WorldWideScience

Sample records for omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty

  1. Cardioprotective mechanism of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Jin; Arita, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, are widely regarded as cardioprotective. Several large-scale, randomized clinical trials have shown that dietary intake of omega-3 PUFAs improves the prognosis of patients with symptomatic heart failure or recent myocardial infarction. Therefore, dietary consumption of omega-3 PUFA is recommended in international guidelines for the general population to prevent the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, the precise mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effects of omega-3 PUFAs are not fully understood. Omega-3 PUFAs can be incorporated into the phospholipid bilayer of cell membranes and can affect membrane fluidity, lipid microdomain formation, and signaling across membranes. Omega-3 PUFAs also modulate the function of membrane ion channels, such as Na and L-type Ca channels, to prevent lethal arrhythmias. Moreover, omega-3 PUFAs also prevent the conversion of arachidonic acid into pro-inflammatory eicosanoids by serving as an alternative substrate for cyclooxygenase or lipoxygenase, resulting in the production of less potent products. In addition, a number of enzymatically oxygenated metabolites derived from omega-3 PUFAs were recently identified as anti-inflammatory mediators. These omega-3 metabolites may contribute to the beneficial effects against CVDs that are attributed to omega-3 PUFAs.

  2. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Heart Rate Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Jeppe Hagstrup Christensen

    2011-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may modulate autonomic control of the heart because omega-3 PUFA is abundant in the brain and other nervous tissue as well as in cardiac tissue. This might partly explain why omega-3 PUFA offer some protection against sudden cardiac death (SCD). The autonomic nervous system is involved in the pathogenesis of SCD. Heart rate variability (HRV) can be used as a non-invasive marker of cardiac autonomic control and a low HRV is a predictor for SCD and arr...

  3. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Heart Rate Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeppe Hagstrup Christensen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA may modulate autonomic control of the heart because omega-3 PUFA is abundant in the brain and other nervous tissue as well as in cardiac tissue. This might partly explain why omega-3 PUFA offer some protection against sudden cardiac death (SCD. The autonomic nervous system is involved in the pathogenesis of SCD. Heart rate variability (HRV can be used as a non-invasive marker of cardiac autonomic control and a low HRV is a predictor for SCD and arrhythmic events. Studies on HRV and omega-3 PUFA have been performed in several populations such as patients with ischemic heart disease, patients with diabetes mellitus, patients with chronic renal failure, and in healthy subjects as well as in children.. The studies have demonstrated a positive association between cellular content of omega-3 PUFA and HRV and supplementation with omega-3 PUFA seems to increase HRV which could be a possible explanation for decreased risk of arrhythmic events and SCD sometimes observed after omega-3 PUFA supplementation. However, the results are not consistent and further research is needed

  4. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and oxygenated metabolism in atherothrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichardant, Michel; Calzada, Catherine; Bernoud-Hubac, Nathalie; Lagarde, Michel; Véricel, Evelyne

    2015-04-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies and clinical trials have reported the health benefits of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including a lower risk of coronary heart diseases. This review mainly focuses on the effects of alpha-linolenic (ALA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids on some risk factors associated with atherothrombosis, including platelet activation, plasma lipid concentrations and oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Special focus is given to the effects of marine PUFA on the formation of eicosanoids and docosanoids, and to the bioactive properties of some oxygenated metabolites of omega-3 PUFA produced by cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases. The antioxidant effects of marine omega-3 PUFA at low concentrations and the pro-oxidant effects of DHA at high concentrations on the redox status of platelets and LDL are highlighted. Non enzymatic peroxidation end-products deriving from omega-3 PUFA such as hydroxy-hexenals, neuroketals and EPA-derived isoprostanes are also considered in relation to atherosclerosis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance".

  5. Do we need 'new' omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids formulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Arrigo F G; Morbini, Martino; Borghi, Claudio

    2015-02-01

    The therapeutic value of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), mainly (but not only) found in fish oils, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA and DHA, respectively), has been extensively studied in a wide variety of disease conditions, predominantly in cardiovascular disease. However, the significant difference in efficacy observed in various conditions with different dosages seems to be at least partly related to the large discrepancy in quality of the product and to the bioavailability of the omega-3 PUFA. The research of new sources (e.g., from arctic Krill oil) and pharmaceutical forms of omega-3 PUFA (e.g., omega-3 carboxylic acids) is needed in order to detect the one with the best bioavailability and efficacy, and with a parallel reduction in the production costs. There is also the need to understand if long-term PUFA supplementation could increase the efficacy of the already-available evidence-based therapies for cardiovascular disease prevention and for the management of the diseases where the use of PUFA could have a possible improving effect.

  6. Heterologous Reconstitution of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Hee; Roh, Kyung Hee; Park, Jong-Sug; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Kim, Hyun Uk; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Kang, Han-Chul; Kim, Jong-Bum

    2015-01-01

    Reconstitution of nonnative, very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (VLC-PUFA) biosynthetic pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana was undertaken. The introduction of three primary biosynthetic activities to cells requires the stable coexpression of multiple proteins within the same cell. Herein, we report that C22 VLC-PUFAs were synthesized from C18 precursors by reactions catalyzed by Δ(6)-desaturase, an ELOVL5-like enzyme involved in VLC-PUFA elongation, and Δ(5)-desaturase. Coexpression of the corresponding genes (McD6DES, AsELOVL5, and PtD5DES) under the control of the seed-specific vicilin promoter resulted in production of docosapentaenoic acid (22:5 n-3) and docosatetraenoic acid (22:4 n-6) as well as eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) in Arabidopsis seeds. The contributions of the transgenic enzymes and endogenous fatty acid metabolism were determined. Specifically, the reasonable synthesis of omega-3 stearidonic acid (18:4 n-3) could be a useful tool to obtain a sustainable system for the production of omega-3 fatty acids in seeds of a transgenic T3 line 63-1. The results indicated that coexpression of the three proteins was stable. Therefore, this study suggests that metabolic engineering of oilseed crops to produce VLC-PUFAs is feasible.

  7. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in early undifferentiated peripheral arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Evgeniyevich Karateev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the effect of a drug of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA in patients with early undifferentiated peripheral arthritis (UPA on the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA, the induction of remission, the use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs, the immunological manifestations of the disease during a 12-week follow-up. Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 40 patients with UPA and a symptom duration of less than 12 months, who took nonsteroidal anti-inflamma tory drugs (NSAIDs and omega-3 PUFA (Vitrum Cardio Omega-3 as one capsule twice daily for 12 weeks. A control group comprised 20 patients with UPA receiving therapy with NSAIDs for 3 months. The groups did not differ significantly (p > 0.05 in age (42.98±10.81 and 48.25±13.92 years, the duration of symptoms (6.73±2.81 and 5.95±2.54 months, the number of patients positive for rheumatoid factor [14 (35% and 7 (35%] and antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptide [9 (22.5% and 7 (35%] patients, the duration of morning stiffness (35.6±25.82 and 37.0±19.15 min, the number of swollen (3.08±1.39 and 3.30±1.21 and tender (3.63±1.63 and 3.85±1.69 joints, and DAS 28 (4.21±0.65 and 4.35±0.63. Results. The use of omega-3 PUFA did not affect significantly the incidence of RA and the use of DMARDs. Clinical remission and low DAS28 were considerably observed in the study group patients, but no statistical significance was achieved. The dose of NSAIDs, including on-demand drugs, was decreased in 22 (55% and 4 (20% patients in the study and control groups, respectively (p = 0.013. At 12 weeks, the study group showed signifi cant reductions in the number of tender joints, the duration of morning stiffness, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, DAS 28, and interleukin 6 levels (p < 0.05; no significant changes were found in the control group. There were no significant differences in the frequency of undesirable events. Conclusion. Omega-3 PUFAs

  8. The Role of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyuan Bu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is the third commonest cause of death following cardiovascular diseases and cancer. In particular, in recent years, the morbidity and mortality of stroke keep remarkable growing. However, stroke still captures people attention far less than cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Past studies have shown that oxidative stress and inflammation play crucial roles in the progress of cerebral injury induced by stroke. Evidence is accumulating that the dietary supplementation of fish oil exhibits beneficial effects on several diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases, and cancer. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs, the major component of fish oil, have been found against oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiovascular diseases. And the potential of n-3 PUFAs in stroke treatment is attracting more and more attention. In this review, we will review the effects of n-3 PUFAs on stroke and mainly focus on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 PUFAs.

  9. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan C. Vesa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents some general facts about omega-3 fatty acids and their role in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for the human body. Their beneficial effects in the prevention of cardiovascular disease have been known for decades. Since then, several epidemiological and interventional trials showed the value of omega-3 acids in the treatment of certain diseases. Most of them revealed the protective role of omega-3 fatty acids on heart and cardiac functions. However, some of these studies couldn?t demonstrate a positive association between fish oils and preventing cardiac events. The major cardiologic societies from European Union and United States of America recommend omega-3 fatty acids as supplements for primary and secondary prophylaxis of cardiovascular diseases.

  10. gamma-linolenic acid does not augment long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid omega-3 status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, DAJ; Hettema, Y; van Doormaal, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ

    1998-01-01

    Augmentation of long chain polyunsaturated omega 3 fatty acid (LCPUFA omega 3) status can be reached by consumption of fish oil or by improvement of the conversion of a-linolenic acid (ALA) to LCPUFA omega 3. Since gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) might activate the rate-limiting Delta-6 desaturation, we

  11. gamma-linolenic acid does not augment long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid omega-3 status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, DAJ; Hettema, Y; van Doormaal, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ

    1998-01-01

    Augmentation of long chain polyunsaturated omega 3 fatty acid (LCPUFA omega 3) status can be reached by consumption of fish oil or by improvement of the conversion of a-linolenic acid (ALA) to LCPUFA omega 3. Since gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) might activate the rate-limiting Delta-6 desaturation, we

  12. Bioavailability of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling

    2008-01-01

    Increasing recognition of the importance of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) has caused greater attention about dietary intake of these fatty acids. Fatty fish is the major dietary source of these fatty acids. Because of the low intake of fish at many places, foods...... enriched with omega-3 LCPUFA can be good alternatives to improve the intake of these fatty acids. Effects of lipid structures and food matrices on bioavailability of omega-3 LCPUFA have been investigated. Short term studies showed that both lipid structure and food matrix affect the bioavailability...

  13. High Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in fat-1 Mice Reduce Inflammatory Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Enji; Kim, Jwa-Jin; Shin, Nara; Yin, Yuhua; Nan, Yongshan; Xu, Yinshi; Hong, Jinpyo; Hsu, Tzung Min; Chung, Woosuk; Ko, Youngkwon; Lee, Wonhyung; Lim, Kyu; Kim, Dong Woon; Lee, Sun Yeul

    2017-06-01

    Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as α-linolenic and linoleic acids, are essential fatty acids in mammals, because they cannot be synthesized de novo. However, fat-1 transgenic mice can synthesize omega-3 PUFAs from omega-6 PUFAs without dietary supplementation of omega-3, leading to abundant omega-3 PUFA accumulation in various tissues. In this study, we used fat-1 transgenic mice to investigate the role of omega-3 PUFAs in response to inflammatory pain. A high omega-3 PUFA tissue content attenuated formalin-induced pain sensitivity, microglial activation, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and the phosphorylation of NR2B, a subunit of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Our findings suggest that elevated omega-3 PUFA levels inhibit NMDA receptor activity in the spinal dorsal horn and modulate inflammatory pain transmission by regulating signal transmission at the spinal dorsal horn, leading to the attenuation of chemically induced inflammatory pain.

  14. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vegetarian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Angela V; Davis, Brenda C; Garg, Manohar L

    2013-08-19

    While intakes of the omega-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA) are similar in vegetarians and non-vegetarians, intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are low in vegetarians and virtually absent in vegans. Plasma, blood and tissue levels of EPA and DHA are lower in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians, although the clinical significance of this is unknown. Vegetarians do not exhibit clinical signs of DHA deficiency, but further research is required to ascertain whether levels observed in vegetarians are sufficient to support optimal health. ALA is endogenously converted to EPA and DHA, but the process is slow and inefficient and is affected by genetics, sex, age and dietary composition. Vegetarians can take practical steps to optimise conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA, including reducing intake of linoleic acid. There are no official separate recommendations for intake of fatty acids by vegetarians. However, we suggest that vegetarians double the current adequate intake of ALA if no direct sources of EPA and DHA are consumed. Vegetarians with increased needs or reduced conversion ability may receive some advantage from DHA and EPA supplements derived from microalgae. A supplement of 200-300 mg/day of DHA and EPA is suggested for those with increased needs, such as pregnant and lactating women, and those with reduced conversion ability, such as older people or those who have chronic disease (eg, diabetes).

  15. The Multifaceted Effects of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on the Hallmarks of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Stephenson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid have been shown to have multiple beneficial antitumour actions that affect the essential alterations that dictate malignant growth. In this review we explore the putative mechanisms of action of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in cancer protection in relation to self-sufficiency in growth signals, insensitivity to growth-inhibitory signals, apoptosis, limitless replicative potential, sustained angiogenesis, and tissue invasion, and how these will hopefully translate from bench to bedside.

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  17. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Prevention of Mood and Anxiety Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Kuan-Pin; Matsuoka, Yutaka; Pae, Chi-Un

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders in general, and major depression and anxiety disorders in particular, account for a large burden of disability, morbidity and premature mortality worldwide. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have a range of neurobiological activities in modulation of neurotransmitters, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation and neuroplasticity, which could contribute to psychotropic effects. Here we reviewed recent research on the benefits of omega-3 PUFA supplements in prevention a...

  18. Bioavailability of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling

    2008-01-01

    Increasing recognition of the importance of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) has caused greater attention about dietary intake of these fatty acids. Fatty fish is the major dietary source of these fatty acids. Because of the low intake of fish at many places, foods...... enriched with omega-3 LCPUFA can be good alternatives to improve the intake of these fatty acids. Effects of lipid structures and food matrices on bioavailability of omega-3 LCPUFA have been investigated. Short term studies showed that both lipid structure and food matrix affect the bioavailability...... of these fatty acids, whereas diverse results have been reported from long-term studies. Therefore more studies are encouraged to clarify the long-term effects....

  19. Biotechnological production and applications of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, L.; Swaaf, de M.E.

    2004-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid composed of 22 carbon atoms and six double bonds. Because the first double bond, as counted from the methyl terminus, is at position three, DHA belongs to the so-called omega-3 group. In recent years, DHA has attracted much attention because

  20. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid biomarkers and coronary heart disease: Pooling project of 19 cohort studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for primary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) remains controversial. Most prior longitudinal studies evaluated self-reported consumption rather than biomarkers. This study sought to evaluate biomarkers of seafood-derived eicosapentaenoic acid ...

  1. Fortification of foods with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Brothersen, Carl; McMahon, Donald J

    2014-01-01

    A $600 million nutritional supplements market growing at 30% every year attests to consumer awareness of, and interests in, health benefits attributed to these supplements. For over 80 years the importance of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption for human health has been established. The FDA recently approved the use of ω-3 PUFAs in supplements. Additionally, the market for ω-3 PUFA ingredients grew by 24.3% last year, which affirms their popularity and public awareness of their benefits. PUFAs are essential for normal human growth; however, only minor quantities of the beneficial ω-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are synthesized by human metabolism. Rather PUFAs are obtained via dietary or nutritional supplementation and modified into other beneficial metabolites. A vast literature base is available on the health benefits and biological roles of ω-3 PUFAs and their metabolism; however, information on their dietary sources and palatability of foods incorporated with ω-3 PUFAs is limited. DHA and EPA are added to many foods that are commercially available, such as infant and pet formulae, and they are also supplemented in animal feed to incorporate them in consumer dairy, meat, and poultry products. The chief sources of EPA and DHA are fish oils or purified preparations from microalgae, which when added to foods, impart a fishy flavor that is considered unacceptable. This fishy flavor is completely eliminated by extensively purifying preparations of n-3 PUFA sources. While n-3 PUFA lipid autoxidation is considered the main cause of fishy flavor, the individual oxidation products identified thus far, such as unsaturated carbonyls, do not appear to contribute to fishy flavor or odor. Alternatively, various compound classes such as free fatty acids and volatile sulfur compounds are known to impart fishy flavor to foods. Identification of the causative compounds to reduce and eventually eliminate fishy flavor is important

  2. Lowered omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in serum phospholipids and cholesteryl esters of depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, M; Christophe, A; Delanghe, J; Altamura, C; Neels, H; Meltzer, H Y

    1999-03-22

    Depression is associated with a lowered degree of esterification of serum cholesterol, an increased C20:4omega6/C20:5omega3 ratio and decreases in omega3 fractions in fatty acids (FAs) or in the red blood cell membrane. The aims of the present study were to examine: (i) serum phospholipid and cholesteryl ester compositions of individual saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) in major depressed patients vs. healthy volunteers; (ii) the relationships between the above FAs and lowered serum zinc (Zn), a marker of the inflammatory response in depression; and (iii) the effects of subchronic treatment with antidepressants on FAs in depression. The composition of the FAs was determined by means of thin layer chromatography in conjunction with gas chromatography. Lipid concentrations were assayed by enzymatic colorimetric methods. The oxidative potential index (OPI) of FAs was computed in 34 major depressed inpatients and 14 normal volunteers. Major depression was associated with: increased MUFA and C22:5omega3 proportions and increased C20:4omega6/C20:5omega3 and C22:5omega6/C22:6omega3 ratios; lower C22:4omega6, C20:5omega3 and C22:5omega3 fractions in phospholipids; lower C18:3omega3, C20:5omega3 and total (sigma)omega3 FAs, and higher C20:4omega6/C20:5omega3 and sigmaomega6/sigmaomega3 ratios in cholesteryl esters; lower serum concentrations of phospholipids and cholesteryl esters; and a decreased OPI. In depression, there were significant and positive correlations between serum Zn and C20:5omega3 and C22:6omega3 fractions in phospholipids; and significant inverse correlations between serum Zn and the sigmaomega6/sigmaomega3, C20:4omega6/C20:5omega3, and C22:5omega6/C22:6omega3 ratios in phospholipids. There was no significant effect of antidepressive treatment on any of the FAs. The results show that, in major depression, there is a deficiency of omega3 PUFAs and a compensatory increase in MUFAs and C22:5omega6 in

  3. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and mood disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astorg Pierre

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis of a role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in the pathophysiology of depression has emerged from the observation that depressed patients had decreased levels of n-3 long-chain PUFA (especially eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA, and docosahexaenoic acid, DHA in plasma, erythrocytes, or adipose tissue, as compared to healthy controls, a decrease which was not observed with n-6 PUFA. Suicide attempters have much lower levels of EPA and DHA in red blood cells than hospital controls. Recently, a decreased level of DHA has also been observed in the post-mortem brain cortex of patients with major depression. The fact that these changes were specific of the n-3 family suggests that a low n-3 PUFA status or intake predisposes to depression. International ecological studies show a strong negative correlation between apparent fish consumption and the prevalence of depression or of bipolar disorder, as well as between DHA content of maternal milk and the prevalence of postpartum depression. In cross-sectional studies in several countries, a higher risk of depression or of depressive symptoms has been found in subjects with a lower fish consumption. In a French cohort of adults, habitual fatty fish consumption or a higher n-3 PUFA intake were associated with a lower risk of depression, especially of recurrent depression. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials have been conducted to test the effects of long-chain n-3 PUFA in depressive or bipolar patients. EPA as an adjunct to a standard treatment appears to improve depressive patients or bipolar patients in depressive phase when given at the dose of 1-2 g/day, and fish oil prevents depressive recurrences in bipolar patients. Recently, a mixture of EPA plus DHA has proven efficiency in untreated depressive children. In summary, many epidemiological and clinical works in the last ten years have abundantly documented the existence of an association between a low n-3 PUFA intake or status and a

  4. Metabolic engineering of microorganisms to produce omega-3 very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yangmin; Wan, Xia; Jiang, Mulan; Hu, Chuanjiong; Hu, Hanhua; Huang, Fenghong

    2014-10-01

    Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) have received growing attention due to their significant roles in human health. Currently the main source of these nutritionally and medically important fatty acids is marine fish, which has not met ever-increasing global demand. Microorganisms are an important alternative source also being explored. Although many microorganisms accumulate omega-3 LC-PUFAs naturally, metabolic engineering might still be necessary for significantly improving their yields. Here, we review recent research involving the engineering of microorganisms for production of omega-3 LC-PUFAs, including eicospentaenoic acid and docosohexaenoic acid. Both reconstitution of omega-3 LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathways and modification of existing pathways in microorganisms have demonstrated the potential to produce high levels of omega-3 LC-PUFAs. However, the yields of omega-3 LC-PUFAs in host systems have been substantially limited by potential metabolic bottlenecks, which might be caused partly by inefficient flux of fatty acid intermediates between the acyl-CoA and different lipid class pools. Although fatty acid flux in both native and heterologous microbial hosts might be controlled by several acyltransferases, evidence has suggested that genetic manipulation of one acyltransferase alone could significantly increase the accumulation of LC-PUFAs. The number of oleaginous microorganisms that can be genetically transformed is increasing, which will advance engineering efforts to maximize LC-PUFA yields in microbial strains.

