WorldWideScience

Sample records for on-board fuel processing

  1. Employee on Boarding Process Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushboo Nalband

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available On boarding, also known as organizational socialization, plays a vital role in building the initial relationship between an organization and an employee. It also contributes to an employees’ satisfaction, better performance and greater organizational commitment thus increasing an employees’ effectiveness and productivity in his/her role. Therefore, it is essential that on boarding process of an organization is efficient and effective to improve new employees’ retention. Generally this on boarding process is done manually which is time consuming and monotonous. To enhance this process, the proposed solution automates the on boarding or joining process. It will enable HR, ADMINISTRATOR and IT to complete this process by robot which will automatically perform the actions taken to complete the on boarding process. To complete this process direct access is given to applications, where as in automation, robot will perform all the actions taken to complete the process, which is a secured way to access applications. This will thus improve the timeframe and efficiency to complete the on boarding or joining process.

  2. On-board processing of video image sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl; Chanrion, Olivier Arnaud; Forchhammer, Søren

    2008-01-01

    of the mission is to study transient luminous events (TLE) above severe thunderstorms: the sprites, jets and elves. Other atmospheric phenomena are also studied including aurora, gravity waves and meteors. As part of the ASIM Phase B study, on-board processing of data from the cameras is being developed...... and evaluated. On-board there are six video cameras each capturing images of 1024times1024 pixels of 12 bpp at a frame rate of 15 fps, thus totalling 1080 Mbits/s. In comparison the average downlink data rate for these images is projected to be 50 kbit/s. This calls for efficient on-board processing to select...... and compress the data. Algorithms for on-board processing of the image data are presented as well as evaluation of the performance. The main processing steps are event detection, image cropping and image compression. The on-board processing requirements are also evaluated....

  3. On-board removal of CO and other impurities in hydrogen for PEM fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cunping; Jiang, Ruichun; Elbaccouch, Mohamed; Muradov, Nazim; Fenton, James M.

    Carbon monoxide (CO) in the hydrogen (H 2) stream can cause severe performance degradation for an H 2 polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The on-board removal of CO from an H 2 stream requires a process temperature less than 80 °C, and a fast reaction rate in order to minimize the reactor volume. At the present time, few technologies have been developed that meet these two requirements. This paper describes a concept of electrochemical water gas shift (EWGS) process to remove low concentration CO under ambient conditions for on-board applications. No on-board oxygen or air supply is needed for CO oxidation. Experimental work has been carried out to prove the concept of EWGS and the results indicate that the process can completely remove low level CO and improve the performance of a PEM fuel cell to the level of a pure H 2 stream. Because the EWGS electrolyzer can be modified from a humidifier for a PEM fuel cell system, no additional device is needed for the CO removal. More experimental data are needed to determine the rate of CO electrochemical removal and to explore the mechanism of the proposed process.

  4. Digital signal processing techniques for on-board processing satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Ching Chung

    1990-08-01

    In on-board processing satellite systems in which frequency division multiple access (FDMA)/signal channel per carrier (SCPC) access schemes are employed, transmultiplexers are required for the frequency demultiplexing of the SCPC signals. Digital techniques for the implementation of the transmultiplexer for such application were examined. The signal processing in the transmultiplexer operations involved many parameters which could be optimized in order to reduce the hardware complexity while satisfying the level of performance required of the system. An approach for the assessment of the relationship between the various parameters and the system performance was devised, which allowed hardware requirement of practical system specifications to be estimated. For systems involving signals of different bandwidths, a more flexible implementation of the transmultiplexer is required and two computationally efficient methods, the DFT convolution and analysis/synthesis filter bank, were investigated. These methods gave greater flexibility to the input frequency plan of the transmultiplexer, at the expense of increased computational requirements. Filters were then designed to exploit specific properties of the flexible transmultiplexer methods, resulting in considerable improvement in their efficiencies. Hardware implementation of the flexible transmultiplexer was considered and an efficient multiprocesser architecture in combination with parallel processing software algorithms for the signal processing operations were designed. Finally, an experimental model of the payload for a land-mobile satellite system proposal, T-SAT, was constructed using general-purpose digital signal processors and the merits of the on-board processing architecture were demonstrated.

  5. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells for electrical power generation on-board commercial airplanes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curgus, Dita Brigitte; Munoz-Ramos, Karina (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Pratt, Joseph William; Akhil, Abbas Ali (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Schenkman, Benjamin L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-05-01

    Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to understand whether on-board fuel cell systems are technically feasible, and, if so, if they offer a performance advantage for the airplane as a whole. Through hardware analysis and thermodynamic and electrical simulation, we found that while adding a fuel cell system using today's technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage is technically feasible, it will not likely give the airplane a performance benefit. However, when we re-did the analysis using DOE-target technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage, we found that the fuel cell system would provide a performance benefit to the airplane (i.e., it can save the airplane some fuel), depending on the way it is configured.

  6. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board Commercial Airplanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Joesph W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klebanoff, Leonard E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Munoz-Ramos, Karina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Akhil, Abbas A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Curgus, Dita B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schenkman, Benjamin L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to understand whether on-board fuel cell systems are technically feasible, and, if so, if they offer a performance advantage for the airplane as a whole. Through hardware analysis and thermodynamic and electrical simulation, we found that while adding a fuel cell system using today’s technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage is technically feasible, it will not likely give the airplane a performance benefit. However, when we re-did the analysis using DOE-target technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage, we found that the fuel cell system would provide a performance benefit to the airplane (i.e., it can save the airplane some fuel), depending on the way it is configured.

  7. On-board fuel conversion: Dimethyl ether from methanol for compression ignition engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armbruster, H.; Stucki, S.

    2002-03-01

    One example of an on-board fuel conversion system is the fumigation of dimethyl ether. In this concept, a fraction of the methanol used as fuel is catalytically converted on-board to DME and water. The rate-determining step of the catalytic reaction with {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a catalyst is found to be the reaction of adsorbed intermediates; mass transfer is limited by Knudsen diffusivity. Providing DME for fumigation in a 180 kW engine will require approx. 0,7 kg of catalyst. The transient behavior of a pilot fixed-bed reactor has been estimated using simplified models, which show that the cold start should be manageable in less than one minute. This is an acceptable time for cold-starting an engine in heavy-duty vehicles. (author)

  8. Mass minimization of a discrete regenerative fuel cell (RFC) system for on-board energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojin; Xiao, Yu; Shao, Zhigang; Yi, Baolian

    RFC combined with solar photovoltaic (PV) array is the advanced technologic solution for on-board energy storage, e.g. land, sky, stratosphere and aerospace applications, due to its potential of achieving high specific energy. This paper focuses on mass modeling and calculation for a RFC system consisting of discrete electrochemical cell stacks (fuel cell and electrolyzer), together with fuel storage, a PV array, and a radiator. A nonlinear constrained optimization procedure is used to minimize the entire system mass, as well as to study the effect of operating conditions (e.g. current densities of fuel cell and electrolyzer) on the system mass. According to the state-of-the-art specific power of both electrochemical stacks, an energy storage system has been designed for the conditions of stratosphere applications and a rated power output of 12 kW. The calculation results show that the optimization of the current density of both stacks is of importance in designing the light weight on-board energy system.

  9. Autonomous, On-board Processing for Sensor Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fuse high performance reconfigurable processors with emerging fault-tolerance & autonomous processing techniques for a 10-100x decrease in processing time. This...

  10. Sorbent Material Property Requirements for On-Board Hydrogen Storage for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, R. K.; Peng, J-K; Hua, T. Q.

    2015-05-25

    Material properties required for on-board hydrogen storage in cryogenic sorbents for use with automotive polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems are discussed. Models are formulated for physical, thermodynamic and transport properties, and for the dynamics of H-2 refueling and discharge from a sorbent bed. A conceptual storage configuration with in-bed heat exchanger tubes, a Type-3 containment vessel, vacuum insulation and requisite balance-of-plant components is developed to determine the peak excess sorption capacity and differential enthalpy of adsorption for 5.5 wt% system gravimetric capacity and 55% well-to-tank (WTT) efficiency. The analysis also determines the bulk density to which the material must be compacted for the storage system to reach 40 g.L-1 volumetric capacity. Thermal transport properties and heat transfer enhancement methods are analyzed to estimate the material thermal conductivity needed to achieve 1.5 kg.min(-1) H-2 refueling rate. Operating temperatures and pressures are determined for 55% WTT efficiency and 95% usable H-2. Needs for further improvements in material properties are analyzed that would allow reduction of storage pressure to 50 bar from 100 bar, elevation of storage temperature to 175-200 K from 150 K, and increase of WTT efficiency to 57.5% or higher.

  11. Fuel consumption and associated emissions from seagoing ships at berth derived from an on-board survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulskotte, J. H. J.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.

    2010-03-01

    A methodology is presented to estimate the emissions of ships at berth based on their actual fuel consumption and the fuel quality. Accurate estimates of emissions from ships at berth demand reliable knowledge of the fuel consumption while at berth and associated fuel characteristics. However, assured information about energy use and fuel consumption of seagoing ships at berth is scarce. Proper estimation of ship emissions at berth is crucial for understanding the impact of shipping emissions on air quality and health in harbour cities as well as for a proper evaluation of the impact of abatement measures such as shore-side electricity and/or restrictions of sulphur content for shipping fuels to be used in ports. Therefore, a survey of energy consumption and fuel use on board of 89 seagoing ships was made in close cooperation with the Port of Rotterdam. Rotterdam is the major port of Europe ensuring that the results will have relevance for the larger European domain. On board of the ships at berth, a questionnaire was filled in by the chief engineer of that particular ship, assisted by two former mechanical shipping engineers employed at our organization. Survey results as well as the emission estimations are compared to the (scarce) information that is available and expert judgements in recent studies. The compiled survey data underlie the current Dutch emission estimation methodology for emissions of ships at berth.

  12. Experimental Study of an On-board Fuel Tank Inerting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei; Lin, Guiping; Zeng, Yu; Pan, Rui; Sun, Haoyang

    2017-03-01

    A simulated aircraft fuel tank inerting system was established and experiments were conducted to investigate the performance of the system. The system uses hollow fiber membrane which is widely used in aircraft as the air separation device and a simplified 20% scale multi compartment fuel tank as the inerting object. Experiments were carried out to investigate the influences of different operating parameters on the inerting effectiveness of the system, including NEA (nitrogen-enriched air) flow rate, NEA oxygen concentration, NEA distribution, pressure of bleeding air and fuel load of the tank. Results showed that for the multi compartment fuel tank, concentrated flow washing inerting would cause great differences throughout the distribution of oxygen concentration in the fuel tank, and inerting dead zone would exist. The inerting effectiveness was greatly improved and the ullage oxygen concentration of the tank would reduce to 12% successfully when NEA entered three compartments evenly. The time span of a complete inerting process reduced obviously with increasing NEA flow rate and decreasing NEA concentration, but the trend became weaker gradually. However, the reduction of NEA concentration will decrease the utilization efficiency of the bleeding air. In addition, the time span can also be reduced by raising the pressure of bleeding air, which will improve the bleeding air utilization efficiency at the same time. The time span decreases linearly as the fuel load increases.

  13. Design, Fabrication and Prototype testing of a Chip Integrated Micro PEM Fuel Cell Accumulator combined On-Board Range Extender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, A.; Mueller, C.; Reinecke, H.

    2014-11-01

    In this work we present the design, fabrication and prototype testing of Chip Integrated Micro PEM Fuel Cell Accumulator (CIμ-PFCA) combined On-Board Range Extender (O-BRE). CIμ-PFCA is silicon based micro-PEM fuel cell system with an integrated hydrogen storage feature (palladium metal hydride), the run time of CIμ-PFCA is dependent on the stored hydrogen, and in order to extend its run time an O-BRE is realized (catalytic hydrolysis of chemical hydride, NaBH4. Combining the CIμ-PFCA and O-BRE on a system level have few important design requirements to be considered; hydrogen regulation, gas -liquid separator between the CIμ-PFCA and the O-RE. The usage of traditional techniques to regulate hydrogen (tubes), gas-liquid phase membranes (porous membrane separators) are less desirable in the micro domain, due to its space constraint. Our approach is to use a passive hydrogen regulation and gas-liquid phase separation concept; to use palladium membrane. Palladium regulates hydrogen by concentration diffusion, and its property to selectively adsorb only hydrogen is used as a passive gas-liquid phase separator. Proof of concept is shown by realizing a prototype system. The system is an assembly of CIμ-PFCA, palladium membrane and the O-BRE. The CIμ-PFCA consist of 2 individually processed silicon chips, copper supported palladium membrane realized by electroplating followed by high temperature annealing process under inter atmosphere and the O-BRE is realized out of a polymer substrate by micromilling process with platinum coated structures, which functions as a catalyst for the hydrolysis of NaBH4. The functionality of the assembled prototype system is demonstrated by the measuring a unit cell (area 1 mm2) when driven by the catalytic hydrolysis of chemical hydride (NaBH4 and the prototype system shows run time more than 15 hours.

  14. The Application of a Mixed General/Special Purpose Hardware in On-Board SATSAT Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bierens, L.H.J.

    1998-01-01

    In SATSAR huge amounts of data are involved corresponding to data rates of 100 to 1000 Mbits/s. The communication system and the intermediate storage on-board the satellite must handle this increasing amount of data as well. Furthermore, ground stations must process, broadcast and archive the SAR da

  15. High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Ng, Tak-Kwong; Lin, Bing; Hu, Yongxiang; Harrison, Wallace

    2014-01-01

    A new development of on-board data processing platform has been in progress at NASA Langley Research Center since April, 2012, and the overall review of such work is presented in this paper. The project is called High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments (HOPS) and focuses on a high-speed scalable data processing platform for three particular National Research Council's Decadal Survey missions such as Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS), Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystems (ACE), and Doppler Aerosol Wind Lidar (DAWN) 3-D Winds. HOPS utilizes advanced general purpose computing with Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based algorithm implementation techniques. The significance of HOPS is to enable high speed on-board data processing for current and future science missions with its reconfigurable and scalable data processing platform. A single HOPS processing board is expected to provide approximately 66 times faster data processing speed for ASCENDS, more than 70% reduction in both power and weight, and about two orders of cost reduction compared to the state-of-the-art (SOA) on-board data processing system. Such benchmark predictions are based on the data when HOPS was originally proposed in August, 2011. The details of these improvement measures are also presented. The two facets of HOPS development are identifying the most computationally intensive algorithm segments of each mission and implementing them in a FPGA-based data processing board. A general introduction of such facets is also the purpose of this paper.

  16. On-board conversion of methanol to dimethyl ether as an alternative diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armbruster, H.; Heinzelmann, G.; Struis, R.; Stucki, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The catalytic dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether was investigated for application on-board a methanol fuelled vehicle. Several catalysts have been tested in a fixed bed reactor. Our approach is to develop a small and efficient reactor converting liquid MeOH under pressure and at low reaction temperatures. (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

  17. Fuels Processing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Fuels Processing Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, provides researchers with the equipment they need to thoroughly explore the catalytic issues associated with...

  18. On-board Payload Data Processing from Earth to Space Segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tragni, M.; Abbattista, C.; Amoruso, L.; Cinquepalmi, L.; Bgongiari, F.; Errico, W.

    2013-09-01

    Matching the users application requirements with the more and more huge data streaming of the satellite missions is becoming very complex. But we need both of them. To face both the data management (memory availability) and their transmission (band availability) many recent R&D activities are studying the right way to move the data processing from the ground segment to the space segment by the development of the so-called On-board Payload Data Processing (OPDP). The space designer are trying to find new strategies to increase the on board computation capacity and its viability to overcome such limitations, memory and band, focusing the transmission of remote sensing information (not only data) towards their final use. Some typical applications which can benefit of the on board payload data processing include the automatic control of a satellites constellation which can modify its scheduled acquisitions directly on-board and according to the information extracted from the just acquired data, increasing, for example, the capability of monitoring a specific objective (such as oil spills, illegal traffic) with a greater versatility than a traditional ground segment workflow. The authors and their companies can count on a sound experience in design and development of open, modular and compact on-board processing systems. Actually they are involved in a program, the Space Payload Data Processing (SpacePDP) whose main objective is to develop an hardware and a software framework able to perform both the space mission standard tasks (sensors control, mass storage devices management, uplink and downlink) and the specific tasks required by each mission. SpacePDP is an Open and modular Payload Data Processing system, composed of Hardware and Software modules included a SDK. The whole system is characterised by flexible and customizable building blocks that form the system architectures and by a very easy way to be integrated in the missions by the SDK (a development

  19. Real-Time On-Board Processing Validation of MSPI Ground Camera Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingree, Paula J.; Werne, Thomas A.; Bekker, Dmitriy L.

    2010-01-01

    The Earth Sciences Decadal Survey identifies a multiangle, multispectral, high-accuracy polarization imager as one requirement for the Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystem (ACE) mission. JPL has been developing a Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (MSPI) as a candidate to fill this need. A key technology development needed for MSPI is on-board signal processing to calculate polarimetry data as imaged by each of the 9 cameras forming the instrument. With funding from NASA's Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) Program, JPL is solving the real-time data processing requirements to demonstrate, for the first time, how signal data at 95 Mbytes/sec over 16-channels for each of the 9 multiangle cameras in the spaceborne instrument can be reduced on-board to 0.45 Mbytes/sec. This will produce the intensity and polarization data needed to characterize aerosol and cloud microphysical properties. Using the Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA including PowerPC440 processors we have implemented a least squares fitting algorithm that extracts intensity and polarimetric parameters in real-time, thereby substantially reducing the image data volume for spacecraft downlink without loss of science information.

  20. Real-Time On-Board Airborne Demonstration of High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments (HOPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Ng, Tak-Kwong; Davis, Mitchell J.; Adams, James K.; Bowen, Stephen C.; Fay, James J.; Hutchinson, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    The project called High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments (HOPS) has been funded by NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) program since April, 2012. The HOPS team recently completed two flight campaigns during the summer of 2014 on two different aircrafts with two different science instruments. The first flight campaign was in July, 2014 based at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) in Hampton, VA on the NASA's HU-25 aircraft. The science instrument that flew with HOPS was Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES) funded by NASA's Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). The second campaign was in August, 2014 based at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) in Palmdale, CA on the NASA's DC-8 aircraft. HOPS flew with the Multifunctional Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL) instrument developed by Excelis Inc. The goal of the campaigns was to perform an end-to-end demonstration of the capabilities of the HOPS prototype system (HOPS COTS) while running the most computationally intensive part of the ASCENDS algorithm real-time on-board. The comparison of the two flight campaigns and the results of the functionality tests of the HOPS COTS are presented in this paper.

  1. High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments: HOPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyon, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The project called High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments (HOPS) has been funded by NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) program during April, 2012 â€" April, 2015. HOPS is an enabler for science missions with extremely high data processing rates. In this three-year effort of HOPS, Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) and 3-D Winds were of interest in particular. As for ASCENDS, HOPS replaces time domain data processing with frequency domain processing while making the real-time on-board data processing possible. As for 3-D Winds, HOPS offers real-time high-resolution wind profiling with 4,096-point fast Fourier transform (FFT). HOPS is adaptable with quick turn-around time. Since HOPS offers reusable user-friendly computational elements, its FPGA IP Core can be modified for a shorter development period if the algorithm changes. The FPGA and memory bandwidth of HOPS is 20 GB/sec while the typical maximum processor-to-SDRAM bandwidth of the commercial radiation tolerant high-end processors is about 130-150 MB/sec. The inter-board communication bandwidth of HOPS is 4 GB/sec while the effective processor-to-cPCI bandwidth of commercial radiation tolerant high-end boards is about 50-75 MB/sec. Also, HOPS offers VHDL cores for the easy and efficient implementation of ASCENDS and 3-D Winds, and other similar algorithms. A general overview of the 3-year development of HOPS is the goal of this presentation.

  2. Plasma assisted fuel reforming for on-board hydrogen rich gas production

    OpenAIRE

    Darmon, Adeline; Rollier, Jean-Damien; Duval, Emmanuelle; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Jose; Metkemeijer, Rudolf; Fulcheri, Laurent

    2006-01-01

    Texte disponible en suivant le lien ci-dessous : http://www.cder.dz/A2H2/Medias/Download/Proc%20PDF/PARALLEL%20SESSIONS/%5BS06%5D%20Production%20-%20Hydrocarbons/14-06-06/162.pdf; International audience; Plasma assisted fuel reforming technology appears particularly attractive for automotive applications, especially regarding compactness, response time and absence of catalyst element. In 2003, Renault and CEP have initiated a research programme on this subject. A test bench allowing reformer ...

  3. All-digital multicarrier demodulators for on-board processing satellites in mobile communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Wan Hung

    Economical operation of future satellite systems for mobile communications can only be fulfilled by using dedicated on-board processing satellites, which would allow both cheap earth terminals and lower space segment costs. With on-board modems and codecs, the up-link and down-link can be optimized separately. An attractive scheme is to use frequency-division multiple access/single chanel per carrier (FDMA/SCPC) on the up-link and time division multiplexing (TDM) on the down-link. This scheme allows mobile terminals to transmit a narrow band, low power signal, resulting in smaller dishes and high power amplifiers (HPA's) with lower output power. On the up-link, there are hundreds to thousands of FDM channels to be demodulated on-board. The most promising approach is the use of all-digital multicarrier demodulators (MCD's), where analog and digital hardware are efficiently shared among channels, and digital signal processing (DSP) is used at an early stage to take advantage of very large scale integration (VLSI) implementation. A MCD consists of a channellizer for separation of frequency division multiplexing (FDM) channels, followed by individual modulators for each channel. Major research areas in MCD's are in multirate DSP, and the optimal estimation for synchronization, which form the basis of the thesis. Complex signal theories are central to the development of structured approaches for the sampling and processing of bandpass signals, which are the foundations in both channellizer and demodulator design. In multirate DSP, polyphase theories replace many ad-hoc, tedious and error-prone design procedures. For example, a polyphase-matrix deep space network frequency and timing system (DFT) channellizer includes all efficient filter bank techniques as special cases. Also, a polyphase-lattice filter is derived, not only for sampling rate conversion, but also capable of sampling phase variation, which is required for symbol timing adjustment in all

  4. FPGA-based data processing module design of on-board radiometric calibration in visible/near infrared bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoqing; Li, Chenyang; Yue, Tao; Liu, Na; Jiang, Linjun; Sun, Yue; Li, Mingyan

    2015-12-01

    FPGA technology has long been applied to on-board radiometric calibration data processing however the integration of FPGA program is not good enough. For example, some sensors compressed remote sensing images and transferred to ground station to calculate the calibration coefficients. It will affect the timeliness of on-board radiometric calibration. This paper designs an integrated flow chart of on-board radiometric calibration. Building FPGA-based radiometric calibration data processing modules uses system generator. Thesis focuses on analyzing the calculation accuracy of FPGA-based two-point method and verifies the feasibility of this method. Calibration data was acquired by hardware platform which was built using integrating sphere, CMOS camera (canon 60d), ASD spectrometers and light filter (center wavelength: 690nm, bandwidth: 45nm). The platform can simulate single-band on-board radiometric calibration data acquisition in visible/near infrared band. Making an experiment of calibration coefficients calculation uses obtained data and FPGA modules. Experimental results show that: the camera linearity is above 99% meeting the experimental requirement. Compares with MATLAB the calculation accuracy of two-point method by FPGA are as follows: the error of gain value is 0.0053%; the error of offset value is 0.00038719%. Those results meet experimental accuracy requirement.

  5. On-board data processing for the near infrared spectrograph and photometer instrument (NISP) of the EUCLID mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonoli, Carlotta; Balestra, Andrea; Bortoletto, Favio; D'Alessandro, Maurizio; Farinelli, Ruben; Medinaceli, Eduardo; Stephen, John; Borsato, Enrico; Dusini, Stefano; Laudisio, Fulvio; Sirignano, Chiara; Ventura, Sandro; Auricchio, Natalia; Corcione, Leonardo; Franceschi, Enrico; Ligori, Sebastiano; Morgante, Gianluca; Patrizii, Laura; Sirri, Gabriele; Trifoglio, Massimo; Valenziano, Luca

    2016-07-01

    The Near Infrared Spectrograph and Photometer (NISP) is one of the two instruments on board the EUCLID mission now under implementation phase; VIS, the Visible Imager is the second instrument working on the same shared optical beam. The NISP focal plane is based on a detector mosaic deploying 16x, 2048x2048 pixels^2 HAWAII-II HgCdTe detectors, now in advanced delivery phase from Teledyne Imaging Scientific (TIS), and will provide NIR imaging in three bands (Y, J, H) plus slit-less spectroscopy in the range 0.9÷2.0 micron. All the NISP observational modes will be supported by different parametrization of the classic multi-accumulation IR detector readout mode covering the specific needs for spectroscopic, photometric and calibration exposures. Due to the large number of deployed detectors and to the limited satellite telemetry available to ground, a consistent part of the data processing, conventionally performed off-line, will be accomplished on board, in parallel with the flow of data acquisitions. This has led to the development of a specific on-board, HW/SW, data processing pipeline, and to the design of computationally performing control electronics, suited to cope with the time constraints of the NISP acquisition sequences during the sky survey. In this paper we present the architecture of the NISP on-board processing system, directly interfaced to the SIDECAR ASICs system managing the detector focal plane, and the implementation of the on-board pipe-line allowing all the basic operations of input frame averaging, final frame interpolation and data-volume compression before ground down-link.

  6. Data Processing and Compression of Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies on Board the PLANCK Satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Gaztañaga, E; Barriga, J; Elizalde, E

    2001-01-01

    We present a simple way of coding and compressing the data on board the Planck instruments (HFI and LFI) to address the problem of the on board data reduction. This is a critical issue in the Planck mission. The total information that can be downloaded to Earth is severely limited by the telemetry allocation. This limitation could reduce the amount of diagnostics sent on the stability of the radiometers and, as a consequence, curb the final sensitivity of the CMB anisotropy maps. Our proposal to address this problem consists in taking differences of consecutive circles at a given sky pointing. To a good approximation, these differences are independent of the external signal, and are dominated by thermal (white) instrumental noise. Using simulations and analytical predictions we show that high compression rates, $c_r \\simeq 10$, can be obtained with minor or zero loss of CMB sensitivity. Possible effects of digital distortion are also analized. The proposed scheme allows for flexibility to optimize the relatio...

  7. COVE, MARINA, and the Future of On-Board Processing (OBP) Platforms for CubeSat Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingree, P.; Bekker, D. L.; Bryk, M.; DeLucca, J.; Franklin, B.; Hancock, B.; Klesh, A. T.; Meehan, C.; Meshkaty, N.; Nichols, J.; Peay, C.; Rider, D. M.; Werne, T.; Wu, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The CubeSat On-board processing Validation Experiment (COVE), JPL's first CubeSat payload launched on October 28, 2011, features the Xilinx Virtex-5QV Single event Immune Reconfigurable FPGA (SIRF). The technology demonstration mission was to validate the SIRF device running an on-board processing (OBP) algorithm developed to reduce the data set by 2-orders of magnitude for the Multi-angle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (MSPI), an instrument under development at JPL (PI: D. Diner). COVE has a single data interface to the CubeSat flight computer that is used to transfer a static image taken from the CubeSat camera and store it to local memory where the FPGA then reads it to run the algorithm on it. In the next generation COVE design, called MARINA, developed for the GRIFEX CubeSat project, the OBP board is extended, using rigid-flex PCB technology, to provide an interface to a JPL-developed Read-Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC) hybridized to a detector developed by Raytheon. In this configuration the focal plane array (FPA) data can be streamed directly to the FPGA for data processing or for storage to local memory. The MARINA rigid-flex PCB design is integrated with a commercial camera lens to create a 1U instrument payload for integration with a CubeSat under development by the University of Michigan and planned for launch in 2014. In the GRIFEX technology demonstration, the limited on-board storage capacity is filled by high-rate FPA data in less than a second. The system is also limited by the CubeSat downlink data rate and several ground station passes are required to transmit this limited amount of data. While this system is sufficient to validate the ROIC technology on-orbit, the system cannot be operated in a way to perform continuous science observations due to the on-board storage and data downlink constraints. In order to advance the current platform to support sustained science observations, more on-board storage is needed. Radiation tolerant memory

  8. Wavelet-transform-based power management of hybrid vehicles with multiple on-board energy sources including fuel cell, battery and ultracapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Mi, Chris Chunting; Masrur, Abul; Daniszewski, David

    A wavelet-transform-based strategy is proposed for the power management of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) with multiple on-board energy sources and energy storage systems including a battery, a fuel cell, and an ultra-capacitor. The proposed wavelet-transform algorithm is capable of identifying the high-frequency transient and real time power demand of the HEV, and allocating power components with different frequency contents to corresponding sources to achieve an optimal power management control algorithm. By using the wavelet decomposition algorithm, a proper combination can be achieved with a properly sized ultra-capacitor dealing with the chaotic high-frequency components of the total power demand, while the fuel cell and battery deal with the low and medium frequency power demand. Thus the system efficiency and life expectancy can be greatly extended. Simulation and experimental results validated the effectiveness of wavelet-transform-based power management algorithm.

  9. Monolithic Fuel Fabrication Process Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. R. Clark; N. P. Hallinan; J. F. Jue; D. D. Keiser; J. M. Wight

    2006-05-01

    The pursuit of a high uranium density research reactor fuel plate has led to monolithic fuel, which possesses the greatest possible uranium density in the fuel region. Process developments in fabrication development include friction stir welding tool geometry and cooling improvements and a reduction in the length of time required to complete the transient liquid phase bonding process. Annealing effects on the microstructures of the U-10Mo foil and friction stir welded aluminum 6061 cladding are also examined.

  10. Second year technical report on-board processing for future satellite communications systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, W. T.; Green, W. K.; Hoffman, M.; Jean, P. N.; Neal, W. R.; White, B. E.

    1980-10-01

    Advanced baseband and microwave switching techniques for large domestic communications satellites operating in the 30/20 GHz frequency bands are discussed. The nominal baseband processor throughput is one million packets per second (1.6 Gb/s) from one thousand T1 carrier rate customer premises terminals. A frequency reuse factor of sixteen is assumed by using 16 spot antenna beams with the same 100 MHz bandwidth per beam and a modulation with a one b/s per Hz bandwidth efficiency. Eight of the beams are fixed on major metropolitan areas and eight are scanning beams which periodically cover the remainder of the U.S. under dynamic control. User signals are regenerated (demodulated/remodulated) and message packages are reformatted on board. Frequency division multiple access and time division multiplex are employed on the uplinks and downlinks, respectively, for terminals within the coverage area and dwell interval of a scanning beam. Link establishment and packet routing protocols are defined. Also described is a detailed design of a separate 100 x 100 microwave switch capable of handling nonregenerated signals occupying the remaining 2.4 GHz bandwidth with 60 dB of isolation, at an estimated weight and power consumption of approximately 400 kg and 100 W, respectively.

  11. On-board Data Processing to Lower Bandwidth Requirements on an Infrared Astronomy Satellite: Case of Herschel-PACS Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Reimers

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new data compression concept, “on-board processing,” for infrared astronomy, where space observatories have limited processing resources. The proposed approach has been developed and tested for the PACS camera from the European Space Agency (ESA mission, Herschel. Using lossy and lossless compression, the presented method offers high compression ratio with a minimal loss of potentially useful scientific data. It also provides higher signal-to-noise ratio than that for standard compression techniques. Furthermore, the proposed approach presents low algorithmic complexity such that it is implementable on the resource-limited hardware. The various modules of the data compression concept are discussed in detail.

  12. ULTRA-LOW SULFUR REDUCTION EMISSION CONTROL DEVICE/DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-BOARD FUEL SULFUR TRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ron Rohrbach; Gary Zulauf; Tim Gavin

    2003-04-01

    Honeywell is actively working on a 3-year program to develop and demonstrate proof-of-concept for an ''on-vehicle'' desulfurization fuel filter for heavy-duty diesel engines. Integration of the filter into the vehicle fuel system will reduce the adverse effects sulfur has on post combustion emission control devices such as NO{sub x} adsorbers. The NO{sub x} adsorber may be required to meet the proposed new EPA Tier II and ''2007-Rule'' emission standards. The proposed filter concept is based on Honeywell's reactive filtration technology and experience in liquids handling and conditioning. A regeneration and recycling plan for the spent filters will also be examined. We have chosen to develop and demonstrate this technology based on criteria set forth for a heavy duty CIDI engine system because it represents a more challenging set of conditions of service intervals and overall fuel usage over light duty systems. It is anticipated that the technology developed for heavy-duty applications will be applicable to light-duty as well. Further, technology developed under this proposal would also have application for the use of liquid based fuels for fuel cell power generation. The program consists of four phases. Phase I will focus on developing a concept design and analysis and resolution of technical barriers concerning removal of sulfur-containing species in low sulfur fuels. In Phase II we will concentrate on prototype filter design and preparation followed by qualification testing of this component in a fuel line application. Phase III will study life cycle and regeneration options for the spent filter. Phase IV will focus on efficacy and life testing and component integration. The project team will include a number of partners, with Honeywell International as the prime contractor. The partners include an emission control technology developer (Honeywell International), a fuel technology developer (Marathon Ashland Petroleum

  13. Ultra-low Sulfur Reduction Emission Control Device/Development of an On-board Fuel Sulfur Trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrbach, Ron; Barron, Ann

    2008-07-31

    Honeywell has completed working on a multiyear program to develop and demonstrate proof-of-concept for an 'on-vehicle' desulfurization fuel filter for both light duty and heavy-duty diesel engines. Integration of the filter into the vehicle fuel system will reduce the adverse effects sulfur has on post combustion emission control devices such as NOx adsorbers. The NOx adsorber may be required to meet the proposed new EPA Tier II and '2007-Rule' emission standards. The proposed filter concept is based on Honeywell's reactive filtration technology and experience in liquids handling and conditioning. A regeneration and recycling plan for the spent filters was also examined. We have chosen to develop and demonstrate this technology based on criteria set forth for a heavy duty CIDI engine system because it represents a more challenging set of conditions of service intervals and overall fuel usage over light duty systems. In the second phase of the program a light duty diesel engine test was also demonstrated. Further, technology developed under this proposal would also have application for the use of liquid based fuels for fuel cell power generation. The program consisted of four phases. Phase I focused on developing a concept design and analysis and resolution of technical barriers concerning removal of sulfur-containing species in low sulfur fuels. In Phase II concentrated on prototype filter design and preparation followed by qualification testing of this component in a fuel line application. Phase III studied life cycle and regeneration options for the spent filter. Phase IV focused on efficacy and benefits in the desulfation steps of a NOx adsorber on both a heavy and light duty engine. The project team included a number of partners, with Honeywell International as the prime contractor. The partners include an emission control technology developer (Honeywell International), a fuel technology developer (Marathon Ashland Petroleum), a

  14. DSPACE hardware architecture for on-board real-time image/video processing in European space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saponara, Sergio; Donati, Massimiliano; Fanucci, Luca; Odendahl, Maximilian; Leupers, Reiner; Errico, Walter

    2013-02-01

    The on-board data processing is a vital task for any satellite and spacecraft due to the importance of elaborate the sensing data before sending them to the Earth, in order to exploit effectively the bandwidth to the ground station. In the last years the amount of sensing data collected by scientific and commercial space missions has increased significantly, while the available downlink bandwidth is comparatively stable. The increasing demand of on-board real-time processing capabilities represents one of the critical issues in forthcoming European missions. Faster and faster signal and image processing algorithms are required to accomplish planetary observation, surveillance, Synthetic Aperture Radar imaging and telecommunications. The only available space-qualified Digital Signal Processor (DSP) free of International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) restrictions faces inadequate performance, thus the development of a next generation European DSP is well known to the space community. The DSPACE space-qualified DSP architecture fills the gap between the computational requirements and the available devices. It leverages a pipelined and massively parallel core based on the Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW) paradigm, with 64 registers and 8 operational units, along with cache memories, memory controllers and SpaceWire interfaces. Both the synthesizable VHDL and the software development tools are generated from the LISA high-level model. A Xilinx-XC7K325T FPGA is chosen to realize a compact PCI demonstrator board. Finally first synthesis results on CMOS standard cell technology (ASIC 180 nm) show an area of around 380 kgates and a peak performance of 1000 MIPS and 750 MFLOPS at 125MHz.

  15. Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Advancement of the MSPI On-Board Processing Platform for the ACE Decadal Survey Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingree, Paula J.; Werne, Thomas A.; Bekker, Dmitriy L.; Wilson, Thor O.

    2011-01-01

    The Xilinx Virtex-5QV is a new Single-event Immune Reconfigurable FPGA (SIRF) device that is targeted as the spaceborne processor for the NASA Decadal Survey Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystem (ACE) mission's Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (MSPI) instrument, currently under development at JPL. A key technology needed for MSPI is on-board processing (OBP) to calculate polarimetry data as imaged by each of the 9 cameras forming the instrument. With funding from NASA's ESTO1 AIST2 Program, JPL is demonstrating how signal data at 95 Mbytes/sec over 16 channels for each of the 9 multi-angle cameras can be reduced to 0.45 Mbytes/sec, thereby substantially reducing the image data volume for spacecraft downlink without loss of science information. This is done via a least-squares fitting algorithm implemented on the Virtex-5 FPGA operating in real-time on the raw video data stream.

  16. THERMO-MECHANICALLY PROCESSED ROLLED WIRE FOR HIGH-STRENGTH ON-BOARD WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lutsenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that at twisting of wire of diameter 1,83 mm, produced by direct wire drawing of thermomechanically processed rolled wire of diameter 5,5 mm of steel 90, metal stratification is completely eliminated at decrease of carbon, manganese and an additional alloying of chrome.

  17. Image processing for hazard recognition in on-board weather radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Wallace E. (Inventor); Rand, Timothy W. (Inventor); Uckun, Serdar (Inventor); Ruokangas, Corinne C. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method of providing weather radar images to a user includes obtaining radar image data corresponding to a weather radar image to be displayed. The radar image data is image processed to identify a feature of the weather radar image which is potentially indicative of a hazardous weather condition. The weather radar image is displayed to the user along with a notification of the existence of the feature which is potentially indicative of the hazardous weather condition. Notification can take the form of textual information regarding the feature, including feature type and proximity information. Notification can also take the form of visually highlighting the feature, for example by forming a visual border around the feature. Other forms of notification can also be used.

  18. Data Processing and Primary results of Lunar Penetrating Radar on Board the Chinese Yutu Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan; Xing, Shuguo; Feng, Jianqing; Dai, Shun; Ding, Chunyu; Xiao, Yuan; Zhang, Hongbo; Zhao, Shu; Xue, Xiping; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Bin; Yao, Meijuan; Li, Chunlai

    2015-04-01

    Radar is an attractive and powerful technique to observe the Moon. Radar mapping of the Moon's topography was first done by the Arecibo telescope at a wave- length of 70 cm in 1964 (Thompson & Dyce 1966). Chang'e-3 (CE-3) was successfully launched on 2013 December 2, and the landing place is in Mare Imbrium, about 40km south of the 6km diameter Laplace F crater, at 44.1214ON, 19.5116OW. The Lunar ground-Penetrating Radar (LPR) is one of scientific payloads of the Yutu rover, aiming to achieve the first direct measurements and explore the lunar subsurface structure. Compared with ALSE and LRS, LPR works at higher frequencies of 60 MHz and 500 MHz. Thus it can probe regions with shallower depth including the regolith and lunar crust at higher range resolution. The LPR uses one transmitting and one receiving dipole antenna for 60 MHz which are installed at the back of the rover. For 500 MHz, one transmitting and two bow-tie receiving antennas are attached to the bottom of the rover. It transmits a pulsed signal and receives the radar echo signal along the path that the Yutu rover traverses. The free space range resolutions are ~ 50 cm and ~ 25 m for 60 MHz and 500 MHz respectively. The radar data stop being sampled and are sent back to Earth when Yutu is stationary. Observations are simultaneously carried out at frequencies of 60 MHz and 500 MHz. Since the Yutu rover had severe problems during its second lunar day, it is pity that the Yutu rover only transversed a limited distance of 114.8m. In total, 566 MB of data were obtained. The scientific data are archived and distributed by National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Data processing has been done in order to eliminate the effect of the instrument. To obtain clear radar images, more data processing need to be applied such as coordinate transformation, data editing, background removal, the operations of smoothing and gain resetting. The radar signal could detect hundreds of meters deep at

  19. Microbial fuel cell treatment of fuel process wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Tsouris, Constantino

    2013-12-03

    The present invention is directed to a method for cleansing fuel processing effluent containing carbonaceous compounds and inorganic salts, the method comprising contacting the fuel processing effluent with an anode of a microbial fuel ell, the anode containing microbes thereon which oxidatively degrade one or more of the carbonaceous compounds while producing electrical energy from the oxidative degradation, and directing the produced electrical energy to drive an electrosorption mechanism that operates to reduce the concentration of one or more inorganic salts in the fuel processing effluent, wherein the anode is in electrical communication with a cathode of the microbial fuel cell. The invention is also directed to an apparatus for practicing the method.

  20. Feasibility of the direct generation of hydrogen for fuel-cell-powered vehicles by on-board steam reforming of naphtha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darwish, Naif A.; Hilal, Nidal; Versteeg, Geert; Heesink, Bert

    2004-01-01

    A process flow sheet for the production of hydrogen to run a 50 kW fuel-cell-powered-vehicle by steam reforming of naphtha is presented. The major units in the flow sheet involve a desulfurization unit, a steam reformer, a low temperature (LT) shift reactor, a methanation reactor, and a membrane

  1. Feasability of the direct generation of hydrogen for fuel-cell-powered vehicles by on-board steam reforming of naphta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darwish, Naif A.; Hilal, Nidal; Versteeg, Geert; Heesink, Albertus B.M.

    2004-01-01

    A process flow sheet for the production of hydrogen to run a 50 kW fuel-cell-powered-vehicle by steam reforming of naphtha is presented. The major units in the flow sheet involve a desulfurization unit, a steam reformer, a low temperature (LT) shift reactor, a methanation reactor, and a membrane

  2. Feasibility of the direct generation of hydrogen for fuel-cell-powered vehicles by on-board steam reforming of naphtha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darwish, Naif A.; Hilal, Nidal; Versteeg, Geert; Heesink, Bert

    2004-01-01

    A process flow sheet for the production of hydrogen to run a 50 kW fuel-cell-powered-vehicle by steam reforming of naphtha is presented. The major units in the flow sheet involve a desulfurization unit, a steam reformer, a low temperature (LT) shift reactor, a methanation reactor, and a membrane sep

  3. A secondary fuel removal process: plasma processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, J. Y.; Kim, Y. S. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, K. K.; Yang, M. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Plasma etching process of UO{sub 2} by using fluorine containing gas plasma is studied as a secondary fuel removal process for DUPIC (Direct Use of PWR spent fuel Into Candu) process which is taken into consideration for potential future fuel cycle in Korea. CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} gas mixture is chosen for reactant gas and the etching rates of UO{sub 2} by the gas plasma are investigated as functions of CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} ratio, plasma power, substrate temperature, and plasma gas pressure. It is found that the optimum CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} ratio is around 4:1 at all temperatures up to 400 deg C and the etching rate increases with increasing r.f. power and substrate temperature. Under 150W r.f. power the etching rate reaches 1100 monolayers/min at 400 deg C, which is equivalent to about 0.5mm/min. (author).

  4. On Gamma Ray Instrument On-Board Data Processing Real-Time Computational Algorithm for Cosmic Ray Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizhner, Semion; Hunter, Stanley D.; Hanu, Andrei R.; Sheets, Teresa B.

    2016-01-01

    gamma ray events and the problem is to detect and reject the much more voluminous cosmic ray projections, so that the remaining science data can be telemetered to the ground over the constrained communication link. The state-of-the-art in cosmic rays detection and rejection does not provide an adequate computational solution. This paper presents a novel approach to the AdEPT on-board data processing burdened with the CR detection top pole bottleneck problem. This paper is introducing the data processing object, demonstrates object segmentation and distribution for processing among many processing elements (PEs) and presents solution algorithm for the processing bottleneck - the CR-Algorithm. The algorithm is based on the a priori knowledge that a CR pierces the entire instrument pressure vessel. This phenomenon is also the basis for a straightforward CR simulator, allowing the CR-Algorithm performance testing. Parallel processing of the readout image's (2(N+M) - 4) peripheral voxels is detecting all CRs, resulting in O(n) computational complexity. This algorithm near real-time performance is making AdEPT class spaceflight instruments feasible.

  5. Dry Process Fuel Performance Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Song, K. C.; Moon, J. S. and others

    2005-04-15

    The objective of the project is to establish the performance evaluation system of DUPIC fuel during the Phase II R and D. In order to fulfil this objectives, irradiation test of DUPIC fuel was carried out in HANARO using the non-instrumented and SPND-instrumented rig. Also, the analysis on the in-reactor behavior analysis of DUPIC fuel, out-pile test using simulated DUPIC fuel as well as performance and integrity assessment in a commercial reactor were performed during this Phase. The R and D results of the Phase II are summarized as follows : - Performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel via irradiation test in HANARO - Post irradiation examination of irradiated fuel and performance analysis - Development of DUPIC fuel performance code (modified ELESTRES) considering material properties of DUPIC fuel - Irradiation behavior and integrity assessment under the design power envelope of DUPIC fuel - Foundamental technology development of thermal/mechanical performance evaluation using ANSYS (FEM package)

  6. Dry process fuel performance technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kweon Ho; Kim, K. W.; Kim, B. K. (and others)

    2006-06-15

    The objective of the project is to establish the performance evaluation system of DUPIC fuel during the Phase III R and D. In order to fulfil this objectives, property model development of DUPIC fuel and irradiation test was carried out in Hanaro using the instrumented rig. Also, the analysis on the in-reactor behavior analysis of DUPIC fuel, out-pile test using simulated DUPIC fuel as well as performance and integrity assessment in a commercial reactor were performed during this Phase. The R and D results of the Phase III are summarized as follows: Fabrication process establishment of simulated DUPIC fuel for property measurement, Property model development for the DUPIC fuel, Performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel via irradiation test in Hanaro, Post irradiation examination of irradiated fuel and performance analysis, Development of DUPIC fuel performance code (KAOS)

  7. 40 CFR 86.005-17 - On-board diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false On-board diagnostics. 86.005-17... Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-17 On-board diagnostics. (a) General... “Road Vehicles-Diagnostics on Controller Area Network (CAN)—Part 4: Requirements for...

  8. Plate-Based Fuel Processing System Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Faz; Helen Liu; Jacques Nicole; David Yee

    2005-12-22

    On-board reforming of liquid fuels into hydrogen is an enabling technology that could accelerate consumer usage of fuel cell powered vehicles. The technology would leverage the convenience of the existing gasoline fueling infrastructure while taking advantage of the fuel cell efficiency and low emissions. Commercial acceptance of on-board reforming faces several obstacles that include: (1) startup time, (2) transient response, and (3) system complexity (size, weight and cost). These obstacles are being addressed in a variety of projects through development, integration and optimization of existing fuel processing system designs. In this project, CESI investigated steam reforming (SR), water-gas-shift (WGS) and preferential oxidation (PrOx) catalysts while developing plate reactor designs and hardware where the catalytic function is integrated into a primary surface heat exchanger. The plate reactor approach has several advantages. The separation of the reforming and combustion streams permits the reforming reaction to be conducted at a higher pressure than the combustion reaction, thereby avoiding costly gas compression for combustion. The separation of the two streams also prevents the dilution of the reformate stream by the combustion air. The advantages of the plate reactor are not limited to steam reforming applications. In a WGS or PrOx reaction, the non-catalytic side of the plate would act as a heat exchanger to remove the heat generated by the exothermic WGS or PrOx reactions. This would maintain the catalyst under nearly isothermal conditions whereby the catalyst would operate at its optimal temperature. Furthermore, the plate design approach results in a low pressure drop, rapid transient capable and attrition-resistant reactor. These qualities are valued in any application, be it on-board or stationary fuel processing, since they reduce parasitic losses, increase over-all system efficiency and help perpetuate catalyst durability. In this program, CESI

  9. Plate-Based Fuel Processing System Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Faz; Helen Liu; Jacques Nicole; David Yee

    2005-12-22

    On-board reforming of liquid fuels into hydrogen is an enabling technology that could accelerate consumer usage of fuel cell powered vehicles. The technology would leverage the convenience of the existing gasoline fueling infrastructure while taking advantage of the fuel cell efficiency and low emissions. Commercial acceptance of on-board reforming faces several obstacles that include: (1) startup time, (2) transient response, and (3) system complexity (size, weight and cost). These obstacles are being addressed in a variety of projects through development, integration and optimization of existing fuel processing system designs. In this project, CESI investigated steam reforming (SR), water-gas-shift (WGS) and preferential oxidation (PrOx) catalysts while developing plate reactor designs and hardware where the catalytic function is integrated into a primary surface heat exchanger. The plate reactor approach has several advantages. The separation of the reforming and combustion streams permits the reforming reaction to be conducted at a higher pressure than the combustion reaction, thereby avoiding costly gas compression for combustion. The separation of the two streams also prevents the dilution of the reformate stream by the combustion air. The advantages of the plate reactor are not limited to steam reforming applications. In a WGS or PrOx reaction, the non-catalytic side of the plate would act as a heat exchanger to remove the heat generated by the exothermic WGS or PrOx reactions. This would maintain the catalyst under nearly isothermal conditions whereby the catalyst would operate at its optimal temperature. Furthermore, the plate design approach results in a low pressure drop, rapid transient capable and attrition-resistant reactor. These qualities are valued in any application, be it on-board or stationary fuel processing, since they reduce parasitic losses, increase over-all system efficiency and help perpetuate catalyst durability. In this program, CESI

  10. Fuel quality processing study, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, J. B.; Bela, A.; Jentz, N. E.; Syverson, H. T.; Klumpe, H. W.; Kessler, R. E.; Kotzot, H. T.; Loran, B. L.

    1981-01-01

    A fuel quality processing study to provide a data base for an intelligent tradeoff between advanced turbine technology and liquid fuel quality, and also, to guide the development of specifications of future synthetic fuels anticipated for use in the time period 1985 to 2000 is given. Four technical performance tests are discussed: on-site pretreating, existing refineries to upgrade fuels, new refineries to upgrade fuels, and data evaluation. The base case refinery is a modern Midwest refinery processing 200,000 BPD of a 60/40 domestic/import petroleum crude mix. The synthetic crudes used for upgrading to marketable products and turbine fuel are shale oil and coal liquids. Of these syncrudes, 50,000 BPD are processed in the existing petroleum refinery, requiring additional process units and reducing petroleum feed, and in a new refinery designed for processing each syncrude to produce gasoline, distillate fuels, resid fuels, and turbine fuel, JPGs and coke. An extensive collection of synfuel properties and upgrading data was prepared for the application of a linear program model to investigate the most economical production slate meeting petroleum product specifications and turbine fuels of various quality grades. Technical and economic projections were developed for 36 scenarios, based on 4 different crude feeds to either modified existing or new refineries operated in 2 different modes to produce 7 differing grades of turbine fuels. A required product selling price of turbine fuel for each processing route was calculated. Procedures and projected economics were developed for on-site treatment of turbine fuel to meet limitations of impurities and emission of pollutants.

  11. Development of integrated, zero-G pneumatic transporter/rotating paddle incinerator/catalytic afterburner subsystem for processing human wastes on board spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, S. F.; Labak, L. J.; Honegger, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    A four component system was developed which consists of a particle size reduction mechanism, a pneumatic waste transport system, a rotating-paddle incinerator, and a catalytic afterburner to be integrated into a six-man, zero-g subsystem for processing human wastes on board spacecraft. The study included the development of different concepts or functions, the establishment of operational specifications, and a critical evaluation for each of the four components. A series of laboratory tests was run, and a baseline subsystem design was established. An operational specification was also written in preparation for detailed design and testing of this baseline subsystem.

  12. Process and apparatus for burning solid fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, W.; Van den Bleek, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    Abstract of NL 9301828 (A) Described is a process for burning solid fuel, in which nitrogen in the form of NH3 is released from said fuel, for example by gasification, said NH3 being excluded from the combustion process but being admixed, together with CO likewise released, to the gases released

  13. Damage localization using a power-efficient distributed on-board signal processing algorithm in a wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Liu, Shuntao; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo

    2012-02-01

    A distributed on-board algorithm that is embedded and executed within a group of wireless sensors to locate structural damages in isotropic plates is presented. The algorithm is based on an energy-decay model of Lamb waves and singular value decomposition (SVD) to determine damage locations. A sensor group consists of a small number of sensors, each of which independently collects wave signals and evaluates wave energy upon an external triggering signal sent from a base station. The energy values, usually a few bytes in length, are then sent to the base station to determine the presence and location of damages. In comparison with traditional centralized approaches in which whole datasets are required to be transmitted, the proposed algorithm yields much less wireless communication traffic, yet with a modest amount of computation required within sensors. Experiments have shown that the algorithm is robust to locate damage for isotropic plate structures and is very power efficient, with more than an order-of-magnitude power saving.

  14. Fluidized-Solid-Fuel Injection Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, William

    1992-01-01

    Report proposes development of rocket engines burning small grains of solid fuel entrained in gas streams. Main technical discussion in report divided into three parts: established fluidization technology; variety of rockets and rocket engines used by nations around the world; and rocket-engine equation. Discusses significance of specific impulse and ratio between initial and final masses of rocket. Concludes by stating three important reasons to proceed with new development: proposed engines safer; fluidized-solid-fuel injection process increases variety of solid-fuel formulations used; and development of fluidized-solid-fuel injection process provides base of engineering knowledge.

  15. Fuel Conditioning Facility Electrorefiner Process Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeeEarl Vaden

    2005-10-01

    The Fuel Conditioning Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory processes spent nuclear fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II using electro-metallurgical treatment. To process fuel without waiting for periodic sample analyses to assess process conditions, an electrorefiner process model predicts the composition of the electrorefiner inventory and effluent streams. For the chemical equilibrium portion of the model, the two common methods for solving chemical equilibrium problems, stoichiometric and non stoichiometric, were investigated. In conclusion, the stoichiometric method produced equilibrium compositions close to the measured results whereas the non stoichiometric method did not.

  16. Mathematical modeling of biomass fuels formation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaska, Krzysztof; Wandrasz, Andrzej J

    2008-01-01

    The increasing demand for thermal and electric energy in many branches of industry and municipal management accounts for a drastic diminishing of natural resources (fossil fuels). Meanwhile, in numerous technical processes, a huge mass of wastes is produced. A segregated and converted combustible fraction of the wastes, with relatively high calorific value, may be used as a component of formed fuels. The utilization of the formed fuel components from segregated groups of waste in associated processes of co-combustion with conventional fuels causes significant savings resulting from partial replacement of fossil fuels, and reduction of environmental pollution resulting directly from the limitation of waste migration to the environment (soil, atmospheric air, surface and underground water). The realization of technological processes with the utilization of formed fuel in associated thermal systems should be qualified by technical criteria, which means that elementary processes as well as factors of sustainable development, from a global viewpoint, must not be disturbed. The utilization of post-process waste should be preceded by detailed technical, ecological and economic analyses. In order to optimize the mixing process of fuel components, a mathematical model of the forming process was created. The model is defined as a group of data structures which uniquely identify a real process and conversion of this data in algorithms based on a problem of linear programming. The paper also presents the optimization of parameters in the process of forming fuels using a modified simplex algorithm with a polynomial worktime. This model is a datum-point in the numerical modeling of real processes, allowing a precise determination of the optimal elementary composition of formed fuels components, with assumed constraints and decision variables of the task.

  17. Fuel corrosion processes under waste disposal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoesmith, D.W. [Univ. of Western Ontario, Dept. of Chemistry, London, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-09-01

    Under the oxidizing conditions likely to be encountered in the Yucca Mountain Repository, fuel dissolution is a corrosion process involving the coupling of the anodic dissolution of the fuel with the cathodic reduction of oxidants available within the repository. The oxidants potentially available to drive fuel corrosion are environmental oxygen, supplied by the transport through the permeable rock of the mountain and molecular and radical species produced by the radiolysis of available aerated water. The mechanism of these coupled anodic and cathodic reactions is reviewed in detail. While gaps in understanding remain, many kinetic features of these reactions have been studied in considerable detail, and a reasonably justified mechanism for fuel corrosion is available. The corrosion rate is determined primarily by environmental factors rather than the properties of the fuel. Thus, with the exception of increase in rate due to an increase in surface area, pre-oxidation of the fuel has little effect on the corrosion rate.

  18. Carbon oxides free fuel processing for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Tushar V.

    Fuel processing represents a very important aspect of fuel cell technology. The widespread utilization of fuel cells will only be possible if CO x-free hydrogen producing technologies are developed. Towards this objective, step-wise reforming of hydrocarbons and catalytic decomposition of ammonia were investigated for hydrogen production. Also, novel Au-based catalysts were synthesized for preferentially eliminating CO in the presence of excess hydrogen. The step-wise reforming of hydrocarbons was investigated for production of CO-free hydrogen for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Proof of concept pulse reactor experiments employing Ni-based catalysts clearly showed the feasibility of the cyclic step-wise reforming process for clean hydrogen production. Under optimum conditions the CO content in the hydrogen was found to be less than 20 ppm by this process (a large amount of CO is obtained as a by-product from conventional methods of hydrogen production). The step-wise reforming process thus greatly simplifies fuel reforming, as expensive and circuitous post-reforming hydrogen purification processes are eliminated. The process was profoundly influenced by the operating temperature, space velocity and nature of the catalyst support. Catalytic ammonia decomposition was investigated for COx-free hydrogen production for alkaline fuel cells. These studies revealed that Ru, Ir and Ni-based catalysts were active for the process with Ru being the most active and Ni the least. The catalyst supports played a decisive role in determining the ammonia decomposition activity. Partial pressure dependence studies of the reaction rate on model Ir (100) catalysts yielded a positive order (0.9 +/- 0.l) with respect to ammonia and negative order (-0.7 +/- 0.l) with respect to hydrogen. The negative order with respect to hydrogen was attributed to the enhancement in the reverse of the ammonia decomposition reaction in the presence of surface hydrogen atoms. Novel nano-Au catalysts

  19. Advanced On Board Inert Gas Generation System (OBBIGS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Valcor Engineering Corporation proposes to develop an advanced On Board Inert Gas Generation System, OBIGGS, for aircraft fuel tank inerting to prevent hazardous...

  20. Fluid dynamics simulations of a fuel processing system; Stroemungsmechanische Modellierung eines Brenngaserzeugungssystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharf, Florian

    2012-07-01

    The present thesis deals with the topic of the complete fluid dynamic modelling of the key components of a fuel processing system and based on it the development of the next generation reactors. Fuel cell auxilliary power units enable an energy efficient power generation for mobile applications with higher on-board power consumption. Enabling the operation of the fuel cell with the available middle-destillate on-board, the fuel is transformed to an hydrogen-rich gas in a fuel processing system consisting of the key components autothermal reformer, water-shift reactor and catalytic burner. The modules of the fuel processing system are thereby integrated within the reactors to obtain a lightweighted and compact overall system. The complete numerical description of theses systems are based on chemical-reaction models, vaporization models of fuel and water in the integrated reactant treatment and as well on models for the integrated heat-exchanger. The strong interaction between the single reactor zones require therefore modelling of the key components as an overall reactor system. The methodology of the present thesis is based on a tight integration of CFD simulations with experimental analysis and the construction of the reactors. The results of carried out prototype testings, post-mortem-analysis and laboratory experiments are taken as basis for the CFD modelling and the reactor construction. As numerical tool for fluid dynamic modelling the CFD software FLUENT was used. In the context of this thesis the CFD modelling library was extended with the purpose of the complete description of key components in the CFD overall model. In these CFD overall models the thermal interactions between the reactor zones as well as the influence of the pulsating fuel injection and the chemical reactions are taken into account. For this purpose a similarity theoretical CFD modell of the pulsating fuel injection was generated based on results from prototype testings and high

  1. SOFC system with integrated catalytic fuel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnerty, C.; Tompsett, G.A.; Kendall, K.; Ormerod, R.M. [Birchall Centre for Inorganic Chemistry and Materials Science, Keele Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2000-03-01

    In recent years, there has been much interest in the development of solid oxide fuel cell technology operating directly on hydrocarbon fuels. The development of a catalytic fuel processing system, which is integrated with the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power source is outlined here. The catalytic device utilises a novel three-way catalytic system consisting of an in situ pre-reformer catalyst, the fuel cell anode catalyst and a platinum-based combustion catalyst. The three individual catalytic stages have been tested in a model catalytic microreactor. Both temperature-programmed and isothermal reaction techniques have been applied. Results from these experiments were used to design the demonstration SOFC unit. The apparatus used for catalytic characterisation can also perform in situ electrochemical measurements as described in previous papers [C.M. Finnerty, R.H. Cunningham, K. Kendall, R.M. Ormerod, Chem. Commun. (1998) 915-916; C.M. Finnerty, N.J. Coe, R.H. Cunningham, R.M. Ormerod, Catal. Today 46 (1998) 137-145]. This enabled the performance of the SOFC to be determined at a range of temperatures and reaction conditions, with current output of 290 mA cm{sup -2} at 0.5 V, being recorded. Methane and butane have been evaluated as fuels. Thus, optimisation of the in situ partial oxidation pre-reforming catalyst was essential, with catalysts producing high H{sub 2}/CO ratios at reaction temperatures between 873 K and 1173 K being chosen. These included Ru and Ni/Mo-based catalysts. Hydrocarbon fuels were directly injected into the catalytic SOFC system. Microreactor measurements revealed the reaction mechanisms as the fuel was transported through the three-catalyst device. The demonstration system showed that the fuel processing could be successfully integrated with the SOFC stack. (orig.)

