(VI) concentration autonomously within several seconds. The study confirmed Raman spectroscopy as a promising methodology for on-line U(VI) concentration monitoring in organic phase. (author)

  10. SPIRES I: on-line search guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addis, L.

    1975-06-01

    SPIRES I is the first generation of the on-line Stanford Public Information Retrieval System. Designed as a prototype system, SPIRES I was later moved to the SLAC computing facility where it has been routinely available to SLAC users in the field of high-energy physics. The scope and use of the SPIRES I system are described in this manual

  11. HOPI: on-line injection optimization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeMaire, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    A method of matching the beam from the 200 MeV linac to the AGS without the necessity of making emittance measurements is presented. An on-line computer program written on the PDP10 computer performs the matching by modifying independently the horizontal and vertical emittance. Experimental results show success with this method, which can be applied to any matching section

  12. Bulk oil clauses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, N.

    1993-01-01

    The Institute Bulk Oil Clauses produced by the London market and the American SP-13c Clauses are examined in detail in this article. The duration and perils covered are discussed, and exclusions, adjustment clause 15 of the Institute Bulk Oil Clauses, Institute War Clauses (Cargo), and Institute Strikes Clauses (Bulk Oil) are outlined. (UK)

  13. Trace analysis of halogenated hydrocarbons in gaseous samples by on-line enrichment in an adsorption trap, on-column cold-trapping and capillary gas chromatography. I.Method and instrumentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noij, T.H.M.; Fabian, P.; Borchers, R.; Janssen, F.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.; Rijks, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of halocarbons in gaseous samples down to the ppt level (1:1012, v/v), consisting of successive on-line sub-ambient enrichment on an adsorbent, on-column cryofocusing, capillary gas chromatography and electron-capture detection. The quantitative aspects of

  14. Tar formation in a steam-O2 blown CFB gasifier and a steam blown PBFB gasifier (BabyHPR) : Comparison between different on-line measurement techniques and the off-line SPA sampling and analysis method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, X.; Mitsakis, P.; Mayerhofen, M.; De Jong, W.; Gaderer, M.; Verkooijen, A.H.M.; Spliethoff, H.

    2012-01-01

    Two on-line tar measurement campaigns were carried out using an atmospheric pressure 100 “”kWth steam-O2 blown circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasifier at the Delft University of Technology (TUD) and a 30–40kWth steam blown pressurized bubbling fluidized bed (PBFB) gasifier BabyHPR (Heatpipe

  15. Assessment of Functional EST-SSR Markers (Sugarcane in Cross-Species Transferability, Genetic Diversity among Poaceae Plants, and Bulk Segregation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamshad Ul Haq

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Expressed sequence tags (ESTs are important resource for gene discovery, gene expression and its regulation, molecular marker development, and comparative genomics. We procured 10000 ESTs and analyzed 267 EST-SSRs markers through computational approach. The average density was one SSR/10.45 kb or 6.4% frequency, wherein trinucleotide repeats (66.74% were the most abundant followed by di- (26.10%, tetra- (4.67%, penta- (1.5%, and hexanucleotide (1.2% repeats. Functional annotations were done and after-effect newly developed 63 EST-SSRs were used for cross transferability, genetic diversity, and bulk segregation analysis (BSA. Out of 63 EST-SSRs, 42 markers were identified owing to their expansion genetics across 20 different plants which amplified 519 alleles at 180 loci with an average of 2.88 alleles/locus and the polymorphic information content (PIC ranged from 0.51 to 0.93 with an average of 0.83. The cross transferability ranged from 25% for wheat to 97.22% for Schlerostachya, with an average of 55.86%, and genetic relationships were established based on diversification among them. Moreover, 10 EST-SSRs were recognized as important markers between bulks of pooled DNA of sugarcane cultivars through BSA. This study highlights the employability of the markers in transferability, genetic diversity in grass species, and distinguished sugarcane bulks.

  16. Short-term bulk energy storage system scheduling for load leveling in unit commitment: modeling, optimization, and sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Reza; Saboori, Hedayat

    2016-05-01

    Energy storage systems (ESSs) have experienced a very rapid growth in recent years and are expected to be a promising tool in order to improving power system reliability and being economically efficient. The ESSs possess many potential benefits in various areas in the electric power systems. One of the main benefits of an ESS, especially a bulk unit, relies on smoothing the load pattern by decreasing on-peak and increasing off-peak loads, known as load leveling. These devices require new methods and tools in order to model and optimize their effects in the power system studies. In this respect, this paper will model bulk ESSs based on the several technical characteristics, introduce the proposed model in the thermal unit commitment (UC) problem, and analyze it with respect to the various sensitive parameters. The technical limitations of the thermal units and transmission network constraints are also considered in the model. The proposed model is a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) which can be easily solved by strong commercial solvers (for instance CPLEX) and it is appropriate to be used in the practical large scale networks. The results of implementing the proposed model on a test system reveal that proper load leveling through optimum storage scheduling leads to considerable operation cost reduction with respect to the storage system characteristics.

  17. Short-term bulk energy storage system scheduling for load leveling in unit commitment: modeling, optimization, and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Reza; Saboori, Hedayat

    2016-01-01

    Energy storage systems (ESSs) have experienced a very rapid growth in recent years and are expected to be a promising tool in order to improving power system reliability and being economically efficient. The ESSs possess many potential benefits in various areas in the electric power systems. One of the main benefits of an ESS, especially a bulk unit, relies on smoothing the load pattern by decreasing on-peak and increasing off-peak loads, known as load leveling. These devices require new methods and tools in order to model and optimize their effects in the power system studies. In this respect, this paper will model bulk ESSs based on the several technical characteristics, introduce the proposed model in the thermal unit commitment (UC) problem, and analyze it with respect to the various sensitive parameters. The technical limitations of the thermal units and transmission network constraints are also considered in the model. The proposed model is a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) which can be easily solved by strong commercial solvers (for instance CPLEX) and it is appropriate to be used in the practical large scale networks. The results of implementing the proposed model on a test system reveal that proper load leveling through optimum storage scheduling leads to considerable operation cost reduction with respect to the storage system characteristics. PMID:27222741

  18. On-line chemistry monitoring for the secondary side

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) has developed a computerized water chemistry data acquisition and management system for nuclear plant secondary coolant systems. The Integrated Water Chemistry Monitoring System (IWCMS) provides on-line monitoring of conditions and rapid trend analysis of sampled data. So far it has been installed at GPU Three Mile Island unit 1 and at Toledo Edison Davis-Besse. The IWCMS meets the following utility needs for monitoring power plant chemistry: control of chemistry conditions to minimize corrosion and extend component/system life; continuous analysis of data from on-line detectors and grab samples; expediting of transient recovery actions with trend, alarm and evaluation capability; provision for rapid sharing of useful operational chemistry information; concentration of attention on evaluation instead of data manipulation. The system is composed of three functional parts: data acquisition hardware; PC-based computer system and customised system software. (author)

  19. On-line solid-phase enrichment coupled to packed reactor flow injection analysis in a green analytical procedure to determine low levels of folic acid using fluorescence detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emara Samy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of folic acid (FA is not an easy task because of its presence in lower concentrations, its lower stability under acidic conditions, and its sensitiveness against light and high temperature. The present study is concerned with the development and validation of an automated environmentally friendly pre-column derivatization combined by solid-phase enrichment (SPEn to determine low levels of FA. Results Cerium (IV trihydroxyhydroperoxide (CTH as a packed oxidant reactor has been used for oxidative cleavage of FA into highly fluorescent product, 2-amino-4-hydroxypteridine-6-carboxylic acid. FA was injected into a carrier stream of 0.04 M phosphate buffer, pH 3.4 at a flow-rate of 0.25 mL/min. The sample zone containing the analyte was passed through the CTH reactor thermostated at 40°C, and the fluorescent product was trapped and enriched on a head of small ODS column (10 mm x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm particle size. The enriched product was then back-flush eluted by column-switching from the small ODS column to the detector with a greener mobile phase consisting of ethanol and phosphate buffer (0.04M, pH 3.4 in the ratio of 5:95 (v/v. The eluent was monitored fluorimetrically at emission and excitation wavelengths of 463 and 367 nm, respectively. The calibration graph was linear over concentrations of FA in the range of 1.25-50 ng/mL, with a detection limit of 0.49 ng/mL. Conclusion A new simple and sensitive green analytical procedure including on-line pre-column derivatization combined by SPEn has been developed for the routine quality control and dosage form assay of FA at very low concentration level. The method was a powerful analytical technique that had excellent sensitivity, sufficient accuracy and required relatively simple and inexpensive instrumentation.

  20. Analysis of nicotine and cotinine in hair by on-line in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry as biomarkers of exposure to tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inukai, Takehito; Kaji, Sanae; Kataoka, Hiroyuki

    2018-07-15

    Smoking not only increases the risk of lung cancer but is strongly related to the onset of cardiovascular disease. Particularly, passive smoking due to sidestream smoke is a critical public health problem. To assess active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke, we developed a simple and sensitive method, consisting of on-line in-tube solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), to determine nicotine and its metabolite cotinine in hair samples. These compounds were separated within 5 min using a Polar-RP80A column and detected in the positive ion mode by multiple reaction monitoring. The optimum in-tube SPME conditions were 25 draw/eject cycles of 40 μL of sample at a flow rate of 200 μL/min using a Carboxen 1006 capillary column as an extraction device. The extracted compounds in the stationary phase on the inner wall of the capillary could be dissolved easily into the mobile phase and transferred to an LC column. Using the in-tube SPME LC-MS/MS method, the calibration curves were linear in the 5-1000 pg/mL ranges for nicotine and cotinine, and the detection limits (signal to noise ratio of 3) were 0.45 and 0.13 pg/mL, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precisions were below 3.4% and 6.0% (n = 5), respectively. This method was utilized successfully to analyze pg/mg levels of nicotine and cotinine in 1 mg of hairs without interference peaks, and good recoveries were obtained. The concentration of cotinine in hair was two orders of magnitude lower than that of nicotine, but a good positive correlation was found between the concentrations of these compounds. This method can automate the extraction, concentration and analysis of samples, and is useful for the assessment of long-term exposure to tobacco smoke. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. IOOS Data Portals and Uniform On-line Browse Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, M.; Currier, R. D.; Kobara, S.; Gayanilo, F.

    2015-12-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System Regional Association (GCOOS-RA) is one of eleven Regional Associations organized under the NOAA-led U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) Program Office. Each of the RAs operate standards-based regional data portals designed to aggregate near real-time and historical observed data and modeled outputs from distributed providers and to offer these and derived products in standardized ways to a diverse set of users. The RA's portals are based on the IOOS Data and Communications Plan which describes the functional elements needed for an interoperable system. One of these elements is called "Uniform On-line Browse" which is an informational service designed primarily to visualize the inventory of a portal. An on-line browse service supports the end user's need to discover what parameters are available, to learn the spatial and temporal extend of the holdings, and to examine the character of the data (e.g, variability, gappiness, etc). These pieces of information help the end user decide if the data are fit for his/her purpose and to construct valid data requests. Note that on-line browse is a distinctly different activity than data analysis because it seeks to yield knowledge about the inventory and not about what the data mean. "Uniform" on-line browse is a service that takes advantage of the standardization of the data portal's data access points. Most portals represent station locations on a map. This is a view of the data inventory but these plots are rarely generated by pulling data through the standards-based services offered to the end users but through methods only available to the portal programmers. This work will present results of Uniform On-line browse tools developed within GCOOS-RA and their applicability to other RA portals.

  2. Educational On-Line Gaming Propensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Razmerita, Liana; Kirchner, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Educational on-line games are promising for new generations of students who are grown up digital. Th e new generations of students are technology savvy and spend lots of time on the web and on social networks. Based on an exploratory study, this article investigates the factors that infl uence...... students’ willingness to participate in serious games for teaching/learning. Th is study investigates the relationship between students’ behavior on Facebook, Facebook games, and their attitude toward educational on-line games. Th e results of the study reveal that the early adopters of educational games...... are likely to be students, who are young, have only a few Facebook connections, who currently play Facebook game(s). Furthermore, the study emphasizes that there may be differences between students coming from various countries....

  3. Recovery Strategies in On-Line Service Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Ozuem, Wilson; Lancaster, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Despite a proliferation of a number of studies on service failures and recovery in e-service settings, there is a paucity of knowledge of ways in which service failures and recovery practices are implemented in the fashion industry. Drawing on constructivist perspective, this study offers a new perspective on an effective relational mechanism that would bridge the rupture between consumers and companies particularly in the on-line fashion sector. The analysis adds to studies on service failur...

  4. Trends in on-line data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masetti, M.

    1981-01-01

    The developement of integrated circuits has been characterized by an exponential growth of gates on a single chip that will still continue in the coming years. In parallel the price per bit is dropping down with more or less the same law. As a consequence of this a few statements can be made: The present 16-bit minicomputer in a small configuration is going to be substituted by a 16-bit microcomputer, and the 16-bit microcomputer in a powerful configuration by a 32-bit midi having also a virtual memory facility. Fully programmable or microcoded powerful devices like the LASS hardware processor or MICE, will allow an efficient on-line filter. Higher computing speed can be achieved by a multiprocessor configuration which can be insensitive to hardware failures. Therefore we are moving towards an integrated on-line computing system with much higher computing power than now and the present distinction between on-line and off-line will no longer be so sharp. As more processing can be performed on-line, fast high quality feed-back can be provided for the experiment. In the years to come the trend towards more processing power, at a lower price, and assembled in the same hardware volume will continue for at least five years; at the same time the future large high-energy physics experiments at LEP will be carried out within a wide international collaboration. In this environment methods must be found for a large fraction of the work to be distributed amongst the collaborators. To accomplish this aim it is necessary to introduce common standard practices concerning both hardware and software, in such a way that the seperate parts, developed by the collaborators, will be plug-compatible. (orig.)

  5. New Trends in on-line Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Palkovič, Lukáš

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with new trend of internet marketing, it focuses especially on viral marketing. The theoretical part charasterizes the process of viral campaigns, furthermore deals with the components and aspects of on-line environment. Another separated chapter presents social networks, their place in viral marketing and at last but not least the viral video making process. The practical part contains different analyses of specific viral campaigns. The next and equally the last pa...

  6. On-Line Maintenance Methodology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo Won; Kim, Jae Ho; Jae, Moo Sung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Most of domestic maintenance activities for nuclear power plants are performed while overhaul. Therefore, On-Line Maintenance (OLM) is one of the proper risks informed application techniques for diffusing maintenance burden during overhaul with safety of the plant is secured. The NUMARC 93-01 (Rev.3) presents the OLM state of the art and it provides methodology. This study adopts NUMARC 93-01 (Rev.3) and present OLM. The reference component is Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG) of Ulchin 3, 4

  7. Analysis of sources of bulk conductivity change in saturated silica sand after unbuffered TCE oxidation by permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hort, Ryan D; Revil, André; Munakata-Marr, Junko

    2014-09-01

    Time lapse resistivity surveys could potentially improve monitoring of permanganate-based in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) of organic contaminants such as trichloroethene (TCE) by tracking changes in subsurface conductivity that result from injection of permanganate and oxidation of the contaminant. Bulk conductivity and pore fluid conductivity changes during unbuffered TCE oxidation using permanganate are examined through laboratory measurements and conductivity modeling using PHREEQC in fluid samples and porous media samples containing silica sand. In fluid samples, oxidation of one TCE molecule produces three chloride ions and one proton, resulting in an increase in fluid electrical conductivity despite the loss of two permanganate ions in the reaction. However, in saturated sand samples in which up to 8mM TCE was oxidized, at least 94% of the fluid conductivity associated with the presence of protons was removed within 3h of sand contact, most likely through protonation of silanol groups found on the surface of the sand grains. Minor conductivity effects most likely associated with pH-dependent reductive dissolution of manganese dioxide were also observed but not accounted for in pore-fluid conductivity modeling. Unaccounted conductivity effects resulted in an under-calculation of post-reaction pore fluid conductivity of 2.1% to 5.5%. Although small increases in the porous media formation factor resulting from precipitation of manganese dioxide were detected (about 3%), these increases could not be confirmed to be statistically significant. Both injection of permanganate and oxidation of TCE cause increases in bulk conductivity that would be detectable through time-lapse resistivity surveys in field conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Electrical analysis of high dielectric constant insulator and metal gate metal oxide semiconductor capacitors on flexible bulk mono-crystalline silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2015-06-01

    We report on the electrical study of high dielectric constant insulator and metal gate metal oxide semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) on a flexible ultra-thin (25 μm) silicon fabric which is peeled off using a CMOS compatible process from a standard bulk mono-crystalline silicon substrate. A lifetime projection is extracted using statistical analysis of the ramping voltage (Vramp) breakdown and time dependent dielectric breakdown data. The obtained flexible MOSCAPs operational voltages satisfying the 10 years lifetime benchmark are compared to those of the control MOSCAPs, which are not peeled off from the silicon wafer. © 2014 IEEE.

  9. Ultra-trace levels analysis of microcystins and nodularin in surface water by on-line solid-phase extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balest, Lydia; Murgolo, Sapia; Sciancalepore, Lucia; Montemurro, Patrizia; Abis, Pier Paolo; Pastore, Carlo; Mascolo, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    An on-line solid phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography in tandem with mass spectrometry (on-line SPE/HPLC/MS-MS) method for the determination of five microcystins and nodularin in surface waters at submicrogram per liter concentrations has been optimized. Maximum recoveries were achieved by carefully optimizing the extraction sample volume, loading solvent, wash solvent, and pH of the sample. The developed method was also validated according to both UNI EN ISO IEC 17025 and UNICHIM guidelines. Specifically, ten analytical runs were performed at three different concentration levels using a reference mix solution containing the six analytes. The method was applied for monitoring the concentrations of microcystins and nodularin in real surface water during a sampling campaign of 9 months in which the ELISA method was used as standard official method. The results of the two methods were compared showing good agreement when the highest concentration values of MCs were found. Graphical abstract An on-line SPE/HPLC/MS-MS method for the determination of five microcystins and nodularin in surface waters at sub μg L(-1) was optimized and compared with ELISA assay method for real samples.

  10. On-line application of the PANTHER advanced nodal code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutt, P.K.; Knight, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Over the last few years, Nuclear Electric has developed an integrated core performance code package for both light water reactors (LWRs) and advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGRs) that can perform a comprehensive range of calculations for fuel cycle design, safety analysis, and on-line operational support for such plants. The package consists of the following codes: WIMS for lattice physics, PANTHER whole reactor nodal flux and AGR thermal hydraulics, VIPRE for LWR thermal hydraulics, and ENIGMA for fuel performance. These codes are integrated within a UNIX-based interactive system called the Reactor Physics Workbench (RPW), which provides an interactive graphic user interface and quality assurance records/data management. The RPW can also control calculational sequences and data flows. The package has been designed to run both off-line and on-line accessing plant data through the RPW

  11. The effect of inclusions on macroscopic composite elasticity: A systematic finite-element analysis of constituent and bulk elastic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, A; Sohag, F H

    2010-01-01

    The bulk physical properties of composite systems are difficult to predict - even when the properties of the constituent materials in the system are well known. We conducted a finite-element method simulation to examine the inclusion effect by substituting an inclusion phase (second phase) into a host phase (first phase). We have organized the simulation results as a function of the elasticity of host and inclusion phases. In this procedure, special attention was paid to the initial change of elastic constants as the inclusion volume ratio was varied. To accomplish this, we introduced a new parameter D ij defined as the derivatives of the normalized stiffness elastic constant over the inclusion volume ratio. We succeeded in obtaining useful systematic formulations for D ij . These formulations are expected to be applicable to the study of composite systems in many disciplines, such as geophysics, mechanics, material engineering, and biology. The present results provide much more effective constraints on the physical properties of composite systems, like rocks, than traditional methods, such as the Voigt-Reuss bounds.

  12. Bulked segregant analysis of the pirarucu (Arapaima gigas) genome for identification of sex-specific molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, I G; Ianella, P; Faria, M T; Paiva, S R; Caetano, A R

    2013-12-04

    Arapaima gigas (Osteoglossidae) is one of the largest fish species in the Amazon Basin, attaining lengths of over 2.5 m and weights of over 100 kg. Its flesh is prized, and it has great potential for production in aquaculture systems. However, live pirarucu cannot be reliably sexed visually, even after sexual development, since this species does not have clear external sexual dimorphism. Simple and inexpensive methods for sexing immature pirarucu based on DNA markers would facilitate production of this species in commercial operations. We analyzed A. gigas male and female DNA pools with 566 RAPD primers, generating 2609 fragments, with an estimated 1341 segregating polymorphic markers, and an estimated average spacing of 714 kb, which corresponds to less than 0.1% of the species' genome. Two putative sex-specific fragments were initially identified in bulked samples; but they were not confirmed in a study of individual male and female samples. We suggest that A. gigas has developed a non-chromosomal system of sex determination or, alternatively, that the species has undergone a recent loss of the chromosome carrying the sex-determining locus.