  5. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids accelerate airway repair by activating FFA4 in club cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung-Pil; Park, Soo-Jin; Kang, Saeromi; Koh, Jung-Min; Sato, Koichi; Chung, Hae Young; Okajima, Fumikazu; Im, Dong-Soon

    2017-03-17

    A GPCR named FFA4 (also known as GPR120) was found to act as a GPCR for omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Its expression has been reported in lung epithelial club cells. The authors investigated whether supplementation of the omega-3 fatty acids benefits lung health. Omacor® (7.75 mg kg-1), clinically prescribed preparation of omega-3 fatty acids and FFA4-knockout mice were utilized in a naphthalene-induced mouse model of acute airway injury (one injection of 30 mg kg-1, i.p.). Naphthalene injection induced complete destruction of bronchiolar epithelial cells within a day. Appearance of bronchiolar epithelial cells was observed after 21 days in control mice. It was found, however, that supplementation of omacor accelerated the recovery. The appearance of bronchiolar epithelial cells was observed between 7 and 14 days after naphthalene injury in omacor-treated mice. In isolated club cells, omega-3 fatty acids were found to stimulate cell proliferation and migration but to inhibit cell differentiation. Using pharmacological tools and FFA4-knockout mice, FFA4 was found to be responsible for omega-3 fatty acids-induced proliferation in vitro in club cells. Furthermore, accelerated recovery from naphthalene-induced airway injury in omacor-treated mice was not observed in FFA4-knockout mice in vivo. Present findings indicate that omega-3 fatty acids-induced proliferation of bronchiole epithelial cells through FFA4 is responsible for omacor-induced accelerated recovery from airway injury. Therefore, intermittent administration of omacor needs to be tested for acute airway injury, because omega-3 fatty acids stimulate proliferation but inhibits differentiation of club cells.

  6. Beneficial Effects of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Gestational Diabetes: Consequences in Macrosomia and Adulthood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Akadiri Yessoufou; Nekoua, Magloire P.; Adam Gbankoto; Yohana Mashalla; Kabirou Moutairou

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are increasingly being used to prevent cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes and obesity. In this paper, we report data on the observed effects of omega-3 PUFA on major metabolic disorders and immune system disruption during gestational diabetes and their consequences on macrosomia. While controversies still exist about omega-3 PUFA effects on antioxidant status regarding the level of omega-3 PUFA in diet supplementation, their lipid-lowering ...

  7. Chemopreventive effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and atorvastatin in rats with bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ashmawy, Nahla E; Khedr, Eman G; El-Bahrawy, Hoda A; Al-Tantawy, Samar M

    2017-02-01

    Bladder cancer remains a huge concern for the medical community because of its incidence and prevalence rates, as well as high percentage of recurrence and progression. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and atorvastatin proved anti-inflammatory effects through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma mechanism. However, their chemopreventive effect still remained to be examined and clarified. In this study, bladder cancer was induced in rats by the chemical carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid: 2:3 w/w; 1200 mg/kg) and/or atorvastatin (6 mg/kg) were given orally daily to rats for eight consecutive weeks concomitantly with N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine and continued for further 4 weeks after cessation of N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine administration. The histopathological examination of rat bladder revealed the presence of tumors and the absence of apoptotic bodies in sections from N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine group, while tumors were absent and apoptotic bodies were clearly observed in sections from rat groups treated with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, atorvastatin, or both drugs. The study of the molecular mechanisms illustrated downregulation of COX-2 and P53 (mutant) genes and suppression of transforming growth factor beta-1 and the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde in serum of rats of the three treated groups. This chemopreventive effect was confirmed by and associated with lower level of bladder tumor antigen in urine. However, the combined treatment with both drugs exhibited the major protective effect and nearly corrected the dyslipidemia that has been induced by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine. Collectively, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and atorvastatin, besides having anti-inflammatory properties, proved a chemopreventive effect against bladder cancer, which nominates them to be used as

  8. Metabolites derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are important for cardioprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Kim; Malick, Mandy; Madingou, Ness; Touchette, Charles; Bourque-Riel, Valérie; Tomaro, Leandro; Rousseau, Guy

    2015-12-15

    Although controversial, some data suggest that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are beneficial to cardiovascular diseases, and could reduce infarct size. In parallel, we have reported that the administration of Resolvin D1 (RvD1), a metabolite of docosahexaenoic acid, an omega-3 PUFA, can reduce infarct size. The present study was designed to determine if the inhibition of two important enzymes involved in the formation of RvD1 from omega-3 PUFA could reduce the cardioprotective effect of omega-3 PUFA. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a diet rich in omega-3 PUFA during 10 days before myocardial infarction (MI). Two days before MI, rats received a daily dose of Meloxicam, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, PD146176, an inhibitor of 15-lipoxygenase, both inhibitors or vehicle. MI was induced by the occlusion of the left coronary artery for 40min followed by reperfusion. Infarct size and neutrophil accumulation were evaluated after 24h of reperfusion while caspase-3, -8 and Akt activities were assessed at 30min of reperfusion. Rats receiving inhibitors, alone or in combination, showed a larger infarct size than those receiving omega-3 PUFA alone. Caspase-3 and -8 activities are higher in ischemic areas with inhibitors while Akt activity is diminished in groups treated with inhibitors. Moreover, the study showed that RvD1 restores cardioprotection when added to the inhibitors. Results from this study indicate that the inhibition of the metabolism of Omega-3 PUFA attenuate their cardioprotective properties. Then, resolvins seem to be an important mediator in the cardioprotection conferred by omega-3 PUFA in our experimental model of MI.

  9. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Prevention of Mood and Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kuan-Pin; Matsuoka, Yutaka; Pae, Chi-Un

    2015-08-31

    Psychiatric disorders in general, and major depression and anxiety disorders in particular, account for a large burden of disability, morbidity and premature mortality worldwide. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have a range of neurobiological activities in modulation of neurotransmitters, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation and neuroplasticity, which could contribute to psychotropic effects. Here we reviewed recent research on the benefits of omega-3 PUFA supplements in prevention against major depression, bipolar disorders, interferon-α-induced depression patients with chronic hepatitis C viral infection, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The biological mechanisms underlying omega-3 PUFAs'psychotropic effects are proposed and reviewed. Nutrition is a modifiable environmental factor that might be important in prevention medicine, which have been applied for many years in the secondary prevention of heart disease with omega-3 PUFAs. This review extends the notion that nutrition in psychiatry is a modifiable environmental factor and calls for more researches on prospective clinical studies to justify the preventive application of omega-3 PUFAs in daily practice.

  10. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: The Way Forward in Times of Mixed Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weylandt, Karsten H; Serini, Simona; Chen, Yong Q; Su, Hui-Min; Lim, Kyu; Cittadini, Achille; Calviello, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Almost forty years ago, it was first hypothesized that an increased dietary intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from fish fat could exert protective effects against several pathologies. Decades of intense preclinical investigation have supported this hypothesis in a variety of model systems. Several clinical cardiovascular studies demonstrated the beneficial health effects of omega-3 PUFA, leading medical institutions worldwide to publish recommendations for their increased intake. However, particularly in recent years, contradictory results have been obtained in human studies focusing on cardiovascular disease and the clinical evidence in other diseases, particularly chronic inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, was never established to a degree that led to clear approval of treatment with omega-3 PUFA. Recent data not in line with the previous findings have sparked a debate on the health efficacy of omega-3 PUFA and the usefulness of increasing their intake for the prevention of a number of pathologies. In this review, we aim to examine the controversies on the possible use of these fatty acids as preventive/curative tools against the development of cardiovascular, metabolic, and inflammatory diseases, as well as several kinds of cancer.

  11. Use of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids to Treat Inspissated Bile Syndrome: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Woo Young; Cho, Min Jeng; Han, Hye Seung

    2016-01-01

    Inspissated bile syndrome (IBS) is a rare condition in which thick intraluminal bile, including bile plugs, sludge, or stones, blocks the extrahepatic bile ducts in an infant. A 5-week-old female infant was admitted for evaluation of jaundice and acholic stool. Diagnostic tests, including ultrasound sonography, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, and a hepatobiliary scan, were not conclusive. Although the diagnosis was unclear, the clinical and laboratory findings improved gradually on administration of urodeoxycholic acid and lipid emulsion containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for 3 weeks. However, a liver biopsy was suggestive of biliary atresia. This finding forced us to perform intraoperative cholangiography, which revealed a patent common bile duct with impacted thick bile. We performed normal saline irrigation and the symptom was improved, the final diagnosis was IBS. Thus, we herein report that IBS can be treated with omega-3 PUFAs as an alternative to surgical intervention. PMID:28090475

  12. [Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids and systemic lupus erythematosus: what do we know?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Mariane Curado; Santos, Fabiana de Miranda Moura; Telles, Rosa Weiss; Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson; Lanna, Cristina Costa Duarte

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have demonstrated the impact of omega-3 fatty acids on the concentration of C reactive protein (CRP), pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, cytokines, chemokines and other inflammatory mediators. Therefore, the supplementation of these types of lipids may represent additional option treatment for chronic systemic diseases, such as Systemic Lupus Erythematous and other rheumatic diseases. The role of these lipids has not been well established, yet. However, it seems there is a direct relationship between its intake and the decrease of the disease clinical manifestations as well as of the inflammatory status of the patients. Thus, the aim of this manuscript is to present a thorough review on the effects of omega-3 fatty acids in patients with SLE. Bibliographic data set as the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) and Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) were searched using as key words: systemic lupus erythematous (SLE), polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3, eicosapentanoic acid (EPA), docosahexanoic acid (DHA), antioxidants and diet. Manuscripts published up to September 2013 were included. There were 43 articles related to the topic, however only 15 pertained human studies, with three review articles and 12 clinical studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Inhibited Tumor Growth via Preventing the Decrease of Genomic DNA Methylation in Colorectal Cancer Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qionglin; Wen, Juan; Chen, Guangzhao; Ge, Miaomiao; Gao, Yihua; Ye, Xiaoxia; Liu, Chunan; Cai, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Omge-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) exhibited significant effect in inhibiting various tumors. However, the mechanisms of its anticancer role have not been fully demonstrated. The declination of 5-methylcytosine (5 mC) was closely associated with poor prognosis of tumors. To explore whether omega-3 PUFAs influences on DNA methylation level in tumors, colorectal cancer (CRC) rat model were constructed using N-methyl phosphite nitrourea and omega-3 PUFAs were fed to part of the rats during tumor induction. The PUFAs contents in the rats of 3 experimental groups were measured using gas chromatography and 5 mC level were detected by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that tumor incidence in omega-3 treated rats was much lower than in CRC model rats, which confirmed significant antitumor role of omega-3 PUFAs. Six PUFA members categorized to omega-3 and omega-6 families were quantified and the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 PUFAs was remarkably lower in omega-3 PUFAs treatment group than in CRC model group. 5 mC content in omega-3 PUFAs treated rats was higher than in CRC model rats, suggesting omega-3 PUFAs promoted 5 mC synthesis. Therefore, omega-3 PUFAs probably inhibited tumor growth via regulating DNA methylation process, which provided a novel anticancer mechanism of omega-3 PUFAs from epigenetic view.

  14. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the ... the blood in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of ...

  15. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids promote liver regeneration after 90% hepatectomy in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Dong Qiu; Sheng Wang; Yue Yang; Xiao-Peng Yan

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the effectiveness of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA) administration on liver regeneration after 90% partial hepatectomy (PH) in METHODS:ω-3 PUFAs were intravenously injected in the ω-3 PUFA group before PH surgery.PH,sparing only the caudate lobe,was performed in both the control and the ω-3 PUFA group.Survival rates,liver weight/body weight ratios,liver weights,HE staining,transmission electron microscope imaging,nuclearassociated antigen Ki-67,enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and signal transduction were evaluated to analyze liver regeneration.RESULTS:All rats in the control group died within 30 h after hepatectomy.Survival rates in the ω-3 PUFA group were 20/20 at 30 h and 4/20 1 wk after PH.Liver weight/body weight ratios and liver weights increased significantly in the ω-3 PUFA group.The structure of sinusoidal endothelial cells and space of Disse was greatly restored in the ω-3 PUFA group compared to the control group after PH.In the ω-3 PUFA group,interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 levels were significantly increased whereas IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α levels were dramatically decreased.In addition,activation of protein kinase B (Akt) and of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling pathway were identified at an earlier time after PH in the ω-3 PUFA group.CONCLUSION:Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may prevent acute liver failure and promote liver regeneration after 90% hepatectomy in rats.

  16. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: Their potential role in blood pressure prevention and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Borghi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs from fish and fish oils appear to protect against coronary heart disease: their dietary intake is in fact inversely associated to cardiovascular disease morbidity/mortality in population studies. Recent evidence suggests that at least part of their heart protective effect is mediated by a relatively small but significant decrease in blood pressure level. In fact, omega-3 PUFAs exhibit wide-ranging biological actions that include regulating both vasomotor tone and renal sodium excretion, partly competing with omega- 6 PUFAs for common metabolic enzymes and thereby decreasing the production of vasocostrincting rather than vasodilating and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids. PUFAs also reduce angiotensin- converting enzyme (ACE activity, angiotensin II formation, TGF-beta expression, enhance eNO generation and activate the parasympathetic nervous system. The final result is improved vasodilation and arterial compliance of both small and large arteries. Preliminary clinical trials involving dyslipidemic patients, diabetics and elderly subjects, as well as normotensive and hypertensive subjects confirm this working hypothesis. Future research will clarify if PUFA supplementation could improve the antihypertensive action of specific blood pressure lowering drug classes and of statins.

  17. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for cardiovascular diseases: present, past and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Tatsuno, Ichiro

    2017-08-01

    Large-scale epidemiological studies on Greenlandic, Canadian and Alaskan Eskimos have examined the health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids consumed as part of the diet, and found statistically significant relative reduction in cardiovascular risk in people consuming omega-3 fatty acids. Areas covered: This article reviews studies on omega-3 fatty acids during the last 50 years, and identifies issues relevant to future studies on cardiovascular (CV) risk. Expert commentary: Although a meta-analysis of large-scale prospective cohort studies and randomized studies reported that fish and fish oil consumption reduced coronary heart disease-related mortality and sudden cardiac death, omega-3 fatty acids have not yet been shown to be effective in secondary prevention trials on patients with multiple cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The ongoing long-term CV interventional outcome studies investigate high-dose, prescription-strength omega-3 fatty acids. The results are expected to clarify the potential role of omega-3 fatty acids in reducing CV risk. The anti-inflammatory properties of omega-3 fatty acids are also important. Future clinical trials should also focus on the role of these anti-inflammatory mediators in human arteriosclerotic diseases as well as inflammatory diseases.

  18. Nutritional evaluation of microalgae oils rich in omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids as an alternative for fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryckebosch, Eline; Bruneel, Charlotte; Termote-Verhalle, Romina; Goiris, Koen; Muylaert, Koenraad; Foubert, Imogen

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the nutritional value of the total lipid extract of different omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids producing photoautotrophic microalgae in one study. It was shown that microalgae oils from Isochrysis, Nannochloropsis, Phaeodactylum, Pavlova and Thalassiosira contain sufficient omega-3 LC-PUFA to serve as an alternative for fish oil, which was used as the 'golden standard'. In the microalgae oils an important part of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are present in the polar lipid fraction, which may be favourable from a bioavailability and stability viewpoint. Consumption of microalgae oil ensures intake of sterols and carotenoids. The intake of sterols, including cholesterol and phytosterols, is probably not relevant. The intake of carotenoids is however definitely significant and could give the microalgae oils a nutritional added value compared to fish oil.

  19. Role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for the treatment of patients with major depression disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A rising number of studies have raised questions regarding the association of mental illness in a particular mood disorders such as depression with low intake of omega-3 fatty acids. Given all the side-effects that traditional antidepressants put patients at risk for, omega-3 is certainly a better alternative that might improve depressive symptoms and patient′s compliance to treatment by removing the stigma of psychiatric drugs. This study critically reviewed 12 relevant studies from PubMed published between 1992 - 2013 in order to determine whether omega-3 supplements or diet rich in fish were likely to show affectivity in reducing depressive symptoms. Most of the studies showed clear association between omega-3 and reduced depressive symptoms. Studies support the adjunctive role of omega-3 and high fish consumption in reducing depression. Omega-3 fatty acids have also shown to be safe when used during pregnancy to prevent postpartum depression. Although some studies showed mixed results of positive findings, the use of omega-3 supplements could not be an absolute substitute of antidepressants due to limitation in their studies. Minority of the studies reviewed did not correlate omega-3 with the improvement of depressive symptoms for many reasons such as the healthy life-style of subjects, etc. Given the fact that depression has various causes, this puts the testing of omega-3 in a lot of bias due to several variables such as dose, formula, period administered as well as the candidates′ state of health. Further research is definitely warranted on a larger sample size with close follow-up using proper assessment tools. Omega-3 has shown to have minimal or no side-effects at all, which makes it important for mental health professional to at least ensure that patients diagnosed with depression have adequate amounts of omega-3 fatty acids whether by supplementation or in their daily diet.