  2. SOFC system with integrated catalytic fuel processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Caine; Tompsett, Geoff. A.; Kendall, Kevin; Ormerod, R. Mark

    In recent years, there has been much interest in the development of solid oxide fuel cell technology operating directly on hydrocarbon fuels. The development of a catalytic fuel processing system, which is integrated with the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power source is outlined here. The catalytic device utilises a novel three-way catalytic system consisting of an in situ pre-reformer catalyst, the fuel cell anode catalyst and a platinum-based combustion catalyst. The three individual catalytic stages have been tested in a model catalytic microreactor. Both temperature-programmed and isothermal reaction techniques have been applied. Results from these experiments were used to design the demonstration SOFC unit. The apparatus used for catalytic characterisation can also perform in situ electrochemical measurements as described in previous papers [C.M. Finnerty, R.H. Cunningham, K. Kendall, R.M. Ormerod, Chem. Commun. (1998) 915-916; C.M. Finnerty, N.J. Coe, R.H. Cunningham, R.M. Ormerod, Catal. Today 46 (1998) 137-145]. This enabled the performance of the SOFC to be determined at a range of temperatures and reaction conditions, with current output of 290 mA cm -2 at 0.5 V, being recorded. Methane and butane have been evaluated as fuels. Thus, optimisation of the in situ partial oxidation pre-reforming catalyst was essential, with catalysts producing high H 2/CO ratios at reaction temperatures between 873 K and 1173 K being chosen. These included Ru and Ni/Mo-based catalysts. Hydrocarbon fuels were directly injected into the catalytic SOFC system. Microreactor measurements revealed the reaction mechanisms as the fuel was transported through the three-catalyst device. The demonstration system showed that the fuel processing could be successfully integrated with the SOFC stack.

  3. Alternative Fuel for Portland Cement Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, Anton K; Duke, Steve R; Burch, Thomas E; Davis, Edward W; Zee, Ralph H; Bransby, David I; Hopkins, Carla; Thompson, Rutherford L; Duan, Jingran; ; Venkatasubramanian, Vignesh; Stephen, Giles

    2012-06-30

    The production of cement involves a combination of numerous raw materials, strictly monitored system processes, and temperatures on the order of 1500 °C. Immense quantities of fuel are required for the production of cement. Traditionally, energy from fossil fuels was solely relied upon for the production of cement. The overarching project objective is to evaluate the use of alternative fuels to lessen the dependence on non-renewable resources to produce portland cement. The key objective of using alternative fuels is to continue to produce high-quality cement while decreasing the use of non-renewable fuels and minimizing the impact on the environment. Burn characteristics and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated with a laboratory burn simulator under conditions that mimic those in the preheater where the fuels are brought into a cement plant. A drop-tube furnace and visualization method were developed that show potential for evaluating time- and space-resolved temperature distributions for fuel solid particles and liquid droplets undergoing combustion in various combustion atmospheres. Downdraft gasification has been explored as a means to extract chemical energy from poultry litter while limiting the throughput of potentially deleterious components with regards to use in firing a cement kiln. Results have shown that the clinkering is temperature independent, at least within the controllable temperature range. Limestone also had only a slight effect on the fusion when used to coat the pellets. However, limestone addition did display some promise in regards to chlorine capture, as ash analyses showed chlorine concentrations of more than four times greater in the limestone infused ash as compared to raw poultry litter. A reliable and convenient sampling procedure was developed to estimate the combustion quality of broiler litter that is the best compromise between convenience and reliability by means of statistical analysis. Multi-day trial burns were conducted

  4. Advanced laser processing in fuel cells production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stollhof, J.; Havrilla, D.; Schaupp, R. [TRUMPF Inc., Plymouth, MI (United States); Loeffler, K. [TRUMPF Laser und Systemtechnik TLD, Ditzingen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed TRUMPF methods of joining bipolar plates to create fuel cell stacks and manufacture thin foils using diode pumped solid state lasers (DPSSLs). Beam delivery systems and processing optics were discussed. CW disk lasers were used to allow spot diameters smaller than 30 {mu}m and combined with a Galvo technology-based scanning optics systems to enable welding speeds greater than 1 m/s. A TruFiber 300 diffraction limited fiber laser was used for CW laser cutting. Short and ultra-short laser pulses were used to drill thousands of holes per second without a measurable heat-affected zone. The attributes and specifications of the 3 major TRUMPF lasers developed to manufacture fuel cells were also provided.

  5. Audit of fuel processing restoration property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    In April, 1992, due to a diminished need for reprocessed uranium, the Secretary of Energy terminated the Fuel Processing Restoration (FPR) project. The termination left management and operating (M&O) contractors at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (Laboratory) with over $54 million in tools, equipment and material to be retained, utilized or disposed of. The objectives of the audit were to determine whether FPR property was adequately accounted for and whether the property was properly redistributed or excessed when the FPR project was terminated.

  6. Complex plasmochemical processing of solid fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Messerle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology of complex plasmaochemical processing of solid fuel by Ecibastuz bituminous and Turgay brown coals is presented. Thermodynamic and experimental study of the technology was fulfilled. Use of this technology allows producing of synthesis gas from organic mass of coal and valuable components (technical silicon, ferrosilicon, aluminum and silicon carbide and microelements of rare metals: uranium, molybdenum, vanadium etc. from mineral mass of coal. Produced a high-calorific synthesis gas can be used for methanol synthesis, as high-grade reducing gas instead of coke, as well as energy gas in thermal power plants.

  7. MONOLITHIC FUEL FABRICATION PROCESS DEVELOPMENT AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY_

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. A. Moore; F. J. Rice; N. E. Woolstenhulme; J-F. Jue; B. H. Park; S. E. Steffler; N. P. Hallinan; M. D. Chapple; M. C. Marshall; B. L. Mackowiak; C. R. Clark; B. H. Rabin

    2009-11-01

    Full-size/prototypic U10Mo monolithic fuel-foils and aluminum clad fuel plates are being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC). These efforts are focused on realizing Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) high density monolithic fuel plates for use in High Performance Research and Test Reactors. The U10Mo fuel foils under development afford a fuel meat density of ~16 gU/cc and thus have the potential to facilitate LEU conversions without any significant reactor-performance penalty. An overview is provided of the ongoing monolithic UMo fuel development effort, including application of a zirconium barrier layer on fuel foils, fabrication scale-up efforts, and development of complex/graded fuel foils. Fuel plate clad bonding processes to be discussed include: Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) and Friction Bonding (FB).

  8. CONTROL ENGINEERING ON BOARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghei RADU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Control engineering embraces instrumentation, alarm systems, control of machinery and plant previously known under the misnomer of automation. Control engineering can be applied not only to propelling and auxiliary machinery but also to electrical installations, refrigeration, cargo handling (especially in tankers and deck machinery, e.g. Windlass control. Opinion still vary on such matters as the relative merits of pneumatic versus electronic system and whether the control center should be in the engine room or adjacent to the navigating bridge. Arguments against the exclusion of the engineer officer from close contact with the machinery are countered by the fact that electronic systems are based on changes other than those of human response. Automated ships (UMS operate closer to prescribed standards and therefore operate with greater efficiency. The closer control of machinery operating conditions, e.g. cooling water temperatures and pressures, permits machinery to be run at its optimum design conditions, making for fuel economy and reduced maintenance. Automation can carry out some tasks far more effectively than men. In other areas it is less effective. For example, the monitoring of machinery operating conditions such as the temperatures and pressures can be carried out by a solid state alarm scanning system at the rate of 400 channels/sec., giving a degree of surveillance which would be impossible by human observation. Conversely, the detection of noisy bearing, a leaky gland or cracked pipe is scarcely possible by automatic means. The balance between the possible and the necessary would be achieved in this case by combining automatic monitoring of all the likely fault conditions, with routine machinery space inspection say twice a day.

  9. Cost reductions of fuel cells for transport applications: fuel processing options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teagan, W. P.; Bentley, J.; Barnett, B.

    The highly favorable efficiency/environmental characteristics of fuel cell technologies have now been verified by virtue of recent and ongoing field experience. The key issue regarding the timing and extent of fuel cell commercialization is the ability to reduce costs to acceptable levels in both stationary and transport applications. It is increasingly recognized that the fuel processing subsystem can have a major impact on overall system costs, particularly as ongoing R&D efforts result in reduction of the basic cost structure of stacks which currently dominate system costs. The fuel processing subsystem for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology, which is the focus of transport applications, includes the reformer, shift reactors, and means for CO reduction. In addition to low cost, transport applications require a fuel processor that is compact and can start rapidly. This paper describes the impact of factors such as fuel choice, operating temperature, material selection, catalyst requirements, and controls on the cost of fuel processing systems. There are fuel processor technology paths which manufacturing cost analyses indicate are consistent with fuel processor subsystem costs of under 150/kW in stationary applications and 30/kW in transport applications. As such, the costs of mature fuel processing subsystem technologies should be consistent with their use in commercially viable fuel cell systems in both application categories.

  10. Selection of Fuel by Using Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asilata M. Damle,

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Selection of fuel is a very important and critical decision one has to make. Various criteria are to be considered while selecting a fuel. Some of important criteria are Fuel Economy, Availability of fuel, Pollution from vehicle, Maintenance of the vehicle. Selection of best fuel is a complex situation. It needs a multi-criteria analysis. Earlier, the solution to the problem were found by applying classical numerical methods which took into account only technical and economic merits of the various alternatives. By applying multi-criteria tools, it is possible to obtain more realistic results. This paper gives a systematic analysis for selection of fuel by using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. This is a multi-criteria decision making process. By using AHP we can select the fuel by comparing various factors in a mathematical model. This is a scientific method to find out the best fuel by making pairwise comparisons.

  11. Motion State of Fuel within Shell in Projection Acceleration Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhang

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The fuel-air explosive (FAE warheads are charged with the liquid-solid mixture fuel. The fuel is different 'om conventional solid explosives in physical and mechanical properties. The mass centre of the charged fuel changes during projecting the projectile. In this study, a method to calculate the mass centre change of the charged fuel is suggested and the  influence of this change on the projectile motion state in the projection process is discussed. The results show that in projection, the fuel mass centre varies with the projection acceleration and the deformation characteristics of the mixture fuel. The higher is the acceleration, the larger is the displacement of the mass centre. This displacement also increases with the compressibility of the fuel. It constitutes an influence on the state of motion for the whole projectile in the projection process, whose calculation approach is also proposed. The result provides a theoretical basis for the design of the FAE weapons.

  12. On-board Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Steve; Stein, Cara; Graves, Sara J.

    Networks of remote sensors are becoming more common as technology improves and costs decline. In the past, a remote sensor was usually a device that collected data to be retrieved at a later time by some other mechanism. This collected data were usually processed well after the fact at a computer greatly removed from the in situ sensing location. This has begun to change as sensor technology, on-board processing, and network communication capabilities have increased and their prices have dropped. There has been an explosion in the number of sensors and sensing devices, not just around the world, but literally throughout the solar system. These sensors are not only becoming vastly more sophisticated, accurate, and detailed in the data they gather but they are also becoming cheaper, lighter, and smaller. At the same time, engineers have developed improved methods to embed computing systems, memory, storage, and communication capabilities into the platforms that host these sensors. Now, it is not unusual to see large networks of sensors working in cooperation with one another. Nor does it seem strange to see the autonomous operation of sensorbased systems, from space-based satellites to smart vacuum cleaners that keep our homes clean and robotic toys that help to entertain and educate our children. But access to sensor data and computing power is only part of the story. For all the power of these systems, there are still substantial limits to what they can accomplish. These include the well-known limits to current Artificial Intelligence capabilities and our limited ability to program the abstract concepts, goals, and improvisation needed for fully autonomous systems. But it also includes much more basic engineering problems such as lack of adequate power, communications bandwidth, and memory, as well as problems with the geolocation and real-time georeferencing required to integrate data from multiple sensors to be used together.

  13. Development of Advanced Spent Fuel Management Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Chung Seok; Choi, I. K.; Kwon, S. G. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    As a part of research efforts to develop an advanced spent fuel management process, this project focused on the electrochemical reduction technology which can replace the original Li reduction technology of ANL, and we have successfully built a 20 kgHM/batch scale demonstration system. The performance tests of the system in the ACPF hot cell showed more than a 99% reduction yield of SIMFUEL, a current density of 100 mA/cm{sup 2} and a current efficiency of 80%. For an optimization of the process, the prevention of a voltage drop in an integrated cathode, a minimization of the anodic effect and an improvement of the hot cell operability by a modulation and simplization of the unit apparatuses were achieved. Basic research using a bench-scale system was also carried out by focusing on a measurement of the electrochemical reduction rate of the surrogates, an elucidation of the reaction mechanism, collecting data on the partition coefficients of the major nuclides, quantitative measurement of mass transfer rates and diffusion coefficients of oxygen and metal ions in molten salts. When compared to the PYROX process of INL, the electrochemical reduction system developed in this project has comparative advantages in its application of a flexible reaction mechanism, relatively short reaction times and increased process yields.

  14. MEDIUM PRESSURE HYDROUPGRADING PROCESS (MHUG) AND PRODUCTION OF CLEAN FUELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The medium pressure hydroupgrading process (MHUG) unit with an 800 kt/a processing capacity of Jinzhou Petrochemical Company is used to hydroupgrade the mixture of FCC LCO fuel and straight-run diesel fuel in the presence of RN/RT series catalysts for improvement of the quality of the diesel fuel. Meanwhile, catalytic reforming feedstock is also obtained. The sulfur, nitrogen and aromatics contained in the hydroupgraded diesel fuel products can be minimized and the cetane number can be heightened. The produced clean fuels can meet the requirements of environmental protection.

  15. Fabrication characteristics of dry process fuel with a variation of fuel burn-ups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Geun Il; Kim, W. K.; Lee, J. W. [and others

    2004-11-01

    Fabrication characteristics of the dry processed fuel with a variation of fuel burn-ups in a range of 27,300 to 65,000 MWD/tU were experimentally evaluated. Density comparison of powders which were fabricated from oxidation, OREOX and milling processes at same process conditions was performed with a function of fuel burn-ups respectively. The influence of fuel burn-ups on sintering characteristics of dry processed fuel was studied by comparing the density change of sintered pellet as well as green pellet. Weight gain by fuel oxidation to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} showed semi-linear dependence with increasing fuel burn-ups. OREOX powder density increased up to 3.7 g/cm{sup 3} at high burn-up fuel, and the density of milled powder with fuel burn-ups represented almost similar value of 3.2{+-}0.2 g/cm{sup 3}. Also, the green pellet density compacted by 120 MPa decreased smoothly with increasing fuel burn-ups, and the density change of sintered pellet showed the similar trend as green pellet. The sintered density of pellet in a range of 27,000 to 40,000 MWD/tU was found to be more 95% of Theoretical Density(T.D.), but the sintered pellet density fabricated from high burn-up fuel showed a range of 92 % to 93% of T.D.

  16. New On-board Microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, R.

    Two new processor devices have been developed for the use on board of spacecrafts. An 8-bit 8032-microcontroller targets typical controlling applications in instruments and sub-systems, or could be used as a main processor on small satellites, whereas the LEON 32-bit SPARC processor can be used for high performance controlling and data processing tasks. The ADV80S32 is fully compliant to the Intel 80x1 architecture and instruction set, extended by additional peripherals, 512 bytes on-chip RAM and a bootstrap PROM, which allows downloading the application software using the CCSDS PacketWire pro- tocol. The memory controller provides a de-multiplexed address/data bus, and allows to access up to 16 MB data and 8 MB program RAM. The peripherals have been de- signed for the specific needs of a spacecraft, such as serial interfaces compatible to RS232, PacketWire and TTC-B-01, counters/timers for extended duration and a CRC calculation unit accelerating the CCSDS TM/TC protocol. The 0.5 um Atmel manu- facturing technology (MG2RT) provides latch-up and total dose immunity; SEU fault immunity is implemented by using SEU hardened Flip-Flops and EDAC protection of internal and external memories. The maximum clock frequency of 20 MHz allows a processing power of 3 MIPS. Engineering samples are available. For SW develop- ment, various SW packages for the 8051 architecture are on the market. The LEON processor implements a 32-bit SPARC V8 architecture, including all the multiply and divide instructions, complemented by a floating-point unit (FPU). It includes several standard peripherals, such as timers/watchdog, interrupt controller, UARTs, parallel I/Os and a memory controller, allowing to use 8, 16 and 32 bit PROM, SRAM or memory mapped I/O. With on-chip separate instruction and data caches, almost one instruction per clock cycle can be reached in some applications. A 33-MHz 32-bit PCI master/target interface and a PCI arbiter allow operating the device in a plug-in card

  17. Fuel Cell Stations Automate Processes, Catalyst Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Glenn Research Center looks for ways to improve fuel cells, which are an important source of power for space missions, as well as the equipment used to test fuel cells. With Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) awards from Glenn, Lynntech Inc., of College Station, Texas, addressed a major limitation of fuel cell testing equipment. Five years later, the company obtained a patent and provided the equipment to the commercial world. Now offered through TesSol Inc., of Battle Ground, Washington, the technology is used for fuel cell work, catalyst testing, sensor testing, gas blending, and other applications. It can be found at universities, national laboratories, and businesses around the world.

  18. Handbook on process and chemistry on nuclear fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki (ed.) [Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Asakura, Toshihide; Adachi, Takeo (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-12-01

    'Wet-type' nuclear fuel reprocessing technology, based on PUREX technology, has wide applicability as the principal reprocessing technology of the first generation, and relating technologies, waste management for example, are highly developed, too. It is quite important to establish a database summarizing fundamental information about the process and the chemistry of 'wet-type' reprocessing, because it contributes to establish and develop fuel reprocessing process and nuclear fuel cycle treating high burn-up UO{sub 2} fuel and spent MOX fuel, and to utilize 'wet-type' reprocessing technology much widely. This handbook summarizes the fundamental data on process and chemistry, which was collected and examined by 'Editing Committee of Handbook on Process and Chemistry of Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing', from FY 1993 until FY 2000. (author)

  19. Materials and processes for solar fuel production

    CERN Document Server

    Viswanathan, Balasubramanian; Lee, Jae Sung

    2014-01-01

    This book features different approaches to non-biochemical pathways for solar fuel production. This one-of-a-kind book addresses photovoltaics, photocatalytic water splitting for clean hydrogen production and CO2 conversion to hydrocarbon fuel through in-depth comprehensive contributions from a select blend of established and experienced authors from across the world. The commercial application of solar based systems, with particular emphasis on non-PV based devices have been discussed. This book intends to serve as a primary resource for a multidisciplinary audience including chemists, engineers and scientists providing a one-stop location for all aspects related to solar fuel production. The material is divided into three sections: Solar assisted water splitting to produce hydrogen; Solar assisted CO2 utilization to produce green fuels and Solar assisted electricity generation. The content strikes a balance between theory, material synthesis and application with the central theme being solar fuels.

  20. Modeling the Thermal Rocket Fuel Preparation Processes in the Launch Complex Fueling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zolin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to carry out fuel temperature preparation for space launch vehicles using hydrocarbon propellant components. A required temperature is reached with cooling or heating hydrocarbon fuel in ground facilities fuel storages. Fuel temperature preparing processes are among the most energy-intensive and lengthy processes that require the optimal technologies and regimes of cooling (heating fuel, which can be defined using the simulation of heat exchange processes for preparing the rocket fuel.The issues of research of different technologies and simulation of cooling processes of rocket fuel with liquid nitrogen are given in [1-10]. Diagrams of temperature preparation of hydrocarbon fuel, mathematical models and characteristics of cooling fuel with its direct contact with liquid nitrogen dispersed are considered, using the numerical solution of a system of heat transfer equations, in publications [3,9].Analytical models, allowing to determine the necessary flow rate and the mass of liquid nitrogen and the cooling (heating time fuel in specific conditions and requirements, are preferred for determining design and operational characteristics of the hydrocarbon fuel cooling system.A mathematical model of the temperature preparation processes is developed. Considered characteristics of these processes are based on the analytical solutions of the equations of heat transfer and allow to define operating parameters of temperature preparation of hydrocarbon fuel in the design and operation of the filling system of launch vehicles.The paper considers a technological system to fill the launch vehicles providing the temperature preparation of hydrocarbon gases at the launch site. In this system cooling the fuel in the storage tank before filling the launch vehicle is provided by hydrocarbon fuel bubbling with liquid nitrogen. Hydrocarbon fuel is heated with a pumping station, which provides fuel circulation through the heat exchanger-heater, with

  1. Renewable hydrogen production for fossil fuel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.; Tevault, C.V. [and others

    1995-06-01

    In the fundamental biological process of photosynthesis, atmospheric carbon dioxide is reduced to carbohydrate using water as the source of electrons with simultaneous evolution of molecular oxygen: H{sub 2}O + CO{sub 2} + light {yields} O{sub 2} + (CH{sub 2}O). It is well established that two light reactions, Photosystems I and II (PSI and PSII) working in series, are required to perform oxygenic photosynthesis. Experimental data supporting the two-light reaction model are based on the quantum requirement for complete photosynthesis, spectroscopy, and direct biochemical analysis. Some algae also have the capability to evolve molecular hydrogen in a reaction energized by the light reactions of photosynthesis. This process, now known as biophotolysis, can use water as the electron donor and lead to simultaneous evolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen. In green algae, hydrogen evolution requires prior incubation under anaerobic conditions. Atmospheric oxygen inhibits hydrogen evolution and also represses the synthesis of hydrogenase enzyme. CO{sub 2} fixation competes with proton reduction for electrons relased from the photosystems. Interest in biophotolysis arises from both the questions that it raises concerning photosynthesis and its potential practical application as a process for converting solar energy to a non-carbon-based fuel. Prior data supported the requirement for both Photosystem I and Photosystem II in spanning the energy gap necessary for biophotolysis of water to oxygen and hydrogen. In this paper we report the at PSII alone is capable of driving sustained simultaneous photoevolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen in an anaerobically adapted PSI-deficient strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, mutant B4, and that CO{sub 2} competes as an electron acceptor.

  2. DUPIC nuclear fuel manufacturing and process technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Park, J. J.; Lee, J. W. [and others

    2000-05-01

    In this study, DUPIC fuel fabrication technology and the active fuel laboratory were developed for the study of spent nuclear fuel. A new nuclear fuel using highly radioactive nuclear materials can be studied at the active fuel laboratory. Detailed DUPIC fuel fabrication process flow was developed considering the manufacturing flow, quality control process and material accountability. The equipment layout of about twenty DUPIC equipment at IMEF M6 hot cell was established for the minimization of the contamination during DUPIC processes. The characteristics of the SIMFUEL powder and pellets was studied in terms of milling conditions. The characteristics of DUPIC powder and pellet was studied by using 1 kg of spent PWR fuel at PIEF nr.9405 hot cell. The results were used as reference process conditions for following DUPIC fuel fabrication at IMEF M6. Based on the reference fabrication process conditions, the main DUPIC pellet fabrication campaign has been started at IMEF M6 using 2 kg of spent PWR fuel since 2000 January. As of March 2000, about thirty DUPIC pellets were successfully fabricated.

  3. DUPIC nuclear fuel manufacturing and process technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Won; Yang, M. S.; Kim, S. S. [and others

    2002-05-01

    In this study, the DUPIC fuel fabrication technology for DUPIC pellet and element satisfying the standard specification was verified through (1) the improvement of fabrication technology and equipment, (2) remote operation of fuel manufacturing and inspection equipment installed at DFDF and (3) the study on the material properties of DUPIC fuel. The blending process was newly developed for making DUPIC powder composition homogeneous, and mixing process was added to the DUPIC process flow for fabricating crack-free pellets. A series of fabrication experiments were carried out in terms of various process conditions. Based on these experimental results, the optimal process flow and conditions for DUPIC fuel fabrication were established. 6 DUPIC elements and 6 mini-elements for irradiation test in HANARO was successfully fabricated using 7.4 kg of spent PWR fuel in 2000. The process qualification tests has been performed using 10 kg of spent PWR fuel since May 2001. The optimal DUPIC fuel fabrication process meeting AECL's quality requirements has been established and qualified. Quality assurance system for DUPIC fuel fabrication was also established in cooperation of AECL.

  4. Fuel ethanol production: process design trends and integration opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Carlos A; Sánchez, Oscar J

    2007-09-01

    Current fuel ethanol research and development deals with process engineering trends for improving biotechnological production of ethanol. In this work, the key role that process design plays during the development of cost-effective technologies is recognized through the analysis of major trends in process synthesis, modeling, simulation and optimization related to ethanol production. Main directions in techno-economical evaluation of fuel ethanol processes are described as well as some prospecting configurations. The most promising alternatives for compensating ethanol production costs by the generation of valuable co-products are analyzed. Opportunities for integration of fuel ethanol production processes and their implications are underlined. Main ways of process intensification through reaction-reaction, reaction-separation and separation-separation processes are analyzed in the case of bioethanol production. Some examples of energy integration during ethanol production are also highlighted. Finally, some concluding considerations on current and future research tendencies in fuel ethanol production regarding process design and integration are presented.

  5. Effects of Fuel Quantity on Soot Formation Process for Biomass-Based Renewable Diesel Fuel Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Soot formation process was investigated for biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, such as biomass to liquid (BTL), and conventional diesel combustion under varied fuel quantities injected into a constant volume combustion chamber. Soot measurement was implemented by two-color pyrometry under quiescent type diesel engine conditions (1000 K and 21% O2 concentration). Different fuel quantities, which correspond to different injection widths from 0.5 ms to 2 ms under constant injection pressure (1000 bar), were used to simulate different loads in engines. For a given fuel, soot temperature and KL factor show a different trend at initial stage for different fuel quantities, where a higher soot temperature can be found in a small fuel quantity case but a higher KL factor is observed in a large fuel quantity case generally. Another difference occurs at the end of combustion due to the termination of fuel injection. Additionally, BTL flame has a lower soot temperature, especially under a larger fuel quantity (2 ms injection width). Meanwhile, average soot level is lower for BTL flame, especially under a lower fuel quantity (0.5 ms injection width). BTL shows an overall low sooting behavior with low soot temperature compared to diesel, however, trade-off between soot level and soot temperature needs to be carefully selected when different loads are used.

  6. Systems and processes for conversion of ethylene feedstocks to hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilga, Michael A.; Hallen, Richard T.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Cooper, Alan R.; Frye, John G.; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan Kallupalayam

    2017-05-30

    Systems, processes, and catalysts are disclosed for obtaining fuel and fuel blends containing selected ratios of open-chain and closed-chain fuel-range hydrocarbons suitable for production of alternate fuels including gasolines, jet fuels, and diesel fuels. Fuel-range hydrocarbons may be derived from ethylene-containing feedstocks and ethanol-containing feedstocks.

  7. Modeling of large-scale oxy-fuel combustion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2012-01-01

    , among which radiative heat transfer under oxy-fuel conditions is one of the fundamental issues. This paper demonstrates the nongray-gas effects in modeling of large-scale oxy-fuel combustion processes. Oxy-fuel combustion of natural gas in a 609MW utility boiler is numerically studied, in which....... The simulation results show that the gray and non-gray calculations of the same oxy-fuel WSGGM make distinctly different predictions in the wall radiative heat transfer, incident radiative flux, radiative source, gas temperature and species profiles. In relative to the non-gray implementation, the gray...

  8. Fuel processors for fuel cell APU applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicher, T.; Lenz, B.; Gschnell, F.; Groos, U.; Federici, F.; Caprile, L.; Parodi, L.

    The conversion of liquid hydrocarbons to a hydrogen rich product gas is a central process step in fuel processors for auxiliary power units (APUs) for vehicles of all kinds. The selection of the reforming process depends on the fuel and the type of the fuel cell. For vehicle power trains, liquid hydrocarbons like gasoline, kerosene, and diesel are utilized and, therefore, they will also be the fuel for the respective APU systems. The fuel cells commonly envisioned for mobile APU applications are molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC), solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), and proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Since high-temperature fuel cells, e.g. MCFCs or SOFCs, can be supplied with a feed gas that contains carbon monoxide (CO) their fuel processor does not require reactors for CO reduction and removal. For PEMFCs on the other hand, CO concentrations in the feed gas must not exceed 50 ppm, better 20 ppm, which requires additional reactors downstream of the reforming reactor. This paper gives an overview of the current state of the fuel processor development for APU applications and APU system developments. Furthermore, it will present the latest developments at Fraunhofer ISE regarding fuel processors for high-temperature fuel cell APU systems on board of ships and aircrafts.

  9. Integrated coke, asphalt and jet fuel production process and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jer Y.

    1991-01-01

    A process and apparatus for the production of coke, asphalt and jet fuel m a feed of fossil fuels containing volatile carbon compounds therein is disclosed. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the feed in an entrained bed pyrolyzing means, separating the volatile pyrolysis products from the solid pyrolysis products removing at least one coke from the solid pyrolysis products, fractionating the volatile pyrolysis products to produce an overhead stream and a bottom stream which is useful as asphalt for road pavement, condensing the overhead stream to produce a condensed liquid fraction and a noncondensable, gaseous fraction, and removing water from the condensed liquid fraction to produce a jet fuel-containing product. The disclosed apparatus is useful for practicing the foregoing process. the process provides a useful method of mass producing and jet fuels from materials such as coal, oil shale and tar sands.

  10. Electrochemical fluorination for processing of used nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.; Martinez-Rodriguez, Michael J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Olson, Luke C.

    2016-07-05

    A galvanic cell and methods of using the galvanic cell is described for the recovery of uranium from used nuclear fuel according to an electrofluorination process. The galvanic cell requires no input energy and can utilize relatively benign gaseous fluorinating agents. Uranium can be recovered from used nuclear fuel in the form of gaseous uranium compound such as uranium hexafluoride, which can then be converted to metallic uranium or UO.sub.2 and processed according to known methodology to form a useful product, e.g., fuel pellets for use in a commercial energy production system.

  11. Galvanic cell for processing of used nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.; Martinez-Rodriguez, Michael J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Olson, Luke C.

    2017-02-07

    A galvanic cell and methods of using the galvanic cell is described for the recovery of uranium from used nuclear fuel according to an electrofluorination process. The galvanic cell requires no input energy and can utilize relatively benign gaseous fluorinating agents. Uranium can be recovered from used nuclear fuel in the form of gaseous uranium compound such as uranium hexafluoride, which can then be converted to metallic uranium or UO.sub.2 and processed according to known methodology to form a useful product, e.g., fuel pellets for use in a commercial energy production system.

  12. Distillate fuel-oil processing for phosphoric acid fuel-cell power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushiba, K. K.

    1980-02-01

    The current efforts to develop distillate oil-steam reforming processes are reviewed, and the applicability of these processes for integration with the fuel cell are discussed. The development efforts can be grouped into the following processing approaches: high-temperature steam reforming (HTSR); autothermal reforming (ATR); autothermal gasification (AG); and ultra desulfurization followed by steam reforming. Sulfur in the feed is a key problem in the process development. A majority of the developers consider sulfur as an unavoidable contaminant of distillate fuel and are aiming to cope with it by making the process sulfur-tolerant. In the HTSR development, the calcium aluminate catalyst developed by Toyo Engineering represents the state of the art. United Technology (UTC), Engelhard, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are also involved in the HTSR research. The ATR of distillate fuel is investigated by UTC and JPL. The autothermal gasification (AG) of distillate fuel is being investigated by Engelhard and Siemens AG. As in the ATR, the fuel is catalytically gasified utilizing the heat generated by in situ partial combustion of feed, however, the goal of the AG is to accomplish the initial breakdown of the feed into light gases and not to achieve complete conversion to CO and H/sub 2/. For the fuel-cell integration, a secondary reforming of the light gases from the AG step is required. Engelhard is currently testing a system in which the effluent from the AG section enters the steam-reforming section, all housed in a single vessel. (WHK)

  13. An Innovative On-Board Computer for Space Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ran; JIN Ming-he; XIA Jin-jun; LIU Hong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper an on-board computer system for the first Chinese Intelligent Space Robotic System was presented. A fault tolerance design on on-board computer (OBC) was proposed that allows commercial-off-theshelf (COTS) devices to be incorporated into dual processing modules of on-board computer. The processing module is composed of 32-bit ARM RISC processor and other COTS devices. This innovative approach deeply relies on light weight/low cost equipment development using commercial miniaturized parts and non-space qualified technologies. As well as, a set of fault handling mechanisms was implemented in the computer system. The on-board software was organized around a set of processes that communicate between each other through a routing process.The qualification experiment shows that the fault tolerant on-board computer has excellent data processing capability and is enough to meet the demanding of the extremely tight constraints on mass, volume, power consumption and space environmental conditions.

  14. On-Board Mining in the Sensor Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, S.; Conover, H.; Graves, S.; Ramachandran, R.; Rushing, J.

    2004-12-01

    On-board data mining can contribute to many research and engineering applications, including natural hazard detection and prediction, intelligent sensor control, and the generation of customized data products for direct distribution to users. The ability to mine sensor data in real time can also be a critical component of autonomous operations, supporting deep space missions, unmanned aerial and ground-based vehicles (UAVs, UGVs), and a wide range of sensor meshes, webs and grids. On-board processing is expected to play a significant role in the next generation of NASA, Homeland Security, Department of Defense and civilian programs, providing for greater flexibility and versatility in measurements of physical systems. In addition, the use of UAV and UGV systems is increasing in military, emergency response and industrial applications. As research into the autonomy of these vehicles progresses, especially in fleet or web configurations, the applicability of on-board data mining is expected to increase significantly. Data mining in real time on board sensor platforms presents unique challenges. Most notably, the data to be mined is a continuous stream, rather than a fixed store such as a database. This means that the data mining algorithms must be modified to make only a single pass through the data. In addition, the on-board environment requires real time processing with limited computing resources, thus the algorithms must use fixed and relatively small amounts of processing time and memory. The University of Alabama in Huntsville is developing an innovative processing framework for the on-board data and information environment. The Environment for On-Board Processing (EVE) and the Adaptive On-board Data Processing (AODP) projects serve as proofs-of-concept of advanced information systems for remote sensing platforms. The EVE real-time processing infrastructure will upload, schedule and control the execution of processing plans on board remote sensors. These plans

  15. Development of Voloxidation Process for Treatment of LWR Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. J.; Jung, I. H.; Shin, J. M. (and others)

    2007-08-15

    The objective of the project is to develop a process which provides a means to recover fuel from the cladding, and to simplify downstream processes by recovering volatile fission products. This work focuses on the process development in three areas ; the measurement and assessment of the release behavior for the volatile and semi-volatile fission products from the voloxidation process, the assessment of techniques to trap and recover gaseous fission products, and the development of process cycles to optimize fuel cladding separation and fuel particle size. High temperature adsorption method of KAERI was adopted in the co-design of OTS for hot experiment in INL. KAERI supplied 6 sets of filter for hot experiment. Three hot experiment in INL hot cell from the 25th of November for two weeks with attaching 4 KAERI staffs had been carried out. The results were promising. For example, trapping efficiency of Cs was 95% and that of I was 99%, etc.

  16. Analysis of the ATR fuel element swaging process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richins, W.D.; Miller, G.K.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a detailed evaluation of the swaging process used to connect fuel plates to side plates in Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) fuel elements. The swaging is a mechanical process that begins with fitting a fuel plate into grooves in the side plates. Once a fuel plate is positioned, a lip on each of two side plate grooves is pressed into the fuel plate using swaging wheels to form the joints. Each connection must have a specified strength (measured in terms, of a pullout force capacity) to assure that these joints do not fail during reactor operation. The purpose of this study is to analyze the swaging process and associated procedural controls, and to provide recommendations to assure that the manufacturing process produces swaged connections that meet the minimum strength requirement. The current fuel element manufacturer, Babcock and Wilcox (B&W) of Lynchburg, Virginia, follows established procedures that include quality inspections and process controls in swaging these connections. The procedures have been approved by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies and are designed to assure repeatability of the process and structural integrity of each joint. Prior to July 1994, ATR fuel elements were placed in the Hydraulic Test Facility (HTF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (AGNAIL), Test Reactor Area (TRA) for application of Boehmite (an aluminum oxide) film and for checking structural integrity before placement of the elements into the ATR. The results presented in this report demonstrate that the pullout strength of the swaged connections is assured by the current manufacturing process (with several recommended enhancements) without the need for- testing each element in the HTF.

  17. Design of demonstration facility for advanced spent fuel conditioning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, W. M.; Koo, J. H.; Jeo, I. J.; Kook, D. H.; Lee, E. P.; Baek, S. R.; Lee, K. I.; You, K. S.; Park, S. W. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    The Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process(ACP) was proposed and developed for effective management of the PWR spent fuel. The detail plan was established for demonstration and verification of the ACP, and an existing hot cell will be modified as {alpha}-{gamma} type hot cell. In this study, the process mechanical flow was analysed for the optimum arrangement to ensure effective process operation in hot cell, and the detail design of hot cell including the auxiliary facility and safety analysis was performed to secure conservative safety of hot cell system. And then, this results will be utilized for hot cell refurbishment and license.

  18. Microwave Processing of Simulated Advanced Nuclear Fuel Pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.E. Clark; D.C. Folz

    2010-08-29

    Throughout the three-year project funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) and lead by Virginia Tech (VT), project tasks were modified by consensus to fit the changing needs of the DOE with respect to developing new inert matrix fuel processing techniques. The focus throughout the project was on the use of microwave energy to sinter fully stabilized zirconia pellets using microwave energy and to evaluate the effectiveness of techniques that were developed. Additionally, the research team was to propose fundamental concepts as to processing radioactive fuels based on the effectiveness of the microwave process in sintering the simulated matrix material.

  19. Development of an integrated, zero-G pneumatic transporter/rotating-paddle incinerator/catalytic afterburner subsystem for processing human waste on board spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, S. F.; Labak, L. J.; Honegger, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    A baseline laboratory prototype of an integrated, six man, zero-g subsystem for processing human wastes onboard spacecraft was investigated, and included the development of an operational specification for the baseline subsystem, followed by design and fabrication. The program was concluded by performing a series of six tests over a period of two weeks to evaluate the performance of the subsystem. The results of the tests were satisfactory, however, several changes in the design of the subsystem are required before completely satisfactory performance can be achieved.

  20. Nuclear fuels: Development, processing and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allday, C.

    1982-08-01

    The successful development of the world's energy resources has enabled industries in the more advanced countries to provide the economic basis on which improved living standards are based. As the less well-developed countries seek to improve their standards of living the pressure on existing energy resources will increase. In this context it is essential not to allow the current industrial recession in the developed countries, with its associated apparent abundancy of coal, oil and gas, to mask the longer-term energy situation. It is not here proposed to discuss the role of nuclear power in the energy scene except to say that, with the continuing need to develop energy resources, nuclear as a proven safe and economic system - will have a vital role to fulfil in meeting the world's future energy demands. This paper is concerned with the development of nuclear fuel and the industry which has grown around it during the last 30 years. It shall concentrate on its development in this country and describe the history and activities of BNFL.

  1. Novel Redox Processes for Carbonaceous Fuel Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng

    The current study investigates oxygen carrier development, process intensification, and oxygen carrier attrition behaviors for a number of novel, redox-based energy conversion schemes. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  2. Digital mock-up for the spent fuel disassembly processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Song, T. G.; Kim, Y. H.; Hong, D. H.; Yoon, J. S

    2000-12-01

    In this study, the graphical design system is developed and the digital mock-up is implemented for designing the spent fuel handling and disassembly processes. The system consists of a 3D graphical modeling system, a devices assembling system, and a motion simulation system. This system is used throughout the design stages from the conceptual design to the motion analysis. By using this system, all the process involved in the spent fuel handling and disassembly processes are analyzed and optimized. Also, this system is used in developing the on-line graphic simulator which synchronously simulates the motion of the equipment in a real time basis by connecting the device controllers with the graphic server through the TCP/IP network. This simulator can be effectively used for detecting the malfunctions of the process equipment which is remotely operated. Thus, the simulator enhances the reliability and safety of the spent fuel handling process by providing the remote monitoring function of the process. The graphical design system and the digital mock-up system can be effectively used for designing the process equipment, as well as the optimized process and maintenance process. And the on-line graphic simulator can be an alternative of the conventional process monitoring system which is a hardware based system.

  3. Proceedings of the workshop on hydrocarbon processing mixing and scale-up problems. [Fuels processing for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabor, J. D. [ed.

    1978-01-01

    A workshop was convened by the Division of Fossil Fuel Utilization of the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the Particulate and Multiphase Process Program of the National Science Foundation to identify needs for fundamental engineering support for the design of chemical reactors for processing heavy hydrocarbon liquids. The problems associated with dispersing liquid hydrocarbons in a reacting gas and mixing within the gas phase are of primary concern. The transactions of the workshop begin with an introduction to the immediate goals of the Department of Energy. Fuel cell systems and current research and development are reviewed. Modeling of combustion and the problems of soot formation and deposits in hydrocarbon fuels are next considered. The fluid mechanics of turbulent mixing and its effect on chemical reactions are then presented. Current experimental work and process development provide an update on the present state-of-the-art.

  4. Advanced Fuels and Combustion Processes for Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    production from biomass steam reforming – Conduct a feasibility analysis of the proposed integrated process Energia Technologies - D. Nguyen & K. Parimi...strength foam material development by Ultramet – Combustion experiments performed U. Of Alabama – End-user input provided by Solar Turbines Major

  5. Nuclear fuel materials processing in reactive gas plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jin Young; Yang, Myung Seung; Seo, Yong Dae; Kim Yong Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    DUPIC fuel cycle development project in KAERI of Korea was initiated in 1991 and has advanced in relevant technologies for last 10 years. The project includes five different topics such as nuclear fuel manufacturing, compatibility evaluation, performance evaluation, manufacturing facility management, and safeguards. The contents and results of DUPIC R and D up to now are as follow: - the basic foundation was established for the critically required pelletizing technology and powder treatment technology for DUPIC. - development of DUPIC process line and deployment of 20 each process equipment and examination instruments in DFDF. - powder and pellet characterization study was done at PIEF based on the simfuel study results, and 30 DUPIC pellets were successfully produced. - the manufactured pellets were used for sample fuel rods irradiated in July,2000 in HANARO research reactor in KAERI and have been under post irradiation examination. (Hong, J. S.)

  6. DUPIC nuclear fuel manufacturing and process technology development at KAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Sung Paal; Lee, Jung Won; Kim, Jong Ho; Kim, Soo Sung; Kim, Woong Ki; Yang, Myung Seung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    DUPIC fuel cycle development project in KAERI of Korea was initiated in 1991 and has advanced in relevant technologies for last 10 years. The project includes five different topics such as nuclear fuel manufacturing, compatibility evaluation, performance evaluation, manufacturing facility management, and safeguards. The contents and results of DUPIC R and D up to now are as follow: - the basic foundation was established for the critically required pelletizing technology and powder treatment technology for DUPIC. - development of DUPIC process line and deployment of 20 each process equipment and examination instruments in DFDF. - powder and pellet characterization study was done at PIEF based on the simfuel study results, and 30 DUPIC pellets were successfully produced. - the manufactured pellets were used for sample fuel rods irradiated in July,2000 in HANARO research reactor in KAERI and has been under post irradiation examination. (Hong, J. S.)

  7. Sustainable Production of Asphalt using Biomass as Primary Process Fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Fabian; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    is the heating and drying of aggregate,where natural gas, fuel oil or LPG is burned in a direct-fired rotary dryer. Replacing this energy source with amore sustainable one presents several technical and economic challenges, as high temperatures, short startuptimes and seasonal production variations are required......The production of construction materials is very energy intensive and requires large quantities of fossil fuels.Asphalt is the major road paving material in Europe and is being produced primarily in stationary batch mixasphalt factories. The production process requiring the most energy....... This paper analyses different pathways for the useof biomass feedstock as a primary process fuel. The analysed cases consider the gasification of straw andwood chips and the direct combustion of wood pellets. The additional use of syngas from the gasifier for theproduction of heat or combined heat and power...

  8. Effect of fuel size and process temperature on fuel gas quality from CFB gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Drift, A.; Van Doorn, J. [ECN Biomass, Petten (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    A bench-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasifier with a capacity of max. 500 kWh{sub th} has been used to study the effect of fuel size and process temperature. A higher process temperature (range tested: 750 to 910C) results in more air needed to maintain the desired temperature, a lower heating value of the product gas, a higher carbon conversion and a net increase of cold gas efficiency of the gasifier. A higher process temperature also results in less heavy tars. However, light tars (measured using the solid phase adsorbent (SPA) method) do show an odd behaviour. Some individual components within the group of light tars even increase in concentration when process temperature is raised. The main reason probably is that heavy tars decompose to these relatively stable light tar components. The particle size of the fuel does influence some product gas parameters considerably. The presence of small particles seems to increase the (heavy) tar concentration and decrease the conversion of fuel-nitrogen to ammonia. Small particles can also be responsible for large temperature gradients along the axis of the riser of a CFB-gasifier. This effect can be avoided by either mixing the fuel with larger particles or feed the small particles at the bottom of the reactor. 5 refs.

  9. High temperature polymer fuel cells and their Interplay with fuel processing systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Qingfeng, Li; He, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports recent results from our group on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) based on the temperature resistant polymer polybenzimidazole (PBI), which allow working temperatures up to 200°C. The membrane has a water drag number near zero and need no water management at all....... The high working temperature allows for utilization of the excess heat for fuel processing. Moreover, it provides an excellent CO tolerance of several percent, and the system needs no purification of hydrogen from a reformer. Continuous service for over 6 months at 150°C has been demonstrated....

  10. Pyrolysis process for producing fuel gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, Michael A. (Inventor); Kroo, Erik (Inventor); Wojtowicz, Marek A. (Inventor); Suuberg, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Solid waste resource recovery in space is effected by pyrolysis processing, to produce light gases as the main products (CH.sub.4, H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2O, NH.sub.3) and a reactive carbon-rich char as the main byproduct. Significant amounts of liquid products are formed under less severe pyrolysis conditions, and are cracked almost completely to gases as the temperature is raised. A primary pyrolysis model for the composite mixture is based on an existing model for whole biomass materials, and an artificial neural network models the changes in gas composition with the severity of pyrolysis conditions.

  11. Fuel cell commercialization issues for light-duty vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroni-Bird, Christopher E.

    The major challenges facing fuel cells in light-duty vehicle applications relate to the high cost of the fuel cell stack components (membrane, electro-catalyst and bipolar plate) which dictate that new manufacturing processes and materials must be developed. Initially, the best fuel for a mass market light-duty vehicle will probably not be the best fuel for the fuel cell (hydrogen); refueling infrastructure and energy density concerns may demand the use of an on-board fuel processor for petroleum-based fuels since this will increase customer acceptance. The use of fuel processors does, however, reduce the fuel cell system's efficiency. Moreover, if such fuels are used then the emissions benefit associated with fuel cells may come with a significant penalty in terms of added complexity, weight, size and cost. However, ultimately, fuel cells powered by hydrogen do promise to be the most efficient and cleanest of automotive powertrains.

  12. Process development and fabrication for sphere-pac fuel rods. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welty, R.K.; Campbell, M.H.

    1981-06-01

    Uranium fuel rods containing sphere-pac fuel have been fabricated for in-reactor tests and demonstrations. A process for the development, qualification, and fabrication of acceptable sphere-pac fuel rods is described. Special equipment to control fuel contamination with moisture or air and the equipment layout needed for rod fabrication is described and tests for assuring the uniformity of the fuel column are discussed. Fuel retainers required for sphere-pac fuel column stability and instrumentation to measure fuel column smear density are described. Results of sphere-pac fuel rod fabrication campaigns are reviewed and recommended improvements for high throughput production are noted.

  13. Hydrocarbon fuel processing of micro solid oxide fuel cell systems[Dissertation 17455

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutz, M. J.

    2007-07-01

    The scope of this thesis is the numerical and experimental investigation of the fuel processing of a micro solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) running on hydrocarbon fuel. The goal is to enhance the overall system efficiency by optimization of the reforming process in the steady state and the improvement of the start-up process. Micro SOFC are a potential alternative to the currently used batteries in portable devices. Liquid butane in a cartridge could be the energy source. This dissertation is focused on the fuel processing of the system, namely the reforming and post-combusting processes. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon fuel to a hydrogen rich gas that can be utilized by the SOFC. The post-combustor depletes the toxic and/or explosive gases before leaving the exhaust. Chapter One presents a short introduction to the field of hydrocarbon fuel processing in micro solid oxide fuel cell systems, the next three chapters deal with computational modeling of the transport phenomena inside a micro-reformer, which leads to a better understanding of the chemistry and the physics therein, hence progress in the design and operation parameters. The experimental part (i.e. Chapter Five) of this thesis focuses on the feasibility of a novel hybrid start-up method of a fuel cell system that employs existing components as an additional heat source. In Chapter Two the effect of wall heat conduction on the syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) production of a micro-reformer, representing micro-fabricated channels or monoliths, is investigated. Methane is used as a model hydrocarbon fuel since its heterogeneous reaction path on rhodium is known and validated. The simulations demonstrate that the axial wall conduction strongly influences the performance of the micro-reformer and should not be neglected without a careful a priori investigation of its impact. Methane conversion and hydrogen yield are strongly dependent of the wall inner surface temperature, which is influenced by the

  14. Hydrocarbon fuel processing of micro solid oxide fuel cell systems[Dissertation 17455

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutz, M. J.

    2007-07-01

    The scope of this thesis is the numerical and experimental investigation of the fuel processing of a micro solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) running on hydrocarbon fuel. The goal is to enhance the overall system efficiency by optimization of the reforming process in the steady state and the improvement of the start-up process. Micro SOFC are a potential alternative to the currently used batteries in portable devices. Liquid butane in a cartridge could be the energy source. This dissertation is focused on the fuel processing of the system, namely the reforming and post-combusting processes. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon fuel to a hydrogen rich gas that can be utilized by the SOFC. The post-combustor depletes the toxic and/or explosive gases before leaving the exhaust. Chapter One presents a short introduction to the field of hydrocarbon fuel processing in micro solid oxide fuel cell systems, the next three chapters deal with computational modeling of the transport phenomena inside a micro-reformer, which leads to a better understanding of the chemistry and the physics therein, hence progress in the design and operation parameters. The experimental part (i.e. Chapter Five) of this thesis focuses on the feasibility of a novel hybrid start-up method of a fuel cell system that employs existing components as an additional heat source. In Chapter Two the effect of wall heat conduction on the syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) production of a micro-reformer, representing micro-fabricated channels or monoliths, is investigated. Methane is used as a model hydrocarbon fuel since its heterogeneous reaction path on rhodium is known and validated. The simulations demonstrate that the axial wall conduction strongly influences the performance of the micro-reformer and should not be neglected without a careful a priori investigation of its impact. Methane conversion and hydrogen yield are strongly dependent of the wall inner surface temperature, which is influenced by the

  15. Modular, High-Volume Fuel Cell Leak-Test Suite and Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ru Chen; Ian Kaye

    2012-03-12

    Fuel cell stacks are typically hand-assembled and tested. As a result the manufacturing process is labor-intensive and time-consuming. The fluid leakage in fuel cell stacks may reduce fuel cell performance, damage fuel cell stack, or even cause fire and become a safety hazard. Leak check is a critical step in the fuel cell stack manufacturing. The fuel cell industry is in need of fuel cell leak-test processes and equipment that is automatic, robust, and high throughput. The equipment should reduce fuel cell manufacturing cost.

  16. Used nuclear fuel separations process simulation and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, C.; Krebs, J.F.; Copple, J.M.; Frey, K.E.; Maggos, L.E.; Figueroa, J.; Willit, J.L.; Papadias, D.D. [Argonne National Laboratory: 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Recent efforts in separations process simulation at Argonne have expanded from the traditional focus on solvent extraction flowsheet design in order to capture process dynamics and to simulate other components, processing and systems of a used nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. For example, the Argonne Model for Universal Solvent Extraction (AMUSE) code has been enhanced to make it both more portable and more readily extensible. Moving away from a spreadsheet environment makes the addition of new species and processes simpler for the expert user, which should enable more rapid implementation of chemical models that simulate evolving processes. The dyAMUSE (dynamic AMUSE) version allows the simulation of transient behavior across an extractor. Electrochemical separations have now been modeled using spreadsheet codes that simulate the electrochemical recycle of fast reactor fuel. The user can follow the evolution of the salt, products, and waste compositions in the electro-refiner, cathode processors, and drawdown as a function of fuel batches treated. To further expand capabilities in integrating multiple unit operations, a platform for linking mathematical models representing the different operations that comprise a reprocessing facility was adapted to enable systems-level analysis and optimization of facility functions. (authors)

  17. Understanding the transport processes in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, May Jean

    Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are energy conversion devices suitable for automotive, stationary and portable applications. An engineering challenge that is hindering the widespread use of PEM fuel cells is the water management issue, where either a lack of water (resulting in membrane dehydration) or an excess accumulation of liquid water (resulting in fuel cell flooding) critically reduces the PEM fuel cell performance. The water management issue is addressed by this dissertation through the study of three transport processes occurring in PEM fuel cells. Water transport within the membrane is a combination of water diffusion down the water activity gradient and the dragging of water molecules by protons when there is a proton current, in a phenomenon termed electro-osmotic drag, EOD. The impact of water diffusion and EOD on the water flux across the membrane is reduced due to water transport resistance at the vapor/membrane interface. The redistribution of water inside the membrane by EOD causes an overall increase in the membrane resistance that regulates the current and thus EOD, thereby preventing membrane dehydration. Liquid water transport in the PEM fuel cell flow channel was examined at different gas flow regimes. At low gas Reynolds numbers, drops transitioned into slugs that are subsequently pushed out of the flow channel by the gas flow. The slug volume is dependent on the geometric shape, the surface wettability and the orientation (with respect to gravity) of the flow channel. The differential pressure required for slug motion primarily depends on the interfacial forces acting along the contact lines at the front and the back of the slug. At high gas Reynolds number, water is removed as a film or as drops depending on the flow channel surface wettability. The shape of growing drops at low and high Reynolds number can be described by a simple interfacial energy minimization model. Under flooding conditions, the fuel cell local current

  18. Technical and regulatory review of the Rover nuclear fuel process for use on Fort St. Vrain fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzler, T. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1993-02-01

    This report describes the results of an analysis for processing and final disposal of Fort St. Vrain (FSV) irradiated fuel in Rover-type equipment or technologies. This analysis includes an evaluation of the current Rover equipment status and the applicability of this technology in processing FSV fuel. The analyses are based on the physical characteristics of the FSV fuel and processing capabilities of the Rover equipment. Alternate FSV fuel disposal options are also considered including fuel-rod removal from the block, disposal of the empty block, or disposal of the entire fuel-containing block. The results of these analyses document that the current Rover hardware is not operable for any purpose, and any effort to restart this hardware will require extensive modifications and re-evaluation. However, various aspects of the Rover technology, such as the successful fluid-bed burner design, can be applied with modification to FSV fuel processing. The current regulatory climate and technical knowledge are not adequately defined to allow a complete analysis and conclusion with respect to the disposal of intact fuel blocks with or without the fuel rods removed. The primary unknowns include the various aspects of fuel-rod removal from the block, concentration of radionuclides remaining in the graphite block after rod removal, and acceptability of carbon in the form of graphite in a high level waste repository.

  19. On-board conversion of alcohols to ethers for fumigation in compression ignition engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armbruster, H.; Stucki, S. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland). Laboratorium of Energy and Material Cycles; Olsson, E.; Gjirja, S. [Chalmers University, Goteborg (Sweden). Combustion Engine Research Centre

    2003-07-01

    Fumigation of dimethyl ether (DME) is an interesting option for using methanol as a fuel in compression ignition engines. In this concept, a fraction of the methanol used as a fuel is catalytically converted on-board to DME and water, and the products of the conversion are introduced into the engine via the combustion air. With an optimized engine the performance as well as emissions are comparable with those obtained when running the engine on alcohol with polyethylene glycol as ignition improver. The methanol conversion has been tested with different catalysts under various conditions. Because of its superior thermal stability and the low costs, {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been selected as the most promising catalyst for converting methanol to DME in sufficient rates for an on-board application. The chemical kinetics and the mass transfer limitations of the {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst used for the methanol dehydration were evaluated. The rate-determining step of the catalytic reaction is found to be the reaction of adsorbed intermediates (the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism); mass transfer is limited by Knudsen diffusivity. The kinetic data were used to design a catalytic converter for fuel processing on-board. Providing DME for fumigation in a 180 kW engine will require approximately 0.7 kg of catalyst. The compact catalyst is necessary for an efficient and fast start-up of the process. The transient behaviour (cold/warm start-up; load changes) of a fixed-bed reactor with {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been estimated using simplified models, which show that the cold start problem should be manageable in less than 1 min. With the hot gas of a methanol burner in front of the fixed bed or a bifunctional catalyst, the catalyst bed can be heated to 250{sup o}C and the reaction of methanol to DME started within 25 s. This is an acceptable time for cold-starting an engine in heavy-duty vehicles. (author)

  20. Towards Extrusion of Ionomers to Process Fuel Cell Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Yves Sanchez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available While Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC membranes are currently prepared by film casting, this paper demonstrates the feasibility of extrusion, a solvent-free alternative process. Thanks to water-soluble process-aid plasticizers, duly selected, it was possible to extrude acidic and alkaline polysulfone ionomers. Additionally, the feasibility to extrude composites was demonstrated. The impact of the plasticizers on the melt viscosity was investigated. Following the extrusion, the plasticizers were fully removed in water. The extrusion was found to impact neither on the ionomer chains, nor on the performances of the membrane. This environmentally friendly process was successfully validated for a variety of high performance ionomers.

  1. Use of Hansen Solubility Parameters in Fuel Treatment Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-17

    Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Jan 2014- Mar 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House Use of Hansen Solubility Parameters in...distribution is unlimited. AFRL Public Affairs Clearance # USE OF HANSEN SOLUBILITY PARAMETERS IN FUEL TREATMENT PROCESSES 17 March 2014 Andrew J...Treatment Needs – Hansen Solubility Parameters • Dyes – Experimental HSP Determination – Extrapolation to Other Dyes • Predictions for Extraction Fluids

  2. ON-BOARD MONITORING OF TECHNICAL STATE FOR POWER UNITS OF WHEELED AND TRACKED VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. D. Karpievich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers new methodologies pertaining to on-board diagnosis of wear-out rate for friction linings of a clutch driven disk and friction discs of a hydraulic press clutch of transmission gear boxes which are based on physical process that uses friction work as an integrated indicator. A new methodology in determination of life-span rate for engine oil has been developed in the paper. The paper presents block schematic diagrams for on-board monitoring of technical state for power units of wheeled and tracked vehicles. Usage of friction work as an integrated indicator for determination of wear-out rate for friction linings of clutch driven disk and friction discs of a haydraulic press clutch makes it possible timely at any operational period of wheeled and tracked vehicles to determine their residual operation life and forecast their replacement.While taking volume of the used fuel for determination of engine oil life-span rate it permits quickly and effectively at any operational period of wheeled and tracked vehicles to determine residual useful life of the engine oil and also forecast its replacement.

  3. Physical Simulation of Burning Process of Alternative Engine Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Assad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Visualization of burning process in the closed vessel has been fulfilled with the help of method high-speed photography through a transparent glass. This method as an efficient means for investigation of fast processes permits to obtain a visual, convenient visual perception insight about the development of the burning process and understand peculiarities of the development of flame in the closed vessels.The paper contains a description of an experimental stand and methodology for execution of an experiment on visualization of the flame development and measurement of main parameters of the burning process in a closed vessel that is in the simulating combustion chamber.According to the obtained photos an analysis of form, structure and dynamics of flame front development has been carried out; some peculiarities and differences of flames of various fuel-air mixtures have been established and the paper proves an occurrence of the secondary glow during burning in the closed vessel.Body of data obtained with the help of the visualization of burning process makes it possible to determine main parameters of the burning process. In particular, relation of the pressure developed in the chamber with the mass of burnt-out mixture has been investigated and dependence has been obtained that shows the law of fuel burning-out in the graphic form.

  4. On-board hydrogen generation for transport applications: the HotSpot™ methanol processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Neil; Ellis, Suzanne R.; Frost, Jonathan C.; Golunski, Stanislaw E.; van Keulen, Arjan N. J.; Lindewald, Nicklas G.; Reinkingh, Jessica G.

    In the absence of a hydrogen infrastructure, development of effective on-board fuel processors is likely to be critical to the commercialisation of fuel-cell cars. The HotSpot™ reactor converts methanol, water and air in a single compact catalyst bed into a reformate containing mainly CO2 and hydrogen (and unreacted nitrogen). The process occurs by a combination of exothermic partial oxidation and endothermic steam reforming of methanol, to produce 750 l of hydrogen per hour from a 245-cm3 reactor. The relative contribution of each reaction can be tuned to match the system requirements at a given time. Scale-up is achieved by the parallel combination of the required number of individual HotSpot reactors, which are fed from a central manifold. Using this modular design, the start-up and transient characteristics of a large fuel-processor are identical to that of a single reactor. When vaporised liquid feed and air are introduced into cold reactors, 100% output is achieved in 50 s; subsequent changes in throughput result in instantaneous changes in output. Surplus energy within the fuel-cell powertrain can be directed to the manifold, where it can be used to vaporise the liquid feeds and so promote steam reforming, resulting in high system efficiency. The small amount of CO that is produced by the HotSpot reactions is attenuated to <10 ppm by a catalytic clean-up unit. The HotSpot concept and CO clean-up strategy are not limited to the processing of methanol, but are being applied to other organic fuels.

  5. Critical assessment of power trains with fuel-cell systems and different fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhlein, B.; von Andrian, S.; Grube, Th; Menzer, R.

    Legal regulations (USA, EU) are a major driving force for intensifying technological developments with respect to the global automobile market. In the future, highly efficient vehicles with very low emission levels will include low-temperature fuel-cell systems (PEFC) as units of electric power trains. With alcohols, ether or hydrocarbons used as fuels for these new electric power trains, hydrogen as PEFC fuel has to be produced on board. These concepts including the direct use of methanol in fuel-cell systems, differ considerably in terms of both their development prospects and the results achieved so far. Based on process engineering analyses for net electricity generation in PEFC-powered power trains, as well as on assumptions for electric power trains and vehicle configurations, different fuel-cell performances and fuel processing units for octane, diesel, methanol, ethanol, propane and dimethylether have been evaluated as fuels. The possible benefits and key challenges for different solutions of power trains with fuel-cell systems/on-board hydrogen production and with direct methanol fuel-cell (DMFC) systems have been assessed. Locally, fuel-cell power trains are almost emission-free and, unlike battery-powered vehicles, their range is comparable to conventional vehicles. Therefore, they have application advantages cases of particularly stringent emission standards requiring zero emission. In comparison to internal combustion engines, using fuel-cell power trains can lead to clear reductions in primary energy demand and global, climate-relevant emissions providing the advantage of the efficiency of the hydrogen/air reaction in the fuel cell is not too drastically reduced by additional conversion steps of on-board hydrogen production, or by losses due to fuel supply provision.