  13. On-line monitoring and control of animal-cell cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van der J.J.

    1996-01-01


    On-line analysis and control of biotechnological processes is still the stepchild in industry. In general, only parameters as dissolved-oxygen concentration, pH and temperature are controlled on-line. Important parameters as substrate and inhibitor concentrations are only measured

  14. Continuous-flow liquid microjunction surface sampling probe connected on-line with high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for spatially resolved analysis of small molecules and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2013-06-30

    A continuous-flow liquid microjunction surface sampling probe extracts soluble material from surfaces for direct ionization and detection by mass spectrometry. Demonstrated here is the on-line coupling of such a probe with high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) enabling extraction, separation and detection of small molecules and proteins from surfaces in a spatially resolved (~0.5 mm diameter spots) manner. A continuous-flow liquid microjunction surface sampling probe was connected to a six-port, two-position valve for extract collection and injection to an HPLC column. A QTRAP® 5500 hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap equipped with a Turbo V™ ion source operated in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode was used for all experiments. The system operation was tested with the extraction, separation and detection of propranolol and associated metabolites from drug dosed tissues, caffeine from a coffee bean, cocaine from paper currency, and proteins from dried sheep blood spots on paper. Confirmed in the tissue were the parent drug and two different hydroxypropranolol glucuronides. The mass spectrometric response for these compounds from different locations in the liver showed an increase with increasing extraction time (5, 20 and 40 s). For on-line separation and detection/identification of extracted proteins from dried sheep blood spots, two major protein peaks dominated the chromatogram and could be correlated with the expected masses for the hemoglobin α and β chains. Spatially resolved sampling, separation, and detection of small molecules and proteins from surfaces can be accomplished using a continuous-flow liquid microjunction surface sampling probe coupled on-line with HPLC/MS detection. Published in 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. ELT-MELAS analyzer and its on-line programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikeev, V.B.; Berezhnoj, V.A.; Glupova

    1976-01-01

    ELT-MELAS device constructed for an automatic analysis of pictures from big bubble chambers is described. It is controlled by a medium-size ICL-1903A computer and has two measuring modes: analysis of the ''agreement'' signal and digitation of slice-scans. Main features of the hardware and of on-line controlling and diagnostic software are presented. The test results of the MELAS complex as well as preliminary results of the scan-slice measurements of pictures from 15sup(') chamber are given

  16. Diffusion and bulk flow in phloem loading: A theoretical analysis of the polymer trap mechanism for sugar transport in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dölger, Julia; Rademaker, Hanna; Liesche, Johannes; Schulz, Alexander; Bohr, Tomas

    2014-10-01

    Plants create sugar in the mesophyll cells of their leaves by photosynthesis. This sugar, mostly sucrose, has to be loaded via the bundle sheath into the phloem vascular system (the sieve elements), where it is distributed to growing parts of the plant. We analyze the feasibility of a particular loading mechanism, active symplasmic loading, also called the polymer trap mechanism, where sucrose is transformed into heavier sugars, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the intermediary-type companion cells bordering the sieve elements in the minor veins of the phloem. Keeping the heavier sugars from diffusing back requires that the plasmodesmata connecting the bundle sheath with the intermediary cell act as extremely precise filters, which are able to distinguish between molecules that differ by less than 20% in size. In our modeling, we take into account the coupled water and sugar movement across the relevant interfaces, without explicitly considering the chemical reactions transforming the sucrose into the heavier sugars. Based on the available data for plasmodesmata geometry, sugar concentrations, and flux rates, we conclude that this mechanism can in principle function, but that it requires pores of molecular sizes. Comparing with the somewhat uncertain experimental values for sugar export rates, we expect the pores to be only 5%-10% larger than the hydraulic radius of the sucrose molecules. We find that the water flow through the plasmodesmata, which has not been quantified before, contributes only 10%-20% to the sucrose flux into the intermediary cells, while the main part is transported by diffusion. On the other hand, the subsequent sugar translocation into the sieve elements would very likely be carried predominantly by bulk water flow through the plasmodesmata. Thus, in contrast to apoplasmic loaders, all the necessary water for phloem translocation would be supplied in this way with no need for additional water uptake across the plasma membranes of the

  17. On-line plant-wide monitoring using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkcan, E.; Ciftcioglu, O.; Eryurek, E.; Upadhyaya, B.R.

    1992-06-01

    The on-line signal analysis system designed for a multi-level mode operation using neural networks is described. The system is capable of monitoring the plant states by tracking different number of signals up to 32 simultaneously. The data used for this study were acquired from the Borssele Nuclear Power Plant (PWR type), and using the on-line monitoring system. An on-line plant-wide monitoring study using a multilayer neural network model is discussed in this paper. The back-propagation neural network algorithm is used for training the network. The technique assumes that each physical state of the power plant can be represented by a unique pattern of instrument readings which can be related to the condition of the plant. When disturbance occurs, the sensor readings undergo a transient, and form a different set of patterns which represent the new operational status. Diagnosing these patterns can be helpful in identifying this new state of the power plant. To this end, plant-wide monitoring with neutral networks is one of the new techniques in real-time applications. (author). 9 refs.; 5 figs

  18. Results of bulk sediment analysis and bioassay testing on selected sediments from Oakland Inner Harbor and Alcatraz disposal site, San Francisco, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Word, J.Q.; Ward, J.A.; Woodruff, D.L.

    1990-09-01

    The Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) was contracted by the US Army Corps of Engineers, San Francisco District, to perform bulk sediment analysis and oyster larvae bioassays (elutriate) on sediments from Inner Oakland Harbor, California. Analysis of sediment characteristics by MSL indicated elevated priority pollutants, PAHs, pesticides, metals, organotins, and oil and grease concentrations, when compared to Alcatraz Island Dredged Material Disposal Site sediment concentrations. Larvae of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, were exposed to seawater collected from the Alcatraz Island Site water, and a series of controls using water and sediments collected from Sequim Bay, Washington. Exposure of larvae to the Alcatraz seawater and the 50% and 100% elutriate concentrations from each Oakland sediment resulted in low survival and a high proportion of abnormal larvae compared to Sequim Bay control exposures. MSL identified that field sample collection, preservation, and storage protocols used by Port of Oakland contractors were inconsistent with standard accepted practices. 23 refs., 10 figs., 40 tabs

  19. Bulk-viscosity-driven asymmetric inflationary universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waga, I.; Lima, J.A.S.; Portugal, R.

    1987-01-01

    A primordial net bosinic charge is introduced in the context of the bulk-viscosity-driven inflationary models. The analysis is carried through a macroscopic point of view in the framework of the causal thermodynamic theory. The conditions for having exponetial and generalized inflation are obtained. A phenomenological expression for the bulk viscosity coefficient is also derived. (author) [pt

  20. Gamma-ray analysis for U, Th and K on bulk cutting samples from deep wells in the Danish Subbasin and the North German Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovborg, L.

    1987-07-01

    A total of 1329 bulk cutting samples from deep wells in Denmark were analysed for U, Th and K by laboratory gamma-ray analysis. Contamination of the samples by drilling mud additives, mud solids and fall down was studied by means of a wash down experiment and by comparison with the total gamma-ray response from wireline logging. It is concluded that the inorganic geochemistry on bulk cutting samples must be applied with great caution. The data are useful for geochemical characterization of well sections and for regional geochemical correlation. Radioelement abundance logs and radioelement ratio logs are presented from 3 wells in the Danish Subbasin and 2 wells in the North German Basin. The radioelement geochemistry is discussed for the successive lithostratigraphical units and a reference radioelement profile is established for the central part of the Danish Subbasin. Finally, a model describing the relationship between common lithofacies and their U content and Th/U ratio is suggested. The model deliniates the depositional environment and the relative distances to the provenance areas. It is concluded that: (1) Uranium is mobile during deposition, but since then it is fixed by stable mineral phases at depth; (2) Thorium reflects source area characteristics and that any available ions are readily adsorbed by clay minerals. Thorium anomalies may thus serve as lithostratigraphical markers; (3) Potassium occurs in unstable rock forming mineral phases. The present distribution is controlled not only by the clastic mineral assemblage, but also by the diagenetic processes through geologic time

  1. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine coronavirus antibodies in bulk tank milk - risk factors and spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toftaker, Ingrid; Sanchez, Javier; Stokstad, Maria; Nødtvedt, Ane

    2016-10-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine coronavirus (BCoV) are considered widespread among cattle in Norway and worldwide. This cross-sectional study was conducted based on antibody-ELISA of bulk tank milk (BTM) from 1347 herds in two neighboring counties in western Norway. The study aims were to determine the seroprevalence at herd level, to evaluate risk factors for BRSV and BCoV seropositivity, and to assess how these factors were associated with the spatial distribution of positive herds. The overall prevalence of BRSV and BCoV positive herds in the region was 46.2% and 72.2%, respectively. Isopleth maps of the prevalence risk distribution showed large differences in prevalence risk across the study area, with the highest prevalence in the northern region. Common risk factors of importance for both viruses were herd size, geographic location, and proximity to neighbors. Seropositivity for one virus was associated with increased odds of seropositivity for the other virus. Purchase of livestock was an additional risk factor for BCoV seropositivity, included in the model as in-degree, which was defined as the number of incoming movements from individual herds, through animal purchase, over a period of five years. Local dependence and the contribution of risk factors to this effect were assessed using the residuals from two logistic regression models for each virus. One model contained only the x- and y- coordinates as predictors, the other had all significant predictors included. Spatial clusters of high values of residuals were detected using the normal model of the spatial scan statistic and visualized on maps. Adjusting for the risk factors in the final models had different impact on the spatial clusters for the two viruses: For BRSV the number of clusters was reduced from six to four, for BCoV the number of clusters remained the same, however the log-likelihood ratios changed notably. This indicates that geographical differences in proximity to

  2. On line nuclear orientation: opportunity and challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, N.J.

    1985-01-01

    The development of the on-line nuclear orientation (OLNO) technique is reviewed. The present potential of the technique is discussed in the light of the attainable temperatures, the use of ion implantation and the required isotope flux. Limitations associated with spin-lattice relaxation are considered in some detail and a survey of accessible nuclei is presented. An outline comparison is given between OLNO and other methods for producing orientation of nuclei, for measuring nuclear spins and static moments and for the study of level structure and transition probabilities. The conclusion is drawn that the method in its present form has extensive potential over a wide range of nuclei. Future prospects for in-beam polarisation giving access to nuclei of shorter half lives are referred to briefly. (Auth.)

  3. An on-line diagnostic expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felkel, L.

    1987-01-01

    As experience with on-line information systems, experts systems and artificial intelligence tools grows, the authors retreat from the first euphoria that AI could help them solve the problem they were unable to solve with conventional programming. The major effort of the development time goes into building the knowledge-base. There is no such thing as a generic knowledge-base for nuclear power plants as there is, for example, for the diagnosis of a Boeing 747 aircraft. AI-methods, tools and hardware are still in a state which does not optimally lend itself to real-time application. The ability of developing prototype systems to investigate variants otherwise too costly to justify is one advantage that the authors gladly accept. Last, but no least the tools provide a flexible and adaptable user interface (desktop window systems) etc. The development of such tools in a project would be prohibitive and room for experimentation would be limited

  4. On-Line Algorithms and Reverse Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Seth

    In this thesis, we classify the reverse-mathematical strength of sequential problems. If we are given a problem P of the form ∀X(alpha(X) → ∃Zbeta(X,Z)) then the corresponding sequential problem, SeqP, asserts the existence of infinitely many solutions to P: ∀X(∀nalpha(Xn) → ∃Z∀nbeta(X n,Zn)). P is typically provable in RCA0 if all objects involved are finite. SeqP, however, is only guaranteed to be provable in ACA0. In this thesis we exactly characterize which sequential problems are equivalent to RCA0, WKL0, or ACA0.. We say that a problem P is solvable by an on-line algorithm if P can be solved according to a two-player game, played by Alice and Bob, in which Bob has a winning strategy. Bob wins the game if Alice's sequence of plays 〈a0, ..., ak〉 and Bob's sequence of responses 〈 b0, ..., bk〉 constitute a solution to P. Formally, an on-line algorithm A is a function that inputs an admissible sequence of plays 〈a 0, b0, ..., aj〉 and outputs a new play bj for Bob. (This differs from the typical definition of "algorithm", though quite often a concrete set of instructions can be easily deduced from A.). We show that SeqP is provable in RCA0 precisely when P is solvable by an on-line algorithm. Schmerl proved this result specifically for the graph coloring problem; we generalize Schmerl's result to any problem that is on-line solvable. To prove our separation, we introduce a principle called Predictk(r) that is equivalent to -WKL0 for standard k, r.. We show that WKL0 is sufficient to prove SeqP precisely when P has a solvable closed kernel. This means that a solution exists, and each initial segment of this solution is a solution to the corresponding initial segment of the problem. (Certain bounding conditions are necessary as well.) If no such solution exists, then SeqP is equivalent to ACA0 over RCA 0 + ISigma02; RCA0 alone suffices if only sequences of standard length are considered. We use different techniques from Schmerl to prove

  5. On line protection systems for induction motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colak, I.; Celik, H.; Sefa, I.; Demirbas, S.

    2005-01-01

    Protection of induction motors is very important since they are widely used in industry for many applications due to their high robustness, reliability, low cost and maintenance, high efficiency and long service life. So, protecting these motors is crucial for operations. This paper presents a combined protection approach for induction motors. To achieve this, the electrical values of the induction motor were measured with sensitivity ±1% through a data acquisition card and processed with software developed in Visual C++. An on line protection system for induction motors was achieved easily and effectively. The experimental results have shown that the induction motor was protected against the possible problems faced during the operation. The software developed for this protection provides flexible and reliable media for operators and their motors. It is expected that the motor protection achieved in this study might be faster than the classical techniques and also may be applied to larger motors easily after small modifications of the software

  6. A new application of hierarchical cluster analysis to investigate organic peaks in bulk mass spectra obtained with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrook, A. M.; Marcolli, C.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Worsnop, D. R.; Bahreini, R.; de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Goldan, P. D.; Kuster, W. C.; Williams, E. J.; Lerner, B. M.; Roberts, J. M.; Meagher, J. F.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Marchewka, M. L.; Bertman, S. B.

    2006-12-01

    We applied hierarchical cluster analysis to an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) bulk mass spectral dataset collected aboard the NOAA research vessel Ronald H. Brown during the 2002 New England Air Quality Study off the east coast of the United States. Emphasizing the organic peaks, the cluster analysis yielded a series of categories that are distinguishable with respect to their mass spectra and their occurrence as a function of time. The differences between the categories mainly arise from relative intensity changes rather than from the presence or absence of specific peaks. The most frequent category exhibits a strong signal at m/z 44 and represents oxidized organic matter probably originating from both anthropogenic as well as biogenic sources. On the basis of spectral and trace gas correlations, the second most common category with strong signals at m/z 29, 43, and 44 contains contributions from isoprene oxidation products. The third through the fifth most common categories have peak patterns characteristic of monoterpene oxidation products and were most frequently observed when air masses from monoterpene rich regions were sampled. Taken together, the second through the fifth most common categories represent on average 17% of the total organic mass that stems likely from biogenic sources during the ship's cruise. These numbers have to be viewed as lower limits since the most common category was attributed to anthropogenic sources for this calculation. The cluster analysis was also very effective in identifying a few contaminated mass spectra that were not removed during pre-processing. This study demonstrates that hierarchical clustering is a useful tool to analyze the complex patterns of the organic peaks in bulk aerosol mass spectra from a field study.

  7. Cluster Analysis of the Organic Peaks in Bulk Mass Spectra Obtained During the 2002 New England Air Quality Study with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcolli, C.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Worsnop, D. R.; Bahreini, R.; de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Goldan, P. D.; Kuster, W. C.; Williams, E. J.; Lerner, B. M.; Roberts, J. M.; Meagher, J. F.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Marchewka, M.; Bertman, S. B.; Middlebrook, A. M.

    2006-12-01

    We applied hierarchical cluster analysis to an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) bulk mass spectral dataset collected aboard the NOAA research vessel R. H. Brown during the 2002 New England Air Quality Study off the east coast of the United States. Emphasizing the organic peaks, the cluster analysis yielded a series of categories that are distinguishable with respect to their mass spectra and their occurrence as a function of time. The differences between the categories mainly arise from relative intensity changes rather than from the presence or absence of specific peaks. The most frequent category exhibits a strong signal at m/z 44 and represents oxidized organic matter probably originating from both anthropogenic as well as biogenic sources. On the basis of spectral and trace gas correlations, the second most common category with strong signals at m/z 29, 43, and 44 contains contributions from isoprene oxidation products. The third through the fifth most common categories have peak patterns characteristic of monoterpene oxidation products and were most frequently observed when air masses from monoterpene rich regions were sampled. Taken together, the second through the fifth most common categories represent on average 17% of the total organic mass that stems likely from biogenic sources during the ship's cruise. These numbers have to be viewed as lower limits since the most common category was attributed to anthropogenic sources for this calculation. The cluster analysis was also very effective in identifying a few contaminated mass spectra that were not removed during pre-processing. This study demonstrates that hierarchical clustering is a useful tool to analyze the complex patterns of the organic peaks in bulk aerosol mass spectra from a field study.

  8. Cluster Analysis of the Organic Peaks in Bulk Mass Spectra Obtained During the 2002 New England Air Quality Study with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Marcolli

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We applied hierarchical cluster analysis to an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS bulk mass spectral dataset collected aboard the NOAA research vessel R. H. Brown during the 2002 New England Air Quality Study off the east coast of the United States. Emphasizing the organic peaks, the cluster analysis yielded a series of categories that are distinguishable with respect to their mass spectra and their occurrence as a function of time. The differences between the categories mainly arise from relative intensity changes rather than from the presence or absence of specific peaks. The most frequent category exhibits a strong signal at m/z 44 and represents oxidized organic matter probably originating from both anthropogenic as well as biogenic sources. On the basis of spectral and trace gas correlations, the second most common category with strong signals at m/z 29, 43, and 44 contains contributions from isoprene oxidation products. The third through the fifth most common categories have peak patterns characteristic of monoterpene oxidation products and were most frequently observed when air masses from monoterpene rich regions were sampled. Taken together, the second through the fifth most common categories represent on average 17% of the total organic mass that stems likely from biogenic sources during the ship's cruise. These numbers have to be viewed as lower limits since the most common category was attributed to anthropogenic sources for this calculation. The cluster analysis was also very effective in identifying a few contaminated mass spectra that were not removed during pre-processing. This study demonstrates that hierarchical clustering is a useful tool to analyze the complex patterns of the organic peaks in bulk aerosol mass spectra from a field study.

  9. Aprender a innovar: una experiencia on line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín MORENO MARCHAL

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available La creatividad y la innovación se han convertido en recursos clave en la denominada sociedad del conocimiento, que bien podría ser también llamada sociedad de la innovación. Pero innovar es una actividad compleja, que integra la aplicación de múltiples capacidades, el pensamiento divergente y convergente, la gestión de equipos humanos, la comunicación. Ahora bien, a innovar se puede, y se debe, aprender. Aprender a innovar es un reto y también una obligación para el conjunto del sistema educativo en todos sus niveles. Partiendo de estas consideraciones este trabajo expone una experiencia de aprendizaje de la creatividad y de la innovación a través de un curso totalmente on line basado en la plataforma MOODLE, en el marco del Programa de Formación Permanente de la Universidad de Cádiz. Se presenta un modelo del proceso de innovación, denominado CREALAB, de elaboración propia. Este modelo se ha utilizado como base del proceso de aprendizaje de la creatividad y de la innovación y en el diseño del curso, está organizado en torno a actividades y tiene un carácter iterativo y realimentado. Se presentan además el conjunto del diseño metodológico y los resultados obtenidos en las dos ediciones celebradas hasta el momento. El diseño del curso totalmente on line y los resultados alcanzados permiten estimar un alto potencial de aplicación, tanto a nivel personal como a nivel organizacional.

  10. Large area bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dean J.; Field, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

  11. On-line fatigue monitoring and margins probabilistic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, I.; Morilhat, P.