  20. Impact of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on vascular function and blood pressure: Relevance for cardiovascular outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colussi, G; Catena, C; Novello, M; Bertin, N; Sechi, L A

    2017-03-01

    To overview the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on blood vessels and blood pressure (BP) and their relevance for cardiovascular prevention. The importance of omega-3 PUFA for the cardiovascular system has come under the spotlight during the last decades. These fatty acids are present in variable amounts in cell membranes of mammal species, and their content affects a variety of cellular functions. Evidence obtained in animal and human studies suggests that omega-3 PUFA affect many steps of the atherosclerotic process. In blood vessels, omega-3 PUFA improve endothelial function; promote vasodilatation through relaxation of smooth muscle cells; exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antithrombotic actions; delay development of plaques and increase their stability; and decrease wall stiffening. Omega-3 PUFA might affect BP, and studies conducted with ambulatory monitoring suggest that supplementation with these fatty acids decreases the average 24-h BP levels. This effect on BP is related to the pretreatment membrane content of omega-3 PUFA, and this might explain some inconsistencies among intervention trials. Meta-analyses indicate that omega-3 PUFA have a mild but significant BP lowering effect. While encouraging results were initially obtained with the use of omega-3 PUFA supplements in secondary prevention trials, meta-analyses have not confirmed the ability of these fatty acids to decrease the risk of coronary heart and cerebrovascular disease. Omega-3 PUFA are associated with significant improvement in vascular function and lowering of BP. However, the evidence currently supporting the role of these fatty acids in cardiovascular prevention is weak and needs further investigation. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  1. Chronic Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Treatment Variably Affects Cellular Repolarization in a Healed Post-MI Arrhythmia Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Ingrid M.; Nishijima, Yoshinori; Vargas-Pinto, Pedro; Baine, Stephen H.; Sridhar, Arun; Li, Chun; Billman, George E.; Carnes, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Over the last 40 years omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been shown to be anti-arrhythmic or pro-arrhythmic depending on the method and duration of administration and model studied. We previously reported that omega-3 PUFAs do not confer anti-arrhythmic properties and are pro-arrhythmic in canine model of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Here, we evaluated the effects of chronic omega-3 PUFA treatment in post-MI animals susceptible (VF+) or resistant (VF−) to ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Methods: Perforated patch clamp techniques were used to measure cardiomyocyte action potential durations (APD) at 50 and 90% repolarization and short term variability of repolarization. The early repolarizing transient outward potassium current Ito was also studied. Results: Omega-3 PUFAs prolonged the action potential in VF− myocytes at both 50 and 90% repolarization. Short term variability of repolarization was increased in both untreated and treated VF− myocytes vs. controls. Ito was unaffected by omega-3 PUFA treatment. Omega-3 PUFA treatment attenuated the action potential prolongation in VF+ myocytes, but did not return repolarization to control values. Conclusions: Omega-3 PUFAs do not confer anti-arrhythmic properties in the setting of healed myocardial infarction in a canine model of SCD. In canines previously resistant to ventricular fibrillation (VF−), omega-3 PUFA treatment prolonged the action potential in VF− myocytes, and may contribute to pro-arrhythmic responses. PMID:27378936

  2. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Attenuate Fibroblast Activation and Kidney Fibrosis Involving MTORC2 Signaling Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhifeng; Yang, Haiyuan; Wang, Ying; Ren, Jiafa; Dai, Yifan; Dai, Chunsun

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies showed the correlation between the deficiency of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) and the progression of chronic kidney diseases (CKD), however, the role and mechanisms for n-3 PUFAs in protecting against kidney fibrosis remain obscure. In this study, NRK-49F cells, a rat kidney interstitial fibroblast cell line, were stimulated with TGFβ1. A Caenorhabditis elegans fat-1 transgenic mouse model in which n-3 PUFAs are endogenously produced from n-6 PUFAs owing to the expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase were deployed. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), one member of n-3 PUFAs family, could suppress TGFβ1-induced fibroblast activation at a dose and time dependent manner. Additionally, DHA could largely inhibit TGFβ1-stimulated Akt but not S6 or Smad3 phosphorylation at a time dependent manner. To decipher the role for n-3 PUFAs in protecting against kidney fibrosis, fat-1 transgenic mice were operated with unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO). Compared to the wild types, fat-1 transgenics developed much less kidney fibrosis and inflammatory cell accumulation accompanied by less p-Akt (Ser473), p-Akt (Thr308), p-S6 and p-Smad3 in kidney tissues at day 7 after UUO. Thus, n-3 PUFAs can attenuate fibroblast activation and kidney fibrosis, which may be associated with the inhibition of mTORC2 signaling. PMID:28393852

  3. Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids induce plasminogen activator activity and DNA damage in rabbit spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokoli, A N; Lavrentiadou, S N; Zervos, I A; Tsantarliotou, M P; Georgiadis, M P; Nikolaidis, E A; Botsoglou, N; Boscos, C M; Taitzoglou, I A

    2017-02-20

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect(s) of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) on rabbit semen. Adult rabbit bucks were assigned to two groups that were given two diets, a standard diet (control) and a diet supplemented with ω-3 PUFA. Sperm samples were collected from all bucks with the use of an artificial vagina in 20-day intervals, for a total period of 120 days. The enrichment of membranes in ω-3 PUFA was manifested by the elevation of the 22:5 ω-3 (docosapentaenoic acid [DPA]) levels within 40 days. This increase in DPA content did not affect semen characteristics (i.e., concentration, motility and viability). However, it was associated with the induction of lipid peroxidation in spermatozoa, as determined on the basis of the malondialdehyde content. Lipid peroxidation was associated with DNA fragmentation in ω-3 PUFA-enriched spermatozoa and a concomitant increase in plasminogen activator (PA) activity. The effects of ω-3 PUFA on sperm cells were evident within 40 days of ω-3 PUFA dietary intake and exhibited peack values on day 120. Our findings suggest that an ω-3 PUFA-rich diet may not affect semen characteristics; however, it may have a negative impact on the oxidative status and DNA integrity of the spermatozoa, which was associated with an induction of PAs activity.

  4. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Structural and Functional Effects on the Vascular Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Michela; Grillo, Andrea; Losurdo, Pasquale; Panizon, Emiliano; Mearelli, Filippo; Cattin, Luigi; Barazzoni, Rocco; Carretta, Renzo

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) consumption is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Increasing evidence demonstrating a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFA on arterial wall properties is progressively emerging. We reviewed the recent available evidence for the cardiovascular effects of n-3 PUFA focusing on structural and functional properties of the vascular wall. In experimental studies and clinical trials n-3 PUFA have shown the ability to improve arterial hemodynamics by reducing arterial stiffness, thus explaining some of its cardioprotective properties. Recent studies suggest beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA on endothelial activation, which are likely to improve vascular function. Several molecular, cellular, and physiological pathways influenced by n-3 PUFA can affect arterial wall properties and therefore interfere with the atherosclerotic process. Although the relative weight of different physiological and molecular mechanisms and the dose-response on arterial wall properties have yet to be determined, n-3 PUFA have the potential to beneficially impact arterial wall remodeling and cardiovascular outcomes by targeting arterial wall stiffening and endothelial dysfunction.

  5. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Structural and Functional Effects on the Vascular Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Zanetti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA consumption is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Increasing evidence demonstrating a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFA on arterial wall properties is progressively emerging. We reviewed the recent available evidence for the cardiovascular effects of n-3 PUFA focusing on structural and functional properties of the vascular wall. In experimental studies and clinical trials n-3 PUFA have shown the ability to improve arterial hemodynamics by reducing arterial stiffness, thus explaining some of its cardioprotective properties. Recent studies suggest beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA on endothelial activation, which are likely to improve vascular function. Several molecular, cellular, and physiological pathways influenced by n-3 PUFA can affect arterial wall properties and therefore interfere with the atherosclerotic process. Although the relative weight of different physiological and molecular mechanisms and the dose-response on arterial wall properties have yet to be determined, n-3 PUFA have the potential to beneficially impact arterial wall remodeling and cardiovascular outcomes by targeting arterial wall stiffening and endothelial dysfunction.

  6. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids antagonize macrophage inflammation via activation of AMPK/SIRT1 pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingzhong Xue

    Full Text Available Macrophages play a key role in obesity-induced inflammation. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA exert anti-inflammatory functions in both humans and animal models, but the exact cellular signals mediating the beneficial effects are not completely understood. We previously found that two nutrient sensors AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and SIRT1 interact to regulate macrophage inflammation. Here we aim to determine whether ω-3 PUFAs antagonize macrophage inflammation via activation of AMPK/SIRT1 pathway. Treatment of ω-3 PUFAs suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced cytokine expression in macrophages. Luciferase reporter assays, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA and Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays show that treatment of macrophages with ω-3 PUFAs significantly inhibits LPS-induced NF-κB signaling. Interestingly, DHA also increases expression, phosphorylation and activity of the major isoform α1AMPK, which further leads to SIRT1 over-expression. More importantly, DHA mimics the effect of SIRT1 on deacetylation of the NF-κB subunit p65, and the ability of DHA to deacetylate p65 and inhibit its signaling and downstream cytokine expression require SIRT1. In conclusion, ω-3 PUFAs negatively regulate macrophage inflammation by deacetylating NF-κB, which acts through activation of AMPK/SIRT1 pathway. Our study defines AMPK/SIRT1 as a novel cellular mediator for the anti-inflammatory effects of ω-3 PUFAs.

  7. New insights into the health effects of dietary saturated and omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lorgeril, Michel; Salen, Patricia

    2012-05-21

    Cardiovascular diseases and cancers are leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Reducing dietary saturated fat and replacing it with polyunsaturated fat is still the main dietary strategy to prevent cardiovascular diseases, although major flaws have been reported in the analyses supporting this approach. Recent studies introducing the concept of myocardial preconditioning have opened new avenues to understand the complex interplay between the various lipids and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The optimal dietary fat profile includes a low intake of both saturated and omega-6 fatty acids and a moderate intake of omega-3 fatty acids. This profile is quite similar to the Mediterranean diet. On the other hand, recent studies have found a positive association between omega-6 and breast cancer risk. In contrast, omega-3 fatty acids do have anticancer properties. It has been shown that certain (Mediterranean) polyphenols significantly increase the endogenous synthesis of omega-3 whereas high intake of omega-6 decreases it. Finally, epidemiological studies suggest that a high omega-3 to omega-6 ratio may be the optimal strategy to decrease breast cancer risk. Thus, the present high intake of omega-6 in many countries is definitely not the optimal strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease and cancers. A moderate intake of plant and marine omega-3 in the context of the traditional Mediterranean diet (low in saturated and omega-6 fatty acids but high in plant monounsaturated fat) appears to be the best approach to reduce the risk of both cardiovascular diseases and cancers, in particular breast cancer.

  8. Beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated Fatty acids in gestational diabetes: consequences in macrosomia and adulthood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yessoufou, Akadiri; Nekoua, Magloire P; Gbankoto, Adam; Mashalla, Yohana; Moutairou, Kabirou

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are increasingly being used to prevent cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes and obesity. In this paper, we report data on the observed effects of omega-3 PUFA on major metabolic disorders and immune system disruption during gestational diabetes and their consequences on macrosomia. While controversies still exist about omega-3 PUFA effects on antioxidant status regarding the level of omega-3 PUFA in diet supplementation, their lipid-lowering effects are unanimously recognized by researchers. Animal studies have shown that omega-3 PUFA contributes to the maintenance of the immune defense system by promoting the differentiation of T helper (Th) cell to a Th2 phenotype in diabetic pregnancy and by shifting the Th1/Th2 ratio from a deleterious proinflammatory Th1 phenotype to a protective anti-inflammatory Th2 phenotype in macrosomia and in adulthood obesity that results from macrosomia at birth. Based on the available evidence, international nutritional and food agencies recommend administration of omega-3 PUFA as triglyceride-lowering agents, for the prevention of cardiovascular disease risk and during human pregnancy and lactation. Furthermore, studies targeting humans are still required to explore application of the fatty acids as supplement in the management of gestational diabetes and inflammatory and immune diseases.

  9. Beneficial Effects of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Gestational Diabetes: Consequences in Macrosomia and Adulthood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akadiri Yessoufou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are increasingly being used to prevent cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes and obesity. In this paper, we report data on the observed effects of omega-3 PUFA on major metabolic disorders and immune system disruption during gestational diabetes and their consequences on macrosomia. While controversies still exist about omega-3 PUFA effects on antioxidant status regarding the level of omega-3 PUFA in diet supplementation, their lipid-lowering effects are unanimously recognized by researchers. Animal studies have shown that omega-3 PUFA contributes to the maintenance of the immune defense system by promoting the differentiation of T helper (Th cell to a Th2 phenotype in diabetic pregnancy and by shifting the Th1/Th2 ratio from a deleterious proinflammatory Th1 phenotype to a protective anti-inflammatory Th2 phenotype in macrosomia and in adulthood obesity that results from macrosomia at birth. Based on the available evidence, international nutritional and food agencies recommend administration of omega-3 PUFA as triglyceride-lowering agents, for the prevention of cardiovascular disease risk and during human pregnancy and lactation. Furthermore, studies targeting humans are still required to explore application of the fatty acids as supplement in the management of gestational diabetes and inflammatory and immune diseases.

  10. Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids May Be Beneficial for Reducing Obesity—A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, Peter R. C.; Buckley, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    Current recommendations for counteracting obesity advocate the consumption of a healthy diet and participation in regular physical activity, but many individuals have difficulty complying with these recommendations. Studies in rodents and humans have indicated that long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) potentially elicit a number of effects which might be useful for reducing obesity, including suppression of appetite, improvements in circulation which might facilitate n...

  11. Are There the Antiarrhythmic Effects of Omega3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Cardiosurgical Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Lomivorotov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to test the hypothesis that the perioperative use of omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3PUFA as intravenous infusion will reduce the risk of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF in patients with coronary heart disease operated on under extracorporeal circulation.Subjects and methods. A doubleblind prospective controlled study was conducted in 39 patients who were randomized into two groups: 1 18 patients were infused with ω3PUFA (Omegaven, Fresenius Kabi, Germany, beginning before inducing anesthesia in a dose of 200 mg/kg/day within the first 24 hours and 100 mg/kg/day on days 2 to 7 postsurgery; 2 21 received placebo (Intralipid, Fresenius Kabi, Germany in the equivalent dose. The primary end point was freedom from POAF during 2 months after surgery. POAF was examined using a subcutaneously implanted continuous cardiac rhythm monitoring device (Reveal XT, Medtronic, USA. Monitoring readings were taken on day 10 at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months following surgery.Results. POAF was observed in 4 (19% patients in the placebo group and in 5 (27.8% in the ω3PUFA group on days 10 postsurgery (p=0.88. During 2year followup, POAF was revealed in 5 (27.8% patients in the control group and in 6 (35.3% in the ω3PUFA group (p=0.9. The duration of POAF was associated with the risk of rehospitalizations for decompensated heart failure (regression coefficient, 0.24; standard error, 0.02; p<0.0001; R2=0.74.Conclusion. The results of the study do not support the efficiency of perioperatively using ω3PUFA to prevent POAF

  12. Anti-inflammatory Effects of Omega 3 and Omega 6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Cardiovascular Disease and Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortosa-Caparrós, Esther; Navas-Carrillo, Diana; Marín, Francisco; Orenes-Piñero, Esteban

    2016-01-08

    A lipid excess produces a systemic inflammation process due to tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein synthesis. Simultaneously, this fat excess promotes the appearance of insulin resistance. All this contributes to the development of atherosclerosis and increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. On the other hand, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (omega 3), and arachidonic acid (omega 6) have shown anti-inflammatory properties. Lately, an inverse relationship between omega-3 fatty acids, inflammation, obesity and cardiovascular diseases has been demonstrated. To check fatty acids effect, the levels of some inflammation biomarkers have been analyzed. Leptin, adiponectin and resistin represent a group of hormones associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance and are modified in obese-overweight people comparing to normal weight people. Omega-3 PUFAs have been shown to decrease the production of inflammatory mediators, having a positive effect in obesity and diabetes mellitus type-2. Moreover, they significantly decrease the appearance of cardiovascular disease risk factors. Regarding omega-6 PUFA, there is controversy whether their effects are pro- or anti-inflammatory. The aim of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive overview about the role of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs in cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome.

  13. Identification and Functional Characterization of Genes Encoding Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Activities from Unicellular Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Royah Vaezi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify novel genes encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of nutritionally important omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, a database search was carried out in the genomes of the unicellular photoautotrophic green alga Ostreococcus RCC809 and cold-water diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus. The search led to the identification of two putative “front-end” desaturases (Δ6 and Δ4 from Ostreococcus RCC809 and one Δ6-elongase from F. cylindrus. Heterologous expression of putative open reading frames (ORFs in yeast revealed that the encoded enzyme activities efficiently convert their respective substrates: 54.1% conversion of α-linolenic acid for Δ6-desaturase, 15.1% conversion of 22:5n-3 for Δ4-desaturase and 38.1% conversion of γ-linolenic acid for Δ6-elongase. The Δ6-desaturase from Ostreococcus RCC809 displays a very strong substrate preference resulting in the predominant synthesis of stearidonic acid (C18:4Δ6,9,12,15. These data confirm the functional characterization of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic genes from these two species which have until now not been investigated for such activities. The identification of these new genes will also serve to expand the repertoire of activities available for metabolically engineering the omega-3 trait in heterologous hosts as well as providing better insights into the synthesis of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in marine microalgae.

  14. New insights into the health effects of dietary saturated and omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Lorgeril Michel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiovascular diseases and cancers are leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Reducing dietary saturated fat and replacing it with polyunsaturated fat is still the main dietary strategy to prevent cardiovascular diseases, although major flaws have been reported in the analyses supporting this approach. Recent studies introducing the concept of myocardial preconditioning have opened new avenues to understand the complex interplay between the various lipids and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The optimal dietary fat profile includes a low intake of both saturated and omega-6 fatty acids and a moderate intake of omega-3 fatty acids. This profile is quite similar to the Mediterranean diet. On the other hand, recent studies have found a positive association between omega-6 and breast cancer risk. In contrast, omega-3 fatty acids do have anticancer properties. It has been shown that certain (Mediterranean polyphenols significantly increase the endogenous synthesis of omega-3 whereas high intake of omega-6 decreases it. Finally, epidemiological studies suggest that a high omega-3 to omega-6 ratio may be the optimal strategy to decrease breast cancer risk. Thus, the present high intake of omega-6 in many countries is definitely not the optimal strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease and cancers. A moderate intake of plant and marine omega-3 in the context of the traditional Mediterranean diet (low in saturated and omega-6 fatty acids but high in plant monounsaturated fat appears to be the best approach to reduce the risk of both cardiovascular diseases and cancers, in particular breast cancer.

  15. The implication of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in retinal physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acar Niyazi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal tissues such as the retina and the brain are characterized by their high content in phospholipids. In the retina, phospholipids can account for until 80% of total lipids and are mainly composed by species belonging to phosphatidyl-choline and phosphatidyl-ethanolamine sub-classes. Within fatty acids esterified on retinal phospholipids, omega-3 PUFAs are major components since docosahexaenoic acid (DHA can represent until 50% of total fatty acids in the photoreceptor outer segments. For long time, DHA is known to play a major role in membrane function and subsequently in visual processes by affecting permeability, fluidity, thickness and the activation of membrane-bound proteins. Today, more and more studies show that PUFAs from the omega-3 series may also operate as protective factors in retinal vascular and immuno-regulatory processes, in maintaining the physiologic redox balance and in cell survival. They may operate within complex systems involving eicosanoids, angiogenic factors, inflammatory factors and matrix metalloproteinases. This new and emerging concept based on the interrelationship of omega-3 PUFAs with neural and vascular structure and function appears to be essential when considering retinal diseases of public health significance such as age-related macular degeneration.