  6. Gender Quotas on Board of Directors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Nina

    2013-01-01

    on the grounds of economic efficiency. Furthermore, in most countries a limited number of women are qualified to join boards of directors, and it is not clear from the evidence to date on the operation of quotas whether they will lead to a better pool of female candidates in the medium and long term.......Beside arguments of fairness and equal opportunities, it is often argued that gender diversity on boards of directors may improve firm performance, but the empirical results are mixed and often negative. Based on the available research, gender quotas on boards of directors cannot be justified...

  7. Conversion of microalgae to jet fuel: process design and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Yuan; Bluck, David; Van Wie, Bernard J

    2014-09-01

    Microalgae's aquatic, non-edible, highly genetically modifiable nature and fast growth rate are considered ideal for biomass conversion to liquid fuels providing promise for future shortages in fossil fuels and for reducing greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions from combustion. We demonstrate adaptability of PRO/II software by simulating a microalgae photo-bio-reactor and thermolysis with fixed conversion isothermal reactors adding a heat exchanger for thermolysis. We model a cooling tower and gas floatation with zero-duty flash drums adding solids removal for floatation. Properties data are from PRO/II's thermodynamic data manager. Hydrotreating is analyzed within PRO/II's case study option, made subject to Jet B fuel constraints, and we determine an optimal 6.8% bioleum bypass ratio, 230°C hydrotreater temperature, and 20:1 bottoms to overhead distillation ratio. Process economic feasibility occurs if cheap CO2, H2O and nutrient resources are available, along with solar energy and energy from byproduct combustion, and hydrotreater H2 from product reforming.

  8. Femtosecond laser processing of fuel injectors - a materials processing evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, B C; Wynne, A

    2000-12-16

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed a new laser-based machining technology that utilizes ultrashort-pulse (0.1-1.0 picosecond) lasers to cut materials with negligible generation of heat or shock. The ultrashort pulse laser, developed for the Department of Energy (Defense Programs) has numerous applications in operations requiring high precision machining. Due to the extremely short duration of the laser pulse, material removal occurs by a different physical mechanism than in conventional machining. As a result, any material (e.g., hardened steel, ceramics, diamond, silicon, etc.) can be machined with minimal heat-affected zone or damage to the remaining material. As a result of the threshold nature of the process, shaped holes, cuts, and textures can be achieved with simple beam shaping. Conventional laser tools used for cutting or high-precision machining (e.g., sculpting, drilling) use long laser pulses (10{sup -8} to over 1 sec) to remove material by heating it to the melting or boiling point (Figure 1.1a). This often results in significant damage to the remaining material and produces considerable slag (Figure 1.2a). With ultrashort laser pulses, material is removed by ionizing the material (Figure 1.1b). The ionized plasma expands away from the surface too quickly for significant energy transfer to the remaining material. This distinct mechanism produces extremely precise and clean-edged holes without melting or degrading the remaining material (Figures 1.2 and 1.3). Since only a very small amount of material ({approx} <0.5 microns) is removed per laser pulse, extremely precise machining can be achieved. High machining speed is achieved by operating the lasers at repetition rates up to 10,000 pulses per second. As a diagnostic, the character of the short-pulse laser produced plasma enables determination of the material being machined between pulses. This feature allows the machining of multilayer materials, metal on metal or metal on

  9. Selective CO Methanation Catalysts for Fuel Processing Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, Robert A.; Wang, Yong; Xia, Guanguang G.; Strohm, James J.; Holladay, Jamie D.; Palo, Daniel R.

    2007-07-15

    Abstract Selective CO methanation as a strategy for CO removal in micro fuel processing applications was investigated over Ru-based catalysts. Ru loading, pretreatment and reduction conditions, and choice of support were shown to affect catalyst activity, selectivity, and stability. Even operating at a gas-hourly-space-velocity as high as 13,500 hr-1, a 3%Ru/Al2O3 catalyst was able to lower CO in a reformate to less than 100 ppm over a wide temperature range from 240oC to 285 oC, while keeping hydrogen consumption below 10%.

  10. Phase equilibria of continuous fossil fuel process oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, M.J.; Weil, S.A. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (US))

    1988-04-01

    Fossil fuel process oils consist of such a large number of components that their only proper description is in terms of continuous distribution functions of a suitable characteristic variable. A methodology is presented to describe the oils in terms of a generalized distribution function. The characteristic variable is determined from measurements of the equilibrium ratios of two test oils, at ambient pressure. Application of the proposed methodology to a sequence of operations shows that, unlike the pseudocomponents technique, the level of accuracy can be maintained.

  11. Phase equilibria of continuous fossil fuel process oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, M.J.; Weil, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Fossil fuel process oils consist of such a large number of components that their only proper description is in terms of continuous distribution functions of a suitable characteristic variable. A methodology is presented here to describe the oils in terms of a generalized distribution function. The characteristic variable is determined from measurements of the equilibrium ratios of two test oils, at ambient pressure. Application of the proposed methodology to a sequence of operations shows that, unlike the pseudocomponents technique, the level of accuracy can be maintained. 22 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Phase equilibria of continuous fossil fuel process oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Fossil fuel processes oils consist of such a large number of components that their only proper description is in terms of continuous distribution functions of a suitable characteristic variable. A methodology is presented here to describe the oils in terms of a generalized distribution function. The characteristic variable is determined from measurements of the equilibrium ratios of two test oils, at ambient pressure. Application of the proposed methodology to a sequence of operations shows that, unlike the psuedocomponents technique, the level of accuracy can be maintained.

  13. 47 CFR 80.1179 - On-board repeater limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false On-board repeater limitations. 80.1179 Section... On-board repeater limitations. When an on-board repeater is used, the following limitations must be met: (a) The on-board repeater antenna must be located no higher than 3 meters (10 feet) above...

  14. Virtualizing Super-Computation On-Board Uas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, E.; Soler, J. A.; Cuadrado, R.; Barrado, C.; Pastor, E.

    2015-04-01

    Unmanned aerial systems (UAS, also known as UAV, RPAS or drones) have a great potential to support a wide variety of aerial remote sensing applications. Most UAS work by acquiring data using on-board sensors for later post-processing. Some require the data gathered to be downlinked to the ground in real-time. However, depending on the volume of data and the cost of the communications, this later option is not sustainable in the long term. This paper develops the concept of virtualizing super-computation on-board UAS, as a method to ease the operation by facilitating the downlink of high-level information products instead of raw data. Exploiting recent developments in miniaturized multi-core devices is the way to speed-up on-board computation. This hardware shall satisfy size, power and weight constraints. Several technologies are appearing with promising results for high performance computing on unmanned platforms, such as the 36 cores of the TILE-Gx36 by Tilera (now EZchip) or the 64 cores of the Epiphany-IV by Adapteva. The strategy for virtualizing super-computation on-board includes the benchmarking for hardware selection, the software architecture and the communications aware design. A parallelization strategy is given for the 36-core TILE-Gx36 for a UAS in a fire mission or in similar target-detection applications. The results are obtained for payload image processing algorithms and determine in real-time the data snapshot to gather and transfer to ground according to the needs of the mission, the processing time, and consumed watts.

  15. Thermochemical Process Development Unit: Researching Fuels from Biomass, Bioenergy Technologies (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-01-01

    The Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a unique facility dedicated to researching thermochemical processes to produce fuels from biomass.

  16. Microbial fuel cell treatment of ethanol fermentation process water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borole, Abhijeet P [Knoxville, TN

    2012-06-05

    The present invention relates to a method for removing inhibitor compounds from a cellulosic biomass-to-ethanol process which includes a pretreatment step of raw cellulosic biomass material and the production of fermentation process water after production and removal of ethanol from a fermentation step, the method comprising contacting said fermentation process water with an anode of a microbial fuel cell, said anode containing microbes thereon which oxidatively degrade one or more of said inhibitor compounds while producing electrical energy or hydrogen from said oxidative degradation, and wherein said anode is in electrical communication with a cathode, and a porous material (such as a porous or cation-permeable membrane) separates said anode and cathode.

  17. SAS wave experiment on board Magion 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Błęcki

    Full Text Available A short description of the SAS (subsatellite analyser of spectra wave experiment on board the Magion-4 subsatellite is given. We present first measurements of the magnetic-field fluctuations in the frequency range 32–2000 Hz obtained in the magnetotail during the disturbed period at the magnetopause and in the polar cusp.

  18. Faculty Members on Boards of Trustees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Patterson, Richard W.; Key, Andrew V.

    2013-01-01

    During the 2011-12 academic year, a group of faculty and student researchers at the Cornell Higher Education Research Institute (CHERI) gathered information on which public and private institutions had faculty members on boards of trustees and obtained the names of the faculty members serving in these roles. In April and May 2012, the authors…

  19. Women on boards and firm performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lückerath – Rovers, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the financial performance of Dutch companies both with and without women on their boards. The analysis extends earlier methods used in research by Catalyst (The bottom line: corporate performance and women’s representation on boards, 2007) and McKinsey (Women matter. Gender d

  20. Women on boards and firm performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Lückerath-Rovers (Mijntje)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigates the financial performance of Dutch companies both with and without women on their boards. The analysis extends earlier methods used in research by Catalyst (The bottom line: corporate performance and women's representation on boards, 2007) and McKinsey (Women matt

  1. The methodology of variable management of propellant fuel consumption by jet-propulsion engines of a spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovtun, V. S.

    2012-12-01

    Traditionally, management of propellant fuel consumption on board of a spacecraft is only associated with the operation of jet-propulsion engines (JPE) that are actuator devices of motion control systems (MCS). The efficiency of propellant fuel consumption depends not only on the operation of the MCS, but also, to one extent or another, on all systems functioning on board of a spacecraft, and on processes that occur in them and involve conversion of variable management of propellant fuel consumption by JPEs as a constituent part of the control of the complex process of spacecraft flight.

  2. Process fuel equivalent (PFE)-a new parameter for process and energy audit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyyu, S.

    1983-04-01

    Process fuel equivalent (PFE) is an energy audit parameter which takes care of all the factors involved in the manufacturing process. In this parameter, all energy items--direct or indirect including those of purchased reagents, fluxes and other raw materials--are converted into a single variable fuel equivalent, and indicated the same in appropriate energy units. PFE value is an inverse order of efficiency--a low value corresponds to high efficiency. In this article, the PFE method has been used for production of copper from mine to wire bar.

  3. Maximizing the liquid fuel yield in a biorefining process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; von Keitz, Marc; Valentas, Kenneth

    2008-12-01

    Biorefining strives to recover the maximum value from each fraction, at minimum energy cost. In order to seek an unbiased and thorough assessment of the alleged opportunity offered by biomass fuels, the direct conversion of various lignocellulosic biomass was studied: aspen pulp wood (Populus tremuloides), aspen wood pretreated with dilute acid, aspen lignin, aspen logging residues, corn stalk, corn spathe, corn cob, corn stover, corn stover pellet, corn stover pretreated with dilute acid, and lignin extracted from corn stover. Besides the heating rate, the yield of liquid products was found to be dependent on the final liquefaction temperature and the length of liquefaction time. The major compounds of the liquid products from various origins were identified by GC-MS. The lignin was found to be a good candidate for the liquefaction process, and biomass fractionation was necessary to maximize the yield of the liquid bio-fuel. The results suggest a biorefinery process accompanying pretreatment, fermentation to ethanol, liquefaction to bio-crude oil, and other thermo-conversion technologies, such as gasification. Other biorefinery options, including supercritical water gasification and the effectual utilization of the bio-crude oil, are also addressed.

  4. Process engineering of ceramic composite coatings for fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, G.; Kim, H.; Chen, M.; Yang, Q.; Troczynski, T. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Metals and Materials Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Researchers at UBCeram at the Department of Metals and Materials Engineering at the University of British Columbia have developed a technology to chemically bond composite sol-gel (CB-CSG) coating onto metallic surfaces of complex or concave shapes. The process has been optimized for electrically resistive coatings and corrosion-resistant coatings. The CSG is sprayed onto metallic surfaces and is heat-treated at 300 degrees C to partially dehydrate the hydroxides. The CSG film is then chemically bonded through reaction of active alumina with metal phosphates, such as aluminium phosphate. A new chromate-free process is being developed to address the issue of coatings porosity. The electrodeposition technique involves polymer particles mixed with suspended fine alumina particles which are co-deposited by electrophoretic means or by electrocoagulation. The composite e-coatings have excellent mechanical properties and are being considered as a protective coating for various components of fuel cell systems. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Advanced Hybrid On-Board Data Processor - SpaceCube 2.0 Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop advanced on-board processing to meet the requirements of the Decadal Survey missions: advanced instruments (hyper-spectral, SAR, etc) require advanced...

  6. USING THE INFORMATION OF ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEMS IN DETERMINING THE TECHNICAL STATE OF THE LOCOMOTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ye. Bodnar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues of increase of efficiency of information processing by оn-board systems of diagnostics of locomotives are considered. The examples of information processing by the on-board system of diagnostics of electric locomotives DE1 are presented. The suggestions on improvement of systematization and processing of information by on-board systems of diagnostics are given.

  7. Integrated microchemical systems for fuel processing in micro fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattekar, Ashish V.

    Rapid advances in microelectronics technology over the last decade have led to the search for novel applications of miniaturization to all aspects of engineering. Microreaction engineering, which involves the development of miniature reactors on microchips for novel applications, has been a key area of interest in this quest for miniaturization. The idea of a fully integrated microplant with embedded control electronics, sensors and actuators on a single silicon chip has been gaining increasing acceptance as significant progress is being made in this area. The aim of this project has been to demonstrate a working microreaction system for hydrogen delivery to miniature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells through the catalytic steam reforming of methanol. The complete reformer - fuel cell unit is proposed as an alternative to conventional portable sources of electricity such as batteries due to its ability to provide an uninterrupted supply of electricity as long as a supply of methanol and water can be provided. This technology also offers significantly higher energy storage densities, which translates into less frequent 'recharging' through the refilling of methanol fuel. Various aspects of the design of a miniature methanol reformer on a silicon substrate are discussed with a focus on the theoretical understanding of microreactor operation and optimum utilization of the semiconductor-processing techniques used for fabricating the devices. Three prototype microreactor designs have been successfully fabricated and tested. Issues related to microchannel capping, on-chip heating and temperature sensing, introduction and trapping of catalyst particles in microchannels, microfluidic interfacing, pressure drop reduction, and thermal insulation have been addressed. Details regarding modeling and simulation of the designs to provide an insight into the working of the microreactor are presented along with a description of the microfabrication steps followed to

  8. Electrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuels: An overview of oxide reduction in pyroprocessing technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Young Choi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical reduction process has been used to reduce spent oxide fuel to a metallic form using pyroprocessing technology for a closed fuel cycle in combination with a metal-fuel fast reactor. In the electrochemical reduction process, oxides fuels are loaded at the cathode basket in molten Li2O–LiCl salt and electrochemically reduced to the metal form. Various approaches based on thermodynamic calculations and experimental studies have been used to understand the electrode reaction and efficiently treat spent fuels. The factors that affect the speed of the electrochemical reduction have been determined to optimize the process and scale-up the electrolysis cell. In addition, demonstrations of the integrated series of processes (electrorefining and salt distillation with the electrochemical reduction have been conducted to realize the oxide fuel cycle. This overview provides insight into the current status of and issues related to the electrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuels.

  9. Performance analysis of different organic Rankine cycle configurations on board liquefied natural gas-fuelled vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldasso, Enrico; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Meroni, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Gas-fuelled shipping is expected to increase significantly in the coming years. Similarly, much effort is devoted to the study of waste heat recovery systems to be implemented on board ships. In this context, the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) technology is considered one of the most promising...... solutions. The ORC favorably compares to the steam Rankine cycle because of its simple layout and high efficiency, achievable by selecting a working fluid with desirable properties. This paper aims at assessing the fuel savings attainable by implementing ORC units on board vessels powered by liquefied...

  10. MODIS On-board Blackbody Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Chen, N.; Wu, A.; Wenny, B.; Dodd, J.

    2008-01-01

    Currently, there are two MODIS instruments operated on-orbit: one on-board the Terra spacecraft launched in December 1999 and the other on-board the Aqua spacecraft launched in May 2002. MODIS is a scanning radiometer that has 16 thermal emissive bands (TEBs) in the MWIR and LWIR regions. The remaining spectral bands are in the VISINIR and SWIR regions. The TEBs have a total of 160 detectors (10 detectors per band), which are calibrated on-orbit using an on-board blackbody (BB). MODIS TEB calibration is performed via a quadratic algorithm with its linear calibration coefficients updated on a scan-by-scan basis using each detector's response to the BB. The offset and nonlinear terms of the quadratic calibration equation are stored in a look-up table (LUT). The LUT parameters are derived from pre-launch calibration and updated on-orbit from BB observations, as needed. Typically, the BB is set at a fixed temperature. Periodically, a warm-up and cool-down activity is performed, which enables the BB temperature to be varied from instrument ambient up to 315K. The temperature of the BB is measured each scan using 12 thermistors, which were fully characterized pre-launch with reference to the NIST temperature scale. This paper describes MODIS on-board BB operational activities and performance. The TEB detector response (short-term stability and long-term changes) and noise characterization results derived from BB observations and their impact on the TEB calibration uncertainty are also presented.

  11. Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas Derived Ultra-clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.T. (Skip) Robinson; James P. Meagher; Prasad Apte; Xingun Gui; Tytus R. Bulicz; Siv Aasland; Charles Besecker; Jack Chen Bart A. van Hassel; Olga Polevaya; Rafey Khan; Piyush Pilaniwalla

    2002-12-31

    This topical report summarizes work accomplished for the Program from November 1, 2001 to December 31, 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1: Materials Development; Task 2: Composite Development; Task 4: Reactor Design and Process Optimization; Task 8: Fuels and Engine Testing; 8.1 International Diesel Engine Program; 8.2 Nuvera Fuel Cell Program; and Task 10: Program Management. Major progress has been made towards developing high temperature, high performance, robust, oxygen transport elements. In addition, a novel reactor design has been proposed that co-produces hydrogen, lowers cost and improves system operability. Fuel and engine testing is progressing well, but was delayed somewhat due to the hiatus in program funding in 2002. The Nuvera fuel cell portion of the program was completed on schedule and delivered promising results regarding low emission fuels for transportation fuel cells. The evaluation of ultra-clean diesel fuels continues in single cylinder (SCTE) and multiple cylinder (MCTE) test rigs at International Truck and Engine. FT diesel and a BP oxygenate showed significant emissions reductions in comparison to baseline petroleum diesel fuels. Overall through the end of 2002 the program remains under budget, but behind schedule in some areas.

  12. A Feminist Framework for Nurses on Boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundean, Lisa J; Polifroni, E Carol

    Nurses' knowledge, skills, and expertise uniquely situate them to contribute to health care transformation as equal partners in organizational board governance. The Institute of Medicine, the 10,000 Nurses on Boards Coalition, and a growing number of nurse and health care scholars advocate nurse board leadership; however, nurses are rarely appointed as voting board members. When no room is made for nurses to take a seat at the table, the opportunity is lost to harness the power of nursing knowledge for health care transformation and social justice. No philosophical framework underpins the emerging focus on nurse board leadership. The purpose of this article is to add to the extant nursing literature by suggesting feminism as a philosophical framework for nurses on boards. Feminism contributes to the knowledge base of nursing as it relates to the expanding roles of nurses in health care transformation, policy, and social justice. Furthermore, a feminist philosophical framework for nurses on boards sets the foundation for new theory development and validates ongoing advancement of the nursing profession.

  13. Laser-based analytical monitoring in nuclear-fuel processing plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohimer, J.P.

    1978-09-01

    The use of laser-based analytical methods in nuclear-fuel processing plants is considered. The species and locations for accountability, process control, and effluent control measurements in the Coprocessing, Thorex, and reference Purex fuel processing operations are identified and the conventional analytical methods used for these measurements are summarized. The laser analytical methods based upon Raman, absorption, fluorescence, and nonlinear spectroscopy are reviewed and evaluated for their use in fuel processing plants. After a comparison of the capabilities of the laser-based and conventional analytical methods, the promising areas of application of the laser-based methods in fuel processing plants are identified.

  14. Preliminary safety analysis for offgas treatment system of DUPIC fuel manufacturing process at DFDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, J. M.; Lee, H. H.; Park, J. J.; Yang, M. S

    2000-09-01

    DUPIC fuel fabrication process is a dry processing technology to manufacture CANDU compatible fuel through a direct refabrication process from spent PWR fuel. DUPIC fuel fabrication process consists of the slitting of the spent PWR fuel rods, OREOX processing, homogeneous mixing, pelletizing and sintering. All these processes should be conducted by remote means in a M6 hot cell at IMEF. Since there is a lot of highly radioactive spent fuel(200 kg) to be used in DUPIC fuel fabrication process, safety analysis on DFDF facility is very important to improve the safety of hot cell and to reduce the dose exposure to operator. This report describes the design of IMEF facility, manufacturing equipment and process, offgas treatment system necessary for DUPIC fuel manufacturing process. Also, it provides the flow chart of arising and activity for each nuclide in offgas treatment system and final arising and activity for gaseous waste discharged from offgas treatment equipment into inside of M6 cell during OREOX and sintering processes in DUPIC fuel manufacturing process.

  15. Supercritical Fluids Processing of Biomass to Chemicals and Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Norman K. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-09-28

    The main objective of this project is to develop and/or enhance cost-effective methodologies for converting biomass into a wide variety of chemicals, fuels, and products using supercritical fluids. Supercritical fluids will be used both to perform reactions of biomass to chemicals and products as well as to perform extractions/separations of bio-based chemicals from non-homogeneous mixtures. This work supports the Biomass Program’s Thermochemical Platform Goals. Supercritical fluids are a thermochemical approach to processing biomass that, while aligned with the Biomass Program’s interests in gasification and pyrolysis, offer the potential for more precise and controllable reactions. Indeed, the literature with respect to the use of water as a supercritical fluid frequently refers to “supercritical water gasification” or “supercritical water pyrolysis.”

  16. Selective CO methanation catalysts for fuel processing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, Robert A.; Wang, Yong; Xia, Guan-Guang; Strohm, James J.; Holladay, Jamelyn [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Palo, Daniel R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Microproducts Breakthrough Institute, P.O. Box 2330, Corvallis, OR 97339 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Selective CO methanation as a strategy for CO removal in fuel processing applications was investigated over Ru-based catalysts. Ru metal loading and crystallite size were shown to affect catalyst activity and selectivity. Even operating at a gas-hourly-space-velocity as high as 13,500 h{sup -1}, a 3% Ru/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst with a 34.2 nm crystallite was shown to be capable of reducing CO in a reformate to less than 100 ppm over a wide temperature range from 240 to 280 C, while keeping hydrogen consumption below 10%. We present the effects of metal loading, preparation method, and crystallite size on performance for Ru-based catalysts in the selective methanation of CO in the presence of H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. (author)

  17. Environmental assessment for radioisotope heat source fuel processing and fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for radioisotope heat source fuel processing and fabrication involving existing facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) near Los Alamos, New Mexico. The proposed action is needed to provide Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) CRAF and Cassini Missions. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. 30 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Process for dehydration of oregano using propane gas as fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos O. Velásquez-Santos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article describes two important issues, the first is the process to design, implement and validate a mechanical dryer of oregano, using propane gas as fuel, and the second is the cost of the process of dehydrated, taking into account the cost of electric energy consumption by the fan and the cost of propane gas consumption by the heat exchanger. To achieve this, it was necessary review the state of the art and the study of the raw material (oregano, were established as premises of design the necessary technical specifications and the variables involved in the process, using conceptual methods and simulation to ensure that it complies with the ISO standard 7925:1999, which defines the requirements for the marketing of dried oregano and processed. Emphasis was made on the percentage of moisture that is 10%, the moisture of the product was found by the azeotropic distillation method, subsequently was validated the functionality and efficiency, comparing the results from an experimental design, then it was obtained the drying curve of oregano with the prototype of drying and it was checked if it meets ISO 7925:1999 standard and the NTC 4423 standard in order to obtain a final product dehydrated with the percentage of humidity appropriate.

  19. The SpaceCube Family of Hybrid On-Board Science Data Processors: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatley, T.

    2012-12-01

    SpaceCube is an FPGA based on-board hybrid science data processing system developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The goal of the SpaceCube program is to provide 10x to 100x improvements in on-board computing power while lowering relative power consumption and cost. The SpaceCube design strategy incorporates commercial rad-tolerant FPGA technology and couples it with an upset mitigation software architecture to provide "order of magnitude" improvements in computing power over traditional rad-hard flight systems. Many of the missions proposed in the Earth Science Decadal Survey (ESDS) will require "next generation" on-board processing capabilities to meet their specified mission goals. Advanced laser altimeter, radar, lidar and hyper-spectral instruments are proposed for at least ten of the ESDS missions, and all of these instrument systems will require advanced on-board processing capabilities to facilitate the timely conversion of Earth Science data into Earth Science information. Both an "order of magnitude" increase in processing power and the ability to "reconfigure on the fly" are required to implement algorithms that detect and react to events, to produce data products on-board for applications such as direct downlink, quick look, and "first responder" real-time awareness, to enable "sensor web" multi-platform collaboration, and to perform on-board "lossless" data reduction by migrating typical ground-based processing functions on-board, thus reducing on-board storage and downlink requirements. This presentation will highlight a number of SpaceCube technology developments to date and describe current and future efforts, including the collaboration with the U.S. Department of Defense - Space Test Program (DoD/STP) on the STP-H4 ISS experiment pallet (launch June 2013) that will demonstrate SpaceCube 2.0 technology on-orbit.; ;

  20. Refuse-derived fuels: Provision and processing; Schnittstelle und Aufbereitungstiefe von Ersatzbrennstoffen fuer die energetische Verwertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, M.; Horeni, M. [Bauhaus Univ. Weimar (Germany). Professur Verfahren und Umwelt; Scholz, R. [Technische Univ. Clausthal (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik und Brennstofftechnik

    2005-07-01

    Refuse-derived fuels are produced by mechanical or mechanical and biological treatment of waste materials with the intention of providing substitute fuels for the chemical and power plant industry. To do this, the properties of refues-derived fuels must be known as well as the process modifications that may be required. Further, energy and pollutant balances (including CO2) must be established in order to find out about the economic efficiency of the substitute fuels. There is still need for research concerning the methodology of characterisation and the classification of substitute fuels. The contribution starts by presenting a classification of substitute fuels, their applications and potentials. This is followed by a description of the characteristics of substitute fuels and the process optimisations required. Using simplified model assumptions, the results are then discussed with regard to the influence of the depth of processing. Finally, development tasks still required are summarized. (orig.)

  1. Process modeling of fuel cell vehicle power system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN LiMing; LIN ZhaoJia; MA ZiFeng

    2009-01-01

    Constructed here is a mathematic model of PEM Fuel Cell Vehicle Power System which is composed of fuel supply model, fuel cell stack model and water-heat management model. The model was developed by Matiab/Simulink to evaluate how the major operating variables affect the output performances. Itshows that the constructed model can represent characteristics of the power system closely by comparing modeling results with experimental data, and it can be used in the study and design of fuel cell vehicle power system.

  2. Fuel Quality/Processing Study. Volume II. Appendix, Task I, literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J B; Bela, A; Jentz, N E; Klumpe, H W; Kessler, R E; Kotzot, H T; Loran, B I

    1981-04-01

    This activity was begun with the assembly of information from Parsons' files and from contacts in the development and commercial fields. A further more extensive literature search was carried out using the Energy Data Base and the American Petroleum Institute Data Base. These are part of the DOE/RECON system. Approximately 6000 references and abstracts were obtained from the EDB search. These were reviewed and the especially pertinent documents, approximately 300, were acquired in the form of paper copy or microfiche. A Fuel Properties form was developed for listing information pertinent to gas turbine liquid fuel properties specifications. Fuel properties data for liquid fuels from selected synfuel processes, deemed to be successful candidates for near future commercial plants were tabulated on the forms. The processes selected consisted of H-Coal, SRC-II and Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) coal liquefaction processes plus Paraho and Tosco shale oil processes. Fuel properties analyses for crude and distillate syncrude process products are contained in Section 2. Analyses representing synthetic fuels given refinery treatments, mostly bench scale hydrotreating, are contained in Section 3. Section 4 discusses gas turbine fuel specifications based on petroleum source fuels as developed by the major gas turbine manufacturers. Section 5 presents the on-site gas turbine fuel treatments applicable to petroleum base fuels impurities content in order to prevent adverse contaminant effects. Section 7 relates the environmental aspects of gas turbine fuel usage and combustion performance. It appears that the near future stationary industrial gas turbine fuel market will require that some of the synthetic fuels be refined to the point that they resemble petroleum based fuels.

  3. Fuel Quality/Processing Study. Volume II. Appendix, Task I, literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J B; Bela, A; Jentz, N E; Klumpe, H W; Kessler, R E; Kotzot, H T; Loran, B I

    1981-04-01

    This activity was begun with the assembly of information from Parsons' files and from contacts in the development and commercial fields. A further more extensive literature search was carried out using the Energy Data Base and the American Petroleum Institute Data Base. These are part of the DOE/RECON system. Approximately 6000 references and abstracts were obtained from the EDB search. These were reviewed and the especially pertinent documents, approximately 300, were acquired in the form of paper copy or microfiche. A Fuel Properties form was developed for listing information pertinent to gas turbine liquid fuel properties specifications. Fuel properties data for liquid fuels from selected synfuel processes, deemed to be successful candidates for near future commercial plants were tabulated on the forms. The processes selected consisted of H-Coal, SRC-II and Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) coal liquefaction processes plus Paraho and Tosco shale oil processes. Fuel properties analyses for crude and distillate syncrude process products are contained in Section 2. Analyses representing synthetic fuels given refinery treatments, mostly bench scale hydrotreating, are contained in Section 3. Section 4 discusses gas turbine fuel specifications based on petroleum source fuels as developed by the major gas turbine manufacturers. Section 5 presents the on-site gas turbine fuel treatments applicable to petroleum base fuels impurities content in order to prevent adverse contaminant effects. Section 7 relates the environmental aspects of gas turbine fuel usage and combustion performance. It appears that the near future stationary industrial gas turbine fuel market will require that some of the synthetic fuels be refined to the point that they resemble petroleum based fuels.

  4. Fate of virginiamycin through the fuel ethanol production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Kenneth M; Zhang, Yanhong; Rich, Joseph O

    2016-05-01

    Antibiotics are frequently used to prevent and treat bacterial contamination of commercial fuel ethanol fermentations, but there is concern that antibiotic residues may persist in the distillers grains coproducts. A study to evaluate the fate of virginiamycin during the ethanol production process was conducted in the pilot plant facilities at the National Corn to Ethanol Research Center, Edwardsville, IL. Three 15,000-liter fermentor runs were performed: one with no antibiotic (F1), one dosed with 2 parts per million (ppm) of a commercial virginiamycin product (F2), and one dosed at 20 ppm of virginiamycin product (F3). Fermentor samples, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), and process intermediates (whole stillage, thin stillage, syrup, and wet cake) were collected from each run and analyzed for virginiamycin M and virginiamycin S using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Virginiamycin M was detected in all process intermediates of the F3 run. On a dry-weight basis, virginiamycin M concentrations decreased approximately 97 %, from 41 μg/g in the fermentor to 1.4 μg/g in the DDGS. Using a disc plate bioassay, antibiotic activity was detected in DDGS from both the F2 and F3 runs, with values of 0.69 μg virginiamycin equivalent/g sample and 8.9 μg/g, respectively. No antibiotic activity (<0.6 μg/g) was detected in any of the F1 samples or in the fermentor and process intermediate samples from the F2 run. These results demonstrate that low concentrations of biologically active antibiotic may persist in distillers grains coproducts produced from fermentations treated with virginiamycin.

  5. Fossil-fuel process oils as continuous fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian-Amin, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    The oils produced by fossil fuel conversion processes consist of such a large number of components that their only proper description is as continuous fluids (i.e., continuum of components). A methodology is presented here to describe the vapor liquid equilibrium processes involving continuous oils. It describes the oil in terms of one or more continuous distribution functions (fractional continuous oils) of some measurable quantity (i.e., characteristic variable) that, in the view of the equilibrium ratio relationship, maintain their functional form in equilibrium processes. Parameters of the distributions of the product streams in any equilibrium process (i.e., vapor and liquid) are determined in terms of the parameters of the feed stream and the operating condition (e.g., T,P). In general, the procedure can be applied to both ideal and non-ideal systems, but in view of the experimental results indicating ideality, only those systems were analyzed. An ambient pressure batch distillation system was constructed to collect vapor-liquid equilibrium data of continuous test oils. Two test oils, a shale oil and a coal oil were studied in this work. From measurement of the equilibrium ratios of the test oils it was determined that both oils behave ideally and the equilibrium ratio was independent of the liquid composition. A simple and definable function of the boiling point provided to be a suitable characteristic variable for the proposed methodology to the sequential operation has shown that if the functions are chosen properly, then the error incurred will not propagate at a significant rate and at the same level of accuracy can be maintained.

  6. Energy storage on board of railway vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, M.; Scholten, J. [Bombardier Transportation, Mannheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The proposed energy storage on board of a Railway vehicle leads to a big step in the reduction of consumed energy. Up to 30% energy saving are expected in a light rail vehicle, at the same time reducing the peak power demand drastically. In addition, with the energy storage an operation without catenary could become reality, which was successfully demonstrated with the prototype light rail vehicle driving with switched off pantograph. This prototype vehicle is in passenger operation since September 2003, the implemented software is optimised on energy savings and first experience is very promising. (authors)

  7. Tecnored process - high potential in using different kinds of solid fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique Noldin Júnior

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available One important feature of the Brazilian Tecnored ironmaking process is its flexibility to use different types of solid fuels, other than metallurgical coke, as proved in the pilot plant tests by extensively using green petroleum coke, biomasses, high ash cokes, etc. Even if new solid fuels not thus far used are envisaged for a given project, thru the bench scale simulator of the process it is possible to predict the behavior of such solid fuels in the Tecnored furnace and establish the best techno-economical-environmental equation for its use. This paper discusses the key aspects involved in the use of alternative solid fuels in the Tecnored process.

  8. Fusion-Fission Hybrid for Fissile Fuel Production without Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratoni, M; Moir, R W; Kramer, K J; Latkowski, J F; Meier, W R; Powers, J J

    2012-01-02

    Two scenarios are typically envisioned for thorium fuel cycles: 'open' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th and fission of {sup 233}U in situ without reprocessing or 'closed' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th followed by reprocessing, and recycling of {sup 233}U either in situ or in critical fission reactors. This study evaluates a third option based on the possibility of breeding fissile material in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor and burning the same fuel in a critical reactor without any reprocessing or reconditioning. This fuel cycle requires the hybrid and the critical reactor to use the same fuel form. TRISO particles embedded in carbon pebbles were selected as the preferred form of fuel and an inertial laser fusion system featuring a subcritical blanket was combined with critical pebble bed reactors, either gas-cooled or liquid-salt-cooled. The hybrid reactor was modeled based on the earlier, hybrid version of the LLNL Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE1) system, whereas the critical reactors were modeled according to the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) and the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) design. An extensive neutronic analysis was carried out for both the hybrid and the fission reactors in order to track the fuel composition at each stage of the fuel cycle and ultimately determine the plant support ratio, which has been defined as the ratio between the thermal power generated in fission reactors and the fusion power required to breed the fissile fuel burnt in these fission reactors. It was found that the maximum attainable plant support ratio for a thorium fuel cycle that employs neither enrichment nor reprocessing is about 2. This requires tuning the neutron energy towards high energy for breeding and towards thermal energy for burning. A high fuel loading in the pebbles allows a faster spectrum in the hybrid blanket; mixing dummy carbon pebbles with fuel pebbles enables a softer spectrum in

  9. Historic American Engineering Record, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Stacy; Julie Braun

    2006-12-01

    Just as automobiles need fuel to operate, so do nuclear reactors. When fossil fuels such as gasoline are burned to power an automobile, they are consumed immediately and nearly completely in the process. When the fuel is gone, energy production stops. Nuclear reactors are incapable of achieving this near complete burn-up because as the fuel (uranium) that powers them is burned through the process of nuclear fission, a variety of other elements are also created and become intimately associated with the uranium. Because they absorb neutrons, which energize the fission process, these accumulating fission products eventually poison the fuel by stopping the production of energy from it. The fission products may also damage the structural integrity of the fuel elements. Even though the uranium fuel is still present, sometimes in significant quantities, it is unburnable and will not power a reactor unless it is separated from the neutron-absorbing fission products by a method called fuel reprocessing. Construction of the Fuel Reprocessing Complex at the Chem Plant started in 1950 with the Bechtel Corporation serving as construction contractor and American Cyanamid Company as operating contractor. Although the Foster Wheeler Corporation assumed responsibility for the detailed working design of the overall plant, scientists at Oak Ridge designed all of the equipment that would be employed in the uranium separations process. After three years of construction activity and extensive testing, the plant was ready to handle its first load of irradiated fuel.

  10. Carbon stripping - a critical process step in chemical looping combustion of solid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramp, M.; Thon, A.; Hartge, E.U.; Heinrich, S.; Werther, J. [Hamburg University of Technology, Institute of Solids Process Engineering and Particle Technology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    In chemical looping combustion of solid fuels the well-mixed solids flow from the fuel reactor consisting of char, ash, and oxygen carrier particles cannot be completely separated into its constituents before it enters the air reactor. The slip of carbon will thus lead to char oxidation in the wrong reactor. Process simulation was applied to investigate the carbon stripping process in chemical looping combustion of solid fuels. Depending on the fuel choice, without carbon stripping CO{sub 2} capture rates below 50 % are calculated for 4 min of solids residence time in the fuel reactor. In a process with carbon stripper, however, CO{sub 2} capture rates exceeding 90 % can be achieved for both fuels investigated in this work. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minahan, D.M.; Nagaki, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    This project is focused on the discovery and evaluation of novel heterogeneous catalyst for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas. Catalysts have been studied and optimized for the production of methanol and isobutanol mixtures which may be used for the downstream synthesis of MTBE or related oxygenates. Higher alcohols synthesis (HAS) from syngas was studied; the alcohols that are produced in this process may be used for the downstream synthesis of MTBE or related oxygenates. This work has resulted in the discovery of a catalyst system that is highly selective for isobutanol compared with the prior art. The catalysts operate at high temperature (400{degrees}C), and consist of a spinel oxide support (general formula AB{sub 2}O{sub 4}, where A=M{sup 2+} and B = M{sup 3+}), promoted with various other elements. These catalysts operate by what is believed to be an aldol condensation mechanism, giving a product mix of mainly methanol and isobutanol. In this study, the effect of product feed/recycle (methanol, ethanol. n-propanol, isopropanol, carbon dioxide and water) on the performance of 10-DAN-55 (spinel oxide based catalyst) at 400{degrees}C, 1000 psi, GHSV = 12,000 and syngas (H{sub 2}/CO) ratio = 1:2 (alcohol addition) and 1:1 (carbon dioxide and water addition) was studied. The effect of operation at high temperatures and pressures on the performance of an improved catalyst formulation was also examined.

  12. Properties of Aluminum Deposited by a High-Velocity Oxygen-Fueled Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, R; Decker, T A; Gansert, R V; Gansert, D; Lee, D

    2001-06-12

    Aluminum coatings deposited by a HVOF process have been demonstrated and relevant coating properties evaluated according to two deposition parameters, the spray distance and the oxygen-to-fuel flow ratio. The coating porosity, surface roughness, and microhardness are measured. The coating properties are fairly insensitive to spray distance, the distance between the nozzle and the workpiece, and fuel ratios, the oxygen-to-fuel flow. Increasing the fuel content does appear to improve the process productivity in terms of surface roughness. Minimization of nozzle loading is discussed.

  13. Rocket Fuel Synthesis by Fisher-Tropsch Process Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — While In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) studies for Mars return have emphasized methane fuel, only modest work has been done to develop the methane-powered rocket...

  14. Technical and economic feasibility of alternative fuel use in process heaters and small boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using alternate fuels - fuels other than oil and natural gas - in combustors not regulated by the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 (FUA) was evaluated. FUA requires coal or alternate fuel use in most large new boilers and in some existing boilers. Section 747 of FUA authorizes a study of the potential for reduced oil and gas use in combustors not subject to the act: small industrial boilers with capacities less than 100 MMBtu/hr, and process heat applications. Alternative fuel use in combustors not regulated by FUA was examined and the impact of several measures to encourage the substitution of alternative fuels in these combustors was analyzed. The primary processes in which significant fuel savings can be achieved are identified. Since feedstock uses of oil and natural gas are considered raw materials, not fuels, feedstock applications are not examined in this analysis. The combustors evaluated in this study comprise approximately 45% of the fuel demand projected in 1990. These uses would account for more than 3.5 million barrels per day equivalent fuel demand in 1990.

  15. Gender balance on boards: Stakeholders identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar de Luis Carnicer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent Spanish law and regulations have turned gender balance on Boards of Directors into a necessary element to manage in companies. The aim of this paper is to identify the stakeholders demanding such gender balance to companies, according to the Methodology of Mitchell et al. (1997 and Agle et al. (1999. The results sugest the shareholders are the most important group, so it seems that the financial goals continue being a priority. But we also observe that the Government is perceived as a very important stakeholder. Despite managers acknowledge the Government has a lot of power, its importance is explained by urgency and legitimacy attributes. This fact makes us doubting about the effectiveness of any development of a compulsory law, beyond the current one.

  16. Optimizing photo-Fenton like process for the removal of diesel fuel from the aqueous phase

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani, Mansooreh; Shahsavani, Esmaeel; Farzadkia, Mahdi; Samaei, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, pollution of soil and groundwater caused by fuel leakage from old underground storage tanks, oil extraction process, refineries, fuel distribution terminals, improper disposal and also spills during transferring has been reported. Diesel fuel has created many problems for water resources. The main objectives of this research were focused on assessing the feasibility of using photo-Fenton like method using nano zero-valent iron (nZVI/UV/H2O2) in removing total petro...

  17. Postextraction Separation, On-Board Storage, and Catalytic Conversion of Methane in Natural Gas: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dipendu; Grappe, Hippolyte A; Chakraborty, Amlan; Orkoulas, Gerassimos

    2016-10-12

    In today's perspective, natural gas has gained considerable attention, due to its low emission, indigenous availability, and improvement in the extraction technology. Upon extraction, it undergoes several purification protocols including dehydration, sweetening, and inert rejection. Although purification is a commercially established technology, several drawbacks of the current process provide an essential impetus for developing newer separation protocols, most importantly, adsorption and membrane separation. This Review summarizes the needs of natural gas separation, gives an overview of the current technology, and provides a detailed discussion of the progress in research on separation and purification of natural gas including the benefits and drawbacks of each of the processes. The transportation sector is another growing sector of natural gas utilization, and it requires an efficient and safe on-board storage system. Compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) are the most common forms in which natural gas can be stored. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) is an alternate storage system of natural gas, which is advantageous as compared to CNG and LNG in terms of safety and also in terms of temperature and pressure requirements. This Review provides a detailed discussion on ANG along with computation predictions. The catalytic conversion of methane to different useful chemicals including syngas, methanol, formaldehyde, dimethyl ether, heavier hydrocarbons, aromatics, and hydrogen is also reviewed. Finally, direct utilization of methane onto fuel cells is also discussed.

  18. Modeling of the filling and cooling processes of hot fuel mains in Liquid Fuel Rocket Power Plant (LFRPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisnyakov, V. F.; Pokrishkin, V. V.; Serebryansky, V. N.

    A mathematical model of heat and mass exchange processes during filling and cooling of hot fuel mains of the Liquid Fuel Rocket Power Plant (LFRPP), which allows to define a mass consumption and distribution of two-phase flow parameters by the length of pipeline. Results of calculations are compared with experimental data, taken during filling of the main with a supply of liquid oxygen from the tank into the combustion chamber. Also, the results of modeling of hydrogen main dynamic characteristics of LFRPP in the same conditions are given.

  19. Hard X-ray Detector (HXD) on Board Suzaku

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, T; Endo, M; Endo, Y; Ezoe, Y; Fukazawa, Y; Hamaya, M; Hirakuri, S; Hong, S; Horii, M; Inoue, H; Isobe, N; Itoh, T; Iyomoto, N; Kamae, T; Kasama, D; Kataoka, J; Kato, H; Kawaharada, M; Kawano, N; Kawashima, K; Kawasoe, S; Kishishita, T; Kitaguchi, T; Kobayashi, Y; Kokubun, M; Kotoku, J; Kouda, M; Kubota, A; Kuroda, Y; Madejski, G; Makishima, K; Masukawa, K; Matsumoto, Y; Mitani, T; Miyawaki, R; Mizuno, T; Mori, K; Mori, M; Murashima, M; Murakami, T; Nakazawa, K; Niko, H; Nomachi, M; Okada, Y; Ohno, M; Oonuki, K; Ota, N; Ozawa, H; Sato, G; Shinoda, S; Sugiho, M; Suzuki, M; Taguchi, K; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, I; Takeda, S; Tamura, K; Tamura, T; Tanaka, T; Tanihata, C; Tashiro, M; Terada, Y; Tominaga, S; Uchiyama, Y; Watanabe, S; Yamaoka, K; Yanagida, T; Yonetoku, D

    2006-01-01

    The Hard X-ray Detector (HXD) on board Suzaku covers a wide energy range from 10 keV to 600 keV by combination of silicon PIN diodes and GSO scintillators. The HXD is designed to achieve an extremely low in-orbit back ground based on a combination of new techniques, including the concept of well-type active shield counter. With an effective area of 142 cm^2 at 20 keV and 273 cm2 at 150 keV, the background level at the sea level reached ~1x10^{-5} cts s^{-1} cm^{-2} keV^{-1} at 30 keV for the PI N diodes, and ~2x10^{-5} cts s^{-1} cm^{-2} keV^{-1} at 100 keV, and ~7x10^{-6} cts s^{-1} cm^{-2} keV^{-1} at 200 keV for the phoswich counter. Tight active shielding of the HXD results in a large array of guard counters surrounding the main detector parts. These anti-coincidence counters, made of ~4 cm thick BGO crystals, have a large effective area for sub-MeV to MeV gamma-rays. They work as an excellent gamma-ray burst monitor with limited angular resolution (~5 degree). The on-board signal-processing system and th...

  20. Systems Analysis of an Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Based on a Modified UREX+3c Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. R. Johnson; R. E. Best

    2009-12-28

    The research described in this report was performed under a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to describe and compare the merits of two advanced alternative nuclear fuel cycles -- named by this study as the “UREX+3c fuel cycle” and the “Alternative Fuel Cycle” (AFC). Both fuel cycles were assumed to support 100 1,000 MWe light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plants operating over the period 2020 through 2100, and the fast reactors (FRs) necessary to burn the plutonium and minor actinides generated by the LWRs. Reprocessing in both fuel cycles is assumed to be based on the UREX+3c process reported in earlier work by the DOE. Conceptually, the UREX+3c process provides nearly complete separation of the various components of spent nuclear fuel in order to enable recycle of reusable nuclear materials, and the storage, conversion, transmutation and/or disposal of other recovered components. Output of the process contains substantially all of the plutonium, which is recovered as a 5:1 uranium/plutonium mixture, in order to discourage plutonium diversion. Mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for recycle in LWRs is made using this 5:1 U/Pu mixture plus appropriate makeup uranium. A second process output contains all of the recovered uranium except the uranium in the 5:1 U/Pu mixture. The several other process outputs are various waste streams, including a stream of minor actinides that are stored until they are consumed in future FRs. For this study, the UREX+3c fuel cycle is assumed to recycle only the 5:1 U/Pu mixture to be used in LWR MOX fuel and to use depleted uranium (tails) for the makeup uranium. This fuel cycle is assumed not to use the recovered uranium output stream but to discard it instead. On the other hand, the AFC is assumed to recycle both the 5:1 U/Pu mixture and all of the recovered uranium. In this case, the recovered uranium is reenriched with the level of enrichment being determined by the amount of recovered plutonium and the combined amount

  1. Electrical start-up for diesel fuel processing in a fuel-cell-based auxiliary power unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsun, Remzi Can; Krupp, Carsten; Tschauder, Andreas; Peters, Ralf; Stolten, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    As auxiliary power units in trucks and aircraft, fuel cell systems with a diesel and kerosene reforming capacity offer the dual benefit of reduced emissions and fuel consumption. In order to be commercially viable, these systems require a quick start-up time with low energy input. In pursuit of this end, this paper reports an electrical start-up strategy for diesel fuel processing. A transient computational fluid dynamics model is developed to optimize the start-up procedure of the fuel processor in the 28 kWth power class. The temperature trend observed in the experiments is reproducible to a high degree of accuracy using a dual-cell approach in ANSYS Fluent. Starting from a basic strategy, different options are considered for accelerating system start-up. The start-up time is reduced from 22 min in the basic case to 9.5 min, at an energy consumption of 0.4 kW h. Furthermore, an electrical wire is installed in the reformer to test the steam generation during start-up. The experimental results reveal that the generation of steam at 450 °C is possible within seconds after water addition to the reformer. As a result, the fuel processor can be started in autothermal reformer mode using the electrical concept developed in this work.

  2. Nongray-gas Effects in Modeling of Large-scale Oxy-fuel Combustion Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2012-01-01

    , among which radiative heat transfer under oxy-fuel conditions is one of the fundamental issues. This paper demonstrates the nongray-gas effects in modeling of large-scale oxy-fuel combustion processes. Oxy-fuel combustion of natural gas in a large-scale utility boiler is numerically investigated...... cases. The simulation results show that the gray and non-gray calculations of the same oxy-fuel WSGGM make distinctly different predictions in the wall radiative heat transfer, incident radiative flux, radiative source, gas temperature and species profiles. In relative to the non-gray implementation...

  3. SYSTEM AND PROCESS FOR PRODUCTION OF METHANOL FROM COMBINED WIND TURBINE AND FUEL CELL POWER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper examines an integrated use of ultra-clean wind turbines and high temperature fuel cells to produce methanol, especially for transportation purposes. The principal utility and application of the process is the production of transportation fuel from domestic resources to ...

  4. SYSTEM AND PROCESS FOR PRODUCTION OF METHANOL FROM COMBINED WIND TURBINE AND FUEL CELL POWER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper examines an integrated use of ultra-clean wind turbines and high temperature fuel cells to produce methanol, especially for transportation purposes. The principal utility and application of the process is the production of transportation fuel from domestic resources to ...

  5. Analysis of irradiated U-7wt%Mo dispersion fuel microstructures using automated image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collette, R.; King, J.; Buesch, C.; Keiser, D. D.; Williams, W.; Miller, B. D.; Schulthess, J.

    2016-07-01

    The High Performance Research Reactor Fuel Development (HPPRFD) program is responsible for developing low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel substitutes for high performance reactors fueled with highly enriched uranium (HEU) that have not yet been converted to LEU. The uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) fuel system was selected for this effort. In this study, fission gas pore segmentation was performed on U-7wt%Mo dispersion fuel samples at three separate fission densities using an automated image processing interface developed in MATLAB. Pore size distributions were attained that showed both expected and unexpected fission gas behavior. In general, it proved challenging to identify any dominant trends when comparing fission bubble data across samples from different fuel plates due to varying compositions and fabrication techniques. The results exhibited fair agreement with the fission density vs. porosity correlation developed by the Russian reactor conversion program.

  6. Processes for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to chemicals and liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Andrew; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy; Gray, Matthew

    2016-07-05

    The present invention provides processes, methods, and systems for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to liquid fuels and chemicals. The method generally includes the reaction of a hydrolysate from a biomass deconstruction process with hydrogen and a catalyst to produce a reaction product comprising one of more oxygenated compounds. The process also includes reacting the reaction product with a condensation catalyst to produce C.sub.4+ compounds useful as fuels and chemicals.

  7. Processes for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to chemicals and liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Andrew; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy; Gray, Matthew

    2016-07-05

    The present invention provides processes, methods, and systems for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to liquid fuels and chemicals. The method generally includes the reaction of a hydrolysate from a biomass deconstruction process with hydrogen and a catalyst to produce a reaction product comprising one of more oxygenated compounds. The process also includes reacting the reaction product with a condensation catalyst to produce C.sub.4+ compounds useful as fuels and chemicals.

  8. Literature on fabrication of tungsten for application in pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edstrom, C.M.; Phillips, A.G.; Johnson, L.D.; Corle, R.R.

    1980-10-11

    The pyrochemical processing of nuclear fuels requires crucibles, stirrers, and transfer tubing that will withstand the temperature and the chemical attack from molten salts and metals used in the process. This report summarizes the literature that pertains to fabrication (joining, chemical vapor deposition, plasma spraying, forming, and spinning) is the main theme. This report also summarizes a sampling of literature on molbdenum and the work previously performed at Argonne National Laboratory on other container materials used for pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuels.

  9. Processes for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to chemicals and liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Andrew; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy; Gray, Matthew

    2017-05-23

    The present invention provides processes, methods, and systems for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to liquid fuels and chemicals. The method generally includes the reaction of a hydrolysate from a biomass deconstruction process with hydrogen and a catalyst to produce a reaction product comprising one of more oxygenated compounds. The process also includes reacting the reaction product with a condensation catalyst to produce C.sub.4+ compounds useful as fuels and chemicals.

  10. On-board measurements of exhaust (OBM); On-Board Messungen von Abgas (OBM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinze, H.E.

    1997-06-18

    The European Union intends to introduce on-board diagnosis of car exhaust emissions (OBD) from 2000, i.e. emission control by monitoring the various exhaust-relevant components of a motor car by an on-board computer. OBD is already in use in the USA (OBD I) and will be replaced by OBD step by step from 1995. In the present project, two systems by Messrs. WWU GmbH, Hamburg, will be investigated for the components CO and HC. For this purpose, comparative measurements with a FTIR spectrometer (SESAM = System for Emission Sampling and Measurement) are made using an exhaust dynamometer. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur weiteren Verminderung der Emissionen schaedlicher Abgase aus Kraftfahrzeugen ist es in der Europaeischen Union vorgesehen, ab dem Jahre 2000 die On-Board Diagnose (OBD) einzufuehren. Darunter versteht man ein System zur Emissionskontrolle durch die Ueberwachung der Funktionsfaehigkeit der einzelnen abgasrelevanten Bauteile eines Kraftfahrzeugs durch den Fahrzeugcomputer. In den USA gibt es schon laenger eine erste Form der OBD fuer Pkw (OBD I), die ab dem Modelljahr 1995 schrittweise durch die weitergehende OBD II abgeloest wird. In diesem Vorhaben sollen zwei NDIR-Geraete der Firma WWU GmbH, Hamburg, auf ihre Eignung fuer den OBM-Einsatz ueberprueft werden, zunaechst nur fuer die Komponenten CO und HC. Dazu werden Vergleichsmessungen mit einem FTIR-Spektrometer (SESAM=System for Emission Sampling and Measurement) an einem Pkw auf dem Abgasrollenpruefstand durchgefuehrt. (orig.)

  11. Fundamental phenomena on fuel decomposition and boundary layer combustion processes with applications to hybrid rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Kenneth K.; Lu, Y. C.; Chiaverini, Martin J.; Harting, George C.

    1994-11-01

    An experimental study on the fundamental processes involved in fuel decomposition and boundary layer combustion in hybrid rocket motors is being conducted at the High Pressure Combustion Laboratory of the Pennsylvania State University. This research should provide a useful engineering technology base in the development of hybrid rocket motors as well as a fundamental understanding of the complex processes involved in hybrid propulsion. A high pressure slab motor has been designed and manufactured for conducting experimental investigations. Oxidizer (LOX or GOX) supply and control systems have been designed and partly constructed for the head-end injection into the test chamber. Experiments using HTPB fuel, as well as fuels supplied by NASA designated industrial companies will be conducted. Design and construction of fuel casting molds and sample holders have been completed. The portion of these items for industrial company fuel casting will be sent to the McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Corporation in the near future. The study focuses on the following areas: observation of solid fuel burning processes with LOX or GOX, measurement and correlation of solid fuel regression rate with operating conditions, measurement of flame temperature and radical species concentrations, determination of the solid fuel subsurface temperature profile, and utilization of experimental data for validation of a companion theoretical study (Part 2) also being conducted at PSU.

  12. Fundamental phenomena on fuel decomposition and boundary layer combustion processes with applications to hybrid rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Kenneth K.; Lu, Y. C.; Chiaverini, Martin J.; Harting, George C.

    1994-01-01

    An experimental study on the fundamental processes involved in fuel decomposition and boundary layer combustion in hybrid rocket motors is being conducted at the High Pressure Combustion Laboratory of the Pennsylvania State University. This research should provide a useful engineering technology base in the development of hybrid rocket motors as well as a fundamental understanding of the complex processes involved in hybrid propulsion. A high pressure slab motor has been designed and manufactured for conducting experimental investigations. Oxidizer (LOX or GOX) supply and control systems have been designed and partly constructed for the head-end injection into the test chamber. Experiments using HTPB fuel, as well as fuels supplied by NASA designated industrial companies will be conducted. Design and construction of fuel casting molds and sample holders have been completed. The portion of these items for industrial company fuel casting will be sent to the McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Corporation in the near future. The study focuses on the following areas: observation of solid fuel burning processes with LOX or GOX, measurement and correlation of solid fuel regression rate with operating conditions, measurement of flame temperature and radical species concentrations, determination of the solid fuel subsurface temperature profile, and utilization of experimental data for validation of a companion theoretical study (Part 2) also being conducted at PSU.

  13. Aqueous processing of U-10Mo scrap for high performance research reactor fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youker, Amanda J.; Stepinski, Dominique C.; Maggos, Laura E.; Bakel, Allen J.; Vandegrift, George F.

    2012-08-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Conversion program, which is part of the US government's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), supports the conversion of civilian use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) for reactor fuel and targets. The reason for conversion is to eliminate the use of any material that may pose a threat to the United States or other foreign countries. High performance research reactors (HPRRs) cannot make the conversion to a standard LEU fuel because they require a more dense fuel to meet their performance requirements. As a result, a more dense fuel consisting of a monolithic uranium-molybdenum alloy containing 10% (w/w) Mo with Al cladding and a Zr bonding-layer is being considered. Significant losses are expected in the fabrication of this fuel, so a means to recycle the scrap pieces is needed. Argonne National Laboratory has developed an aqueous-processing flowsheet for scrap recovery in the fuel fabrication process for high-density LEU-monolithic fuel based on data found in the literature. Experiments have been performed to investigate dissolution conditions for solutions containing approximately 20 g-U/L and 50 g-U/L with and without Fe(NO3)3. HNO3 and HF concentrations have been optimized for timely dissolution of the fuel scrap and prevention of the formation of the U-Zr2 intermetallic, explosive complex, while meeting the requirements needed for further processing.

  14. Test program on the release characteristics of Kr-85 from remote fuel fabrication process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Geun Il; Lee, J. W.; Kim, S. S. [and others

    2003-01-01

    In order to investigate the release kinetics of Kr-85 fission gas during DUPIC fuel fabrication process using spent fuel materials, the test equipment and its procedure was developed. The purpose of this test involves the measurement of Kr-85 released during OREOX process in DUPIC fuel fabrication as well as the analysis of fission- gas release kinetics with the variation of fuel fabrication conditions. Gas monitoring system installed inside glove box was located at out-cell of DFDF(DUPIC Fuel Fabrication Facility) at which OREOX and tube furnaces have already installed inside hot cell. The use of glove box is aimed for preventing a gas release from sampling gas line under negative pressure. Based on the allowable discharge concentration of Kr-85 to environment and the preliminary analysis assuming total released amount a year, environmental impact according to Kr-85 measuring test would be minimal.

  15. The conceptual analysis of MBA and KMP for advanced spent fuel management process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Yoon; Ko, Won Il; Ha, Jang Ho; Kim, Ho Dong; Koo, Dae Seo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    This report describes the concept of dry reprocessing of molten salt which is proposed as nuclear fuel cycle with nuclear proliferation resistance. These basic researches in Japan, U. S., Russia are in progress, and Republic of Korea is performing basic research of metallic conversion fabrication of molten salt of uranium dioxide fuels through nuclear research project. In this report, we have performed conceptual analysis and establishment of MBA and KMP for nuclear material safeguards in order to accomplish metallic conversion research of molten salt of uranium dioxide fuels. This report will contribute to the implementation of nuclear material safeguards of advanced spent fuel management process, and also the usage of basic data of nuclear material safeguards for spent fuel recycling process of native country. 11 refs., 17 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  16. Numerical Studies on Controlling Gaseous Fuel Combustion by Managing the Combustion Process of Diesel Pilot Dose in a Dual-Fuel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikulski Maciej

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Protection of the environment and counteracting global warming require finding alternative sources of energy. One of the methods of generating energy from environmentally friendly sources is increasing the share of gaseous fuels in the total energy balance. The use of these fuels in compression-ignition (CI engines is difficult due to their relatively high autoignition temperature. One solution for using these fuels in CI engines is operating in a dualfuel mode, where the air and gas mixture is ignited with a liquid fuel dose. In this method, a series of relatively complex chemical processes occur in the engine's combustion chamber, related to the combustion of individual fuel fractions that interact with one another. Analysis of combustion of specific fuels in this type of fuel injection to the engine is difficult due to the fact that combustion of both fuel fractions takes place simultaneously. Simulation experiments can be used to analyse the impact of diesel fuel combustion on gaseous fuel combustion. In this paper, we discuss the results of simulation tests of combustion, based on the proprietary multiphase model of a dual-fuel engine. The results obtained from the simulation allow for analysis of the combustion process of individual fuels separately, which expands the knowledge obtained from experimental tests on the engine.

  17. 46 CFR 28.335 - Fuel systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel systems. 28.335 Section 28.335 Shipping COAST GUARD... Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.335 Fuel systems. (a) Applicability. Except for the components of an...) Portable fuel systems. Portable fuel systems including portable tanks and related fuel lines and...

  18. Steam and partial oxidation reforming options for hydrogen production from fossil fuels for PEM fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousri M.A. Welaya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM generates electrical power from air and from hydrogen or hydrogen rich gas mixtures. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in converting current hydrocarbon based marine fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, and diesel into hydrogen rich gases acceptable to the PEM fuel cells on board ships. Using chemical flow sheeting software, the total system efficiency has been calculated. Natural gas appears to be the best fuel for hydrogen rich gas production due to its favorable composition of lower molecular weight compounds. This paper presents a study for a 250 kW net electrical power PEM fuel cell system utilizing a partial oxidation in one case study and steam reformers in the second. This study has shown that steam-reforming process is the most competitive fuel processing option in terms of fuel processing efficiency. Partial oxidation process has proved to posses the lowest fuel processing efficiency. Among the options studied, the highest fuel processing efficiency is achieved with natural gas steam reforming system.