    1993-01-01

    An on-line computer aided system has been developed by Electricite de France, the French utility, for a fatigue monitoring of critical locations in the nuclear steam supply system. This tool, called fatiguemeter, includes as input data only existing plant parameters and is based on some conservative assumptions at several steps of the damage assessment (thermal boundary conditions, stress computation...). This paper presents recent developments performed toward a better assessing of margins involved in the complete analysis. The methodology is enlightened with an example showing the influence of plant parameters incertitude on the final stress computed at a PWR 900 MW unit pressurizer surge line nozzle. (author)

  12. Rock-Eval analysis of French forest soils: the influence of depth, soil and vegetation types on SOC thermal stability and bulk chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucemarianadin, Laure; Cécillon, Lauric; Baudin, François; Cecchini, Sébastien; Chenu, Claire; Mériguet, Jacques; Nicolas, Manuel; Savignac, Florence; Barré, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is the largest terrestrial carbon pool and SOM degradation has multiple consequences on key ecosystem properties like nutrients cycling, soil emissions of greenhouse gases or carbon sequestration potential. With the strong feedbacks between SOM and climate change, it becomes particularly urgent to develop reliable routine methodologies capable of indicating the turnover time of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. Thermal analyses have been used to characterize SOM and among them, Rock-Eval 6 (RE6) analysis of soil has shown promising results in the determination of in-situ SOC biogeochemical stability. This technique combines a phase of pyrolysis followed by a phase of oxidation to provide information on both the SOC bulk chemistry and thermal stability. We analyzed with RE6 a set of 495 soils samples from 102 permanent forest sites of the French national network for the long-term monitoring of forest ecosystems (''RENECOFOR'' network). Along with covering pedoclimatic variability at a national level, these samples include a range of 5 depths up to 1 meter (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-40 cm, 40-80 cm and 80-100 cm). Using RE6 parameters that were previously shown to be correlated to short-term (hydrogen index, HI; T50 CH pyrolysis) or long-term (T50 CO2 oxidation and HI) SOC persistence, and that characterize SOM bulk chemical composition (oxygen index, OI and HI), we tested the influence of depth (n = 5), soil class (n = 6) and vegetation type (n = 3; deciduous, coniferous-fir, coniferous-pine) on SOM thermal stability and bulk chemistry. Results showed that depth was the dominant discriminating factor, affecting significantly all RE6 parameters. With depth, we observed a decrease of the thermally labile SOC pool and an increase of the thermally stable SOC pool, along with an oxidation and a depletion of hydrogen-rich moieties of the SOC. Soil class and vegetation type had contrasted effects on the RE6 parameters but both affected significantly T

  13. Nuclear reaction analysis of Ge ion-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals: The evaluation of the displacement in oxygen lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamioka, K.; Oga, T.; Izawa, Y. [College of Engineering and Research Center of Ion Beam Technology, Hosei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8584 (Japan); Kuriyama, K., E-mail: kuri@ionbeam.hosei.ac.jp [College of Engineering and Research Center of Ion Beam Technology, Hosei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8584 (Japan); Kushida, K. [Department of Arts and Science, Osaka Kyouiku University, Kashiwara, Osaka 582-8582 (Japan); Kinomura, A. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    The displacement of oxygen lattices in Ge ion-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals is studied by nuclear reaction analysis (NAR), photoluminescence (PL), and Van der Pauw methods. The Ge ion-implantation (net concentration: 2.6 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}) into ZnO is performed using a multiple-step energy. The high resistivity of ∼10{sup 3} Ω cm in un-implanted samples remarkably decreased to ∼10{sup −2} Ω cm after implanting Ge-ion and annealing subsequently. NRA measurements of as-implanted and annealed samples suggest the existence of the lattice displacement of O atoms acting as acceptor defects. As O related defects still remain after annealing, these defects are not attributed to the origin of the low resistivity in 800 and 1000 °C annealed ZnO.

  14. Controlled levitation of Y-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors and energy minimum analysis; Y-Ba-Cu-O baruku chodendotai no fujo to enerugi kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magashima, K. [Railway Technical Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Iwasa, Y. [Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory, Canbridge (United States); Sawa, K. [keio University, Tokyo (Japan); Murakami, M. [Superconductivity research Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-25

    The levitation of bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors can be controlled using a Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (Bi2223) superconducting electromagnet. It was found that stable levitation without tilting could be obtained only when the sample trapped a certain amount of fields, the minimum of which depended on the external field and sample dimensions. We employed a novel analysis method for levitation based on the total energy balance, which is much simpler than the force method and could be applied to understanding general levitation behavior. Numerical analyses thus developed showed that stable levitation of superconductors with large dimensions cen only be achieved when the induced currents can flow with three-dimensional freedom. (author)

  15. Nuclear reaction analysis of Ge ion-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals: The evaluation of the displacement in oxygen lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamioka, K.; Oga, T.; Izawa, Y.; Kuriyama, K.; Kushida, K.; Kinomura, A.

    2014-08-01

    The displacement of oxygen lattices in Ge ion-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals is studied by nuclear reaction analysis (NAR), photoluminescence (PL), and Van der Pauw methods. The Ge ion-implantation (net concentration: 2.6 × 1020 cm-3) into ZnO is performed using a multiple-step energy. The high resistivity of ∼103 Ω cm in un-implanted samples remarkably decreased to ∼10-2 Ω cm after implanting Ge-ion and annealing subsequently. NRA measurements of as-implanted and annealed samples suggest the existence of the lattice displacement of O atoms acting as acceptor defects. As O related defects still remain after annealing, these defects are not attributed to the origin of the low resistivity in 800 and 1000 °C annealed ZnO.

  16. Genome-wide QTL and bulked transcriptomic analysis reveals new candidate genes for the control of tuber carotenoid content in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Raymond; Pont, Simon D A; Morris, Jenny A; McKenzie, Gaynor; Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Hedley, Pete E; Ramsay, Gavin; Bryan, Glenn J; Taylor, Mark A

    2014-09-01

    Genome-wide QTL analysis of potato tuber carotenoid content was investigated in populations of Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja that segregate for flesh colour, revealing a novel major QTL on chromosome 9. The carotenoid content of edible plant storage organs is a key nutritional and quality trait. Although the structural genes that encode the biosynthetic enzymes are well characterised, much less is known about the factors that determine overall storage organ content. In this study, genome-wide QTL mapping, in concert with an efficient 'genetical genomics' analysis using bulked samples, has been employed to investigate the genetic architecture of potato tuber carotenoid content. Two diploid populations of Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja were genotyped (AFLP, SSR and DArT markers) and analysed for their tuber carotenoid content over two growing seasons. Common to both populations were QTL that explained relatively small proportions of the variation in constituent carotenoids and a major QTL on chromosome 3 explaining up to 71 % of the variation in carotenoid content. In one of the populations (01H15), a second major carotenoid QTL was identified on chromosome 9, explaining up to 20 % of the phenotypic variation. Whereas the major chromosome 3 QTL was likely to be due to an allele of a gene encoding β-carotene hydroxylase, no known carotenoid biosynthetic genes are located in the vicinity of the chromosome 9 QTL. A unique expression profiling strategy using phenotypically distinct bulks comprised individuals with similar carotenoid content provided further support for the QTL mapping to chromosome 9. This study shows the potential of using the potato genome sequence to link genetic maps to data arising from eQTL approaches to enhance the discovery of candidate genes underlying QTLs.

  17. Advanced numerical technique for analysis of surface and bulk acoustic waves in resonators using periodic metal gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumenko, Natalya F.

    2014-09-01

    A numerical technique characterized by a unified approach for the analysis of different types of acoustic waves utilized in resonators in which a periodic metal grating is used for excitation and reflection of such waves is described. The combination of the Finite Element Method analysis of the electrode domain with the Spectral Domain Analysis (SDA) applied to the adjacent upper and lower semi-infinite regions, which may be multilayered and include air as a special case of a dielectric material, enables rigorous simulation of the admittance in resonators using surface acoustic waves, Love waves, plate modes including Lamb waves, Stonely waves, and other waves propagating along the interface between two media, and waves with transient structure between the mentioned types. The matrix formalism with improved convergence incorporated into SDA provides fast and robust simulation for multilayered structures with arbitrary thickness of each layer. The described technique is illustrated by a few examples of its application to various combinations of LiNbO3, isotropic silicon dioxide and silicon with a periodic array of Cu electrodes. The wave characteristics extracted from the admittance functions change continuously with the variation of the film and plate thicknesses over wide ranges, even when the wave nature changes. The transformation of the wave nature with the variation of the layer thicknesses is illustrated by diagrams and contour plots of the displacements calculated at resonant frequencies.

  18. On-line maintenance at Cofrentes NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roldan Vilches, J.; Moreno Matarranz, M. A.; Hermana Mendioroz, I.

    1998-01-01

    Cofrentes NPP has begun in 1997 activities related to At Power Preventive Maintenance over trains or systems which lead to a voluntary entry in a Limitative Condition of Operation (LCO) of the Technical Specifications. From others benefits, this program ha improved the risk management and the staff's knowledge over the functions and safety implications of the different systems, the better exploit of the resources, the co-ordination of the different organisations involved (Maintenance an Operation) and the reductions of works during shutdowns. Previous to each work, a feasibility study analyzes qualitative and quantitative (PSA), using the Risk Monitor, the implications on safety of all the tasks, assuring that the global safety of the Plant is always maintained. Tech. Spec. are analyzed in detail and also are analyzed situations of simultaneous unavailabilities of systems which could lead to a high risk situation. Two different risk controls are defined (punctual and accumulated) to assure that high risk situations will not be given. Finally, historical risk profile is analyzed to assure that the accumulated risk increase is not significant. Risk Monitor helps staff in the schedule and follow-up of the activities of On-Line Maintenance. Each one of the tasks are deeply planned and harshly analyzed and are carried out by high qualified workers. By the moment, this program is running with fully satisfaction on the Plant. (Author)

  19. SOL: INNOVACIÓN ON-LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Faúndez

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Las aplicaciones de simulación tienden a ser cada vez más cercanas a usuarios e industrias. Sin embargo, muchas de ellas no poseen ni la capacidad ni el conocimiento como para desarrollar internamente sus modelos de simulación. Por este motivo, y como una forma de apoyar la toma de decisiones basándose en modelos de simulación, se presenta la plataforma SOL (Simulación On Line. La metodología completa de trabajo, así como la interacción entre SOL, Empresa y Asesor, son presentadas. Su base de datos, los niveles de usuarios, sus funcionalidades, y la creación automatizada de información grafica y visual, también son explicadas. En el caso de aplicación, el uso de SOL para apoyar la toma de decisiones en una operación de movimiento de material, permite a los tomadores de decisión acceder a análisis robustos basados en información extraída de los modelos de simulación. SOL, al almacenar información, funcionar vía web, generar análisis automatizados y crear visualizaciones, permite cumplir con las expectativas de los usuarios respecto a una solución integral en simulación.

  20. Simplified automatic on-line document searching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebinuma, Yukio

    1983-01-01

    The author proposed searching method for users who need not-comprehensive retrieval. That is to provide flexible number of related documents for the users automatically. A group of technical terms are used as search terms to express an inquiry. Logical sums of the terms in the ascending order of frequency of the usage are prepared sequentially and automatically, and then the search formulas, qsub(m) and qsub(m-1) which meet certain threshold values are selected automatically also. Users justify precision of the search output up to 20 items retrieved by the formula qsub(m). If a user wishes more than 30% of recall ratio, the serach result should be output by qsub(m), and if he wishes less than 30% of it, it should be output by qsub(m-1). The search by this method using one year volume of INIS Database (76,600 items) and five inquiries resulted in 32% of recall ratio and 36% of precision ratio on the average in the case of qsub(m). The connecting time of a terminal was within 15 minutes per an inquiry. It showed more efficiency than that of an inexperienced searcher. The method can be applied to on-line searching system for database in which natural language only or natural language and controlled vocabulary are used. (author)

  1. On-Line Impact Load Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Sekuła

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The so-called Adaptive Impact Absorption (AIA is a research area of safety engineering devoted to problems of shock absorption in various unpredictable scenarios of collisions. It makes use of smart technologies (systems equipped with sensors, controllable dissipaters and specialised tools for signal processing. Examples of engineering applications for AIA systems are protective road barriers, automotive bumpers or adaptive landing gears. One of the most challenging problems for AIA systems is on-line identification of impact loads, which is crucial for introducing the optimum real-time strategy of adaptive impact absorption. This paper presents the concept of an impactometer and develops the methodology able to perform real-time impact load identification. Considered dynamic excitation is generated by a mass M1 impacting with initial velocity V0. An analytical formulation of the problem, supported with numerical simulations and experimental verifications is presented. Two identification algorithms based on measured response of the impacted structure are proposed and discussed. Finally, a concept of the AIA device utilizing the idea of impactometer is briefly presented.

  2. Application of on-line analytical processing technique in accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Dong; Li Weimin; He Duohui; Liu Gongfa; Xuan Ke

    2005-01-01

    A method of application of the on-line analytical processing technique in accelerator is described, which includes data pre-processing, the process of constructing of data warehouse and on-line analytical processing. (authors)

  3. Simultaneous Determination of Palladium and Platinum by On-line ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    using high performance liquid chromatography equipped with an on-line enrichment technique. Prior to ... The on-line enrichment system (Waters Corporation, USA) that was ... Using an appropriate volume (industrial plant effluents 20 mL,.

  4. Influence of visualization on consumption during on-line shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Hictaler, Urška

    2013-01-01

    This diploma work studies the influence of visualization on consumption during on-line shopping. The first part of the thesis starts with key areas of visualization, consumption and on-line shopping. Visualization, areas of use, human perception and ways of product presentation in on-line shops are defined discussed first. Next, consumption, consumers and factors that influence their decisions and satisfaction are defined. The last topic in the first part of the thesis discusses on-line shopp...

  5. Gamma-ray analysis for U, TH and K on bulk cutting samples from deep wells in the Danish subbasin and the North German basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leth Nielsen, B.; Loevborg, L.; Soerensen, P.; Mose, E.

    1987-04-01

    A total of 1329 bulk cutting samples from deep wells in Denmark were analysed for U, Th and K by laboratory gamma-ray analysis. Contamination of the samples by drilling mud additives, mud solids and fall down was studied by means of a wash down experiment and by comparison with the total gamma-ray response from wire-line logging. It is concluded that the inorganic geochemistry on bulk cutting samples must be applied with great caution. The data are useful for geochemical characterization of well sections and for regional geochemical correlation. Radioelement abundance logs and radioelement ratio logs are presented from 3 wells in the Danish Subbasin and 2 wells in the North German Basin. The radioelement geochemistry is discussed for the successive lithostratigraphical units and a reference radio element profile is established for the central part of the Danish Subbasin. Finally, a model describing the relationship between common lithofacies and their U content and Th/U ratio is suggested. The model deliniates the depositional environment and the relative distances to the provenance areas. It is concluded that 1) Uranium is mobile during deposition, but since then it is fixed by stable mineral phases at depth. 2) Thorium reflects source area characteristics and that any available ions are readily adsorped by clay minerals. Thorium anomalies may thus serve as lithostratigraphical markers. 3) Potassium occurs in unstable rock forming mineral phases. The present distribution is controlled not only by the clastic mineral assemblage, but also by the diagenetic processes through geologic time. 33 refs. (author)

  6. Inductive Double-Contingency Analysis of UO2 Powder Bulk Blending Operations at a Commercial Fuel Plant (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skiles, S. K.

    1994-01-01

    An inductive double-contingency analysis (DCA) method developed by the criticality safety function at the Savannah River Site, was applied in Criticality Safety Evaluations (CSEs) of five major plant process systems at the Westinghouse Electric Corporation's Commercial Nuclear Fuel Manufacturing Plant in Columbia, South Carolina (WEC-Cola.). The method emphasizes a thorough evaluation of the controls intended to provide barriers against criticality for postulated initiating events, and has been demonstrated effective at identifying common mode failure potential and interdependence among multiple controls. A description of the method and an example of its application is provided

  7. Development of a method based on on-line reversed phase liquid chromatography and gas chromatography coupled by means of an adsorption-desorption interface for the analysis of selected chiral volatile compounds in methyl jasmonate treated strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña Moreno, Fernando; Blanch, Gracia Patricia; Flores, Gema; Ruiz Del Castillo, Maria Luisa

    2010-02-12

    A method based on the use of the through oven transfer adsorption-desorption (TOTAD) interface in on-line coupling between reversed phase liquid chromatography and gas chromatography (RPLC-GC) for the determination of chiral volatile compounds was developed. In particular, the method was applied to the study of the influence of methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment on the production and enantiomeric composition of selected aroma compounds in strawberry. The compounds studied were ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, linalool and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (i.e. furaneol), which were examined on days 3, 6 and 9 after treatment. The method developed resulted in relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 21.6%, 8.1% and 9.8% and limits of detection (LD) of 0.04, 0.07 and 0.02mg/l for ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, linalool and furaneol, respectively. The application of the RPLC-TOTAD-GC method allowed higher levels of ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, linalool and furaneol to be detected, particularly after 9 days of treatment. Besides, MJ demonstrated to affect the enantiomeric distribution of ethyl 2-methylbutanoate. On the contrary, the enantiomeric composition of linalool and furaneol kept constant in both control and MJ-treated strawberries throughout the study. These results are discussed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of on-line supercritical fluid extraction-supercritical fluid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry to analyze disease biomarkers in dried serum spots compared with serum analysis using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Makoto; Nishiumi, Shin; Kobayashi, Takashi; Sakai, Arata; Iwata, Yosuke; Uchikata, Takato; Izumi, Yoshihiro; Azuma, Takeshi; Bamba, Takeshi; Yoshida, Masaru

    2017-05-30

    The analytical stability and throughput of biomarker assays based on dried serum spots (DSS) are strongly dependent on the extraction process and determination method. In the present study, an on-line system based on supercritical fluid extraction-supercritical fluid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (SFE-SFC/MS/MS) was established for analyzing the levels of disease biomarkers in DSS. The chromatographic conditions were investigated using the ODS-EP, diol, and SIL-100A columns. Then, we optimized the SFE-SFC/MS/MS method using the diol column, focusing on candidate biomarkers of oral, colorectal, and pancreatic cancer that were identified using liquid chromatography (LC)/MS/MS. By using this system, four hydrophilic metabolites and 17 hydrophobic metabolites were simultaneously detected within 15 min. In an experiment involving clinical samples, PC 16:0-18:2/16:1-18:1 exhibited 93.8% sensitivity and 64.3% specificity, whereas PC 17:1-18:1/17:0-18:2 showed 81.3% sensitivity and 92.9% specificity for detecting oral cancer. In addition, assessments of the creatine levels demonstrated 92.3% sensitivity and 78.6% specificity for detecting colorectal cancer. The results of this study indicate that our method has great potential for clinical diagnosis and would be suitable for large-scale screening. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. On-Line Core Thermal-Hydraulic Model Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In, Wang Kee; Chun, Tae Hyun; Oh, Dong Seok; Shin, Chang Hwan; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Seo, Kyung Won

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this project is to implement a fast-running 4-channel based code CETOP-D in an advanced reactor core protection calculator system(RCOPS). The part required for the on-line calculation of DNBR were extracted from the source of the CETOP-D code based on analysis of the CETOP-D code. The CETOP-D code was revised to maintain the input and output variables which are the same as in CPC DNBR module. Since the DNBR module performs a complex calculation, it is divided into sub-modules per major calculation step. The functional design requirements for the DNBR module is documented and the values of the database(DB) constants were decided. This project also developed a Fortran module(BEST) of the RCOPS Fortran Simulator and a computer code RCOPS-SDNBR to independently calculate DNBR. A test was also conducted to verify the functional design and DB of thermal-hydraulic model which is necessary to calculate the DNBR on-line in RCOPS. The DNBR margin is expected to increase by 2%-3% once the CETOP-D code is used to calculate the RCOPS DNBR. It should be noted that the final DNBR margin improvement could be determined in the future based on overall uncertainty analysis of the RCOPS

  10. On-Line Core Thermal-Hydraulic Model Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    In, Wang Kee; Chun, Tae Hyun; Oh, Dong Seok; Shin, Chang Hwan; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Seo, Kyung Won

    2007-02-15

    The objective of this project is to implement a fast-running 4-channel based code CETOP-D in an advanced reactor core protection calculator system(RCOPS). The part required for the on-line calculation of DNBR were extracted from the source of the CETOP-D code based on analysis of the CETOP-D code. The CETOP-D code was revised to maintain the input and output variables which are the same as in CPC DNBR module. Since the DNBR module performs a complex calculation, it is divided into sub-modules per major calculation step. The functional design requirements for the DNBR module is documented and the values of the database(DB) constants were decided. This project also developed a Fortran module(BEST) of the RCOPS Fortran Simulator and a computer code RCOPS-SDNBR to independently calculate DNBR. A test was also conducted to verify the functional design and DB of thermal-hydraulic model which is necessary to calculate the DNBR on-line in RCOPS. The DNBR margin is expected to increase by 2%-3% once the CETOP-D code is used to calculate the RCOPS DNBR. It should be noted that the final DNBR margin improvement could be determined in the future based on overall uncertainty analysis of the RCOPS.