  16. Protection against fine particle-induced pulmonary and systemic inflammation by omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Yong; Hao, Lei; Liu, Ying-Hua; Chen, Chih-Yu; Pai, Victor J; Kang, Jing X

    2017-03-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter, such as through air pollution, has been linked to the increased incidence of chronic diseases. However, few measures have been taken to reduce the health risks associated with fine particle exposure. The identification of safe and effective methods to protect against fine particle exposure-related damage is urgently needed. We used synthetic, non-toxic, fluorescent fine particles to investigate the physical distribution of inhaled fine particles and their effects on pulmonary and systemic inflammation in mice. Tissue levels of omega-3 fatty acids were elevated via dietary supplementation or the fat-1 transgenic mouse model. Markers of pulmonary and systemic inflammation were assessed. We discovered that fine particulate matter not only accumulates in the lungs but can also penetrate the pulmonary barrier and travel into other organs, including the brain, liver, spleen, kidney, and testis. These particles induced both pulmonary and systemic inflammation and increased oxidative stress. We also show that elevating tissue levels of omega-3 fatty acids was effective in reducing fine particle-induced inflammation, whether as a preventive method (prior to exposure) or as an intervention (after exposure). These results advance our understanding of how fine particles contribute to disease development and suggest that increasing tissue omega-3 levels may be a promising nutritional means for reducing the risk of diseases induced by particle exposure. Our findings demonstrate that elevating tissue omega-3 levels can prevent and treat fine particle-induced health problems and thereby present an immediate, practical solution for reducing the disease burden of air pollution. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hormonal and metabolic effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid (omega-3 on polycystic ovary syndrome induced rats under diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Ouladsahebmadarek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome produces symptoms in approximately 5% to 10% of women of reproductive age (12–45 years old. It is thought to be one of the leading causes of female subfertility. This study aimed to confirm the role of nutrition containing omega-3 (polyunsaturated fatty acid on control of experimental PCO induced by estradiol-valerat in rats. Materials and Methods: Wistar female rats (n=40 were allocated into control (n=10 and test groups (n= 30, test group was subdivided into 3 groups: G1, received omega-3 (240 mg/kg/orally/daily; G2 and G3 groups were induced PCO by single injection of estradiol-valerate (16 mg/kg/IM. Group 3 received omega-3 (240 mg/kg/orally/daily and low carbohydrate feeding for 60 subsequent days; on sixtieth day 5 ml blood samples and ovarian tissues of all rats in the group were removed and prepared for biochemical and hormonal analysis. Results: Catalase, GPX (Glutathione peroxidase, SOD (Superoxide dismutase in groups that received omega-3showed higher levels, but MDA (malondialdehyde level was significantly decreased (P

  18. Effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on human brain morphology and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Dienke J.; Montfort, van Simone J.T.; Oranje, Bob; Durston, Sarah; Smeets, P.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Public opinion and media coverage suggest that there are benefits of long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) intake on brain functioning. However, it is an open question whether this is indeed the case. Therefore, we reviewed the evidence for effects of ω-3 LC-PUFA on human brain morp

  19. Altered erythrocyte membrane fatty acid profile in typical Rett syndrome: effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Cinzia; De Felice, Claudio; Leoncini, Silvia; Durand, Thierry; Galano, Jean-Marie; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Zollo, Gloria; Guerranti, Roberto; Gonnelli, Stefano; Caffarelli, Carla; Rossi, Marcello; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Ciccoli, Lucia; Hayek, Joussef

    2014-11-01

    This study mainly aims at examining the erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (FAs) profile in Rett syndrome (RTT), a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disease. Early reports suggest a beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) on disease severity in RTT. A total of 24 RTT patients were assigned to ω-3 PUFAs-containing fish oil for 12 months in a randomized controlled study (average DHA and EPA doses of 72.9, and 117.1mg/kgb.w./day, respectively). A distinctly altered FAs profile was detectable in RTT, with deficient ω-6 PUFAs, increased saturated FAs and reduced trans 20:4 FAs. FAs changes were found to be related to redox imbalance, subclinical inflammation, and decreased bone density. Supplementation with ω-3 PUFAs led to improved ω-6/ω-3 ratio and serum plasma lipid profile, decreased PUFAs peroxidation end-products, normalization of biochemical markers of inflammation, and reduction of bone hypodensity as compared to the untreated RTT group. Our data indicate that a significant FAs abnormality is detectable in the RTT erythrocyte membranes and is partially rescued by ω-3 PUFAs.

  20. Heterotrophic Production of Omega-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids by Trophically Converted Marine Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary L. Hamilton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We have created via metabolic engineering a heterotrophic strain of Phaeodactylum tricornutum that accumulates enhanced levels of the high value omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. This was achieved by generation of transgenic strains in which the Δ5-elongase from Ostreococcus tauri was co-expressed with a glucose transporter from the moss Physcomitrella patens. This double transformant has the capacity to grow in the dark in liquid medium supplemented with glucose and accumulate substantial levels of omega-3 LC-PUFAs. The effects of glucose concentrations on growth and LC-PUFA production of wild type and transformed strains cultivated in the light and dark were studied. The highest omega-3 LC-PUFAs accumulation was observed in cultures grown under mixotrophic conditions in the presence of 1% glucose (up to 32.2% of total fatty acids, TFA. Both DHA and EPA are detected at high levels in the neutral lipids of transgenic cells grown under phototrophic conditions, averaging 36.5% and 23.6% of TFA, respectively. This study demonstrates the potential for P. tricornutum to be developed as a viable commercial strain for both EPA and DHA production under mixo- and heterotrophic conditions.

  1. The effects on boar sperm quality of dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids differ among porcine breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeste, Marc; Barrera, Xavier; Coll, David; Bonet, Sergi

    2011-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to shed light on the relationship between boar sperm quality and dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which has been reported inconsistently in the literature. With this aim, such effects were evaluated and compared among three different porcine breeds: Duroc, Large-White, and Pietrain. Animals were randomly separated into two groups and fed either with a control diet or with a diet supplemented with omega-3. Sperm quality of these boar (ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, sperm viability, acrosome and mitochondrial sheath integrity, sperm motility, sperm morphology, and osmotic resistance of spermatozoa) was assessed every week for a 26-week period. Supplementing boar's diet with omega-3 did not affect ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, sperm motility, sperm viability, and acrosome and mitochondrial sheath integrity. In contrast, supplemented diet positively affected both sperm morphology in Large-White and Pietrain breeds and the osmotic resistance of Pietrain spermatozoa. No effects were seen for the same sperm parameters in Duroc breed. These breed-differences in boar fed with the supplemented diet could explain the contradictions in literature and might be related with differences in the composition of plasma membrane among breeds reported by other authors. Because no harmful effects were observed in the three evaluated breeds, but positive effects in Large-White and Pietrain boar, we can conclude that omega-3 fatty acids may be added to boar's diet at the levels used in this study to improve their sperm quality. More research is, however, needed to determine how these fatty acids differently affect the morphology and the osmotic resistance of the spermatozoa in these breeds.

  2. Fish consumption and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to depressive episodes: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suominen-Taipale, Anna Liisa; Partonen, Timo; Turunen, Anu W; Männistö, Satu; Jula, Antti; Verkasalo, Pia K

    2010-05-07

    High fish consumption and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake are suggested to benefit mental well-being but the current evidence is conflicting. Our aim was to evaluate whether a higher level of fish consumption, a higher intake of omega-3 PUFAs, and a higher serum concentration of omega-3 PUFAs link to a lower 12-month prevalence of depressive episodes.We used data from the nationwide Health 2000 Survey (n = 5492) and the Fishermen Study on Finnish professional fishermen and their family members (n = 1265). Data were based on questionnaires, interviews, health examinations, and blood samples. Depressive episodes were assessed with the M-CIDI (the Munich version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview) and a self-report of two CIDI probe questions, respectively. Fish consumption was measured by a food frequency questionnaire (g/day) and independent frequency questions (times/month). Dietary intake (g/day) and serum concentrations (% from fatty acids) of PUFAs were determined. Fish consumption was associated with prevalence of depressive episodes in men but not in women. The prevalence of depressive episodes decreased from 9% to 5% across the quartiles of fish consumption (g/day) in men of the Health 2000 Survey (p for linear trend = 0.01), and from17% to 3% across the quartiles of fish consumption (times/month) in men of the Fishermen Study (p for linear trend = 0.05). This association was modified by lifestyle; in the Health 2000 Survey a higher level of fish consumption was related to a lower prevalence of depressive episodes in men who consumed the most alcohol, were occasional or former smokers, or had intermediate physical activity. The associations between depressive episodes and the intake or serum concentrations of omega-3 PUFAs were not consistent.In men, fish consumption appears as a surrogate for underlying but unidentified lifestyle factors that protect against depression.

  3. Fish consumption and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to depressive episodes: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Liisa Suominen-Taipale

    Full Text Available High fish consumption and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA intake are suggested to benefit mental well-being but the current evidence is conflicting. Our aim was to evaluate whether a higher level of fish consumption, a higher intake of omega-3 PUFAs, and a higher serum concentration of omega-3 PUFAs link to a lower 12-month prevalence of depressive episodes.We used data from the nationwide Health 2000 Survey (n = 5492 and the Fishermen Study on Finnish professional fishermen and their family members (n = 1265. Data were based on questionnaires, interviews, health examinations, and blood samples. Depressive episodes were assessed with the M-CIDI (the Munich version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and a self-report of two CIDI probe questions, respectively. Fish consumption was measured by a food frequency questionnaire (g/day and independent frequency questions (times/month. Dietary intake (g/day and serum concentrations (% from fatty acids of PUFAs were determined. Fish consumption was associated with prevalence of depressive episodes in men but not in women. The prevalence of depressive episodes decreased from 9% to 5% across the quartiles of fish consumption (g/day in men of the Health 2000 Survey (p for linear trend = 0.01, and from17% to 3% across the quartiles of fish consumption (times/month in men of the Fishermen Study (p for linear trend = 0.05. This association was modified by lifestyle; in the Health 2000 Survey a higher level of fish consumption was related to a lower prevalence of depressive episodes in men who consumed the most alcohol, were occasional or former smokers, or had intermediate physical activity. The associations between depressive episodes and the intake or serum concentrations of omega-3 PUFAs were not consistent.In men, fish consumption appears as a surrogate for underlying but unidentified lifestyle factors that protect against depression.

  4. Reduced bone breakage and increased bone strength in free range laying hens fed omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplemented diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlton, John F; Wilkins, Lindsay J; Toscano, Michael J; Avery, Nick C; Knott, Lynda

    2013-02-01

    The omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are the immediate precursors to a number of important mediators of immunity, inflammation and bone function, with products of omega-6 generally thought to promote inflammation and favour bone resorption. Western diets generally provide a 10 to 20-fold deficit in omega-3 PUFAs compared with omega-6, and this is thought to have contributed to the marked rise in incidence of disorders of modern human societies, such as heart disease, colitis and perhaps osteoporosis. Many of our food production animals, fed on grains rich in omega-6, are also exposed to a dietary deficit in omega-3, with perhaps similar health consequences. Bone fragility due to osteoporotic changes in laying hens is a major economic and welfare problem, with our recent estimates of breakage rates indicating up to 95% of free range hens suffer breaks during lay. Free range hens housed in full scale commercial systems were provided diets supplemented with omega-3 alpha linolenic acid, and the skeletal benefits were investigated by comparison to standard diets rich in omega-6. There was a significant 40-60% reduction in keel bone breakage rate, and a corresponding reduction in breakage severity in the omega-3 supplemented hens. There was significantly greater bone density and bone mineral content, alongside increases in total bone and trabecular volumes. The mechanical properties of the omega-3 supplemented hens were improved, with strength, energy to break and stiffness demonstrating significant increases. Alkaline phosphatase (an osteoblast marker) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (an osteoclast marker) both showed significant increases with the omega-3 diets, indicating enhanced bone turnover. This was corroborated by the significantly lower levels of the mature collagen crosslinks, hydroxylysyl pyridinoline, lysyl pyridinoline and histidinohydroxy-lysinonorleucine, with a corresponding significant shift in the mature

  5. Dietary Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Alter Fatty Acid Composition of Lipids and CYP2E1 Expression in Rat Liver Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksymchuk, Oksana; Shysh, Angela; Chashchyn, Mykola; Moibenko, Olexyi

    2016-07-21

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are used for the treatment and prevention of numerous pathologies in humans. As recently found, PUFAs play significantly protective roles in liver, cardiovascular system and kidney. They also are widely used in total parenteral nutrition. We evaluated the effect of omega-3 PUFA consumption on liver fatty acid composition and the expression of CYP2E1, one of the key enzymes in detoxification and prooxidant systems of liver cells. To estimate the oxidative stress in liver tissue, the antioxidant status and the level of lipid peroxidation were determined in a rodent model. Animals were divided into two groups: control (n = 10) and experimental (n = 10). Epadol-containing omega-3 PUFA fish oil capsules were administered to Wistar rats within 4 weeks (0.1 mL/100 g b.w./day). The consumption of omega-3 PUFAs resulted in changes of fatty acid composition of liver tissue. A significant increase was detected in the α-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid content (5.1-, 16-, and 1.3-fold, respectively, p omega-3:omega-6 ratio. Consumption of omega-3 PUFAs led to a 3-fold (p < 0.05) increase in CYP2E1 content, which could entail enhanced Nrf2 expression levels and increases in the HO-1 content in rat liver. The alteration in CYP2E1 expression did not have an impact on the level of lipid peroxidation and on the prooxidant/antioxidant balance.

  6. Omega-3 polyunsaturated Fatty acids suppress the cystic lesion formation of peritoneal endometriosis in transgenic mouse models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensuke Tomio

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs play a role in controlling pathological inflammatory reactions. Endometriosis is characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue on the peritoneum and an exaggerated inflammatory environment around ectopic tissues. Here peritoneal endometriosis was reproduced using a mouse model in which murine endometrial fragments were inoculated into the peritoneal cavity of mice. Fat-1 mice, in which omega-6 can be converted to omega-3 PUFAs, or wild type mice, in which it cannot, were used for the endometriosis model to address the actions of omega-3 PUFAs on the development of endometriotic lesions. The number and weight of cystic endometriotic lesions in fat-1 mice two weeks after inoculation were significantly less than half to those of controls. Mediator lipidomics revealed that cystic endometriotic lesions and peritoneal fluids were abundant in 12/15-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (12/15-HEPE, derived from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, and their amount in fat-1 mice was significantly larger than that in controls. 12/15-Lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX-knockout (KO and control mice with or without EPA administration were assessed for the endometriosis model. EPA administration decreased the number of lesions in controls but not in 12/15-LOX-KO mice. The peritoneal fluids in EPA-fed 12/15-LOX-KO mice contained reduced levels of EPA metabolites such as 12/15-HEPE and EPA-derived resolvin E3 even after EPA administration. cDNA microarrays of endometriotic lesions revealed that Interleukin-6 (IL-6 expression in fat-1 mice was significantly lower than that in controls. These results suggest that both endogenous and exogenous EPA-derived PUFAs protect against the development of endometriosis through their anti-inflammatory effects and, in particular, the 12/15-LOX-pathway products of EPA may be key mediators to suppress endometriosis.

  7. Myocardial protection during elective coronary artery bypasses grafting by pretreatment with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljović Milić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Despite recent advances in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG, cardioplegic cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB are still associated with myocardial injury. Accordingly, the efforts have been made lately to improve the outcome of CPB by glucose-insulinpotassium, adenosine, Ca2+-channel antagonists, L-arginine, N-acetylcysteine, coenzyme Q10, diazoxide, Na+/H+ exchange inhibitors, but with an unequal results. Since omega-3 polyunsatutated fatty acids (PUFAs have shown remarkable cardioprotection in preclinical researches, the aim of our study was to check their effects in prevention of ischemia reperfusion injury in patients with CPB. Methods. This prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study was performed with parallel groups. The patients undergoing elective CABG were randomized to receive preoperative intravenous omega-3 PUFAs infusion (n = 20 or the same volume of 0.9% saline solution infusion (n = 20. Blood samples were collected simultaneously from the radial artery and the coronary sinus before starting CPB and at 10, 20 and 30 min after the release of the aortic cross clamp. Lactate extraction/excretion and myocardial oxygen extraction were calculated and compared between the two groups. The levels of troponin I (TnT and creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB were determined before starting CPB and 4 and 24 h postoperatively. Results. Demographic and operative characteristics, including CPB and aortic cross-clamp time, were similar between the two groups of patients. The level of lactate extraction 10 and 20 min after aortic cross-clamp time has shown negative values in the control group, but positive values in the PUFAs group with statistically significant differences (-19.6% vs 7.9%; p < 0.0001 and -19.9% vs 8.2%; p < 0.0008, respectively. The level of lactate extraction 30 minutes after reperfusion was not statistically different between the two groups (6.9% vs 4.2%; p < 0.54. Oxygen extraction in the

  8. Towards the Industrial Production of Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from a Genetically Modified Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary L Hamilton

    Full Text Available The marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum can accumulate up to 30% of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and, as such, is considered a good source for the industrial production of EPA. However, P. tricornutum does not naturally accumulate significant levels of the more valuable omega-3 LC-PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Previously, we have engineered P. tricornutum to accumulate elevated levels of DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA by overexpressing heterologous genes encoding enzyme activities of the LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway. Here, the transgenic strain Pt_Elo5 has been investigated for the scalable production of EPA and DHA. Studies have been performed at the laboratory scale on the cultures growing in up to 1 L flasks a 3.5 L bubble column, a 550 L closed photobioreactor and a 1250 L raceway pond with artificial illumination. Detailed studies were carried out on the effect of different media, carbon sources and illumination on omega-3 LC-PUFAs production by transgenic strain Pt_Elo5 and wild type P. tricornutum grown in 3.5 L bubble columns. The highest content of DHA (7.5% of total fatty acids, TFA in transgenic strain was achieved in cultures grown in seawater salts, Instant Ocean (IO, supplemented with F/2 nutrients (F2N under continuous light. After identifying the optimal conditions for omega-3 LC-PUFA accumulation in the small-scale experiments we compared EPA and DHA levels of the transgenic strain grown in a larger fence-style tubular photobioreactor and a raceway pond. We observed a significant production of DHA over EPA, generating an EPA/DPA/DHA profile of 8.7%/4.5%/12.3% of TFA in cells grown in a photobioreactor, equivalent to 6.4 μg/mg dry weight DHA in a mid-exponentially growing algal culture. Omega-3 LC-PUFAs production in a raceway pond at ambient temperature but supplemented with artificial illumination (110 μmol photons m-2s-1 on a 16:8h light:dark cycle, in

  9. Recommendations of the Spanish Menopause Society on the consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Borrego, Rafael; von Schacky, Clemens; Osorio, María José Alonso; Llaneza, Plácido; Pinto, Xavier; Losa, Fernando; Navarro, Mª Concepción; Lubián, Daniel; Mendoza, Nicolás

    2017-09-01

    The consumption of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCO3-PUFAs) has shown a great variety of beneficial effects, including cardiovascular, metabolic and inflammatory effects, which make them interesting for the postmenopausal woman. Because LCO3-PUFAs could be effective and safe during this period, a panel of experts from the Spanish Menopause Society met to establish a set of recommendations for their use in postmenopausal women based on the best available evidence. The decrease in triglycerides is the most consistent effect observed with LCO3-PUFAs (at doses greater than 3g/day). In addition, LCO3-PUFAs have antiarrhythmic effects, reduce blood pressure, improve depressive and psychotic symptoms, and do not increase the risk of cancer. However, further studies are needed to confirm the benefit of LCO3-PUFAs in the relief of menopause symptoms and osteoporosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and chronic stress-induced modulations of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebelle, Marie; Champeil-Potokar, Gaëlle; Lavialle, Monique; Vancassel, Sylvie; Denis, Isabelle

    2014-02-01

    Chronic stress causes the release of glucocorticoids, which greatly influence cerebral function, especially glutamatergic transmission. These stress-induced changes in neurotransmission could be counteracted by increasing the dietary intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs). Numerous studies have described the capacity of n-3 PUFAs to help protect glutamatergic neurotransmission from damage induced by stress and glucocorticoids, possibly preventing the development of stress-related disorders such as depression or anxiety. The hippocampus contains glucocorticoid receptors and is involved in learning and memory. This makes it particularly sensitive to stress, which alters certain aspects of hippocampal function. In this review, the various ways in which n-3 PUFAs may prevent the harmful effects of chronic stress, particularly the alteration of glutamatergic synapses in the hippocampus, are summarized.