  19. Economical process for growing seaweed as biomass fuel source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagovskiy, V.

    1985-10-10

    Calculations made by researchers of Moscow State University have shown that the Aral Sea is capable of providing energy for almost the entire country. An experimental unit called Biosolar, for growing such energy already exists. Up to 40 liters of fuel gas a day can be gathered from a single square meter of plant beds. Seaweed yields biomass, which is placed in special vats. There it is eaten by bacteria, which release methane.

  20. Optimization of fuel supply map during starting process of electronic controlled diesel engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinguang LIANG; Xiumin YU; Yue GAO; Yunkai WANG; Hongyang YU; Baoli GONG

    2008-01-01

    Tests were conducted to study influence of fuel supply map during the starting process of an electronic con-trolled diesel engine using an electronic controlled diesel engine which was made up of a CA498Z diesel engine, a VP37 elec-tronic controlled distributor injection pump management system and a VS100 calibration system. The calibration pro-cess of starting fuel supply map was educed under the principle of low HC emission and rapid starting velocity. The cal-ibration methods of starting fuel supply map were obtained.

  1. Fuel ethanol production from lignocellulose: a challenge for metabolic engineering and process integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaldivar, Jesus; Nielsen, Jens; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2001-01-01

    With industrial development growing rapidly, there is a need for environmentally sustainable energy sources. Bioethanol (ethanol from biomass) is an attractive, sustainable energy source to fuel transportation. Based on the premise that fuel bioethanol can contribute to a cleaner environment...... and with the implementation of environmental protection laws in many countries, demand for this fuel is increasing. Efficient ethanol production processes and cheap substrates are needed. Current ethanol production processes using crops such as sugar cane and corn are well-established; however, utilization of a cheaper...

  2. Development and control of the process for the manufacture of zircaloy-4 tubing for LWBR fuel rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyler, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The technical requirements for the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) fuel elements (fuel rods) imposed certain unique requirements for the low hafnium Zircaloy-4 tubing used as fuel rod cladding. This report describes, in detail, the tube manufacturing process, the product and process controls used, the inspections and tests performed, and the efforts involved in refining a commercial tube reducing process to produce tubes that would satisfy the requirements for LWBR fuel rod cladding.

  3. TRISO-Coated Fuel Processing to Support High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Cul, G.D.

    2002-10-01

    The initial objective of the work described herein was to identify potential methods and technologies needed to disassemble and dissolve graphite-encapsulated, ceramic-coated gas-cooled-reactor spent fuels so that the oxide fuel components can be separated by means of chemical processing. The purpose of this processing is to recover (1) unburned fuel for recycle, (2) long-lived actinides and fission products for transmutation, and (3) other fission products for disposal in acceptable waste forms. Follow-on objectives were to identify and select the most promising candidate flow sheets for experimental evaluation and demonstration and to address the needs to reduce technical risks of the selected technologies. High-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) may be deployed in the next -20 years to (1) enable the use of highly efficient gas turbines for producing electricity and (2) provide high-temperature process heat for use in chemical processes, such as the production of hydrogen for use as clean-burning transportation fuel. Also, HTGR fuels are capable of significantly higher burn-up than light-water-reactor (LWR) fuels or fast-reactor (FR) fuels; thus, the HTGR fuels can be used efficiently for transmutation of fissile materials and long-lived actinides and fission products, thereby reducing the inventory of such hazardous and proliferation-prone materials. The ''deep-burn'' concept, described in this report, is an example of this capability. Processing of spent graphite-encapsulated, ceramic-coated fuels presents challenges different from those of processing spent LWR fuels. LWR fuels are processed commercially in Europe and Japan; however, similar infrastructure is not available for processing of the HTGR fuels. Laboratory studies on the processing of HTGR fuels were performed in the United States in the 1960s and 1970s, but no engineering-scale processes were demonstrated. Currently, new regulations concerning emissions will impact the

  4. Advanced diagnostics in oxy-fuel combustion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brix, J.; Clausen, Soennik; Degn Jensen, A. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. CHEC Research Centre, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Boeg Toftegaard, M. (DONG Energy Power, Hvidovre (Denmark))

    2012-07-01

    This report sums up the findings in PSO-project 010069, ''Advanced Diagnostics in Oxy-Fuel Combustion Processes''. Three areas of optic diagnostics are covered in this work: - FTIR measurements in a 30 kW swirl burner. - IR measurements in a 30 kW swirl burner. - IR measurements in a laboratory scale fixed bed reactor. The results obtained in the swirl burner have proved the FTIR method as a valuable technique for gas phase temperature measurements. When its efficacy is evaluated against traditional thermocouple measurements, two cases, with and without probe beam stop, must however be treated separately. When the FTIR probe is operated with the purpose of gas phase concentration measurements the probe needs to operate with a beam stop mounted in front of it. With this beam stop in place it was shown that the measured gas phase temperature was affected by cooling, induced by the cooled beam stop. Hence, for a more accurate determination of gas phase temperatures the probe needed to operate without the beam stop. When this was the case, the FTIR probe showed superior to traditional temperature measurements using a thermocouple as it could measure the fast temperature fluctuations. With the beam stop in place the efficacy of the FTIR probe for gas temperature determination was comparable to the use of a traditional thermocouple. The evaluation of the FTIR technique regarding estimation of gas phase concentrations of H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2} and CO showed that the method is reliable though it cannot be stated as particularly accurate. The accuracy of the method is dependent on the similarity of the reference emission spectra of the gases with those obtained in the experiments, as the transmittance intensity is not a linear function of concentration. The length of the optical path also affects the steadiness of the measurements. The length of the optical path is difficult to adjust on the small scales that are the focus of this work. However

  5. Review of the literature for dry reprocessing oxide, metal, and carbide fuel: The AIROX, RAHYD, and CARBOX pyrochemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyt, R.C.; Rhee, B.W. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Energy Systems Group

    1979-09-30

    The state of the art of dry processing oxide, carbide, and metal fuel has been determined through an extensive literature review. Dry processing in one of the most proliferation resistant fuel reprocessing technologies available to date, and is one of the few which can be exported to other countries. Feasibility has been established for oxide, carbide, and metal fuel on a laboratory scale, and large-scale experiments on oxide and carbide fuel have shown viability of the dry processing concept. A complete dry processing cycle has been demonstrated by multicycle processing-refabrication-reirradiation experiments on oxide fuel. Additional experimental work is necessary to: (1) demonstrate the complete fuel cycle for carbide and metal fuel, (2) optimize dry processing conditions, and (3) establish fission product behavior. Dry process waste management is easier than for an aqueous processing facility since wastes are primarily solids and gases. Waste treatment can be accomplished by techniques which have been, or are being, developed for aqueous plants.

  6. Systems Analysis of an Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Based on a Modified UREX+3c Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. R. Johnson; R. E. Best

    2009-12-28

    The research described in this report was performed under a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to describe and compare the merits of two advanced alternative nuclear fuel cycles -- named by this study as the “UREX+3c fuel cycle” and the “Alternative Fuel Cycle” (AFC). Both fuel cycles were assumed to support 100 1,000 MWe light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plants operating over the period 2020 through 2100, and the fast reactors (FRs) necessary to burn the plutonium and minor actinides generated by the LWRs. Reprocessing in both fuel cycles is assumed to be based on the UREX+3c process reported in earlier work by the DOE. Conceptually, the UREX+3c process provides nearly complete separation of the various components of spent nuclear fuel in order to enable recycle of reusable nuclear materials, and the storage, conversion, transmutation and/or disposal of other recovered components. Output of the process contains substantially all of the plutonium, which is recovered as a 5:1 uranium/plutonium mixture, in order to discourage plutonium diversion. Mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for recycle in LWRs is made using this 5:1 U/Pu mixture plus appropriate makeup uranium. A second process output contains all of the recovered uranium except the uranium in the 5:1 U/Pu mixture. The several other process outputs are various waste streams, including a stream of minor actinides that are stored until they are consumed in future FRs. For this study, the UREX+3c fuel cycle is assumed to recycle only the 5:1 U/Pu mixture to be used in LWR MOX fuel and to use depleted uranium (tails) for the makeup uranium. This fuel cycle is assumed not to use the recovered uranium output stream but to discard it instead. On the other hand, the AFC is assumed to recycle both the 5:1 U/Pu mixture and all of the recovered uranium. In this case, the recovered uranium is reenriched with the level of enrichment being determined by the amount of recovered plutonium and the combined amount

  7. 47 CFR 90.423 - Operation on board aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation on board aircraft. 90.423 Section 90... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90.423 Operation on board aircraft. (a) Except... after September 14, 1973, under this part may be operated aboard aircraft for air-to-mobile, air-to-base...

  8. High liquid fuel yielding biofuel processes and a roadmap for the future transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navneet R.

    In a fossil-fuel deprived world when crude oil will be scarce and transportation need cannot be met with electricity and transportation liquid fuel must be produced, biomass derived liquid fuels can be a natural replacement. However, the carbon efficiency of the currently known biomass to liquid fuel conversion processes ranges from 35-40%, yielding 90 ethanol gallon equivalents (ege) per ton of biomass. This coupled with the fact that the efficiency at which solar energy is captured by biomass (syngas derived from coal gasification (H2Bioil-C) or a natural gas reformer (H 2Bioil-NG) is used to supply the hydrogen and process heat for the biomass fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation. Another off-shoot of the H2Bioil process is the H2Bioil-B process, where hydrogen required for the hydropyrolysis is obtained from gasification of a fraction of the biomass. H2Bioil-B achieves the highest liquid fuel yield (126-146 ege/ton of biomass) reported in the literature for any self-contained conversion of biomass to biofuel. Finally, an integration of the H2Bioil process with the H2CAR process is suggested which can achieve 100% carbon efficiency (330 ege/ton of biomass) at the expense of 0.24 kg hydrogen/liter of oil. A sun-to-fuel efficiency analysis shows that extracting CO2 from air and converting it to liquid fuel is at least two times more efficient than growing dedicated fuel crops and converting them to liquid fuel even for the highest biomass growth rates feasible by algae. This implies that liquid fuel should preferably be produced from sustainably available waste (SAW) biomass first and if the SAW biomass is unable to meet the demand for liquid fuel, then, CO2 should be extracted from air and converted to liquid fuel, rather than growing biomass. Furthermore, based on the Sun-to-Wheels recovery for different transportation pathways, synergistic and complementary use of electricity, hydrogen and biomass, all derived from solar energy, is presented in an energy

  9. Material control in nuclear fuel fabrication facilities. Part I. Fuel descriptions and fabrication processes, P. O. 1236909 Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgonovi, G.M.; McCartin, T.J.; Miller, C.L.

    1978-12-01

    The report presents information on foreign nuclear fuel fabrication facilities. Fuel descriptions and fuel fabrication information for three basic reactor types are presented: The information presented for LWRs assumes that Pu--U Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX) will be used as fuel.

  10. Controllability of plutonium concentration for FBR fuel at a solvent extraction process in the PUREX process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enokida, Youichi; Kitano, Motoki; Sawada, Kayo [Nagoya University, 1 Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, 4630052 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Typical Purex solvent extraction systems for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel have a feed material containing dilute, 1% in weight, plutonium, along with uranium and fission products. Current reprocessing proposals call for no separation of the pure plutonium. The work described in this paper studied, by computer simulation, the fundamental feasibility of preparing a 20% concentrated plutonium product solution from the 1% feed by adjusting only the feed rates and acid concentrations of the incoming streams and without the addition of redox reagents for the plutonium. A set of process design flowsheets has been developed to realize a concentrated plutonium solution of a 20% stream from the dilute plutonium feed without using redox reagents. (authors)

  11. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Process Validation Technical Support Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEXTON, R.A.

    2000-03-13

    The purpose of Process Validation is to confirm that nominal process operations are consistent with the expected process envelope. The Process Validation activities described in this document are not part of the safety basis, but are expected to demonstrate that the process operates well within the safety basis. Some adjustments to the process may be made as a result of information gathered in Process Validation.

  12. Scrap tire process turns waste into fuel. [USA - New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesla, M.R. (New York State Electric and Gas Corporation, Binghamton, NY (United States). Alternate Fuels Development)

    1994-05-01

    New York State Electric Gas Corp. (NYSEG) has in the last three years burned more than 1.3 million tyres to generate power, saving more than 16,000 tons of coal. The article describes how at the 73 MW Jennison power station scrap tires are chopped into 2x2 in. chips prior to mixing with coal near the coal pile (in a 20.80 tire chip to coal ratio) and combustion in stoker boilers with travelling chain grates. NYSEG has also test burned other alternative fuels such as creosote-treated wood and coal tar soils. 6 photos.

  13. A new on-board imaging treatment technique for palliative and emergency treatments in radiation oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Mareike

    2016-03-23

    This dissertation focuses on the use of on-board imaging systems as the basis for treatment planning, presenting an additional application for on-board images. A clinical workflow is developed to simulate, plan, and deliver a simple radiation oncology treatment rapidly, using 3D patient scans. The work focuses on an on-line dose planning and delivery process based on on-board images entirely performed with the patient set up on the treatment couch of the linear accelerator. This potentially reduces the time between patient simulation and treatment to about 30 minutes. The basis for correct dose calculation is the accurate image gray scale to tissue density calibration. The gray scale, which is defined in CT Numbers, is dependent on the energy spectrum of the beam. Therefore, an understanding of the physics characteristics of each on-board system is required to evaluate the impact on image quality, especially regarding the underlying cause of image noise, contrast, and non-uniformity. Modern on-board imaging systems, including kV and megavoltage (MV) cone beam (CB) CT as well as MV CT, are characterized in terms of image quality and stability. A library of phantom and patient CT images is used to evaluate the dose calculation accuracy for the on-board images. The dose calculation objective is to stay within 5% local dose differences compared to standard kV CT dose planning. The objective is met in many treatment cases. However, dose calculation accuracy depends on the anatomical treatment site. While on-board CT-based treatments of the head and extremities are predictable within 5% on all systems, lung tissue and air cavities may create local dose discrepancies of more than 5%. The image quality varies between the tested units. Consequently, the CT number-to-density calibration is defined independently for each system. In case of some imaging systems, the CT numbers of the images are dependent on the protocol used for on-board imaging, which defines the imaging dose

  14. Managing probe applications effectively? The process of pre-commercial fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, H.L. [Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2007-07-01

    There has been a high degree of uncertainty regarding market adoption of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell technologies, making it challenging for fuel cell firms to determine which markets to pursue at which point in time. Probes, such as prototypes, demonstrations and field trials, are market experiments conducted by fuel cell firms and industry that are central to the commercialization of fuel cell technology. However, demonstration projects are extremely resource and time intensive, and outcomes are uncertain. This paper reviewed innovation management literature on the characteristics of the technology application process. Case study research of four fuel cell firms were discussed in terms of probe objectives and outcomes. An analysis of probe application patterns over time was also presented. Several fuel cell projects were also analyzed in terms of motivations and lessons learned. The paper focused on young independent fuel cell developers that had limited resources to allocate and waste resources on ineffective probe applications. The findings complement prior research that have found probe applications a valuable tool for learning, stimulating market demand and network formation. The paper made several recommendations regarding the main objectives of the fuel cell project, to set realistic goals and align expectations between consortia members. In addition, it was found that a short term demonstration project may appear to be an attractive application, but a project with a longer term vision and a commercial value proposition was more likely to attract stakeholders. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  15. An integrated MEMS infrastructure for fuel processing: hydrogen generation and separation for portable power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varady, M. J.; McLeod, L.; Meacham, J. M.; Degertekin, F. L.; Fedorov, A. G.

    2007-09-01

    Portable fuel cells are an enabling technology for high efficiency and ultra-high density distributed power generation, which is essential for many terrestrial and aerospace applications. A key element of fuel cell power sources is the fuel processor, which should have the capability to efficiently reform liquid fuels and produce high purity hydrogen that is consumed by the fuel cells. To this end, we are reporting on the development of two novel MEMS hydrogen generators with improved functionality achieved through an innovative process organization and system integration approach that exploits the advantages of transport and catalysis on the micro/nano scale. One fuel processor design utilizes transient, reverse-flow operation of an autothermal MEMS microreactor with an intimately integrated, micromachined ultrasonic fuel atomizer and a Pd/Ag membrane for in situ hydrogen separation from the product stream. The other design features a simpler, more compact planar structure with the atomized fuel ejected directly onto the catalyst layer, which is coupled to an integrated hydrogen selective membrane.

  16. Gasification process of refuse derived fuel in circulating fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, S.; Kinoshita, Y.; Lee, C.W.; Itaya, Y.; Mori, S. [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents a fuel gas production system involving gasification of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB). Although RDF is considered to be a viable source of energy, combustion of RDF has not spread widely because of a lack of conventional incinerators, erosion due to hydrogen chloride, and emissions of dioxin. This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the pyrolysis behaviour of 3 kinds of RDF and the particle motion in a cold model CFB. The objective was to clarify operating parameters for optimum control. It was shown that an increase in combustion temperature improves the yield of the combustible gas components and the energy recycling efficiency from the RDF. The highest heating value of pyrolysis gas was obtained at 873 to 973 degrees K. The gas flow rate in the pneumatic valve of the CFB was an important control factor for the circulation flux and solids holdup in the riser. High holdups were observed when minute silica sand particles were used in the CFB. 15 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  17. Fuel and canister process report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werme, Lars (ed.)

    2006-10-15

    This report documents fuel and canister processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository. It forms an important part of the reporting of the safety assessment SR-Can. The detailed assessment methodology, including the role of the process report in the assessment, is described in the SR-Can Main report. The report is written by, and for, experts in the relevant scientific fields. It should though be possible for a generalist in the area of long-term safety assessments of geologic nuclear waste repositories to comprehend the contents of the report. The report is an important part of the documentation of the SR-Can project and an essential reference within the project, providing a scientifically motivated plan for the handling of geosphere processes. It is, furthermore, foreseen that the report will be essential for reviewers scrutinising the handling of geosphere issues in the SR-Can assessment. Several types of fuel will be emplaced in the repository. For the reference case with 40 years of reactor operation, the fuel quantity from boiling water reactors, BWR fuel, is estimated at 7,000 tonnes, while the quantity from pressurized water reactors, PWR fuel, is estimated at about 2,300 tonnes. In addition, 23 tonnes of mixed-oxide fuel (MOX) fuel of German origin from BWR and PWR reactors and 20 tonnes of fuel from the decommissioned heavy water reactor in Aagesta will be disposed of. To allow for future changes in the Swedish nuclear programme, the safety assessment assumes a total of 6,000 canister corresponding to 12,000 tonnes of fuel.

  18. Activity of fuel batches processed through Hanford separations plants, 1944 through 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watrous, R.A.; Wootan, D.W.

    1997-07-29

    This document provides a printout of the ``Fuel Activity Database`` (version U6) generated by the Hanford DKPRO code and transmitted to the Los Alamos National Laboratory for input to their ``Hanford Defined Waste`` model of waste tank inventories. This fuel activity file consists of 1,276 records--each record representing the activity associated with a batch of spent reactor fuel processed by month (or shorter period) through individual Hanford separations plants between 1944 and 1989. Each record gives the curies for 46 key radionuclides, decayed to a common reference date of January 1, 1994.

  19. Optimum catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas: Seventh quarterly technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1988-10-29

    The objectives of this contract are to discover and evaluate the catalytic properties of novel homogeneous, heterogeneous, or combination catalytic systems for the production of alcohol fuel extenders from syngas, to evaluate analytically and on the bench scale novel reactor concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products, and to develop on the bench scale the best combination of chemistry, reactor, and total process configuration to achieve the minimum product cost for conversion of syngas to liquid fuel products. Catalysts investigated include: ruthenium and molybdenum sulfides impregnated with cobalt. 7 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. Influence of high injection pressure on fuel injection perfomances and diesel engine worcking process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatrov Mikhail G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In MADI, investigations are carried out in the field of diesel engine working process perfection for complying with prospective ecological standards such as Euro-6 and Tier-4. The article describes the results of the first stage of experimental research of the influence of injection pressure up to 3000 bar on working processes of diesel engine and its fuel system. Justification of the design of a Common Rail injector for fuel injection under 3000 bar pressure is presented. The influence of raising injection pressure (up to 3000 bar on the fuel spray propagation dynamics is demonstrated. The combined influence of injection pressure (up to 3000 bar and air boost pressure on fuel spray propagation dynamics is shown, including on engine emission and noise.

  1. Processing used nuclear fuel with nanoscale control of uranium and ultrafiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Ernest M.; Peruski, Kathryn M.; Prizio, Sarah E.; Bridges, Andrea N. A.; Rudisill, Tracy S.; Hobbs, David T.; Phillip, William A.; Burns, Peter C.

    2016-05-01

    Current separation and purification technologies utilized in the nuclear fuel cycle rely primarily on liquid-liquid extraction and ion-exchange processes. Here, we report a laboratory-scale aqueous process that demonstrates nanoscale control for the recovery of uranium from simulated used nuclear fuel (SIMFUEL). The selective, hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative dissolution of SIMFUEL material results in the rapid assembly of persistent uranyl peroxide nanocluster species that can be separated and recovered at moderate to high yield from other process-soluble constituents using sequestration-assisted ultrafiltration. Implementation of size-selective physical processes like filtration could results in an overall simplification of nuclear fuel cycle technology, improving the environmental consequences of nuclear energy and reducing costs of processing.

  2. Spacecube: A Family of Reconfigurable Hybrid On-Board Science Data Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatley, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    SpaceCube is a family of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based on-board science data processing systems developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The goal of the SpaceCube program is to provide 10x to 100x improvements in on-board computing power while lowering relative power consumption and cost. SpaceCube is based on the Xilinx Virtex family of FPGAs, which include processor, FPGA logic and digital signal processing (DSP) resources. These processing elements are leveraged to produce a hybrid science data processing platform that accelerates the execution of algorithms by distributing computational functions to the most suitable elements. This approach enables the implementation of complex on-board functions that were previously limited to ground based systems, such as on-board product generation, data reduction, calibration, classification, eventfeature detection, data mining and real-time autonomous operations. The system is fully reconfigurable in flight, including data parameters, software and FPGA logic, through either ground commanding or autonomously in response to detected eventsfeatures in the instrument data stream.

  3. On-Board File Management and Its Application in Flight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, N.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, the author presents the minimum functions required for an on-board file management system. We explore file manipulation processes and demonstrate how the file transfer along with the file management system will be utilized to support flight operations and data delivery.

  4. Simulation of primary fuel atomization processes at subcritical pressures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arienti, Marco

    2013-06-01

    This report documents results from an LDRD project for the first-principles simulation of the early stages of spray formation (primary atomization). The first part describes a Cartesian embedded-wall method for the calculation of flow internal to a real injector in a fully coupled primary calculation. The second part describes the extension to an all-velocity formulation by introducing a momentum-conservative semi-Lagrangian advection and by adding a compressible term in the Poissons equation. Accompanying the description of the new algorithms are verification tests for simple two-phase problems in the presence of a solid interface; a validation study for a scaled-up multi-hole Diesel injector; and demonstration calculations for the closing and opening transients of a single-hole injector and for the high-pressure injection of liquid fuel at supersonic velocity.

  5. An Investigation of Anaerobic Processes in Fuel/Natural Seawater Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    crude oil remaining. Biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils by converting the triglyceride oils to methyl (or ethyl) esters with a process known...separated esters and glycerin. Biodiesel contains no sulfur. In the United States the term "biodiesel" is standardized as fatty acid methyl ester (FAME...particular interest to the defense community. JP-5 (for Jet Propellant) is a kerosene -based fuel for use in aircraft turbine engines. Since the fuel is the

  6. Analysis of nuclear material flow for experimental DUPIC fuel fabrication process at DFDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H. H.; Park, J. J.; Shin, J. M.; Lee, J. W.; Yang, M. S.; Baik, S. Y.; Lee, E. P

    1999-08-01

    This report describes facilities necessary for manufacturing experiment for DUPIC fuel, manufacturing process and equipment. Nuclear material flows among facilities, in PIEF and IMEF, for irradiation test, for post examination of DUPIC fuel, for quality control, for chemical analysis and for treatment of radioactive waste have been analyzed in details. This may be helpful for DUPIC project participants and facility engineers working in related facilities to understand overall flow for nuclear material and radioactive waste. (Author). 14 refs., 15 tabs., 41 figs.

  7. Experiment on the improvement of OREOX process for fabrication of dry recycling nuclear fuel pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woong Ki; Kim, S. S.; Park, G. I. [and others

    2004-01-01

    The OREOX(Oxidation and REduction of OXide fuel) process has been performed to fabricate dry recycling(DUPIC ; Direct Use of spent PWR fuel In CANDU reactor) nuclear fuel pellets by using spent PWR fuel. Generally, sinterable DUPIC powder has been manufactured from spent PWR fuel pellets by the 3 cycles of oxidation and reduction treatment. The OREOX process is one of the most important processes for DUPIC pellet fabrication. A lot of time more than 37 hours as well as a lot of reaction gas is required to perform 3 cycles of OREOX treatments. In this experiment, 1 cycle OREOX process was adopted to improve the powdering process of DUPIC pellet manufacturing processes. As a result of experiment, the densities of pellets sintered at 1800 .deg. C for 10 hours ranged from 10.15 to 10.22 g/cm{sup 3}(93.8{approx}94.5 % of T.D.). The pellets were sintered again to increase the sintered density. The sintered densities of pellets re-sintered at 1850 .deg. C for 7 hours ranged from 10.27 to 10.33 g/cm{sup 3}(94.9{approx} 95.5 % of T.D)

  8. Bed models for solid fuel conversion process in grate-fired boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, M.; Massarotti, N.; Indrizzi, V.

    2013-01-01

    to describe the thermo-chemical conversion process of a solid fuel bed in a grate-fired boiler is presented. In this work both models consider the incoming solid fuel as subjected to drying, pyrolysis, gasification and combustion. In the first approach the biomass bed is treated as a 0D system, but the thermo......Because of the complexity to describe and solve thermo-chemical processes occurring in a fuel bed in grate-fired boiler, it is often necessary to simplify the process and use modeling techniques based on overall mass, energy and species conservation. A comparison between two numerical models......-chemical processes are divided in two successive sections: drying and conversion (which includes pyrolysis, gasification and combustion). The second model is an empirical 1D approach. The two models need input data such as composition, temperature and feeding rate of biomass and primary air. Temperature, species...

  9. Evaluation of Co-precipitation Processes for the Synthesis of Mixed-Oxide Fuel Feedstock Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Emory D [ORNL; Voit, Stewart L [ORNL; Vedder, Raymond James [ORNL

    2011-06-01

    The focus of this report is the evaluation of various co-precipitation processes for use in the synthesis of mixed oxide feedstock powders for the Ceramic Fuels Technology Area within the Fuels Cycle R&D (FCR&D) Program's Advanced Fuels Campaign. The evaluation will include a comparison with standard mechanical mixing of dry powders and as well as other co-conversion methods. The end result will be the down selection of a preferred sequence of co-precipitation process for the preparation of nuclear fuel feedstock materials to be used for comparison with other feedstock preparation methods. A review of the literature was done to identify potential nitrate-to-oxide co-conversion processes which have been applied to mixtures of uranium and plutonium to achieve recycle fuel homogeneity. Recent studies have begun to study the options for co-converting all of the plutonium and neptunium recovered from used nuclear fuels, together with appropriate portions of recovered uranium to produce the desired mixed oxide recycle fuel. The addition of recycled uranium will help reduce the safeguard attractiveness level and improve proliferation resistance of the recycled fuel. The inclusion of neptunium is primarily driven by its chemical similarity to plutonium, thus enabling a simple quick path to recycle. For recycle fuel to thermal-spectrum light water reactors (LWRs), the uranium concentration can be {approx}90% (wt.), and for fast spectrum reactors, the uranium concentration can typically exceed 70% (wt.). However, some of the co-conversion/recycle fuel fabrication processes being developed utilize a two-step process to reach the desired uranium concentration. In these processes, a 50-50 'master-mix' MOX powder is produced by the co-conversion process, and the uranium concentration is adjusted to the desired level for MOX fuel recycle by powder blending (milling) the 'master-mix' with depleted uranium oxide. In general, parameters that must be

  10. Integrated process for the catalytic conversion of biomass-derived syngas into transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, Vanessa Lebarbier; Smith, Colin; Flake, Matthew; Albrecht, Karl O.; Gray, Michel J.; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Dagle, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Efficient synthesis of renewable fuels that will enable cost competitiveness with petroleum-derived fuels remains a grand challenge for U.S. scientists. In this paper, we report on an integrated catalytic approach for producing transportation fuels from biomass-derived syngas. The composition of the resulting hydrocarbon fuel can be modulated to meet specified requirements. Biomass-derived syngas is first converted over an Rh-based catalyst into a complex aqueous mixture of condensable C2+ oxygenated compounds (predominantly ethanol, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate). This multi-component aqueous mixture then is fed to a second reactor loaded with a ZnxZryOz mixed oxide catalyst, which has tailored acid-base sites, to produce an olefin mixture rich in isobutene. The olefins then are oligomerized using a solid acid catalyst (e.g., Amberlyst-36) to form condensable olefins with molecular weights that can be targeted for gasoline, jet, and/or diesel fuel applications. The product rich in long-chain olefins (C7+) is finally sent to a fourth reactor that is needed for hydrogenation of the olefins into paraffin fuels. Simulated distillation of the hydrotreated oligomerized liquid product indicates that ~75% of the hydrocarbons present are in the jet-fuel range. Process optimization for the oligomerization step could further improve yield to the jet-fuel range. All of these catalytic steps have been demonstrated in sequence, thus providing proof-of-concept for a new integrated process for the production of drop-in biofuels. This unique and flexible process does not require external hydrogen and also could be applied to non-syngas derived feedstock, such as fermentation products (e.g., ethanol, acetic acid, etc.), other oxygenates, and mixtures thereof containing alcohols, acids, aldehydes and/or esters.

  11. Process behavior and environmental assessment of /sup 14/C releases from an HTGR fuel reprocessing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snider, J.W.; Kaye, S.V.

    1976-01-01

    Large quantities of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ will be evolved when graphite fuel blocks are burned during reprocessing of spent fuel from HTGR reactors. The possible release of some or all of this /sup 14/C to the environment is a matter of concern which is investigated in this paper. Various alternatives are considered in this study for decontaminating and releasing the process off-gas to the environment. Concomitant radiological analyses have been done for the waste process scenarios to supply the necessary feedbacks for process design.

  12. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Charles; Wilson, Robert

    2014-04-30

    This project culminated in the demonstration of a full-scale industrial burner which allows a broad range of “opportunity” gaseous fuels to be cost-effectively and efficiently utilized while generating minimal emissions of criteria air pollutants. The burner is capable of maintaining a stable flame when the fuel composition changes rapidly. This enhanced stability will contribute significantly to improving the safety and reliability of burner operation in manufacturing sites. Process heating in the refining and chemicals sectors is the primary application for this burner. The refining and chemical sectors account for more than 40% of total industrial natural gas use. Prior to the completion of this project, an enabling technology did not exist that would allow these energy-intensive industries to take full advantage of opportunity fuels and thereby reduce their natural gas consumption. Opportunity gaseous fuels include biogas (from animal and agricultural wastes, wastewater plants, and landfills) as well as syngas (from the gasification of biomass, municipal solid wastes, construction wastes, and refinery residuals). The primary challenge to using gaseous opportunity fuels is that their composition and combustion performance differ significantly from those of conventional fuels such as natural gas and refinery fuel gas. An effective fuel-flexible burner must accept fuels that range widely in quality and change in composition over time, often rapidly. In Phase 1 of this project, the team applied computational fluid dynamics analysis to optimize the prototype burner’s aerodynamic, combustion, heat transfer, and emissions performance. In Phase 2, full-scale testing and refinement of two prototype burners were conducted in test furnaces at Zeeco’s offices in Broken Arrow, OK. These tests demonstrated that the full range of conventional and opportunity fuels could be utilized by the project’s burner while achieving robust flame stability and very low levels of

  13. Solar photochemical process engineering for production of fuels and chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, J. R.; Peterson, D. B.; Fujita, T.

    1985-01-01

    The engineering costs and performance of a nominal 25,000 scmd (883,000 scfd) photochemical plant to produce dihydrogen from water were studied. Two systems were considered, one based on flat-plate collector/reactors and the other on linear parabolic troughs. Engineering subsystems were specified including the collector/reactor, support hardware, field transport piping, gas compression equipment, and balance-of-plant (BOP) items. Overall plant efficiencies of 10.3 and 11.6 percent are estimated for the flat-plate and trough systems, respectively, based on assumed solar photochemical efficiencies of 12.9 and 14.6 percent. Because of the opposing effects of concentration ratio and operating temperature on efficiency, it was concluded that reactor cooling would be necessary with the trough system. Both active and passive cooling methods were considered. Capital costs and energy costs, for both concentrating and non-concentrating systems, were determined and their sensitivity to efficiency and economic parameters were analyzed. The overall plant efficiency is the single most important factor in determining the cost of the fuel.

  14. Novel materials process for alcohol based fuel cells. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, K.; Smith, R.

    2005-07-01

    At present, the unit cost of producing alcohol fuel cells, in particular the cost of the ion-exchange membrane and the platinum catalyst, is limiting the sales. Since the cost of platinum cannot be reduced, an effective means of making the cells more attractive would be to increase the power output per unit area of membrane other than by operating at elevated temperatures. To replace the expensive Nafion, ITM and Cranfield University have developed a new membrane based on ionic hydrophilic polymers. Both acidic and alkaline-based membranes have been produced, the latter may well avoid the use of platinum thus gaining a further cost bonus. Conductivity of the new styrene-sulphonic acid graft membranes is more than double that of Nafion. Similarly, in cross-over tests, the new cells outperformed the Nafion cells. Palladium was investigated as a cheaper alternative to platinum. Based on this study, ITM have applied for five new patents. The study was conducted by ITM Power Plc under contract to the DTI.

  15. Fuel and canister process report for the safety assessment SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werme, Lars; Lilja, Christina (eds.)

    2010-12-15

    This report documents fuel and canister processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository. It forms an important part of the reporting of the safety assessment SR-Site. The detailed assessment methodology, including the role of the process reports in the assessment, is described in the SR-Site Main report /SKB 2011/

  16. /sup 238/Pu fuel form processes quarterly report, April-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folger, R. L.

    1980-06-01

    Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) completed the development of a production process to fabricate /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ fuel forms for the GPHS. The fabrication flowsheet was based on a flowsheet originally developed at Los Alamos National Scientific Laboratory (LANSL). A summary report of the SRL process development effort is presented.

  17. CONCEPTUAL PROCESS DESCRIPTION FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF LOW-ENRICHED URANIUM-MOLYBDENUM FUEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel M. Wachs; Curtis R. Clark; Randall J. Dunavant

    2008-02-01

    The National Nuclear Security Agency Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) is tasked with minimizing the use of high-enriched uranium (HEU) worldwide. A key component of that effort is the conversion of research reactors from HEU to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuels. The GTRI Convert Fuel Development program, previously known as the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program was initiated in 1978 by the United States Department of Energy to develop the nuclear fuels necessary to enable these conversions. The program cooperates with the research reactors’ operators to achieve this goal of HEU to LEU conversion without reduction in reactor performance. The programmatic mandate is to complete the conversion of all civilian domestic research reactors by 2014. These reactors include the five domestic high-performance research reactors (HPRR), namely: the High Flux Isotope Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Advanced Test Reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory, the National Bureau of Standards Reactor at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the Missouri University Research Reactor at the University of Missouri–Columbia, and the MIT Reactor-II at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Characteristics for each of the HPRRs are given in Appendix A. The GTRI Convert Fuel Development program is currently engaged in the development of a novel nuclear fuel that will enable these conversions. The fuel design is based on a monolithic fuel meat (made from a uranium-molybdenum alloy) clad in Al-6061 that has shown excellent performance in irradiation testing. The unique aspects of the fuel design, however, necessitate the development and implementation of new fabrication techniques and, thus, establishment of the infrastructure to ensure adequate fuel fabrication capability. A conceptual fabrication process description and rough estimates of the total facility throughput are described in this document as a basis for

  18. CFBC evaluation of fuels processed from Illinois coals. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan, S.

    1992-08-01

    The main thrust of this research project is the combustion testing and evaluation of two fuels processed from Illinois high sulfur coals. These fuels are (a) flotation slurry fuel beneficiated from coal fines containing 30% and 80% solids, and (b) coal-sorbent pellets made from coal fines using corn starch as a binder. Combustion data from these two fuels are to be compared with corresponding data obtained from a standard coal from the IBCSP coal bank. Parameters to be evaluated are SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} emissions, combustion efficiency and ash composition, insofar as its influences disposal techniques. During the last quarter, the equipment was serviced and brought on line, and combustion tests were initiated.

  19. NSRR experiment with un-irradiated uranium-zirconium hydride fuel. Design, fabrication process and inspection data of test fuel rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasajima, Hideo; Fuketa, Toyoshi; Ishijima, Kiyomi; Kuroha, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Yoshikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Aizawa, Keiichi

    1998-08-01

    An experiment plan is progressing in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) to perform pulse-irradiation with uranium-zirconium hydride (U-ZrH{sub x}) fuel. This fuel is widely used in the training research and isotope production reactor of GA (TRIGA). The objectives of the experiment are to determine the fuel rod failure threshold and to investigate fuel behavior under simulated reactivity initiated accident (RIA) conditions. This report summarizes design, fabrication process and inspection data of the test fuel rods before pulse-irradiation. The experiment with U-ZrH{sub x} fuel will realize precise safety evaluation, and improve the TRIGA reactor performance. The data to be obtained in this program will also contribute development of next-generation TRIGA reactor and its safety evaluation. (author)

  20. Effect of Process Variables During the Head-End Treatment of Spent Oxide Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.J. Bateman; C.D. Morgan; J.F. Berg; D.J. Brough; P.J. Crane; D.G. Cummings; J.J. Giglio; M.W. Huntley; M.J. Rodriquez; J.D. Sommers; R.P. Lind; D.A. Sell

    2006-08-01

    The development of a head-end processing step for spent oxide fuel that applies to both aqueous and pyrometallurgical technologies is being performed by the Idaho National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute through a joint International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. The processing step employs high temperatures and oxidative gases to promote the oxidation of UO2 to U3O8. Potential benefits of the head-end step include the removal or reduction of fission products as well as separation of the fuel from cladding. The effects of temperature, pressure, oxidative gas, and cladding have been studied with irradiated spent oxide fuel to determine the optimum conditions for process control. Experiments with temperatures ranging from 500oC to 1250oC have been performed on spent fuel using either air or oxygen gas for the oxidative reaction. Various flowrates and applications have been tested with the oxidative gases to discern the effects on the process. Tests have also been performed under vacuum conditions, following the oxidation cycle, at high temperatures to improve the removal of fission products. The effects of cladding on fission product removal have also been investigated with released fuel under vacuum and high temperature conditions. Results from these experiments will be presented as well as operating conditions based on particle size and decladding characteristics.

  1. Effects of Catalysts on Emissions of Pollutants from Combustion Processes of Liquid Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Agnieszka; Guziałowska-Tic, Joanna; Tic, Wilhelm Jan

    2014-12-01

    The dynamic growth of the use of non-renewable fuels for energy purposes results in demand for catalysts to improve their combustion process. The paper describes catalysts used mainly in the processes of combustion of motor fuels and fuel oils. These catalysts make it possible to raise the efficiency of oxidation processes simultanously reducing the emission of pollutants. The key to success is the selection of catalyst compounds that will reduce harmful emissions of combustion products into the atmosphere. Catalysts are introduced into the combustion zone in form of solutions miscible with fuel or with air supplied to the combustion process. The following compounds soluble in fuel are inclused in the composition of the described catalysts: organometallic complexes, manganese compounds, salts originated from organic acids, ferrocen and its derivatives and sodium chloride and magnesium chloride responsible for burning the soot (chlorides). The priority is to minimize emissions of volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, and carbon monoxide, as well as particulate matter.

  2. XMM instrument on-board software maintenance concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peccia, N.; Giannini, F.

    1994-01-01

    While the pre-launch responsibility for the production, validation and maintenance of instrument on-board software traditionally lies with the experimenter, the post-launch maintenance has been the subject of ad hoc arrangements with the responsibility shared to different extent between the experimenter, ESTEC and ESOC. This paper summarizes the overall design and development of the instruments on-board software for the XMM satellite, and describes the concept adopted for the maintenance of such software post-launch. The paper will also outline the on-board software maintenance and validation facilities and the expected advantages to be gained by the proposed strategy. Conclusions with respect to adequacy of this approach will be presented as well as recommendations for future instrument on-board software developments.

  3. Solid recovered fuel production from biodegradable waste in grain processing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliopova, Irina; Staniskis, Jurgis Kazimieras; Petraskiene, Violeta

    2013-04-01

    Management of biodegradable waste is one of the most important environmental problems in the grain-processing industry since this waste cannot be dumped anymore due to legal requirements. Biodegradable waste is generated in each stage of grain processing, including the waste-water and air emissions treatment processes. Their management causes some environmental and financial problems. The majority of Lithuanian grain-processing enterprises own and operate composting sites, but in Lithuania the demand for compost is not given. This study focused on the analysis of the possibility of using biodegradable waste for the production of solid recovered fuel, as a local renewable fuel with the purpose of increasing environmental performance and decreasing the direct costs of grain processing. Experimental research with regard to a pilot grain-processing plant has proven that alternative fuel production will lead to minimizing of the volume of biodegradable waste by 75% and the volume of natural gas for heat energy production by 62%. Environmental indicators of grain processing, laboratory analysis of the chemical and physical characteristics of biodegradable waste, mass and energy balances of the solid recovered fuel production, environmental and economical benefits of the project are presented and discussed herein.

  4. Pyro-chemistry within Europart assessment of the studies on spent fuel treatment processes collective work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, S. [CEA Valrho, 30 - Marcoule (France); Madic, C. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Caravaca, C. [CIEMAT (Spain); Finne, J. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Angelis, G. de [ENEA, Bologna (Italy); Malmbeck, R. [ITU, JRC (Germany); Lewin, B.G. [NEXIA Solutions (United Kingdom); Uhlir, J. [Nuclear Research Institute (NRI) (Czech Republic); Inoue, T. [CRIEPI (Japan); Luca, V. [ANSTO (Australia)

    2007-07-01

    In the continuation of PYROREP (FP5), the pyrochemical domain of EUROPART (FP6) involves today 7 European participants and 2 international partners in order to assess treatment processes which could be used in a broad variety of fuel cycles: molten salt reactor spent fuel, metallic, oxide, carbide or nitride fuels from any reactors. Indeed, a pyrochemical process is not sensitive to radiolysis, and obviously to temperature effects, and could afford to treat fuels after a short cooling period, even at high concentrations. Within EUROPART, the chemistry of actinides and of some fission products was studied in depth in either chloride or fluoride molten salts. Laboratory-scale demonstration experiments were used in order to assess electrolytic processes in molten chlorides and liquid-liquid reductive extraction in molten fluoride/liquid aluminum. An electrolysis process is also under development in molten fluoride. To complete the studies, the development of devices and the modeling of processes are taken into consideration. In order to be fitted for acceptance, a process has to produce minimal quantities of wastes, compatible with storage constraints. Therefore, decontamination techniques, as well as materials suitable for disposal, have to be developed. Fission products precipitation by carbonate and phosphate, and filtration on zeolites were studied. Some original confinement matrices such as sodalite or pollucite were also studied. Integration studies have been carried out in order to evaluate and to compare some selected process flowsheets and possibly to redirect development programs. (authors)

  5. Aqueous processing of U-10Mo scrap for high performance research reactor fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youker, Amanda J., E-mail: youker@anl.gov [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Stepinski, Dominique C.; Maggos, Laura E.; Bakel, Allen J.; Vandegrift, George F. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GTRI program supports conversion from HEU to LEU. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High performance research reactors require a dense LEU fuel such as U-10Mo foils. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dissolution conditions for U-10Mo foils in acidic media have been optimized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solvent-extraction processing can be used to recover U lost in fuel fabrication. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Flowsheets were developed using Argonne-design contactors but other contactors can be used as well. - Abstract: The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Conversion program, which is part of the US government's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), supports the conversion of civilian use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) for reactor fuel and targets. The reason for conversion is to eliminate the use of any material that may pose a threat to the United States or other foreign countries. High performance research reactors (HPRRs) cannot make the conversion to a standard LEU fuel because they require a more dense fuel to meet their performance requirements. As a result, a more dense fuel consisting of a monolithic uranium-molybdenum alloy containing 10% (w/w) Mo with Al cladding and a Zr bonding-layer is being considered. Significant losses are expected in the fabrication of this fuel, so a means to recycle the scrap pieces is needed. Argonne National Laboratory has developed an aqueous-processing flowsheet for scrap recovery in the fuel fabrication process for high-density LEU-monolithic fuel based on data found in the literature. Experiments have been performed to investigate dissolution conditions for solutions containing approximately 20 g-U/L and 50 g-U/L with and without Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}. HNO{sub 3} and HF concentrations have been optimized for timely dissolution of the fuel scrap and prevention of the formation of the U-Zr{sub 2} intermetallic, explosive complex, while

  6. Low Emissions Burner Technology for Metal Processing Industry using Byproducts and Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Ajay; Taylor, Robert

    2013-09-30

    path forward to utilize both fossil and alternative liquid fuels in the same combustion system. In particular, experiments show that straight VO can be cleanly combusted without the need for chemical processing or preheating steps, which can result in significant economic and environmental benefits. Next, low-emission combustion of glycerol/methane was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine droplets of highly viscous glycerol. Heat released from methane combustion further improves glycerol pre-vaporization and thus its clean combustion. Methane addition results in an intensified reaction zone with locally high temperatures near the injector exit. Reduction in methane flow rate elongates the reaction zone, which leads to higher CO emissions and lower NOx emissions. Similarly, higher air to liquid (ALR) mass ratio improves atomization and fuel pre-vaporization and shifts the flame closer to the injector exit. In spite of these internal variations, all fuel mixes of glycerol with methane produced similar CO and NOx emissions at the combustor exit. Results show that FB concept provides low emissions with the flexibility to utilize gaseous and highly viscous liquid fuels, straight VO and glycerol, without preheating or preprocessing the fuels. Following these initial experiments in quartz combustor, we demonstrated that glycerol combustion can be stably sustained in a metal combustor. Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) measurements in glycerol/methane flames resulted in flow-weighted Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) of 35 to 40 μm, depending upon the methane percentage. This study verified that lab-scale dual-fuel burner using FB injector can successfully atomize and combust glycerol and presumably other highly viscous liquid fuels at relatively low HRR (<10 kW). For industrial applications, a scaled-up glycerol burner design thus seemed feasible.

  7. 40 CFR 86.1806-04 - On-board diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false On-board diagnostics. 86.1806-04..., and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1806-04 On-board diagnostics. This § 86.1806-04... alternative to SAE J1850. (iii) ISO 15765-4.3:2001 “Road Vehicles-Diagnostics on Controller Area Network...

  8. Biorefineries to integrate fuel, energy and chemical production processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Bargiacchi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The world of renewable energies is in fast evolution and arouses political and public interests, especially as an opportunity to boost environmental sustainability by mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. This work aims at examining the possibilities related to the development of biorefineries, where biomass conversion processes to produce biofuels, electricity and biochemicals are integrated. Particular interest is given to the production processes of biodiesel, bioethanol and biogas, for which present world situation, problems, and perspectives are drawn. Potential areas for agronomic and biotech researches are also discussed. Producing biomass for biorefinery processing will eventually lead to maximize yields, in the non food agriculture.

  9. On-board neural processor design for intelligent multisensor microspacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wai-Chi; Sheu, Bing J.; Wall, James

    1996-03-01

    A compact VLSI neural processor based on the Optimization Cellular Neural Network (OCNN) has been under development to provide a wide range of support for an intelligent remote sensing microspacecraft which requires both high bandwidth communication and high- performance computing for on-board data analysis, thematic data reduction, synergy of multiple types of sensors, and other advanced smart-sensor functions. The OCNN is developed with emphasis on its capability to find global optimal solutions by using a hardware annealing method. The hardware annealing function is embedded in the network. It is a parallel version of fast mean-field annealing in analog networks, and is highly efficient in finding globally optimal solutions for cellular neural networks. The OCNN is designed to perform programmable functions for fine-grained processing with annealing control to enhance the output quality. The OCNN architecture is a programmable multi-dimensional array of neurons which are locally connected with their local neurons. Major design features of the OCNN neural processor includes massively parallel neural processing, hardware annealing capability, winner-take-all mechanism, digitally programmable synaptic weights, and multisensor parallel interface. A compact current-mode VLSI design feasibility of the OCNN neural processor is demonstrated by a prototype 5 X 5-neuroprocessor array chip in a 2-micrometers CMOS technology. The OCNN operation theory, architecture, design and implementation, prototype chip, and system applications have been investigated in detail and presented in this paper.

  10. Catalysts and process for liquid hydrocarbon fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Mark G.; Ranaweera, Samantha A.; Henry, William P.

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides a novel process and system in which a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen synthesis gas, or syngas, is converted into hydrocarbon mixtures composed of high quality distillates, gasoline components, and lower molecular weight gaseous olefins in one reactor or step. The invention utilizes a novel supported bimetallic ion complex catalyst for conversion, and provides methods of preparing such novel catalysts and use of the novel catalysts in the process and system of the invention.

  11. Alternative fuel vehicles for the state fleets: Results of the 5-year planning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report documents the first attempt by the Department of Energy (DOE) to work with states to prepare five-year Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) acquisition plans to identify alternative fuels and vehicles that they are planning on or would like to acquire. The DOE Regional Support Offices (RSOs) met with representatives from the states in their regions and assisted in the preparation of the plans. These plans will be used in conjunction with previously gathered Federal five-year plans to encourage Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to expand the variety of AFVs produced, reduce the incremental cost of AFVs, and to encourage fuel suppliers to expand the alternative fuel infrastructure and alternative fuel availability. By identifying the needs and requirements of state fleets, DOE can begin to describe the specific nature of the future state fleets, and establish a defined market for OEMs and fuel suppliers. DOE initiated the development and collection of the state five-year plans before the signing of the Energy Policy Act, to raise the awareness of states that they will be required by law to acquire AFVs. As a result, several states that had no AFV acquisition plan when queried have developed or are in the process of developing plans. The DOE and its RSOs are still working with the states to develop and refine acquisition plans, and this report should be treated as documentation of work in progress.

  12. Catalysts and process for liquid hydrocarbon fuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mark G; Liu, Shetian

    2014-12-09

    The present invention provides a novel process and system in which a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen synthesis gas, or syngas, is converted into hydrocarbon mixtures composed of high quality gasoline components, aromatic compounds, and lower molecular weight gaseous olefins in one reactor or step. The invention utilizes a novel molybdenum-zeolite catalyst in high pressure hydrogen for conversion, as well as a novel rhenium-zeolite catalyst in place of the molybdenum-zeolite catalyst, and provides for use of the novel catalysts in the process and system of the invention.

  13. Fuel decomposition and boundary-layer combustion processes of hybrid rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaverini, Martin J.; Harting, George C.; Lu, Yeu-Cherng; Kuo, Kenneth K.; Serin, Nadir; Johnson, David K.

    1995-01-01

    Using a high-pressure, two-dimensional hybrid motor, an experimental investigation was conducted on fundamental processes involved in hybrid rocket combustion. HTPB (Hydroxyl-terminated Polybutadiene) fuel cross-linked with diisocyanate was burned with GOX under various operating conditions. Large-amplitude pressure oscillations were encountered in earlier test runs. After identifying the source of instability and decoupling the GOX feed-line system and combustion chamber, the pressure oscillations were drastically reduced from +/-20% of the localized mean pressure to an acceptable range of +/-1.5% Embedded fine-wire thermocouples indicated that the surface temperature of the burning fuel was around 1000 K depending upon axial locations and operating conditions. Also, except near the leading-edge region, the subsurface thermal wave profiles in the upstream locations are thicker than those in the downstream locations since the solid-fuel regression rate, in general, increases with distance along the fuel slab. The recovered solid fuel slabs in the laminar portion of the boundary layer exhibited smooth surfaces, indicating the existence of a liquid melt layer on the burning fuel surface in the upstream region. After the transition section, which displayed distinct transverse striations, the surface roughness pattern became quite random and very pronounced in the downstream turbulent boundary-layer region. Both real-time X-ray radiography and ultrasonic pulse-echo techniques were used to determine the instantaneous web thickness burned and instantaneous solid-fuel regression rates over certain portions of the fuel slabs. Globally averaged and axially dependent but time-averaged regression rates were also obtained and presented.

  14. Microchemical Systems for Fuel Processing and Conversion to Electrical Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-15

    6.8 Vacuum Packaging ........................................................................................................................................43...production may take place. Vacuum packaging and reflective shields, required to maximize the thermal isolation of the reaction zone, have been tested...microfabrication strategies. Substantial effort has been expended on the chip level vacuum packaging process, which is critical to the performance of the

  15. EVALUATION OF A PROCESS TO CONVERT BIOMASS TO METHANOL FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a review of the design of a reactor capable of gasifying approximately 50 lb/hr of biomass for a pilot-scale facility to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate the Hynol Process, a high-temperature, high-pressure method for converting biomass into methanol...

  16. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2004-09-01

    An innovative Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) process was recently described where evaporation of mineralized water is driven by diffusion within a packed bed. The energy source to drive the process is derived from low pressure condensing steam within the main condenser of a steam power generating plant. Since waste heat is used to drive the process, the main cost of fresh water production is attributed to the energy cost of pumping air and water through the packed bed. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A combined thermodynamic and dynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3'' Hg. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower and direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. An experimental DDD facility has been fabricated, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. Direct contact condensers with and without packing have been investigated. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is significantly enhanced when packing is added to the direct contact condensers.

  17. Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fuel Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight; Venugopal Jogi

    2005-09-01

    This project concerns a diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process where warm water is evaporated into a low humidity air stream, and the vapor is condensed out to produce distilled water. Although the process has a low fresh water to feed water conversion efficiency, it has been demonstrated that this process can potentially produce low cost distilled water when driven by low grade waste heat. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A dynamic analysis of heat and mass transfer demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3 Hg. The optimum operating condition for the DDD process with a high temperature of 50 C and sink temperature of 25 C has an air mass flux of 1.5 kg/m{sup 2}-s, air to feed water mass flow ratio of 1 in the diffusion tower, and a fresh water to air mass flow ratio of 2 in the condenser. Operating at these conditions yields a fresh water production efficiency (m{sub fW}/m{sub L}) of 0.031 and electric energy consumption rate of 0.0023 kW-hr/kg{sub fW}. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. The analyses agree quite well with the current data. Recently, it has been recognized that the fresh water production efficiency can be significantly enhanced with air heating. This type of configuration is well suited for power plants utilizing air-cooled condensers. The experimental DDD facility has been modified with an air heating section, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is enhanced when air

  18. Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fuel Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2006-09-29

    This project concerns a diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process where warm water is evaporated into a low humidity air stream, and the vapor is condensed out to produce distilled water. Although the process has a low fresh water to feed water conversion efficiency, it has been demonstrated that this process can potentially produce low cost distilled water when driven by low grade waste heat. This report summarizes the progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze the diffusion tower using a heated water input are described. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. The direct contact condenser has also been thoroughly analyzed and the system performance at optimal operating conditions has been considered using a heated water/ambient air input to the diffusion tower. The diffusion tower has also been analyzed using a heated air input. The DDD laboratory facility has successfully been modified to include an air heating section. Experiments have been conducted over a range of parameters for two different cases: heated air/heated water and heated air/ambient water. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model has been examined for both of these cases and agreement between the experimental and theoretical data is good. A parametric study reveals that for every liquid mass flux there is an air mass flux value where the diffusion tower energy consumption is minimal and an air mass flux where the fresh water production flux is maximized. A study was also performed to compare the DDD process with different inlet operating conditions as well as different packing. It is shown that the heated air/heated water case is more capable of greater fresh water production with the same energy consumption than the ambient air/heated water process at high liquid mass flux. It is also shown that there can be

  19. Solvent degradation products in nuclear fuel processing solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shook, H.E. Jr.

    1988-06-01

    The Savannah River Plant uses a modified Purex process to recover enriched uranium and separate fission products. This process uses 7.5% tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) dissolved in normal paraffin hydrocarbons for the solvent extraction of a nitric acid solution containing the materials to be separated. Periodic problems in product decontamination result from solvent degradation. A study to improve process efficiency has identified certain solvent degradation products and suggested mitigation measures. Undecanoic acid, lauric acid, and tridecanoic acid were tentatively identified as diluent degradation products in recycle solvent. These long-chain organic acids affect phase separation and lead to low decontamination factors. Solid phase extraction (SPE) was used to concentrate the organic acids in solvent prior to analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). SPE and HPLC methods were optimized in this work for analysis of decanoic acid, undecanoic acid, and lauric acid in solvent. Accelerated solvent degradation studies with 7.5% TBP in normal paraffin hydrocarbons showed that long-chain organic acids and long-chain alkyl butyl phosphoric acids are formed by reactions with nitric acid. Degradation of both tributyl phosphate and hydrocarbon can be minimized with purified normal paraffin replacing the standard grade presently used. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  20. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Mohamed Darwish; Diego Acevedo; Jessica Knight

    2003-09-01

    This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system, which is powered by the waste heat from low pressure condensing steam in power plants. The desalination is driven by water vapor saturating dry air flowing through a diffusion tower. Liquid water is condensed out of the air/vapor mixture in a direct contact condenser. A thermodynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production efficiency of 4.5% based on a feed water inlet temperature of only 50 C. An example is discussed in which the DDD process utilizes waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant to produce 1.51 million gallons of fresh water per day. The main focus of the initial development of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower. A detailed mathematical model for the diffusion tower has been described, and its numerical implementation has been used to characterize its performance and provide guidance for design. The analysis has been used to design a laboratory scale diffusion tower, which has been thoroughly instrumented to allow detailed measurements of heat and mass transfer coefficient, as well as fresh water production efficiency. The experimental facility has been described in detail.

  1. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Mohamed Darwish; Diego Acevedo; Jessica Knight

    2003-09-01

    This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system, which is powered by the waste heat from low pressure condensing steam in power plants. The desalination is driven by water vapor saturating dry air flowing through a diffusion tower. Liquid water is condensed out of the air/vapor mixture in a direct contact condenser. A thermodynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production efficiency of 4.5% based on a feed water inlet temperature of only 50 C. An example is discussed in which the DDD process utilizes waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant to produce 1.51 million gallons of fresh water per day. The main focus of the initial development of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower. A detailed mathematical model for the diffusion tower has been described, and its numerical implementation has been used to characterize its performance and provide guidance for design. The analysis has been used to design a laboratory scale diffusion tower, which has been thoroughly instrumented to allow detailed measurements of heat and mass transfer coefficient, as well as fresh water production efficiency. The experimental facility has been described in detail.

  2. Chemical Processing of Non-Crop Plants for Jet Fuel Blends Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis, M. J.; Hepp, A. F.; McDowell, M.; Ribita, D.

    2009-01-01

    The use of Biofuels has been gaining in popularity over the past few years due to their ability to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels. Biofuels as a renewable energy source can be a viable option for sustaining long-term energy needs if they are managed efficiently. We describe our initial efforts to exploit algae, halophytes and other non-crop plants to produce synthetics for fuel blends that can potentially be used as fuels for aviation and non-aerospace applications. Our efforts have been dedicated to crafting efficient extraction and refining processes in order to extract constituents from the plant materials with the ultimate goal of determining the feasibility of producing biomass-based jet fuel from the refined extract. Two extraction methods have been developed based on communition processes, and liquid-solid extraction techniques. Refining procedures such as chlorophyll removal and transesterification of triglycerides have been performed. Gas chromatography in tandem with mass spectroscopy is currently being utilized in order to qualitatively determine the individual components of the refined extract. We also briefly discuss and compare alternative methods to extract fuel-blending agents from alternative biofuels sources.

  3. /sup 238/Pu fuel form processes. Quarterly report, July-September 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-04-01

    This report is one of a series to summarize progress in the Savannah River Laboratory /sup 238/Pu Fuel Form Program. Goals of the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) program include providing technical support for the production of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ fuel forms in the Savannah River Plant's (SRP) Plutonium Fuel Form (PuFF) Facility. This part of the program includes: demonstration of processes and techniques developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for production at SRP. Information from the demonstration will provide the technical data for technical standards and operating procedures; technical support to assist plant startup and to ensure continuation of safe and efficient production of high-quality heat-source fuel; and technical assistance after startup to accommodate changes in product and product specifications, to assist user agencies in improving product performance, to assist SRP in making process improvements that increase efficiency and product reliability, and to adapt plant facilities for new products. This report summarizes progress in improving the quality of welds in /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ fuel capsules.

  4. Women on boards of directors and corporate philanthropic disaster response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Jia; Zhe Zhang

    2012-01-01

    In this study we conduct firm-level analysis of the impact of women in the boardroom on corporate philanthropic disaster response(CPDR).We propose that CPDR contains agency costs and that female directors are more likely to restrain the associated agency costs of CPDR.We predict a negative relationship between the ratio of women on boards of directors(WoBs) and philanthropic contribution,which is weaker in firms with political connections and stronger in firms with better-developed institutional environments.Data was collected from the philanthropic responses to the Wenchuan earthquake on May 12,2008 of privately-owned listed Chinese firms.The results support the hypothesized negative relationship,which is found to be weaker in firms with political connections.However,marketization-related factors do not significantly moderate this relationship.These results indicate that CPDR contains agency costs and that female directors do not facilitate the corporate donation process,but rather evaluate the benefits and restrain the associated agency costs.

  5. Designing and optimization of a micro CHP system based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell with different fuel processing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2009-01-01

    of the Micro Combined Heat and Power plant (mCHP) will be identified including fuel and air supply, fuel management anode re-circulation, exhaust gas heat management, power conditioning and control system. Using mass and energy balance, different types of fuel reforming including steam reforming...