  11. Amdel on-line analyser at Rooiberg Tin Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, T.V.

    1987-01-01

    An Amdel on line analysis system was installed on the 'A' mine tin flotation plant at Rooiberg in April 1984. The motivation for the installation was made on account of the large variations in the feed grade to the plant and the resulting need for rapid operational adjustments to control concentrate grades thereby maximising the financial returns. An 'on-line' analyser system presented itself as a suitable alternative to the existing control method of smaller laboratory x-ray fluorescence analysers. On the system as installed at Rooiberg, two probes were fitted in each analysis zone, viz a density probe using high energy gamma radiation from a Cesium 127 source and a specific element absorption probe using low energy gamma radiation from a Americium 241 source. The signals as received from the probes are fed to a line receiver unit in the control room where a micro computer is doing the processing and prints out the information as required. Several advantages of this type of installation were gained at Rooiberg Tin Limited

  12. A Distributed System for Learning Programming On-Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdu, Elena; Regueras, Luisa M.; Verdu, Maria J.; Leal, Jose P.; de Castro, Juan P.; Queiros, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Several Web-based on-line judges or on-line programming trainers have been developed in order to allow students to train their programming skills. However, their pedagogical functionalities in the learning of programming have not been clearly defined. EduJudge is a project which aims to integrate the "UVA On-line Judge", an existing…

  13. Surface and bulk 3D analysis of natural and processed ruby using electron probe micro analyzer and X-ray micro CT scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, Rakesh K., E-mail: rakesh.materialscience@gmail.com; Singh, Saroj K.; Mishra, B.K.

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Firm linking between two advance techniques: Micro-CT and EPMA for mineral analysis. • Attempt to identify and differentiate the treated gem stone from natural counterpart. • 3D structural and surface elemental analysis of the natural gem stone. - Abstract: The change in surface compositional and bulk structural characteristics of the natural ruby stone, before and after heat treatment with lead oxide has been analyzed using two advance characterization techniques like: X-ray micro CT scan (μ-CT) and electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA). The analytical correlation between these two techniques in identification as well as in depth study of the ores and minerals before and after processing has been presented. Also, we describe the aesthetic enhancement of a low quality defective ruby stone by lead oxide filling and the sequential analysis of this ruby stone before and after treatment using these two advanced techniques to identify and to confirm the change in its aesthetic value. The cracks healing and pores filling by the metal oxide on the surface of the ruby have been analyzed using μ-CT and EPMA. Moreover, in this work we describe the advance characterization of the repaired gem stones especially ruby stones. This work will light up the path for in-depth understanding of diffusion mechanism and abstract information of impurity particles inside the minerals. Based on these observations, EPMA and micro CT are shown to be powerful tools for the identification as well as research in gem stones.

  14. Fast and simple screening for the simultaneous analysis of seven metabolites derived from five volatile organic compounds in human urine using on-line solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Chao-Yu; Lee, Ting-Chen; Lee, Hui-Ling; Lin, Yu-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the International Agency for Research on cancer classified outdoor air pollution and particulate matter from outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans (IARC Group 1), based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and experimental animals and strong mechanistic evidence. In particular, a wide variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are volatized or released into the atmosphere and can become ubiquitous, as they originate from many different natural and anthropogenic sources, such as paints, pesticides, vehicle exhausts, cooking fumes, and tobacco smoke. Humans may be exposed to VOCs through inhalation, ingestion, or dermal contact, which may increase the risk of leukemia, birth defects, neurocognitive impairment, and cancer. Therefore, the focus of this study was the development of a simple, effective and rapid sample preparation method for the simultaneous determination of seven metabolites (6 mercaptic acids+t,t-muconic acid) derived from five VOCs (acrylamide, 1,3-butadiene, acrylonitrile, benzene, and xylene) in human urine by using automated on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). An aliquot of each diluted urinary sample was directly injected into an autosampler through a trap column to reduce contamination, and then the retained target compounds were eluted by back-flush mode into an analytical column for separation. Negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was utilized for quantification. The coefficients of correlation (r(2)) for the calibration curves were greater than 0.995. Reproducibility was assessed by the precision and accuracy of intra-day and inter-day precision, which showed results for coefficient of variation (CV) that were low 0.9 to 6.6% and 3.7 to 8.5%, respectively, and results for recovery that ranged from 90.8 to 108.9% and 92.1 to 107.7%, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of

  15. Leakage current analysis for dislocations in Na-flux GaN bulk single crystals by conductive atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamachi, T.; Takeuchi, S.; Tohei, T.; Imanishi, M.; Imade, M.; Mori, Y.; Sakai, A.

    2018-04-01

    The mechanisms associated with electrical conduction through individual threading dislocations (TDs) in a Na-flux GaN crystal grown with a multipoint-seed-GaN technique were investigated by conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM). To focus on individual TDs, dislocation-related etch pits (DREPs) were formed on the Na-flux GaN surface by wet chemical etching, after which microscopic Pt electrodes were locally fabricated on the DREPs to form conformal contacts to the Na-flux GaN crystal, using electron beam assisted deposition. The C-AFM data clearly demonstrate that the leakage current flows through the individual TD sites. It is also evident that the leakage current and the electrical conduction mechanism vary significantly based on the area within the Na-flux GaN crystal where the TDs are formed. These regions include the c-growth sector (cGS) in which the GaN grows in the [0001 ] direction on top of the point-seed with a c-plane growth front, the facet-growth sector (FGS) in which the GaN grows with {10 1 ¯ 1 } facets on the side of the cGS, the boundary region between the cGS and FGS (BR), and the coalescence boundary region between FGSs (CBR). The local current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the specimen demonstrate space charge limited current conduction and conduction related to band-like trap states associated with TDs in the FGS, BR, and CBR. A detailed analysis of the I-V data indicates that the electrical conduction through TDs in the cGS may proceed via the Poole-Frenkel emission mechanism.

  16. Superductile bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, K.F.; Ruan, F.; Yang, Y.Q.; Chen, N.

    2006-01-01

    Usually, monolithic bulk metallic glasses undergo inhomogeneous plastic deformation and exhibit poor ductility (<2%) at room temperature. We report a newly developed Pd-Si binary bulk metallic glass, which exhibits a uniform plastic deformation and a large plastic engineering strain of 82% and a plastic true strain of 170%, together with initial strain hardening, slight strain softening and final strain hardening characteristics. The uniform shear deformation and the ultrahigh plasticity are mainly attributed to strain hardening, which results from the nanoscale inhomogeneity due to liquid phase separation. The formed nanoscale inhomogeneity will hinder, deflect, and bifurcate the propagation of shear bands

  17. A Monte Carlo Library Least Square approach in the Neutron Inelastic-scattering and Thermal-capture Analysis (NISTA) process in bulk coal samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyhancan, Iskender Atilla; Ebrahimi, Alborz; Çolak, Üner; Erduran, M. Nizamettin; Angin, Nergis

    2017-01-01

    A new Monte-Carlo Library Least Square (MCLLS) approach for treating non-linear radiation analysis problem in Neutron Inelastic-scattering and Thermal-capture Analysis (NISTA) was developed. 14 MeV neutrons were produced by a neutron generator via the 3H (2H , n) 4He reaction. The prompt gamma ray spectra from bulk samples of seven different materials were measured by a Bismuth Germanate (BGO) gamma detection system. Polyethylene was used as neutron moderator along with iron and lead as neutron and gamma ray shielding, respectively. The gamma detection system was equipped with a list mode data acquisition system which streams spectroscopy data directly to the computer, event-by-event. A GEANT4 simulation toolkit was used for generating the single-element libraries of all the elements of interest. These libraries were then used in a Linear Library Least Square (LLLS) approach with an unknown experimental sample spectrum to fit it with the calculated elemental libraries. GEANT4 simulation results were also used for the selection of the neutron shielding material.

  18. Auctioning Bulk Mobile Messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Meij (Simon); L-F. Pau (Louis-François); H.W.G.M. van Heck (Eric)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe search for enablers of continued growth of SMS traffic, as well as the take-off of the more diversified MMS message contents, open up for enterprises the potential of bulk use of mobile messaging , instead of essentially one-by-one use. In parallel, such enterprises or value added

  19. Diffusion or bulk flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    is currently matter of discussion, called passive symplasmic loading. Based on the limited material available, this review compares the different loading modes and suggests that diffusion is the driving force in apoplasmic loaders, while bulk flow plays an increasing role in plants having a continuous...

  20. Ferromagnetic bulk glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Akihisa; Makino, Akihiro; Mizushima, Takao

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the review on the formation, thermal stability and magnetic properties of the Fe-based bulk glassy alloys in as-cast bulk and melt-spun ribbon forms. A large supercooled liquid region over 50 K before crystallization was obtained in Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si), Fe-(Cr, Mo, Nb)-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B) and (Fe, Co, Ni)-Zr-M-B (M=Ti, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo and W) systems and bulk glassy alloys were produced in a thickness range below 2 mm for the Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si) system and 6 mm for the Fe-Co-(Zr, Nb, Ta)-(Mo, W)-B system by copper-mold casting. The ring-shaped glassy Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si) alloys exhibit much better soft magnetic properties as compared with the ring-shaped alloy made from the melt-spun ribbon because of the formation of the unique domain structure. The good combination of high glass-forming ability and good soft magnetic properties indicates the possibility of future development as a new bulk glassy magnetic material

  1. Robust on-line monitoring of biogas processes; Robusta maettekniker on-line foer optimerad biogasproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, Aake; Hansson, Mikael; Kanerot, Mija; Krozer, Anatol; Loefving, Bjoern; Sahlin, Eskil

    2010-03-15

    Although demand for biomethane in Sweden is higher than ever, many Swedish codigestion plants are presently operated below their designed capacity. Efforts must be taken to increase the loading rate and guarantee stable operation and high availability of the plants. There are currently no commercial systems for on-line monitoring, and due to the characteristics of the material, including corrosion and tearing, robust applications have to be developed. The objective of this project was to identify and study different monitoring technologies with potential for on-line monitoring of both substrate mixtures and anaerobic digester content. Based on the prerequisites and demands at Boraas Energi och Miljoe AB's (BEMAB, the municipal energy and waste utility in the city of Boraas, Sweden) biogas plant, the extent of the problems, measurement variables and possible ways of managing these issues have been identified and prioritized. The substrate mixtures in question have a high viscosity and are inhomogeneous with variation in composition, which calls for further homogenization, dilution and filtration to achieve high precision in the necessary analyses. Studies of using different mixers and mills showed that the particle size (800 mum) needed for on-line COD measurement could not be achieved. The problem of homogenization can be avoided if indirect measurement methods are used. Laboratory tests with NIR (near-infra red spectroscopy) showed that VS can be predicted (R2=0,78) in the interval of 2-9% VS. Furthermore, impedance can give a measurement of soluble components. However, impedance is not sensitive enough to give a good measurement of total TS. Microwave technology was installed at the production plant and showed a faster response to changes in TS than the existing TS-sensor. However, due to technical problems, the evaluation only could be done during a limited period of ten days. BEMAB will continue the measurements and evaluation of the instrument. The

  2. Mapping the Flavor Contributing Traits on "Fengwei Melon" (Cucumis melo L. Chromosomes Using Parent Resequencing and Super Bulked-Segregant Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    Full Text Available We used a next-generation high-throughput sequencing platform to resequence the Xinguowei and Shouxing melon cultivars, the parents of Fengwei melon. We found 84% of the reads (under a coverage rate of "13×" placed on the reference genome DHL92. There were 2,550,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 140,000 structural variations in the two genomes. We also identified 1,290 polymorphic genes between Xinguowei and Shouxing. We combined specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq and bulked-segregant analysis (super-BSA to analyze the two parents and the F2 extreme phenotypes. This combined method yielded 12,438,270 reads, 46,087 SLAF tags, and 4,480 polymorphic markers (average depth of 161.81×. There were six sweet trait-related regions containing 13 differential SLAF markers, and 23 sour trait-related regions containing 48 differential SLAF markers. We further fine-mapped the sweet trait to the genomic regions on chromosomes 6, 10, 11, and 12. Correspondingly, we mapped the sour trait-related genomic regions to chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, and 12. Finally, we positioned nine of the 61 differential markers in the sweet and sour trait candidate regions on the parental genome. These markers corresponded to one sweet and eight sour trait-related genes. Our study provides a basis for marker-assisted breeding of desirable sweet and sour traits in Fengwei melons.

  3. On-line control of the nonlinear dynamics for synchrotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, J.; Martin, I. P. S.; Rowland, J. H.; Bartolini, R.

    2015-07-01

    We propose a simple approach to the on-line control of the nonlinear dynamics in storage rings, based on compensation of the nonlinear resonance driving terms using beam losses as the main indicator of the strength of a resonance. The correction scheme is built on the analysis of the resonance driving terms in first perturbative order and on the possibility of using independent power supplies in the sextupole magnets, which is nowadays present in many synchrotron light sources. Such freedom allows the definition of "smart sextupole knobs" attacking each resonance separately. The compensation scheme has been tested at the Diamond light source and proved to be effective in opening up the betatron tune space, resonance free, available to the electron beam and to improve the beam lifetime.

  4. On-line control of the nonlinear dynamics for synchrotrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bengtsson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a simple approach to the on-line control of the nonlinear dynamics in storage rings, based on compensation of the nonlinear resonance driving terms using beam losses as the main indicator of the strength of a resonance. The correction scheme is built on the analysis of the resonance driving terms in first perturbative order and on the possibility of using independent power supplies in the sextupole magnets, which is nowadays present in many synchrotron light sources. Such freedom allows the definition of “smart sextupole knobs” attacking each resonance separately. The compensation scheme has been tested at the Diamond light source and proved to be effective in opening up the betatron tune space, resonance free, available to the electron beam and to improve the beam lifetime.

  5. On-line fatigue monitoring system for reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, K.; Sakai, A.; Aoki, T.; Ranganath, S.; Stevens, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    A workstation-based, on-line fatigue monitoring system for tracking fatigue usage applied to an operating boiling water reactor (BWR), Tsuruga Unit-1, is described. The system uses the influence function approach and determines component stresses using temperature, pressure, and flow rate data that are made available via signal taps from previously existing plant sensors. Using plant unique influence functions developed specifically for the feedwater nozzle location, the system calculates stresses as a function of time and computed fatigue usage. The analysis method used to compute fatigue usage complies with MITI Code Notification No.501. Fatigue usage results for an entire fuel cycle are presented and compared to assumed design basis events to confirm that actual plant thermal duty is significantly less severe than originally estimated in the design basis stress report. As a result, the system provides the technical basis to more accurately evaluate actual reactor conditions as well as the justification for plant life extension. (author)

  6. On-line fatigue monitoring and probabilistic assessment of margins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, I. [Electricite de France, 93 - Saint-Denis (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Morilhat, P. [Electricite de France, 93 - Saint-Denis (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1995-01-01

    An on-line computer-aided system has been developed by Electricite de France, the French utility, for fatigue monitoring of critical locations in the nuclear steam supply system. This tool, called a fatigue meter, includes as input data plant parameters and is based on some conservative assumptions at several steps of the damage assessment (thermal boundary conditions, stress computation,..). In this paper we present recent developments performed towards a better assessment of margins involved in the complete analysis. The methodology is illustrated with an example showing the influence of uncertainty in plant parameters on the final stress computed at a pressurized water reactor 900MW unit pressurizer surge line nozzle. A second example is shown to illustrate the possibility of defining some transient archetypes. ((orig.)).

  7. On-line defected fuel monitoring using GFP data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingstone, S.; Lewis, B.J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the initial development of an on-line defected fuel diagnostic tool. The tool is based on coolant activity, and uses a quantitative and qualitative approach from existing mechanistic fission product release models, and also empirical rules based on commercial and experimental experience. The model departs from the usual methodology of analyzing steady-state fission product coolant activities, and instead uses steady-state fission product release rates calculated from the transient coolant activity data. An example of real-time defected fuel analysis work is presented using a prototype of this tool with station data. The model is in an early developmental stage, and this paper demonstrates the promising potential of this technique. (author)

  8. An on-line advanced plant simulator (OLAPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuels, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    A PC based on-line advanced plant simulator (OLAPS) for high quality simulations of Portland General Electric's Trojan Nuclear Facility is presented. OLAPS is designed to simulate the thermal-hydraulics of the primary system including core, steam generators, pumps, piping and pressurizer. The simulations are based on a five equation model that has two mass equations, two energy equations, two energy equations, and one momentum equation with a drift flux model to provide closure. A regionwise point reactor kinetics model is used to model the neutron kinetics in the core. The conservation equations, constitutive models and the numerical methods used to solve them are described. OLAPS results are compared with data from chapter 15 of the Trojan Nuclear Facility's final safety analysis report

  9. Semi-continuous on-line uranium ore analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, P.; Gurdy, E.M.; Hatchowski, L.

    1984-01-01

    The efficient process control of a uranium mill and its associated mining operation requires a nearly continuous knowledge of the uranium concentration in the ore. Generally, the approach is to use laboratory assays of grab samples from the mill feed belt. In some cases, elaborate and expensive systems have been used to ensure random sampling, but even with these systems, mass-balance discrepancies still exist. There is a requirement for an on-line instrument that can give a prompt, accurate analysis of a large portion of the feed stock. The authors have recently evaluated a laboratory system that achieves these goals using neutron activation and delayed neutron counting. The development of the on-line uranium ore analyzer is a consequence of previous work done at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment (WNRE) (Campbell et al., 1978 and 1981), and is based on the emission of delayed neutrons after the neutron irradiation of fissionable materials. The mechanism of delayed neutron emission has been described (Keepin, 1965), but briefly is as follows. The fission fragments resulting from irradiation are in an excited state. Certain of these delayed fission products, precursors, decay to a more stable state by the emission of a delayed neutron. The delayed neutrons can be divided into six groups with effective half-lives ranging from 0.2-55 sec. It is important to note that more than 50% of the delayed neutrons are emitted within the first 6 sec after irradiation; this has an influence on the design of the analysis instrument

  10. Progress and performance of on-line analyzers of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, C.M.; Brown, D.R.; Gozani, T.; Bozorgmanesh, H.; Bernatowicz, H.; Tassicker, O.J.; Karlson, F.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the past year's progress in the laboratory testing of the most comprehensive Nucoalyzer, the CONAC, and the performance of a Nucoalyzer-Sulfurmeter in special field tests. Previous papers and presentations provide more detailed background information. The near real-time analysis provided by a Nucoalyzer can be used in a variety of strategies to optimize efficiency of coal use. Nucoalyzers can be used to monitor coal deliveries and achieve uniformity in coal storage and recovery. In a coal cleaning plant, on-line analysis with a Nucoalyzer can lead to optimum Btu recovery while meeting specifications for the washed coal. A Nucoalyzer can monitor the blending of different coals to maintain a key cosntituent such as sulfur below a specified level, or can predict sulfur dioxide emissions, allowing feed-forward control to gas scrubbers and precipitators. Variability in coal feed to the boiler can lead to gross changes in thermodynamic efficiency in combustion. In addition, fouling and slagging incidents due to poor coal quality cause costly boiler shutdowns and maintenance. Nucoalyzer monitoring of key constituents and Btu in the coal feed allows operators to adjust boiler parameters for increased efficiency. To summarize, the primary advantages of Nucoalyzers relate to their ability to quickly identify changes in coal composition so that adjustments can be made in a timely manner to accommodate these changes in the process being monitored. Nucoalyzers are the only instruments available that can monitor the coal (for ash, Btu, sulfur, etc.) on-line and provide real-time continuous results. One Nucoalyzer is already working in the field, and by the time of the next Symposium we will have had performance reports on two more

  11. The current role of on-line extraction approaches in clinical and forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Daniel M

    2014-08-01

    In today's clinical and forensic toxicological laboratories, automation is of interest because of its ability to optimize processes, to reduce manual workload and handling errors and to minimize exposition to potentially infectious samples. Extraction is usually the most time-consuming step; therefore, automation of this step is reasonable. Currently, from the field of clinical and forensic toxicology, methods using the following on-line extraction techniques have been published: on-line solid-phase extraction, turbulent flow chromatography, solid-phase microextraction, microextraction by packed sorbent, single-drop microextraction and on-line desorption of dried blood spots. Most of these published methods are either single-analyte or multicomponent procedures; methods intended for systematic toxicological analysis are relatively scarce. However, the use of on-line extraction will certainly increase in the near future.

  12. DOE-EPRI On-Line Monitoring Implementation Guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. Davis, R. Bickford

    2003-01-01

    Industry and EPRI experience at several plants has shown on-line monitoring to be very effective in identifying out-of-calibration instrument channels or indications of equipment-degradation problems. The EPRI implementation project for on-line monitoring has demonstrated the feasibility of on-line monitoring at several participating nuclear plants. The results have been very encouraging, and substantial progress is anticipated in the coming years

  13. Characterisation of bulk solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. McGlinchey [Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Centre for Industrial Bulk Solids Handling

    2005-07-01

    Handling of powders and bulk solids is a critical industrial technology across a broad spectrum of industries, including minerals processing. With contributions from leading authors in their respective fields, this book provides the reader with a sound understanding of the techniques, importance and application of particulate materials characterisation. It covers the fundamental characteristics of individual particles and bulk particulate materials, and includes discussion of a wide range of measurement techniques, and the use of material characteristics in design and industrial practice. Contents: Characterising particle properties; Powder mechanics and rheology; Characterisation for hopper and stockpile design; Fluidization behaviour; Characterisation for pneumatic conveyor design; Explosiblility; 'Designer' particle characteristics; Current industrial practice; and Future trends. 130 ills.