  11. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Oxylipins in Neuroinflammation and Management of Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devassy, Jessay Gopuran; Leng, Shan; Gabbs, Melissa; Monirujjaman, Md; Aukema, Harold M

    2016-09-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is becoming one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative conditions worldwide. Although the disease progression is becoming better understood, current medical interventions can only ameliorate some of the symptoms but cannot slow disease progression. Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the advancement of this disorder, and n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are involved in both the reduction in and resolution of inflammation. These effects may be mediated by the anti-inflammatory and proresolving effects of bioactive lipid mediators (oxylipins) derived from n-3 PUFAs [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] in fish oil. Although interventions have generally used fish oil containing both EPA and DHA, several studies that used either EPA or DHA alone or specific oxylipins derived from these fatty acids indicate that they have distinct effects. Both DHA and EPA can reduce neuroinflammation and cognitive decline, but EPA positively influences mood disorders, whereas DHA maintains normal brain structure. Fewer studies with a plant-derived n-3 PUFA, α-linolenic acid, suggest that other n-3 PUFAs and their oxylipins also may positively affect AD. Further research identifying the unique anti-inflammatory and proresolving properties of oxylipins from individual n-3 PUFAs will enable the discovery of novel disease-management strategies in AD.

  12. Breaking the cycle: the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in inflammation-driven cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, William L; Georgel, Philippe T

    2014-10-01

    Chronic inflammation is a cyclical, self-stimulating process. Immune cells called to sites of inflammation release pro-inflammatory signaling molecules that stimulate activation of inducible enzymes and transcription factors. These enzymes and transcription factors then stimulate production of signaling molecules that attract more immune cells and induce more enzymatic and transcriptional activity, creating a perpetual loop of inflammation. This self-renewing pool of inflammatory stimuli makes for an ideal tumor microenvironment, and chronic inflammation has been linked to oncogenesis, tumor growth, tumor cell survival, and metastasis. Three protein pathways in particular, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), cyclooxygenase (COX), and lipoxygenase (LOX), provide excellent examples of the cyclical, self-renewing nature of chronic inflammation-driven cancers. NF-kB is an inducible transcription factor responsible for the expression of a vast number of inflammation and cancer related genes. COX and LOX convert omega-6 (n-6) and omga-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) into pro- and anti-inflammatory signaling molecules. These signaling molecules stimulate or repress activity of all three of these pathways. In this review, we will discuss the pro- and anti-inflammatory functions of these fatty acids and their role in chronic inflammation and cancer progression.

  13. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, on UVR-related cancer risk in humans. An assessment of early genotoxic markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhodes, L.E.; Shahbakhti, H.; Azurdia, R.M.; Moison, R.M.W.; Steenwinkel, M.J.S.T.; Homburg, M.I.; Dean, M.P.; McArdle, F.; Beijersbergen van Henegouwen, G.M.J.; Epe, B.; Vink, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) protect against photocarcinogenesis in animals, but prospective human studies are scarce. The mechanism(s) underlying the photoprotection are uncertain, although ω-3 PUFAs may influence oxidative stress. We examined the effect of

  14. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, on UVR-related cancer risk in humans. An assessment of early genotoxic markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhodes, L.E.; Shahbakhti, H.; Azurdia, R.M.; Moison, R.M.W.; Steenwinkel, M.J.S.T.; Homburg, M.I.; Dean, M.P.; McArdle, F.; Beijersbergen van Henegouwen, G.M.J.; Epe, B.; Vink, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) protect against photocarcinogenesis in animals, but prospective human studies are scarce. The mechanism(s) underlying the photoprotection are uncertain, although ω-3 PUFAs may influence oxidative stress. We examined the effect of supplementatio

  15. Role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in diet of patients with rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Spinella

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been widely described in the literature in particular those on cardiovascular system. In the last decade there has been an increased interest in the role of these nutrients in the reduction of articular inflammation as well as in the improvement of clinical symptoms in subjects affected by rheumatic diseases, in particular rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Nutritional supplementation with ω-3 may represent an additional therapy to the traditional pharmacological treatment due to the anti-inflammatory properties which characterize this class of lipids: production of alternative eicosanoids, reduction of inflammatory cytochines, reduction of T-lymphocytes activation, reduction of catabolic enzymes activity. The encouraging results of dietetic therapy based on ω- 3 in RA are leading researchers to test their effectiveness on patients with other rheumatic conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus and ankylosing spondylitis. Nutritional therapy based on food rich in ω-3 or on supplementation with fish oil capsules, proved to be a valid support to he treatment of chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases.

  16. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Enhance Neuronal Differentiation in Cultured Rat Neural Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Katakura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs can induce neurogenesis and recovery from brain diseases. However, the exact mechanisms of the beneficial effects of PUFAs have not been conclusively described. We recently reported that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA induced neuronal differentiation by decreasing Hes1 expression and increasing p27kip1 expression, which causes cell cycle arrest in neural stem cells (NSCs. In the present study, we examined the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and arachidonic acid (AA on differentiation, expression of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (Hes1, Hes6, and NeuroD, and the cell cycle of cultured NSCs. EPA also increased mRNA levels of Hes1, an inhibitor of neuronal differentiation, Hes6, an inhibitor of Hes1, NeuroD, and Map2 mRNA and Tuj-1-positive cells (a neuronal marker, indicating that EPA induced neuronal differentiation. EPA increased the mRNA levels of p21cip1 and p27kip1, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, which indicated that EPA induced cell cycle arrest. Treatment with AA decreased Hes1 mRNA but did not affect NeuroD and Map2 mRNA levels. Furthermore, AA did not affect the number of Tuj-1-positive cells or cell cycle progression. These results indicated that EPA could be involved in neuronal differentiation by mechanisms alternative to those of DHA, whereas AA did not affect neuronal differentiation in NSCs.

  17. OMEGA-3 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS IN ATRIAL FIBRILLATION PREVENTION AFTER SURGICAL MYOCARDIAL REVASCULARIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Panov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate an efficacy of therapy with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD before and after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG.Material and methods. 189 patients (125 men, 64 women; aged 64,2±9,4 y.o. with IHD having indications to CABG were enrolled in the study. Patients of the first group (control had standard pre- and postoperative treatment. Patients of the second group received ω-3 PUFA (ОМАCОR, Solvay Pharma 2 g/daily in addition to standard therapy. Both groups were similar in clinical characteristics. ω-3 PUFA therapy started 7±4 day before CABG, renewed in early postoperative period (24-36 hours after surgery and lasted next 14 days. Efficacy of the therapy was estimated by atrial fibrillation frequency in postoperative period and time before hospital discharge after CABG. An automatic complex for transesophageal electrophysiological cardiac examination was used for the estimation of atrial conduction before and after CABG.Results. Omacor therapy in patients with ICD before CABG and in the early postoperative period reduces atrial fibrillation risk. It results in reduction of hemodynamic disorders and time before hospital discharge. Conclusion. Omacor therapy is safe and can be recommended to all patients going through CABG.

  18. Omega-3 Fatty Acids during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY S HARE W ITH W OMEN OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY During pregnancy, your ... the foods you eat and vitamins you take. Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3s) are an important ...

  19. Protective Role of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid against Lead Acetate-Induced Toxicity in Liver and Kidney of Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Abdou, Heba M.; Mohamed A. Hassan

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the protective role of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids against lead acetate-induced toxicity in liver and kidney of female rats. Animals were divided into four equal groups; group 1 served as control while groups 2 and 3 were treated orally with Omega-3 fatty acids at doses of 125 and 260 mg/kg body weight, respectively, for 10 days. These groups were also injected with lead acetate (25 mg/kg body weight) during the last 5 days. Group 4 was t...

  20. Consumption of different sources of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by growing female rats affects long bone mass and microarchitecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Robin; Gigliotti, Joseph C; Smith, Brenda J; Altman, Stephanie; Tou, Janet C

    2011-09-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) consumption has been reported to improve bone health. However, sources of ω-3 PUFAs differ in the type of fatty acids and structural form. The study objective was to determine the effect of various ω-3 PUFAs sources on bone during growth. Young (age 28d) female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned (n=10/group) to a high fat 12% (wt) diet consisting of either corn oil (CO) or ω-3 PUFA rich, flaxseed (FO), krill (KO), menhaden (MO), salmon (SO) or tuna (TO) for 8 weeks. Bone mass was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and bone microarchitecture by micro-computed tomography (μCT). Bone turnover markers were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Lipid peroxidation was measured by calorimetric assays. Results showed that rats fed TO, rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6ω-3) had higher (Pacid (ALA, 18:3ω-3), improved bone microarchitecture compared to rats fed CO or SO. Serum osteocalcin was higher (P=0.03) in rats fed FO compared to rats fed SO. Serum osteocalcin was associated with improved trabecular bone microarchitecture. The animal study results suggest consuming a variety of ω-3 PUFA sources to promote bone health during the growth stage.

  1. Physiological functions of iso-type short-chain fatty acid and omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids containing oil in obese OLETF rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirouchi, Bungo; Nagao, Koji; Furuya, Kenta; Nagai, Toshiharu; Ichioka, Kenji; Tokairin, Shigeru; Iida, Yasuhiro; Yanagita, Teruyoshi

    2010-01-01

    It has been known that tissues of porpoise contain unique structured-lipids as combination of iso-valeric acid (iso-C5:0) and omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega3 PUFAs). It is well known that omega3 PUFAs have lipid-lowering effects in animal and human studies. Although branched chain fatty acids have been interested in their unique functions, there is no data concerning the effect of iso-C5:0 on lipid metabolism. In this study we investigated the effect of structured-lipids from porpoise adipose tissue (porpoise oil) on lipid metabolism in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. For 4 weeks, rats were fed semisynthetic diets containing either 10% corn oil or 5% corn oil plus 5% porpoise oil. After feeding period, the porpoise oil diet significantly alleviated hepatic triglyceride accumulation compared with the control diet in OLETF rats. Although serum triglyceride level increased, serum level of adiponectin that can protect liver function and alleviate abnormalities of lipid and glucose metabolism increased in rats fed porpoise oil diet. In conclusion, results from the present study suggest that porpoise oil feeding prevents the development of fatty liver disease through the enhancement of lipoprotein secretion and increase of adiponectin production in obese rats.

  2. Randomized placebo-controlled trials of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in psychiatric disorders: a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politi, Pierluigi; Rocchetti, Matteo; Emanuele, Enzo; Rondanelli, Mariangela; Barale, Francesco

    2013-09-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that omega (ω)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are clinically useful in patients with psychiatric disorders. In the present review, we summarize the findings of randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials that have focused on the potential therapeutic utility of ω-3 PUFAs in patients with mental illnesses. We searched the PubMed database for placebo-controlled clinical trials using the keywords "PUFAs", "omega-3", "eicosapentaenoic acid", and "docosahexaenoic acid" in combination with the following terms: "anxiety disorders", "mood disorders", "autism", "attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder" (ADHD), "personality disorders", and "schizophrenia". The literature review indicated that personality disorders, autism, and anxiety disorders have been investigated less frequently than mood disorders, schizophrenia, and ADHD. Although no definite conclusions can be drawn on the therapeutic efficacy of ω-3 PUFAs in the majority of the psychiatric illnesses examined here, the evidence suggests that these molecules have a potential preventive role in people at extremely high risk for developing psychosis. Future studies in the field should examine ω-PUFAs turnover in neural membranes. Moreover, special attention should be paid to potential confounds, such as smoking and dietary habits.

  3. The consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improves clinical outcomes and prognosis in pancreatic cancer patients: a systematic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying-Jie; Yu, Jing; Xiao, Jing; Cao, Bang-Wei

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to systematically evaluate results of trials examining the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) consumption on body weight, lean body mass, resting energy expenditure, and overall survival in pancreatic cancer patients. We searched Medline, Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane databases. We selected randomized controlled trials of n-3 PUFA vs. conventional nutrition in unresectable pancreatic cancer patients. We analyzed our data using the Cochrane statistical package RevMan 5.1. Eleven trials met our inclusion criteria. There was a significant increase in body weight [weighted mean difference (WMD) = 0.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.54-0.69, P < 0.00001) and lean body mass (WMD = 0.96; 95% CI, 0.86-1.06, P < 0.00001), a significant decrease in resting energy expenditure (WMD = -29.74; 95% CI, -55.89-3.59, P = 0.03), and an increase in overall survival (130-259 days vs. 63-130 days) in unresectable pancreatic cancer patients who consumed an oral nutrition supplement enriched with n-3 PUFAs compared to those who consumed conventional nutrition. This preliminary study suggests that n-3 PUFAs are safe and have a positive effect on clinical outcomes and survival in pancreatic cancer patients.

  4. Dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ameliorates acute pneumonia induced by Klebsiella pneumoniae in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sonica; Chhibber, Sanjay; Mohan, Harsh; Sharma, Saroj

    2013-07-01

    The immune benefits associated with the optimal intake of dietary fatty acids are widely known. The objective of the present investigation was to elucidate the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) food source on acute pneumonia induced by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Three different n-3 PUFA preparations (cod liver oil, Maxigard, and flaxseed oil) were orally supplemented and infection was induced in different groups of experimental mice. Mice fed olive oil and normal saline served as oil and saline controls, respectively. After 2 weeks of fatty acid feeding, no effect on the establishment of infection was observed when acute pneumonia was induced in animals. On the other hand, 6 weeks of n-3 PUFA administration was found to improve resistance in mice, as reduced lung bacterial load coupled with significant improvement in pathology was seen in infected mice. Alveolar macrophages collected from all 3 groups of mice fed n-3 PUFA exhibited a significant decrease in the level of apoptosis following infection with K. pneumoniae and an enhanced in vitro phagocytic potential for the pathogen. Lower lung levels of nitric oxide, malondialdehyde, and lactate dehydrogenase were associated with a decrease in the severity of tissue damage. There was a significant increase in the lung levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)). No significant change was observed in the levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10). This study highlights that dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation exerts an overall beneficial effect against acute experimental pneumonia. This mechanism is operative through upregulation of nonspecific and specific immune defenses of the host.

  5. NOS3 gene polymorphisms are associated with risk markers of cardiovascular disease, and interact with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Jane F; Phillips, Catherine M; McMonagle, Jolene; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Shaw, Danielle I; Lovegrove, Julie A; Helal, Olfa; Defoort, Catherine; Gjelstad, Ingrid M F; Drevon, Christian A; Blaak, Ellen E; Saris, Wim H M; Leszczyńska-Gołabek, Iwona; Kiec-Wilk, Beata; Risérus, Ulf; Karlström, Brita; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Roche, Helen M

    2010-08-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) may protect against the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Genotype at key genes such as nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) may determine responsiveness to fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions may be important in modulating the development of CVD, particularly in high-risk individuals with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Biomarkers of CVD risk, plasma fatty acid composition, and NOS3 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype (rs11771443, rs1800783, rs1800779, rs1799983, rs3918227, and rs743507) were determined in 450 individuals with the MetS from the LIPGENE dietary intervention cohort. The effect of dietary fat modification for 12 weeks on metabolic indices of the MetS was determined to understand potential NOS3 gene-nutrient interactions. Several markers of inflammation and dyslipidaemia were significantly different between the genotype groups. A significant gene-nutrient interaction was observed between the NOS3 rs1799983 SNP and plasma n-3 PUFA status on plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations. Minor allele carriers (AC+AA) showed an inverse association with significantly higher plasma TAG concentrations in those with low plasma n-3 PUFA status and vice versa but the major allele homozygotes (CC) did not. Following n-3 PUFA supplementation, plasma TAG concentrations of minor allele carriers of rs1799983 were considerably more responsive to changes in plasma n-3 PUFA, than major allele homozygotes. Carriers of the minor allele at rs1799983 in NOS3 have plasma TAG concentrations which are more responsive to n-3 PUFA. This suggests that these individuals might show greater beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA consumption to reduce plasma TAG concentrations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in horses

    OpenAIRE

    Tanja Hess; Trinette Ross-Jones

    2014-01-01

    Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are a family of essential fatty acids with many biological activities. These fatty acids are incorporated into cell membranes, changing their structural and functional characteristics. N-3 PUFA can act by modulating inflammatory responses at different levels. Omega-3 PUFA can be converted in the body to longer-chain n-3 PUFA at a limited rate and are differently converted in body systems. It appears that when specific longer-chain n-3 PUFA are de...

  7. The effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cardiac rhythm: antiarrhythmic, proarrhythmic, both or neither?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens evon Schacky

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis review focuses on developments after 2008, when the topic was last reviewed by the author. Pertinent publications were found by medline searches and in the author’s personal data base. Prevention of atrial fibrillation (AF was investigated in a number of trials, sparked by one positive report on the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, considerations of upstream therapy, and data from electrophysiologic laboratories. If EPA+DHA prevent postoperative AF, the effect is probably smaller than initially expected. The same is probably true for maintenance of sinus rhythm after cardioversion and for new-onset AF. Larger trials are currently ongoing. Prevention of ventricular arrhythmias was studied in carriers of an implanted cardioverter-defibrillator, with no clear results. This might have been due to a broad definition of the primary endpoint, including any ventricular arrhythmia and any action of the device. Epidemiologic studies support the contention that high levels of EPA+DHA prevent sudden cardiac death (SCD. However, since SCD is a rare occurrence, it is difficult to conduct an adequately powered trial. In patients with congestive heart failure, EPA+DHA reduced total mortality and rehospitalizations, but not SCD or presumed arrhythmic death. Of three trials in patients after a myocardial infarction, two were inadequately powered, and in one, the dose might have been too low. Taken together, while epidemiologic studies support an inverse relation between EPA+DHA and occurrence of SCD or arrhythmic death, demonstrating this effect in intervention trials remained elusive so far.A pro-arrhythmic effect of EPA+DHA has not been seen in intervention studies, and epidemiologic studies also rather argue against such an effect. A different, and probably more productive, perspective is provided by a standardized analytical assessment of a person’s status in EPA+DHA by use of the Omega-3 Index, EPA+DHA in

  8. The morphological characteristic of regenerative neuroma of peripheral nerve in conditions of its injury and application of omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korsak A.V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiment was carried out on white rats, which were divided into 3 groups. Experimental trauma of the sciatic nerve was carried out in 1 end 2 groups. Standart trauma of the sciatic nerve was carried out in 3 groups. Drug correction was not applied in the first group. Omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids were applied during 3 weeks in a doze 0,04 g /kg a day in the second group of animals. Drug correction applied in the second group. Morphological characteristic of regenerative neuroma of sciatic nerve in 6 weeks after the injury in 1,2,3 groups of animals was studied. The results obtained testify, that in the group of rats with pharmacological correction by omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids process of regeneration was activated.

  9. Climate warming is predicted to reduce omega-3, long-chain, polyunsaturated fatty acid production in phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixson, Stefanie M; Arts, Michael T

    2016-08-01

    Phytoplankton are the main source of energy and omega-3 (n-3) long-chain essential fatty acids (EFA) in aquatic ecosystems. Their growth and biochemical composition are affected by surrounding environmental conditions, including temperature, which continues to increase as a result of climate warming. Increasing water temperatures may negatively impact the production of EFA by phytoplankton through the process of homeoviscous adaptation. To investigate this, we conducted an exploratory data synthesis with 952 fatty acid (FA) profiles from six major groups of marine and freshwater phytoplankton. Temperature was strongly correlated with a decrease in the proportion of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated FA (LC-PUFA) and an increase in omega-6 FA and saturated FA. Based on linear regression models, we predict that global n-3 LC-PUFA production will be reduced by 8.2% for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 27.8% for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with an increase in water temperature of 2.5 °C. Using a previously published estimate of the global production of EPA by diatoms, which contribute to most of the world's supply of EPA, we predict a loss of 14.2 Mt of EPA annually as a result of ocean warming. The n-3 LC-PUFA are vitally important for an array of key physiological functions in aquatic and terrestrial organisms, and these FA are mainly produced by phytoplankton. Therefore, reduced production of these EFA, as a consequence of climate warming, is predicted to negatively affect species that depend on these compounds for optimum physiological function. Such profound changes in the biochemical composition of phytoplankton cell membranes can lead to cascading effects throughout the world's ecosystems.