  6. Kiln process impact of alternative solid fuel combustion in the cement kiln main burner - Mathematical modelling and full-scale experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyaratne, Hiromi Wijesinghe; Melaaen, Morten Christian; Tokheim, Lars André; Manjula, Edirisinghe V. P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Increased use of alternative fuels in cement kilns is a trend in the world. However, replacing fossil fuels like coal with different alternative fuels will give various impacts on the overall kiln process due to the fuel characteristics. Hence, it is important to know to what extent the fossil fuels can be replaced by different alternative fuels without severely changing process conditions, product quality or emissions. In the present study, a mass and energy balance for the combustion of dif...

  7. Fuel pellets from biomass - Processing, bonding, raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelte, W.

    2011-12-15

    The present study investigates several important aspects of biomass pelletization. Seven individual studies have been conducted and linked together, in order to push forward the research frontier of biomass pelletization processes. The first study was to investigate influence of the different processing parameters on the pressure built up in the press channel of a pellet mill. It showed that the major factor was the press channel length as well as temperature, moisture content, particle size and extractive content. Furthermore, extractive migration to the pellet surface at an elevated temperature played an important role. The second study presented a method of how key processing parameters can be estimated, based on a pellet model and a small number of fast and simple laboratory trials using a single pellet press. The third study investigated the bonding mechanisms within a biomass pellet, which indicate that different mechanisms are involved depending on biomass type and pelletizing conditions. Interpenetration of polymer chains and close intermolecular distance resulting in better secondary bonding were assumed to be the key factors for high mechanical properties of the formed pellets. The outcome of this study resulted in study four and five investigating the role of lignin glass transition for biomass pelletization. It was demonstrated that the softening temperature of lignin was dependent on species and moisture content. In typical processing conditions and at 8% (wt) moisture content, transitions were identified to be at approximately 53-63 deg. C for wheat straw and about 91 deg. C for spruce lignin. Furthermore, the effects of wheat straw extractives on the pelletizing properties and pellet stability were investigated. The sixth and seventh study applied the developed methodology to test the pelletizing properties of thermally pre-treated (torrefied) biomass from spruce and wheat straw. The results indicated that high torrefaction temperatures above 275 deg

  8. TAPE CALENDERING MANUFACTURING PROCESS FOR MULTILAYER THIN-FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Minh; Kurt Montgomery

    2004-10-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC during the Phases I and II under Contract DE-AC26-00NT40705 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Tape Calendering Manufacturing Process For Multilayer Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells''. The main objective of this project was to develop the manufacturing process based on tape calendering for multilayer solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's) using the unitized cell design concept and to demonstrate cell performance under specified operating conditions. Summarized in this report is the development and improvements to multilayer SOFC cells and the unitized cell design. Improvements to the multilayer SOFC cell were made in electrochemical performance, in both the anode and cathode, with cells demonstrating power densities of nearly 0.9 W/cm{sup 2} for 650 C operation and other cell configurations showing greater than 1.0 W/cm{sup 2} at 75% fuel utilization and 800 C. The unitized cell design was matured through design, analysis and development testing to a point that cell operation at greater than 70% fuel utilization was demonstrated at 800 C. The manufacturing process for both the multilayer cell and unitized cell design were assessed and refined, process maps were developed, forming approaches explored, and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques examined.

  9. Integrating fuel treatment into ecosystem management: A proposed project planning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith D. Stockmann; Kevin D. Hyde; J. Greg Jones; Dan R. Loeffler; Robin P. Silverstein

    2010-01-01

    Concern over increased wildland fire threats on public lands throughout the western United States makes fuel reduction activities the primary driver of many management projects. This single-issue focus recalls a management planning process practiced frequently in recent decades - a least-harm approach where the primary objective is first addressed and then plans are...

  10. Hot Experiment on Fission Gas Release Behavior from Voloxidation Process using Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Geun Il; Park, J. J.; Jung, I. H.; Shin, J. M.; Cho, K. H.; Yang, M. S.; Song, K. C

    2007-08-15

    Quantitative analysis of the fission gas release characteristics during the voloxidation and OREOX processes of spent PWR fuel was carried out by spent PWR fuel in a hot-cell of the DFDF. The release characteristics of {sup 85}Kr and {sup 14}C fission gases during voloxidation process at 500 .deg. C is closely linked to the degree of conversion efficiency of UO{sub 2} to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder, and it can be interpreted that the release from grain-boundary would be dominated during this step. Volatile fission gases of {sup 14}C and {sup 85}Kr were released to near completion during the OREOX process. Both the {sup 14}C and {sup 85}Kr have similar release characteristics under the voloxidation and OREOX process conditions. A higher burn-up spent fuel showed a higher release fraction than that of a low burn-up fuel during the voloxidation step at 500 .deg. C. It was also observed that the release fraction of semi-volatile Cs was about 16% during a reduction at 1,000 .deg. C of the oxidized powder, but over 90% during the voloxidation at 1,250 .deg. C.

  11. Advanced aqueous reprocessing in P and T strategies: process demonstrations on genuine fuels and targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satmark, B.; Apostolidis, C.; Courson, O.; Malmbeck, R.; Carlos, R.; Pagliosa, G.; Romer, K.; Glatz, J.P. [European Commission, DG-JRC, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Hot Cell Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    In the present work the performance of several processes used for advanced reprocessing of commercial LWR fuels as well as transmutation targets is compared. As a first step uranium and plutonium were recovered by PUREX type reprocessing. The raffinate, containing fission products, lanthanides and the minor actinides (MA) were used as feed for the second step in which minor actinides and lanthanides were separated from the bulk of the fission products. The five different processes tested use CMPO, DIDPA, TRPO, Diamide and CYANEX 923 as extractant. In the third step MA are separated from lanthanides. Here three processes were tested, i.e. using CYANEX 301, the synergistic mixture of di-chloro substituted CYANEX 301 and TOPO, and BTP solvents. Column-, batch- and continuous counter-current extraction techniques were used for the tests. The different processes will be described and discussed in terms of performances and efficiencies for Am and Cm. Efficient separation of MA from different genuine fuel solutions could be demonstrated and thereby also the possibility of closing a future transmutation fuel cycle. The combination, Diamide and BTP was found to be the best among extractants tested to achieve an efficient MA recovery from spent fuel. (authors)

  12. Hybrid direct carbon fuel cell anode processes investigated using a 3-electrode half-cell setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Arenillas, A.; Menendez, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    A 3-electrode half-cell setup consisting of a yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte support was employed to investigate the chemical and electrochemical processes occurring in the vicinity of a model hybrid direct carbon fuel cell (HDCFC) anode (Ni-YSZ) in contact with a molten carbon...

  13. Determining the fate of virginiamycin in the fuel ethanol production process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotics are frequently used to prevent and treat bacterial contamination at commercial fuel ethanol facilities. A study to evaluate the fate of the antibiotic virginiamycin during the ethanol production process was conducted in the pilot plant facilities at the National Corn to Ethanol Research...

  14. Membrane-integrated oxy-fuel combustion of coal: Process design and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Wei; Ham, van der A.G.J.; Nijmeijer, A.; Winnubst, A.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    A membrane-integrated oxy-fuel combustion process is designed and simulated in UniSim Design®. The results of the simulation indicate that a net efficiency of 31.8% is obtained for a coal-fired power plant of 182 MWth (assuming only carbon in the coal), including the compression of CO2 to 100 bar. T

  15. Advanced aqueous reprocessing in P and T strategies: process demonstrations on genuine fuels and targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, B.; Apostolidis, C.; Carlos, R.; Courson, O.; Glatz, J.P.; Malmbeck, R.; Pagliosa, G.; Roemer, K.; Serrano-Purroy, D. [European Commission, JRC, Inst. for Transuranium Elements, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    In the present work the performance of several processes used for advanced reprocessing of commercial LWR fuels as well as transmutation targets is compared. As a first step uranium and plutonium were recovered by PUREX type reprocessing. The raffinate, containing fission products including lanthanides and the minor actinides (MA) was used as feed for the second step in which minor actinides and lanthanides were separated from the bulk of the fission products. The five different processes tested use CMPO, DIDPA, TRPO, diamide and CYANEX 923 as extractants. In the third step MA are separated from lanthanides. Here three processes were tested, i.e. using CYANEX 301, the synergistic mixture of di-chloro substituted CYANEX 301 and TOPO, and BTP solvents. Column-, batch- and continuous counter-current extraction techniques were used for the tests. The different processes will be described and discussed in terms of performances and efficiencies for Am and Cm separation. Efficient separation of MA from different genuine fuel solutions could be demonstrated and thereby also the possibility of closing a future transmutation fuel cycle. The combination of diamide and BTP seems to be the best, among extractants tested, to achieve an efficient MA recovery from spent fuel. (orig.)

  16. Processing of waste to solid fuel (SFS-standard); Jaetteen jalostaminen kiinteaeksi polttoaineeksi (SFS-Standardi)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juvonen, J. [VTT Energia, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this project is to prepare, based on the Quality Assurance Manual for Recovered Fuels, a SFS-standard 'Processing of waste to solid fuel'. The fundamentals for safe energy use in co-combustion will be stated in the standard. The standard unifies the terminology and contributes to equation of recovered fuels with other solid fuels. The work is prepared by an expert group of about twenty persons. Juhani Juvonen, Research Scientist, VTT Energy, acts as the author of the proposal and the technical secretary of the expert group. Other group members help in preparing the work as experts of their domain. The expert group introduces the proposal for the standardization committee, which processes and comments the proposal at its own meetings. The standard proposal is processed, until it is ready for circulation among different interest groups. The statements will be processed both in the expert group and the standardization committee, after which the standard will be revised to be send to SFS to be approved as SFS standard. The work on standardization was started in 1998 and the first practical actions were taken on 24 September 1998 at a meeting held in the General Industry Federation (YTL). The preliminary objective is to have the standard approved during the year 1999. (orig.)

  17. Evaluation of standard methods for collecting and processing fuel moisture samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally M. Haase; José Sánchez; David R. Weise

    2016-01-01

    A variety of techniques for collecting and processing samples to determine moisture content of wildland fuels in support of fire management activities were evaluated. The effects of using a chainsaw or handsaw to collect samples of largediameter wood, containers for storing and transporting collected samples, and quick-response ovens for estimating moisture content...

  18. Process Improvements to Biomass Pretreatment of Fuels and Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teymouri, Farzaneh [Michigan Biotechnology Inst., Lansing, MI (United States)

    2015-05-30

    MBI, a 501c(3) company focusing on de-risking and scaling up bio-based technologies, has teamed with Michigan State University and the Idaho National Laboratory to develop and demonstrate process improvements to the ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment process. The logistical hurdles of biomass handling are well known, and the regional depot concept - in which small, distributed bioprocessing operations collect, preprocess, and densify biomass before shipping to a centralized refinery - is a promising alternative to centralized collection. AFEXTM (AFEX is a trademark of MBI) has unique features among pretreatments that would make it desirable as a pretreatment prior to densification at the depot scale. MBI has developed a novel design, using a packed bed reactor for the AFEX process that can be scaled down economically to the depot scale at a lower capital cost as compared to the traditional design (Pandia type reactor). Thus, the purpose of this project was to develop, scale-up, demonstrate, and improve this novel design The key challenges are the recovery of ammonia, consistent and complete pretreatment performance, and the overall throughput of the reactor. In this project an engineering scale packed bed AFEX system with 1-ton per day capacity was installed at MBI’s building. The system has been operational since mid-2013. During that time, MBI has demonstrated the robustness, reliability, and consistency of the process. To date, nearly 500 runs have been performed in the reactors. There have been no incidences of plugging (i.e., inability to remove ammonia from biomass after the treatment), nor has there been any instance of a major ammonia release into the atmosphere. Likewise, the sugar released via enzyme hydrolysis has remained consistent throughout these runs. Our economic model shows a 46% reduction in AFEX capital cost at the 100 ton/day scale compared to the traditional design of AFEX (Pandia type reactor). The key performance factors were

  19. On-board processing of video image sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl; Chanrion, Olivier Arnaud; Forchhammer, Søren

    2008-01-01

    The ldquoatmosphere-space interactions monitorrdquo (ASIM) is a payload to be mounted on one of the external platforms of the Columbus module of the International Space Station (ISS). The instruments include six video cameras, six photometers and one X-ray detector. The main scientific objective...

  20. Non-catalytic alcoholysis process for production of biodiesel fuel by using bubble column reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, S.; Nabetani, H.; Nakajima, M.

    2015-04-01

    Biodiesel fuel is a replacement for diesel as a fuel produced from biomass resources. It is usually defined as a fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) derived from vegetable oil or animal fat. In European countries, such as Germany and France, biodiesel fuel is commercially produced mainly from rapeseed oil, whereas in the United States and Argentina, soybean oil is more frequently used. In many other countries such as Japan and countries in Southeast Asia, lipids that cannot be used as a food source could be more suitable materials for the production of biodiesel fuel because its production from edible oils could result in an increase in the price of edible oils, thereby increasing the cost of some foodstuffs. Therefore, used edible oil, lipids contained in waste effluent from the oil milling process, byproducts from oil refining process and crude oils from industrial crops such as jatropha could be more promising materials in these countries. The materials available in Japan and Southeast Asia for the production of biodiesel fuel have common characteristics; they contain considerable amount of impurities and are high in free fatty acids (FFA). Superheated methanol vapor (SMV) reactor might be a promising method for biodiesel fuel production utilizing oil feedstock containing FFA such as waste vegetable oil and crude vegetable oil. In the conventional method using alkaline catalyst, FFA contained in waste vegetable oil is known to react with alkaline catalyst such as NaOH and KOH generating saponification products and to inactivate it. Therefore, the FFA needs to be removed from the feedstock prior to the reaction. Removal of the alkaline catalyst after the reaction is also required. In the case of the SMV reactor, the processes for removing FFA prior to the reaction and catalyst after the reaction can be omitted because it requires no catalyst. Nevertheless, detailed study on the productivity of biodiesel fuel produced from waste vegetable oils and other non

  1. Physical-Mathematical Model for Fixed-Bed Solid Fuel Gasification Process Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slyusarskiy Konstantin V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phycial-mathmatical model for fixed-bed coal gasification process simulation is proposed. The heterogeneous carbon oxidation chemical reactions were simulated via Arrhenius equation while homogeneous reactions in gas phase were calculated using Gibbs free energy minimization procedure. The syngas component concentration field and fuel conversion distribution as well as syngas final temperature and composition were defined for fixed bed gasification of T-grade coal of Kuznetskiy deposit. The optimal fuel residence time and gasifyer specific productivity were defined. The prevail reactions in oxidizing and reduction zones together with its height were defined.

  2. Bond layer for a solid oxide fuel cell, and related processes and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jian; Striker, Todd-Michael; Renou, Stephane; Gaunt, Simon William

    2017-03-21

    An electrically-conductive layer of material having a composition comprising lanthanum and strontium is described. The material is characterized by a microstructure having bimodal porosity. Another concept in this disclosure relates to a solid oxide fuel cell attached to at least one cathode interconnect by a cathode bond layer. The bond layer includes a microstructure having bimodal porosity. A fuel cell stack which incorporates at least one of the cathode bond layers is also described herein, along with related processes for forming the cathode bond layer.

  3. Binder Jetting: A Novel Solid Oxide Fuel-Cell Fabrication Process and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manogharan, Guha; Kioko, Meshack; Linkous, Clovis

    2015-03-01

    With an ever-growing concern to find a more efficient and less polluting means of producing electricity, fuel cells have constantly been of great interest. Fuel cells electrochemically convert chemical energy directly into electricity and heat without resorting to combustion/mechanical cycling. This article studies the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), which is a high-temperature (100°C to 1000°C) ceramic cell made from all solid-state components and can operate under a wide range of fuel sources such as hydrogen, methanol, gasoline, diesel, and gasified coal. Traditionally, SOFCs are fabricated using processes such as tape casting, calendaring, extrusion, and warm pressing for substrate support, followed by screen printing, slurry coating, spray techniques, vapor deposition, and sputter techniques, which have limited control in substrate microstructure. In this article, the feasibility of engineering the porosity and configuration of an SOFC via an additive manufacturing (AM) method known as binder jet printing was explored. The anode, cathode and oxygen ion-conducting electrolyte layers were fabricated through AM sequentially as a complete fuel cell unit. The cell performance was measured in two modes: (I) as an electrolytic oxygen pump and (II) as a galvanic electricity generator using hydrogen gas as the fuel. An analysis on influence of porosity was performed through SEM studies and permeability testing. An additional study on fuel cell material composition was conducted to verify the effects of binder jetting through SEM-EDS. Electrical discharge of the AM fabricated SOFC and nonlinearity of permeability tests show that, with additional work, the porosity of the cell can be modified for optimal performance at operating flow and temperature conditions.

  4. Car plastic fuel tanks: closed loop recycling process, design and lifecycle assessment (RECAFUTA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yernaux, J-M. [SOLVAY SA, Research and Technology, Brussels (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    A cooperative European Union-sponsored project to recycle high density plastic material from used automobile fuel tanks back into the original application is discussed. The goal of the project was to introduce 40 per cent of regenerate into new plastic fuel tanks. The project involved the development of design-for-recycling guidelines, development of a process for efficient recovery of the material by using super-critical carbon dioxide directly in the extruder, development of a process for upgrading the recycled material, and life cycle assessment to determine the reliability of the recycling process by comparing it to other alternatives such as landfilling or energy recovery. The project was recently completed and international validation tests are currently underway. The feasibility of upgrading the laboratory extrusion facility to industrial scale is in the process of being evaluated, concurrently with the development of an appropriate business plan. 7 figs.

  5. Cryogenic crashworthiness of LNG fuel storage tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atli-Veltin, B.; Vredeveldt, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    Shipping is gradually embracing natural gas as bunker fuel. The most viable way to store natural gas on board is in its liquid form. Gas needs to be cooled to cryogenic temperatures and in practice moderately pressurized. On board ships, solely double walled pressure tanks are used for this purpose.

  6. Cryogenic crashworthiness of LNG fuel storage tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atli-Veltin, B.; Vredeveldt, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    Shipping is gradually embracing natural gas as bunker fuel. The most viable way to store natural gas on board is in its liquid form. Gas needs to be cooled to cryogenic temperatures and in practice moderately pressurized. On board ships, solely double walled pressure tanks are used for this purpose.

  7. Processing Of Neem And Jatropha Methyl Esters –Alternative Fuels From Vegetable Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasubramanian, S.; Manavalan, S.; Gnanavel, C.; Balakrishnan, G.

    2017-03-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engine. The methyl esters of vegetable oils, known as biodiesel are becoming increasingly popular because of their low environmental impact and potential as a green alternative fuel for diesel engine. This paper deals with the manufacturing process of Biodiesel from jatropha and neem oil. Biodiesel was prepared from neem oil and jatropha oil, the transestrified having kinematic viscosity of 3 & 2.6 centistokes, methanol ratio is 6:1 & 5.1respectively. The secondary solution is preheated at 65 C & 60 C and reaction temperature is maintained at 60C & 55 C and reaction time is 60 minutes approximately with NaOH catalyst and low viscosity oil is allowed to settle 24 hours. The average yield of neem and jatropha methyl esters was about 85%. These methyl esters shows excellent alternative under optimum condition for fossil fuels.

  8. Preliminary Study on the Fabrication of Particulate Fuel through Pressureless Sintering Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hwan Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available U-10wt%Zr spherical particles for use as particulate fuel were prepared by centrifugal atomization and subjected to pressureless sintering, which is one of the simplest powder processing techniques. At sintering temperature of 1100°C for 30 or 60 min, all samples ranging from +50 to −325 mesh showed no apparent bonding between the particles. However, at 1150°C (80 min, all samples formed a bulk body and the microstructures showed apparent sintering stages. Particularly, sample B (50–70 mesh and sample C (70–100 mesh showed pore characteristics suitable for a particulate fuel. The results suggest that pressureless sinterability for U-10Zr particulate fuel can be improved by adding small-size (–325 mesh particles.

  9. Study on the Decontamination Methodology for the Refurbishment of Spent Fuel Dry Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, H. J.; Jung, C. H.; Moon, J. K.; Byambatsere, Baigalmaa; Park, G. I.; Lee, D. Y.; Lee, J. W.; Song, K. C.

    2010-01-15

    As the increase of the operation age of the domestic high radiation facilities such as IMEF, PIEF and DFDF, the necessity of decontamination and refurbishment of hot cells in these facilities is also increased. In the near future, the possibilities of refurbishment of hot cells in compliance with the new regulations, the reuse of hot cells for the other purposes and the decommissioning of the facilities also exist. The following contents were studied. 1) State of the art on the decontamination technologies on the spent fuel dry processing facility - Case study on the decontamination and refurbishment of hot cells in the foreign countries. - Understanding of radioactive contamination characteristics of spent fuel powder treatment equipment operated under the high radiation field of the spent fuel dry processing facility. - Evaluation of applicable decontamination technologies 2) Comparative tests of the candidate decontamination technology - Preparation of the surrogate test specimens and derivation of gel decontamination condition - Decontamination tests and comparison with light ablation method 3) Establishment of decontamination methodology for the refurbishment of hot cells of the spent fuel dry processing facility - Derivation of required equipment for the hot cell decontamination - Establishment of decontamination methodologies on the contaminated equipment

  10. Waste removal in pyrochemical fuel processing for the Integral Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.; Laidler, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Electrorefining in a molten salt electrolyte is used in the Integral Fast Reactor fuel cycle to recover actinides from spent fuel. Processes that are being developed for removing the waste constituents from the electrorefiner and incorporating them into the waste forms are described in this paper. During processing, halogen, chalcogen, alkali, alkaline earth, and rare earth fission products build up in the molten salt as metal halides and anions, and fuel cladding hulls and noble metal fission products remain as metals of various particle sizes. Essentially all transuranic actinides are collected as metals on cathodes, and are converted to new metal fuel. After processing, fission products and other waste are removed to a metal and a mineral waste form. The metal waste form contains the cladding hulls, noble metal fission products, and (optionally) most rare earths in a copper or stainless steel matrix. The mineral waste form contains fission products that have been removed from the salt into a zeolite or zeolite-derived matrix.

  11. Process Model of A Fusion Fuel Recovery System for a Direct Drive IFE Power Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natta, Saswathi; Aristova, Maria; Gentile, Charles

    2008-11-01

    A task has been initiated to develop a detailed representative model for the fuel recovery system (FRS) in the prospective direct drive inertial fusion energy (IFE) reactor. As part of the conceptual design phase of the project, a chemical process model is developed in order to observe the interaction of system components. This process model is developed using FEMLAB Multiphysics software with the corresponding chemical engineering module (CEM). Initially, the reactants, system structure, and processes are defined using known chemical species of the target chamber exhaust. Each step within the Fuel recovery system is modeled compartmentally and then merged to form the closed loop fuel recovery system. The output, which includes physical properties and chemical content of the products, is analyzed after each step of the system to determine the most efficient and productive system parameters. This will serve to attenuate possible bottlenecks in the system. This modeling evaluation is instrumental in optimizing and closing the fusion fuel cycle in a direct drive IFE power reactor. The results of the modeling are presented in this paper.

  12. Material accountancy measurement techniques in dry-powdered processing of nuclear spent fuels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, S. F.

    1999-03-24

    The paper addresses the development of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICPMS), thermal ionization-mass spectrometry (TIMS), alpha-spectrometry, and gamma spectrometry techniques for in-line analysis of highly irradiated (18 to 64 GWD/T) PWR spent fuels in a dry-powdered processing cycle. The dry-powdered technique for direct elemental and isotopic accountancy assay measurements was implemented without the need for separation of the plutonium, uranium and fission product elements in the bulk powdered process. The analyses allow the determination of fuel burn-up based on the isotopic composition of neodymium and/or cesium. An objective of the program is to develop the ICPMS method for direct fissile nuclear materials accountancy in the dry-powdered processing of spent fuel. The ICPMS measurement system may be applied to the KAERI DUPIC (direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors) experiment, and in a near-real-time mode for international safeguards verification and non-proliferation policy concerns.

  13. ACSEPT, a European project for a new step in the future demonstration of advanced fuel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, S. [CEA Marcoule 30 (France); Hill, C. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Caravaca, C.; Espartero, A. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain); Rhodes, C.; Taylor, R.; Harrison, M. [National Nuclear Laboratory (United Kingdom); Geist, A. [Fachinformationszentrum Karlsruhe - INE (Germany); Modolo, G. [Forschungszentrum Juelich - FZJ (Germany); Cassayre, L. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Orsay (France); Malmbeck, R. [Joint Research Centre (JRC) - Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) (Germany); De Angelis, G. [ENEA, Bologna (Italy); Bouvet, S. [Alcan, 92 - Courbevoie (France); Klaassen, F. [Nuclear Research and consultancy Group (NRG) (Netherlands); Ekber, C.

    2010-11-15

    Partitioning and transmutation, associated to a multi-recycling of all transuranics should play a key role in the development of sustainable nuclear energy. By joining together 34 partners coming from European universities, nuclear research laboratories and major industrial players, in a multi-disciplinary consortium, the FP7-Euratom-Fission collaborative project ACSEPT (Actinide recycling by separation and transmutation), provides the sound basis and future improvements for future demonstrations of fuel treatment in strong connection with fuel fabrication techniques. ACSEPT is organized into 3 technical domains: 1) selecting and optimizing mature aqueous separation processes (Diamex-Sanex, Ganex); 2) high temperature pyrochemical separation processes, and 3) carrying out engineering and systems studies on hydro- and pyro-chemical processes to prepare for future demonstration at a pilot level. After 2 years of work, 2 successful hot-tests were performed in hydrometallurgy, validating the Sanex and i-Sanex routes. Efforts are now devoted to the Ganex concept. Progress was also made in fuel dissolution and fuel re-fabrication. In pyrometallurgy, promising routes are almost demonstrated for the actinide recovery from aluminium. (A.C.)

  14. Study on the high-precision laser welding technology of nuclear fuel elements processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soo Sung; Yang, M. S.; Kim, W. K.; Lee, D. Y

    2001-01-01

    The proper welding method for appendage of bearing pads and spacers of PHWR nuclear fuel elements is considered important in respect to the soundness of weldments and the improvement of the performance of nuclear fuels during the operation in reactor. The probability of welding defects of the appendage parts is mostly apt to occur and it is connected directly with the safty and life prediction of the nuclear reactor in operation. Recently there has been studied all over the world to develope welding technology by laser in nuclear fuel processing, and the appendage of bearing pads and spacers of PHWR nuclear fuel elements. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the characteristics of the laser welded specimens and make some samples for the appendage of bearing pads of PHWR nuclear fuel elements. This study will be also provide the basic data for the fabrications of the appendage of bearing pads and spacers. Especially the laser welding is supposed to be used in the practical application such as precise materials manufacturing fields. In this respect this technology is not only a basic advanced technology with wide applications but also likely to be used for the development of directly applicable technologies for industries, with high potential benefits derived in the view point of economy and industry.

  15. Spent nuclear fuel. A review of properties of possible relevance to corrosion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, R. [Caledon Consult AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1995-04-01

    The report reviews the properties of spent fuel which are considered to be of most importance in determining the corrosion behaviour in groundwaters. Pellet cracking and fragment size distribution are discussed, together with the available results of specific surface area measurements on spent fuel. With respect to the importance of fuel microstructure, emphasis is placed on recent work on the so called structural rim effect, which consists of the formation of a zone of high porosity, and the polygonization of fuel grains to form many sub-grains, at the pellet rim, and appears to be initiated when the average pellet burnup exceeds a threshold of about 40 MWd/kgU. Due to neutron spectrum effects, the pellet rim is also associated with the buildup of plutonium and other actinides, which results in an enhanced local burnup and specific activity of both beta-gamma and alpha radiation, thus representing a greater potential for radiolysis effects in ingressed groundwater. The report presents and discusses the results of quantitative determination of the radial profiles of burnup and alpha activity on spent fuel with average burnups from 21.2 to 49 MWd/kgU. In addition to the radial variation of fission product and actinide inventories due to the effects mentioned above, migration, redistribution and release of some fission products can occur during reactor irradiation and the report concludes with a short review of these processes.

  16. Position and orientation inference via on-board triangulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advani, Madhu; Weile, Daniel S

    2017-01-01

    This work proposes a new approach to determine the spatial location and orientation of an object using measurements performed on the object itself. The on-board triangulation algorithm we outline could be implemented in lieu of, or in addition to, well-known alternatives such as Global Positioning System (GPS) or standard triangulation, since both of these correspond to significantly different geometric pictures and necessitate different hardware and algorithms. We motivate the theory by describing situations in which on-board triangulation would be useful and even preferable to standard methods. The on-board triangulation algorithm we outline involves utilizing dumb beacons which broadcast omnidirectional single frequency radio waves, and smart antenna arrays on the object itself to infer the direction of the beacon signals, which may be used for onboard calculation of the position and orientation of the object. Numerical examples demonstrate the utility of the method and its noise tolerance.

  17. Desulfurization of jet fuel for fuel cell-based APU systems in aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Pasel, J.; Peters, R.; Stolten, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    To prevent the catalysts in fuel cell systems from poisoning by sulfur containing substances the fuel to be used must be desulfurized to a maximum of 10 ppmw of sulfur. Since the conventional hydrodesulfurization process employed in the refinery industry is not suitable for mobile fuel cell applications (e.g. auxiliary power units, APUs), the present study aims at developing an alternative process and determining its technical feasibility. A large number of processes were assessed with respect to their application in fuel cell APUs. The results revealed that a two-step process combining pervaporation and adsorption is a suitable process for the on-board desulfurization of jet fuel. The investigations to evaluate this process are presented in this paper. Seven different membrane materials and ten sorbent materials were screened to choose the most suitable candidates. Further laboratory experiments were conducted to optimize the operating conditions and to collect data for a pilot plant design. Different jet fuel qualities with up to 1650 ppmw of sulfur can be desulfurized to a level of 10 ppmw. (orig.)

  18. System and process for producing fuel with a methane thermochemical cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diver, Richard B.

    2015-12-15

    A thermochemical process and system for producing fuel are provided. The thermochemical process includes reducing an oxygenated-hydrocarbon to form an alkane and using the alkane in a reforming reaction as a reducing agent for water, a reducing agent for carbon dioxide, or a combination thereof. Another thermochemical process includes reducing a metal oxide to form a reduced metal oxide, reducing an oxygenated-hydrocarbon with the reduced metal oxide to form an alkane, and using the alkane in a reforming reaction as a reducing agent for water, a reducing agent for carbon dioxide, or a combination thereof. The system includes a reformer configured to perform a thermochemical process.

  19. Management of Salt Waste from Electrochemical Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael F. Simpson; Michael N. Patterson; Joon Lee; Yifeng Wang; Joshua Versey; Ammon Williams; Supathorn Phongikaroon; James Allensworth; Man-Sung Yim

    2013-10-01

    Electrochemical processing of used nuclear fuel involves operation of one or more cells containing molten salt electrolyte. Processing of the fuel results in contamination of the salt via accumulation of fission products and transuranic (TRU) actinides. Upon reaching contamination limits, the salt must be removed and either disposed or treated to remove the contaminants and recycled back to the process. During development of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II spent fuel treatment process, waste salt from the electrorefiner was to be stabilized in a ceramic waste form and disposed of in a high-level waste repository. With the cancellation of the Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository, other options are now being considered. One approach that involves direct disposal of the salt in a geologic salt formation has been evaluated. While waste forms such as the ceramic provide near-term resistance to corrosion, they may not be necessary to ensure adequate performance of the repository. To improve the feasibility of direct disposal, recycling a substantial fraction of the useful salt back to the process equipment could minimize the volume of the waste. Experiments have been run in which a cold finger is used for this purpose to crystallize LiCl from LiCl/CsCl. If it is found to be unsuitable for transportation, the salt waste could also be immobilized in zeolite without conversion to the ceramic waste form.

  20. MINING PROCESS AND PRODUCT INFORMATION FROM PRESSURE FLUCTUATIONS WITHIN A FUEL PARTICLE COATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas W. Marshall; Charles M. Barnes

    2008-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) Fuel Development and Qualification Program included the design, installation, and testing of a 6-inch diameter nuclear fuel particle coater to demonstrate quality TRISO fuel production on a small industrial scale. Scale-up from the laboratory-scale coater faced challenges associated with an increase in the kernel charge mass, kernel diameter, and a redesign of the gas distributor to achieve adequate fluidization throughout the deposition of the four TRISO coating layers. TRISO coatings are applied at very high temperatures in atmospheres of dense particulate clouds, corrosive gases, and hydrogen concentrations over 45% by volume. The severe environment, stringent product and process requirements, and the fragility of partially-formed coatings limit the insertion of probes or instruments into the coater vessel during operation. Pressure instrumentation were installed on the gas inlet line and exhaust line of the 6-inch coater to monitor the bed differential pressure and internal pressure fluctuations emanating from the fuel bed as a result of bed and gas “bubble” movement. These instruments are external to the particle bed and provide a glimpse into the dynamics of fuel particle bed during the coating process and data that could be used to help ascertain the adequacy of fluidization and, potentially, the dominant fluidization regimes. Pressure fluctuation and differential pressure data are not presently useful as process control instruments, but data suggest a link between the pressure signal structure and some measurable product attributes that could be exploited to get an early estimate of the attribute values.

  1. Novel Catalysts and Processing Technologies for Production of Aerospace Fuels from Non-Petroleum Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kulis, Michael J.; Psarras, Peter C.; Ball, David W.; Timko, Michael T.; Wong, Hsi-Wu; Peck, Jay; Chianelli, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    Transportation fuels production (including aerospace propellants) from non-traditional sources (gases, waste materials, and biomass) has been an active area of research and development for decades. Reducing terrestrial waste streams simultaneous with energy conversion, plentiful biomass, new low-cost methane sources, and/or extra-terrestrial resource harvesting and utilization present significant technological and business opportunities being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs. We examine several new approaches to catalyst fabrication and new processing technologies to enable utilization of these nontraditional raw materials. Two basic processing architectures are considered: a single-stage pyrolysis approach that seeks to basically re-cycle hydrocarbons with minimal net chemistry or a two-step paradigm that involves production of supply or synthesis gas (mainly carbon oxides and H2) followed by production of fuel(s) via Sabatier or methanation reactions and/or Fischer-Tröpsch synthesis. Optimizing the fraction of product stream relevant to targeted aerospace (and other transportation) fuels via modeling, catalyst fabrication and novel reactor design are described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels for either terrestrial or space operations; renewable sources based on solar energy and/or energy efficient processes may be mission enabling. Another important issue is minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those potentially posing risks to personnel or operations through (catalyst) poisoning or (equipment) damage. Technologies being developed to remove (and/or recycle) heteroatom impurities are briefly discussed as well as the development of chemically robust catalysts whose activities are not diminished during operation. The potential impacts on future missions by such new approaches as well as balance of system issues are addressed.

  2. Novel Catalysts and Processing Technologies for Production of Aerospace Fuels from Non-Petroleum Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, A. F.; Kulis, M. J.; Psarras, P. C.; Ball, D. W.; Timko, M. T.; Wong, H.-W.; Peck, J.; Chianelli, R. R.

    2014-01-01

    Transportation fuels production (including aerospace propellants) from non-traditional sources (gases, waste materials, and biomass) has been an active area of research and development for decades. Reducing terrestrial waste streams simultaneous with energy conversion, plentiful biomass, new low-cost methane sources, and/or extra-terrestrial resource harvesting and utilization present significant technological and business opportunities being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs. We examine several new approaches to catalyst fabrication and new processing technologies to enable utilization of these non-traditional raw materials. Two basic processing architectures are considered: a single-stage pyrolysis approach that seeks to basically re-cycle hydrocarbons with minimal net chemistry or a two-step paradigm that involves production of supply or synthesis gas (mainly carbon oxides and hydrogen) followed by production of fuel(s) via Sabatier or methanation reactions and/or Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Optimizing the fraction of product stream relevant to targeted aerospace (and other transportation) fuels via modeling, catalyst fabrication and novel reactor design are described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels for either terrestrial or space operations; renewable sources based on solar energy and/or energy efficient processes may be mission enabling. Another important issue is minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those potentially posing risks to personnel or operations through (catalyst) poisoning or (equipment) damage. Technologies being developed to remove (and/or recycle) heteroatom impurities are briefly discussed as well as the development of chemically robust catalysts whose activity are not diminished during operation. The potential impacts on future missions by such new approaches as well as balance of system issues are addressed.

  3. APXS on board Chandrayaan-2 Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, M.; Sripada, V. S. Murty; Acharya, Y. B.; Goyal, S. K.

    2012-07-01

    Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) is a well proven instrument for quantitative in situ elemental analysis of the planetary surfaces and has been successfully employed for Mars surface exploration. Chandrayaan-2, ISRO's second lunar mission having an Orbiter, Lander and Rover has provided an opportunity to explore the lunar surface with superior detectors such as Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) with energy resolution of about 150eV @ 5.9keV. The objective of the APXS instrument is to analyse several soil/rock samples along the rover traverse for the major elements with characteristic X-rays in 1 to 25keV range. The working principle of APXS involves measuring the intensity of characteristic X-rays emitted from the sample due to Alpha Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray florescence (XRF) processes using suitable radioactive sources, allowing the determination of elements from Na to Br, spanning the energy range of 0.9 to 16keV. For this experiment ^{244}Cm radioactive source has been chosen which emits both Alpha particles (5.8MeV) and X-rays (14.1keV, 18keV). APXS uses six Alpha sources, each about 5mCi activity. Unlike Mars, lunar environment poses additional challenges due to the regolith and extreme surface temperature changes, to operate the APXS. Our APXS instrument consists of two packages namely APXS sensor head and APXS signal electronics. The sensor head assembly contains SDD, six alpha sources and front end electronic circuits such as preamplifier and shaper circuits and will be mounted on a robotic arm which on command brings the sensor head close to the lunar surface at a height of 35±10mm. SDD module to be used in the experiment has 30mm ^{2} active detector area with in-built peltier cooler and heat sink to maintain the detector at about -35°C. The detector is covered with 8 micron thick Be window which results in the low energy threshold of about 1keV. The size of the APXS sensor head is 70x70x70mm ^{3} (approx). APXS signal

  4. Proceedings of a workshop on the utilization of coal fuels in process heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Almost 5% of the nation's energy consumption takes place in tubular process heaters. Currently, these units are gas- and, to a lesser extent, oil-fired. Process heaters provide energy for refining petroleum and the manufacture of numerous chemicals and petrochemicals. Since the current state-of-the-art, using waste heat recovery and forced draft burners, can achieve thermal efficiencies of about 90%, it is unlikely that current process heat and fuel requirements will be dramatically reduced by process modifications and/or conservation measures. Hence, if this sizeable, inexorable drain on our fluid petroleum reserves is to be halted, it seems reasonable to consider the utilization of coal and/or coal-based fuels to fire process heaters. In order to assess the feasibility and potential for a coal-based process heater industry, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) organized a workshop to define and explore the various problems that must be solved in order to burn coal in process heaters. A primary aim of the workshop was to consider the design methodology for process heaters when firing coal and compare it to those for gas and oil firing. The overall conclusions were: that retrofitting present process heaters to coal fuel was impractical; that it would be difficult to fit larger heaters designed to burn coal into present refineries; that there would be difficulties with process heaters burning coal; and that a better approach would be one large utility coal heater with a circulating heat transfer medium. Seven papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  5. HySDeP: a computational platform for on-board hydrogen storage systems – hybrid high-pressure solid-state and gaseous storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Rokni, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    A computational platform is developed in the Modelica® language within the DymolaTM environment to provide a tool for the design and performance comparison of on-board hydrogen storage systems. The platform has been coupled with an open source library for hydrogen fueling stations to investigate...

  6. Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 3: solid recovered fuel produced from municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Kärki, Janne

    2015-02-01

    This is the third and final part of the three-part article written to describe the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process produced from various types of waste streams through mechanical treatment. This article focused the production of solid recovered fuel from municipal solid waste. The stream of municipal solid waste used here as an input waste material to produce solid recovered fuel is energy waste collected from households of municipality. This article presents the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process. These balances are based on the proximate as well as the ultimate analysis and the composition determination of various streams of material produced in a solid recovered fuel production plant. All the process streams are sampled and treated according to CEN standard methods for solid recovered fuel. The results of the mass balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 72% of the input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel; 2.6% as ferrous metal, 0.4% as non-ferrous metal, 11% was sorted as rejects material, 12% as fine faction and 2% as heavy fraction. The energy balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 86% of the total input energy content of input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel. The remaining percentage (14%) of the input energy was split into the streams of reject material, fine fraction and heavy fraction. The material balances of this process showed that mass fraction of paper and cardboard, plastic (soft) and wood recovered in the solid recovered fuel stream was 88%, 85% and 90%, respectively, of their input mass. A high mass fraction of rubber material, plastic (PVC-plastic) and inert (stone/rock and glass particles) was found in the reject material stream. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Bijlagen visie on-board-monitoring in de binnenvaart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, R.P.; Harmsen, J.; Mensch, P. van

    2015-01-01

    In deze memo zijn de resultaten gepresenteerd van een analyse naar de impact van verschillende opties voor het vergroenen van de binnenvaart. In deze analyse zijn de volgende maatregelen opgenomen:  Vervroegd vervangen van de motor om in 2025 te voldoen aan CCRII;  Installeren van een On Board Mon

  8. Real-time Java for on-board systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cechticky, V.; Pasetti, A.

    2002-07-01

    The Java language has several attractive features but cannot at present be used in on-board systems primarily because it lacks support for hard real-time operation. This shortcoming is in being addressed: some suppliers are already providing implementations of Java that are RT-compliant; Sun Microsystem has approved a formal specification for a real-time extension of the language; and an independent consortium is working on an alternative specification for real-time Java. It is therefore expected that, within a year or so, standardized commercial implementations of real-time Java will be on the market. Availability of real-time implementations now opens the way to its use on-board. Within this context, this paper has two objectives. Firstly, it discusses the suitability of Java for on-board applications. Secondly, it reports the results of an ESA study to port a software framework for on-board control systems to a commercial real-time version of Java.

  9. On-board gaseous emissions of LPG taxis and estimation of taxi fleet emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jason; Hung, W T; Cheung, C S

    2011-11-15

    Instantaneous CO, NO, and HC emissions and exhaust flow rates from four LPG taxis, which adhered to Euro 2-4 emission standards, were measured using a sophisticated portable emission measurement system (PEMS). Instantaneous air/fuel ratios, emission rates, and emission factors at different operating modes were derived to explore the emission characteristics of these four taxis. Results show that gaseous emissions from these four taxis exceed emission standards, due to extended vehicle use and poor maintenance. NO emissions from newer taxis are lower whilst CO and HC emissions of the Euro 4 taxi are similar to those of Euro 2 taxis during idling and low speed travel. The taxis emit lower amounts of gaseous pollutants whilst idling and emit the highest amounts of CO and NO whilst accelerating. Large fluctuations in air/fuel ratios can be observed from the Euro 4 taxi during idling, indicating a malfunction of fuel supply control to the engine. Such fluctuations are not observed from the other taxis. This shows that a Euro 4 taxi is not necessarily cleaner than a Euro 3 taxi. Emission factors derived from on-board measurements are applied to estimate gaseous emissions from the taxi fleet; these results show that emissions are higher during peak hour traffic conditions. An estimate of the taxi fleet's emissions whilst the older taxis are replaced is also calculated. It can be seen that faster replacement of older taxis can lead to reductions in gaseous emissions from the taxi fleet. This study shows that the PEMS is an adequate tool for measuring emissions from LPG vehicles and that there is an urgent need to enforce emission standards on taxis. This study also shows that on-board measurements should be incorporated in the estimation of emissions from other vehicle types. This would result in better emission estimations under local traffic conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Integrated extension board for on-board computer (OBDH) of SSETI ESEO satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocki, Andrzej; Graczyk, Rafal

    2008-01-01

    This paper holds an information about an extension module for Single Board Computer (MIP405), which is the heart of On-board Data Handling Module (OBDH) of student Earth's microsatellite - SSETI ESEO. OBDH is a PC104 stack of four boards electrically connected and mechanically fixed. On-Board Computer is a key subsystem to the mission success - it is responsible for distribution of control signals to each module of the spacecraft. It is also expected to gather critical data for an appropriate mission progress, implementation of a part of algorithms used for satellite stabilization and orbit control and, at last, processing telecommands. Since whole system should meet spaceborne application requirements, it must be exceptionally reliable.

  11. Surface energy equation for heat transfer process in a pebble fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa-Paredes, G., E-mail: gepe@xanum.uam.mx [Área de Ingeniería en Recursos Energéticos, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186 Col. Vicentina, México, DF 09340 (Mexico); Castillo-Jiménez, V. [Área de Ingeniería en Recursos Energéticos, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186 Col. Vicentina, México, DF 09340 (Mexico); Herranz-Puebla, L.E. [División de Fisión Nuclear, Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vázquez-Rodríguez, R. [Área de Ingeniería en Recursos Energéticos, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186 Col. Vicentina, México, DF 09340 (Mexico)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Steady and transient behaviors of the interfacial heat transfer in a fuel element. • Non-local averaging volume method for deriving the surface energy equation. • The method captures significant physical phenomena of the interfacial heat transfer. • Closure relationships are proposed in order to obtain the temperatures distribution. • The derived average equation represents an upscaling regarding the local description. - Abstract: In this paper the surface energy equation for the heat transfer process (HT) between the mixture of fuel (TRISO particles and graphite matrix) and coating in a fuel pebble is derived. The fuel pebble can be treated as a heterogeneous region (mixture of microspheres and graphite) interacting thermally with the homogeneous region (the coating or cladding). These two regions are separated by a boundary region where the properties and behavior differ from those of the adjoining regions. The methodology applied for deriving the surface energy equation is based on the classical theory on interfacial transport phenomena. The surface energy equation derived in this work is an average equation that represents an upscaling respect to the local description. The regions around the surface where changes in the physical phenomena are important are of the order of microns, in contrast with interfacial mass transfer between phases that may be several molecular diameters. The numerical analysis regarding the application of surface energy equation is presented in this work.

  12. Effects of Fuel Temperature on Injection Process and Combustion of Dimethyl Ether Engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangxin, Gao; Zhulin, Yuan; Apeng, Zhou; Shenghua, Liu; Yanju, Wei

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the effects of fuel temperature on the injection process in the fuel-injection pipe and the combustion characteristics of compression ignition (CI) engine, tests on a four stroke, direct injection dimethyl ether (DME) engine were conducted. Experimental results show that as the fuel temperature increases from 20 to 40 °C, the sound speed is decreased by 12.2%, the peak line pressure at pump and nozzle sides are decreased by 7.2% and 5.6%, respectively. Meanwhile, the injection timing is retarded by 2.2 °CA and the injection duration is extended by 0.8 °CA. Accordingly, the ignition delay and the combustion duration are extended by 0.7 °CA and 4.0 °CA, respectively. The cylinder peak pressure is decreased by 5.4%. As a result, the effective thermal efficiency is decreased, especially for temperature above 40 °C. Before beginning an experiment, the fuel properties of DME, including the density, the bulk modulus, and the sound speed were calculated by "ThermoData." The calculated result of sound speed is consistent with the experimental results.

  13. Physical-Mathematical Model for Fixed-Bed Solid Fuel Gasification Process Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Slyusarskiy Konstantin V.; Korotkikh Alexander G.; Sorokin Ivan V.

    2017-01-01

    Phycial-mathmatical model for fixed-bed coal gasification process simulation is proposed. The heterogeneous carbon oxidation chemical reactions were simulated via Arrhenius equation while homogeneous reactions in gas phase were calculated using Gibbs free energy minimization procedure. The syngas component concentration field and fuel conversion distribution as well as syngas final temperature and composition were defined for fixed bed gasification of T-grade coal of Kuznetskiy deposit. The o...

  14. Design and verification of shielding for the advanced spent fuel conditioning process facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, I J; Kook, D H; Kwon, K C; Lee, E P; Choung, W M; You, G S

    2008-05-01

    An Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process Facility (ACPF) has recently been constructed by a modification of previously unused cells. ACPF is a hot cell with two rooms located in the basement of the Irradiated Materials Experiment Facility (IMEF) at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. This is for demonstrating the advanced spent fuel conditioning process being proposed in Korea, which is an electrolytic reduction process of spent oxide fuels into a metallic form. The ACPF was designed with a more than 90 cm thick high density concrete shield wall to handle 1.38 PBq (37,430 Ci) of radioactive materials with dose rates lower than 10 muSv h in the operational areas (7,000 zone) and 150 muSv h in the service areas (8,000 zone). In Monte Carlo calculations with a design basis source inventory, the results for the bounding wall showed a maximum of 3 muSv h dose rate at an exterior surface of the ACPF for gamma radiation and 0.76 muSv h for neutrons. All the bounding structures of the ACPF were investigated to check on the shielding performance of the facility to ensure the radiation safety of the facility. A test was performed with a 2.96 TBq (80 Ci) 60Co source unit and the test results were compared with the calculation results. A few failure points were discovered and carefully fixed to meet the design criteria. After fixing the problems, the failure points were rechecked and the safety of the shielding structures was confirmed. In conclusion, it was confirmed that all the investigated parts of the ACPF passed the shielding safety limits by using this program and the ACPF is ready to fulfill its tasks for the advanced spent fuel conditioning process.

  15. Processing of irradiated, enriched uranium fuels at the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyder, M L; Perkins, W C; Thompson, M C; Burney, G A; Russell, E R; Holcomb, H P; Landon, L F

    1979-04-01

    Uranium fuels containing /sup 235/U at enrichments from 1.1% to 94% are processed and recovered, along with neptunium and plutonium byproducts. The fuels to be processed are dissolved in nitric acid. Aluminum-clad fuels are disssolved using a mercury catalyst to give a solution rich in aluminum. Fuels clad in more resistant materials are dissolved in an electrolytic dissolver. The resulting solutions are subjected to head-end treatment, including clarification and adjustment of acid and uranium concentration before being fed to solvent extraction. Uranium, neptunium, and plutonium are separated from fission products and from one another by multistage countercurrent solvent extraction with dilute tri-n-butyl phosphate in kerosene. Nitric acid is used as the salting agent in addition to aluminum or other metal nitrates present in the feed solution. Nuclear safety is maintained through conservative process design and the use of monitoring devices as secondary controls. The enriched uranium is recovered as a dilute solution and shipped off-site for further processing. Neptunium is concentrated and sent to HB-Line for recovery from solution. The relatively small quantities of plutonium present are normally discarded in aqueous waste, unless the content of /sup 238/Pu is high enough to make its recovery desirable. Most of the /sup 238/Pu can be recovered by batch extraction of the waste solution, purified by counter-current solvent extraction, and converted to oxide in HB-Line. By modifying the flowsheet, /sup 239/Pu can be recovered from low-enriched uranium in the extraction cycle; neptunium is then not recovered. The solvent is subjected to an alkaline wash before reuse to remove degraded solvent and fission products. The aqueous waste is concentrated and partially deacidified by evaporation before being neutralized and sent to the waste tanks; nitric acid from the overheads is recovered for reuse.

  16. New processing methods to produce silicon carbide and beryllium oxide inert matrix and enhanced thermal conductivity oxide fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, K. H.; Fourcade, J.; Lee, S.-G.; Solomon, A. A.

    2006-06-01

    For inert matrix fuels, SiC and BeO represent two possible matrix phase compounds that exhibit very high thermal conductivity, high melting points, low neutron absorption, and reasonably high radiation stability. BeO is chemically compatible with UO2, PuO2 and Zircaloy to very high temperatures, but SiC reacts with all three at somewhat lower temperatures. We have developed the Polymer Impregnation and Pyrolysis or PIP method, making use of a commercial SiC polymeric precursor, to consolidate both particulate fuels like 'TRISO' microsphere fuels, and to impregnate UO2 fuels with pure stoichiometric SiC to improve their thermal conductivity. This method was employed to fabricate Enhanced Conductivity Oxide fuels, or ECO fuels with 5-10 vol.% of the high conductivity phase, and with 50 vol.% for TRISO dispersion fuels. For ECO fuels, a new 'slug/bisque' method of fabricating the UO2 fuel granules was necessary to produce sintered fuel with open pore structures, allowing almost complete impregnation of the continuous SiC phase. The advantages of the PIP process are that it is a non-damaging consolidation process for particulates (TRU, UC or TRISO microspheres), forms a continuous, pure β-SiC phase at temperatures as low as 1573 K, and allows the maximum in fissile atom density. However, several PIP impregnation cycles and high crystallization temperatures are necessary to obtain high thermal conductivity SiC. For producing IMF fuels using the PIP process, the fissile PuC and/or TRU actinides can be added in small concentrations along with SiC 'filler particles' and consolidated with the SiC precursor for either open or closed fuel cycles. For BeO, a second approach was developed for ECO fuels that involves a 'co-sintering' route to produce high density fuels with a continuous BeO phase of 5-10 vol.%. Special granulation and mixing techniques were developed, but only one normal sintering cycle is required. For BeO matrix IMF fuels, PuO2 granules and TRU actinides or

  17. Gas and liquid phase fuels desulphurization for hydrogen production via reforming processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoguet, Jean-Christophe; Karagiannakis, George P.; Valla, Julia A.; Agrafiotis, Christos C. [Aerosol and Particle Technology Laboratory, CERTH/CPERI, P.O. Box 361, 57001 Thermi, Thessaloniki (Greece); Konstandopoulos, Athanasios G. [Aerosol and Particle Technology Laboratory, CERTH/CPERI, P.O. Box 361, 57001 Thermi, Thessaloniki (Greece); Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University, P.O. Box 1517, 54006 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2009-06-15

    The present work focuses on the development of efficient desulphurization processes for multi-fuel reformers for hydrogen production. Two processes were studied: liquid hydrocarbon desulphurization and H{sub 2}S removal from reformate gases. For each process, materials with various chemical compositions and microporous structures were synthesized and characterized with respect to their physicochemical properties and desulphurization ability. In the case of liquid phase desulphurization, the adsorption of sulphur compounds contained in diesel fuel under ambient conditions was studied employing as sorbents, zeolite-based materials, i.e. NaY, HY and metal ion-exchanged NaY and HY, as well as a high-surface area activated carbon (AC), for three different diesel fuels with sulphur content varying between 5 and 180 ppmw. Among all sorbents studied, AC showed the best desulphurization performance followed by cerium ion-exchanged HY. The gas phase desulphurization experiments involved the evaluation of zinc-based mixed oxides, synthesized by non-conventional (combustion synthesis) techniques on high steam content reformate gas mixtures. (author)

  18. Lab-scale demonstration of the UREX+1a process using spent nuclear fuel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, C.; Vandegrift, G. F.; Regalbuto, M. C.; Bakel, A.; Bowers, D.; Gelia, A. V.; Hebden, A. S.; Maggos, L. E.; Stepinski, D.; Tsai, Y.; Laidler, J. J.; Chemical Engineering

    2007-01-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is developing technologies to greatly expand repository capacity, improve proliferation resistance, and recover valuable energy that would otherwise be discarded; thus assuring a stable energy supply for the future. An important element of this initiative is the separation of key radionuclides followed by either superior waste-disposal forms and/or transmutation of long-lived isotopes. To that end, the GNEP is developing advanced fuel reprocessing systems that separate key radionuclides from spent fuel. One of these systems is the UREX+1a process. The UREX+1a process is a series of four solvent-extraction flowsheets that perform the following operations: (1) recovery of U and Tc (UREX), (2) recovery of Cs and Sr (CCD-PEG), and (3) recovery of TRU and rare earth elements (TRUEX), and (4) separation of TRU elements from the rare earths (TALSPEAK). This paper discusses the results of the demonstration of the UREX, TRUEX, and TALSPEAK processes using spent nuclear fuel, as well as future development needs and plans.

  19. Scientific bases of biomass processing into basic component of aviation fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachalov, V. V.; Lavrenov, V. A.; Lishchiner, I. I.; Malova, O. V.; Tarasov, A. L.; Zaichenko, V. M.

    2016-11-01

    A combination of feedstock pyrolysis and the cracking of the volatile pyrolysis products on the charcoal at 1000 °C allows to obtain a tarless synthesis gas which contains 90 vol% or more of carbon monoxide and hydrogen in approximately equal proportions. Basic component of aviation fuel was synthesized in a two-stage process from gas obtained by pyrolytic processing of biomass. Methanol and dimethyl ether can be efficiently produced in a two-layer loading of methanolic catalyst and γ-Al2O3. The total conversion of CO per pass was 38.2% using for the synthesis of oxygenates a synthesis gas with adverse ratio of H2/CO = 0.96. Conversion of CO to CH3OH was 15.3% and the conversion of CO to dimethyl ether was 20.9%. A high yield of basic component per oxygenates mass (44.6%) was obtained during conversion. The high selectivity of the synthesis process for liquid hydrocarbons was observed. An optimal recipe of aviation fuel B-92 based on a synthesized basic component was developed. The prototype of aviation fuel meets the requirements for B-92 when straight fractions of 50-100 °C (up to 35 wt%), isooctane (up to 10 wt%) and ethyl fluid (2.0 g/kg calculated as tetraethyl lead) is added to the basic component.

  20. The program cyberdiesel for mathematical modeling of fuel supply and local intracylinder processes in a diesel engine with volumetric carburetion

    OpenAIRE

    Maschenko, V. Yu.

    2007-01-01

    The program CyberDiesel is developed on the basis of complex mathematical model of fuel supply and local intracylinder processes in a diesel engine with volumetric carburetion. The program is intended for solving practical problems of coordinating constructive and adjusting parameters of fuel equipment and combustion chamber of a diesel engine by mathematical modeling methods.

  1. Analysis of the Processes in Spent Fuel Pools in Case of Loss of Heat Removal due to Water Leakage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algirdas Kaliatka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The safe storage of spent fuel assemblies in the spent fuel pools is very important. These facilities are not covered by leaktight containment; thus, the consequences of overheating and melting of fuel in the spent fuel pools can be very severe. On the other hand, due to low decay heat of fuel assemblies, the processes in pools are slow in comparison with processes in reactor core during LOCA accident. Thus, the accident management measures play a very important role in case of some accidents in spent fuel pools. This paper presents the analysis of possible consequences of fuel overheating due to leakage of water from spent fuel pool. Also, the accident mitigation measure, the late injection of water was evaluated. The analysis was performed for the Ignalina NPP Unit 2 spent fuel pool, using system thermal hydraulic code for severe accident analysis ATHLET-CD. The phenomena, taking place during such accident, are discussed. Also, benchmarking of results of the same accident calculation using ASTEC and RELAP/SCDAPSIM codes is presented here.

  2. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the combustion process of a leather residuals gasification fuel gas: influence of fuel moisture content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonietti, Anderson Jose; Beskow, Arthur Bortolin; Silva, Cristiano Vitorino da [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missoes (URI), Erechim, RS (Brazil)], E-mails: arthur@uricer.edu.br, mlsperb@unisinos.br; Indrusiak, Maria Luiza Sperb [Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS), Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: cristiano@uricer.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    This work presents a numerical study of the combustion process of leather residuals gasification gas, aiming the improvement of the process efficiency, considering different concentrations of water on the gas. The heating produced in this combustion process can be used to generation of thermal and/or electrical energy, for use at the leather industrial plant. However, the direct burning of this leather-residual-gas into the chambers is not straightforward. The alternative in development consists in processing this leather residuals by gasification or pyrolysis, separating the volatiles and products of incomplete combustion, for after use as fuel in a boiler. At these processes, different quantities of water can be used, resulting at different levels of moisture content in this fuel gas. This humidity can affect significantly the burning of this fuel, producing unburnt gases, as the carbon monoxide, or toxic gases as NOx, which must have their production minimized on the process, with the purpose of reducing the emission of pollutants to the atmosphere. Other environment-harmful-gases, remaining of the chemical treatment employed at leather manufacture, as cyanide, and hydrocarbons as toluene, must burn too, and the moisture content has influence on it. At this way, to increase understanding of the influence of moisture in the combustion process, it was made a numerical investigation study of reacting flow in the furnace, evaluating the temperature field, the chemical species concentration fields, flow mechanics and heat transfer at the process. The commercial CFD code CFX Ansys Inc. was used. Considering different moisture contents in the fuel used on the combustion process, with this study was possible to achieve the most efficient burning operation parameters, with improvement of combustion efficiency, and reduction of environmental harmful gases emissions. It was verified that the different moisture contents in the fuel gas demand different operation conditions

  3. Effects of aqueous effluents from in situ fossil-fuel processing technologies on aquatic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, H.L.

    1978-12-01

    Progress is reported for the second year of this project to evaluate the effects of aqueous effluents from in-situ fossil fuel processing technologies on aquatic biota. The project objectives for Year 2 were pursued through five tasks: literature reviews on process water constituents, possible environmental impacts and potential control technologies; toxicity bioassays on the effects of coal gasification and oil shale retorting process waters and six process water constituents on aquatic biota; biodegradation studies on process water constituents; bioaccumulation factor estimation for the compounds tested in the toxicity bioassays; and recommendations on maximum exposure concentrations for process water constituents based on data from the project and from the literature. Results in each of the five areas of research are reported.