  14. Micromegas in a bulk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giomataris, I.; De Oliveira, R.; Andriamonje, S.; Aune, S.; Charpak, G.; Colas, P.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer, E.; Giganon, A.; Rebourgeard, Ph.; Salin, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel way to manufacture the bulk Micromegas detector. A simple process based on the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) technology is employed to produce the entire sensitive detector. Such a fabrication process could be extended to very large area detectors made by the industry. The low cost fabrication together with the robustness of the electrode materials will make it attractive for several applications ranging from particle physics and astrophysics to medicine

  15. Urethral bulking agents versus other surgical procedures for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Bogani, Giorgio; Meschia, Michele; Sorice, Paola; Braga, Andrea; Salvatore, Stefano; Ghezzi, Fabio; Serati, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    Bulking agents provide an alternative option in the management of women with stress urinary incontinence and they seem to have an important role in the management flow chart of SUI. However, evidence on this issue is scanty. The most important aspect is to understand whether bulking agents are comparable with the other first-line anti-incontinence surgical procedure (MUS, Burch colposuspension and pubovaginal slings). Hence, the primary aim of the current review was to assess the objective and subjective outcomes of bulking agents in comparison with the other surgical procedures for the treatment of SUI. PubMed and Medline were systematically searched and we included studies evaluating the use of bulking agents in comparison with other surgical approaches for either primary or recurrent treatment of female SUI. Three studies meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. Two of these studies were RCTs evaluating the use of bulking agents versus other surgical procedures for the treatment of primary female SUI; the remnant article was a retrospective cohort study that compared the effectiveness and safety of repeat midurethral sling with urethral bulking after failed midurethral sling. The combined results of all analyses showed that the objective recurrence rate of peri- or trans-urethral injections is significantly higher in comparison with the other surgical procedures. Similar findings were observed when considering separately the treatment for primary or recurrent SUI. Furthermore, lower subjective recurrence rate was observed among patients undergoing other surgical treatment in comparison with those undergoing bulking agents; however, this trend was not statistically significant. Moreover, patients undergoing injection of bulking agents experienced a lower rate of voiding dysfunctions in comparison to the control group. According to current evidence, bulking agents should not be proposed as first-line treatment in those women seeking permanent cure for both

  16. On-line bacteriological detection in water

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez Roldan, Ramon; Tusell, Pol; Courtois, Sophie; Cortina Pallás, José Luís

    2013-01-01

    Microorganism contamination is a permanent concern in a wide range of fields, including the water-treatment, food and pharmaceutical industries, in which fast detection is critical to prevent microbial outbreaks. In water monitoring, current procedures for water-quality analysis are based on periodic sampling and detection by culture methods, which are slow, requiring 24–48 h for completion, so that, when first results reach the decision-takers and trigger an alarm, significant time has a...

  17. Software verification in on-line systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrenberger, W.

    1980-01-01

    Operator assistance is more and more provided by computers. Computers contain programs, whose quality should be above a certain level, before they are allowed to be used in reactor control rooms. Several possibilities for gaining software reliability figures are discussed in this paper. By supervising the testing procedure of a program, one can estimate the number of remaining programming errors. Such an estimation, however, is not very accurate. With mathematical proving procedures one can gain some knowledge on program properties. Such proving procedures are important for the verification of general WHILE-loops, which tend to be error prone. The program analysis decomposes a program into its parts. First the program structure is made visible, which includes the data movements and the control flow. From this analysis test cases can be derived that lead to a complete test. Program analysis can be done by hand or automatically. A statistical program test normally requires a large number of test runs. This number is diminished if details concerning both the program to be tested or its use are known in advance. (orig.)

  18. Determination of anions with an on-line capillary electrophoresis method; Anionien on-line maeaeritys kapillaarielektroforeesilla - MPKT 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siren, H; Saerme, T; Kotiaho, T; Hiissa, T; Savolahti, P; Komppa, V [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-12-31

    The aim of the study was to set-up an on-line capillary electrophoresis method for determination of anions in process waters of pulp and paper industry with exporting the results to the process control system of the mill. The quantification is important, since it will give information about the possible causes of precipitation. In recent years, the capillary electrophoresis (CE) due to its high separation efficiency has been shown as a method to take into consideration when analyzing chemical species ranging from small inorganic anions to different macromolecules. Many compounds are not easily detected in their native state, why analysis methods must be developed to improve their detection. Especially, small inorganic and organic anions which do not have chromophores are not sensitive enough for direct-UV detection. In such analyses the anions are mostly detected with indirect-UV technique. Capillary electrophoresis instruments are used to analyze samples in off-line, which seldom represent the situation in process. Therefore, on-line instrument technology with autoanalyzing settings will be needed in quality control. The development of a fully automatic capillary electrophoresis system is underway in co-operation with KCL (The Finnish Pulp and Paper Research Institute). In our research, we have first concentrated on the determination of sulphate in waters of paper industry. The method used for detection of sulphate is based on indirect-UV detection with CE, where the background electrolyte (BGE) is an absorbing mixture of secondary amines. The whole procedure for quantification of sulphate is performed within 15 minutes, after which a new sample is analyzed automatically. The only sample pretreatment is filtration, which is necessary before analysis. The concentrations of sulphate in process waters tested were between 300 and 800 ppm. Our tests show that a simultaneous determination of chloride, sulphate, nitrate, nitrite, sulphite, carbonate and oxalate is also

  19. Determination of anions with an on-line capillary electrophoresis method; Anionien on-line maeaeritys kapillaarielektroforeesilla - MPKT 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siren, H.; Saerme, T.; Kotiaho, T.; Hiissa, T.; Savolahti, P.; Komppa, V. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The aim of the study was to set-up an on-line capillary electrophoresis method for determination of anions in process waters of pulp and paper industry with exporting the results to the process control system of the mill. The quantification is important, since it will give information about the possible causes of precipitation. In recent years, the capillary electrophoresis (CE) due to its high separation efficiency has been shown as a method to take into consideration when analyzing chemical species ranging from small inorganic anions to different macromolecules. Many compounds are not easily detected in their native state, why analysis methods must be developed to improve their detection. Especially, small inorganic and organic anions which do not have chromophores are not sensitive enough for direct-UV detection. In such analyses the anions are mostly detected with indirect-UV technique. Capillary electrophoresis instruments are used to analyze samples in off-line, which seldom represent the situation in process. Therefore, on-line instrument technology with autoanalyzing settings will be needed in quality control. The development of a fully automatic capillary electrophoresis system is underway in co-operation with KCL (The Finnish Pulp and Paper Research Institute). In our research, we have first concentrated on the determination of sulphate in waters of paper industry. The method used for detection of sulphate is based on indirect-UV detection with CE, where the background electrolyte (BGE) is an absorbing mixture of secondary amines. The whole procedure for quantification of sulphate is performed within 15 minutes, after which a new sample is analyzed automatically. The only sample pretreatment is filtration, which is necessary before analysis. The concentrations of sulphate in process waters tested were between 300 and 800 ppm. Our tests show that a simultaneous determination of chloride, sulphate, nitrate, nitrite, sulphite, carbonate and oxalate is also

  20. Forensic analysis of explosives using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS)--part 1: instrument validation of the DELTAplusXP IRMS for bulk nitrogen isotope ratio measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Sarah J; Lennard, Christopher J; Hill, David M; Maynard, Philip; Roux, Claude

    2010-01-01

    A significant amount of research has been conducted into the use of stable isotopes to assist in determining the origin of various materials. The research conducted in the forensic field shows the potential of isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) to provide a level of discrimination not achievable utilizing traditional forensic techniques. Despite the research there have been few, if any, publications addressing the validation and measurement uncertainty of the technique for forensic applications. This study, the first in a planned series, presents validation data for the measurement of bulk nitrogen isotope ratios in ammonium nitrate (AN) using the DELTA(plus)XP (Thermo Finnigan) IRMS instrument equipped with a ConFlo III interface and FlashEA 1112 elemental analyzer (EA). Appropriate laboratory standards, analytical methods and correction calculations were developed and evaluated. A validation protocol was developed in line with the guidelines provided by the National Association of Testing Authorities, Australia (NATA). Performance characteristics including: accuracy, precision/repeatability, reproducibility/ruggedness, robustness, linear range, and measurement uncertainty were evaluated for the measurement of nitrogen isotope ratios in AN. AN (99.5%) and ammonium thiocyanate (99.99+%) were determined to be the most suitable laboratory standards and were calibrated against international standards (certified reference materials). All performance characteristics were within an acceptable range when potential uncertainties, including the manufacturer's uncertainty of the technique and standards, were taken into account. The experiments described in this article could be used as a model for validation of other instruments for similar purposes. Later studies in this series will address the more general issue of demonstrating that the IRMS technique is scientifically sound and fit-for-purpose in the forensic explosives analysis field.

  1. A bulk segregant gene expression analysis of a peach population reveals components of the underlying mechanism of the fruit cold response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Clara; Martí, Cristina; Forment, Javier; Crisosto, Carlos H; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Granell, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Peach fruits subjected for long periods of cold storage are primed to develop chilling injury once fruits are shelf ripened at room temperature. Very little is known about the molecular changes occurring in fruits during cold exposure. To get some insight into this process a transcript profiling analyses was performed on fruits from a PopDG population segregating for chilling injury CI responses. A bulked segregant gene expression analysis based on groups of fruits showing extreme CI responses indicated that the transcriptome of peach fruits was modified already during cold storage consistently with eventual CI development. Most peach cold-responsive genes have orthologs in Arabidopsis that participate in cold acclimation and other stresses responses, while some of them showed expression patterns that differs in fruits according to their susceptibility to develop mealiness. Members of ICE1, CBF1/3 and HOS9 regulons seem to have a prominent role in differential cold responses between low and high sensitive fruits. In high sensitive fruits, an alternative cold response program is detected. This program is probably associated with dehydration/osmotic stress and regulated by ABA, auxins and ethylene. In addition, the observation that tolerant siblings showed a series of genes encoding for stress protective activities with higher expression both at harvest and during cold treatment, suggests that preprogrammed mechanisms could shape fruit ability to tolerate postharvest cold-induced stress. A number of genes differentially expressed were validated and extended to individual genotypes by medium-throughput RT-qPCR. Analyses presented here provide a global view of the responses of peach fruits to cold storage and highlights new peach genes that probably play important roles in the tolerance/sensitivity to cold storage. Our results provide a roadmap for further experiments and would help to develop new postharvest protocols and gene directed breeding strategies to better

  2. Mapping of a Novel Race Specific Resistance Gene to Phytophthora Root Rot of Pepper (Capsicum annuum) Using Bulked Segregant Analysis Combined with Specific Length Amplified Fragment Sequencing Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaomei; Chao, Juan; Cheng, Xueli; Wang, Rui; Sun, Baojuan; Wang, Hengming; Luo, Shaobo; Xu, Xiaowan; Wu, Tingquan; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora capsici (P. capsici) is a serious limitation to pepper production in Southern China, with high temperature and humidity. Mapping PRR resistance genes can provide linked DNA markers for breeding PRR resistant varieties by molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS). Two BC1 populations and an F2 population derived from a cross between P. capsici-resistant accession, Criollo de Morelos 334 (CM334) and P. capsici-susceptible accession, New Mexico Capsicum Accession 10399 (NMCA10399) were used to investigate the genetic characteristics of PRR resistance. PRR resistance to isolate Byl4 (race 3) was controlled by a single dominant gene, PhR10, that was mapped to an interval of 16.39Mb at the end of the long arm of chromosome 10. Integration of bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and Specific Length Amplified Fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) provided an efficient genetic mapping strategy. Ten polymorphic Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers were found within this region and used to screen the genotypes of 636 BC1 plants, delimiting PhR10 to a 2.57 Mb interval between markers P52-11-21 (1.5 cM away) and P52-11-41 (1.1 cM). A total of 163 genes were annotated within this region and 31 were predicted to be associated with disease resistance. PhR10 is a novel race specific gene for PRR, and this paper describes linked SSR markers suitable for marker-assisted selection of PRR resistant varieties, also laying a foundation for cloning the resistance gene.

  3. A bulk segregant gene expression analysis of a peach population reveals components of the underlying mechanism of the fruit cold response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Pons

    Full Text Available Peach fruits subjected for long periods of cold storage are primed to develop chilling injury once fruits are shelf ripened at room temperature. Very little is known about the molecular changes occurring in fruits during cold exposure. To get some insight into this process a transcript profiling analyses was performed on fruits from a PopDG population segregating for chilling injury CI responses. A bulked segregant gene expression analysis based on groups of fruits showing extreme CI responses indicated that the transcriptome of peach fruits was modified already during cold storage consistently with eventual CI development. Most peach cold-responsive genes have orthologs in Arabidopsis that participate in cold acclimation and other stresses responses, while some of them showed expression patterns that differs in fruits according to their susceptibility to develop mealiness. Members of ICE1, CBF1/3 and HOS9 regulons seem to have a prominent role in differential cold responses between low and high sensitive fruits. In high sensitive fruits, an alternative cold response program is detected. This program is probably associated with dehydration/osmotic stress and regulated by ABA, auxins and ethylene. In addition, the observation that tolerant siblings showed a series of genes encoding for stress protective activities with higher expression both at harvest and during cold treatment, suggests that preprogrammed mechanisms could shape fruit ability to tolerate postharvest cold-induced stress. A number of genes differentially expressed were validated and extended to individual genotypes by medium-throughput RT-qPCR. Analyses presented here provide a global view of the responses of peach fruits to cold storage and highlights new peach genes that probably play important roles in the tolerance/sensitivity to cold storage. Our results provide a roadmap for further experiments and would help to develop new postharvest protocols and gene directed breeding

  4. Mapping of a Novel Race Specific Resistance Gene to Phytophthora Root Rot of Pepper (Capsicum annuum Using Bulked Segregant Analysis Combined with Specific Length Amplified Fragment Sequencing Strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Xu

    Full Text Available Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora capsici (P. capsici is a serious limitation to pepper production in Southern China, with high temperature and humidity. Mapping PRR resistance genes can provide linked DNA markers for breeding PRR resistant varieties by molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS. Two BC1 populations and an F2 population derived from a cross between P. capsici-resistant accession, Criollo de Morelos 334 (CM334 and P. capsici-susceptible accession, New Mexico Capsicum Accession 10399 (NMCA10399 were used to investigate the genetic characteristics of PRR resistance. PRR resistance to isolate Byl4 (race 3 was controlled by a single dominant gene, PhR10, that was mapped to an interval of 16.39Mb at the end of the long arm of chromosome 10. Integration of bulked segregant analysis (BSA and Specific Length Amplified Fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq provided an efficient genetic mapping strategy. Ten polymorphic Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR markers were found within this region and used to screen the genotypes of 636 BC1 plants, delimiting PhR10 to a 2.57 Mb interval between markers P52-11-21 (1.5 cM away and P52-11-41 (1.1 cM. A total of 163 genes were annotated within this region and 31 were predicted to be associated with disease resistance. PhR10 is a novel race specific gene for PRR, and this paper describes linked SSR markers suitable for marker-assisted selection of PRR resistant varieties, also laying a foundation for cloning the resistance gene.

  5. Hydrogen interstitial in H-ion implanted ZnO bulk single crystals: Evaluation by elastic recoil detection analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaida, T.; Kamioka, K.; Nishimura, T. [College of Engineering and Research Center of Ion Beam Technology, Hosei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8584 (Japan); Kuriyama, K., E-mail: kuri@ionbeam.hosei.ac.jp [College of Engineering and Research Center of Ion Beam Technology, Hosei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8584 (Japan); Kushida, K. [Department of Arts and Sciences, Osaka Kyoiku University, Kashiwara, Osaka 582-8582 (Japan); Kinomura, A. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    The origins of low resistivity in H ion-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals are evaluated by elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and Van der Pauw methods. The H-ion implantation (peak concentration: 5.0 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup −2}) into ZnO is performed using a 500 keV implanter. The maximum of the concentration of the implanted H estimated by a TRIM simulation is at 3600 nm in depth. The resistivity decreases from ∼10{sup 3} Ω cm for un implanted ZnO to 6.5 Ω cm for as-implanted, 2.3 × 10{sup −1} Ω cm for 200 °C annealed, and 3.2 × 10{sup −1} Ω cm for 400 °C annealed samples. The ERDA measurements can evaluate the concentration of hydrogens which move to the vicinity of the surface (surface to 300 nm or 100 nm) because of the diffusion by the annealing at 200 °C and 400 °C. The hydrogen concentration near the surface estimated using the 2.0 MeV helium beam is ∼3.8 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2} for annealed samples. From EPR measurements, the oxygen vacancy of +charge state (V{sub o}{sup +}) is observed in as-implanted samples. The V{sub o}{sup +} related signal (g = 1.96) observed under no illumination disappears after successive illumination with a red LED and appears again with a blue light illumination. The activation energy of as-implanted, 200 °C annealed, and 400 °C annealed samples estimated from the temperature dependence of carrier concentration lies between 29 meV and 23 meV, suggesting the existence of H interstitial as a shallow donor level.

  6. Algorithms for the on-line travelling salesman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ausiello, G.; Feuerstein, E.; Leonardi, S.; Stougie, L.; Talamo, M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the problem of efficiently serving a sequence of requests presented in an on-line fashion located at points of a metric space is considered. We call this problem the On-Line Travelling Salesman Problem (OLTSP). It has a variety of relevant applications in logistics and robotics. We

  7. An algorithm for on-line price discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.D.B. van Bragt; D.J.A. Somefun (Koye); E. Kutschinski; J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe combination of on-line dynamic pricing with price discrimination can be very beneficial for firms operating on the Internet. We therefore develop an on-line dynamic pricing algorithm that can adjust the price schedule for a good or service on behalf of a firm. This algorithm (a

  8. From Off-line to On-line Handwriting Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lallican, P.; Viard-Gaudin, C.; Knerr, S.

    2004-01-01

    On-line handwriting includes more information on time order of the writing signal and on the dynamics of the writing process than off-line handwriting. Therefore, on-line recognition systems achieve higher recognition rates. This can be concluded from results reported in the literature, and has been

  9. On-line Learning of Prototypes and Principal Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biehl, M.; Freking, A.; Hölzer, M.; Reents, G.; Schlösser, E.; Saad, David

    1998-01-01

    We review our recent investigation of on-line unsupervised learning from high-dimensional structured data. First, on-line competitive learning is studied as a method for the identification of prototype vectors from overlapping clusters of examples. Specifically, we analyse the dynamics of the

  10. Analysis of long-term monomer elution from bulk-fill and conventional resin-composites using high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshali, Ruwaida Z; Salim, Nesreen A; Sung, Rehana; Satterthwaite, Julian D; Silikas, Nick

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess monomer elution from bulk-fill and conventional resin-composites stored in different media using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for up to 3 months. Six bulk-fill (SureFil SDR, Venus Bulk Fill, X-tra base, Filtek Bulk Fill flowable, Sonic Fill, and Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) and eight conventional resin-composites (Grandioso Flow, Venus Diamond Flow, X-Flow, Filtek Supreme XTE, Grandioso, Venus Diamond, TPH Spectrum, and Filtek Z250) were tested. Cylindrical samples (n=5) were immersed in water, 70% ethanol/water solution (70% E/W), and artificial saliva and stored at 37°C for 24h, 1 month, and 3 months. The storage solutions were analysed with HPLC. Data were analysed with repeated measures ANOVA, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey post hoc test at α=0.05. Monomers detected in water and artificial saliva were TEGDMA, DEGDMA, UDMA, and TCD-DI-HEA. No eluted monomers were detected from X-tra base and Sonic fill in these media. All monomers showed a variable extent of elution into 70% E/W with significantly higher amounts than those detected in water and artificial saliva. Significantly higher elution was detected from UDMA-BisEMA based composites compared to BisGMA and BisGMA-BisEMA based systems in 70% E/W. The rate of elution into different media varied between different monomers and was highly dependent on the molecular weight of the eluted compounds. Elution from bulk-fill resin-composites is comparable to that of conventional materials despite their increased increment thickness. Monomer elution is highly dependent on the hydrophobicity of the base monomers and the final network characteristics of the resin-matrix. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. On-line radioactivity detector for HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    Over the last ten years the technique of high performance liquid chromotography (HPLC) has become extensively employed for the separation and quantitation of various biological, organic, and inorganic substances. The use of HPLC for the separation of various metabolic compounds has become routine. The major problem of analyzing the metabolism process is that the quantitation is accomplished by the use of radioactive substrates. Until recently the only method to quantitate these radioactive compounds eluting from the HPLC was by collecting fractions at preset times, removing aliquots and quantitating in a liquid scintillation counter. Once the radioactivity present in each fraction was determined, the results were plotted on a graph and the area of each of the radioactive peaks was determined. This entire process required from 3-20 hours. The introduction of the flow through radioactivity detector enable the investigator to directly quantitate the radioactive peaks as they elute from the HPLC in real time and at about one-tenth the original cost of the previous methods. The detection limits of this technique are dependent on the residence time of the sample in the flow cell and the type of flow cell used for the analysis. Using a 2.5 ml liquid flow cell, (mixing with liquid scintillation solution), base line resolution can be obtained for peaks 1.5 minutes apart, and a sensitivity of 70 dpm for tritium and 30 dpm for carbon-14 can be achieved

  12. ANALISIS KESELAMATAN TERMOHIDROLIK BULK SHIELDING REAKTOR KARTINI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizul Khakim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK ANALISIS KESELAMATAN TERMOHIDROLIK BULK SHIELDING REAKTOR KARTINI. Bulk shielding merupakan fasilitas yang terintegrasi dengan reaktor Kartini yang berfungsi sebagai penyimpanan sementara bahan bakar bekas. Fasilitas ini merupakan fasilitas yang termasuk dalam struktur, sistem dan komponen (SSK yang penting bagi keselamatan. Salah satu fungsi keselamatan dari sistem penanganan dan penyimpanan bahan bakar adalah mencegah kecelakaan kekritisan yang tak terkendali dan membatasi naiknya temperatur bahan bakar. Analisis keselamatan paling kurang harus mencakup analisis keselamatan dari sisi neutronik dan termo hidrolik Bulk shielding. Analisis termo hidrolik ditujukan untuk memastikan perpindahan panas dan proses pendinginan bahan bakar bekas berjalan baik dan tidak terjadi akumulasi panas yang mengancam integritas bahan bakar. Code tervalidasi PARET/ANL digunakan untuk analisis pendinginan dengan mode konveksi alam. Hasil perhitungan menunjukkan bahwa mode pendinginan konvekasi alam cukup memadai dalam mendinginkan panas sisa tanpa mengakibatkan kenaikan temperatur bahan bakar yang signifikan. Kata kunci: Bulk shielding, bahan bakar bekas, konveksi alam, PARET.   ABSTRACT THERMAL HYDRAULIC SAFETY ANALYSIS OF BULK SHIELDING KARTINI REACTOR. Bulk shielding is an integrated facility to Kartini reactor which is used for temporary spent fuels storage. The facility is one of the structures, systems and components (SSCs important to safety. Among the safety functions of fuel handling and storage are to prevent any uncontrolable criticality accidents and to limit the fuel temperature increase. Safety analyses should, at least, cover neutronic and thermal hydraulic calculations of the bulk shielding. Thermal hydraulic analyses were intended to ensure that heat removal and the process of the spent fuels cooling takes place adequately and no heat accumulation that challenges the fuel integrity. Validated code, PARET/ANL was used for analysing the

  13. A nuclear on-line sensor for continuous control of vanadium content in oil pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizk, R.A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Trace amounts of vanadium in crude oil and in heavy distillate fuels are very harmful due to their corrosive action. Thus the necessity arises for continuous control of the vanadium content in oil pipelines. Moreover, the development of a nuclear on-line sensor that can continuously analyze the vanadium content in oil pipelines may lead to a better control of processing operations. In this paper a feasibility study for on-line analysis of vanadium in crude oil by means of neutron activation analysis is presented. (author)

  14. Analysis of the AlGaN/GaN vertical bulk current on Si, sapphire, and free-standing GaN substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Tomás, A.; Fontserè, A.; Llobet, J.; Placidi, M.; Rennesson, S.; Chenot, S.; Moreno, J. C.; Cordier, Y.; Baron, N.