  10. Role of CYP1A1 in modulating the vascular and blood pressure benefits of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbor, Larry N; Wiest, Elani F; Rothe, Michael; Schunck, Wolf-Hagen; Walker, Mary K

    2014-12-01

    The mechanisms that mediate the cardiovascular protective effects of omega 3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have not been fully elucidated. Cytochrome P450 1A1 efficiently metabolizes n-3 PUFAs to potent vasodilators. Thus, we hypothesized that dietary n-3 PUFAs increase nitric oxide (NO)-dependent blood pressure regulation and vasodilation in a CYP1A1-dependent manner. CYP1A1 wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice were fed an n-3 or n-6 PUFA-enriched diet for 8 weeks and were analyzed for tissue fatty acids and metabolites, NO-dependent blood pressure regulation, NO-dependent vasodilation of acetylcholine (ACh) in mesenteric resistance arterioles, and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and phospho-Ser1177-eNOS expression in the aorta. All mice fed the n-3 PUFA diet showed significantly higher levels of n-3 PUFAs and their metabolites, and significantly lower levels of n-6 PUFAs and their metabolites. In addition, KO mice on the n-3 PUFA diet accumulated significantly higher levels of n-3 PUFAs in the aorta and kidney without a parallel increase in the levels of their metabolites. Moreover, KO mice exhibited significantly less NO-dependent regulation of blood pressure on the n-3 PUFA diet and significantly less NO-dependent, ACh-mediated vasodilation in mesenteric arterioles on both diets. Finally, the n-3 PUFA diet significantly increased aortic phospho-Ser1177-eNOS/eNOS ratio in the WT compared with KO mice. These data demonstrate that CYP1A1 contributes to eNOS activation, NO bioavailability, and NO-dependent blood pressure regulation mediated by dietary n-3 PUFAs.

  11. Cancer Risk and Eicosanoid Production: Interaction between the Protective Effect of Long Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake and Genotype

    OpenAIRE

    Georgia Lenihan-Geels; Karen S. Bishop; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2016-01-01

    Dietary inclusion of fish and fish supplements as a means to improve cancer prognosis and prevent tumour growth is largely controversial. Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, may modulate the production of inflammatory eicosanoids, thereby influencing local inflammatory status, which is important in cancer development. Although in vitro studies have demonstrated inhibition of tumour cell growth and proliferation by LCn-3 ...

  12. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid has an anti-oxidant effect via the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusunoki, Chisato, E-mail: yosizaki@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta Tsukinowa-Cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Yang, Liu; Yoshizaki, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Fumiyuki; Ishikado, Atsushi; Kondo, Motoyuki; Morino, Katsutaro; Sekine, Osamu; Ugi, Satoshi [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta Tsukinowa-Cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Nishio, Yoshihiko [Division of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Department of Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Maegawa, Hiroshi [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta Tsukinowa-Cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan)

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omega-3 PUFA has a direct anti-oxidant effect in adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPA and DHA induce HO-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omega-3 PUFA and its end-product, 4-HHE, activates the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omega-3 PUFA protects against oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity. -- Abstract: Oxidative stress is produced in adipose tissue of obese subjects and has been associated with obesity-related disorders. Recent studies have shown that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ({omega}3-PUFA) has beneficial effects in preventing atherosclerotic diseases and insulin resistance in adipose tissue. However, the role of {omega}3-PUFA on adipocytes has not been elucidated. In this study, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with {omega}3-PUFA and its metabolites, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or 4-hydroxy hexenal (4-HHE). {omega}3-PUFA and its metabolites dose-dependently increased mRNA and protein levels of the anti-oxidative enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1); whereas no changes in the well-known anti-oxidant molecules, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, were observed. Knockdown of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) significantly reduced EPA, DHA or 4-HHE-induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression. Also, pretreatment with {omega}3-PUFA prevented H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cytotoxicity in a HO-1 dependent manner. In conclusion, treatment with EPA and DHA induced HO-1 through the activation of Nrf-2 and prevented oxidative stress in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. This anti-oxidant defense may be of high therapeutic value for clinical conditions associated with systemic oxidative stress.

  13. Biomarkers of fish oil omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Veronica; Barazzoni, Rocco; Singer, Pierre

    2014-02-01

    A biomarker is a measured characteristic that may be used as an indicator of some biological state or condition. In health and disease, biomarkers have been used not only for clinical diagnosis purposes but also as tools to assess effectiveness of a nutrition or drug intervention. When considering nutrition studies, evaluating the appropriate biomarker is a useful tool to assess compliance and incidence of a particular dietary component in the biochemistry of the organism. Fish oil is rich in ω-3 fatty acids that have well-known beneficial effects on human health mainly through its anti-inflammatory properties. It has been widely use to improve health and as a nutrition supplement in different pathological conditions such as cardiovascular, neurological, and critically ill related diseases. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid levels present in different biological moieties (plasma, cellular membranes, adipose tissue, etc) are the best biomarkers of fish oil intake. Each biological source of fatty acids has its own advantages and disadvantages, thus which biomarker to choose and where to measure it requires a comprehension of the objectives of the investigation. In this article we will review key facts about fish oil intake biomarkers to evaluate how components of a specific diet could be monitored and identified in biological samples. Having an accurate assessment of nutrition patterns could provide effective targets for intervention aimed at modifying eating habits and lifestyle towards the improvement of health.

  14. The effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on fibrin and thrombin generation in healthy subjects and subjects with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Bradley J; Morel-Kopp, Marie-Christine; Tofler, Geoffrey H; Ward, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    Hypercoagulability plays a key role in the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake has been inversely related to the risk of cardiovascular events, the mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of omega-3 on novel markers of global coagulation. The generation of fibrin and thrombin, measured via overall hemostasis potential (OHP) assay and calibrated automated thrombography, respectively, was determined in 40 healthy subjects and 16 patients with CVD at baseline and after 4 weeks of 640 mg/day omega-3 PUFA. In healthy subjects, fibrin generation was significantly reduced, as measured by overall coagulation potential (p = 0.013), OHP (p omega-3 PUFA significantly reduced OHP and significantly increased the lag time to thrombin generation (both p omega-3 PUFA had no effect on other fibrin and thrombin generation parameters in CVD patients. Four-week omega-3 PUFA supplementation reduced thrombotic potential in healthy subjects, as shown by reduced fibrin generation and peak thrombin. There was a greater effect on fibrin generation in healthy subjects compared with those with CVD.

  15. Protection from procedural myocardial injury by omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): is related with lower levels of creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and troponin I?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughinia, Farzaneh; Salamzadeh, Jamshid; Namazi, Mohammad H

    2013-10-01

    This study sought to investigate the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on cardiac biomarkers, CK-MB, and troponin I in patients undergoing PCI. Restenosis remains as a major long-term complication following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). It appears that there is strong relationship between post-PCI creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and troponin I elevation and cardiovascular events after PCI. In this randomized clinical trial, a total of 90 patients planned to undergo PCI were randomly assigned into two groups: Group A-receiving omega-3 PUFAs (3 g, 12 h before PCI) plus standard treatment (n = 43) and Group B-control group, receiving only standard therapy (n = 47). Standard treatment included aspirin 325 mg and clopidogrel 600 mg loading dose. The plasma CK-MB level was measured before the procedure (baseline), at 8 and 24 h after PCI. The plasma troponin I was measured at baseline and 24 h after PCI. In comparison with control, omega-3 PUFAs could significantly reduce the level of CK-MB in 8 (P = 0.001) and 24 h (P = 0.012) after its prescription in the omega-3 PUFAs group. Omega-3 PUFAs could not significantly decrease troponin I. Our results revealed that omega-3 PUFAs can be considered as a safe adjunctive medication to the standard regimen before PCI for the aim of decreasing cardiovascular event after PCI. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Distribution of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the whole rat body and 25 compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, N M; Lin, Y H; Moriguchi, T; Lim, S Y; Salem, N; Hibbeln, J R

    2015-09-01

    The steady state compositions of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) throughout the various viscera and tissues within the whole body of rats have not previously been described in a comprehensive manner. Dams consumed diets containing 10wt% fat (15% linoleate and 3% α-linolenate). Male offspring (n=9) at 7-week of age were euthanized and dissected into 25 compartments. Total lipid fatty acids for each compartment were quantified by GC/FID and summed for the rat whole body; total n-6 PUFA was 12wt% and total n-3 PUFA was 2.1% of total fatty acids. 18:2n-6 accounted for 84% of the total n-6 PUFA, 20:4n-6 was 12%, 18:3n-3 was 59% of the total n-3 PUFA, 20:5n-3 was 2.1%, and 22:6n-3 was 32%. The white adipose tissue contained the greatest amounts of 18:2n-6 (1.5g) and 18:3n-3 (0.2g). 20:4n-6 was highest in muscle (60mg) and liver (57mg), while 22:6n-3 was greatest in muscle (46mg), followed by liver (27mg) and carcass (20mg). In terms of fatty acid composition expressed as a percentage, 18:2n-6 was the highest in the heart (13wt%), while 18:3n-3 was about 1.3wt% for skin, white adipose tissue and fur. 20:4n-6 was highest (21-25wt%) in the circulation, kidney, and spleen, while 22:6n-3 was highest in the brain (12wt%), followed by the heart (7.9wt%), liver (5.9wt%), and spinal cord (5.1wt%). Selectivity was greatest when comparing 22:6n-3 in brain (12%) to white adipose (0.08%) (68-fold) and 22:5n-6 in testes (15.6%) compared to white adipose (0.02%), 780-fold.

  17. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ameliorate neuroinflammation and mitigate ischemic stroke damage through interactions with astrocytes and microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendedel, Adib; Habib, Pardes; Dang, Jon; Lammerding, Leoni; Hoffmann, Stefanie; Beyer, Cordian; Slowik, Alexander

    2015-01-15

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA n3) provide neuroprotection due to their anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties as well as their regulatory function on growth factors and neuronal plasticity. These qualities enable PUFA n3 to ameliorate stroke outcome and limit neuronal damage. Young adult male rats received transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). PUFA n3 were intravenously administered into the jugular vein immediately after stroke and 12h later. We analyzed stroke volume and behavioral performance as well as the regulation of functionally-relevant genes in the penumbra. The extent of ischemic damage was reduced and behavioral performance improved subject to applied PUFA n3. Expression of Tau and growth-associated protein-43 genes were likewise restored. Ischemia-induced increase of cytokine mRNA levels was abated by PUFA n3. Using an in vitro approach, we demonstrate that cultured astroglial and microglia directly respond to PUFA n3 administration by preventing ischemia-induced increase of cyclooxygenase 2, hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and interleukin 1beta. Cultured cortical neurons also appeared as direct targets, since PUFA n3 shifted the Bcl-2-like protein 4 (Bax)/B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl 2) ratio towards an anti-apoptotic constellation. Thus, PUFA n3 reveal a high neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory potential in an acute ischemic stroke model by targeting astroglial and microglial function as well as improving neuronal survival strategies. Our findings signify the potential clinical feasibility of PUFA n3 therapeutic treatment in stroke and other acute neurological diseases.

  18. Perinatal supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improves sevoflurane-induced neurodegeneration and memory impairment in neonatal rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Lei

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate if perinatal Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs supplementation can improve sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment in neonatal rats. METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 3 each group were treated with or without an n-3 PUFAs (fish oil enriched diet from the second day of pregnancy to 14 days after parturition. The offspring rats (P7 were treated with six hours sevoflurane administration (one group without sevoflurane/prenatal n-3 PUFAs supplement as control. The 5-bromodeoxyuridine (Brdu was injected intraperitoneally during and after sevoflurane anesthesia to assess dentate gyrus (DG progenitor proliferation. Brain tissues were harvested and subjected to Western blot and immunohistochemistry respectively. Morris water maze spatial reference memory, fear conditioning, and Morris water maze memory consolidation were tested at P35, P63 and P70 (n = 9, respectively. RESULTS: Six hours 3% sevoflurane administration increased the cleaved caspase-3 in the thalamus, parietal cortex but not hippocampus of neonatal rat brain. Sevoflurane anesthesia also decreased the neuronal precursor proliferation of DG in rat hippocampus. However, perinatal n-3 PUFAs supplement could decrease the cleaved caspase-3 in the cerebral cortex of neonatal rats, and mitigate the decrease in neuronal proliferation in their hippocampus. In neurobehavioral studies, compared with control and n-3 PUFAs supplement groups, we did not find significant spatial cognitive deficit and early long-term memory impairment in sevoflurane anesthetized neonatal rats at their adulthood. However, sevoflurane could impair the immediate fear response and working memory and short-term memory. And n-3 PUFAs could improve neurocognitive function in later life after neonatal sevoflurane exposure. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that neonatal exposure to prolonged sevoflurane could impair the immediate fear response, working

  19. Specific behavioral and cellular adaptations induced by chronic morphine are reduced by dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimian, Joshua; Minasyan, Ani; Zhe-Ying, Lily; Loureiro, Mariana; Beltrand, Austin; Johnston, Camille; Vorperian, Alexander; Romaneschi, Nicole; Atallah, Waleed; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando; Walwyn, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Opiates, one of the oldest known drugs, are the benchmark for treating pain. Regular opioid exposure also induces euphoria making these compounds addictive and often misused, as shown by the current epidemic of opioid abuse and overdose mortalities. In addition to the effect of opioids on their cognate receptors and signaling cascades, these compounds also induce multiple adaptations at cellular and behavioral levels. As omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) play a ubiquitous role in behavioral and cellular processes, we proposed that supplemental n-3 PUFAs, enriched in docosahexanoic acid (DHA), could offset these adaptations following chronic opioid exposure. We used an 8 week regimen of n-3 PUFA supplementation followed by 8 days of morphine in the presence of this diet. We first assessed the effect of morphine in different behavioral measures and found that morphine increased anxiety and reduced wheel-running behavior. These effects were reduced by dietary n-3 PUFAs without affecting morphine-induced analgesia or hyperlocomotion, known effects of this opiate acting at mu opioid receptors. At the cellular level we found that morphine reduced striatal DHA content and that this was reversed by supplemental n-3 PUFAs. Chronic morphine also increased glutamatergic plasticity and the proportion of Grin2B-NMDARs in striatal projection neurons. This effect was similarly reversed by supplemental n-3 PUFAs. Gene analysis showed that supplemental PUFAs offset the effect of morphine on genes found in neurons of the dopamine receptor 2 (D2)-enriched indirect pathway but not of genes found in dopamine receptor 1(D1)-enriched direct-pathway neurons. Analysis of the D2 striatal connectome by a retrogradely transported pseudorabies virus showed that n-3 PUFA supplementation reversed the effect of chronic morphine on the innervation of D2 neurons by the dorsomedial prefontal and piriform cortices. Together these changes outline specific behavioral and cellular effects

  20. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Enhance Cisplatin Efficacy in Gastric Cancer Cells by Inducing Apoptosis via ADORA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Hong; Chen, Xuehua; Liu, Binya; Li, Pu; Cao, Weixin

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that administration of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs), including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), can alter the toxicity and/or activity of several anticancer drugs in in vitro and in vivo studies. Here, we investigated the ability of ω-3 PUFAs to potentiate the antineoplastic activity of cisplatin (CDDP) in gastric cancer cells. The increase in CDDP-induced growth inhibition was measured by the IC50 values obtained when the cells were incubated with CDDP alone or with CDDP plus DHA or EPA. DHA and EPA enhanced the growth-inhibition activity of increasing concentrations of CDDP. The interactions between CDDP and DHA or EPA at the cellular level were assessed through the combination index (CI) method of Chou-Talalay. The results demonstrated synergism between CDDP and DHA or EPA in MKN45 cells. Cell cycle analysis showed that the combination treatment increased G0/G1 phase and S phase arrest, and significantly increased the number of apoptotic cells. According to our previous study, ω -3 PUFAs induce apoptosis of gastric cells via ADORA1, a subtype of adenosine receptor functionally related to cell death. The ADORA1 mRNA and protein expression was higher in the combination treatment than in the individual treatments. Notable, when GC cells were pretreated with DPCPX, a selective ADORA1 antagonist, the combination treatment effect on apoptosis was significantly reduced. Our results suggest that ω-3 PUFAs enhance the antineoplastic effects of CDDP in gastric cancer cells, and the synergistic effect between ω-3 PUFAs and CDDP is partly dependent on activating the ADORA1-mediated apoptosis pathway.

  1. Long-chain omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cognition in older people: interaction with APOE genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barberger-Gateau Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic research and epidemiological studies suggest a protective effect of long-chain omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA against age-related cognitive decline. However, most randomized controlled trials with LC n-3 PUFA supplements have yielded disappointing results on cognitive outcomes in older persons. One explanation for this discrepancy may be an inadequate targeting of potential beneficiaries of LC n-3 PUFA according to their Apolipoprotein E (APOE genotype. The aim of this paper was to examine the potential modifying effect of APOE genotype on LC n-3 PUFA metabolism and its relation to cognitive decline in older persons. At least five epidemiological studies and three intervention studies with LC n-3 PUFA supplements have found an interaction between LC n-3 PUFA and APOE genotype on cognition. However, the direction of the effect is inconsistent across studies: the impact of LC n-3 PUFA on cognition is stronger in APOE4 carriers (the main genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease in some studies, but conversely stronger in APOE4 non-carriers in other studies. These discordant results may be explained by different age groups, cognitive status, measures of cognition, or amounts of DHA intake across studies. Experimental studies suggest that the APOE4 genotype modifies the metabolism of DHA. The APOE genotype should be systematically taken into account and interactions tested in epidemiological and intervention studies with LC n-3 PUFA. Further research is needed to better understand the underlying mechanisms of this gene X diet interaction.

  2. [Omega-3 fatty acids in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourre, Jean-Marie

    2005-02-01

    The brain is one of the organs with the highest level of lipids (fats). Brain lipids, formed of fatty acids, participate in the structure of membranes, for instance 50 % fatty acids are polyunsaturated in the gray matter, 1/3 are of the omega-3 family, and are thus of dietary origin. The omega-3 fatty acids (mainly alpha-linolenic acid, ALA) participated in one of the first experimental demonstration of the effect of dietary substances (nutrients) on the structure and function of the brain. Experiments were first of all carried out on ex vivo cultured brain cells, then on in vivo brain cells (neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) from animals fed ALA deficient diet, finally on physicochemical (membrane fluidity), biochemical, physiological, neurosensory (vision an auditory responses), and behavioural or learning parameters. These findings indicated that the nature of polyunsaturated fatty acids (in particular omega-3) present in formula milks for human infants determines to a certain extend the visual, neurological, and intellectual abilities. Thus, in view of these results and of the high polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the brain, it is normal to consider that they could be involved in psychiatric diseases and in the cognitive decline of ageing. Omega-3 fatty acids appear effective in the prevention of stress, however their role as regulator of mood is a matter for discussion. Indeed, they play a role in the prevention of some disorders including depression (especially post partum), as well as in dementia, particularly Alzheimer's disease. Their role in major depression and bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disease), only poorly documented, is not clearly demonstrated. The intervention of omega-3 in dyslexia, autism, and schizophrenia has been suggested, but it does not necessarily infer a nutritional problems. The respective importance of the vascular system (where the omega-3 are actually active) and the cerebral parenchyma itself, remain to be

  3. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Trigger Cell Cycle Arrest and Induce Apoptosis in Human Neuroblastoma LA-N-1 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wai Wing So; Wai Nam Liu; Kwok Nam Leung

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids are dietary long-chain fatty acids with an array of health benefits. Previous research has demonstrated the growth-inhibitory effect of n-3 fatty acids on different cancer cell lines in vitro, yet their anti-tumor effects and underlying action mechanisms on human neuroblastoma LA-N-1 cells have not yet been reported. In this study, we showed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) exhibited time- and concentration-dependent anti-proliferative ...