  4. Variability of Data in High Throughput Experimentation for Catalyst Studies in Fuel Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels T.J. Luchters

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of high throughout and combinatorial experimentation is becoming commonplace in catalytic research. The benefits of parallel experiments are not only limited to reducing the time-to-market, but also give an opportunity to study processes in more depth, by generating more data. To investigate the complete parameter space, multiple experiments must be performed and the variability between these experiments must be quantifiable. In this project, the reproducibility and variance in high throughput catalyst preparation and parallel testing were determined. High-performance equipment was used in a catalyst development program for fuel processing, the production of fuel cell-grade hydrogen from hydrocarbon fuels. Four studies, involving water-gas shift conversion and high-temperature steam methane reforming, were performed to determine the reproducibility of the workflow from automated catalyst preparation to parallel activity testing. Statistical analyses showed the standard deviation in catalytic activities as determined by conversion, to be less than 6% of the average value. Copyright © 2017 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 23rd September 2016; Revised: 18th November 2016; Accepted: 22nd November 2016 How to Cite: Luchters, N.T.J., Fletcher, J.V., Roberts, S.J., Fletcher, J.C.Q. (2017. Variability of Data in High Throughput Experimentation for Catalyst Studies in Fuel Processing.  Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (1: 106-112 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.1.708.106-112 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.12.1.708.106-112

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF OTM SYNGAS PROCESS AND TESTING OF SYNGAS-DERIVED ULTRA-CLEAN FUELS IN DIESEL ENGINES AND FUEL CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.T. (Skip) Robinson; James P. Meagher; Ravi Prasad

    2001-10-31

    This topical report summarizes work accomplished for the Program from January 1 through September 15, 2001 in the following task areas: Task 1--materials development; Task 2--composite element development; Task 3--tube fabrication; Task 4--reactor design and process optimization; Task 5--catalyst development; Task 6--P-1 operation; Task 8--fuels and engine testing; and Task 10--project management. OTM benchmark material, LCM1, exceeds the commercial oxygen flux target and was determined to be sufficiently robust to carry on process development activities. Work will continue on second-generation OTM materials that will satisfy commercial life targets. Three fabrication techniques for composite elements were determined to be technically feasible. These techniques will be studied and a lead manufacturing process for both small and large-scale elements will be selected in the next Budget Period. Experiments in six P-0 reactors, the long tube tester (LTT) and the P-1 pilot plant were conducted. Significant progress in process optimization was made through both the experimental program and modeling studies of alternate reactor designs and process configurations. Three tailored catalyst candidates for use in OTM process reactors were identified. Fuels for the International diesel engine and Nuvera fuel cell tests were ordered and delivered. Fuels testing and engine development work is now underway.

  6. Processing and properties of a solid energy fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW) and recycled plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gug, JeongIn; Cacciola, David; Sobkowicz, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    Diversion of waste streams such as plastics, woods, papers and other solid trash from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest especially in densely populated areas. One promising technology for recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is to burn the high-energy-content components in standard coal power plant. This research aims to reform wastes into briquettes that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes. In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, free of hazardous contaminants, and moisture resistant, while retaining high fuel value. This study aims to investigate the effects of processing conditions and added recyclable plastics on the properties of MSW solid fuels. A well-sorted waste stream high in paper and fiber content was combined with controlled levels of recyclable plastics PE, PP, PET and PS and formed into briquettes using a compression molding technique. The effect of added plastics and moisture content on binding attraction and energy efficiency were investigated. The stability of the briquettes to moisture exposure, the fuel composition by proximate analysis, briquette mechanical strength, and burning efficiency were evaluated. It was found that high processing temperature ensures better properties of the product addition of milled mixed plastic waste leads to better encapsulation as well as to greater calorific value. Also some moisture removal (but not complete) improves the compacting process and results in higher heating value. Analysis of the post-processing water uptake and compressive strength showed a correlation between density and stability to both mechanical stress and humid environment. Proximate analysis indicated heating values comparable to coal. The results showed that mechanical and moisture uptake stability were improved when the moisture and air contents were optimized. Moreover, the briquette

  7. Fission Product Removal From Spent Oxide Fuel By Head-End Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. R. Westphal; K. J. Bateman; R. P. Lind; K. L. Howden; G. D. Del Cul

    2005-10-01

    The development of a head-end processing step for spent oxide fuel that applies to both aqueous and pyrometallurgical technologies is being performed by the Idaho National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute through a joint International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. The processing step employs high temperatures and oxidative gases to promote the oxidation of UO2 to U3O8. Potential benefits of the head-end step include the removal or reduction of fission products as well as separation of the fuel from cladding. Experiments have been performed with irradiated oxide fuel to evaluate the removal of fission products. During these experiments, operating parameters such as temperature and pressure have been varied to discern their effects on the behavior of specific fission products. In general, the extent of removal increases with increasing operating temperature and decreasing pressure. Removal efficiencies as high as 98% have been achieved during testing. Given the results of testing, an explanation of the likely fission product species being removed during the test program is also provided. In addition, experiments have been performed with other oxidative gases (steam and ozone) on surrogates to determine their potential benefit for removal of fission products.

  8. Production of Biodiesel Fuel from Waste Soya bean Cooking Oil by Alkali Trans-esterification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajinkya Dipak Deshpande*,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is biodegradable, clean-burning, non-toxic, renewable, high-quality, and cheap diesel fuel made primarily from waste vegetable oil which can be used without any alterations in engine design. The paper is concerned with the extraction and quality evaluation of the biodiesel fuels synthesized from waste soya bean cooking oil. Waste soya bean cooking oil had high amount of free fatty acid. Thus, single step transesterification process with the aid of homogeneous catalyst as 1% potassium hydroxide were implemented in this experiment. Methanol was chosen as alcohol solvent. In the transesterification process, the triglycerides in waste cooking oil was reacted with a methanol to form esters and glycerol as by product.The biodiesel were extracted for different oil to methanol ratio as 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4. The highest biodiesel yield of 76% was obtained at 1:3 volumetric ratio for 60 ºC reaction temperature and 1250 rpm stirring speed. Results show that the optimal methyl ester yield of 90% occurred at methanol: oil volume ratio of 3:1. The product met the ASTM fuel standards for relative density, acid value, relative density, calorific value, flash point and kinematic viscosity.

  9. Pyrometallurgical separation processes of radionuclides contained in the irradiated nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Cordoba, Guadalupe; Caravaca, Concha; Quinones, Javier; Gonzalez de la Huebra, Angel

    2005-01-01

    Faced with the new options for the high level waste management, the ''Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T)'' of the radio nuclides contained in the irradiated nuclear fuel appear as a promising option from different points of view, such as environmental risk, radiotoxic inventory reduction, economic, etc.. The present work is part of a research project called ''PYROREP'' of the 5th FWP of the EU that studied the feasibility of the actinide separation from the rest of fission products contained in the irradiated nuclear fuel by pyrometallurgical processes with the aim of their transmutation. In order to design these processes it is necessary to determine basic thermodynamic and kinetic data of the radionuclides contained in the nuclear fuel in molten salt media. The electrochemical study of uranium, samarium and molybdenum in the eutectic melt LiCl - KCl has been performed at a tungsten electrode in the temperature range of 450 - 600 deg C in order to obtain these basic properties. (Author)

  10. Continuous-Flow Processes in Heterogeneously Catalyzed Transformations of Biomass Derivatives into Fuels and Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A. Romero

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuous flow chemical processes offer several advantages as compared to batch chemistries. These are particularly relevant in the case of heterogeneously catalyzed transformations of biomass-derived platform molecules into valuable chemicals and fuels. This work is aimed to provide an overview of key continuous flow processes developed to date dealing with a series of transformations of platform chemicals including alcohols, furanics, organic acids and polyols using a wide range of heterogeneous catalysts based on supported metals, solid acids and bifunctional (metal + acidic materials.

  11. Second Harmonic Imaging improves Echocardiograph Quality on board the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot; Hamilton, Douglas; Martin, David; Ebert, Douglas; Melton, Shannon; Dulchavsky, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) capabilities have been part of the Human Research Facility (HRF) on board the International Space Station (ISS) since 2001. The US equipment on board the ISS includes a first-generation Tissue Harmonic Imaging (THI) option. Harmonic imaging (HI) is the second harmonic response of the tissue to the ultrasound beam and produces robust tissue detail and signal. Since this is a first-generation THI, there are inherent limitations in tissue penetration. As a breakthrough technology, HI extensively advanced the field of ultrasound. In cardiac applications, it drastically improves endocardial border detection and has become a common imaging modality. U.S. images were captured and stored as JPEG stills from the ISS video downlink. US images with and without harmonic imaging option were randomized and provided to volunteers without medical education or US skills for identification of endocardial border. The results were processed and analyzed using applicable statistical calculations. The measurements in US images using HI improved measurement consistency and reproducibility among observers when compared to fundamental imaging. HI has been embraced by the imaging community at large as it improves the quality and data validity of US studies, especially in difficult-to-image cases. Even with the limitations of the first generation THI, HI improved the quality and measurability of many of the downlinked images from the ISS and should be an option utilized with cardiac imaging on board the ISS in all future space missions.

  12. Characterization of U Nb Zr dispersion fuel prepared by centrifugal atomization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Man; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Sohn, Dong-Seong; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Hofman, Gerard L.

    1999-02-01

    The dispersions of U-Nb-Zr alloy particles in aluminum were characterized in order to assess the applicability of this dispersion as research reactor fuel. Heat treatment revealed that the 9 wt% Nb alloy powder had, as expected, higher γ-phase stability that the 5 wt% Nb alloy powder. A lamellar structure consisting of an α-U phase and γ-phase was observed to start at the grain boundaries during heat treatment. The U-Nb-Zr alloy dispersion exhibited large volume increases during annealing when compared with similar experimental results for U 3Si, U 3Si 2 and U-Mo dispersion fuel systems. The reaction product (U,Nb,Zr)Al 3 forms preferentially by diffusion of aluminum in the α-U phase which, in turn, forms during the diffusion process as the metastable γ-phase decomposes.

  13. Fuels for homogenous, self-igniting combustion processes; Brennstoffe fuer homogene selbstgezuendete Verbrennungsprozesse - Jahresbericht 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, A.; Boulouchos, K.

    2007-07-01

    This annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), reports on work done in 2007 at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich, Switzerland, on fuels for homogenous, self-igniting combustion processes. A single-stroke engine was used to test the combustion of n-heptane, n-butane and their combinations. The flexibility of the test-bed is discussed and the combustion characteristics observed are described. Also, the results obtained are presented and discussed. Multi-zone simulation and factors influencing the combustion are examined. Ignition and combustion of synthetic, diesel-like fuels are discussed. Co-operation with the project started in 2007 by the Society for Research on Combustion Engines which involves other universities and several industrial companies is noted.

  14. The development of technical database of advanced spent fuel management process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ro, Seung Gy; Byeon, Kee Hoh; Song, Dae Yong; Park, Seong Won; Shin, Young Jun

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the technical database system to provide useful information to researchers who study on the back end nuclear fuel cycle. Technical database of advanced spent fuel management process was developed for a prototype system in 1997. In 1998, this database system is improved into multi-user systems and appended special database which is composed of thermochemical formation data and reaction data. In this report, the detailed specification of our system design is described and the operating methods are illustrated as a user's manual. Also, expanding current system, or interfacing between this system and other system, this report is very useful as a reference. (Author). 10 refs., 18 tabs., 46 fig.

  15. Numerical solution of moving boundary problem for deposition process in solid fuel gas generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volokhov, V. M.; Dorofeenko, S. O.; Sharov, M. S.; Toktaliev, P. D.

    2016-11-01

    Moving boundary problem in application to process of depositions formation in gas generator are considered. Gas generator, as a part of fuel preparation system of high-speed vehicle, convert solid fuel into multicomponent multiphase mixture, which further burned down in combustion chamber. Mathematical model of two-phase “gas-solid particles” flow, including Navier-Stokes equations for turbulent flow in gas generator and mass, impulse conservations laws for elementary depositions layer are proposed. Verification of proposed mathematical model for depositions mass in gas generator conditions is done. Further possible improvements of proposed model, based on more detail accounting of particle-wall interaction and wall's surface adhesion properties are analyzed.

  16. Catalytic on-board hydrogen production from methanol and ammonia for mobile application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerijanto, H.

    2008-08-15

    This PhD thesis deals with the catalytic hydrogen production for mobile application, for example for the use in fuel cells for electric cars. Electric powered buses with fuel cells as driving system are well known, but the secure hydrogen storage in adequate amounts for long distance drive is still a topic of discussion. Methanol is an excellent hydrogen carrier. First of all it has a high H:C ratio and therefore a high energy density. Secondly the operating temperature of steam reforming of methanol is comparatively low (250 C) and there is no risk of coking since methanol has no C-C bond. Thirdly methanol is a liquid, which means that the present gasoline infrastructure can be used. For the further development of catalysts and for the construction of a reformer it is very important to characterize the catalysts very well. For the dimensioning and the control of an on-board production of hydrogen it is essential to draw accurately on the thermodynamic, chemical and kinetic data of the reaction. At the first part of this work the mesoporous Cu/ZrO{sub 2}/CeO{sub 2}-catalysts with various copper contents were characterized and their long-term stability and selectivity were investigated, and the kinetic data were determined. Carbon monoxide is generated by reforming of carbon containing material. This process is undesired since CO poisons the Pt electrode of the fuel cell. The separation of hydrogen by metal membranes is technically feasible and a high purity of hydrogen can be obtained. However, due to their high density this procedure is not favourable because of its energy loss. In this study a concept is presented, which enables an autothermal mode by application of ceramic membrane and simultaneously could help to deal with the CO problem. The search for an absolutely selective catalyst is uncertain. The production of CO can be neither chemically nor thermodynamically excluded, if carbon is present in the hydrogen carrier. Since enrichment or separation are

  17. New Approach to Study the Ignition Processes of Organic Coal-Water Fuels in an Oxidizer Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiullin T.R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To converge the conditions of organic water-coal fuel composition combustion in the typical power equipment we developed a new approach and installed an experimental setup, eliminating the traditional fixing the fuel droplets on the thermocouples or rods. Specialized cone-shaped chamber was used to implement the process of lingering of organic water-coal fuel droplets. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the lingering of organic water-coal fuel droplets were established. We determined the parameters of the system (droplet size of 0.4-0.6 mm, temperatures 823-903 K and the velocity of the oxidizer flow 1.5-6 m/s at which the droplets were consistently ignited in the process of lingering. Minimum temperatures and ignition delay times of organic water-coal fuel droplets based on brown coal, used motor, turbine, transformer oils, kerosene, gasoline and water were defined.

  18. Light alkane conversion processes - Suprabiotic catalyst systems for selective oxidation of light alkane gases to fuel oxygenates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the work presented in this paper is to develop new, efficient catalysts for the selective transformation of the light alkanes in natural gas to alcohols for use as liquid transportation fuels, fuel precursors and chemical products. There currently exists no DIRECT one-step catalytic air-oxidation process to convert these substrates to alcohols. Such a one-step route would represent superior useful technology for the utilization of natural gas and similar refinery-derived light hydrocarbon streams. Processes for converting natural gas or its components (methane, ethane, propane, and the butanes) to alcohols for use as motor fuels, fuel additives or fuel precursors will not only add a valuable alternative to crude oil but will produce a clean-burning, high octane alternative to conventional gasoline.

  19. Light alkane conversion processes - Suprabiotic catalyst systems for selective oxidation of light alkane gases to fuel oxygenates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J.E.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of the work presented in this paper is to develop new, efficient catalysts for the selective transformation of the light alkanes in natural gas to alcohols for use as liquid transportation fuels, fuel precursors and chemical products. There currently exists no DIRECT one-step catalytic air-oxidation process to convert these substrates to alcohols. Such a one-step route would represent superior useful technology for the utilization of natural gas and similar refinery-derived light hydrocarbon streams. Processes for converting natural gas or its components (methane, ethane, propane, and the butanes) to alcohols for use as motor fuels, fuel additives or fuel precursors will not only add a valuable alternative to crude oil but will produce a clean-burning, high octane alternative to conventional gasoline.

  20. ACSEPT a European project for a new step in the future demonstration of advanced fuel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, S.; Hill, C. [CEA, DRCP - Bat 181, CEA Marcoule, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols/Ceze (France); Caravaca, C.; Espartero, A. [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 22 - 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rhodes, C.; Taylor, R.; Harrison, M. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); EKBERG, C. [Chalmers tekniska hoegskola, Institutionen foer kemi- och bioteknik, Aemnesomraadets namn, 412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); GEIST, A. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgungstechnik, P.O.B. 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Modolo, G. [Forschungszentrum Juelich - FZJ, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Cassayre, L. [CNRS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Toulouse (France); Malmbeck, R. [JRC-ITU, Karlsruhe (Germany); De Angelis, G. [ENEA, Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Bouvet, S. [Rio Tinto Alcan, Centre de Recherche de Voreppe, Voreppe (France); Klaassen, F. [NRG, PO Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    For more than fifteen years, a European scientific community has joined its effort to develop and optimise processes for the partitioning of actinides from fission products. In an international context of 'nuclear renaissance', the upcoming of a new generation of nuclear reactor (Gen IV) will require the development of associated advanced closed fuel cycles which answer the needs of a sustainable nuclear energy: the minimization of the production of long lived radioactive waste but also the optimization of the use of natural resources with an increased resistance to proliferation. Actually, Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T), associated to a multi-recycling of all transuranics (TRUs), should play a key role in the development of this sustainable nuclear energy. By joining together 34 Partners coming from European universities, nuclear research bodies and major industrial players in a multidisciplinary consortium, the FP7 EURATOM-Fission Collaborative Project ACSEPT (Actinide recycling by Separation and Transmutation), started in 2008 for four year duration, provides the sound basis and fundamental improvements for future demonstrations of fuel treatment in strong connection with fuel fabrication techniques. Consistently with potentially viable recycling strategies, ACSEPT therefore provides a structured R and D framework to develop chemical separation processes compatible with fuel fabrication techniques, with a view to their future demonstration at the pilot level. ACSEPT is organized into three technical domains: (i) Considering technically mature aqueous separation processes, ACSEPT works to optimize and select the most promising ones dedicated either to actinide partitioning or to group actinide separation. (ii) Concerning high temperature pyrochemical separation processes, ACSEPT focuses on the enhancement of the two reference cores of process selected within previous projects. R and D efforts are now devoted to key scientific and technical

  1. SCALE UP OF CERAMIC WASTE FORMS FOR THE EBR-II SPENT FUEL TREATMENT PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew C. Morrison; Kenneth J. Bateman; Michael F. Simpson

    2010-11-01

    ABSTRACT SCALE UP OF CERAMIC WASTE FORMS FOR THE EBR-II SPENT FUEL TREATMENT PROCESS Matthew C. Morrison, Kenneth J. Bateman, Michael F. Simpson Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 The ceramic waste process is the intended method for disposing of waste salt electrolyte, which contains fission products from the fuel-processing electrorefiners (ER) at the INL. When mixed and processed with other materials, the waste salt can be stored in a durable ceramic waste form (CWF). The development of the CWF has recently progressed from small-scale testing and characterization to full-scale implementation and experimentation using surrogate materials in lieu of the ER electrolyte. Two full-scale (378 kg and 383 kg) CWF test runs have been successfully completed with final densities of 2.2 g/cm3 and 2.1 g/cm3, respectively. The purpose of the first CWF was to establish material preparation parameters. The emphasis of the second pre-qualification test run was to evaluate a preliminary multi-section CWF container design. Other considerations were to finalize material preparation parameters, measure the material height as it consolidates in the furnace, and identify when cracking occurs during the CWF cooldown process.

  2. Fuel and power coproduction: The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process demonstration at Kingsport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drown, D.P.; Brown, W.R.; Heydorn, E.C.; Moore, R.B.; Schaub, E.S.; Brown, D.M.; Jones, W.C.; Kornosky, R.M.

    1997-12-31

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process uses a slurry bubble column reactor to convert syngas (primarily a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen) to methanol. Because of its superior heat management, the process is able to be designed to directly handle the carbon monoxide (CO)-rich syngas characteristic of the gasification of coal, petroleum coke, residual oil, wastes, or of other hydrocarbon feedstocks. When added to an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant, the LPMEOH{trademark} process converts a portion of the CO-rich syngas produced by the gasifier to methanol, and the remainder of the unconverted gas is used to fuel the gas turbine combined-cycle power plant. The LPMEOH{trademark} process has the flexibility to operate in a daily electricity demand load-following manner. Coproduction of power and methanol via IGCC and the LPMEOH{trademark} process provides opportunities for energy storage for electrical demand peak shaving, clean fuel for export, and/or chemical methanol sales.

  3. Processing of mixed uranium/refractory metal carbide fuels for high temperature space nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Travis; Anghaie, Samim

    2000-01-01

    Single phase, solid-solution mixed uranium/refractory metal carbides have been proposed as an advanced nuclear fuel for high performance, next generation space power and propulsion systems. These mixed carbides such as the pseudo-ternary, (U, Zr, Nb)C, hold significant promise because of their high melting points (typically greater than 3200 K), thermochemical stability in a hot hydrogen environment, and high thermal conductivity. However, insufficient test data exist under nuclear thermal propulsion conditions of temperature and hot hydrogen environment to fully evaluate their performance. Various compositions of (U, Zr, Nb)C were processed with 5% and 10% metal mole fraction of uranium. Stoichiometric samples were processed from the constituent carbide powders while hypostoichiometric samples with carbon-to-metal (C/M) ratios of 0.95 were processed from uranium hydride, graphite, and constituent refractory carbide powders. Processing techniques of cold pressing, sintering, and hot pressing were investigated to optimize the processing parameters necessary to produce dense (low porosity), homogeneous, single phase, solid-solution mixed carbide nuclear fuels for testing. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate and characterize the performance of these mixed uranium/refractory metal carbides for space power and propulsion applications. .

  4. On board aircrew dosimetry with a semiconductor spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spurny, F.; Daschev, T

    2002-07-01

    Radiation fields on board aircraft contain particles with energies up to a few hundred MeV. Many instruments have been tested to characterise these fields. This paper presents the results of studies on the use of an Si diode spectrometer to characterise the on board field. During a Czech Airlines flight from Prague to New York it was possible to register the effects of an intense solar flare, (ground level even, GLE 60), which occurred on 15 April 2001. It was found that the number of deposition events registered was increased by about 70% and the dose in Si by a factor of 2.0 when compared with the presence of galactic cosmic rays alone. Directly measured data are interpreted with respect to on-earth reference field calibration (photons, CERN high-energy particles); it was found that this approach leads to encouraging results and should be followed up. (author00.

  5. Harmonic distortions measured on board of a maritime vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zburlea, Elena; Dordea, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    Measurements where performed on four channels by means of an autonomous equipment (galvanic separated and not supplied from the ship's mains) performed on board of some maritime transport vessels, inside the Port of Constanţa aquatorium. Distorted voltages where state in the distribution panels. The sources of those distortions are the switching power supplies of the electric drives. The novelty of our work states in performing those measurements during the inside port maneuvers, when the operating time of each electric equipment is non definable. Harmonic distortions caused by the switching power converters lower the Power Factor. There is no better manner to find out the main distortions sources on board of a maritime transport vessel than to perform the measurements directly, on each location.

  6. ON BOARD OF SHIPS THERMAL ENERGY RECOVERY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beazit ALI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper are presented at first the energy recovery conditions used at the moment on board of ships and the restrictions which do not allow the achievement of higher recovery ratios. The authors suggest a new type of recovery plant by vaporization of water by means of expansion and they show its advantages in the considerably increase of energy recovery ratio from burnt gases from the cooling water of marine engine

  7. Who nominates the board? - Implications on board diversity and turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Viskari, Milla

    2014-01-01

    This thesis assesses whether the type of nomination poses implications on board diversity in terms of age, gender, nationality and education, as well as turnover on a Finnish and Swedish data. The existing research on director selection and especially nomination committees is rather limited, and thus the research aims at contributing to the topic. The reviewed time period concerns 2008 to 2012, and altogether 55 Finnish and 55 Swedish public companies are included in the study, thus resul...

  8. An Integrated Architecture for On-Board Aircraft Engine Performance Trend Monitoring and Gas Path Fault Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft engine performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostics are closely related technologies that assist operators in managing the health of their gas turbine engine assets. Trend monitoring is the process of monitoring the gradual performance change that an aircraft engine will naturally incur over time due to turbomachinery deterioration, while gas path diagnostics is the process of detecting and isolating the occurrence of any faults impacting engine flow-path performance. Today, performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostic functions are performed by a combination of on-board and off-board strategies. On-board engine control computers contain logic that monitors for anomalous engine operation in real-time. Off-board ground stations are used to conduct fleet-wide engine trend monitoring and fault diagnostics based on data collected from each engine each flight. Continuing advances in avionics are enabling the migration of portions of the ground-based functionality on-board, giving rise to more sophisticated on-board engine health management capabilities. This paper reviews the conventional engine performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostic architecture commonly applied today, and presents a proposed enhanced on-board architecture for future applications. The enhanced architecture gains real-time access to an expanded quantity of engine parameters, and provides advanced on-board model-based estimation capabilities. The benefits of the enhanced architecture include the real-time continuous monitoring of engine health, the early diagnosis of fault conditions, and the estimation of unmeasured engine performance parameters. A future vision to advance the enhanced architecture is also presented and discussed

  9. Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas Derived Ultra-clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.T. Robinson; John Sirman; Prasad Apte; Xingun Gui; Tytus R. Bulicz; Dan Corgard; John Hemmings

    2005-05-01

    This final report summarizes work accomplished in the Program from January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2004. Most of the key technical objectives for this program were achieved. A breakthrough material system has lead to the development of an OTM (oxygen transport membrane) compact planar reactor design capable of producing either syngas or hydrogen. The planar reactor shows significant advantages in thermal efficiency and a step change reduction in costs compared to either autothermal reforming or steam methane reforming with CO{sub 2} recovery. Syngas derived ultra-clean transportation fuels were tested in the Nuvera fuel cell modular pressurized reactor and in International Truck and Engine single cylinder test engines. The studies compared emission and engine performance of conventional base fuels to various formulations of ultra-clean gasoline or diesel fuels. A proprietary BP oxygenate showed significant advantage in both applications for reducing emissions with minimal impact on performance. In addition, a study to evaluate new fuel formulations for an HCCI engine was completed.

  10. Processing and properties of a solid energy fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW) and recycled plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gug, JeongIn, E-mail: Jeongin_gug@student.uml.edu; Cacciola, David, E-mail: david_cacciola@student.uml.edu; Sobkowicz, Margaret J., E-mail: Margaret_sobkowiczkline@uml.edu

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Briquetting was used to produce solid fuels from municipal solid waste and recycled plastics. • Optimal drying, processing temperature and pressure were found to produce stable briquettes. • Addition of waste plastics yielded heating values comparable with typical coal feedstocks. • This processing method improves utilization of paper and plastic diverted from landfills. - Abstract: Diversion of waste streams such as plastics, woods, papers and other solid trash from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest especially in densely populated areas. One promising technology for recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is to burn the high-energy-content components in standard coal power plant. This research aims to reform wastes into briquettes that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes. In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, free of hazardous contaminants, and moisture resistant, while retaining high fuel value. This study aims to investigate the effects of processing conditions and added recyclable plastics on the properties of MSW solid fuels. A well-sorted waste stream high in paper and fiber content was combined with controlled levels of recyclable plastics PE, PP, PET and PS and formed into briquettes using a compression molding technique. The effect of added plastics and moisture content on binding attraction and energy efficiency were investigated. The stability of the briquettes to moisture exposure, the fuel composition by proximate analysis, briquette mechanical strength, and burning efficiency were evaluated. It was found that high processing temperature ensures better properties of the product addition of milled mixed plastic waste leads to better encapsulation as well as to greater calorific value. Also some moisture removal (but not complete) improves the compacting process and results in

  11. Establishment and assessment of a novel cleaner production process of corn grain fuel ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jianhua; Tang, Lei; Zhang, Hongjian; Zhang, Guiying; Yang, Xizhao; Liu, Pei; Mao, Zhonggui

    2013-11-01

    An integrated corn ethanol-methane fermentation system was proposed to solve the problem of stillage handling, where thin stillage was treated by anaerobic digestion and then reused to make mash for the following ethanol fermentation. This system was evaluated at laboratory and pilot scale. Anaerobic digestion of thin stillage ran steadily with total chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency of 98% at laboratory scale and 97% at pilot scale. Ethanol production was not influenced by recycling anaerobic digestion effluent at laboratory and pilot scale. Compared with dried distillers' grains with solubles produced in conventional process, dried distillers' grains in the proposed system exhibited higher quality because of increased protein concentration and decreased salts concentration. Energetic assessment indicated that application of this novel process enhanced the net energy balance ratio from 1.26 (conventional process) to 1.76. In conclusion, the proposed system possessed technical advantage over the conventional process for corn fuel ethanol production.

  12. A green lead hydrometallurgical process based on a hydrogen-lead oxide fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Junqing; Sun, Yanzhi; Li, Wei; Knight, James; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2013-01-01

    The automobile industry consumed 9 million metric tons of lead in 2012 for lead-acid batteries. Recycling lead from spent lead-acid batteries is not only related to the sustainable development of the lead industry, but also to the reduction of lead pollution in the environment. The existing lead pyrometallurgical processes have two main issues, toxic lead emission into the environment and high energy consumption; the developing hydrometallurgical processes have the disadvantages of high electricity consumption, use of toxic chemicals and severe corrosion of metallic components. Here we demonstrate a new green hydrometallurgical process to recover lead based on a hydrogen-lead oxide fuel cell. High-purity lead, along with electricity, is produced with only water as the by-product. It has a >99.5% lead yield, which is higher than that of the existing pyrometallurgical processes (95-97%). This greatly reduces lead pollution to the environment.

  13. The 4th irradiation test of dry process fuel in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C. Y.; Moon, J. S.; Kang, K. H.; Jung, I. H.; Song, K. C.; Yang, M. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    The 4th irradiation test of dry process pellet using non-instrumented rig is being performed in the HANARO research reactor. Among the three mini-elements for the 4{sup th} irradiation test, the element No.1 is dedicated to the extended irradiation of the DUPIC pellets irradiated in the 3{sup rd} irradiation test, the element No.2 and No.3 are used for the comparative analysis on the in-core behaviors of simulated DUPIC fuel and actual DUPIC fuel. For these purposes, the irradiated rig of the 3{sup rd} irradiation test was disassembled in a hot cell to select the element No.1. Also the SIMFUEL that is fabricated in the DUPIC laboratory is welded by laser in a welding chamber and the DUPIC fuel that is remotely fabricated in DFDF is welded by a laser method as done in the second and third irradiation tests. The rig was remotely assembled using a rig assembler and loaded into the OR5 hole. Since June 2002, the 4{sup th} irradiation test is being performed.

  14. Biochemical Conversion Processes of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brethauer, Simone; Studer, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass - such as wood, agricultural residues or dedicated energy crops - is a promising renewable feedstock for production of fuels and chemicals that is available at large scale at low cost without direct competition for food usage. Its biochemical conversion in a sugar platform biorefinery includes three main unit operations that are illustrated in this review: the physico-chemical pretreatment of the biomass, the enzymatic hydrolysis of the carbohydrates to a fermentable sugar stream by cellulases and finally the fermentation of the sugars by suitable microorganisms to the target molecules. Special emphasis in this review is put on the technology, commercial status and future prospects of the production of second-generation fuel ethanol, as this process has received most research and development efforts so far. Despite significant advances, high enzyme costs are still a hurdle for large scale competitive lignocellulosic ethanol production. This could be overcome by a strategy termed 'consolidated bioprocessing' (CBP), where enzyme production, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation is integrated in one step - either by utilizing one genetically engineered superior microorganism or by creating an artificial co-culture. Insight is provided on both CBP strategies for the production of ethanol as well as of advanced fuels and commodity chemicals.

  15. China's fuel economy standards for passenger vehicles: Rationale, policy process, and impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, Hongyan H., E-mail: hongyan.oliver@gmail.co [John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 79 JFK Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gallagher, Kelly Sims [John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 79 JFK Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tian Donglian; Zhang Jinhua [China Automotive Technology and Research Center, No. 188 Western Road, 4th South Ring Road, Fengtai District, Beijing 100070 (China)

    2009-11-15

    China issued its first Fuel Economy Standards (FES) for light-duty passenger vehicles (LDPV) in September 2004, and the first and second phases of the FES took effective in July 2005 and January 2008, respectively. The stringency of the Chinese FES ranks third globally, following the Japanese and European standards. In this paper, we first review the policy-making background, including the motivations, key players, and the process; and then explain the content and the features of the FES and why there was no compliance flexibility built into it. Next, we assess the various aspects of the standard's impact, including fuel economy improvement, technology changes, shift of market composition, and overall fuel savings. Lastly, we comment on the prospect of tightening the existing FES and summarize the complementary policies that have been adopted or may be considered by the Chinese government for further promoting efficient vehicles and reducing transport energy consumption. The Chinese experience is highly relevant for countries that are also experiencing or anticipating rapid growth in personal vehicles, those wishing to moderate an increase in oil demand, or those desirous of vehicle technology upgrades.

  16. China's fuel economy standards for passenger vehicles. Rationale, policy process, and impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, Hongyan H.; Gallagher, Kelly Sims [John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 79 JFK Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tian, Donglian; Zhang, Jinhua [China Automotive Technology and Research Center, No. 188 Western Road, 4th South Ring Road, Fengtai District, Beijing 100070 (China)

    2009-11-15

    China issued its first Fuel Economy Standards (FES) for light-duty passenger vehicles (LDPV) in September 2004, and the first and second phases of the FES took effective in July 2005 and January 2008, respectively. The stringency of the Chinese FES ranks third globally, following the Japanese and European standards. In this paper, we first review the policy-making background, including the motivations, key players, and the process; and then explain the content and the features of the FES and why there was no compliance flexibility built into it. Next, we assess the various aspects of the standard's impact, including fuel economy improvement, technology changes, shift of market composition, and overall fuel savings. Lastly, we comment on the prospect of tightening the existing FES and summarize the complementary policies that have been adopted or may be considered by the Chinese government for further promoting efficient vehicles and reducing transport energy consumption. The Chinese experience is highly relevant for countries that are also experiencing or anticipating rapid growth in personal vehicles, those wishing to moderate an increase in oil demand, or those desirous of vehicle technology upgrades. (author)

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-COST MANUFACTURING PROCESSES FOR PLANAR, MULTILAYER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ELEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Swartz; Matthew Seabaugh; William Dawson; Harlan Anderson; Tim Armstrong; Michael Cobb; Kirby Meacham; James Stephan; Russell Bennett; Bob Remick; Chuck Sishtla; Scott Barnett; John Lannutti

    2004-06-12

    This report summarizes the results of a four-year project, entitled, ''Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells'', jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the State of Ohio, and by project participants. The project was led by NexTech Materials, Ltd., with subcontracting support provided by University of Missouri-Rolla, Michael A. Cobb & Co., Advanced Materials Technologies, Inc., Edison Materials Technology Center, Gas Technology Institute, Northwestern University, and The Ohio State University. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, though not formally a subcontractor on the program, supported the effort with separate DOE funding. The objective of the program was to develop advanced manufacturing technologies for making solid oxide fuel cell components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. The program was carried out in three phases. In the Phase I effort, several manufacturing approaches were considered and subjected to detailed assessments of manufacturability and development risk. Estimated manufacturing costs for 5-kW stacks were in the range of $139/kW to $179/kW. The risk assessment identified a number of technical issues that would need to be considered during development. Phase II development work focused on development of planar solid oxide fuel cell elements, using a number of ceramic manufacturing methods, including tape casting, colloidal-spray deposition, screen printing, spin-coating, and sintering. Several processes were successfully established for fabrication of anode-supported, thin-film electrolyte cells, with performance levels at or near the state-of-the-art. The work in Phase III involved scale-up of cell manufacturing methods, development of non-destructive evaluation methods, and comprehensive electrical and electrochemical testing of solid oxide fuel cell materials and components.

  18. CFBC evaluation of fuels processed from Illinois coals. Technical report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan, S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes

    1992-10-01

    The combustion and emissions properties of (a) flotation slurry fuel beneficiated from coal fines at various stages of the cleaning process and (b) coal-sorbent pellets made from the flotation concentrate of the same beneficiation process using corn starch as binder is being investigated in a 4-inch internal diameter circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC). Combustion data such as SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} emissions, combustion efficiency and ash mineral matter analyses from these fuels are compared with similar parameters from a reference coal burnt in the same fluidized bed combustor. In the last quarter, the CFBC was brought on line and tests were performed on standard coal No. 3 from the Illinois Basin Coal Sample Program (IBCSP). During this quarter, it was decided, that a more meaningful comparison could be obtained if, instead of using the IBCSP No. 3 coal as a standard, the run-of-mine Illinois No. 5 coal from the Kerr-McGee Galatia plant could be used as the reference coal for purposes of comparing the combustion and emissions performance, since the slurry and pellet fuels mentioned in (a) and (b) above were processed from fines recovered form this same Illinois No. 5 seam coal. Accordingly, run-of-the mine Illinois No. 5 coal from the Galatia plant were obtained, riffled and sieved to {minus}14+18 size for the combustion tests. Preliminary combustion tests have been made in the CFBC with this new coal. In preparation for the slurry tests, the moisture content of the beneficiated slurry samples was determined. Proximate and ultimate analyses of all the coal samples were performed. Using a Leeds and Northrup Model 7995-10 Microtrek particle size analyzer, the size distributions of the coal in the three slurry samples were determined. The mineral matter content of the coal in the three slurry samples and the Illinois No. 5 seam coal were investigated using energy dispersive x-ray analysis.

  19. Geological Disposal Options for the Radioactive Wastes from a Recycling Process of Spent Nuclear Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. Y.; Choi, H. J.; Lee, M. S.; Jeong, J. T.; Choi, J. W.; Kim, S. K.; Cho, D. K.; Kuk, D. H.; Cha, J. H

    2008-10-15

    The electricity from the nuclear power plants is around 40 % of total required electricity in Korea and according to the energy development plan, the proportion will be raised about 60 % in near future. To implement this plan, the most important factor is the back-end fuel cycle, namely the safe management of the spent fuel or high level radioactive wastes from the nuclear power plants. Various researches are being carried out to manage the spent fuel effectively in the world. In our country, as one of the management alternatives which is more effective and non-proliferation, pyro-processing method is being developed actively to retrieve reusable uranium and TRU, and to reduce the volume of high level waste from a Nuclear power plant. This is a new dry recycling process. In this report, the amount of various wastes and their characteristics are estimated in a Pyro-process. Based on these information, the geological disposal alternatives are developed. According to the amount and the characteristics of each waste, the concepts of waste packages and the disposal container are developed. And also from the characteristics of the radioactivity and the heat generation, multi-layer of the depth is considered to dispose these wastes. The proposed various alternatives in this report can be used as input data for design of the deep geological disposal system. And they will be improved through the application of the real site data and safety assessment in the future. After then, the final disposal concept will be selected with various assessment and the optimization will be carried out.

  20. Fundamental phenomena on fuel decomposition and boundary-layer combustion processes with applications to hybrid rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Kenneth K.; Lu, Yeu-Cherng; Chiaverini, Martin J.; Harting, George C.; Johnson, David K.; Serin, Nadir

    1995-01-01

    The experimental study on the fundamental processes involved in fuel decomposition and boundary-layer combustion in hybrid rocket motors is continuously being conducted at the High Pressure Combustion Laboratory of The Pennsylvania State University. This research will provide a useful engineering technology base in the development of hybrid rocket motors as well as a fundamental understanding of the complex processes involved in hybrid propulsion. A high-pressure, 2-D slab motor has been designed, manufactured, and utilized for conducting seven test firings using HTPB fuel processed at PSU. A total of 20 fuel slabs have been received from the Mcdonnell Douglas Aerospace Corporation. Ten of these fuel slabs contain an array of fine-wire thermocouples for measuring solid fuel surface and subsurface temperatures. Diagnostic instrumentation used in the test include high-frequency pressure transducers for measuring static and dynamic motor pressures and fine-wire thermocouples for measuring solid fuel surface and subsurface temperatures. The ultrasonic pulse-echo technique as well as a real-time x-ray radiography system have been used to obtain independent measurements of instantaneous solid fuel regression rates.

  1. Engineering bed models for solid fuel conversion process in grate-fired boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, M.; Massarotti, N.; Indrizzi, V.

    2014-01-01

    A comparison between two numerical models describing the thermo-chemical conversion process of a solid fuel bed in a grate-fired boiler is presented. Both models consider the incoming biomass as subjected to drying, pyrolysis, gasification and combustion. In the first approach the biomass bed...... of the syngas predicted by the two models is equal to about 7%. The application to different types of biomass shows that the difference in the predictions increases as the carbon content grows. The phenomenological model, in fact, generally considers higher conversion rates of this element to volatiles...

  2. Process Management Development for Quality Monitoring on Resistance Weldment of Nuclear Fuel Rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Tae Hyung; Yang, Kyung Hwan; Kim, In Kyu [KEPCO, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The current, welding force, and displacement are displayed on the indicator during welding. However, real-time quality control is not performed. Due to the importance of fuel rod weldment, many studies on welding procedures have been conducted. However, there are not enough studies regarding weldment quality evaluation. On the other hand, there are continuous studies on the monitoring and control of welding phenomena. In resistance welding, which is performed in a very short time, it is important to find the process parameters that well represent the weld zone formation and the welding process. In his study, Gould attempted to analyze melt zone formation using the finite difference method. Using the artificial neural network, Javed and Sanders, Messler Jr et al., Cho and Rhee, Li and Gong et al. estimated the size of the melt zone by mapping a nonlinear functional relation between the weldment and the electrode head movement, which is a typical welding process parameter. Applications of the artificial intelligence method include fuzzy control using electrode displacement, fuzzy control using the optimal power curve, neural network control using the dynamic resistance curve, fuzzy adaptive control using the optimal electrode curve, etc. Therefore, this study induced quality factors for the real-time quality control of nuclear fuel rod end plug weldment using instantaneous dynamic resistance (IDR), which incorporates the instantaneous value of secondary current and voltage of the transformer, and using instantaneous dynamic force (IDF), obtained real-time during welding.

  3. Significance of chamber pressure to complex multi-phase physics in jet engine fuel injection processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahms, Rainer; Oefelein, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    Injection processes in jet engines at chamber pressures in excess of the thermodynamic critical pressure of the liquid fuel are not well understood. Under some conditions, a distinct two-phase interface may not exist anymore which eliminates the presence of classical spray atomization phenomena. A comprehensive model for jet engine fuel injections is derived to quantify the conditions under which the interfacial dynamics transition to diffusion-dominated mixing processes without surface tension. At certain conditions, the model shows two-phase interfaces with substantially increased thicknesses and distinctively reduced mean free paths in comparison to ambient pressure conditions. Then, the underlying assumptions of a distinct two-phase interface do not apply anymore and the interface along with its surface tension is shown to deteriorate as it broadens substantially. As a consequence of this physical complexity, the conceptual view of spray atomization and evaporation as an appropriate model for jet engine injection processes is, contrary to conventional wisdom, questionable at certain operating conditions. Instead, a Large Eddy Simulation using a dense-fluid approximation is applied which takes the complex thermo-physics of real-fluid behavior into account.

  4. Geant4 Model Validation of Compton Suppressed System for Process monitoring of Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, Sarah; Unlu, Kenan; Orton, Christopher R.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2013-05-01

    Nuclear material accountancy is of continuous concern for the regulatory, safeguards, and verification communities. In particular, spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities pose one of the most difficult accountancy challenges: monitoring highly radioactive, fluid sample streams in near real-time. The Multi-Isotope Process monitor will allow for near-real-time indication of process alterations using passive gamma-ray detection coupled with multivariate analysis techniques to guard against potential material diversion or to enhance domestic process monitoring. The Compton continuum from the dominant 661.7 keV 137Cs fission product peak obscures lower energy lines which could be used for spectral and multivariate analysis. Compton suppression may be able to mitigate the challenges posed by the high continuum caused by scattering. A Monte Carlo simulation using the Geant4 toolkit is being developed to predict the expected suppressed spectrum from spent fuel samples to estimate the reduction in the Compton continuum. Despite the lack of timing information between decay events in the particle management of Geant4, encouraging results were recorded utilizing only the information within individual decays without accounting for accidental coincidences. The model has been validated with single and cascade decay emitters in two steps: as an unsuppressed system and with suppression activated. Results of the Geant4 model validation will be presented.

  5. CFBC evaluation of fuels processed from Illinois coals. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan, S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes

    1992-12-31

    The fuels studied in this project are (a) flotation slurry fuel beneficiated from coal fines at various stages of the cleaning process and (b) coal-sorbent pellets made from the flotation concentrate of the same beneficiation process using corn starch as binder. These fuels are investigated in a 4-inch internal diameter circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC). The combustion experiments demonstrated that the three coal-water slurry fuels and the pellet fuel could burn well in the CFBC unit. The combustion tests showed that the combustion efficiency of the slurry fuels and the pellets were quite comparable with that of the standard coal in the range of 91--98%. Sulfur dioxide emissions in lbs per million Btu from the slurry fuels were low enough to satisfy EPA emissions requirements with Ca/S ratios of 1.5 or less. At these low Ca/S ratios, the slurry fuels and the pellet emitted less SO{sub 2} than the standard coal. Increasing the Ca/S ratios showed that the standard coal SO{sub 9} emissions reduced at a faster rate than the SO{sub 2} emissions from the pellet and slurry fuels, because of the more efficient dispersion and gas-solid contact of the standard coal particles. Oxides of nitrogen emissions were generally on the order of 0.3 lbs per million Btu from the slurry fuels under the conditions of the present tests, while that from the pellets were between 0.6 to 0.75 lbs per million Btu depending on bed temperature. In comparison, the oxides of nitrogen emissions from the standard coal varied from 0.5 to 0.8 lbs per million Btu in the bed temperature range of 1475--1625{degrees}F.

  6. The Welding Process of the Small In-pile Testing Fuel Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The small in-pile testing fuel assembly is designed for high performance fuel assembly study. It has two parts of which are four fuel element with double layer cladding and a detect system for measurement of testing pressure and temperature. The fuel element is composed of UO2 pellets, the stainless steel cladding and end caps. The detect system is direct contact with the fuel element by electron beam welding. In the fabrication of the assembly, some special welding technologies are

  7. Cracking and hydrocracking of triglycerides for renewable liquid fuels: alternative processes to transesterification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frety, Roger; Rocha, Maria da Graca C. da; Brandao, Soraia T., E-mail: frety@unifacs.b [Universidade Federal da Bahia (IQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Pontes, Luiz A.M; Padilha, Jose F. [Universidade de Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil); Borges, Luiz E.P.; Gonzalez, Wilma A. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Quimica

    2011-07-01

    The most used industrial processes for the production of liquid fuels like diesel type are based on the methanolysis and ethanolysis of various oil reactants, such as palm, soybean and rapeseed oils, in the presence of homogeneous base catalysts. However, thermal and catalytic transformations of vegetable oils using available reactors and industrial processes are possible alternatives and deserve attention. In fact, three industrial processes are operating and new projects are announced. The present work analyses the experimental studies performed up to now by Brazilian researchers in the field of cracking, catalytic cracking and hydrocracking of pure or modified vegetable oils. From the published results, some research areas for the near future are suggested. (author)

  8. Limitation of the EIA Process for the assessment of nuclear fuel waste disposal in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, B.L.; Kuhn, R.G. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography

    1999-12-01

    The Canadian environmental impact assessment process for the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management and Disposal Concept was completed in 1994. Almost four years later, in February 1998, the Review Panel released its report. The viewpoints of those who participated in the assessment process is archived in the thousands of pages of hearing testimony, meeting transcripts and written briefs. One of the most contentious issues raised, and one that continues to plague management in Canada, is the debate surrounding how the problem of NFW waste management should be defined. The purpose of this paper is to critically assess the problem frame of the Canadian NFW management disposal concept EIS. This will be accomplished through an analysis of stakeholder participation and views, and through an evaluation of the range and nature of the information considered legitimate or constrained in the Canadian process.

  9. Down Select Report of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials, Catalysts, and Spent Fuel Regeneration Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Kevin; Linehan, Sue; Lipiecki, Frank; Aardahl, Christopher L.

    2008-08-24

    The DOE Hydrogen Storage Program is focused on identifying and developing viable hydrogen storage systems for onboard vehicular applications. The program funds exploratory research directed at identifying new materials and concepts for storage of hydrogen having high gravimetric and volumetric capacities that have the potential to meet long term technical targets for onboard storage. Approaches currently being examined are reversible metal hydride storage materials, reversible hydrogen sorption systems, and chemical hydrogen storage systems. The latter approach concerns materials that release hydrogen in endothermic or exothermic chemical bond-breaking processes. To regenerate the spent fuels arising from hydrogen release from such materials, chemical processes must be employed. These chemical regeneration processes are envisioned to occur offboard the vehicle.

  10. Process Knowledge Summary Report for Materials and Fuels Complex Contact-Handled Transuranic Debris Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Grant; P. J. Crane; S. Butler; M. A. Henry

    2010-02-01

    This Process Knowledge Summary Report summarizes the information collected to satisfy the transportation and waste acceptance requirements for the transfer of transuranic (TRU) waste between the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) and the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP). The information collected includes documentation that addresses the requirements for AMWTP and the applicable portion of their Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permits for receipt and treatment of TRU debris waste in AMWTP. This report has been prepared for contact-handled TRU debris waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory at MFC. The TRU debris waste will be shipped to AMWTP for purposes of supercompaction. This Process Knowledge Summary Report includes information regarding, but not limited to, the generation process, the physical form, radiological characteristics, and chemical contaminants of the TRU debris waste, prohibited items, and packaging configuration. This report, along with the referenced supporting documents, will create a defensible and auditable record for waste originating from MFC.

  11. On Board Hydrogen Generation for Fuel Cell Powered Electric Cars. a Review of Various Available Techniques Production d'hydrogène embarquée pour véhicules électriques à piles. Aperçu de différentes techniques envisageables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prigent M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Various methods allowing onboard hydrogen generation for fuel cell powered electric cars are reviewed. The following primary fuels are considered : ammonia, methanol, ethanol, and hydrocarbons. The catalytic cracking of ammonia allows generation of a CO2-free mixture containing 75% hydrogen, which is consequently suitable without subsequent purification for the supply of alkaline fuel cells. The problems posed by this primary fuel are toxicity in the event of leaks and the risk of generating nitrogen oxides in the catalytic combustion of the cell effluent. Methanol, ethanol, and the liquid or gas hydrocarbons also allow the generation of hydrogen-rich mixes, either by catalytic steam reforming or by partial oxidation. The gas obtained in this way contains a large amount of CO2 and CO, however, and its use requires a prior purification treatment. Except for use in high-temperature cells, the CO concentration must be reduced to a very low level (a few ppm. The CO2, however, may be kept for the supply of acid electrolyte cells, although it must be eliminated for use with alkaline cells. All these methods are commonly used in industry, but the design of small fully automated facilities allowing fast frequent starting and stopping as well as continuous load variations without loss of performance or pollutant emissions is still a very delicate and uncertain matter. Différents procédés permettant la production embarquée d'hydrogène pour véhicules électriques à piles à combustible sont passés en revue. Les combustibles primaires suivants sont considérés : ammoniac, méthanol, éthanol et hydrocarbures. Le craquage catalytique de l'ammoniac permet l'obtention d'un mélange à 75 % d'hydrogène, exempt de CO2 et convenant donc sans purification ultérieure pour l'alimentation des piles alcalines. Avec ce combustible primaire, les problèmes sont la toxicité en cas de fuite et le risque de production d'oxydes d'azote lors de la combustion

  12. An experimental and numerical analysis of the HCCI auto-ignition process of primary reference fuels, toluene reference fuels and diesel fuel in an engine, varying the engine parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machrafi, Hatim; Cavadias, Simeon [UPMC Universite Paris 06, LGPPTS, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, 11, rue de Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); UPMC Universite Paris 06, Institut Jean Le Rond D' Alembert, 2, place de la Gare de Ceinture, 78210 St Cyr-I' Ecole (France); Gilbert, Philippe [UPMC Universite Paris 06, Institut Jean Le Rond D' Alembert, 2, place de la Gare de Ceinture, 78210 St Cyr-I' Ecole (France)

    2008-11-15

    For a future HCCI engine to operate under conditions that adhere to environmental restrictions, reducing fuel consumption and maintaining or increasing at the same time the engine efficiency, the choice of the fuel is crucial. For this purpose, this paper presents an auto-ignition investigation concerning the primary reference fuels, toluene reference fuels and diesel fuel, in order to study the effect of linear alkanes, branched alkanes and aromatics on the auto-ignition. The auto-ignition of these fuels has been studied at inlet temperatures from 25 to 120 C, at equivalence ratios from 0.18 to 0.53 and at compression ratios from 6 to 13.5, in order to extend the range of investigation and to assess the usability of these parameters to control the auto-ignition. It appeared that both iso-octane and toluene delayed the ignition with respect to n-heptane, while toluene has the strongest effect. This means that aromatics have higher inhibiting effects than branched alkanes. In an increasing order, the inlet temperature, equivalence ratio and compression ratio had a promoting effect on the ignition delays. A previously experimentally validated reduced surrogate mechanism, for mixtures of n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene, has been used to explain observations of the auto-ignition process. (author)

  13. Techno-economic analysis of fuel cell auxiliary power units as alternative to idling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Semant; Chen, Hsieh-Yeh; Schwank, Johannes

    This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of fuel-cell-based auxiliary power units (APUs), with emphasis on applications in the trucking industry and the military. The APU system is intended to reduce the need for discretionary idling of diesel engines or gas turbines. The analysis considers the options for on-board fuel processing of diesel and compares the two leading fuel cell contenders for automotive APU applications: proton exchange membrane fuel cell and solid oxide fuel cell. As options for on-board diesel reforming, partial oxidation and auto-thermal reforming are considered. Finally, using estimated and projected efficiency data, fuel consumption patterns, capital investment, and operating costs of fuel-cell APUs, an economic evaluation of diesel-based APUs is presented, with emphasis on break-even periods as a function of fuel cost, investment cost, idling time, and idling efficiency. The analysis shows that within the range of parameters studied, there are many conditions where deployment of an SOFC-based APU is economically viable. Our analysis indicates that at an APU system cost of 100 kW -1, the economic break-even period is within 1 year for almost the entire range of conditions. At 500 kW -1 investment cost, a 2-year break-even period is possible except for the lowest end of the fuel consumption range considered. However, if the APU investment cost is 3000 kW -1, break-even would only be possible at the highest fuel consumption scenarios. For Abram tanks, even at typical land delivered fuel costs, a 2-year break-even period is possible for APU investment costs as high as 1100 kW -1.

  14. Freeze-casting as a Novel Manufacturing Process for Fast Reactor Fuels. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegst, Ulrike G.K. [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States). Thayer School of Engineering; Allen, Todd [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Sridharan, Kumar [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-04-07

    Advanced burner reactors are designed to reduce the amount of long-lived radioactive isotopes that need to be disposed of as waste. The input feedstock for creating advanced fuel forms comes from either recycle of used light water reactor fuel or recycle of fuel from a fast burner reactor. Fuel for burner reactors requires novel fuel types based on new materials and designs that can achieve higher performance requirements (higher burn up, higher power, and greater margins to fuel melting) then yet achieved. One promising strategy to improved fuel performance is the manufacture of metal or ceramic scaffolds which are designed to allow for a well-defined placement of the fuel into the host, and this in a manner that permits greater control than that possible in the production of typical CERMET fuels.

  15. Monitoring biodegradation of diesel fuel in bioventing processes using in situ respiration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T H; Byun, I G; Kim, Y O; Hwang, I S; Park, T J

    2006-01-01

    An in situ measuring system of respiration rate was applied for monitoring biodegradation of diesel fuel in a bioventing process for bioremediation of diesel contaminated soil. Two laboratory-scale soil columns were packed with 5 kg of soil that was artificially contaminated by diesel fuel as final TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbon) concentration of 8,000 mg/kg soil. Nutrient was added to make a relative concentration of C:N:P = 100:10:1. One soil column was operated with continuous venting mode, and the other one with intermittent (6 h venting/6 h rest) venting mode. On-line O2 and CO2 gas measuring system was applied to measure O2 utilisation and CO2 production during biodegradation of diesel for 5 months. Biodegradation rate of TPH was calculated from respiration rate measured by the on-line gas measuring system. There were no apparent differences between calculated biodegradation rates from two columns with different venting modes. The variation of biodegradation rates corresponded well with trend of the remaining TPH concentrations comparing other biodegradation indicators, such as C17/pristane and C18/phytane ratio, dehydrogenase activity, and the ratio of hydrocarbon utilising bacteria to total heterotrophic bacteria. These results suggested that the on-line measuring system of respiration rate would be applied to monitoring biodegradation rate and to determine the potential applicability of bioventing process for bioremediation of oil contaminated soil.

  16. DOE Coal Gasification Multi-Test Facility: fossil fuel processing technical/professional services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hefferan, J.K.; Lee, G.Y.; Boesch, L.P.; James, R.B.; Rode, R.R.; Walters, A.B.

    1979-07-13

    A conceptual design, including process descriptions, heat and material balances, process flow diagrams, utility requirements, schedule, capital and operating cost estimate, and alternative design considerations, is presented for the DOE Coal Gasification Multi-Test Facility (GMTF). The GMTF, an engineering scale facility, is to provide a complete plant into which different types of gasifiers and conversion/synthesis equipment can be readily integrated for testing in an operational environment at relatively low cost. The design allows for operation of several gasifiers simultaneously at a total coal throughput of 2500 tons/day; individual gasifiers operate at up to 1200 tons/day and 600 psig using air or oxygen. Ten different test gasifiers can be in place at the facility, but only three can be operated at one time. The GMTF can produce a spectrum of saleable products, including low Btu, synthesis and pipeline gases, hydrogen (for fuel cells or hydrogasification), methanol, gasoline, diesel and fuel oils, organic chemicals, and electrical power (potentially). In 1979 dollars, the base facility requires a $288 million capital investment for common-use units, $193 million for four gasification units and four synthesis units, and $305 million for six years of operation. Critical reviews of detailed vendor designs are appended for a methanol synthesis unit, three entrained flow gasifiers, a fluidized bed gasifier, and a hydrogasifier/slag-bath gasifier.

  17. Adsorption Characteristics of Macroporous Resin for Oil Removal from Desulphurization Wastewater on Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tie; Chen, Chen; Jin, Qi; Zhao, Jiao; Tang, Xiaojia; Zhu, Yimin

    2017-01-01

    According to our previous results on the magnesium-based exhaust gas cleaning system (Mg-EGCS), PAHs and total oil content were the main factors affecting the COD in the wastewater. In this work, three kinds of adsorption materials were investigated and macroporous resin was selected for oil removal. The effects of the dosage of macroporous resin, adsorption time and the flow rate were studied, and thermodynamics equation was used to characterize the adsorption process. The results showed that macroporous resin is a good candidate for oil removal from desulphurization wastewater on board, and the COD after treatment can meet the discharge criteria set by the International Maritime Organization (IMO).

  18. Integrated non-food concept of rape seed, reed canary grass and flax processing for fiber, fuel oil and solid fuel; Energiarypsi - peltojen non-food vaihtoehtoja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1995-12-31

    The target of this project is to investigate if rape seed based fuel oil and diesel fuel component, agrofiber and solid fuel from other annual crops could be produced effectively as an alternative to existing non economical biodiesel-RME and ethanol production. Without heavy tax incentives the biodiesel and grain ethanol can not compete with conventional liquid fuels, the present EU fuel tax legislation will not permit any permanent tax incentives for commercial scale operations. Based on several studies by VTT the rape seed oil will be 30 % cheaper than RME and the utilization as a component 10-30 % blended to heating oil or diesel fuel might the most flexible solution. Neste Oy has carried out the combustion tests with 20 kW boiler and VTT the diesel engine tests with 20 % unprocessed rape seed oil mixtures, the oil was delivered by Mildola Oy. For the co-utilization of annual crops and straw, several laboratory scale combustion and flash pyrolysis tests have been carried out by VTT with straw, reed canary grass etc. In a flash pyrolysis process, the alkalies will remain in the char and a low alkali level bio oils can be produced. As a final step in order to reach the zero subsidy target, an extensive laboratory work is carried out to produce agrofibre from flax, reed canary grass and wheat straw. During the next months an overall economic calculations will be carried out in Finnish, Danish and Italian conditions as an EU-Apas project in order to see the competitiveness of such integrated concepts to conventional RME and reed canary grass combustion

  19. 40 CFR 85.2207 - On-board diagnostics test standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false On-board diagnostics test standards... Warranty Short Tests § 85.2207 On-board diagnostics test standards. (a) (b) A vehicle shall fail the on-board diagnostics test if it is a 1996 or newer vehicle and the vehicle connector is missing, has...

  20. 49 CFR 395.15 - Automatic on-board recording devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... certifying that the design of the automatic on-board recorder has been sufficiently tested to meet the... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic on-board recording devices. 395.15... OF SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.15 Automatic on-board recording devices. (a) Applicability and...

  1. Calibration strategies for the LAD instrument on-board LOFT

    CERN Document Server

    Pacciani, Luigi; Argan, Andrea; Barret, Didier; Bozzo, Enrico; Feroci, Marco; Fraser, George W; Herder, Jan-Willem den; Pohl, Martin; Schmid, Christian; Tenzer, Chris; Vacchi, Andrea; Walton, Dave; Zampa, Gianluigi; Zane, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The Scientific objectives of the LOFT mission, e.g., the study of the Neutron Star equation of state and of the Strong Gravity, require accurate energy, time and flux calibration for the 500k channels of the SDD detectors, as well as the knowledge of the detector dead-time and of the detector response with respect to the incident angle of the photons. We report here the evaluations made to asses the calibration issues for the LAD instrument. The strategies for both ground and on-board calibrations, including astrophysical observations, show that the goals are achievable within the current technologies.

  2. On-board image compression for the RAE lunar mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W. H.; Lynch, T. J.

    1976-01-01

    The requirements, design, implementation, and flight performance of an on-board image compression system for the lunar orbiting Radio Astronomy Explorer-2 (RAE-2) spacecraft are described. The image to be compressed is a panoramic camera view of the long radio astronomy antenna booms used for gravity-gradient stabilization of the spacecraft. A compression ratio of 32 to 1 is obtained by a combination of scan line skipping and adaptive run-length coding. The compressed imagery data are convolutionally encoded for error protection. This image compression system occupies about 1000 cu cm and consumes 0.4 W.