    2013-01-01

    The vertical bulk (drain-bulk) current (I db ) properties of analogous AlGaN/GaN hetero-structures molecular beam epitaxially grown on silicon, sapphire, and free-standing GaN (FS-GaN) have been evaluated in this paper. The experimental I db (25–300 °C) have been well reproduced with physical models based on a combination of Poole-Frenkel (trap assisted) and hopping (resistive) conduction mechanisms. The thermal activation energies (E a ), the (soft or destructive) vertical breakdown voltage (V B ), and the effect of inverting the drain-bulk polarity have also been comparatively investigated. GaN-on-FS-GaN appears to adhere to the resistive mechanism (E a = 0.35 eV at T = 25–300 °C; V B = 840 V), GaN-on-sapphire follows the trap assisted mechanism (E a = 2.5 eV at T > 265 °C; V B > 1100 V), and the GaN-on-Si is well reproduced with a combination of the two mechanisms (E a = 0.35 eV at T > 150 °C; V B = 420 V). Finally, the relationship between the vertical bulk current and the lateral AlGaN/GaN transistor leakage current is explored.

  15. Lake and bulk sampling chemistry, NADP, and IMPROVE air quality data analysis on the Bridger-Teton National Forest (USFS Region 4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill Grenon; Terry Svalberg; Ted Porwoll; Mark Story

    2010-01-01

    Air quality monitoring data from several programs in and around the Bridger-Teton (B-T) National Forest - National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP), longterm lake monitoring, long-term bulk precipitation monitoring (both snow and rain), and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) - were analyzed in this report. Trends were analyzed using...

  16. On-line sensor technology for food manufacturing industry. Shokuhin bun prime ya ni okeru on-line sensor gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komiya, K. (Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-08-05

    This paper introduced the sensor technology for food manufacturing industry. If sugar concentration in main raw material is too high in the amino acid fermentation, control of the concentration is required because fungi growth is inhibited. A controlling method for sugar concentration was developed by using the correlation between consumption of NH {sub 3} for pH adjustment and sugar consumption in place of conventional analyzing method and was introduced in the gulutamic acid fermantation. BOD sensor was developed to enable the selective measurement of organic substances which can be processed by organisms, and measuring time was shortened from previous five days to 30 minutes. Since many organics absorb infrared ray, near infrared analysis is suitable for food analysis and on-line analysis has high possibility. When this method is applied to measure moisture in fishes and meats, continuous measurement can be made nondestructively and without contacting, and further the precision is {plus minus} 0.1%. Simultaneous multi-composition analyses are carried out by continuous spectrum and near infrared method using higher rate scanning. Sensor development for taste and smell has started. 10 refs., 4 figs., 4 refs.

  17. On-line monitoring of low-level plutonium concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Huff, G.A.; Rebagay, T.V.

    1979-10-01

    An on-line monitor has been developed to assay plutonium in nitric acid solutions. The performance of the monitor has been assessed by a laboratory experimentation program using solutions with plutonium concentrations from 0.1 to 10 g/l. These conditions are typical of the plutonium solutions in an input stream to a plutonium-purification cycle in a reprocessing plant following uranium/plutonium partitioning. The monitoring system can be fully automated and shows great promise for detecting and quantifying plutonium in situ, thus minimizing the reliance on traditional sampling and laboratory-analysis techniques. The total concentration and isotopic abundance of plutonium are determined by measuring the absolute intensities of the low-energy gamma rays characteristics of 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and 240 Pu nuclides by direct gamma-ray spectroscopy and computer analysis of the spectral data. The addition of a monitoring system of this type to the input stream of a plutonium-purification cycle along with other suitable monitors on the waste streams and on the product stream provides the basis for a near real-time materials control and inventory system. Results of the laboratory-evaluation program employing plutonium in solutions with isotopic compositions typical of those involved in processing light water reactor fuels are presented. The detailed design of a monitoring cell and detection system is given. The precision and accuracy of the results relative to those measured by mass spectrometry and controlled potential coulometry are also summarized

  18. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  19. Understanding on-line community: the affordances of virtual space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Ruhleder

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of on-line venues for learning are emerging as virtual communities become more accessible and commonplace. This paper looks at one particular virtual community, an on-line degree programme at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, which offers an M.S. in Library and Information Science (called LEEP. It draws on a framework presented by Mynatt, et al. (1998, which provides a lens for talking about on-line community as a set of affordances. This framework is applied to illustrate the interactions, artefacts, and expectations that shape this community.

  20. An Approach to On-line Risk Assessment in NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simic, Z.; Mikulicic, V.; O'Brien, J.

    1996-01-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) can provide safety status information for a plant during different configurations; additional effort is needed to do this in real time for on-line operation. This paper describes an approach to use PRA to achieve these goals. A Risk Assessment On-Line (RAOL) application was developed to monitor maintenance (on-line and planned) activities. RAOL is based on the results from a full-scope PRA, engineering/operational judgment and incorporates a user friendly program interface approach. Results from RAOL can be used by planners or operations to effectively manage the level of risk by controlling the actual plant configuration. (author)

  1. On-line spectroscopy with thermal atomic beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibault, C.; Guimbal, P.; Klapisch, R.; Saint Simon, M. de; Serre, J.M.; Touchard, F.; Duong, H.T.; Jacquinot, P.; Juncar, P.

    1981-01-01

    On-line high resolution laser spectroscopy experiments have been performed in which the light from a cw tunable dye laser interacts at right angles with a thermal atomic beam. sup(76-98)Rb, sup(118-145)Cs and sup(208-213)Fr have been studied using the ionic beam delivered by the ISOLDE on-line mass separator at CERN while sup(20-31)Na and sup(38-47)K have been studied by setting the apparaturs directly on-line with the PS 20 GeV proton beam. The principle of the method is briefly explained and some results concerning nuclear structure are given. (orig.)

  2. Comparison of On-Line Maintenance Support Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simic, Z.; Follen, S. M.; Mikulicic, V.

    1998-01-01

    Modeling approach to on-line risk monitoring is today in a rapid developing phase. For that reason number of different solutions are available. This paper will attempt to present existing approaches to address on-line risk modeling problem Starting with description of on-line risk monitoring issues in general, then following by presentation of existing software tools (EPRI's Safety Monitor, Equipment Out of Service Monitor, and ORAM-SENTINEL) the current state of the art in this area will be demonstrated. Finally, conclusions and ideas will be outlined. (author)

  3. On-line stable isotope measurements during plant and soil gas exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakir, D.

    2001-01-01

    Recent techniques for on-line stable isotope measurements during plant and soil exchange of CO 2 and/or water vapor are briefly reviewed. For CO 2 , these techniques provide means for on-line measurements of isotopic discrimination during CO 2 exchange by leaves in the laboratory and in the field, of isotopic discrimination during soil respiration and during soil-atmosphere CO 2 exchange, and of isotopic discrimination in O 2 during plant respiration. For water vapor, these techniques provide means to measure oxygen isotopic composition of water vapor during leaf transpiration and for the analysis of sub microliter condensed water vapor samples. Most of these techniques involve on-line sampling of CO 2 and water vapor from a dynamic, intact soil or plant system. In the laboratory, these systems also allow on-line isotopic analysis by continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The information obtained with these on-line techniques is becoming increasingly valuable, and often critical, for ecophysiologial research and in the study of biosphere-atmosphere interactions. (author)

  4. Bulk muscles, loose cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, Chamari R D G; Kodali, Venkata

    2014-10-17

    The accessibility and usage of body building supplements is on the rise with stronger internet marketing strategies by the industry. The dangers posed by the ingredients in them are underestimated. A healthy young man came to the emergency room with palpitations and feeling unwell. Initial history and clinical examination were non-contributory to find the cause. ECG showed atrial fibrillation. A detailed history for any over the counter or herbal medicine use confirmed that he was taking supplements to bulk muscle. One of the components in these supplements is yohimbine; the onset of symptoms coincided with the ingestion of this product and the patient is symptom free after stopping it. This report highlights the dangers to the public of consuming over the counter products with unknown ingredients and the consequential detrimental impact on health. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  5. Research of analysis method of on-line monitoring based on the behavior analysis of low-voltage users stealing electricity%基于用电行为分析的低压用户窃电在线监测分析方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚伟智; 林幕群; 纪素娜; 郑青娜; 杨军

    2015-01-01

    针对目前低压用户窃电十分普遍,窃电手段多种多样,以及现有防窃电措施的不足,为此研究了一套基于低压用户用电行为分析的在线监测方法。依据是用户用电规律与同行业用电轨迹进行对比分析,本方法分析的主要指标包括用户月电量离散系数、行业平均月电量离散系数、两者之间的比值、用户与行业月电量比值,并计算用户异常分值,最终通过异常阀值筛选、排查确定出偏离正常用电轨迹的异常用户。通过运用该分析方法,基本能够做到及时、准确的将偏离正常用电轨迹的窃电用户找出。%Aiming at The universality of the low voltage of stealing electricity, stealing with many kinds of means, and the deficiency of the existing electricity larceny prevention measures,for this purpose,an analysis method of on-line monitoring is studied based on the behavior analysis of low-voltage users stealing electricity. On the basis of the user is contrast and analysis of the electricity laws and the same industry electricity trajectory analysis method, the main indicators include user monthly consumption dispersion coefficient, the industry average monthly consumption dispersion coefficient, between the user and the industry monthly consumption ratio, ratio, and calculate the user abnormal points value, final y through the anomaly threshold determined screening, investigation abnormal user deviates from the normal electricity trajectory. By using the analysis method, the basic can timely and accurate wil deviate from the normal electricity stealing users find out trajectory.

  6. On-line methanol sensor system development for recombinant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On-line methanol sensor system development for recombinant human serum ... of the methanol sensor system was done in a medium environment with yeast cells ... induction at a low temperature and a pH where protease does not function.

  7. On-line control systems in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freymeyer, P.

    1981-01-01

    This report is a review of on-line control systems as a complex system connected with all problems like, development, planning, degree of automation, economics, service, quality and documentation. (orig.) [de

  8. Why do People Stop Playing On-Line Games?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Razmerita, Liana

    2012-01-01

    The recent initial public offering of shares of Zynga, probably the most important on-line game provider, drew interest of potential investors but also of general public to their business model. What the most interested people learned so far is that if Zynga had not changed their accounting...... practice, they would be in red numbers for several months already. This is most likely caused by people stopping to play their games. This paper provides an estimate of what proportion of people, who played on-line games, already stopped playing them. Additionally, it analyzed the reasons why people...... stopped playing on-line games. It also compares Facebook and other on-line games....

  9. On-line non-contact gas analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    , and good agreement has been found for NO (e.g. deviations of 1-5% for NO at 1200 °C). Practical highresolution measurements at the AVV2 boiler are analysed, and detection limits for the NO are discussed. The developed tools and results will be used in the future projects, e.g. fast measurements of the gas...

  10. On-line real time gamma analysis of primary coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalechstein, W.; Kupca, S.; Lipsett, J.J.

    1985-10-01

    The evolution of failed fuel monitoring at CANDU power stations is briefly summarized and the design of the latest system for failed fuel detection at a multi-unit power station is described. At each reactor, the system employs a germanium spectrometer combined with a novel spectrum analyzer that simultaneously accumulates the gamma-ray spectrum of the coolant and provides the control room with the concentration of radioisotope activity in the coolant for the gaseous fission products Xe-133, Xe-135, Kr-88 and I-131 in real time and with statistical precision independent of count rate. A gross gamma monitor is included to provide independent information on the level of radioactivity in the coolant and extend the measurement range at very high count rates. A central computer system archives spectra received from all four spectrum analyzers and provides both the activity concentrations and the release rates of specified isotopes. Compared with previous systems the current design offers improvements in that the activity concentrations are updated much more frequently, improved tools are provided for long term surveillance of the heat transport system and the monitor is more reliable and less costly

  11. On-line sample processing methods in flow analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, the state of the art of flow injection and related approaches thereof for automation and miniaturization of sample processing regardless of the aggregate state of the sample medium is overviewed. The potential of the various generation of flow injection for implementation of in...

  12. The Daresbury On-Line Isotope Separator (DOLIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, I.S.; Eastham, D.A.; Groves, J.; Tolfree, D.W.L.; Walker, P.M.; Green, V.R.; Rikovska, J.; Stone, N.J.; Hamilton, W.D.

    1987-01-01

    The isotope separator DOLIS, which is on-line to the Daresbury Laboratory's 20-MV tandem accelerator, is used to measure nuclear moments and decay schemes. Separated beams may be collected on a tape and transported to a counting station, implanted directly into a host lattice at on-line temperatures down to less than 10 mK, or allowed to interact with a collinear laser beam. The present status of DOLIS and its ancillary equipment is described

  13. The Daresbury on-line isotope separator (DOLIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, I.S.; Eastham, D.A.; Groves, J.; Tolfree, D.W.L.; Walker, P.M.; Green, V.R.; Rikovska, J.; Stone, N.J.; Hamilton, W.D.

    1987-01-01

    The isotope separator DOLIS, which is on-line to the Daresbury Laboratory's 20-MV tandem accelerator, is used to measure nuclear moments and decay schemes. Separated beams may be collected on a tape and transported to a counting station, implanted directly into a host lattice at on-line temperatures down to less than 10 mK, or allowed to interact with a collinear laser beam. The present status of DOLIS and its ancillary equipment is described. (orig.)

  14. Considerations in applying on-line IC techniques to BWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaleda, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Ion-Chromatography (IC) has moved from its traditional role as a laboratory analytical tool to a real time, dynamic, on-line measurement device to follow ppb and sub-ppb concentrations of deleterious impurities in nuclear power plants. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), individual utilities, and industry all have played significant roles in effecting the transition. This paper highlights considerations and the evolution in current on-line Ion Chromatography systems. The first applications of on-line techniques were demonstrated by General Electric (GE) under EPRI sponsorship at Rancho Seco (1980), Calvert Cliffs, and McGuire nuclear units. The primary use was for diagnostic purposes. Today the on-line IC applications have been expanded to include process control and routine plant monitoring. Current on-line IC's are innovative in design, promote operational simplicity, are modular for simplified maintenance and repair, and use field-proven components which enhance reliability. Conductivity detection with electronic or chemical suppression and spectrometric detection techniques are intermixed in applications. Remote multi-point sample systems have addressed memory effects. Early applications measured ionic species in the part per billion range. Today reliable part per trillion measurements are common for on-line systems. Current systems are meeting the challenge of EPRI guideline requirements. Today's on-line IC's, with programmed sampling systems, monitor fluid streams throughout a power plant, supplying data that can be trended, stored and retrieved easily. The on-line IC has come of age. Many technical challenges were overcome to achieve today's IC

  15. On-line mixture-based alternative to logistic regression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nagy, Ivan; Suzdaleva, Evgenia

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 5 (2016), s. 417-437 ISSN 1210-0552 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-03564S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : on-line modeling * on-line logistic regression * recursive mixture estimation * data dependent pointer Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.394, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/ZS/suzdaleva-0464463.pdf

  16. Analysis of a Lennard-Jones fcc structure melting to the corresponding frozen liquid: Differences between the bulk and the surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivi-Tran, N.; Faivre, A.

    2009-01-01

    We computed a Lennard-Jones frozen liquid with a free surface using classical molecular dynamics. The structure factor curves on the free surface of this sample were calculated for different depths knowing that we have periodic boundary conditions on the other parts of the sample. The resulting structure factor curves show an horizontal shift of their first peak depending on how deep in the sample the curves are computed. We analyze our resulting curves in the light of spatial correlation functions during melting. The conclusion is that the differences between bulk and surface are quite small during melting and that at the end of melting, only the very surface happens to be less dense than the bulk. This result is intrinsic to the shape of the Lennard-Jones potential and does not depend on any other parameter.

  17. The Westinghouse BEACON on-line core monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buechel, Robert J.; Boyd, William A.; Casadei, Alberto L.

    1995-01-01

    BEACON (Best Estimate Analysis of Core Operations - Nuclear), a core monitoring and operational support package developed by Westinghouse, has been installed at many operating PWRs worldwide. The BEACON system is a real-time monitoring system which can be used in plants with both fixed and movable incore detector systems and utilizes an on-line nodal model combined with core instrumentation data to provide continuous core power distribution monitoring. In addition, accurate core-predictive capabilities utilizing a full core nodal model updated according to plant operating history can be made to provide operational support. Core history information is kept and displayed to help operators anticipate core behavior and take pro-active control actions. The BEACON system has been licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for direct, continuous monitoring of DNBR and peak linear heat rate. This allows BEACON to be integrated into the plant technical specifications to permit significant relaxation of operating limitations defined by conventional technical specifications. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  18. On-line monitoring of methane in sewer air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiwen; Sharma, Keshab R; Murthy, Sudhir; Johnson, Ian; Evans, Ted; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-10-16

    Methane is a highly potent greenhouse gas and contributes significantly to climate change. Recent studies have shown significant methane production in sewers. The studies conducted so far have relied on manual sampling followed by off-line laboratory-based chromatography analysis. These methods are labor-intensive when measuring methane emissions from a large number of sewers, and do not capture the dynamic variations in methane production. In this study, we investigated the suitability of infrared spectroscopy-based on-line methane sensors for measuring methane in humid and condensing sewer air. Two such sensors were comprehensively tested in the laboratory. Both sensors displayed high linearity (R(2) > 0.999), with a detection limit of 0.023% and 0.110% by volume, respectively. Both sensors were robust against ambient temperature variations in the range of 5 to 35°C. While one sensor was robust against humidity variations, the other was found to be significantly affected by humidity. However, the problem was solved by equipping the sensor with a heating unit to increase the sensor surface temperature to 35°C. Field studies at three sites confirmed the performance and accuracy of the sensors when applied to actual sewer conditions, and revealed substantial and highly dynamic methane concentrations in sewer air.

  19. Knowledge-based on-line vibration monitoring diagnose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, L.G.; Karlsson, A.; Noeremark, A.