  4. Transgenic expression of delta-6 and delta-15 fatty acid desaturases enhances omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid accumulation in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gao; Qu, Shujie; Wang, Qiang; Bian, Fei; Peng, Zhenying; Zhang, Yan; Ge, Haitao; Yu, Jinhui; Xuan, Ning; Bi, Yuping; He, Qingfang

    2014-03-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which contain two or more double bonds in their backbone, are the focus of intensive global research, because of their nutritional value, medicinal applications, and potential use as biofuel. However, the ability to produce these economically important compounds is limited, because it is both expensive and technically challenging to separate omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) from natural oils. Although the biosynthetic pathways of some plant and microalgal ω-3 PUFAs have been deciphered, current understanding of the correlation between fatty acid desaturase content and fatty acid synthesis in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 is incomplete. We constructed a series of homologous vectors for the endogenous and exogenous expression of Δ6 and Δ15 fatty acid desaturases under the control of the photosynthesis psbA2 promoter in transgenic Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. We generated six homologous recombinants, harboring various fatty acid desaturase genes from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, Gibberella fujikuroi and Mortierella alpina. These lines produced up to 8.9 mg/l of α-linolenic acid (ALA) and 4.1 mg/l of stearidonic acid (SDA), which are more than six times the corresponding wild-type levels, at 20°C and 30°C. Thus, transgenic expression of Δ6 and Δ15 fatty acid desaturases enhances the accumulation of specific ω-3 PUFAs in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. In the blue-green alga Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, overexpression of endogenous and exogenous genes encoding PUFA desaturases markedly increased accumulation of ALA and SDA and decreased accumulation of linoleic acid and γ-linolenic acid. This study lays the foundation for increasing the fatty acid content of cyanobacteria and, ultimately, for producing nutritional and medicinal products with high levels of essential ω-3 PUFAs.

  5. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9 in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs is suppressed by omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi Taguchi

    Full Text Available Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs are responsible for tumor growth, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9 secreted from cancer stroma populated by CAFs is a prerequisite for cancer angiogenesis and metastasis. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA have been reported to have anti-tumor effects on diverse types of malignancies. Fat-1 mice, which can convert omega-6 to omega-3 PUFA independent of diet, are useful to investigate the functions of endogenous omega-3 PUFA. To examine the effect of omega-3 PUFA on tumorigenesis, TC-1 cells, a murine epithelial cell line immortalized by human papillomavirus (HPV oncogenes, were injected subcutaneously into fat-1 or wild type mice. Tumor growth and angiogenesis of the TC-1 tumor were significantly suppressed in fat-1 compared to wild type mice. cDNA microarray of the tumors derived from fat-1 and wild type mice revealed that MMP-9 is downregulated in fat-1 mice. Immunohistochemical study demonstrated immunoreactivity for MMP-9 in the tumor stromal fibroblasts was diffusely positive in wild type whereas focal in fat-1 mice. MMP-9 was expressed in primary cultured fibroblasts isolated from fat-1 and wild type mice but was not expressed in TC-1 cells. Co-culture of fibroblasts with TC-1 cells enhanced the expression and the proteinase activity of MMP-9, although the protease activity of MMP-9 in fat-1-derived fibroblasts was lower than that in wild type fibroblasts. Our data suggests that omega-3 PUFAs suppress MMP-9 induction and tumor angiogenesis. These findings may provide insight into mechanisms by which omega-3 PUFAs exert anti-tumor effects by modulating tumor microenvironment.

  6. Health information impact on the relative importance of beef attributes including its enrichment with polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and conjugated linoleic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallas, Zein; Realini, Carolina E; Gil, José Maria

    2014-08-01

    This paper uses Choice Experiments (CE) to investigate Spanish consumers' preferences towards beef meat enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and conjugated linoleic acid). Data were gathered from self-completed questionnaires in a controlled environment with two different samples (320 and 322 consumers) differentiated by the information received. The surveys were carried out in three main Spanish cities (Barcelona, Zaragoza and Pamplona), representing the average consumer. A variation of the "Dual Response Choice Experiments" (DRCE) design was used due to its ability to emphasize the purchase context. Results showed that consumers who received information attach higher preference for enriched meat with polyunsaturated fatty acids. The utility associated with the higher content of fat increase for informed consumers, showing a substitute effect. Informed consumers are willing to accept meat with a higher amount of visible fat if it is enriched with beneficial fatty acids.

  7. Fatty Acid-Related Phylogeny of Myxobacteria as an Approach to Discover Polyunsaturated Omega-3/6 Fatty Acids ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ronald; Pistorius, Dominik; Stadler, Marc; Müller, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    In an analysis of 47 aerobic myxobacterial strains, representing 19 genera in suborders Cystobacterineae, Nannocystineae, Sorangiineae, and a novel isolate, “Aetherobacter” SBSr008, an enormously diverse array of fatty acids (FAs) was found. The distribution of straight-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) supports the reported clustering of strains in the phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA genes. This finding additionally allows the prediction and assignment of the novel isolate SBSr008 into its corresponding taxon. Sorangiineae predominantly contains larger amounts of SCFA (57 to 84%) than BCFA. On the other hand, Cystobacterineae exhibit significant BCFA content (53 to 90%), with the exception of the genus Stigmatella. In Nannocystineae, the ratio of BCFA and SCFA seems dependent on the taxonomic clade. Myxobacteria could also be identified and classified by using their specific and predominant FAs as biomarkers. Nannocystineae is remarkably unique among the suborders for its absence of hydroxy FAs. After the identification of arachidonic (AA) FA in Phaselicystidaceae, eight additional polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) belonging to the omega-6 and omega-3 families were discovered. Here we present a comprehensive report of FAs found in aerobic myxobacteria. Gliding bacteria belonging to Flexibacter and Herpetosiphon were chosen for comparative analysis to determine their FA profiles in relation to the myxobacteria. PMID:21317327

  8. Fat food for a bad mood. Could we treat and prevent depression in Type 2 diabetes by means of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, F; Nijpels, G; Beekman, Aartjan T F

    2005-01-01

    complications. CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation with omega-3 PUFA, in particular eicosapentaenoic acid, may be a safe and helpful tool to reduce the incidence of depression and to treat depression in Type 2 diabetes. Further studies are now justified to test these hypotheses in patients with Type 2 diabetes.......AIMS: Evidence strongly suggests that depression is a common complication of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is considerable room to improve the effectiveness of pharmacological antidepressant agents, as in only 50-60% of the depressed subjects with diabetes does pharmacotherapy lead...... to remission of depression. The aim of the present paper was to review whether polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of the omega-3 family could be used for the prevention and treatment of depression in Type 2 diabetes. METHODS: MEDLINE database and published reference lists were used to identify studies...

  9. Combining nutrition, food science and engineering in developing solutions to Inflammatory bowel diseases--omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Lynnette R; Smith, Bronwen G; James, Bryony J

    2010-10-01

    The Inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are debilitating conditions, characterised by lifelong sensitivity to certain foods, and often a need for surgery and life-long medication. The anti-inflammatory effects of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated acids justify their inclusion in enteral nutrition formulas that have been associated with disease remission. However, there have been variable data in clinical trials to test supplementary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in inducing or maintaining remission in these diseases. Although variability in trial design has been suggested as a major factor, we suggest that variability in processing and presentation of the products may be equally or more important. The nature of the source, and rapidity of getting the fish or other food source to processing or to market, will affect the percentage of the various fatty acids, possible presence of heavy metal contaminants and oxidation status of the various fatty acids. For dietary supplements or fortified foods, whether the product is encapsulated or not, whether storage is under nitrogen or not, and length of time between harvest, processing and marketing will again profoundly affect the properties of the final product. Clinical trials to test efficacy of these products in IBD to date have utilised the relevant skills of pharmacology and gastroenterology. We suggest that knowledge from food science, nutrition and engineering will be essential to establish the true role of this important group of compounds in these diseases.

  10. Higher de novo synthesized fatty acids and lower omega 3-and omega 6-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in umbilical vessels of women with preeclampsia and high fish intakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiskes, Victor J. B.; Kuipers, Remko S.; Velzing-Aarts, Francien V.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; van der Meulen, Jan; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Umbilical veins (UV) and arteries (UA) of preeclamptic women in Curacao harbor lower long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP). The present aim was to test these findings in Mwanza (Tanzania), whose inhabitants have high LCP omega 3 and LCP omega 6 intakes from Lake Victoria fish. Women with pree

  11. Higher de novo synthesized fatty acids and lower omega 3-and omega 6-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in umbilical vessels of women with preeclampsia and high fish intakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiskes, Victor J. B.; Kuipers, Remko S.; Velzing-Aarts, Francien V.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; van der Meulen, Jan; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Umbilical veins (UV) and arteries (UA) of preeclamptic women in Curacao harbor lower long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP). The present aim was to test these findings in Mwanza (Tanzania), whose inhabitants have high LCP omega 3 and LCP omega 6 intakes from Lake Victoria fish. Women with

  12. Higher de novo synthesized fatty acids and lower omega 3-and omega 6-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in umbilical vessels of women with preeclampsia and high fish intakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiskes, Victor J. B.; Kuipers, Remko S.; Velzing-Aarts, Francien V.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; van der Meulen, Jan; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Umbilical veins (UV) and arteries (UA) of preeclamptic women in Curacao harbor lower long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP). The present aim was to test these findings in Mwanza (Tanzania), whose inhabitants have high LCP omega 3 and LCP omega 6 intakes from Lake Victoria fish. Women with pree

  13. Exercise and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation for the Treatment of Hepatic Steatosis in Hyperphagic OLETF Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Borengasser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. This study examined if exercise and omega-3 fatty acid (n3PUFA supplementation is an effective treatment for hepatic steatosis in obese, hyperphagic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF rats. Methods. Male OLETF rats were divided into 4 groups (n=8/group: (1 remained sedentary (SED, (2 access to running wheels; (EX (3 a diet supplemented with 3% of energy from fish oil (n3PUFA-SED; and (4 n3PUFA supplementation plus EX (n3PUFA+EX. The 8 week treatments began at 13 weeks, when hepatic steatosis is present in OLETF-SED rats. Results. EX alone lowered hepatic triglyceride (TAG while, in contrast, n3PUFAs failed to lower hepatic TAG and blunted the ability of EX to decrease hepatic TAG levels in n3PUFAs+EX. Insulin sensitivity was improved in EX animals, to a lesser extent in n3PUFA+EX rats, and did not differ between n3PUFA-SED and SED rats. Only the EX group displayed higher complete hepatic fatty acid oxidation (FAO to CO2 and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 activity. EX also lowered hepatic fatty acid synthase protein while both EX and n3PUFA+EX decreased stearoyl CoA desaturase-1 protein. Conclusions. Exercise lowers hepatic steatosis through increased complete hepatic FAO, insulin sensitivity, and reduced expression of de novo fatty acid synthesis proteins while n3PUFAs had no effect.

  14. Field trial evaluation of the accumulation of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic Camelina sativa: Making fish oil substitutes in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Usher

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The global consumption of fish oils currently exceeds one million tonnes, with the natural de novo source of these important fatty acids forming the base of marine foodwebs. Here we describe the first field-based evaluation of a terrestrial source of these essential nutrients, synthesised in the seeds of transgenic Camelina sativa plants via the heterologous reconstitution of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. Our data demonstrate the robust nature of this novel trait, and the feasibility of making fish oils in genetically modified crops. Moreover, to our knowledge, this is the most complex example of plant genetic engineering to undergo environmental release and field evaluation.

  15. Cancer Risk and Eicosanoid Production: Interaction between the Protective Effect of Long Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake and Genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Lenihan-Geels

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dietary inclusion of fish and fish supplements as a means to improve cancer prognosis and prevent tumour growth is largely controversial. Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, may modulate the production of inflammatory eicosanoids, thereby influencing local inflammatory status, which is important in cancer development. Although in vitro studies have demonstrated inhibition of tumour cell growth and proliferation by LCn-3 PUFA, results from human studies have been mainly inconsistent. Genes involved in the desaturation of fatty acids, as well as the genes encoding enzymes responsible for eicosanoid production, are known to be implicated in tumour development. This review discusses the current evidence for an interaction between genetic polymorphisms and dietary LCn-3 PUFA in the risk for breast, prostate and colorectal cancers, in regards to inflammation and eicosanoid synthesis.

  16. Cancer Risk and Eicosanoid Production: Interaction between the Protective Effect of Long Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake and Genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenihan-Geels, Georgia; Bishop, Karen S; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2016-02-15

    Dietary inclusion of fish and fish supplements as a means to improve cancer prognosis and prevent tumour growth is largely controversial. Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, may modulate the production of inflammatory eicosanoids, thereby influencing local inflammatory status, which is important in cancer development. Although in vitro studies have demonstrated inhibition of tumour cell growth and proliferation by LCn-3 PUFA, results from human studies have been mainly inconsistent. Genes involved in the desaturation of fatty acids, as well as the genes encoding enzymes responsible for eicosanoid production, are known to be implicated in tumour development. This review discusses the current evidence for an interaction between genetic polymorphisms and dietary LCn-3 PUFA in the risk for breast, prostate and colorectal cancers, in regards to inflammation and eicosanoid synthesis.

  17. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Trigger Cell Cycle Arrest and Induce Apoptosis in Human Neuroblastoma LA-N-1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Wing So

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids are dietary long-chain fatty acids with an array of health benefits. Previous research has demonstrated the growth-inhibitory effect of n-3 fatty acids on different cancer cell lines in vitro, yet their anti-tumor effects and underlying action mechanisms on human neuroblastoma LA-N-1 cells have not yet been reported. In this study, we showed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA exhibited time- and concentration-dependent anti-proliferative effect on the human neuroblastoma LA-N-1 cells, but had minimal cytotoxicity on the normal or non-tumorigenic cells, as measured by MTT reduction assay. Mechanistic studies indicated that DHA and EPA triggered G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in LA-N-1 cells, as detected by flow cytometry, which was accompanied by a decrease in the expression of CDK2 and cyclin E proteins. Moreover, DHA and EPA could also induce apoptosis in LA-N-1 cells as revealed by an increase in DNA fragmentation, phosphatidylserine externalization and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Up-regulation of Bax, activated caspase-3 and caspase-9 proteins, and down-regulation of Bcl-XL protein, might account for the occurrence of apoptotic events. Collectively, our results suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of DHA and EPA on LA-N-1 cells might be mediated, at least in part, via triggering of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Therefore, DHA and EPA are potential anti-cancer agents which might be used for the adjuvant therapy or combination therapy with the conventional anti-cancer drugs for the treatment of some forms of human neuroblastoma with minimal toxicity.

  18. Purification of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish oil using silver-thiolate chromatographic material and high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, James T; Aponte, José C; Tarozo, Rafael; Huang, Yongsong

    2013-10-18

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) have become increasingly popular in dietary supplements worldwide and global demand for higher purity ω-3 PUFAs in clinical applications has been rising rapidly in the recent years. Traditional methods for isolating ω-3 PUFAs however, generally require multiple, cumbersome steps to obtain high purity (>95%) products. In this study, we report an efficient liquid chromatography method for purifying individual omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6), at >95% purity using a silver(I)-mercaptopropyl stationary phase, otherwise known as silver-thiolate chromatographic material (AgTCM). We demonstrate the key variables controlling separation of FAEEs with a silver(I)-thiolate stationary phase and examine important similarities and differences between silver-thiolate and silver-ion chromatography in regards to the separation mechanism taking place. We demonstrate the separation behavior of FAEEs under various conditions such as mobile phase composition, flow rate and sample injection amount. Purification of EPA and DHA was carried out on an analytical and semi-preparative scale and the resulting purity was determined by GC-FID. We report high attainable purity for EPA (>95%) and DHA (>99%) from a single isocratic separation of fish oil FAEEs within 5-10min using a mobile phase of heptane/acetone (95:5, % v/v). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Omega-3多不饱和脂肪酸对角化细胞及成纤维细胞的作用%Effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on keratinocytes and fibroblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝薇; 李福海; 王玉林

    2012-01-01

    To observe effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on keratinocyte proliferation and fibroblast differentiation. Methods Keratinocytes and fibroblasts were cultured in vitro. The cells were treated with omega-3 PUFAs at different concentrations. BrdU assay was used to examine the keratinocyle proliferation. The cell toxicity of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was assessed by MTT. EL1SA assay was used to observe the expressions of a-SMA and human collagen-1. Results At a concentration of 200μinol/L, EPA significantly promoted keratinocyte proliferation, increased the expression of a-SMA and decreased the expression of human collagen-1 in fibroblasts. Conclusion EPA could increase keratinocyte proliferation and promote fibroblast differentiation, which might promote wound healing.%目的 观察Omega 3多不饱和脂肪酸对人表皮角化细胞增殖和人皮肤成纤维细胞分化的作用.方法 体外培养人表皮角化细胞和人皮肤成纤维细胞,用不同浓度Omega-3多不饱和脂肪酸(EPA)干预角化细胞,BrdU法测角化细胞增殖;不同浓度EPA干预成纤维细胞,ELISA法检测a-平滑肌肌动蛋白(a-SMA)及人胶原蛋白1的表达;MTT法观察EPA对成纤维细胞活性的影响.结果 EPA浓度在200 μmol/L时,对人表皮角化细胞有明显的促增殖作用,显著提高成纤维细胞培养液中a-SMA的表达,降低人胶原蛋白1的表达.结论 EPA可能通过促进角化细胞增殖、诱导成纤维细胞分化改善伤口愈合.

  20. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: an emphasis on omega-3-acid ethyl esters 90 for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuno, Ichiro

    2014-11-01

    A number of epidemiological/observational studies, as well as large-scale randomized intervention studies, have been conducted to provide evidence for the efficacy of ω-3 fatty acids against atherosclerotic diseases. Currently, ω-3 fatty acids are commercially available in many parts of the world containing the same active ingredients as Lotriga(®) (ω-3-acid ethyl esters 90 [O3AE highly concentrated ω-3 fatty acid ethyl esters, consisting of eicosapentaenoic acid-ethyl ester and docosahexaenoic acid-ethyl ester [EPA-E/DHA-E]). A recent head-to-head comparative study of O3AEE90 versus EPA-E demonstrated that O3AEE90 4g/day led to a significantly greater reduction in triglycerides (TG) than EPA-E 1.8g/day and that O3AEE90 2g/day produced comparable effects on TG to those with EPA-E 1.8g/day. While both agents were shown to be useful in lowering TG, the hallmark feature of O3AEE90, that is, the presence of the DHA-E component versus its absence in EPA-E, needs to be further examined for its clinical implications.

  1. Postprandial lipid responses do not differ following consumption of butter or vegetable oil when consumed with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Cintia B; Phang, Melinda; Wood, Lisa G; Garg, Manohar L

    2015-04-01

    Dietary saturated fat (SFA) intake has been associated with elevated blood lipid levels and increased risk for the development of chronic diseases. However, some animal studies have demonstrated that dietary SFA may not raise blood lipid levels when the diet is sufficient in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA). Therefore, in a randomised cross-over design, we investigated the postprandial effects of feeding meals rich in either SFA (butter) or vegetable oil rich in omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA), in conjunction with n-3PUFA, on blood lipid profiles [total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triacylglycerol (TAG)] and n-3PUFA incorporation into plasma lipids over a 6-h period. The incremental area under the curve for plasma cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, TAG and n-3PUFA levels over 6 h was similar in the n-6PUFA compared to SFA group. The postprandial lipemic response to saturated fat is comparable to that of n-6PUFA when consumed with n-3PUFA; however, sex-differences in response to dietary fat type are worthy of further attention.