  3. The site selection process for a spent fuel repository in Finland. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, T. [EnvirosQuantiSci (United Kingdom); Aeikaes, T. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2000-12-01

    This Summary Report describes the Finnish programme for the selection and characterisation of potential sites for the deep disposal of spent nuclear fuel and explains the process by which Olkiluoto has been selected as the single site proposed for the development of a spent fuel disposal facility. Its aim is to provide an overview of this process, initiated almost twenty years ago, which has entered its final phase. It provides information in three areas: a review of the early site selection criteria, a description of the site selection process, including all the associated site characterisation work, up to the point at which a single site was selected and an outline of the proposed work, in particular that proposed underground, to characterise further the Olkiluoto site. In 1983 the Finnish Government made a policy decision on the management of nuclear waste in which the main goals and milestones for the site selection programme for the deep disposal of spent fuel were presented. According to this decision several site candidates, whose selection was to be based on careful studies of the whole country, should be characterised and the site for the repository selected by the end of the year 2000. This report describes the process by which this policy decision has been achieved. The report begins with a discussion of the definition of the geological and environmental site selection criteria and how they were applied in order to select a small number of sites, five in all, that were to be the subject of the preliminary investigations. The methods used to investigate these sites and the results of these investigations are described, as is the evaluation of the results of these investigations and the process used to discard two of the sites and continue more detailed investigations at the remaining three. The detailed site investigations that commenced in 1993 are described with respect to the overall strategy followed and the investigation techniques applied. The

  4. Electrocatalytic processing of renewable biomass-derived compounds for production of chemicals, fuels and electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Le

    The dual problems of sustaining the fast growth of human society and preserving the environment for future generations urge us to shift our focus from exploiting fossil oils to researching and developing more affordable, reliable and clean energy sources. Human beings had a long history that depended on meeting our energy demands with plant biomass, and the modern biorefinery technologies realize the effective conversion of biomass to production of transportation fuels, bulk and fine chemicals so to alleviate our reliance on fossil fuel resources of declining supply. With the aim of replacing as much non-renewable carbon from fossil oils with renewable carbon from biomass as possible, innovative R&D activities must strive to enhance the current biorefinery process and secure our energy future. Much of my Ph.D. research effort is centered on the study of electrocatalytic conversion of biomass-derived compounds to produce value-added chemicals, biofuels and electrical energy on model electrocatalysts in AEM/PEM-based continuous flow electrolysis cell and fuel cell reactors. High electricity generation performance was obtained when glycerol or crude glycerol was employed as fuels in AEMFCs. The study on selective electrocatalytic oxidation of glycerol shows an electrode potential-regulated product distribution where tartronate and mesoxalate can be selectively produced with electrode potential switch. This finding then led to the development of AEMFCs with selective production of valuable tartronate or mesoxalate with high selectivity and yield and cogeneration of electricity. Reaction mechanisms of electrocatalytic oxidation of ethylene glycol and 1,2-propanediol were further elucidated by means of an on-line sample collection technique and DFT modeling. Besides electro-oxidation of biorenewable alcohols to chemicals and electricity, electrocatalytic reduction of keto acids (e.g. levulinic acid) was also studied for upgrading biomass-based feedstock to biofuels while

  5. Impacts and implementation of fuel moisture release and radiation properties in modelling of pulverized fuel combustion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2015-01-01

    Pulverized fuels (PF) prepared and fired in utility boilers usually contain a certain amount of moisture, either free moisture or chemically bound moisture. In PF furnaces, radiation which is the principal mode of heat transfer consists of contribution from both gas and particle phase. This paper...... presents different methods for fuel moisture release and new models for gas and particle radiative properties, and demonstrates their implementation, importance and impacts in PF combustion modelling via a comprehensive CFD study of a pulverized coal-fired utility boiler. To conclude, it is recommended...... to add the free moisture into the primary air stream while lump the moisture retained in the feed after the mills with volatiles in PF combustion modelling. For gas and particle radiation in PF boilers, it is found that particle radiation largely overwhelms gas radiation due to high particle loading...

  6. DOE’s Alcohol Fuels Awards Process Resulted in Questionable Award Selections and Limited Small Business Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-21

    THE UNITED STATES PROCESS RESULTED IN UESTION- ABLE AWARD SELECTIONS AND LIMITED SMALL BUSINESS SUCCESS As part of its alternative fuels program, thle...intensive nature of alcohol fuels technology, and the larger number of high-quality small business proposals, DOE anticipated that small business success would...may . also want to closely monitor the success of small businesses. In the event that a desired level of small business success is not achieved, the

  7. Conceptual Process for the Manufacture of Low-Enriched Uranium/Molybdenum Fuel for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sease, J.D.; Primm, R.T. III; Miller, J.H.

    2007-09-30

    The U.S. nonproliferation policy 'to minimize, and to the extent possible, eliminate the use of HEU in civil nuclear programs throughout the world' has resulted in the conversion (or scheduled conversion) of many of the U.S. research reactors from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU). A foil fuel appears to offer the best option for using a LEU fuel in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) without degrading the performance of the reactor. The purpose of this document is to outline a proposed conceptual fabrication process flow sheet for a new, foil-type, 19.75%-enriched fuel for HFIR. The preparation of the flow sheet allows a better understanding of the costs of infrastructure modifications, operating costs, and implementation schedule issues associated with the fabrication of LEU fuel for HFIR. Preparation of a reference flow sheet is one of the first planning steps needed in the development of a new manufacturing capacity for low enriched fuels for U.S. research and test reactors. The flow sheet can be used to develop a work breakdown structure (WBS), a critical path schedule, and identify development needs. The reference flow sheet presented in this report is specifically for production of LEU foil fuel for the HFIR. The need for an overall reference flow sheet for production of fuel for all High Performance Research Reactors (HPRR) has been identified by the national program office. This report could provide a starting point for the development of such a reference flow sheet for a foil-based fuel for all HPRRs. The reference flow sheet presented is based on processes currently being developed by the national program for the LEU foil fuel when available, processes used historically in the manufacture of other nuclear fuels and materials, and processes used in other manufacturing industries producing a product configuration similar to the form required in manufacturing a foil fuel. The processes in the reference flow sheet are

  8. Cu-Ni-YSZ anodes for solid oxide fuel cell by mechanical alloying processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guisard Restivo, Thomaz A.; Mello-Castanho, Sonia R.H. [IPEN, Inst. of Energetic and Nuclear Research, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    The work shows some results concerning a new cermet material 40 vol.% [(Cu)-Ni]-YSZ processed by mechanical alloying followed by Sintering by Activated Surface method. The projected cermet microstructure for this application is expected to possess microstructural characteristics that lead to better electric and ionic percolating, higher electrocatalytic activity and fuel reforming. The powder samples prepared by mechanical alloying optimized conditions show a homogeneous mixture. Transmission and scanning electron microscope analysis have demonstrated the powder particles are nanosized after 2 h of milling, showing lamellar internal structure aggregates. Suitable sintered pellets are obtained from these powders, within the required porosity and microstructure. Sintering kinetics studies for pellets of Ni-YSZ and Ni-Cu-YSZ indicate 2-step sintering processes. Copper additive promotes sintering and refines the microstructure. (orig.)

  9. Comparative study of thermochemical processes for hydrogen production from biomass fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, Enrico; Masoni, Lorenzo; Tognotti, Leonardo

    2010-08-01

    Different thermochemical configurations (gasification, combustion, electrolysis and syngas separation) are studied for producing hydrogen from biomass fuels. The aim is to provide data for the production unit and the following optimization of the "hydrogen chain" (from energy source selection to hydrogen utilization) in the frame of the Italian project "Filiera Idrogeno". The project focuses on a regional scale (Tuscany, Italy), renewable energies and automotive hydrogen. Decentred and small production plants are required to solve the logistic problems of biomass supply and meet the limited hydrogen infrastructures. Different options (gasification with air, oxygen or steam/oxygen mixtures, combustion, electrolysis) and conditions (varying the ratios of biomass and gas input) are studied by developing process models with uniform hypothesis to compare the results. Results obtained in this work concern the operating parameters, process efficiencies, material and energetic needs and are fundamental to optimize the entire hydrogen chain.

  10. 12 years of Phobos observations by Omega and Spicam on board MEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondet, Brigitte; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Omega team, Spicam team

    2016-10-01

    Mars Express made several encounters with Phobos and a few with Deimos since 2004. Observations with SPICAM and OMEGA imaging spectrometers on board Mars Express covers the range from UV (110-312 nm) to visible and mid IR up to 5 µm. In the following we consider the ultraviolet (UV) channel of SPICAM and only the visible channel of OMEGA and its small UV extension down to 390 nm, in order to compare with SPICAM. Preliminary results were presented already in the past [1]. Since then, a more detailed analysis was carried out, subtracting some internally scattered light affecting the SPICAM UV retrieved reflectance.The combined spectrum of Radiance Factor from SPICAM and OMEGA suggests the presence of a deep absorption feature. Both instruments, taken separately, support also this absorption feature.In the visible part of CRISM [2] on board MRO and recently confirmed by Omega, one feature is centered at 0.65 µm, with an absorption depth varying from 0 to 4%, an other one is centered at 2.8µm. These two Visible IR features were interpreted [2] either to highly desiccated Fe-phyllosilicate minerals indigenous to the bodies, or to a surface process involving Rayleigh scattering and absorption of small iron particles formed by exogenic space weathering processing.In this rather uncertain situation, the UV band detected by SPICAM and OMEGA on board Mars Express is of great importance to attempt discriminating between the two scenarios proposed above to explain the Visible-IR reflectance spectra of Phobos.[1] Bertaux J.L. et al. (2011) EPSC/DPS conference abstract, Nantes, November 2011. [[2] Freaman A.A. et al. (2014) Icarus, 229 , 196–205.

  11. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant spent fuel and waste management technology development program plan: 1994 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until April 1992, the major activity of the ICPP was the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium and the management of the resulting high-level wastes (HLW). In 1992, DOE chose to discontinue reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery and shifted its focus toward the continued safe management and disposition of SNF and radioactive wastes accumulated through reprocessing activities. Currently, 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste), 3,800 cubic meters of calcine waste, and 289 metric tons heavy metal of SNF are in inventory at the ICPP. Disposal of SNF and high-level waste (HLW) is planned for a repository. Preparation of SNF, HLW, and other radioactive wastes for disposal may include mechanical, physical, and/or chemical processes. This plan outlines the program strategy of the ICPP spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF&WMTDP) to develop and demonstrate the technology required to ensure that SNF and radioactive waste will be properly stored and prepared for final disposal in accordance with regulatory drivers. This Plan presents a brief summary of each of the major elements of the SF&WMTDP; identifies key program assumptions and their bases; and outlines the key activities and decisions that must be completed to identify, develop, demonstrate, and implement a process(es) that will properly prepare the SNF and radioactive wastes stored at the ICPP for safe and efficient interim storage and final disposal.

  12. HTML 5 Displays for On-Board Flight Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Chandika

    2016-01-01

    During my Internship at NASA in the summer of 2016, I was assigned to a project which dealt with developing a web-server that would display telemetry and other system data using HTML 5, JavaScript, and CSS. By doing this, it would be possible to view the data across a variety of screen sizes, and establish a standard that could be used to simplify communication and software development between NASA and other countries. Utilizing a web- approach allowed us to add in more functionality, as well as make the displays more aesthetically pleasing for the users. When I was assigned to this project my main task was to first establish communication with the current display server. This display server would output data from the on-board systems in XML format. Once communication was established I was then asked to create a dynamic telemetry table web page that would update its header and change as new information came in. After this was completed, certain minor functionalities were added to the table such as a hide column and filter by system option. This was more for the purpose of making the table more useful for the users, as they can now filter and view relevant data. Finally my last task was to create a graphical system display for all the systems on the space craft. This was by far the most challenging part of my internship as finding a JavaScript library that was both free and contained useful functions to assist me in my task was difficult. In the end I was able to use the JointJs library and accomplish the task. With the help of my mentor and the HIVE lab team, we were able to establish stable communication with the display server. We also succeeded in creating a fully dynamic telemetry table and in developing a graphical system display for the advanced modular power system. Working in JSC for this internship has taught me a lot about coding in JavaScript and HTML 5. I was also introduced to the concept of developing software as a team, and exposed to the different

  13. Modeling and energy management control design for a fuel cell hybrid passenger bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Kyle; Guezennec, Yann; Onori, Simona

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and supervisory energy management design of a hybrid fuel cell/battery-powered passenger bus. With growing concerns about petroleum usage and greenhouse gas emissions in the transportation sector, finding alternative methods for vehicle propulsion is necessary. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems are viable possibilities for energy converters due to their high efficiencies and zero emissions. It has been shown that the benefits of PEM fuel cell systems can be greatly improved through hybridization. In this work, the challenge of developing an on-board energy management strategy with near-optimal performance is addressed by a two-step process. First, an optimal control based on Pontryagin's Minimum Principle (PMP) is implemented to find the global optimal solution which minimizes fuel consumption, for different drive cycles, with and without grade. The optimal solutions are analyzed in order to aid in development of a practical controller suitable for on-board implementation, in the form of an Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) regulator. Simulation results show that the ARMA controller is capable of achieving fuel economy within 3% of the PMP controller while being able to limit the transient demand on the fuel cell system.

  14. Anodic Fenton process assisted by a microbial fuel cell for enhanced degradation of organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian-Wei; Sun, Xue-Fei; Li, Dao-Bo; Li, Wen-Wei; Huang, Yu-Xi; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Yu, Han-Qing

    2012-09-15

    The electro-Fenton process is efficient for degradation of organic pollutants, but it suffers from the high operating costs due to the need of power investment. Here, a new anodic Fenton system is developed for energy-saving and efficient treatment of organic pollutants by incorporating microbial fuel cell (MFC) into an anodic Fenton process. This system is composed of an anodic Fenton reactor and a two-chamber air-cathode MFC. The power generated from a two-chamber MFC is used to drive the anodic Fenton process for Acid Orange 7 (AO7) degradation through accelerating in situ generation of Fe(2+) from sacrificial iron. The kinetic results show that the MFC-assisted anodic Fenton process system had a significantly higher pseudo-first-order rate constant than those for the chemical Fenton methods. The electrochemical analysis reveals that AO7 did not hinder the corrosion of iron. The anodic Fenton process was influenced by the MFC performance. It was also found that increasing dissolved oxygen in the cathode improved the MFC power density, which in turn enhanced the AO7 degradation rate. These clearly demonstrate that the anodic Fenton process could be integrated with MFC to develop a self-sustained system for cost-effective and energy-saving electrochemical wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Combustion Characteristics of Chlorine-Free Solid Fuel Produced from Municipal Solid Waste by Hydrothermal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Yoshikawa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study on converting municipal solid waste (MSW into chlorine-free solid fuel using a combination of hydrothermal processing and water-washing has been performed. After the product was extracted from the reactor, water-washing experiments were then conducted to obtain chlorine-free products with less than 3000 ppm total chlorine content. A series of combustion experiments were then performed for the products before and after the washing process to determine the chlorine content in the exhaust gas and those left in the ash after the combustion process at a certain temperature. A series of thermogravimetric analyses were also conducted to compare the combustion characteristics of the products before and after the washing process. Due to the loss of ash and some volatile matter after washing process, there were increases in the fixed carbon content and the heating value of the product. Considering the possible chlorine emission, the washing process after the hydrothermal treatment should be necessary only if the furnace temperature is more than 800 °C.

  16. Production of synthetic fuels using syngas from a steam hydrogasification and reforming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Arun Satheesh Kumar

    from carbonaceous feedstocks. Experimental work on the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis has also been performed. A life cycle analysis has been performed with the objective of comparing the life cycle energy consumption and emissions of synthetic diesel fuel produced through the CE-CERT process with other fuel/vehicle combinations. The experimental and simulation results presented here demonstrate that the CE-CERT process is versatile and can potentially handle a number of different feedstocks. CE-CERT process appears to be suitable for commercialization in very large scales with a coal feedstock and also in a distributed network of smaller scale reactors utilizing localized renewable feedstocks.

  17. On-board aircrew dosimetry using a semiconductor spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Spurny, F

    2002-01-01

    Radiation fields on board aircraft contain particles with energies up to a few hundred MeV. Many instruments have been tested to characterise these fields. This paper presents the results of studies on the use of an Si diode spectrometer to characterise these fields. The spectrometer has been in use since spring 2000 on more than 130 return flights to monitor and characterise the on-board field. During a Czech Airlines flight from Prague to New York it was possible to register the effects of an intense solar flare, (ground level event, GLE 60), which occurred on 15 April 2001. It was found that the number of deposition events registered was increased by about 70% and the dose in Si by a factor of 2.0 when compared with the presence of galactic cosmic rays alone. Directly measured data are interpreted with respect to on-earth reference field calibration (photons, CERN high-energy particles); it was found that this approach leads to encouraging results and should be followed up. (7 refs).

  18. On-Orbit Performance of MODIS On-Board Calibrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, X.; Che, N.; Chiang, K.; Esposito, J.; Barnes, William; Guenther, B.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Terra MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) was launched on December 18, 1999 and acquired the first scene data on February 24, 2000. It has 36 spectral bands covering spectral range from 0.41 to 14.2 microns and provides spatial resolutions of 250 (2 bands), 500 (5 bands), and 1000 m at Nadir. The instrument on-orbit calibration and characterization are determined and monitored through the use of a number of on-board calibrators (OBC). Radiometric calibration for the reflective solar bands (B1-B19, B26), from VIS (visible) to SWIR (short wavelength infrared) (0.41 to 2.1 microns), uses a Spectralon (tm) solar diffuser (SD) and a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). For the thermal emissive bands (B20-B25, B27-B36), from MWIR (medium wavelength infrared) to LWIR (long wavelength infrared) (3.75 to 14.2 micron), a V-grooved flat panel blackbody is used. The instrument spectral for the VIS to SWIR bands and spatial co-registration characterizations for all bands are monitored on-orbit by the spectral radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). In this report, we discuss the application and performance of the key MODIS on-board calibrators and their impacts on the instrument system calibration and characterization.

  19. The SXI telescope on board EXIST: scientific performances

    CERN Document Server

    Natalucci, L; Campana, S; Caraveo, P; Della Ceca, R; Grindlay, J E; Panessa, F; Pareschi, G; Ramsey, B; Tagliaferri, G; Ubertini, P; Villa, G

    2009-01-01

    The SXI telescope is one of the three instruments on board EXIST, a multiwavelength observatory in charge of performing a global survey of the sky in hard X-rays searching for Supermassive Black Holes. One of the primary objectives of EXIST is also to study with unprecedented sensitivity the most unknown high energy sources in the Universe, like high redshift GRBs, which will be pointed promptly by the Spacecraft by autonomous trigger based on hard X-ray localization on board. The recent addition of a soft X-ray telescope to the EXIST payload complement, with an effective area of ~950 cm2 in the energy band 0.2-3 keV and extended response up to 10 keV will allow to make broadband studies from 0.1 to 600 keV. In particular, investigations of the spectra components and states of AGNs and monitoring of variability of sources, study of the prompt and afterglow emission of GRBs since the early phases, which will help to constrain the emission models and finally, help the identification of sources in the EXIST hard...

  20. The Soft X-ray Imager on board EXIST

    CERN Document Server

    Natalucci, L; Panessa, F; Ubertini, P; Tagliaferri, G; Della Ceca, R; Ghisellini, G; Pareschi, G; Villa, G; Caraveo, P; Fiorini, M; Uslenghi, M; Grindlay, J E; Ramsey, B

    2010-01-01

    The Soft X-ray Imager (SXI) is one of the three instruments on board EXIST, a multi-wavelength observatory in charge of performing a global survey of the sky in hard X-rays searching for Super-massive Black Holes (Grindlay & Natalucci, these Proceedings). One of the primary objectives of EXIST is also to study with unprecedented sensitivity the most unknown high energy sources in the Universe, like high redshift GRBs, which will be pointed promptly by the Spacecraft by autonomous trigger based on hard X-ray localization on board. The presence of a soft X-ray telescope with an effective area of about 950cm2 in the energy band 0.2-3 keV and extended response up to 10 keV will allow to make broadband studies from 0.1 to 600 keV. In particular, investigations of the spectra components and states of AGNs and monitoring of variability of sources, study of the prompt and afterglow emission of GRBs since the early phases, which will help to constrain the emission models and finally, help the identification of sou...

  1. Modeling and Simulation Reliable Spacecraft On-Board Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nohpill

    1999-01-01

    The proposed project will investigate modeling and simulation-driven testing and fault tolerance schemes for Spacecraft On-Board Computing, thereby achieving reliable spacecraft telecommunication. A spacecraft communication system has inherent capabilities of providing multipoint and broadcast transmission, connectivity between any two distant nodes within a wide-area coverage, quick network configuration /reconfiguration, rapid allocation of space segment capacity, and distance-insensitive cost. To realize the capabilities above mentioned, both the size and cost of the ground-station terminals have to be reduced by using reliable, high-throughput, fast and cost-effective on-board computing system which has been known to be a critical contributor to the overall performance of space mission deployment. Controlled vulnerability of mission data (measured in sensitivity), improved performance (measured in throughput and delay) and fault tolerance (measured in reliability) are some of the most important features of these systems. The system should be thoroughly tested and diagnosed before employing a fault tolerance into the system. Testing and fault tolerance strategies should be driven by accurate performance models (i.e. throughput, delay, reliability and sensitivity) to find an optimal solution in terms of reliability and cost. The modeling and simulation tools will be integrated with a system architecture module, a testing module and a module for fault tolerance all of which interacting through a centered graphical user interface.

  2. Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas Derived Ulta-clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells Budget Period 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.T. Robinson; John Sirman; Prasad Apte; Xingun Gui; Tytus R. Bulicz; Dan Corgard; Siv Aasland; Kjersti Kleveland; Ann Hooper; Leo Bonnell; John Hemmings; Jack Chen; Bart A. Van Hassel

    2004-12-31

    This topical report summarizes work accomplished for the Program from January 1, 2003 through December 31,2004 in the following task areas: Task 1--Materials Development; Task 2--Composite Development; Task 4--Reactor Design and Process Optimization; Task 8--Fuels and Engine Testing; 8.1 International Diesel Engine Program; and Task IO: Program Management. Most of the key technical objectives for this budget period were achieved. Only partial success was achieved relative to cycle testing under pressure Major improvements in material performance and element reliability have been achieved. A breakthrough material system has driven the development of a compact planar reactor design capable of producing either hydrogen or syngas. The planar reactor shows significant advantages in thermal efficiency and costs compared to either steam methane reforming with CO{sub 2} recovery or autothermal reforming. The fuel and engine testing program is complete The single cylinder test engine evaluation of UCTF fuels begun in Budget Period 2 was finished this budget period. In addition, a study to evaluate new fuel formulations for an HCCl engine was completed.

  3. Initial evaluation of dry storage issues for spent nuclear fuels in wet storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, R J; Johnson, Jr, A B; Lund, A L; Gilbert, E R [and others

    1996-07-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has evaluated the basis for moving selected spent nuclear fuels in the CPP-603 and CPP-666 storage pools at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from wet to dry interim storage. This work is being conducted for the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company as part of the effort to determine appropriate conditioning and dry storage requirements for these fuels. These spent fuels are from 22 test reactors and include elements clad with aluminum or stainless steel and a wide variety of fuel materials: UAl{sub x}, UAl{sub x}-Al and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al cermets, U-5% fissium, UMo, UZrH{sub x}, UErZrH, UO{sub 2}-stainless steel cermet, and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-stainless steel cermet. The study also included declad uranium-zirconium hydride spent fuel stored in the CPP-603 storage pools. The current condition and potential failure mechanisms for these spent fuels were evaluated to determine the impact on conditioning and dry storage requirements. Initial recommendations for conditioning and dry storage requirements are made based on the potential degradation mechanisms and their impacts on moving the spent fuel from wet to dry storage. Areas needing further evaluation are identified.

  4. Comparative Study of Laboratory-Scale and Prototypic Production-Scale Fuel Fabrication Processes and Product Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas W. Marshall

    2014-10-01

    An objective of the High Temperature Gas Reactor fuel development and qualification program for the United States Department of Energy has been to qualify fuel fabricated in prototypic production-scale equipment. The quality and characteristics of the tristructural isotropic coatings on fuel kernels are influenced by the equipment scale and processing parameters. Some characteristics affecting product quality were suppressed while others have become more significant in the larger equipment. Changes to the composition and method of producing resinated graphite matrix material has eliminated the use of hazardous, flammable liquids and enabled it to be procured as a vendor-supplied feed stock. A new method of overcoating TRISO particles with the resinated graphite matrix eliminates the use of hazardous, flammable liquids, produces highly spherical particles with a narrow size distribution, and attains product yields in excess of 99%. Compact fabrication processes have been scaled-up and automated with relatively minor changes to compact quality to manual laboratory-scale processes. The impact on statistical variability of the processes and the products as equipment was scaled are discussed. The prototypic production-scale processes produce test fuels that meet fuel quality specifications.

  5. 327 SNF fuel return to K-Basin quality process plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, J.E.

    1998-09-22

    The B and W Hanford Company`s (BWHC) 327 Facility, in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, contains Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) single fuel element canisters (SFEC) and fuel remnant canisters (FRC) which are to be returned to K-Basin. Seven shipments of up to six fuel canisters will be loaded into the CNS 1-13G Cask and transported to 105-KE.

  6. Low grade bioethanol for fuel mixing on gasoline engine using distillation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abikusna, Setia; Sugiarto, Bambang; Suntoro, Dedi; Azami

    2017-03-01

    Utilization of renewable energy in Indonesia is still low, compared to 34% oil, 20% coal and 20% gas, utilization of energy sources for water 3%, geothermal 1%, 2% biofuels, and biomass 20%. Whereas renewable energy sources dwindling due to the increasing consumption of gasoline as a fuel. It makes us have to look for alternative renewable energy, one of which is bio ethanol. Several studies on the use of ethanol was done to the researchers. Our studies using low grade bio ethanol which begins with the disitillation independently utilize flue gas heat at compact distillator, produces high grade bio ethanol and ready to be mixed with gasoline. Stages of our study is the compact distillator design of the motor dynamic continued with good performance and emission testing and ethanol distilled. Some improvement is made is through the flue gas heat control mechanism in compact distillator using gate valve, at low, medium, and high speed engine. Compact distillator used is kind of a batch distillation column. Column design process using the shortcut method, then carried the tray design to determine the overall geometry. The distillation is done by comparing the separator with a tray of different distances. As well as by varying the volume of the feed and ethanol levels that will feed distilled. In this study, we analyzed the mixing of ethanol through variation between main jet and pilot jet in the carburetor separately interchangeably with gasoline. And finally mixing mechanism bio ethanol with gasoline improved with fuel mixer for performance.

  7. Carbon to electricity in a solid oxide fuel cell combined with an internal catalytic gasification process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Konsolakis; G. E. Marnellos; A. Al-Musa; N. Kaklidis; I. Garagounis; V. Kyriakou

    2015-01-01

    This study explores strategies to develop highly efficient direct carbon fuel cells (DCFCs) by com‐bining a solid‐oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a catalyst‐aided carbon‐gasification process. This system employs Cu/CeO2 composites as both anodic electrodes and carbon additives in a cell of the type:carbon|Cu‐CeO2/YSZ/Ag|air. The study investigates the impact on in situ carbon‐gasification and DCFC performance characteristics of catalyst addition and variation in the carrier gas used (inert He versus reactive CO2). The results indicate that cell performance is significantly improved by infusing the catalyst into the carbon feedstock and by employing CO2 as the carrier gas. At 800 °C, the maxi‐mum power output is enhanced by approximately 40% and 230% for carbon/CO2 and car‐bon/catalyst/CO2 systems, respectively, compared with that of the carbon/He configuration. The increase observed when employing the catalyst and CO2 as the carrier gas can be primarily at‐tributed to the pronounced effect of the catalyst on carbon‐gasification through the re‐verse‐Boudouard reaction, and the subsequent in situ electro‐oxidation of CO at the anode three‐phase boundary.

  8. Waste plastics as supplemental fuel in the blast furnace process: improving combustion efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongsu; Shin, Sunghye; Sohn, Seungman; Choi, Jinshik; Ban, Bongchan

    2002-10-14

    The possibility of using waste plastics as a source of secondary fuel in a blast furnace has been of recent interest. The success of this process, however, will be critically dependent upon the optimization of operating systems. For instance, the supply of waste plastics must be reliable as well as economically attractive compared with conventional secondary fuels such as heavy oil, natural gas and pulverized coal. In this work, we put special importance on the improvement of the combustibility of waste plastics as a way to enhance energy efficiency in a blast furnace. As experimental variables to approach this target, the effects of plastic particle size, blast temperature, and the level of oxygen enrichment were investigated using a custom-made blast model designed to simulate a real furnace. Lastly, the combustion efficiency of the mixture of waste plastics and pulverized coal was tested. The observations made from these experiments led us to the conclusion that with the increase of both blast temperature and the level of oxygen enrichment, and with a decrease in particle size, the combustibility of waste polyethylene could be improved at a given distance from the tuyere. Also it was found that the efficiency of coal combustion decreased with the addition of plastics; however, the combustion efficiency of mixture could be comparable at a longer distance from the tuyere.

  9. Bioelectricity generation using two chamber microbial fuel cell treating wastewater from food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoorian, Hossein Jafari; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Jafari, Ahmad Jonidi; Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Rajabizadeh, Ahmad; Khanjani, Narges

    2013-05-10

    Electricity generation from microbial fuel cells which treat food processing wastewater was investigated in this study. Anaerobic anode and aerobic cathode chambers were separated by a proton exchange membrane in a two-compartment MFC reactor. Buffer solutions and food industry wastewater were used as electrolytes in the anode and cathode chambers, respectively. The produced voltage and current intensity were measured using a digital multimeter. Effluents from the anode compartment were tested for COD, BOD5, NH3, P, TSS, VSS, SO4 and alkalinity. The maximum current density and power production were measured 527mA/m(2) and 230mW/m(2) in the anode area, respectively, at operation organic loading (OLR) of 0.364g COD/l.d. At OLR of 0.182g COD/l.d, maximum voltage and columbic efficiency production were recorded 0.475V and 21%, respectively. Maximum removal efficiency of COD, BOD5, NH3, P, TSS, VSS, SO4 and alkalinity were 86, 79, 73, 18, 68, 62, 30 and 58%, respectively. The results indicated that catalysts and mediator-less microbial fuel cells (CAML-MFC) can be considered as a better choice for simple and complete energy conversion from the wastewater of such industries and also this could be considered as a new method to offset wastewater treatment plant operating costs.

  10. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (Phb) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Mohagheghi, Ali; Mittal, Ashutosh; Pilath, Heidi; Johnson, David K.

    2015-03-22

    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. In recent years a great effort has been made in bacterial production of PHB, yet the production cost of the polymer is still much higher than conventional petrochemical plastics. The high cost of PHB is because the cost of the substrates can account for as much as half of the total product cost in large scale fermentation. Thus searching for cheaper and better substrates is very necessary for PHB production. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB by Cupriavidus necator from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified hydrolysate slurry from pretreated corn stover. Good cell growth was observed on slurry saccharified with advanced enzymes and 40~60% of PHB was accumulated in the cells. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by pretreatment and saccharification of biomass, will be discussed.

  11. Overall Energy Considerations for Algae Species Comparison and Selection in Algae-to-Fuels Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, D.; Kail, B.; Curtis, W.; Tuerk,A.

    2011-01-01

    species in the same photobioreactor system should be similar at light limited growth conditions based on photon flux. It is how the algae 'allocate' this energy captured that will vary: Data will be presented that shows that Botryococcus invests greater energy in oil production than Chlorella under these growth conditions. In essence, the Chlorella can grow 'fast and lean' or can be slowed to grow 'slow and fat'. The overall energy potential between the Chlorella and Botryococcus, then, becomes much more equivalent on a per-photon basis. This work will indicate an interesting relationship between two very different algae species, in terms of growth rate, lipid content and composition, and energy efficiency of the overall process. The presentation will indicate that in light-limited growth, it cannot be assumed that either rapid growth rate or lipid production rate can be used as stand-alone indicators of which species-lipid relationships will truly be more effective in algae-to-fuels scenarios.

  12. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Features, events and processes 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    Features, Events and Processes sits within Posiva Oy's Safety Case 'TURVA-2012' portfolio and has the objective of presenting the main features, events and processes (FEPs) that are considered to be potentially significant for the long-term safety of the planned KBS-3V repository for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. The primary purpose of this report is to support Performance Assessment, Formulation of Radionuclide Release Scenarios, Assessment of the Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System and Biosphere Assessment by ensuring that the scenarios are comprehensive and take account of all significant FEPs. The main FEPs potentially affecting the disposal system are described for each relevant subsystem component or barrier (i.e. the spent nuclear fuel, the canister, the buffer and tunnel backfill, the auxiliary components, the geosphere and the surface environment). In addition, a small number of external FEPs that may potentially influence the evolution of the disposal system are described. The conceptual understanding and operation of each FEP is described, together with the main features (variables) of the disposal system that may affect its occurrence or significance. Olkiluoto-specific issues are considered when relevant. The main uncertainties (conceptual and parameter/data) associated with each FEP that may affect understanding are also documented. Indicative parameter values are provided, in some cases, to illustrate the magnitude or rate of a process, but it is not the intention of this report to provide the complete set of numerical values that are used in the quantitative safety assessment calculations. Many of the FEPs are interdependent and, therefore, the descriptions also identify the most important direct couplings between the FEPs. This information is used in the formulation of scenarios to ensure the conceptual models and calculational cases are both comprehensive and representative. (orig.)

  13. Estimation of the Waste Mass from a Pyro-Process of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Soo; Choi, Jong Won; Choi, Heui Joo (and others)

    2008-04-15

    Pyro-Process is now developing to retrieve reusable uranium and TRU, and to reduce the volume of high level waste from a nuclear power plant. In this situation, it is strongly required for the estimation of expected masses and their physical properties of the wastes. In this report, the amount of wastes and their physical properties are presupposed through some assumptions in regard to 10MTHM of Oxide Fuel with 4.5wt% U-235, 45,000 MWD/MTU, and 5yrs cooling. The produced wastes can be divided into three categories such as metal, CWF(Ceramic Waste Form), and VWF(Vitrified Waste Form). The 42 nuclrides in a spent nuclear fuel are distributed into the waste categories on the their physical and thermodynamic properties when they exist in metal, oxide, or chloride forms. The treated atomic groups are Uranium, TRU, Noble metal, Rare earth, Alkali metal, Halogens, and others. The mass of each waste is estimated by the distribution results. The off-gas waste is included into a CWF. The heat generations by the wastes in this Pyro-Process are calculated using a ORIGEN-ARP program. It is possible to estimate the amounts of wastes and their heat generation rates in this Pyro-Process analysis. These information are very helpful to design a waste container and its quantity also can be determined. The number of container and its heat generation rate will be key factor for the construction of interim storage facilities including a underground disposal site.

  14. Basic research on separation control of long life nuclides in fuel reprocessing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki; Usami, Go [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Maeda, Mitsuru; Fujine, Sachio; Uchiyama, Gunzo; Kihara, Takehiro; Asakura, Toshihide; Hotoku, Shinobu

    1996-01-01

    The behavior of technetium (Tc) in nuclear fuel reprocessing processes has become the subject to be elucidated in the transition to distribution process by coextraction and the catalytic action in distribution process. In order to forecast or control the behavior of Tc in reprocessing processes, it is necessary to understand that at which valence Tc exists stably in respective processes. Tc is stable at 7 valence in nitric acid solution expected in reprocessing. In this research, the reaction speed of the oxidation and reduction reactions of rhenium (Re) which simulates Tc was measured by laser Raman spectroscopy which can do high speed analysis of valence. The experimental method is explained. The Raman spectra of Re in the experimental system of this research were measured in perchloric acid solution and nitric acid solution, and compared with the values in literatures. As the result, the validity of this research was assured. It was confirmed that Re(7) was not reduced by sulfamic acid and ascorbic acid. Re(7) was reduced by thiocyanic acid once, but was oxidized again by the reaction of thiocyanic acid and nitric acid. (K.I.)

  15. Fuel cell hybrid drive train test facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bruinsma; Edwin Tazelaar; Bram Veenhuizen; I. Zafina; H. Bosma

    2009-01-01

    Fuel cells are expected to play an important role in the near future as prime energy source on board of road-going vehicles. In order to be able to test all important functional aspects of a fuel cell hybrid drive train, the Automotive Institute of the HAN University has decided to realize a

  16. Fuel cell hybrid drive train test facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bruinsma; Edwin Tazelaar; Bram Veenhuizen; I. Zafina; H. Bosma

    2009-01-01

    Fuel cells are expected to play an important role in the near future as prime energy source on board of road-going vehicles. In order to be able to test all important functional aspects of a fuel cell hybrid drive train, the Automotive Institute of the HAN University has decided to realize a station

  17. Specifications: Laboratory hot press process for {open_quotes}C{close_quotes}size I & E fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tverberg, J.C.

    1959-09-25

    Hot press canning of internally and externally cooled fuel elements has been developed to a point where the process is feasible. Complete specifications have been written for the process covering component, dies and punches, furnace construction, nickel plating, component cleaning, component assembly, sizing, hot pressing and inspection. Drawings covering each major item are included.

  18. CO{sub 2} separation by calcium looping from full and partial fuel oxidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivalingam, Senthoorselvan

    2013-06-05

    This thesis work deals with the research and development of calcium looping process for CO{sub 2} separation from full and partial fuel oxidation based power generation systems. CO{sub 2} is the main greenhouse gas and undoubtedly a major contributor to the global warming. It is estimated that more than one third of the total anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions come from fossil fuel based heat and power generation. Moreover, fossil fuels are unlikely to be phased out rapidly, since developing alternative energy sources not only take time but also require huge investments and infrastructure. An alternative way to reduce emissions in a medium term is to capture the CO{sub 2} from fossil fueled power plants and store it away from the atmosphere. This process system combining a bunch of technologies is called carbon capture and storage (CCS). CO{sub 2} capture is an important and costly part of CCS and an array of technologies is considered for this. Calcium looping (CaL) is one of such and seems to offer effective and efficient CO{sub 2} separation from fuel oxidation processes. CaL process involves separation of CO{sub 2} at high temperatures (600-700 C) by calcium sorbents (CaO). CO{sub 2} reacts with CaO in a carbonation process and produces CaCO{sub 3}. In a subsequent thermal regeneration (>850 C) called calcination, the CO{sub 2} is released from CaCO{sub 3}. By alternating carbonations and calcinations over multiple cycles, CO{sub 2} is separated from a gas stream. Moreover, the CaL is realised in industrial scale with dual fluidised bed reactors for CO{sub 2} capture (the carbonator) and sorbent regeneration (the calciner). As a process in the development, research is still required in many aspects from thermodynamic modeling to experimental studies. Research works have been carried out in process simulations, sorbent reactivity and optimisation studies in a controlled reactor environment and process parametric studies in a semi-pilot scale CaL test facility

  19. Single-mode glass waveguide technology for optical interchip communication on board level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusberg, Lars; Neitz, Marcel; Schröder, Henning

    2012-01-01

    The large bandwidth demand in long-distance telecom networks lead to single-mode fiber interconnects as result of low dispersion, low loss and dense wavelength multiplexing possibilities. In contrast, multi-mode interconnects are suitable for much shorter lengths up to 300 meters and are promising for optical links between racks and on board level. Active optical cables based on multi-mode fiber links are at the market and research in multi-mode waveguide integration on board level is still going on. Compared to multi-mode, a single-mode waveguide has much more integration potential because of core diameters of around 20% of a multi-mode waveguide by a much larger bandwidth. But light coupling in single-mode waveguides is much more challenging because of lower coupling tolerances. Together with the silicon photonics technology, a single-mode waveguide technology on board-level will be the straight forward development goal for chip-to-chip optical interconnects integration. Such a hybrid packaging platform providing 3D optical single-mode links bridges the gap between novel photonic integrated circuits and the glass fiber based long-distance telecom networks. Following we introduce our 3D photonic packaging approach based on thin glass substrates with planar integrated optical single-mode waveguides for fiber-to-chip and chip-to-chip interconnects. This novel packaging approach merges micro-system packaging and glass integrated optics. It consists of a thin glass substrate with planar integrated singlemode waveguide circuits, optical mirrors and lenses providing an integration platform for photonic IC assembly and optical fiber interconnect. Thin glass is commercially available in panel and wafer formats and characterizes excellent optical and high-frequency properties. That makes it perfect for microsystem packaging. The paper presents recent results in single-mode waveguide technology on wafer level and waveguide characterization. Furthermore the integration in a

  20. CFBC evaluation of fuels processed from Illinois coals. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--November 10, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan, S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The fuels studied in this project are (a) three flotation slurry fuels beneficiated from coal fines at various stages of the cleaning process and (b) coal-sorbent pellets made from the flotation concentrate of the same beneficiation process using corn starch as binder, (c) a run-of-mine Illinois No. 5 coal. Combustion data such as SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} emissions, combustion efficiency and ash mineral matter analyses from the slurry and pellet fuels are compared with similar parameters from the reference coal burnt under similar conditions of bed temperature and fluidization velocity. The combustion tests performed in a 4 in. internal diameter CFBC showed that the combustion efficiency of the slurry fuels and the pellets were quite comparable with that of the standard coal in the range of 91--98%. Sulfur dioxide emissions in lbs per million Btu from the slurry fuels were low enough to satisfy EPA emissions requirements with Ca/S ratios of 1.5 or less. Oxides of nitrogen emissions were generally on the order of 0.3 lbs per million Btu from the slurry fuels under the conditions of the present tests, while that from the pellets were between 0.6 to 0.75 lbs per million Btu depending on bed temperature.

  1. Converting oil shale to liquid fuels: energy inputs and greenhouse gas emissions of the Shell in situ conversion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Adam R

    2008-10-01

    Oil shale is a sedimentary rock that contains kerogen, a fossil organic material. Kerogen can be heated to produce oil and gas (retorted). This has traditionally been a CO2-intensive process. In this paper, the Shell in situ conversion process (ICP), which is a novel method of retorting oil shale in place, is analyzed. The ICP utilizes electricity to heat the underground shale over a period of 2 years. Hydrocarbons are produced using conventional oil production techniques, leaving shale oil coke within the formation. The energy inputs and outputs from the ICP, as applied to oil shales of the Green River formation, are modeled. Using these energy inputs, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the ICP are calculated and are compared to emissions from conventional petroleum. Energy outputs (as refined liquid fuel) are 1.2-1.6 times greater than the total primary energy inputs to the process. In the absence of capturing CO2 generated from electricity produced to fuel the process, well-to-pump GHG emissions are in the range of 30.6-37.1 grams of carbon equivalent per megajoule of liquid fuel produced. These full-fuel-cycle emissions are 21%-47% larger than those from conventionally produced petroleum-based fuels.

  2. Status of the nuclear measurement stations for the process control of spent fuel reprocessing at AREVA NC/La Hague

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eleon, Cyrille; Passard, Christian; Hupont, Nicolas; Estre, Nicolas [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Battel, Benjamin; Doumerc, Philippe; Dupuy, Thierry; Batifol, Marc [AREVA NC, La Hague plant - Nuclear Measurement Team, F-50444 Beaumont-Hague (France); Grassi, Gabriele [AREVA NC, 1 place Jean-Millier, 92084 Paris-La-Defense cedex (France)

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear measurements are used at AREVA NC/La Hague for the monitoring of spent fuel reprocessing. The process control is based on gamma-ray spectroscopy, passive neutron counting and active neutron interrogation, and gamma transmission measurements. The main objectives are criticality and safety, online process monitoring, and the determination of the residual fissile mass and activities in the metallic waste remained after fuel shearing and dissolution (empty hulls, grids, end pieces), which are put in radioactive waste drums before compaction. The whole monitoring system is composed of eight measurement stations which will be described in this paper. The main measurement stations no. 1, 3 and 7 are needed for criticality control. Before fuel element shearing for dissolution, station no. 1 allows determining the burn-up of the irradiated fuel by gamma-ray spectroscopy with HP Ge (high purity germanium) detectors. The burn-up is correlated to the {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs gamma emission rates. The fuel maximal mass which can be loaded in one bucket of the dissolver is estimated from the lowest burn-up fraction of the fuel element. Station no. 3 is dedicated to the control of the correct fuel dissolution, which is performed with a {sup 137}Cs gamma ray measurement with a HP Ge detector. Station no. 7 allows estimating the residual fissile mass in the drums filled with the metallic residues, especially in the hulls, from passive neutron counting (spontaneous fission and alpha-n reactions) and active interrogation (fission prompt neutrons induced by a pulsed neutron generator) with proportional {sup 3}He detectors. The measurement stations have been validated for the reprocessing of Uranium Oxide (UOX) fuels with a burn-up rate up to 60 GWd/t. This paper presents a brief overview of the current status of the nuclear measurement stations. (authors)

  3. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel - regulatory system and roles of different actors during the decision process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-03-15

    In November 2006 Swedish Nuclear Fuels Co. applied for a license to build a plant for encapsulation of spent nuclear fuels at Oskarshamn, Sweden. The company also have plans to apply, in 2009, for a license to construct a underground repository for spent nuclear fuels. KASAM arranged a seminar in November 2006 in order to describe and discuss the licensing rules and regulations and the roles of different parties in the decision making. Another objective of the seminar was to point out possible ambiguities in this process. Another interesting question under discussion was in what ways the basic data for the decision should be produced. The seminar covered the part of the process beginning with the application for a license and ending with the government approval/rejection of the application. Most time was spent on the legal aspects of the process

  4. Experimental research subject and renovation of chemical processing facility (CPF) for advanced fast reactor fuel reprocessing technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Tomozo; Shinozaki, Tadahiro; Nomura, Kazunori; Koma, Yoshikazu; Miyachi, Shigehiko; Ichige, Yoshiaki; Kobayashi, Tsuguyuki; Nemoto, Shin-ichi [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    In order to enhance economical efficiency, environmental impact and nuclear nonproliferation resistance, the Advanced Reprocessing Technology, such as simplification and optimization of process, and applicability evaluation of the innovative technology that was not adopted up to now, has been developed for the reprocessing of the irradiated fuel taken out from a fast reactor. Renovation of the hot cell interior equipments, establishment and updating of glove boxes, installation of various analytical equipments, etc. in the Chemical Processing Facility (CPF) was done to utilize the CPF more positivity which is the center of the experimental field, where actual fuel can be used, for research and development towards establishment of the Advanced Reprocessing Technology development. The hot trials using the irradiated fuel pins of the experimental fast reactor 'JOYO' for studies on improved aqueous reprocessing technology, MA separation technology, dry process technology, etc. are scheduled to be carried out with these new equipments. (author)

  5. Press fluid pre-treatment optimisation of the integrated generation of solid fuel and biogas from biomass (IFBB) process approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corton, John; Toop, Trisha; Walker, Jonathan; Donnison, Iain S; Fraser, Mariecia D

    2014-10-01

    The integrated generation of solid fuel and biogas from biomass (IFBB) system is an innovative approach to maximising energy conversion from low input high diversity (LIHD) biomass. In this system water pre-treated and ensiled LIHD biomass is pressed. The press fluid is anaerobically digested to produce methane that is used to power the process. The fibrous fraction is densified and then sold as a combustion fuel. Two process options designed to concentrate the press fluid were assessed to ascertain their influence on productivity in an IFBB like system: sedimentation and the omission of pre-treatment water. By concentrating press fluid and not adding water during processing, energy production from methane was increased by 75% per unit time and solid fuel productivity increased by 80% per unit of fluid produced. The additional energy requirements for pressing more biomass in order to generate equal volumes of feedstock were accounted for in these calculations.

  6. Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Wenbin

    2015-02-05

    This report documents the work performed by General Motors (GM) under the Cooperative agreement No. DE-EE0000470, “Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance,” in collaboration with the Penn State University (PSU), University of Tennessee Knoxville (UTK), Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), and University of Rochester (UR) via subcontracts. The overall objectives of the project are to investigate and synthesize fundamental understanding of transport phenomena at both the macro- and micro-scales for the development of a down-the-channel model that accounts for all transport domains in a broad operating space. GM as a prime contractor focused on cell level experiments and modeling, and the Universities as subcontractors worked toward fundamental understanding of each component and associated interface.

  7. Quantitative spray analysis of diesel fuel and its emulsions using digital image processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faik Ahmad Muneer El-Deen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an experimental investigation of spray atomization of different liquids has been carried out. An air-assist atomizer operating at low injection pressures valued (4 and 6 bar has been used to generate sprays of (diesel fuel, 5, 10, and 15% water-emulsified-diesel, respectively. A Photron-SA4 high speed camera has been used for spray imaging at 2000 fps. 20 time intervals (from 5 to 100 ms with 5 ms time difference are selected for analysis and comparison. Spray macroscopic characteristics (spray penetration, dispersion, cone angle, axial and dispersion velocities have been extracted by a proposed technique based on image processing using Matlab, where the maximum and minimum (horizontal and vertical boundaries of the spray are detected, from which the macroscopic spray characteristics are evaluated. The maximum error of this technique is (1.5% for diesel spray and a little bit higher for its emulsions.

  8. Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Wenbin [General Motors LLC, Pontiac, MI (United States)

    2014-08-29

    This report documents the work performed by General Motors (GM) under the Cooperative agreement No. DE-EE0000470, “Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance,” in collaboration with the Penn State University (PSU), University of Tennessee Knoxville (UTK), Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), and University of Rochester (UR) via subcontracts. The overall objectives of the project are to investigate and synthesize fundamental understanding of transport phenomena at both the macro- and micro-scales for the development of a down-the-channel model that accounts for all transport domains in a broad operating space. GM as a prime contractor focused on cell level experiments and modeling, and the Universities as subcontractors worked toward fundamental understanding of each component and associated interface.

  9. Radiolytic and Thermal Processes Relevant to Dry Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Theodore E. Madey

    2001-10-01

    Characterize the effects of temperature and radiation processes on the interactions of H20 with oxide surfaces. Our experiments focused on the fundamental interaction of H20 molecules with surfaces of U02. We characterized the surface chemistry of adsorbed H2O using thermal desorption methods and radiotracer methods, as well as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and low energy ion scattering (LEIS). In parallel with these measurements of thermal effects, we examined the effects of secondary electrons and high-energy photons on hydrogen and oxygen generation and, and how this related to corrosion of spent nuclear fuel. These studies concentrated on neutral and ionic (cation and anion) desorption products of low-energy electron irradiation of water-covered UO2.

  10. Biocatalytic production of biodiesel from cottonseed oil: Standardization of process parameters and comparison of fuel characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, Soham; Karemore, Ankush; Das, Sancharini; Sen, Ramkrishna [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Deysarkar, Asoke [PfP Technology LLC., 14227 Fern, Houston, TX 77079 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    The enzymatic production of biodiesel by transesterification of cottonseed oil was studied using low cost crude pancreatic lipase as catalyst in a batch system. The effects of the critical process parameters including water percentage, methanol:oil ratio, enzyme concentration, buffer pH and reaction temperature were determined. Maximum conversion of 75-80% was achieved after 4 h at 37 C, pH 7.0 and with 1:15 M ratio of oil to methanol, 0.5% (wt of oil) enzyme and water concentration of 5% (wt of oil). Various organic solvents were tested among which a partially polar solvent (t-butanol) was found to be suitable for the reaction. The major fuel characteristics like specific gravity, kinematic viscosity, flash point and calorific value of the 20:80 blends (B20) of the fatty acid methyl esters with petroleum diesel conformed very closely to those of American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) standards. (author)

  11. Production of small uranium dioxide microspheres for cermet nuclear fuel using the internal gelation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Robert T [ORNL; Collins, Jack Lee [ORNL; Hunt, Rodney Dale [ORNL; Ladd-Lively, Jennifer L [ORNL; Patton, Kaara K [ORNL; Hickman, Robert [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a uranium dioxide (UO2)/tungsten cermet fuel for potential use as the nuclear cryogenic propulsion stage (NCPS). The first generation NCPS is expected to be made from dense UO2 microspheres with diameters between 75 and 150 m. Previously, the internal gelation process and a hood-scale apparatus with a vibrating nozzle were used to form gel spheres, which became UO2 kernels with diameters between 350 and 850 m. For the NASA spheres, the vibrating nozzle was replaced with a custom designed, two-fluid nozzle to produce gel spheres in the desired smaller size range. This paper describes the operational methodology used to make 3 kg of uranium oxide microspheres.

  12. Aerodynamic Study on Supersonic Flows in High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel Thermal Spray Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroshi KATANODA; Takeshi MATSUOKA; Seiji KURODA; Jin KAWAKITA; Hirotaka FUKANUMA; Kazuyasu MATSUO

    2005-01-01

    @@ To clarify the characteristics of gas flow in high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray gun, aerodynamic research is performed using a special gun. The gun has rectangular cross-sectional area and sidewalls of optical glass to visualize the internal flow. The gun consists of a supersonic nozzle with the design Mach number of 2.0 followed by a straight passage called barrel. Compressed dry air up to 0.78 MPa is used as a process gas instead of combustion gas which is used in a commercial HVOF gun. The high-speed gas flows with shock waves in the gun and jets are visualized by schlieren technique. Complicated internal and external flow-fields containing various types of shock wave as well as expansion wave are visualized.

  13. Microbial fuel cell based biosensor for in situ monitoring of anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhidan; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Songping; Xing, Xin-Hui; Su, Zhiguo

    2011-11-01

    A wall-jet microbial fuel cell (MFC) was developed for the monitoring of anaerobic digestion (AD). This biofilm based MFC biosensor had a character of being portable, short hydraulic retention time (HRT) for sample flow through and convenient for continuous operation. The MFC was installed in the recirculation loop of an upflow anaerobic fixed-bed (UAFB) reactor in bench-scale where pH of the fermentation broth and biogas flow were monitored in real time. External disturbances to the AD were added on purpose by changing feedstock concentration, as well as process configuration. MFC signals had good correlations with online measurements (i.e. pH, gas flow rate) and offline analysis (i.e. COD) over 6-month operation. These results suggest that the MFC signal can reflect the dynamic variation of AD and can potentially be a valuable tool for monitoring and control of bioprocess.

  14. Development of Head-end Pyrochemical Reduction Process for Advanced Oxide Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, B. H.; Seo, C. S.; Hur, J. M.; Jeong, S. M.; Hong, S. S.; Choi, I. K.; Choung, W. M.; Kwon, K. C.; Lee, I. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    The development of an electrolytic reduction technology for spent fuels in the form of oxide is of essence to introduce LWR SFs to a pyroprocessing. In this research, the technology was investigated to scale a reactor up, the electrochemical behaviors of FPs were studied to understand the process and a reaction rate data by using U{sub 3}O{sub 8} was obtained with a bench scale reactor. In a scale of 20 kgHM/batch reactor, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and Simfuel were successfully reduced into metals. Electrochemical characteristics of LiBr, LiI and Li{sub 2}Se were measured in a bench scale reactor and an electrolytic reduction cell was modeled by a computational tool.

  15. Surface characterization of adsorbents in ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization process of fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemadi, Omid; Yen, Teh Fu

    2007-09-01

    Surface properties of two different phases of alumina were studied through SEM images. Characterization of amorphous acidic alumina and crystalline boehmite by XRD explains the differences in adsorption capacities of each sample. Data from small angle neutron scattering (SANS) provide further results regarding the ordering in amorphous and crystalline samples of alumina. Quantitative measurements from SANS are used for pore size calculations. Higher disorder provides more topological traps, irregularities, and hidden grooves for higher adsorption capacity. An isotherm model was derived for adsorption of dibenzothiophene sulfone (DBTO) by amorphous acidic alumina to predict and calculate the adsorption of sulfur compounds. The Langmuir-Freundlich model covers a wide range of sulfur concentrations. Experiments prove that amorphous acidic alumina is the adsorbent of choice for selective adsorption in the ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAOD) process to produce ultra-low-sulfur fuel (ULSF).

  16. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dombek, B.D.

    1996-03-01

    The primary objective of this project has been the pursuit of a catalyst system which would allow the selective production from syngas of methanol and isobutanol. It is desirable to develop a process in which the methanol to isobutanol weight ratio could be varied from 70/30 to 30/70. The 70/30 mixture could be used directly as a fuel additive, while, with the appropriate downstream processing, the 30/70 mixture could be utilized for methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) synthesis. The indirect manufacture of MTBE from a coal derived syngas to methanol and isobutanol process would appear to be a viable solution to MTBE feedstock limitations. To become economically attractive, a process fro producing oxygenates from coal-derived syngas must form these products with high selectivity and good rates, and must be capable of operating with a low-hydrogen-content syngas. This was to be accomplished through extensions of known catalyst systems and by the rational design of novel catalyst systems.

  17. Producing fuel alcohol by extractive distillation: Simulating the process with glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Uyazán

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Downstream separation processes in biotechnology form part of the stages having most impact on a product’s final cost. The tendency throughout the world today is to replace fossil fuels with those having a renewable origin such as ethanol; this, in turn, produces a demand for the same and the need for optimising fermentation, treating vinazas and dehydration processes. The present work approaches the problem of dehydration through simulating azeotropic ethanol extractive distillation using glycerol as separation agent. Simulations were done on an Aspen Plus process simulator (Aspen Tech version 11.1. The simulated process involves two distillation columns, a dehydrator and a glycerol recuperation column. Simulation restrictions were ethanol’s molar composition in dehydrator column distillate and the process’s energy consumption. The effect of molar reflux ratio, solvent-feed ratio, solvent entry and feed stage and solvent entry temperature were evaluated on the chosen restrictions. The results showed that the ethanol-water mixture dehydration with glycerol as separation agent is efficient from the energy point of view.

  18. Waste management in the meat processing industry: Conversion of paunch and DAF sludge into solid fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamawand, Ihsan; Pittaway, Pam; Lewis, Larry; Chakrabarty, Sayan; Caldwell, Justin; Eberhard, Jochen; Chakraborty, Arpita

    2017-02-01

    This article addresses the novel dewatering process of immersion-frying of paunch and dissolved air flotation (DAF) sludge to produce high energy pellets. Literature have been analysed to address the feasibility of replacing conventional boiler fuel at meat processing facilities with high energy paunch-DAF sludge pellets (capsules). The value proposition of pelleting and frying this mixture into energy pellets is based on a Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA). The CBA is based on information derived from the literature and consultation with the Australian Meat Processing Industry. The calorific properties of a mixture of paunch cake solids and DAF sludge were predicted from literature and industry consultation to validate the product. This study shows that the concept of pelletizing and frying paunch is economically feasible. The complete frying and dewatering of the paunch and DAF sludge mixture produces pellets with energy content per kilogram equivalent to coal. The estimated cost of this new product is half the price of coal and the payback period is estimated to be between 1.8 and 3.2years. Further research is required for proof of concept, and to identify the technical challenges associated with integrating this technology into existing meat processing plants. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Process for producing biodiesel, lubricants, and fuel and lubricant additives in a critical fluid medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Fox, Robert V.

    2005-05-03

    A process for producing alkyl esters useful in biofuels and lubricants by transesterifying glyceride- or esterifying free fatty acid-containing substances in a single critical phase medium is disclosed. The critical phase medium provides increased reaction rates, decreases the loss of catalyst or catalyst activity and improves the overall yield of desired product. The process involves the steps of dissolving an input glyceride- or free fatty acid-containing substance with an alcohol or water into a critical fluid medium; reacting the glyceride- or free fatty acid-containing substance with the alcohol or water input over either a solid or liquid acidic or basic catalyst and sequentially separating the products from each other and from the critical fluid medium, which critical fluid medium can then be recycled back in the process. The process significantly reduces the cost of producing additives or alternatives to automotive fuels and lubricants utilizing inexpensive glyceride- or free fatty acid-containing substances, such as animal fats, vegetable oils, rendered fats, and restaurant grease.

  20. Modeling of Rocket Fuel Heating and Cooling Processes in the Interior Receptacle Space of Ground-Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Denisova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The propellant to fill the fuel tanks of the spacecraft, upper stages, and space rockets on technical and ground-based launch sites before fueling should be prepared to ensure many of its parameters, including temperature, in appropriate condition. Preparation of fuel temperature is arranged through heating and cooling the rocket propellants (RP in the tanks of fueling equipment. Processes of RP temperature preparation are the most energy-intensive and timeconsuming ones, which require that a choice of sustainable technologies and modes of cooling (heating RP provided by the ground-based equipment has been made through modeling of the RP [1] temperature preparation processes at the stage of design and operation of the groundbased fueling equipment.The RP temperature preparation in the tanks of the ground-based systems can be provided through the heat-exchangers built-in the internal space and being external with respect to the tank in which antifreeze, air or liquid nitrogen may be used as the heat transfer media. The papers [1-12], which note a promising use of the liquid nitrogen to cool PR, present schematic diagrams and modeling systems for the RP temperature preparation in the fueling equipment of the ground-based systems.We consider the RP temperature preparation using heat exchangers to be placed directly in RP tanks. Feeding the liquid nitrogen into heat exchanger with the antifreeze provides the cooling mode of PR while a heated air fed there does that of heating. The paper gives the systems of equations and results of modeling the processes of RP temperature preparation, and its estimated efficiency.The systems of equations of cooling and heating RP are derived on the assumption that the heat exchange between the fuel and the antifreeze, as well as between the storage tank and the environment is quasi-stationary.The paper presents calculation results of the fuel temperature in the tank, and coolant temperature in the heat exchanger, as

  1. Status of UHECR detector KLYPVE on-board the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimov, Pavel; Garipov, Gali; Khrenov, Boris; Yashin, Ivan; Panasyuk, Mikhail; Tkachev, Leonid; Sharakin, Sergey; Zotov, Mikhail; Churilo, Igor; Markov, Alexander

    A preliminary project of the KLYPVE detector of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) on board the International Space Station (ISS) was developed in Lomonosov Moscow State University Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics in cooperation with RSC “Energia”. The main scientific aims of the mission are measurements of the primary particles energy spectrum, their arrival directions and a search for large and small scale anisotropy (including point sources) in the energy region above the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cut-off. Various types of optical systems, photo detectors, mechanical structures and multiple issues related to transportation and accommodation on the Russian Segment of the ISS were considered. Recent development of KLYPVE is made in close cooperation with the JEM-EUSO collaboration in order to improve the detector parameters such as field of view, angular and energy resolution, energy threshold. Current status of the project is presented in the report.

  2. TSP-Based Generic Payload On-Board Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arberet, P.; Metge, J.-J.; Gras, O.; Crespo, A.

    2009-05-01

    The paper address the contect and rationale for deciding to develop a TSP-based solution for payload on-board software, highly generic and reusable, project named LVCUGEN. Then it describes the key design issues and the associated architectual achievements obtained at the end of development phase of LVCUGEN. It provides some inputs on the way to instantiate the developed framework in the scope of deployment of the solution on a target-project. Last, the paper presents the status of the project and the forthcoming activities, also open issues, still to be performed. Some perspectives are provided in particular the selection of the first space program targeted for deployment of the solution.