    1990-01-01

    ABB STAL developed some years ago a knowledge-based on-line vibration analysis system (working-name KOVA). KOVA is intended to work together with some type of vibration monitoring system, at present it is adapted to TVM 300. KOVA has no controlling function. It will only diagnose the actual situation and give the user explanations and proposals for actions to be taken. During the developing work, great experience has been gained of the features this type of system demands. This paper will present the outlines of the application and also discuss how to make diagnoses based both on general rules as well as on historical vibration cases for that particular unit (or identical units9. Another subject that this paper will outline, is the representation and evaluation of knowledge. KOVA serves as a decision-support system for the operator. Since KOVA will often give the operator more than one possible diagnosis as the cause of a fault, it is of great importance to give the operator comprehensive explanations and as many facts as possible. It is also important to rank the suggested diagnoses in some way. In KOVA these demands are effectively supported. The models and tools used to realize this functionality will be described in this paper

  20. On-line confidence monitoring during decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotan, Dror; Meyniel, Florent; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2018-02-01

    Humans can readily assess their degree of confidence in their decisions. Two models of confidence computation have been proposed: post hoc computation using post-decision variables and heuristics, versus online computation using continuous assessment of evidence throughout the decision-making process. Here, we arbitrate between these theories by continuously monitoring finger movements during a manual sequential decision-making task. Analysis of finger kinematics indicated that subjects kept separate online records of evidence and confidence: finger deviation continuously reflected the ongoing accumulation of evidence, whereas finger speed continuously reflected the momentary degree of confidence. Furthermore, end-of-trial finger speed predicted the post-decisional subjective confidence rating. These data indicate that confidence is computed on-line, throughout the decision process. Speed-confidence correlations were previously interpreted as a post-decision heuristics, whereby slow decisions decrease subjective confidence, but our results suggest an adaptive mechanism that involves the opposite causality: by slowing down when unconfident, participants gain time to improve their decisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 3081/E processor and its on-line use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, P.; Bricaud, B.; Gravina, M.

    1985-05-01

    The 3081/E is a second generation emulator of a mainframe IBM. One of it's applications will be to form part of the data acquisition system of the upgraded Mark II detector for data taking at the SLAC linear collider. Since the processor does not have direct connections to I/O devices a FASTBUS interface will be provided to allow communication with both SLAC Scanner Processors (which are responsible for the accumulation of data at a crate level) and the experiment's VAX 8600 mainframe. The 3081/E's will supply a significant amount of on-line computing power to the experiment (a single 3081/E is equivalent to 4 to 5 VAX 11/780's). A major advantage of the 3081/E is that program development can be done on an IBM mainframe (such as the one used for off-line analysis) which gives the programmer access to a full range of debugging tools. The processor's performance can be continually monitored by comparison of the results obtained using it to those given when the same program is run on an IBM computer. 9 refs

  2. In situ microscopy for on-line determination of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, C; Wehnert, G; Scheper, T

    1998-10-05

    A sensor is presented, which allows on-line microscopic observation of microorganisms during fermentations in bioreactors. This sensor, an In Situ Microscope (ISM) consists of a direct-light microscope with a measuring chamber, integrated in a 25 mm stainless steel tube, two CCD-cameras, and two frame-grabbers. The data obtained are processed by an automatic image analysis system. The ISM is connected with the bioreactor via a standard port, and it is immersed directly in the culture liquid-in our case Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a synthetic medium. The microscopic examination of the liquid is performed in the measuring chamber, which is situated near the front end of the sensor head. The measuring chamber is opened and closed periodically. In the open state, the liquid in the bioreactor flows unrestricted through the chamber. In closing, a defined volume of 2,2. 10(-8) mL of the liquid becomes enclosed. After a few seconds, when the movement of the cells in the enclosed culture has stopped, they are examined with the microscope. The microscopic images of the cells are registered with the CCD-cameras and are visualized on a monitor, allowing a direct view of the cell population. After detection, the measuring chamber reopens, and the enclosed liquid is released. The images obtained are evaluated as to cell concentration, cell size, cell volume, biomass, and other relevant parameters simultaneously by automatic image analysis. With a PC (486/33 MHz), image processing takes about 15 s per image. The detection range tested when measuring cells of S. cerevisiae is about 10(6) to 10(9) cells/mL (equivalent to a biomass of 0.01 g/L to 12 g/L). The calculated biomass values correlate very well with those obtained using dry weight analysis. Furthermore, histograms can be calculated, which are comparable to those obtained by flow cytometry. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Microfabricated Bulk Piezoelectric Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barham, Oliver M.

    Piezoelectric voltage transformers (PTs) can be used to transform an input voltage into a different, required output voltage needed in electronic and electro- mechanical systems, among other varied uses. On the macro scale, they have been commercialized in electronics powering consumer laptop liquid crystal displays, and compete with an older, more prevalent technology, inductive electromagnetic volt- age transformers (EMTs). The present work investigates PTs on smaller size scales that are currently in the academic research sphere, with an eye towards applications including micro-robotics and other small-scale electronic and electromechanical sys- tems. PTs and EMTs are compared on the basis of power and energy density, with PTs trending towards higher values of power and energy density, comparatively, indicating their suitability for small-scale systems. Among PT topologies, bulk disc-type PTs, operating in their fundamental radial extension mode, and free-free beam PTs, operating in their fundamental length extensional mode, are good can- didates for microfabrication and are considered here. Analytical modeling based on the Extended Hamilton Method is used to predict device performance and integrate mechanical tethering as a boundary condition. This model differs from previous PT models in that the electric enthalpy is used to derive constituent equations of motion with Hamilton's Method, and therefore this approach is also more generally applica- ble to other piezoelectric systems outside of the present work. Prototype devices are microfabricated using a two mask process consisting of traditional photolithography combined with micropowder blasting, and are tested with various output electri- cal loads. 4mm diameter tethered disc PTs on the order of .002cm. 3 , two orders smaller than the bulk PT literature, had the followingperformance: a prototype with electrode area ratio (input area / output area) = 1 had peak gain of 2.3 (+/- 0.1), efficiency of 33 (+/- 0

  4. An on-line data acquisition system based on Norsk-Data ND-560 computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, A.; Roy, A.; Dey, S.K.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bhowmik, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a high-speed data acquisition system based on CAMAC for Norsk Data ND-560 computer operating in a multiuser environment. As opposed to the present trend, the system has been implemented with minimum hardware at CAMAC level taking advantage of the dual processors of ND-560. The package consists of several coordinated tasks running in the two CPUs which acquire data, record on tape, permit on-line analysis and display the data and perform related control operations. It has been used in several experiments at VECC and its performance in on-line experiments is reported. (orig.)

  5. An apparatus for on-line measuring of the coating weight on art paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Meifen; Mao Shunjuan

    1986-01-01

    The method and apparatus for on-line measuring of the coating weight on art paper are described. The design of the coating gauge was based on the technique of charcateristic X-ray fluorescence preferential absorption. The gauge was equipped with a TP-801 micro-computer which makes the gauge capable of showing and typing the data in different forms. The measurement is quick, continuous, accurate and non-destructive. Analysis period is 10 seconds. In on-line measuring, the reproducibility is +- 1 g/m 2 and the relative error of this method amounts to +- 5% with the weighing method as a standard

  6. A new technique for on-line and off-line high speed computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartouni, E.P.; Jensen, D.A.; Klima, B.; Kreisler, M.N.; Rabin, M.S.Z.; Uribe, J.; Gottschalk, E.; Gara, A.; Knapp, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    A new technique for both on-line and off-line computation has been developed. With this technique, a reconstruction analysis in Elementary Particle Physics, otherwise prohibitively long, has been accomplished. It will be used on-line in an upcoming Fermilab experiment to reconstruct more than 100,000 events per second and to trigger on the basis of that information. The technique delivers 40 Giga operations per second, has a bandwidth on the order of Gigabytes per second and has a modest cost. An overview of the program, details of the system, and performance measurements are presented in this paper

  7. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.

    2017-06-27

    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  8. Synthesis of Bulk Superconducting Magnesium Diboride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie Olbinado

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Bulk polycrystalline superconducting magnesium diboride, MgB2, samples were successfully prepared via a one-step sintering program at 750°C, in pre Argon with a pressure of 1atm. Both electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements confirmed the superconductivity of the material at 39K, with a transition width of 5K. The polycrystalline nature, granular morphology, and composition of the sintered bulk material were confirmed using X-ray diffractometry (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX.

  9. Determination of Peroxide-Based Explosives Using Liquid Chromatography with On-Line Infrared Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulte-Ladbeck, Rasmus; Edelmann, Andrea; Quintas, Guillermo; Lendl, Bernhard; Karst, U.

    2006-01-01

    A nondestructive analytical method for peroxide-based explosives determination in solid samples is described. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography in combination with on-line Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) detection is used for the analysis of triacetonetriperoxide (TATP) and

  10. Summary remarks and future prospects for on-line nuclear orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, K.S.; Hamilton, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Results from various groups which use on-line low temperature nuclear orientation techniques are presented. Several nuclear parameters have been successfully studied: rotational levels, nuclear deformation, and decay modes. Future prospects include multiparameter analysis, relaxation and pre-orientation, new separators, and alpha decay studies. 33 refs., 5 figs

  11. Design and construction of an on-line SPE-SFE-CGC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto Jair S. S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction of an on-line SPE-SFE-CGC system is described. The home-made system is of low cost and of easy construction and maintenance, making possible the analysis of organic micropollutants in liquid samples such as water in a fraction of the time spent using traditional methods.

  12. Software development for on-line computation with PDP 15/76 computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viyogi, Y P; Bhattacharjee, T K; De, S K; Basu, A K; Ganguly, N K [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Variable Energy Cyclotron Project

    1979-01-01

    Two important capabilities have been incorporated in the on-line data processing system for the pulse height analysis at VEC, for the processing of data by using codes PHA1 and PHA2, the single parameter and dual parameter data acquisition programs. (1) RDMA is written in assembly language for randomly accessing any element of data from data filing devices. This increases the availability of core so that capability of processing programs can be enhanced. (2) PHARAD, also written in assembly language, converts data files created by acquisition programs into FORTRAN compatible files. These are very essential for on-line processing of data. The on-line data acqujsition and processing by PDP 15/76 using these facilities are discussed.

  13. On-line statistical processing of radiation detector pulse trains with time-varying count rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolopoulos, G.

    2008-01-01

    Statistical analysis is of primary importance for the correct interpretation of nuclear measurements, due to the inherent random nature of radioactive decay processes. This paper discusses the application of statistical signal processing techniques to the random pulse trains generated by radiation detectors. The aims of the presented algorithms are: (i) continuous, on-line estimation of the underlying time-varying count rate θ(t) and its first-order derivative dθ/dt; (ii) detection of abrupt changes in both of these quantities and estimation of their new value after the change point. Maximum-likelihood techniques, based on the Poisson probability distribution, are employed for the on-line estimation of θ and dθ/dt. Detection of abrupt changes is achieved on the basis of the generalized likelihood ratio statistical test. The properties of the proposed algorithms are evaluated by extensive simulations and possible applications for on-line radiation monitoring are discussed

  14. Bulk and compound-specific isotope analysis of long-chain n-alkanes from a 85,000 year sediment core from Lake Peten Petén Itzá, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, J.; Brenner, M.; Curtis, J. H.; Curtis, K.; Hodell, D. A.; Correa-Metrio, A.; Escobar, J.; Dutton, A. L.; Zimmerman, A. R.; Guilderson, T. P.

    2013-12-01

    Sediment core PI-6 from Lake Petén Itzá, Guatemala possesses an 85-ka record of climate from lowland Central America. Variations in sediment lithology suggest large, abrupt changes in precipitation during the last glacial and deglacial periods, and into the early Holocene. Study of cores from nearby Lake Quexil demonstrated the utility of using the carbon isotopic composition of leaf wax n-alkanes to infer changes in terrestrial vegetation (Huang et al. 2001). Forty-nine samples were taken from composite Petén Itzá core PI-6 to measure carbon isotopes of bulk organic carbon and long-chain n alkanes. Changes in δ13C values indicate shifts in the relative proportion of C3 to C4 biomass. The record shows largest δ13C variations are associated with Heinrich Events. Carbon isotope values in sediments deposited during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) indicate moderate precipitation and little rainfall fluctuation. The deglacial was a period of pronounced climate variability, e.g. the Bölling-Allerod and Younger Dryas. Arid times of the deglacial were inferred from samples with the greatest δ13C values in organic matter, reflecting the largest proportion of C4 plants. Such inferences are supported by stable isotope measurements on ostracod shells and analysis of pollen from the same sample depths in core PI-6. Carbon stable isotope measures on bulk organic carbon and n alkane compounds show similar trends throughout the record and the C:N ratio of Petén Itzá sediments indicates a predominantly allochthonous source for bulk organic matter. Hence, isotope measures on bulk organic carbon (δ13CTOC) in sediments from this lake are sufficient to infer climate-driven shifts in vegetation, making n-alkane extraction and isotope analysis superfluous.

  15. Locality, bulk equations of motion and the conformal bootstrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabat, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, City University of New York,250 Bedford Park Blvd. W, Bronx NY 10468 (United States); Lifschytz, Gilad [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Natural Science, University of Haifa,199 Aba Khoushy Ave., Haifa 31905 (Israel)

    2016-10-18

    We develop an approach to construct local bulk operators in a CFT to order 1/N{sup 2}. Since 4-point functions are not fixed by conformal invariance we use the OPE to categorize possible forms for a bulk operator. Using previous results on 3-point functions we construct a local bulk operator in each OPE channel. We then impose the condition that the bulk operators constructed in different channels agree, and hence give rise to a well-defined bulk operator. We refer to this condition as the “bulk bootstrap.” We argue and explicitly show in some examples that the bulk bootstrap leads to some of the same results as the regular conformal bootstrap. In fact the bulk bootstrap provides an easier way to determine some CFT data, since it does not require knowing the form of the conformal blocks. This analysis clarifies previous results on the relation between bulk locality and the bootstrap for theories with a 1/N expansion, and it identifies a simple and direct way in which OPE coefficients and anomalous dimensions determine the bulk equations of motion to order 1/N{sup 2}.

  16. On-line maintenance PSA support at NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosen, R.; Vrbanic, I.; Kastelan, M.

    2000-01-01

    In 1997 Krsko NPP initiated the on-line maintenance (OLM) practice. On-line maintenance constitutes of corrective activities, preventive activities, surveillance activities, tests and inspections, as well as calibrations and modifications, taking place during the normal power operations. The on-line maintenance is a multidisciplinary process consisting of activity specification, planning, and preparation and performing of the OLM activity of interest. The primary role of the PSA group is to assess from the r isk perspective , using the plant-specific NEK PSA model, system unavailability and the impact to the plant operational risk. The intent is to support planning of the on-line maintenance activities from the risk perspective. The risk evaluation of the OLM activities is based on the probability of core damage evaluation for the defined discrete plant configuration states, determined by the OLM activities. Within this application, the optimized, plant-specific PSA model is used on Risk Spectrum platform. To perform the risk assessment of the on-line maintenance activities, first the systems to be affected are defined based on the planned OLM activities. The next important step is the assessment of the planned work schedule. To define the final schedule, the co-ordination and optimizing the planned OLM activities needs activation of all participating departments, supported also from PSA group. The P3 (i.e. Primavera) planning tool system windows are defined for different systems and groups of systems, and the activities are sorted in particular weeks according to these windows. (author)

  17. OLDASS: On-line data acquisition system at SF cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omata, Kazuo; Yasue, Masaharu; Hamagaki, Hideki

    1982-01-01

    The on-line data acquisition system in the Institute for Nuclear Study, the University of Tokyo, is composed of 2 systems of Fujitsu mini-computer PFU-400 for data processing at the high energy synchrotron and one system of that computer for low energy cyclotron as terminals, the host computer being M 180 II AD of the same company. This system has been developed to have the features of being the on-line system capable of following the improvement of host computer performance, being capable of developing the on-line programmes of other experimenting groups in parallel with batch jobs or the operation of the on-line system, and capable of developing programmes using FORTRAN. The result of about 220 KB/s was obtained for the data transfer rate between the programmes of the host computer and terminals, and this fulfilled the aimed performance. The terminal system on the low energy side is provided with an ADC interface and a display interface specified particularly in addition to the miniature computer PFU400 and standard I/O devices of the manufacture. The accumulating type graphic display of the I/O devices can be switched to be connected to the host computer, and immediately displays the results transferred to the host computer and analyzed. Hard copy is also available. The above hardware and software are explained. The on-line system insures 80 K bytes of the total memory of 224 K bytes for data area. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  18. Sport Management Taught On-Line: A Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F. Stier Jr

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An introduction to the world of on-line courses (distance education/learning is presented. In addition, the world of on-line learning, as it pertains to sport management, is examined within the framework of (a pedagogy, (b finances,(c assessment, and (d choosing to transition from the traditional classroom to on-line learning. Pertinent points relative to each of the four categories are presented from the literature. In an effort to stimulate thought and discussion to the subject of on-line learning for sport management programs/courses the authors provide their reactions to the literature points by presenting their comments/reactions from a sport management perspective. Sport management professors and administrators are encouraged to critically examine the feasibility of such on-line courses (distance education/learning within their own curricula while maintaining an appropriate framework revolving around sound theoretical instructional strategies, methods as well as appropriate use of instructional tools, including but not limited to, computersand the WWW.

  19. Evaluation of a multiplex immunoassay for bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine coronavirus antibodies in bulk tank milk against two indirect ELISAs using latent class analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftaker, Ingrid; Toft, Nils; Stokstad, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine coronavirus (BCV) are responsible for respiratory disease and diarrhea in cattle worldwide. The Norwegian control program against these infections is based on herd-level diagnosis using a new multiplex immunoassay. The objective of this study...... was to estimate sensitivity and specificity across different cut-off values for the MVD-Enferplex BCV/BRSV multiplex, by comparing them to a commercially available ELISA, the SVANOVIR® BCV-Ab and SVANOVIR® BRSV-Ab, respectively. We analyzed bulk tank milk samples from 360 herds in a low- and 360 herds in a high...

  20. A space-time analysis of Mycoplasma bovis: bulk tank milk antibody screening results from all Danish dairy herds in 2013-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arede, Margarida; Nielsen, Per Kantsø; Ahmed, Syed Sayeem Uddin

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is an important pathogen causing severe disease outbreaks in cattle farms. Since 2011, there has been an apparent increase in M. bovis outbreaks among Danish dairy cattle herds. The dairy cattle industry performed cross-sectional antibody screening for M. bovis on four occasions...... population throughout the study period. Repeated bulk tank milk samples were used as a proxy for the herd-level diagnosis. Descriptive and spatial analyses were performed for the four screening rounds. Based on a previous diagnostic test evaluation study, the M. bovis status for each herd was determined...

  1. Initiating Events Modeling for On-Line Risk Monitoring Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simic, Z.; Mikulicic, V.

    1998-01-01

    In order to make on-line risk monitoring application of Probabilistic Risk Assessment more complete and realistic, a special attention need to be dedicated to initiating events modeling. Two different issues are of special importance: one is how to model initiating events frequency according to current plant configuration (equipment alignment and out of service status) and operating condition (weather and various activities), and the second is how to preserve dependencies between initiating events model and rest of PRA model. First, the paper will discuss how initiating events can be treated in on-line risk monitoring application. Second, practical example of initiating events modeling in EPRI's Equipment Out of Service on-line monitoring tool will be presented. Gains from application and possible improvements will be discussed in conclusion. (author)

  2. Strengthening weak ties through on-line gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Razmerita, Liana Virginia; Kirchner, Kathrin

    On-line gaming became widespread in the last couple of years. The aim of the research presented in the paper is to figure out to what extent does game playing helps to strengthen weak ties and what additional factors influence this process. The approach is rather exploratory – some factors...... are grounded in theory, some are new. These factors are age, gender, place of origin, number of their Facebook connections (friends in Facebook terminology), the amount of time they are on Facebook, the amount of time they keep the Facebook site open, the amount of time they play on-line games, and the reasons...... for starting to play on-line games. Regarding the latter, we chose to focus only on escapist reasons....

  3. Thermographic Sensing For On-Line Industrial Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmsten, Dag

    1986-10-01

    It is today's emergence of thermoelectrically cooled, highly accurate infrared linescanners and imaging systems that has definitely made on-line Infraread Thermography (IRT) possible. Specifically designed for continuous use, these scanners are equipped with dedicated software capable of monitoring and controlling highly complex thermodynamic situations. This paper will outline some possible implications of using IRT on-line by describing some uses of this technology in the steel-making (hot rolling) and automotive industries (machine-vision). A warning is also expressed that IRT technology not originally designed for automated applications e.g. high resolution, imaging systems, should not be directly applied to an on-line measurement situation without having its measurement resolution, accuracy and especially its repeatability, reliably proven. Some suitable testing procedures are briefly outlined at the end of the paper.

  4. An on-line monitoring system for navigation equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Yang, Ping; Liu, Jing; Yang, Zhengbo; Liang, Fei

    2017-10-01

    Civil air navigation equipment is the most important infrastructure of Civil Aviation, which is closely related to flight safety. In addition to regular flight inspection, navigation equipment's patrol measuring, maintenance measuring, running measuring under special weather conditions are the important means of ensuring aviation flight safety. According to the safety maintenance requirements of Civil Aviation Air Traffic Control navigation equipment, this paper developed one on-line monitoring system with independent intellectual property rights for navigation equipment, the system breakthroughs the key technologies of measuring navigation equipment on-line including Instrument Landing System (ILS) and VHF Omni-directional Range (VOR), which also meets the requirements of navigation equipment ground measurement set by the ICAO DOC 8071, it provides technical means of the ground on-line measurement for navigation equipment, improves the safety of navigation equipment operation, and reduces the impact of measuring navigation equipment on airport operation.

  5. On-line calculation of 3-D power distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y. H.; In, W. K.; Park, J. R.; Lee, C. C.; Auh, G. S.

    1996-01-01

    The 3-D power distribution synthesis scheme was implemented in Totally Integrated Core Operation Monitoring System (TICOMS), which is under development as the next generation core monitoring system. The on-line 3-D core power distribution obtained from the measured fixed incore detector readings is used to construct the hot pin power as well as the core average axial power distribution. The core average axial power distribution and the hot pin power of TICOMS were compared with those of the current digital on-line core monitoring system, COLSS, which construct the core average axial power distribution and the pseudo hot pin power. The comparison shows that TICOMS results in the slightly more accurate core average axial power distribution and the less conservative hot pin power. Therefore, these results increased the core operating margins. In addition, the on-line 3-D power distribution is expected to be very useful for the core operation in the future

  6. UNISOR on-line nuclear orientation facility (UNISOR/NOF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girit, I.C.; Alton, G.D.; Bingham, C.R.; Carter, H.K.; Simpson, M.L.; Cole, J.D.; Croft, W.L.; Hamilton, J.H.; Jones, E.F.; Gore, P.M.; Kormicki, J.; Xie, H.; Kern, B.D.; Krane, K.S.; Xu, Y.S.; Mantica, P.F. Jr.; Zimmermann, B.E.; Nettles, W.G.; Zganjar, E.F.; Kortelahti, M.O.; Newbolt, W.B.

    1988-01-01

    The UNISOR on-line nuclear orientation facility (UNISOR/NOF) consists of a 3 He- 4 He dilution refrigerator on line to the isotope separator. Nuclei are implanted directly into a target foil which is soldered to the bottom accessed cold finger of the refrigerator. A 1.5 T superconducting magnet polarizes the ferromagnetic target foils and determines the axis of symmetry. Up to eight gamma detectors can be positioned around the refrigerator, each 9 cm from the target. A unique feature of this system is that the k=4 term in the directional distribution function can be directly and unambigously deduced so that a single solution for the mixing ratio can be found. The first on-line experiment at this facility reported here was a study of the decay of the 191 Hg and 193 Hg isotopes. (orig.)

  7. Making the most of on-line recruiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, P

    2001-03-01

    Ninety percent of large U.S. companies are already recruiting via the Internet. By simply logging on to the Web, company recruiters can locate vast numbers of qualified candidates for jobs at every level, screen them in minutes, and contact the most promising ones immediately. The payoffs can be enormous: it costs substantially less to hire someone on-line, and the time saved is equally great. In this article, Peter Cappelli examines some of the emerging service providers and technologies--matchmakers, job boards, hiring management systems software, and applicant-screening mechanisms that test skills and record interests. He also looks at some of the strategies companies are adopting as they enter on-line labor markets. Recruiting needs to be refashioned to resemble marketing, he stresses. Accordingly, smart companies are designing Web pages, and even product ads, with potential recruits in mind. They're giving line managers authority to hire so that candidates in cyberspace aren't lost. They're building internal on-line job networks to retain talent. Integrating recruiting efforts with overall marketing campaigns, especially through coordination and identification with the company's brand, is the most important thing companies can do to ensure success in on-line hiring. Along the way, Cappelli sounds two cautionary notes. First, a human touch, not electronic contact, is vital in the last steps of a successful hiring process. Second, companies must make sure that on-line testing and hiring criteria do not discriminate against women, disabled people, workers over 40, or members of minority groups. When competition for talent is fierce, companies that master the art and science of on-line recruiting will be the ones that attract and keep the best people.

  8. Hexaferrite multiferroics: from bulk to thick films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutzarova, T.; Ghelev, Ch; Peneva, P.; Georgieva, B.; Kolev, S.; Vertruyen, B.; Closset, R.

    2018-03-01

    We report studies of the structural and microstructural properties of Sr3Co2Fe24O41 in bulk form and as thick films. The precursor powders for the bulk form were prepared following the sol-gel auto-combustion method. The prepared pellets were synthesized at 1200 °C to produce Sr3Co2Fe24O41. The XRD spectra of the bulks showed the characteristic peaks corresponding to the Z-type hexaferrite structure as a main phase and second phases of CoFe2O4 and Sr3Fe2O7-x. The microstructure analysis of the cross-section of the bulk pellets revealed a hexagonal sheet structure. Large areas were observed of packages of hexagonal sheets where the separate hexagonal particles were ordered along the c axis. Sr3Co2Fe24O41 thick films were deposited from a suspension containing the Sr3Co2Fe24O41 powder. The microstructural analysis of the thick films showed that the particles had the perfect hexagonal shape typical for hexaferrites.

  9. The User-friendly On-Line Diffusion Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Aviles Acosta, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    The On-Line Diffusion Chamber is a stand-alone apparatus built to carry out short-live radiotracer diffusion studies. The availability of the on-demand production of isotopes in the ISOLDE facility, and the design of the apparatus to streamline the implantation process, annealing treatment, ion gun ablation with a tape transport system, and radiation intensity measurement with a Ge gamma detector all in the same apparatus, gives the On-Line Diffusion Chamber a unique ability to studies with short-lived radioisotopes or isomer states that are not possible in any other facility in the world.

  10. 5th Computer Science On-line Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Senkerik, Roman; Oplatkova, Zuzana; Silhavy, Petr; Prokopova, Zdenka

    2016-01-01

    This volume is based on the research papers presented in the 5th Computer Science On-line Conference. The volume Artificial Intelligence Perspectives in Intelligent Systems presents modern trends and methods to real-world problems, and in particular, exploratory research that describes novel approaches in the field of artificial intelligence. New algorithms in a variety of fields are also presented. The Computer Science On-line Conference (CSOC 2016) is intended to provide an international forum for discussions on the latest research results in all areas related to Computer Science. The addressed topics are the theoretical aspects and applications of Computer Science, Artificial Intelligences, Cybernetics, Automation Control Theory and Software Engineering.

  11. Comparison of Current On-line Payment Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Mandadi, Ravi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis work was to make a survey of current on-line payment technologies and find out which are they and how do they work? Compare and analyze them from a security point of view, as well as a usability point of view. What is good? What is bad? What is lacking? To achieve this purpose, an overview of the current on-line payment technologies was acquired through academic books and papers, Internet sites, magazines. Basic cryptographic and security related techniques were stu...

  12. An on-line adaptive core monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verspeek, J.A.; Bruggink, J.C.; Karuza, J.

    1997-01-01

    An on-line core monitoring system has been in operation for three years in the Dodewaard Nuclear Power Plant. The core monitor uses the on-line measured reactor data as an input for a power distribution calculation. The measurements are frequently performed. The system is used for monitoring as well as for predicting purposes. The limiting thermal hydraulic parameters are monitored as well as the pellet-clad interaction limits. The data are added to a history file used for cycle burn-up calculations and trending of parameters. The reactor states are presented through a convenient graphical user interface. (authors)

  13. On-Line Generation of 3D-Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes the technique of filtering white noise for on-line generation of 3D-waves on a small computer in the laboratory. The wave generation package is implemented and tested in the 3D-wave basin at the University of Aalborg.......The paper describes the technique of filtering white noise for on-line generation of 3D-waves on a small computer in the laboratory. The wave generation package is implemented and tested in the 3D-wave basin at the University of Aalborg....

  14. Ion source development for the on-line isotope separator at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, R.; Burkard, K.; Hueller, W.; Klepper, O.

    1991-08-01

    The progress in the understanding of ion sources for isotope separation on-line and the feasibility of bunched beams of relatively refractory elements is reported. The ultra-high temperature FEBIAD-H ion source, facilitating the mounting of catchers and window compared to the earlier F-version, enables bunched beams of the elements with adsorption enthalpies up to almost 6 eV, e.g. of Be, Al, Ca, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Sr, Pd, Ba, Yb, and Au. This way also chemical selectivity for these elements may be achieved, at least to some extent, for isotopes with halflives > or approx.1 minute, including especially the difficult separation of alkaline-earth isotopes from isobaric alkalines. These studies reveal, however, also a principal difficulty in the on-line separation of refractory elements, namely their tendency, increasing with ΔH a , to re-diffuse after release from the catcher into the bulk of the hot source enclosure. (orig.)

  15. Integrated sensor array for on-line monitoring micro bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krommenhoek, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    The “Fed��?batch on a chip��?��?project, which was carried out in close cooperation with the Technical University of Delft, aims to miniaturize and parallelize micro bioreactors suitable for on-line screening of micro-organisms. This thesis describes an electrochemical sensor array which has been

  16. On-Line Pesticide Training with Narrated Powerpoint Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven B.

    2015-01-01

    UMaine Cooperative Extension is the primary educational delivery organization for pesticide recertification credits in Maine. Shrinking budgets and staff numbers are making traditional face-to-face delivery increasingly difficult to maintain. To address this issue, on-line pesticide applicator recertification training credits were developed. The…

  17. Personality Interactions and Scaffolding in On-Line Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, E. Michael; Hartley, Kendall; Sinatra, Gale M.; Reynolds, Ralph E.; Bendixen, Lisa D.

    2004-01-01

    The potential of on-line discussions to prompt greater reflection of course material is often stymied by a tendency of students to agree with one another rather than to formulate counter-arguments. This article describes an experiment using note starters and elaborated cases to encourage counter-argumentation and examines interactions with…

  18. A new electrostatic on-line collection-system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufour, J.P.; Del Moral, R.; Fleury, A.; Hubert, F.; Llabador, Y.; Mauhourat, M.B.; Bimbot, R.; Gardes, D.; Rivet, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    The working conditions of a new on-line electrostatic collection system are presented. The main characteristics are high efficiency (reaching 20%) and short delay time (down to the millisecond). The salient features of specific devices for measurements of absolute cross sections, recoil range distributions and angular distributions are given. (orig.)

  19. A simulation of the SDC on-line processing farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.; Chen, Y.; Dorenbosch, J.; Lee, J.; Sayle, R.

    1993-10-01

    In the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) data acquisition system (DAQ), an enormous amount of data flows into a processor farm for extraction of interesting physics events. To design an efficient on-line filter, the operations in the farm must be carefully modeled. The authors present a simulation model developed at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory which efficiently allocates physics events to the farm

  20. An optimal algorithm for preemptive on-line scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, B.; Vliet, van A.; Woeginger, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the problem of on-line scheduling jobs on m identical parallel machines where preemption is allowed. The goal is to minimize the makespan. We derive an approximation algorithm with worst-case guarantee mm/(mm - (m - 1)m) for every m 2, which increasingly tends to e/(e - 1) ˜ 1.58 as m

  1. Comparison between constant methanol feed and on-line ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two methanol feeding methods, namely constant methanol feed and on-line monitoring feed control by methanol sensor were investigated to improve the production of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in high cell density cultivation of Pichia pastoris KM71 in 2 L bioreactor. The yeast utilized glycerol as a carbon ...

  2. Children's On-Line Processing of Scrambling in Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takaaki

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the on-line processing of scrambled sentences in Japanese by preschool children and adults using a combination of self-paced listening and speeded picture selection tasks. The effects of a filler-gap dependency, reversibility, and case markers were examined. The results show that both children and adults had difficulty in…

  3. AAEC INIS - a large, new, on-line information source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rugg, T.J.; Wong, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Australian Atomic Energy Commission's INIS database is available for on-line searching by non-AAEC personnel from all parts of Australia. An introduction to the International Nuclear Information System is followed by information on searching AAEC INIS, AAEC INIS retrieval software and accessing AAEC INIS

  4. ORION-the Omega Remote Interactive On-line System

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, R D; Levratt, B; Lipps, H; Sparrman, P

    1974-01-01

    ORION is a system which permits the manipulation of files, records and characters, remote job submittal and retrieval of output files including the direct loading of remote on-line computers. The system uses the computer hardware of the OMEGA project at CERN and is designed to assist researchers in development and debugging of their programs. (10 refs).

  5. ORION - the OMEGA Remote Interactive On-line System

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, R D; Krieger, M

    1973-01-01

    ORION is a system which permits the manipulation of files, records and characters, remote job submittal and retrieval of output files including the direct loading of remote on-line computers. The system uses the computer hardware of the OMEGA project at CERN, and is designed to assist researchers in development and debugging of their programs.

  6. Booth Library On-Line Circulation System (BLOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paladugu V. Rao

    1971-06-01

    Full Text Available An on-line circulation system developed at a relatively small university library demonstrates that academic libraries with limited funds can develop automated systems utilizing parent institution's computer facilities in a time-sharing mode. In operation since September 1968, using an IBM 360/50 computer and associated peripheral equipment, it provides control over all stack books.

  7. On-line learning from clustered input examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riegler, Peter; Biehl, Michael; Solla, Sara A.; Marangi, Carmela; Marinaro, Maria; Tagliaferri, Roberto

    1996-01-01

    We analyse on-line learning of a linearly separable rule with a simple perceptron. Example inputs are taken from two overlapping clusters of data and the rule is defined through a teacher vector which is in general not aligned with the connection line of the cluster centers. We find that the Hebb

  8. Investigating on-line pornography at the University of Johannesburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Laughton

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The on-line user of today has access to a vast collection of information resources. In addition, the developments in Internet and Web technologies have made it even easier for surfers to anonymously get access to on-line pornography. The purpose of this research was to investigate the extent to which access to on-line pornography at the University of Johannesburg can be managed. For the empirical part of this research 1037 questionnaires were proportionally distributed to and completed by students on all five campuses of the university. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: biographical information; university computer facility usage; university acceptable use policy; and personal experience with university computer facilities. The gender distribution for the sample was almost even, with a total of 49,4% male participants and 50,6% female, with the largest grouping of respondents (61,6% aged between 19 years and 21 years. Of the respondents, 36,7% indicated that exposure to unsolicited pornography did not bother them. When asked to what extent students should have access to pornography, 60,5% stated 'None' while 32,6% believed that 'Restricted' access should be granted for research purposes and 6,9% believed that students should be granted 'Total' access to pornography. Results from the research will be used to manage access to on-line resources at the University of Johannesburg better.

  9. On-line sample treatment - Capillary gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goosens, EC; de Jong, D; de Jong, GJ; Brinkman, UAT

    Sample pretreatment is often the bottleneck of a trace level analytical procedure. In order to increase performance, increasing attention is therefore being devoted to combining sample pretreatment on-line with the separation technique that has to be used. In the present review, a variety of

  10. A new electrostatic on-line collection-system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufour, J.P.; Del Moral, R.; Fleury, A.

    1981-06-01

    The working conditions of a new on-line electrostatic collection system are presented. The main charactersitics are high efficiency (reaching 20%) and short delay time (down to the millisecond). The salient features of specific devices for measurements of absolute cross sections, recoil range distributions and angular distributions are given

  11. Summary remarks and prospects for on-line nuclear orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, K.S.; Hamilton, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews the use of on-line nuclear orientations as a method for determining hyperfine structure. Historical developments and future prospects for the technique are presented. The role that this technique can play in nuclear spectroscopy and the study of nuclei far from the beta stability are outlined

  12. WMI2, the Student's On-Line Symbolic Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Zoltan

    2011-01-01

    Student activities focused on discovering mathematics play an important role in the teaching and learning process. WebMathematics Interactive (WMI2) was developed to offer a fast and user-friendly on-line web interface to enhance the quality of both theoretical and applied mathematics courses. For the teacher, in the classroom, it provides…

  13. ADAPTIVE CONTEXT PROCESSING IN ON-LINE HANDWRITTEN CHARACTER RECOGNITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iwayama, N.; Ishigaki, K.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a new approach to context processing in on-line handwritten character recognition (OLCR). Based on the observation that writers often repeat the strings that they input, we take the approach of adaptive context processing. (ACP). In ACP, the strings input by a writer are automatically

  14. Microcomputers as on-line catalogs in special libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, J B

    1986-01-01

    This article discusses the rationale for the conversion of a card catalog to an on-line system in a special library owning approximately 4000 titles. Equipment, software, and procedures are described. Pros and cons of the use of a microcomputer for such a project, as well as costs and personnel needs, are outlined.

  15. Efficient and secure comparison for on-line auctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damgard, Ivan; Geisler, M.; Kroigaard, M.; Pieprzyk, J.; Ghodosi, H.; Dawson, E.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a protocol for secure comparison of integers based on homomorphic encryption. We also propose a homomorphic encryption scheme that can be used in our protocol and makes it more efficient than previous solutions. Our protocol is well-suited for application in on-line auctions, both with

  16. The on-line asymmetric traveling salesman problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ausiello, G.; Bonifaci, V.; Laura, L.

    2008-01-01

    We consider two on-line versions of the asymmetric traveling salesman problem with triangle inequality. For the homing version, in which the salesman is required to return in the city where it started from, we give a -competitive algorithm and prove that this is best possible. For the nomadic

  17. Facing regulatory challenges of on-line hemodiafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmerle, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    On-line hemodiafiltration (on-line HDF) is the result of a vision that triggered multifarious changes in very different areas. Driven by the idea to offer better medical treatment for renal patients, technological innovations were developed and established that also constituted new challenges in the field of regulatory affairs. The existing regulations predominantly addressed the quality and safety of those products needed to perform dialysis treatment which were supplied by industrial manufacturers. However, the complexity of treatment system required for the provision of on-line fluids demanded a holistic approach encompassing all components involved. Hence, focus was placed not only on single products, but much more on their interfacing, and the clinical infrastructure, in particular, had to undergo substantial changes. The overall understanding of the interaction between such factors, quite different in their nature, was crucial to overcome the arising regulatory obstacles. This essay describes the evolution of the on-line HDF procedure from the regulatory point of view. A simplified diagram demonstrates the path taken from the former regulatory understanding to the realization of necessary changes. That achievement was only possible through 'management of preview' and consequent promotion of technical and medical innovations as well as regulatory re-evaluations. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Mining the bulk positron lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aourag, H.; Guittom, A.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new approach to investigate the bulk positron lifetimes of new systems based on data-mining techniques. Through data mining of bulk positron lifetimes, we demonstrate the ability to predict the positron lifetimes of new semiconductors on the basis of available semiconductor data already studied. Informatics techniques have been applied to bulk positron lifetimes for different tetrahedrally bounded semiconductors in order to discover computational design rules. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. High rate spectroscopy for on-line nuclear coal analyzer (Nucoalyzer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuaid, J.H.; Brown, D.R.; Gozani, T.; Bozorgmanesh, H.

    1980-01-01

    A high count rate, time-variant Ge(Li) spectrometer has been developed for on-line coal analysis. The analyzer is being fabricated for use in a power generating station. Prompt neutron activation of coal samples is the basis of analysis, with 252 Cf as the source for irradiation. The spectroscopy system allows counting rates up to 150 k counts per second without significant loss in energy resolution or peak shape. The high data throughput allows the coal analyzer to be used for on-line process control. The coal analyzer will be discussed, with emphasis on the high-rate signal processing system. Results of analysis of coal samples will be presented

  20. Mentoring Narratives ON-LINE:Teaching the Principalship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison I. Griffith

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The need to develop new models for preparation of school administrators has been a prominent concern in educational discourse in the last decade. Having been criticized for the inadequate preparation of the school leadership cadre, academic departments responsible for training future school administrators have had to revisit their approaches and to reframe their teaching philosophies to ensure the readiness of their graduates for the challenges and complexities of school leadership. This article reports on the new model of principals' training that has been used in York University's Principals' Qualification Program (PQP from the late 1990s onward. One component of the program brings traditional case methodology into a computer-mediated/on-line environment. The on-line cases are narratives from the everyday lives of the Ontario school administrators who serve as mentors in the on-line environment. Situating our discussion within the context of the rapidly changing educational landscape of Ontario, we focus on the PQP model to explore experientially generated case narratives as one method for teaching and learning the work of the local school administrator. We focus particularly on the teaching and learning embedded in computer-mediated or on-line case narratives used in training teachers for school leadership. We argue that the complexities of school leadership—the social, cultural, relational, ethical and moral context of school leadership—can be taught effectively through the reflective processes of on-line case narratives. We seek to contribute to the ongoing dialogue on the potential of new pedagogies and new technologies to help prepare the competent and responsible leaders for tomorrow's schools.