  3. Novel satellite transport protocol with on-board spoofing proxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jiong; Cao Zhigang; Wang Jinglin

    2006-01-01

    As a result of the exponential growing rate of worldwide Internet usage, satellite systems are required to support broadband Internet applications. The transmission control protocol (TCP) which is widely used in the Internet, performs very well on wired networks. However, in the case of satellite channels, due to the delay and transmission errors, TCP performance degrades significantly and bandwidth of satellite links can not be fully utilized. To improve the TCP performance, a new idea of placing a TCP spoofing proxy in the satellite is considered. A Novel Satellite Transport Protocol (NSTP) which takes advantage of the special properties of the satellite channel is also proposed. By using simulation, as compared with traditional TCPs, the on-board spoofing proxy integrated with the special transport protocol can significantly enhance throughput performance on the high BER satellite link, the time needed to transfer files and the bandwidth used in reverse path are sharply reduced.

  4. DAMPE silicon tracker on-board data compression algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Yifan; Qiao, Rui; Peng, Wenxi; Fan, Ruirui; Gong, Ke; Wu, Di; Wang, Huanyu

    2015-01-01

    The Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is an upcoming scientific satellite mission for high energy gamma-ray, electron and cosmic rays detection. The silicon tracker (STK) is a sub detector of the DAMPE payload with an excellent position resolution (readout pitch of 242um), which measures the incident direction of particles, as well as charge. The STK consists 12 layers of Silicon Micro-strip Detector (SMD), equivalent to a total silicon area of 6.5m$^2$. The total readout channels of the STK are 73728, which leads to a huge amount of raw data to be dealt. In this paper, we focus on the on-board data compression algorithm and procedure in the STK, which was initially verified by cosmic-ray measurements.

  5. Why so few Women on Boards of Directors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Nina; Parrotta, Pierpaolo

    2015-01-01

    hypotheses on female board representation that we denote the female-led hypothesis, the tokenism hypothesis, and the pipeline hypothesis, respectively. We find evidence rejecting the female-led hypothesis. Firms with a female chairperson on the board of directors tend to have significantly fewer other...... nonemployee-elected female board members. We also find clear evidence of a tokenism behavior in Danish companies. The likelihood of enlarging the share of non-employee-elected female board members is significantly smaller if one, two, or more women have sat on the board of directors. Finally, the pipeline......This paper analyzes the determinants of women’s representation on boards of directors based on a panel of all privately owned or listed Danish firms with at least 50 employees observed during the period 1998–2010. We focus on the directors who are not elected by the employees and test three...

  6. Cosmic Rays Induced Background Radiation on Board of Commercial Flights

    CERN Document Server

    Pinilla, S; Núñez, L A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the total integrated flux of cosmic radiation which a commercial aircraft is exposed to along specific flight trajectories. To study the radiation background during a flight and its modulation by effects such as altitude, latitude, exposure time and transient magnetospheric events, we perform simulations based on Magnetocosmics and CORSIKA codes, the former designed to calculate the geomagnetic effects on cosmic rays propagation and the latter allows us to simulate the development of extended air showers in the atmosphere. In this first work, by considering the total flux of cosmic rays from 5 GeV to 1 PeV, we obtained the expected integrated flux of secondary particles on board of a commercial airplane during the Bogot\\'a-Buenos Aires trip by point-to-point numerical integration.

  7. Neutral atmosphere composition from SOIR measurements on board Venus Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahieux, A.; Drummond, R.; Wilquet, V.; Vandaele, A. C.; Federova, A.; Belyaev, D.; Korablev, O.; Villard, E.; Montmessin, F.; Bertaux, J.-L.

    2009-04-01

    The SOIR instrument performs solar occultation measurements in the IR region (2.2 - 4.3 m) at a resolution of 0.12 cm-1, the highest on board Venus Express. It combines an echelle spectrometer and an AOTF (Acousto-Optical Tunable Filter) for the order selection [1,2]. The wavelength range probed by SOIR allows a detailed chemical inventory of the Venus atmosphere above the cloud layer with an emphasis on vertical distribution of the gases. Measurements of HDO, H2O, HCl, HF, CO and CO2 vertical profiles have been routinely performed, as well as those of their isotopologues [3,4]. We will discuss the improvements introduced in the analysis algorithm of the SOIR spectra. This discussion will be illustrated by presenting new results of retrievals of minor constituents of the Venus mesosphere, in terms of vertical profiles and geographical distribution. CO2 is the major constituent of the Venus atmosphere and was therefore observed in many solar occultations, leading to a good geographical coverage, although limited by the geometry of the orbit. Depending on the abundance of the absorbing isotopologue and on the intensity of the band measured, we will show that the SOIR instrument is able to furnish CO2 vertical profiles ranging typically from 65 to 150 km, reaching in some conditions 185 km altitude. This information is important in the frame of compiling, in collaboration with other teams, a new Venus Atmosphere Model. 1. A. Mahieux, S. Berkenbosch, R. Clairquin, D. Fussen, N. Mateshvili, E. Neefs, D. Nevejans, B. Ristic, A. C. Vandaele, V. Wilquet, D. Belyaev, A. Fedorova, O. Korablev, E. Villard, F. Montmessin and J.-L. Bertaux, "In-Flight performance and calibration of SPICAV SOIR on board Venus Express", Applied Optics 47 (13), 2252-65 (2008). 2. D. Nevejans, E. Neefs, E. Van Ransbeeck, S. Berkenbosch, R. Clairquin, L. De Vos, W. Moelans, S. Glorieux, A. Baeke, O. Korablev, I. Vinogradov, Y. Kalinnikov, B. Bach, J.-P. Dubois and E. Villard, "Compact high

  8. Advanced on-board electric vehicle charger. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-31

    The design and development of an on-board charger power module for use in electric vehicles is described. The module operates at 20KHz in a series resonant, half bridge configuration. Circuit design trade-offs, module performance, and solutions to the problems of acoustic noise, maintaining high power factor, circuit protection and operating reliability are discussed. The power module operates from a single phase, 240 V, 50/60 Hz utility line. Average power factor is 0.90; efficiency at maximum power output is 86%. The module is rated to charge a bank consisting of 20 Exide EV-106 batteries (60 cells) to an end voltage of 2.42 V/cell. Physically, the module weighs less than 17 Kg. Projected manufacturing cost at the thousand unit level is $394.00 (1978 dollars).

  9. Effects of fuel processing methods on industrial scale biogas-fuelled solid oxide fuel cell system for operating in wastewater treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhad, Siamak; Yoo, Yeong; Hamdullahpur, Feridun

    The performance of three solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems, fuelled by biogas produced through anaerobic digestion (AD) process, for heat and electricity generation in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is studied. Each system has a different fuel processing method to prevent carbon deposition over the anode catalyst under biogas fuelling. Anode gas recirculation (AGR), steam reforming (SR), and partial oxidation (POX) are the methods employed in systems I-III, respectively. A planar SOFC stack used in these systems is based on the anode-supported cells with Ni-YSZ anode, YSZ electrolyte and YSZ-LSM cathode, operated at 800 °C. A computer code has been developed for the simulation of the planar SOFC in cell, stack and system levels and applied for the performance prediction of the SOFC systems. The key operational parameters affecting the performance of the SOFC systems are identified. The effect of these parameters on the electrical and CHP efficiencies, the generated electricity and heat, the total exergy destruction, and the number of cells in SOFC stack of the systems are studied. The results show that among the SOFC systems investigated in this study, the AGR and SR fuel processor-based systems with electrical efficiency of 45.1% and 43%, respectively, are suitable to be applied in WWTPs. If the entire biogas produced in a WWTP is used in the AGR or SR fuel processor-based SOFC system, the electricity and heat required to operate the WWTP can be completely self-supplied and the extra electricity generated can be sold to the electrical grid.

  10. Challenge of lightning detection with LAC on board Akatsuki spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yukihiro; Sato, Mitsutero; Imai, Masataka; Yair, Yoav; Fischer, Georg; Aplin, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Even after extensive investigations with spacecraft and ground-based observations, there is still no consensus on the existence of lightning in Venus. It has been reported that the magnetometer on board Venus Express detected whistler mode waves whose source could be lightning discharge occurring well below the spacecraft. On the other hand, with an infrared sensor, VIRTIS of Venus Express, does not show the positive indication of lightning flashes. In order to identify the optical flashes caused by electrical discharge in the atmosphere of Venus, at least, with an optical intensity of 1/10 of the average lightning in the Earth, we built a high-speed optical detector, LAC (Lightning and Airglow Camera), on board Akatsuki spacecraft. The unique performance of the LAC compared to other instruments is the high-speed sampling rate at 32 us interval for all 32 pixels, enabling us to distinguish the optical lightning flash from other pulsing noises. Though, unfortunately, the first attempt of the insertion of Akatsuki into the orbit around Venus failed in December 2010, the second one carried out in December 7 in 2015 was quite successful. We checked out the condition of the LAC on January 5, 2016, and it is healthy as in 2010. Due to some elongated orbit than that planned originally, we have umbra for ~30 min to observe the lightning flash in the night side of Venus every ~10 days, starting on April 2016. Here we would report the instrumental status of LAC and the preliminary results of the first attempt to observe optical lightning emissions.

  11. MicroCameras and Photometers (MCP) on board TARANIS satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farges, Thomas; Blanc, Elisabeth; Hébert, Philippe; Le Mer-Dachard, Fanny; Ravel, Karen; Gaillac, Stéphanie

    2017-04-01

    TARANIS (Tool for the Analysis of Radiations from lightNings and Sprites) is a CNES micro satellite. Its main objective is to study impulsive transfers of energy between the Earth atmosphere and the space environment. It will be sun-synchronous at an altitude of 700 km. It will be launched from end-2018 for at least 2 years. Its payload is composed of several electromagnetic instruments in different wavelengths (from gamma-rays to radio waves including optical). TARANIS instruments are currently in calibration and qualification phase. The purpose of this poster is to present the MicroCameras and Photometers (MCP) scientific objectives and the sensor design, to show the performances of this instrument using the recent characterization, and at last to promote its products. The MicroCameras, developed by Sodern, are dedicated to the spatial description of TLEs and their parent lightning. They are able to differentiate sprite and lightning thanks to two narrow bands ([757-767 nm] and [772-782 nm]) that provide simultaneous pairs of images of an Event. Simulation results of the differentiation method will be shown. After calibration and tests, the MicroCameras are now delivered to CNES for integration on the payload. The Photometers, developed by Bertin Technologies, will provide temporal measurements and spectral characteristics of TLEs and lightning. There are key instrument because of their capability to detect on-board TLEs and then switch all the instruments of the scientific payload in their high resolution acquisition mode. Photometers use four spectral bands in the [170-260 nm], [332-342 nm], [757-767 nm] and [600-900 nm] and have the same field of view as cameras. The on-board TLE detection algorithm remote-controlled parameters have been tuned before launch using the electronic board and simulated or real events waveforms. The Photometers are now in the calibration and test phase. They will be delivered for integration in mid-2017.

  12. Corporate sponsored education initiatives on board the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Ian T.; Durham, Alyson S.; Pawelczyk, James A.; Brod, Lawrence B.; Durham, Thomas F.

    1999-01-01

    This paper proposes the creation of a corporate sponsored ``Lecture from Space'' program on board the International Space Station (ISS) with funding coming from a host of new technology and marketing spin-offs. This program would meld existing education initiatives in NASA with new corporate marketing techniques. Astronauts in residence on board the ISS would conduct short ten to fifteen minute live presentations and/or conduct interactive discussions carried out by a teacher in the classroom. This concept is similar to a program already carried out during the Neurolab mission on Shuttle flight STS-90. Building on that concept, the interactive simulcasts would be broadcast over the Internet and linked directly to computers and televisions in classrooms worldwide. In addition to the live broadcasts, educational programs and demonstrations can be recorded in space, and marketed and sold for inclusion in television programs, computer software, and other forms of media. Programs can be distributed directly into classrooms as an additional presentation supplement, as well as over the Internet or through cable and broadcast television, similar to the Canadian Discovery Channel's broadcasts of the Neurolab mission. Successful marketing and advertisement can eventually lead to the creation of an entirely new, privately run cottage industry involving the distribution and sale of educationally related material associated with the ISS that would have the potential to become truly global in scope. By targeting areas of expertise and research interest in microgravity, a large curriculum could be developed using space exploration as a unifying theme. Expansion of this concept could enhance objectives already initiated through the International Space University to include elementary and secondary school students. The ultimate goal would be to stimulate interest in space and space related sciences in today's youth through creative educational marketing initiatives while at the

  13. Fine Astrocyte Processes Contain Very Small Mitochondria: Glial Oxidative Capability May Fuel Transmitter Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouiche, Amin; Haseleu, Julia; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2015-12-01

    The peripheral astrocyte process (PAP) is the glial compartment largely handling inactivation of transmitter glutamate, and supplying glutamate to the axon terminal. It is not clear how these energy demanding processes are fueled, and whether the PAP exhibits oxidative capability. Whereas the GFAP-positive perinuclear cytoplasm and stem process are rich in mitochondria, the PAP is often considered too narrow to contain mitochondria and might thus not rely on oxidative metabolism. Applying high resolution light microscopy, we investigate here the presence of mitochondria in the PAPs of freshly dissociated, isolated astrocytes. We provide an overview of the subcellular distribution and the approximate size of astrocytic mitochondria. A substantial proportion of the astrocyte's mitochondria are contained in the PAPs and, on the average, they are smaller there than in the stem processes. The majority of mitochondria in the stem and peripheral processes are surprisingly small (0.2-0.4 µm), spherical and not elongate, or tubular, which is supported by electron microscopy. The density of mitochondria is two to several times lower in the PAPs than in the stem processes. Thus, PAPs do not constitute a mitochondria free glial compartment but contain mitochondria in large numbers. No juxtaposition of mitochondria-containing PAPs and glutamatergic synapses has been reported. However, the issue of sufficient ATP concentrations in perisynaptic PAPs can be seen in the light of (1) the rapid, activity dependent PAP motility, and (2) the recently reported activity-dependent mitochondrial transport and immobilization leading to spatial, subcellular organisation of glutamate uptake and oxidative metabolism.

  14. Application of exhaust gas fuel reforming in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines fuelled with biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsolakis, A. [School of Engineering, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Megaritis, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, West London, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Yap, D. [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 638075 (Singapore)

    2008-03-15

    This paper documents the application of exhaust gas fuel reforming of two alternative fuels, biodiesel and bioethanol, in internal combustion engines. The exhaust gas fuel reforming process is a method of on-board production of hydrogen-rich gas by catalytic reaction of fuel and engine exhaust gas. The benefits of exhaust gas fuel reforming have been demonstrated by adding simulated reformed gas to a diesel engine fuelled by a mixture of 50% ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) and 50% rapeseed methyl ester (RME) as well as to a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine fuelled by bioethanol. In the case of the biodiesel fuelled engine, a reduction of NO{sub x} emissions was achieved without considerable smoke increase. In the case of the bioethanol fuelled HCCI engine, the engine tolerance to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was extended and hence the typically high pressure rise rates of HCCI engines, associated with intense combustion noise, were reduced. (author)

  15. Quantification of process variables for carbothermic synthesis of UC1-xNx fuel microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemer, T. B.; Silva, C. M.; Henry, J. J.; McMurray, J. W.; Voit, S. L.; Collins, J. L.; Hunt, R. D.

    2017-01-01

    This report details the continued investigation of process variables involved in converting sol-gel-derived, urania-carbon microspheres to ∼820-μm-dia. UC1-xNx fuel kernels in flow-through, vertical Mo and W crucibles at temperatures up to 2123 K. Experiments included calcining of air-dried UO3-H2O-C microspheres in Ar and H2-containing gases, conversion of the resulting UO2-C kernels to dense UO2:2UC in the same gases and vacuum, and its conversion in N2 to UC1-xNx (x = ∼0.85). The thermodynamics of the relevant reactions were applied extensively to interpret and control the process variables. Producing the precursor UO2:2UC kernel of ∼96% theoretical density was required, but its subsequent conversion to UC1-xNx at 2123 K was not accompanied by sintering and resulted in ∼83-86% of theoretical density. Increasing the UC1-xNx kernel nitride component to ∼0.98 in flowing N2-H2 mixtures to evolve HCN was shown to be quantitatively consistent with present and past experiments and the only useful application of H2 in the entire process.

  16. Suitability of anaerobic digestion effluent as process water for corn fuel ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Liu, Pei; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-01-01

    A corn fuel ethanol plant integrated with anaerobic digestion treatment of thin stillage increases the net energy balance. Furthermore, the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) can be reused as a potential substitute for process water in the ethanol fermentation. In this study, the suitability of ADE as process water for corn ethanol fermentation was investigated by analyzing the potential inhibitory components in the ADE. It was found that ammonium influenced the growth and metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Maximum ethanol production was obtained when the concentration of ammonium nitrogen was 200 mg/L, and ammonium could replace urea as the nitrogen source for S. cerevisiae under this concentration. In the ethanol fermentation with a higher concentration of ammonium, more glycerol was produced, thereby resulting in the decrease of ethanol production. In addition, components except ammonium in the ADE caused no inhibition to ethanol production. These results suggest that ADE could be reused as process water for corn ethanol fermentation without negative effect when ammonium concentration is well controlled.

  17. A view of treatment process of melted nuclear fuel on a severe accident plant using a molten salt system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, R.; Takahashi, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Mizuguchi, K. [Power and Industrial Research and Development Center, Toshiba Corporation Power Systems Company, 4-1 Ukishima-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki 210-0862 (Japan); Oomori, T. [Chemical System Design and Engineering Department, Toshiba Corporation Power Systems Company, 8 Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8523 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    At severe accident such as Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident, the nuclear fuels in the reactor would melt and form debris which contains stable UO2-ZrO2 mixture corium and parts of vessel such as zircaloy and iron component. The requirements for solution of issues are below; -) the reasonable treatment process of the debris should be simple and in-situ in Fukushima Daiichi power plant, -) the desirable treatment process is to take out UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} or metallic U and TRU metal, and dispose other fission products as high level radioactive waste; and -) the candidate of treatment process should generate the smallest secondary waste. Pyro-process has advantages to treat the debris because of the high solubility of the debris and its total process feasibility. Toshiba proposes a new pyro-process in molten salts using electrolysing Zr before debris fuel being treated.

  18. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The principal objectives of this project are to discover and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalysts for conversion of syngas to oxygenates having use as fuel enhancers, to explore novel reactor and process concepts applicable in this process, and to develop the best total process for converting syngas to liquid fuels. The project is being pursued as two concurrent tasks. Task 1 involves catalyst research and development and is being largely conducted by catalyst chemists and analytical specialists. Task 2 is largely an engineering activity, and includes process conceptualization and economics and bench-scale process evaluation of systems developed in Task 1. Our current targets for isobutanol-producing catalysts are to produce a 50/50 split in selectivity between methanol and iso-butanol, a productivity for isobutanol of >50 g/Kg-hr and an overall process conversion of 40%. We have continued to study how preparation variables affect the catalysts` chemical and physical properties.

  19. Development of pyro-processing technology at CRIEPI for carving out the future of nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iizuka, M.; Koyama, T.; Sakamura, Y.; Uozumi, K.; Fujihata, K.; Kato, T.; Murakami, T.; Tsukada, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Komae-shi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Glatz, J.P. [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Transuranium Elements (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Pyro-processing has been attracting increasing attention as a promising candidate as an advanced nuclear fuel cycle technology. It provides economic advantage as well as reduction in proliferation risk and burden of long live radioactive waste, especially when it is combined with advanced fuels such as metallic or nitride fuel which gives excellent burning efficiency of minor actinides (MA). CRIEPI has been developing pyro-processing technology since late eighties with both domestic and international collaborations. In the early stage, electrochemical and thermodynamic properties in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt, and fundamental feasibility of core technology like electrorefining were chiefly investigated. Currently, stress in the process chemistry development is also placed on supporting technologies, such as treatment of anode residue and high temperature distillation for cathode product from electrorefining, and so on. Waste treatment process development, such as studies on adsorption behavior of various FP elements into zeolite and conditions for the fabrication of glass-bonded sodalite waste form, are steadily improved as well. In parallel, dedicated pyro-processing equipment such as zeolite column for treatment of spent electro-refiner salt is currently in progress. Recently, an integrated engineering-scale fuel cycle tests were performed funded by Japanese government (MEXT) as an important step before proceeding to large scale hot demonstration of pyro-processing. Oxide fuels can be readily introduced into the pyro-processing by reducing them to metals by adoption of electrochemical reduction technique. Making use of this advantage, the pyro-processing is currently under preliminary evaluation for its applicability to the treatment of the corium, mainly consisting of (U,Zr)O{sub 2}, formed in different composition during the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. (authors)

  20. Microemulsions and Aggregation Formation in Extraction Processes for Used Nuclear Fuel: Thermodynamic and Structural Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Mikael [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2016-05-04

    Advanced nuclear fuel cycles rely on successful chemical separation of various elements in the used fuel. Numerous solvent extraction (SX) processes have been developed for the recovery and purification of metal ions from this used material. However, the predictability of process operations has been challenged by the lack of a fundamental understanding of the chemical interactions in several of these separation systems. For example, gaps in the thermodynamic description of the mechanism and the complexes formed will make predictions very challenging. Recent studies of certain extraction systems under development and a number of more established SX processes have suggested that aggregate formation in the organic phase results in a transformation of its selectivity and efficiency. Aggregation phenomena have consistently been interfering in SX process development, and have, over the years, become synonymous with an undesirable effect that must be prevented. This multiyear, multicollaborative research effort was carried out to study solvation and self-organization in non-aqueous solutions at conditions promoting aggregation phenomena. Our approach to this challenging topic was to investigate extraction systems comprising more than one extraction reagent where synergy of the metal ion could be observed. These systems were probed for the existence of stable microemulsions in the organic phase, and a number of high-end characterization tools were employed to elucidate the role of the aggregates in metal ion extraction. The ultimate goal was to find connections between synergy of metal ion extraction and reverse micellar formation. Our main accomplishment for this project was the expansion of the understanding of metal ion complexation in the extraction system combining tributyl phosphate (TBP) and dibutyl phosphoric acid (HDBP). We have found that for this system no direct correlation exists for the metal ion extraction and the formation of aggregates, meaning that the

  1. Safety assessment for a KBS-3H spent nuclear fuel repository at Olkiluoto. Process report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gribi, Peter; Johnson, Lawrence; Suter, Daniel; Smith, Paul; Pastina, Barbara; Snellman, Margit

    2008-01-15

    The KBS-3 method, based on multiple barriers, is the proposed spent fuel disposal method both in Sweden and Finland. KBS-3H and KBS-3V are the two design alternatives of the KBS-3 spent fuel disposal method. Posiva and SKB have conducted a joint research, demonstration and development (RDandD) programme in 2002-2007 with the overall aim of establishing whether KBS-3H represents a feasible alternative to the reference alternative KBS-3V. The overall objectives of the present phase covering the period 2004-2007 have been to demonstrate that the horizontal deposition alternative is technically feasible and to demonstrate that it fulfils the same long-term safety requirements as KBS-3V. The safety studies conducted as part of this programme include a safety assessment of a preliminary design of a KBS-3H repository for spent nuclear fuel located about 400 m underground at the Olkiluoto site, which is the proposed site for a spent fuel repository in Finland. In the KBS-3H design alternative, each canister, with a surrounding layer of bentonite clay, is placed in a perforated steel cylinder prior to emplacement; the entire assembly is called the supercontainer. Several supercontainers are positioned along parallel, 100-300 m long deposition drifts, which are sealed following waste emplacement using drift end plugs. Bentonite distance blocks separate the supercontainers, one from another, along the drift. Steel compartment plugs can be used to seal off drift sections with higher inflow, thus isolating the different compartments within the drift. The present report describes the main processes potentially affecting the long-term safety of the system, covering radiation-related, thermal, hydraulic, mechanical, chemical (including microbiological) and radionuclide transport-related processes. The process descriptions deal sequentially with the main sub-systems: fuel/cavity in canister, cast iron insert and copper canister, buffer and other bentonite components, supercontainer

  2. Safety assessment for a KBS-3H spent nuclear fuel repository at Olkiluoto. Process report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gribi, Peter; Johnson, Lawrence; Suter, Daniel; Smith, Paul; Pastina, Barbara; Snellman, Margit

    2008-01-15

    The KBS-3 method, based on multiple barriers, is the proposed spent fuel disposal method both in Sweden and Finland. KBS-3H and KBS-3V are the two design alternatives of the KBS-3 spent fuel disposal method. Posiva and SKB have conducted a joint research, demonstration and development (RDandD) programme in 2002-2007 with the overall aim of establishing whether KBS-3H represents a feasible alternative to the reference alternative KBS-3V. The overall objectives of the present phase covering the period 2004-2007 have been to demonstrate that the horizontal deposition alternative is technically feasible and to demonstrate that it fulfils the same long-term safety requirements as KBS-3V. The safety studies conducted as part of this programme include a safety assessment of a preliminary design of a KBS-3H repository for spent nuclear fuel located about 400 m underground at the Olkiluoto site, which is the proposed site for a spent fuel repository in Finland. In the KBS-3H design alternative, each canister, with a surrounding layer of bentonite clay, is placed in a perforated steel cylinder prior to emplacement; the entire assembly is called the supercontainer. Several supercontainers are positioned along parallel, 100-300 m long deposition drifts, which are sealed following waste emplacement using drift end plugs. Bentonite distance blocks separate the supercontainers, one from another, along the drift. Steel compartment plugs can be used to seal off drift sections with higher inflow, thus isolating the different compartments within the drift. The present report describes the main processes potentially affecting the long-term safety of the system, covering radiation-related, thermal, hydraulic, mechanical, chemical (including microbiological) and radionuclide transport-related processes. The process descriptions deal sequentially with the main sub-systems: fuel/cavity in canister, cast iron insert and copper canister, buffer and other bentonite components, supercontainer

  3. The end-to-end testbed of the Optical Metrology System on-board LISA Pathfinder

    CERN Document Server

    Steier, Frank; Marín, Antonio F García; Gerardi, Domenico; Heinzel, Gerhard; Danzmann, Karsten; 10.1088/0264-9381/26/9/094010

    2012-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder is a technology demonstration mission for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). The main experiment on-board LISA Pathfinder is the so-called LISA Technology Package (LTP) which has the aim to measure the differential acceleration between two free-falling test masses with an accuracy of 3x10^(-14) ms^(-2)/sqrt[Hz] between 1 mHz and 30 mHz. This measurement is performed interferometrically by the Optical Metrology System (OMS) on-board LISA Pathfinder. In this paper we present the development of an experimental end-to-end testbed of the entire OMS. It includes the interferometer and its sub-units, the interferometer back-end which is a phasemeter and the processing of the phasemeter output data. Furthermore, 3-axes piezo actuated mirrors are used instead of the free-falling test masses for the characterisation of the dynamic behaviour of the system and some parts of the Drag-free and Attitude Control System (DFACS) which controls the test masses and the satellite. The end-to-end testbe...

  4. Solar fuel processing efficiency for ceria redox cycling using alternative oxygen partial pressure reduction methods

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Meng; Haussener, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Solar-driven non-stoichiometric thermochemical redox cycling of ceria for the conversion of solar energy into fuels shows promise in achieving high solar-to-fuel efficiency. This efficiency is significantly affected by the operating conditions, e.g. redox temperatures, reduction and oxidation pressures, solar irradiation concentration, or heat recovery effectiveness. We present a thermodynamic analysis of five redox cycle designs to investigate the effects of working conditions on the fuel pr...

  5. The production of fuels and chemicals from food processing wastes & cellulosics. Final research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.; Okos, M.; Burgos, N. [and others

    1997-06-15

    High strength food wastes of about 15-20 billion pounds solids are produced annually by US food producers. Low strength food wastes of 5-10 billion pounds/yr. are produced. Estimates of the various components of these waste streams are shown in Table 1. Waste paper/lignocellulosic crops could produce 2 to 5 billion gallons of ethanol per year or other valuable chemicals. Current oil imports cost the US about $60 billion dollars/yr. in out-going balance of trade costs. Many organic chemicals that are currently derived from petroleum can be produced through fermentation processes. Petroleum based processes have been preferred over biotechnology processes because they were typically cheaper, easier, and more efficient. The technologies developed during the course of this project are designed to allow fermentation based chemicals and fuels to compete favorably with petroleum based chemicals. Our goals in this project have been to: (1) develop continuous fermentation processes as compared to batch operations; (2) combine separation of the product with the fermentation, thus accomplishing the twin goals of achieving a purified product from a fermentation broth and speeding the conversion of substrate to product in the fermentation broth; (3) utilize food or cellulosic waste streams which pose a current cost or disposal problem as compared to high cost grains or sugar substrates; (4) develop low energy recovery methods for fermentation products; and finally (5) demonstrate successful lab scale technologies on a pilot/production scale and try to commercialize the processes. The scale of the wastes force consideration of {open_quotes}bulk commodity{close_quotes} type products if a high fraction of the wastes are to be utilized.

  6. Task 3.3: Warm Syngas Cleanup and Catalytic Processes for Syngas Conversion to Fuels Subtask 3: Advanced Syngas Conversion to Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebarbier Dagel, Vanessa M.; Li, J.; Taylor, Charles E.; Wang, Yong; Dagle, Robert A.; Deshmane, Chinmay A.; Bao, Xinhe

    2014-03-31

    activity was to develop methods and enabling materials for syngas conversion to SNG with readily CO2 separation. Suitable methanation catalyst and CO2 sorbent materials were developed. Successful proof-of-concept for the combined reaction-sorption process was demonstrated, which culminated in a research publication. With successful demonstration, a decision was made to switch focus to an area of fuels research of more interest to all three research institutions (CAS-NETL-PNNL). Syngas-to-Hydrocarbon Fuels through Higher Alcohol Intermediates There are two types of processes in syngas conversion to fuels that are attracting R&D interest: 1) syngas conversion to mixed alcohols; and 2) syngas conversion to gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline process developed by Exxon-Mobil in the 1970s. The focus of this task was to develop a one-step conversion technology by effectively incorporating both processes, which is expected to reduce the capital and operational cost associated with the conversion of coal-derived syngas to liquid fuels. It should be noted that this work did not further study the classic Fischer-Tropsch reaction pathway. Rather, we focused on the studies for unique catalyst pathways that involve the direct liquid fuel synthesis enabled by oxygenated intermediates. Recent advances made in the area of higher alcohol synthesis including the novel catalytic composite materials recently developed by CAS using base metal catalysts were used.

  7. A Low-cost, High-yield Process for the Direct Productin of High Energy Density Liquid Fuel from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2014-02-21

    The primary objective and outcome of this project was the development and validation of a novel, low-cost, high-pressure fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process (H{sub 2}Bioil) using supplementary hydrogen (H{sub 2}) to produce liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. The research efforts under the various tasks of the project have culminated in the first experimental demonstration of the H2Bioil process, producing 100% deoxygenated >C4+ hydrocarbons containing 36-40% of the carbon in the feed of pyrolysis products from biomass. The demonstrated H{sub 2}Bioil process technology (i.e. reactor, catalyst, and downstream product recovery) is scalable to a commercial level and is estimated to be economically competitive for the cases when supplementary H{sub 2} is sourced from coal, natural gas, or nuclear. Additionally, energy systems modeling has revealed several process integration options based on the H{sub 2}Bioil process for energy and carbon efficient liquid fuel production. All project tasks and milestones were completed or exceeded. Novel, commercially-scalable, high-pressure reactors for both fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation were constructed, completing Task A. These reactors were capable of operation under a wide-range of conditions; enabling process studies that lead to identification of optimum process conditions. Model compounds representing biomass pyrolysis products were studied, completing Task B. These studies were critical in identifying and developing HDO catalysts to target specific oxygen functional groups. These process and model compound catalyst studies enabled identification of catalysts that achieved 100% deoxygenation of the real biomass feedstock, sorghum, to form hydrocarbons in high yields as part of Task C. The work completed during this grant has identified and validated the novel and commercially scalable H2Bioil process for production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Studies on model compounds as well as real biomass

  8. Development of the GANEX process for the reprocessing of Gen IV spent nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguirditchian, M.; Chareyre, L.; Sorel, C.; Bisel, I.; Baron, P.; Masson, M. [CEA Marcoule - DEN/DRCP/SCPS - BP 17171, Bagnols-sur-Ceze, 30207 (France)

    2008-07-01

    The GANEX (group actinide extraction) process is composed of two extraction cycles following the dissolution of the spent fuel. In the first cycle, uranium(VI) is selectively extracted from the dissolution solution using a mono amide extractant DEHiBA (NN--di-(ethyl-2-hexyl)iso-butyr-amide) diluted in HTP (hydrogen tetra-propylene). Experimental data and modelling of uranium(VI) and nitric acid extractions are presented. A flowsheet was designed and was successfully tested in laboratory scale mixer-settlers on a surrogate uranium(VI)/HNO{sub 3} feed. For the group actinide separation in the second cycle, the DIAMEX-SANEX process was adjusted to separate neptunium and plutonium along with americium and curium. The data showed the possibility to extract all actinides together with good selectivities versus lanthanides. The flowsheets of the two GANEX cycles which will be tested on a high active feed at the end of 2008 in Atalante facility are presented. (authors)

  9. Integrating engineering design improvements with exoelectrogen enrichment process to increase power output from microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borole, Abhijeet P.; Hamilton, Choo Y.; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A.; Leak, David; Andras, Calin; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer; Keller, Martin; Davison, Brian

    Microbial fuel cells (MFC) hold promise as a green technology for bioenergy production. The challenge is to improve the engineering design while exploiting the ability of microbes to generate and transfer electrons directly to electrodes. A strategy using a combination of improved anode design and an enrichment process was formulated to improve power densities. The design was based on a flow-through anode with minimal dead volume and a high electrode surface area per unit volume. The strategy focused on promoting biofilm formation via a combination of forced flow through the anode, carbon limitation, and step-wise reduction of external resistance. The enrichment process resulted in development of exoelectrogenic biofilm communities dominated by Anaeromusa spp. This is the first report identifying organisms from the Veillonellaceae family in MFCs. The power density of the resulting MFC using a ferricyanide cathode reached 300 W m -3 net anode volume (3220 mW m -2), which is about a third of what is estimated to be necessary for commercial consideration. The operational stability of the MFC using high specific surface area electrodes was demonstrated by operating the MFC for a period of over four months.

  10. Elemental balance of SRF production process: solid recovered fuel produced from municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Oinas, Pekka

    2016-01-01

    In the production of solid recovered fuel (SRF), certain waste components have excessive influence on the quality of product. The proportion of rubber, plastic (hard) and certain textiles was found to be critical as to the elemental quality of SRF. The mass flow of rubber, plastic (hard) and textiles (to certain extent, especially synthetic textile) components from input waste stream into the output streams of SRF production was found to play the decisive role in defining the elemental quality of SRF. This paper presents the mass flow of polluting and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in SRF production. The SRF was produced from municipal solid waste (MSW) through mechanical treatment (MT). The results showed that of the total input chlorine content to process, 55% was found in the SRF and 30% in reject material. Of the total input arsenic content, 30% was found in the SRF and 45% in fine fraction. In case of cadmium, lead and mercury, of their total input content to the process, 62%, 38% and 30%, respectively, was found in the SRF. Among the components of MSW, rubber material was identified as potential source of chlorine, containing 8.0 wt.% of chlorine. Plastic (hard) and textile components contained 1.6 and 1.1. wt.% of chlorine, respectively. Plastic (hard) contained higher lead and cadmium content compared with other waste components, i.e. 500 mg kg(-1) and 9.0 mg kg(-1), respectively.

  11. Understanding the application niche of microbial fuel cells in a cheese wastewater treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patrick T; He, Zhen

    2014-04-01

    Identifying proper application of microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology and understanding how MFCs can be effectively integrated into the existing wastewater treatment process is critical to further development of this technology. In this study, four identical MFCs were used to treat the wastes sampled from different stages of a cheese wastewater treatment process, and both treatment performance and energy balance were examined. The two MFCs treating liquid wastes achieved more than 80% removal of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD), while the other two MFCs fed with sludge or cheese whey removed about 60% of TCOD. The MFC-2 treating the dissolved air flotation effluent generated the highest Coulombic efficiency of 27.2±3.6% and the highest power density of 3.2±0.3Wm(-3), and consumed the least amount of energy of 0.11kWhm(-3), indicating that MFCs may be more suitable for treating low-strength wastewater in terms of both treatment and energy performance.

  12. Hydrocarbon fuels from brown grease: Moving from the research laboratory toward an industrial process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Lawrence M.; Strothers, Joel; Pinnock, Travis; Hilaire, Dickens Saint; Bacolod, Beatrice; Cai, Zhuo Biao; Sim, Yoke-Leng

    2017-04-01

    Brown grease is a generic term for the oily solids and semi-solids that accumulate in the sewer system and in sewage treatment plants. It has previously been shown that brown grease undergoes pyrolysis to form a homologous series of alkanes and 1-alkenes between 7 and 17 carbon atoms, with smaller amounts of higher hydrocarbons and ketones up to about 30 carbon atoms. The initial study was performed in batch mode on a scale of up to 50 grams of starting material. However, continuous processes are usually more efficient for large scale production of fuels and commodity chemicals. This work describes the research and development of a continuous process. The first step was to determine the required reactor temperature. Brown grease consists largely of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and they react at different rates, and produce different products and intermediates. Intermediates include ketones, alcohols, and aldehydes, and Fe(III) ion catalyzes at least some of the reactions. By monitoring the pyrolysis of brown grease, its individual components, and intermediates, it was determined that a reactor temperature of at least 340 °C is required. A small scale (1 L) continuous stirred tank reactor was built and its performance is described.

  13. Melt-processed anhydrous proton exchange membranes for fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokrini, A.; Siu, A.; Diaz, G.; Crites, C.; Robitaille, L. [National Research Council of Canada, Boucherville, PQ (Canada). Industrial Materials Inst.

    2009-07-01

    The current benchmark materials for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are perfluorosulfonic acid resins (PFSA) because of their excellent stability and proton conductivity of 0.1 s/cm at 80 degrees C when fully humidified. However their performance decreases significantly at higher temperatures and low humidity. This paper presented the properties of nanocomposite PEMs incorporating a series of anhydrous charge carriers that are viable candidates for making water-free membranes that can operate at temperatures above 120 degrees C. However, the volatility or leaching of these anhydrous charge carriers could prevent them from being successfully used in open electrochemical systems. Therefore, in this study, the anhydrous charge carriers were immobilized on inorganic nanoparticles and incorporated into PEMs formulations. Nanoparticles with diameters ranging from 50-200 nm were synthesized via a sol-gel process and the desired anhydrous charge carriers immobilized on their surfaces. Nanocomposite PEMs were prepared using melt-processing technologies, by blending the grafted nanoparticles and fluorinated polymers such as poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and ionomers such as Nafion. This paper presented the properties of the PEMs developed as a function of nanoparticles size and content, as well as the proton conductivity at controlled temperature and RH.

  14. Pairwise-Svm for On-Board Urban Road LIDAR Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zhen; Sun, Kai; Qiu, Kaijin; Ding, Kou

    2016-06-01

    The common method of LiDAR classifications is Markov random fields (MRF). Based on construction of MRF energy function, spectral and directional features are extracted for on-board urban point clouds. The MRF energy function is consisted of unary and pairwise potentials. The unary terms are computed by SVM classifictaion. The initial labeling is mainly processed through geometrical shapes. The pairwise potential is estimated by Naïve Bayes. From training data, the probability of adjacent objects is computed by prior knowledge. The final labeling method is reweighted message-passing to minimization the energy function. The MRF model is difficult to process the large-scale misclassification. We propose a super-voxel clustering method for over-segment and grouping segment for large objects. Trees, poles ground, and building are classified in this paper. The experimental results show that this method improves the accuracy of classification and speed of computation.

  15. Bio-Electron-Fenton (BEF) process driven by microbial fuel cells for triphenyltin chloride (TPTC) degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yong, Xiao-Yu; Gu, Dong-Yan; Wu, Yuan-Dong [College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing TECH University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Bioenergy Research Institute, Nanjing TECH University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Yan, Zhi-Ying [Key Laboratory of Environmental and Applied Microbiology, Environmental Microbiology, Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Science, Chengdu 610041 (China); Zhou, Jun; Wu, Xia-Yuan [College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing TECH University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Bioenergy Research Institute, Nanjing TECH University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Wei, Ping [College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing TECH University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Jia, Hong-Hua [College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing TECH University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Bioenergy Research Institute, Nanjing TECH University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Zheng, Tao, E-mail: zhengtao@ms.giec.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Science, Nengyuan Road, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Yong, Yang-Chun, E-mail: ycyong@ujs.edu.cn [Biofuels Institute, School of the Environment, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram of the Bio-Electron-Fenton (BEF) process for TPTC degradation. - Highlights: • A Bio-Electro-Fenton process was performed for TPTC degradation. • TPTC removal efficiency achieved 78.32 ± 2.07% within 100 h. • The TPTC degradation rate (0.775 ± 0.021 μmol L{sup −1} h{sup −1}) was much higher than previous reports. - Abstract: The intensive use of triphenyltin chloride (TPTC) has caused serious environmental pollution. In this study, an effective method for TPTC degradation was proposed based on the Bio-Electron-Fenton process in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The maximum voltage of the MFC with graphite felt as electrode was 278.47% higher than that of carbon cloth. The electricity generated by MFC can be used for in situ generation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to a maximum of 135.96 μmol L{sup −1} at the Fe@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3(*)}/graphite felt composite cathode, which further reacted with leached Fe{sup 2+} to produce hydroxyl radicals. While 100 μmol L{sup −1} TPTC was added to the cathodic chamber, the degradation efficiency of TPTC reached 78.32 ± 2.07%, with a rate of 0.775 ± 0.021 μmol L{sup −1} h{sup −1}. This Bio-Electron-Fenton driving TPTC degradation might involve in Sn−C bonds breaking and the main process is probably a stepwise dephenylation until the formation of inorganic tin and CO{sub 2}. This study provides an energy saving and efficient approach for TPTC degradation.

  16. A numerical study on combustion process in a small compression ignition engine run dual-fuel mode (diesel-biogas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, H.; Widodo, T. I.; Nasution, D. M.

    2017-01-01

    In order to reduce the consumption of fossil fuel of a compression ignition (CI) engines which is usually used in transportation and heavy machineries, it can be operated in dual-fuel mode (diesel-biogas). However, the literature reviews show that the thermal efficiency is lower due to incomplete combustion process. In order to increase the efficiency, the combustion process in the combustion chamber need to be explored. Here, a commercial CFD code is used to explore the combustion process of a small CI engine run on dual fuel mode (diesel-biogas). The turbulent governing equations are solved based on finite volume method. A simulation of compression and expansions strokes at an engine speed and load of 1000 rpm and 2500W, respectively has been carried out. The pressure and temperature distributions and streamlines are plotted. The simulation results show that at engine power of 732.27 Watt the thermal efficiency is 9.05%. The experiment and simulation results show a good agreement. The method developed in this study can be used to investigate the combustion process of CI engine run on dual-fuel mode.

  17. Best Available Techniques (BAT) in solid biomass fuel processing, handling, storage and production of pellets from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, J.P.; Tana, J. [AaF-Industri Ab, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-09-15

    With the increasing use of biomass fuels the varieties of sources for biomass have expanded to almost all possible combustible matter with biological origin. The increasing scale in solid biomass fuel production and utilization at the combustion plants of the wide variety of biomass fuels have contributed to littering, dust, odor and noise emissions of the production chain. The report aims to provide information for operators, environmental consultants and competent environmental authorities on what is considered BAT, as defined in the IPPC directive (2008/1/EC), in biomass processing and handling as well as the production of pellets from biomass. The project gives a brief description of commonly used solid biomass fuels and the processes, handling and storage of these biomasses in the Nordic countries covering processes from production site to the point of use. Environmental emissions, sources of waste and other relevant environmental aspects from commonly used processes, included raw material and energy use, chemical use and emissions to soil are also included in the report. (Author)

  18. Supplemental specifications of laboratory hot press process -- For CV size self-supported I&E fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, C.A.; Schweikhardt, G.M.

    1964-06-01

    Some refinements have been introduced into the hot press canning of internally and externally cooled fuel elements. This report outlines the specifications for the process including these refinements. Specifications cover components, dies, and punches, furnace condition, nickel plating, component cleaning, component assembly, sizing, hot pressing and inspection.

  19. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of financial protection required for plutonium... of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants. (a) Each holder of a license issued pursuant to part 70 of this chapter to possess and use plutonium at...

  20. Innovation processes of knowledge-based technologies. Example of PEM fuel cell; Innovationsprozesse wissensbasierter Technologien. Beispiel der PEM-Brennstoffzelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, Bjoern

    2011-07-01

    Knowledge as distinguished from increasingly crucial factor of production and forms the basis for development of knowledge-based technologies. This study analyzed the example of the PEM fuel cell technology, this innovation process, drawing upon the heuristic of the innovation system. At the same time a detailed picture of the PEM technology as part of the electric mobility is drawn. (orig.)

  1. Large Eddy Simulation of the fuel transport and mixing process in a scramjet combustor with rearwall-expansion cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zun; Liu, Xiao; Gong, Cheng; Sun, Mingbo; Wang, Zhenguo; Bai, Xue-Song

    2016-09-01

    Large Eddy Simulation (LES) was employed to investigate the fuel/oxidizer mixing process in an ethylene fueled scramjet combustor with a rearwall-expansion cavity. The numerical solver was first validated for an experimental flow, the DLR strut-based scramjet combustor case. Shock wave structures and wall-pressure distribution from the numerical simulations were compared with experimental data and the numerical results were shown in good agreement with the available experimental data. Effects of the injection location on the flow and mixing process were then studied. It was found that with a long injection distance upstream the cavity, the fuel is transported much further into the main flow and a smaller subsonic zone is formed inside the cavity. Conversely, with a short injection distance, the fuel is entrained more into the cavity and a larger subsonic zone is formed inside the cavity, which is favorable for ignition in the cavity. For the rearwall-expansion cavity, it is suggested that the optimized ignition location with a long upstream injection distance should be in the bottom wall in the middle part of the cavity, while the optimized ignition location with a short upstream injection distance should be in the bottom wall in the front side of the cavity. By employing a cavity direct injection on the rear wall, the fuel mass fraction inside the cavity and the local turbulent intensity will both be increased due to this fueling, and it will also enhance the mixing process which will also lead to increased mixing efficiency. For the rearwall-expansion cavity, the combined injection scheme is expected to be an optimized injection scheme.

  2. Aviation fuels outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momenthy, A. M.

    1980-01-01

    Options for satisfying the future demand for commercial jet fuels are analyzed. It is concluded that the most effective means to this end are to attract more refiners to the jet fuel market and encourage development of processes to convert oil shale and coal to transportation fuels. Furthermore, changing the U.S. refineries fuel specification would not significantly alter jet fuel availability.

  3. Process Developed for Generating Ceramic Interconnects With Low Sintering Temperatures for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhi-Min; Goldsby, Jon C.

    2005-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have been considered as premium future power generation devices because they have demonstrated high energy-conversion efficiency, high power density, and extremely low pollution, and have the flexibility of using hydrocarbon fuel. The Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) initiative, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and private industries, is leading the development and commercialization of SOFCs for low-cost stationary and automotive markets. The targeted power density for the initiative is rather low, so that the SECA SOFC can be operated at a relatively low temperature (approx. 700 C) and inexpensive metallic interconnects can be utilized in the SOFC stack. As only NASA can, the agency is investigating SOFCs for aerospace applications. Considerable high power density is required for the applications. As a result, the NASA SOFC will be operated at a high temperature (approx. 900 C) and ceramic interconnects will be employed. Lanthanum chromite-based materials have emerged as a leading candidate for the ceramic interconnects. The interconnects are expected to co-sinter with zirconia electrolyte to mitigate the interface electric resistance and to simplify the processing procedure. Lanthanum chromites made by the traditional method are sintered at 1500 C or above. They react with zirconia electrolytes (which typically sinter between 1300 and 1400 C) at the sintering temperature of lanthanum chromites. It has been envisioned that lanthanum chromites with lower sintering temperatures can be co-fired with zirconia electrolyte. Nonstoichiometric lanthanum chromites can be sintered at lower temperatures, but they are unstable and react with zirconia electrolyte during co-sintering. NASA Glenn Research Center s Ceramics Branch investigated a glycine nitrate process to generate fine powder of the lanthanum-chromite-based materials. By simultaneously doping calcium on the lanthanum site, and cobalt and aluminum on the

  4. THE TESTING OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE ENGINEERING AND PLANT SCALE ANNULAR CENTRIFUGAL CONTACTORS FOR THE PROCESSING OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack D. Law; David Meikrantz; Troy Garn; Nick Mann; Scott Herbst

    2006-10-01

    Annular centrifugal contactors are being evaluated for process scale solvent extraction operations in support of United State Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative goals. These contactors have the potential for high stage efficiency if properly employed and optimized for the application. Commercially available centrifugal contactors are being tested at the Idaho National Laboratory to support this program. Hydraulic performance and mass transfer efficiency have been measured for portions of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle using 5-cm diameter annular centrifugal contactors. Advanced features, including low mix sleeves and clean-in-place rotors, have also been evaluated in 5-cm and 12.5-cm contactors.

  5. Design of Production Test IP-262-A-11-FP -- Evaluation of projection fuel elements for use in ribbed process tubes -- Demonstration loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, W.H.; Hall, R.E.

    1959-06-29

    For several years, a major category of fuel element failures has been the side corrosion type, characterized by localized accelerated fuel element jacket corrosion. Since it has been demonstrated {sup 1} that misalignment of fuel elements in a process tube will produce flow patterns and accelerated corrosion, termed ``hot spots``, failure to align the fuel elements in process tubes is considered a contributing factor in the production of side corrosion failures. Preliminary testing of both self-supporting and ``bumper`` fuel elements is underway. Data on the self-supporting fuel elements have demonstrated that the bridge-rail projections have sufficient support strength, do not of themselves create a corrosion problem and in actuality probably eliminate any hot-spot areas. Although one tube of bumper fuel elements in KW Reactor {sup 3} has been discharged, data are not as yet available. Potentially, the most sever corrosion conditions exist during the summer months when reactor inlet temperatures are high. It is desirable then, provided bumper fuel elements limit hot- spot corrosion, to evaluate the bumper concept for large scale use possibly by the summer of 1960. To accomplish this, a demonstration loading of the bumper type fuel elements must be underway by about July, 1959. The purpose of this report is to present the design of a test to evaluate the fabrication process and irradiation performance of fuel elements having projections, which may prevent misalignment in ribbed process tubes and meet the aforementioned goals.

  6. Fuel cell power trains for road traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhlein, Bernd; Biedermann, Peter; Grube, Thomas; Menzer, Reinhard

    Legal regulations, especially the low emission vehicle (LEV) laws in California, are the driving forces for more intensive technological developments with respect to a global automobile market. In the future, high efficient vehicles at very low emission levels will include low temperature fuel cell systems (e.g., polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC)) as units of hydrogen-, methanol- or gasoline-based electric power trains. In the case of methanol or gasoline/diesel, hydrogen has to be produced on-board using heated steam or partial oxidation reformers as well as catalytic burners and gas cleaning units. Methanol could also be used for direct electricity generation inside the fuel cell (direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC)). The development potentials and the results achieved so far for these concepts differ extremely. Based on the experience gained so far, the goals for the next few years include cost and weight reductions as well as optimizations in terms of the energy management of power trains with PEFC systems. At the same time, questions of fuel specification, fuel cycle management, materials balances and environmental assessment will have to be discussed more intensively. On the basis of process engineering analyses for net electricity generation in PEFC-powered power trains as well as on assumptions for both electric power trains and vehicle configurations, overall balances have been carried out. They will lead not only to specific energy demand data and specific emission levels (CO 2, CO, VOC, NO x) for the vehicle but will also present data of its full fuel cycle (FFC) in comparison to those of FFCs including internal combustion engines (ICE) after the year 2005. Depending on the development status (today or in 2010) and the FFC benchmark results, the advantages of balances results of FFC with PEFC vehicles are small in terms of specific energy demand and CO 2 emissions, but very high with respect to local emission levels.

  7. Methods for Calculating Energy Requirements for Processes in Which a Reactant Is Also a Fuel: Need for Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, H. Y.; Olivas-Martinez, Miguel

    2014-09-01

    When a process involves both endothermic chemical reactions and heat generation from the combustion of fuels, the choice of endothermic reactions to include in computing the "energy requirement" for the overall process is arbitrary and can be a source of confusion. It is shown that the essential question becomes whether the heat of combustion of a reactant, which can be used as a fuel, should be included in the energy requirement value. It is noted that the choice is a matter of convention, but it is important to clearly state what convention is followed in presenting the results of energy calculations. There is a need to select a standard approach because the presented value of "energy requirement" of a process depends on the choice. This problem is illustrated using the example of ironmaking by different processes including a novel flash ironmaking process under development at the University of Utah. The authors advocate using just the "process energy requirement" as the standard value of the energy requirement for a process in which a reactant is also a fuel.

  8. Production Cycle for Large Scale Fission Mo-99 Separation by the Processing of Irradiated LEU Uranium Silicide Fuel Element Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hadi Ali Sameh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Uranium silicide fuels proved over decades their exceptional qualification for the operation of higher flux material testing reactors with LEU elements. The application of such fuels as target materials, particularly for the large scale fission Mo-99 producers, offers an efficient and economical solution for the related facilities. The realization of such aim demands the introduction of a suitable dissolution process for the applied U3Si2 compound. Excellent results are achieved by the oxidizing dissolution of the fuel meat in hydrofluoric acid at room temperature. The resulting solution is directly behind added to an over stoichiometric amount of potassium hydroxide solution. Uranium and the bulk of fission products are precipitated together with the transuranium compounds. The filtrate contains the molybdenum and the soluble fission product species. It is further treated similar to the in-full scale proven process. The generated off gas stream is handled also as experienced before after passing through KOH washing solution. The generated alkaline fluoride containing waste solution is noncorrosive. Nevertheless fluoride can be selectively bonded as in soluble CaF2 by addition of a mixture of solid calcium hydroxide calcium carbonate to the sand cement mixture used for waste solidification. The generated elevated amounts of LEU remnants can be recycled and retargeted. The related technology permits the minimization of the generated fuel waste, saving environment, and improving processing economy.

  9. Impact of the use of the ferritic/martensitic ODS steels cladding on the fuel reprocessing PUREX process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinner, B.; Auroy, M.; Mas, D.; Saint-Jevin, A.; Pasquier-Tilliette, S.

    2012-09-01

    Some ferritic/martensitic oxide dispersed strengthened (F/M ODS) steels are presently developed at CEA for the fuel cladding of the next generation of sodium fast nuclear reactors. The objective of this work is to study if this change of cladding could have any consequences on the spent fuel reprocessing PUREX process. During the fuel dissolution stage the cladding can actually be corroded by nitric acid. But some process specifications impose not to exceed a limit concentration of the corrosion products such as iron and chromium in the dissolution medium. For that purpose the corrosion behavior of these F/M ODS steels is studied in hot and concentrated nitric acid. The influence of some metallurgical parameters such as the chromium content, the elaboration process and the presence of the yttrium oxides is first discussed. The influence of environmental parameters such as the nitric acid concentration, the temperature and the presence of oxidizing species coming from the fuel is then analyzed. The corrosion rate is characterized by mass loss measurements and electrochemical tests. Analyses of the corroded surface are carried out by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  10. Pretreated Landfill Gas Conversion Process via a Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Renewable Combined Fuel Cell-Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Ziaka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new landfill gas-based reforming catalytic processing system for the conversion of gaseous hydrocarbons, such as incoming methane to hydrogen and carbon oxide mixtures, is described and analyzed. The exit synthesis gas (syn-gas is fed to power effectively high-temperature fuel cells such as SOFC types for combined efficient electricity generation. The current research work is also referred on the description and design aspects of permreactors (permeable reformers carrying the same type of landfill gas-reforming reactions. Membrane reactors is a new technology that can be applied efficiently in such systems. Membrane reactors seem to perform better than the nonmembrane traditional reactors. The aim of this research includes turnkey system and process development for the landfill-based power generation and fuel cell industries. Also, a discussion of the efficient utilization of landfill and waste type resources for combined green-type/renewable power generation with increased processing capacity and efficiency via fuel cell systems is taking place. Moreover, pollution reduction is an additional design consideration in the current catalytic processors fuel cell cycles.

  11. On-Board Visual Tracking with Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS)

    CERN Document Server

    Qadir, Ashraf; Semke, William

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a real time tracking algorithm that runs on a 1.2 GHz PC/104 computer on-board a small UAV. The algorithm uses zero mean normalized cross correlation to detect and locate an object in the image. A kalman filter is used to make the tracking algorithm computationally efficient. Object position in an image frame is predicted using the motion model and a search window, centered at the predicted position is generated. Object position is updated with the measurement from object detection. The detected position is sent to the motion controller to move the gimbal so that the object stays at the center of the image frame. Detection and tracking is autonomously carried out on the payload computer and the system is able to work in two different methods. The first method starts detecting and tracking using a stored image patch. The second method allows the operator on the ground to select the interest object for the UAV to track. The system is capable of re-detecting an object, in t...

  12. Medical emergencies on board commercial airlines: is documentation as expected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Michael; Morrosch, Stephan; Sand, Daniel; Altmeyer, Peter; Bechara, Falk G

    2012-12-12

    The purpose of this study was to perform a descriptive, content-based analysis on the different forms of documentation for in-flight medical emergencies that are currently provided in the emergency medical kits on board commercial airlines. Passenger airlines in the World Airline Directory were contacted between March and May 2011. For each participating airline, sample in-flight medical emergency documentation forms were obtained. All items in the sample documentation forms were subjected to a descriptive analysis and compared to a sample "medical incident report" form published by the International Air Transport Association (IATA). A total of 1,318 airlines were contacted. Ten airlines agreed to participate in the study and provided a copy of their documentation forms. A descriptive analysis revealed a total of 199 different items, which were summarized into five sub-categories: non-medical data (63), signs and symptoms (68), diagnosis (26), treatment (22) and outcome (20). The data in this study illustrate a large variation in the documentation of in-flight medical emergencies by different airlines. A higher degree of standardization is preferable to increase the data quality in epidemiologic aeromedical research in the future.

  13. The ALTCRISS project on board the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    Casolino, M; Minori, M; Picozza, P; Fuglesang, C; Galper, A; Popov, A; Benghin, V; Petrov, V M; Nagamatsu, A; Berger, T; Reitz, G; Durante, M; Pugliese, M; Roca, V; Cucinotta, L Sihver F; Semones, E; Shavers, M; Guarnieri, V; Lobascio, C; Castagnolo, D; Fortezza, R

    2007-01-01

    The Altcriss project aims to perform a long term survey of the radiation environment on board the International Space Station. Measurements are being performed with active and passive devices in different locations and orientations of the Russian segment of the station. The goal is to perform a detailed evaluation of the differences in particle fluence and nuclear composition due to different shielding material and attitude of the station. The Sileye-3/Alteino detector is used to identify nuclei up to Iron in the energy range above 60 MeV/n. Several passive dosimeters (TLDs, CR39) are also placed in the same location of Sileye-3 detector. Polyethylene shielding is periodically interposed in front of the detectors to evaluate the effectiveness of shielding on the nuclear component of the cosmic radiation. The project was submitted to ESA in reply to the AO in the Life and Physical Science of 2004 and data taking began in December 2005. Dosimeters and data cards are rotated every six months: up to now three lau...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1015 - Closed vent systems and control devices; or emissions routed to a fuel gas system or process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... devices; or emissions routed to a fuel gas system or process. 63.1015 Section 63.1015 Protection of... fuel gas system or process. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or operator shall comply with this... flares used to comply with the provisions of this subpart shall design and operate the flare as...

  15. Computational simulation of thermal hydraulic processes in the model LMFBR fuel assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayaskhalanov, M. V.; Merinov, I. G.; Korsun, A. S.; Vlasov, M. N.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify a developed software module on the experimental fuel assembly with partial blockage of the flow section. The developed software module for simulation of thermal hydraulic processes in liquid metal coolant is based on theory of anisotropic porous media with specially developed integral turbulence model for coefficients determination. The finite element method is used for numerical solution. Experimental data for hexahedral assembly with electrically heated smooth cylindrical rods cooled by liquid sodium are considered. The results of calculation obtained with developed software module for a case of corner blockade are presented. The calculated distribution of coolant velocities showed the presence of the vortex flow behind the blockade. Features vortex region are in a good quantitative and qualitative agreement with experimental data. This demonstrates the efficiency of the hydrodynamic unit for developed software module. But obtained radial coolant temperature profiles differ significantly from the experimental in the vortex flow region. The possible reasons for this discrepancy were analyzed.

  16. On-line elemental analysis of fossil fuel process streams by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, W.P.

    1995-06-01

    METC is continuing development of a real-time, multi-element plasma based spectrometer system for application to high temperature and high pressure fossil fuel process streams. Two versions are under consideration for development. One is an Inductively Coupled Plasma system that has been described previously, and the other is a high power microwave system. The ICP torch operates on a mixture of argon and helium with a conventional annular swirl flow plasma gas, no auxiliary gas, and a conventional sample stream injection through the base of the plasma plume. A new, demountable torch design comprising three ceramic sections allows bolts passing the length of the torch to compress a double O-ring seal. This improves the reliability of the torch. The microwave system will use the same data acquisition and reduction components as the ICP system; only the plasma source itself is different. It will operate with a 750-Watt, 2.45 gigahertz microwave generator. The plasma discharge will be contained within a narrow quartz tube one quarter wavelength from a shorted waveguide termination. The plasma source will be observed via fiber optics and a battery of computer controlled monochromators. To extract more information from the raw spectral data, a neural net computer program is being developed. This program will calculate analyte concentrations from data that includes analyte and interferant spectral emission intensity. Matrix effects and spectral overlaps can be treated more effectively by this method than by conventional spectral analysis.

  17. Emulsions of crude glycerin from biodiesel processing with fuel oil for industrial heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mize, Hannah E; Lucio, Anthony J; Fhaner, Cassie J; Pratama, Fredy S; Robbins, Lanny A; Karpovich, David S

    2013-02-13

    There is considerable interest in using crude glycerin from biodiesel production as a heating fuel. In this work crude glycerin was emulsified into fuel oil to address difficulties with ignition and sustained combustion. Emulsions were prepared with several grades of glycerin and two grades of fuel oil using direct and phase inversion