  2. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Management of Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Silvia; Martorell, Miquel; Capó, Xavier; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni; Sureda, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with multiple double bonds. Linolenic and alpha-linolenic acids are omega-6 and omega-3 PUFAs, precursors for the synthesis of long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs), such as arachidonic acid (omega-6 PUFA), and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (omega-3 PUFAs). The three most important omega-3 fatty acids are alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, which cannot be synthesized in enough amounts by the body, and therefore they must be supplied by the diet. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for the correct functioning of the organism and participate in many physiological processes in the brain. Epilepsy is a common and heterogeneous chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent epileptic seizures leading to neuropsychiatric disabilities. The prevalence of epilepsy is high achieving about 1% of the general population. There is evidence suggesting that omega-3 fatty acids may have neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects and, accordingly, may have a potential use in the treatment of epilepsy. In the present review, the potential use of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of epilepsy, and the possible proposed mechanisms of action are discussed. The present article summarizes the recent knowledge of the potential protective role of dietary omega-3 fatty acids in epilepsy.

  3. A protein-enriched low glycemic index diet with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation exerts beneficial effects on metabolic control in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosheer, Simone M; Waldschütz, Wolfgang; Itariu, Bianca K; Brath, Helmut; Stulnig, Thomas M

    2014-12-01

    The current study aims to investigate practicability and effects of a combined dietary intervention with increased relative protein content supplemented with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on metabolic control and inflammatory parameters in a real life situation in type 2 diabetes patients. In this observational study we advised thirty mostly obese patients with type 2 diabetes to follow a protein-enriched diet with carbohydrates of low glycemic index (low GI) and moderate fat reduction supplemented with omega-3 PUFA for 24 weeks. Primary efficacy parameter was the change in HbA1c; secondary parameters included changes in systemic inflammation (measured by ultrasensitive C-reactive protein, usCRP), body weight, waist circumference, fat mass. The study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01474603). The dietary intervention significantly reduced the primary efficacy variable HbA1c from a baseline value of 63±11mmol/mol to 59±14mmol/mol (P=0.033) and 56±12mmol/mol (P=0.001) after 12 and 24 weeks, respectively. In addition, usCRP decreased significantly at 24 weeks (P=0.039). Waist circumference, an important indicator for cardiometabolic-risk and silent inflammation, decreased from baseline 116.0±14.1cm to 114.9±13.5cm (P=0.019), 114.0±14.4cm (P=0.001), and 112.7±13.4cm (P=0.049), after 3, 12 and 24 weeks, respectively. Counseling a protein enriched and low glycemic index diet supplemented with long-chain omega-3 PUFA in a real-life clinical setting improves glycemic control and also reduces waist circumference and silent inflammation in overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Serum omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of incident type 2 diabetes in men: the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jyrki K; Mursu, Jaakko; Voutilainen, Sari; Uusitupa, Matti; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The relationship between fish or omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and type 2 diabetes is inconclusive. Even contaminants in fish, such as mercury, may modify the effects. We investigated the associations between serum omega-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), α-linolenic acid (ALA), hair mercury, and risk of incident type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and older Finnish men. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 2,212 men from the prospective, population-based Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor study, aged 42-60 years and free of type 2 diabetes at baseline in 1984-1989, were investigated. Serum PUFA and hair mercury were used as biomarkers for exposure. Dietary intakes were assessed with 4-day food recording. Type 2 diabetes was assessed by self-administered questionnaires and fasting and 2-h oral glucose tolerance test blood glucose measurement at re-examination rounds 4, 11, and 20 years after the baseline and by record linkage to hospital discharge registry and reimbursement register on diabetes medication expenses. Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze associations. RESULTS During the average follow-up of 19.3 years, 422 men developed type 2 diabetes. Men in the highest versus the lowest serum EPA + DPA + DHA quartile had 33% lower multivariate-adjusted risk for type 2 diabetes (95% CI 13-49; P trend 0.01). No statistically significant associations were observed with serum or dietary ALA, dietary fish or EPA + DHA, or hair mercury. CONCLUSIONS Serum long-chain omega-3 PUFA concentration, an objective biomarker for fish intake, was associated with long-term lower risk of type 2 diabetes.

  5. Omega-3多不饱和脂肪酸对前列腺癌细胞生长的作用%Effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the growth of prostate cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 张荣远; 马鸣

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨Omega-3多不饱和脂肪酸对前列腺癌细胞生长的作用和机制.方法 通过噻唑蓝(MTT)比色法观察浓度分别为20、40、60、80 μmol/L的二十二碳六烯酸对前列腺癌LNCap细胞活力的影响;使用40 μmol/L二十二碳六烯酸处理前列腺癌LNCap细胞0、12、24、36 h,通过实时荧光定量聚合酶链反应(FQ-PCR)和Western blot法检测二十二碳六烯酸对LNCap细胞雄激素受体(AR)的影响.结果 MTT实验结果显示20、40、60、80 μmol/L的二十二碳六烯酸对LNCap细胞增殖的抑制率分别为13.3%、46.7%、53.3%、63.3%,Western blot结果显示40 μmoL/L的二十二碳六烯酸能够使AR的蛋白表达量下降60% ~ 80%.结论 Omega-3多不饱和脂肪酸抑制前列腺癌细胞的生长与其下调AR的表达有关.%Objective To discuss the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the growth of prostate cancer cells and the possible action mechanism.Methods The cytotoxic effect of different con-centrations of docosahexenoic acid (20,40,60 and 80 μmol/L) on prostate cancer cell line LNCap was examined by methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay.The mRNA and protein expression level of androgen receptor was detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) and Western Blotting in order to demonstrate the effect of 40 μmol/L docosahexenoic acid on the growth of LNCap cells for 0,12,24 and 36 h.Results MTT assay showed that the inhibition ratio of 20,40,60 and 80 μmol/L docosahexenoic acid on the growth of LNCap cells was 13.3%,46.7%,53.3% and 63.3% respectively.Western blotting revealed that the androgen receptor protein quantity was obviously downregulated with docosahexenoic acid by 60%-80%.Conclusion Omega-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells,which may be associated with down-regulation of androgen recep-tor protein level.

  6. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Hess

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA are a family of essential fatty acids with many biological activities. These fatty acids are incorporated into cell membranes, changing their structural and functional characteristics. N-3 PUFA can act by modulating inflammatory responses at different levels. Omega-3 PUFA can be converted in the body to longer-chain n-3 PUFA at a limited rate and are differently converted in body systems. It appears that when specific longer-chain n-3 PUFA are desired these need to be supplemented directly in the diet. In different species some evidence indicates a potential effect on improving insulin sensitivity. Recently, a novel class of n-3 PUFA-derived anti-inflammatory mediators have been recognized, termed E-series and D-series resolvins, formed from EPA and DHA, respectively. N-3 PUFA derived resolvins and protectins are heavily involved in the resolution of inflammation. Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids in horses may help manage chronic inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis, equine metabolic syndrome, laminitis, and thereby help to improve longevity of sport horse.

  7. Production and concentration of monoacylglycerols rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by enzymatic glycerolysis and molecular distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaesa, Ángela García; Sanz, María Teresa; Falkeborg, Mia; Beltrán, Sagrario; Guo, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Production of monoacylglycerols (MAGs) rich in ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) was conducted through short path distillation (SPD) of an acylglycerol mixture (containing 67% MAGs) produced by enzymatic glycerolysis of sardine oil with glycerol. A stepwise SPD process in a UIC KDL 5 system (vacuum 10(-3)mbar, feeding flow 1.0 mL/min) was proceeded: the first distillation performed at evaporator temperature (TE) of 110 °C to remove glycerol completely and most of FFAs; and the second distillation at optimized TE 155 °C; resulting in a stream distillate with 91% purity and 94% overall recovery of MAGs. This work also demonstrated that SPD is able to concentrate n-3 PUFAs in MAG form by distilling at proper TE e.g. 125 °C, where n-3 PUFAs are concentrated in the residues. Moreover, this work mapped out a complete processing diagram for scalable production of n-3 PUFAs enriched MAGs as potential food emulsifier and ingredient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and genetic variants on methylation levels of the interleukin-6 gene promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scope: Omega-3 PUFAs (n-3 PUFAs) reduce IL-6 gene expression, but their effects on transcription regulatory mechanisms are unknown. We aimed to conduct an integrated analysis with both population and in vitro studies to systematically explore the relationships among n-3 PUFA, DNA methylation, single...

  9. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Treatment of Patients with Coronary Heart Disease and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisulu T. Mussagalieva, MD, PhD

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased platelet aggregation is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular events. However, recent studies have demonstrated the inhibition of platelet aggregation by omega-3 PUFAs. The aim of this work was to study the effect of the addition of omega-3 PUFAs to the combination of aspirin and clopidogrel on the platelet aggregation in patients with coronary heart disease. In all, 40 patients with coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus type 2 undergoing PCI with stent implantation were included in the study. Clopidogrel in a 300 mg loading dose was given after drawing blood for baselinemeasurement of ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Patients were randomized into two groups. The first group included 20 patients who received 75 mg clopidogrel once daily, 100 mg aspirin once daily and 1000 mg omega-3 PUFAs daily. The second group included 20 patients who received 75 mg clopidogrel once daily and 100 mg aspirin daily. The ADP– induced platelet aggregation was performed twice, once before clopidogrel administration and once after one month. All the patients were genotyped for CYP2C19 polymorphism. No significant differences were noted among the genotype and allele frequencies of the cytochrome CYP2C19 gene between the two groups. The addition of omega-3 PUFAs to the standard dual antiplatelet therapy of aspirin and clopidogrel significantly decreased the ADP-induced platelet aggregation.

  10. Effect of Different Omega-6/Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Ratios on the Formation of Monohydroxylated Fatty Acids in THP-1 Derived Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Keeren

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 and n-3 PUFA can modulate inflammatory processes. In western diets, the content of n-6 PUFA is much higher than that of n-3 PUFA, which has been suggested to promote a pro-inflammatory phenotype. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of modulating the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio on the formation of monohydroxylated fatty acid (HO-FAs derived from the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA and the n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in THP-1 macrophages by means of LC-MS. Lipid metabolites were measured in THP-1 macrophage cell pellets. The concentration of AA-derived hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs was not significantly changed when incubated THP-1 macrophages in a high AA/(EPA+DHA ratio of 19/1 vs. a low ratio AA/(EPA+DHA of 1/1 (950.6 ± 110 ng/mg vs. 648.2 ± 92.4 ng/mg, p = 0.103. Correspondingly, the concentration of EPA-derived hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids (HEPEs and DHA-derived hydroxydocosahexaenoic acids (HDHAs were significantly increased (63.9 ± 7.8 ng/mg vs. 434.4 ± 84.3 ng/mg, p = 0.012 and 84.9 ± 18.3 ng/mg vs. 439.4 ± 82.7 ng/mg, p = 0.014, respectively. Most notable was the strong increase of 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (18-HEPE formation in THP-1 macrophages, with levels of 170.9 ± 40.2 ng/mg protein in the high n-3 PUFA treated cells. Thus our data indicate that THP-1 macrophages prominently utilize EPA and DHA for monohydroxylated metabolite formation, in particular 18-HEPE, which has been shown to be released by macrophages to prevent pressure overload-induced maladaptive cardiac remodeling.

  11. Effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on human brain morphology and function: What is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Dienke J; van Montfort, Simone J T; Oranje, Bob; Durston, Sarah; Smeets, Paul A M

    2016-03-01

    Public opinion and media coverage suggest that there are benefits of long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) intake on brain functioning. However, it is an open question whether this is indeed the case. Therefore, we reviewed the evidence for effects of ω-3 LC-PUFA on human brain morphology and function. We included studies on (1) naturalistic long-term ω-3 LC-PUFA intake during life (2) the effects of short-term ω-3 LC-PUFA supplementation in healthy subjects and (3) the effects of ω-3 LC-PUFA supplementation as alternative or add-on treatment for psychiatric or neurological disorders. To date, 24 studies have been published on the effect of ω-3 LC-PUFA on brain function and structure. Findings from naturalistic studies and clinical trials in healthy individuals indicate that ω-3 LC-PUFA intake may be associated with increased functional activation of the prefrontal cortex in children, and greater gray matter volume and white matter integrity during aging. However, most naturalistic studies were cross-sectional or did not find any effect on cognition. As such, it is hard to estimate the magnitude of any beneficial effects. Furthermore, there is only limited evidence to support that ω-3 LC-PUFA supplementation is beneficial in brain disorders, such as Alzheimer's Disease, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder and schizophrenia. Overall, the literature suggests that sensitivity to supplementation may vary over development, and as a consequence of brain disorders. The biological mechanisms underlying any (beneficial) effects ω-3 LC-PUFAs on the brain are currently unknown and need to be investigated.

  12. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids suppress the inflammatory responses of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse microglia by activating SIRT1 pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takayuki; Tanaka, Masashi; Masuda, Shinya; Ohue-Kitano, Ryuji; Yamakage, Hajime; Muranaka, Kazuya; Wada, Hiromichi; Kusakabe, Toru; Shimatsu, Akira; Hasegawa, Koji; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko

    2017-05-01

    Obesity and diabetes are known risk factors for dementia, and it is speculated that chronic neuroinflammation contributes to this increased risk. Microglia are brain-resident immune cells modulating the neuroinflammatory state. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the major ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of fish oil, exhibit various effects, which include shifting microglia to the anti-inflammatory phenotype. To identify the molecular mechanisms involved, we examined the impact of EPA, DHA, and EPA+DHA on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine profiles and the associated signaling pathways in the mouse microglial line MG6. Both EPA and DHA suppressed the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 by LPS-stimulated MG6 cells, and this was also observed in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells, the other microglial line. Moreover, the EPA+DHA mixture activated SIRT1 signaling by enhancing mRNA level of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), cellular NAD(+) level, SIRT1 protein deacetylase activity, and SIRT1 mRNA levels in LPS-stimulated MG6. EPA+DHA also inhibited phosphorylation of the stress-associated transcription factor NF-κB subunit p65 at Ser536, which is known to enhance NF-κB nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity, including cytokine gene activation. Further, EPA+DHA increased the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, an indicator of autophagy. Suppression of TNF-α and IL-6 production, inhibition of p65 phosphorylation, and autophagy induction were abrogated by a SIRT1 inhibitor. On the other hand, NAMPT inhibition reversed TNF-α suppression but not IL-6 suppression. Accordingly, these ω-3 PUFAs may suppress neuroinflammation through SIRT1-mediated inhibition of the microglial NF-κB stress response and ensue pro-inflammatory cytokine release, which is implicated in NAMPT-related and -unrelated pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids enrichment alters performance and immune response in infectious bursal disease challenged broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroufyan Elham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious bursal disease (IBD results in economic loss due to mortality, reduction in production efficiency and increasing the usage of antibiotics. This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory roles of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA enrichment in immune response and performance of IBD challenged broiler chickens. Methods A total of 300 day old male broiler chicks were assigned to four dietary n-3 PUFA ascending levels as the treatment groups (T1: 0.5; T2: 8.0; T3: 11.5; T4: 16.5 using combinations of tuna oil and sunflower oil. All diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. On day 28, all birds were challenged with IBD virus. Antibody titer, cytokine production, bursa lesion pre and post-challenge and lymphoid organ weight were recorded. Results On d 42 the highest body weight was observed in the T2 and T3 and the lowest in T4 chickens. Feed conversion ratio of the T2 broilers was significantly better than the other groups. Although productive parameters were not responded to the dietary n-3 PUFA in a dose-dependent manner, spleen weight, IBD and Newcastle disease antibody titers and IL-2 and IFN-γ concentrations were constantly elevated by n-3 PUFA enrichment. Conclusions Dietary n-3 PUFA enrichment may improve the immune response and IBD resistance, but the optimum performance does not coincide with the optimum immune response. It seems that dietary n-3 PUFA modulates the broiler chicken performance and immune response in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, a moderate level of dietary n-3 PUFA enrichment may help to put together the efficiency of performance and relative immune response enhancement in broiler chickens.

  14. New insights into the health effects of dietary saturated and omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Lorgeril, Michel; Salen, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    .... Reducing dietary saturated fat and replacing it with polyunsaturated fat is still the main dietary strategy to prevent cardiovascular diseases, although major flaws have been reported in the analyses...

  15. Omega 3 fatty acids in psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 LC-PUFAs are thought to be important for normal dopaminergic, glutamatergic and serotonergic neurotransmission. Depression is less prevalent in societies with high fish consumption, and depressed patients have significantly lower red blood cell ω-3 levels. Studies with ω-3 supplementation have led to controversial results. A significantly longer remission of bipolar symptomatology has been confirmed from a high-dose DHA and EPA mixture. Greater seafood consumption per capita has been connected with a lower prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorders. Reduced levels of ω-6 and ω-3 PUFAs were found in patients with schizophrenia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175033 i br. 175022

  16. The Association between Cerebral White Matter Lesions and Plasma Omega-3 to Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Ratio to Cognitive Impairment Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiro Suwa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Cerebral white matter hyperintensity (WMH with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has a potential for predicting cognitive impairment. Serum polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA levels are important for evaluating the extent of atherosclerosis. We investigated whether abnormal PUFA levels affected WMH grading and cognitive function in patients without significant cognitive impairment. Methods. Atherosclerotic risk factors, the internal carotid artery (ICA plaque, and serum ratios of eicosapentaenoic to arachidonic acids (EPA/AA and docosahexaenoic to arachidonic acids (DHA/AA were assessed in 286 patients. The relationship among these risk factors, WMH, and cognitive function was evaluated using WMH grading and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. Results. The development of WMH was associated with aging, hypertension, ICA plaques, and a low serum EPA/AA ratio (<0.38, obtained as the median value but was not related to dyslipidemia, diabetes, smoking, and a low serum DHA/AA ratio (<0.84, obtained as the median value. In addition, the MMSE score deteriorated slightly with the progression of WMH (29.7 ± 1.0 compared to 28.4 ± 2.1, P<0.0001. Conclusions. The progression of WMH was associated with a low serum EPA/AA ratio and accompanied minimal deterioration in cognitive function. Sufficient omega-3 PUFA intake may be effective in preventing the development of cognitive impairment.

  17. Omega-3 and Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels and Correlations with Symptoms in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Typically Developing Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyonsenga, Theophile; Duff, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Background There is evidence that children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have lower omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) levels compared with controls and conflicting evidence regarding omega-6 (n-6) PUFA levels. Objectives This study investigated whether erythrocyte n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were lower and n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA) higher in children with ADHD, ASD and controls, and whether lower n-3 and higher n-6 PUFAs correlated with poorer scores on the Australian Twin Behaviour Rating Scale (ATBRS; ADHD symptoms) and Test of Variable Attention (TOVA) in children with ADHD, and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) in children with ASD. Methods Assessments and blood samples of 565 children aged 3–17 years with ADHD (n = 401), ASD (n = 85) or controls (n = 79) were analysed. One-way ANOVAs with Tukey’s post-hoc analysis investigated differences in PUFA levels between groups and Pearson’s correlations investigated correlations between PUFA levels and ATBRS, TOVA and CARS scores. Results Children with ADHD and ASD had lower DHA, EPA and AA, higher AA/EPA ratio and lower n-3/n-6 than controls (Pfatty acid metabolism in these disorders. PMID:27232999

  18. Assessment of essential fatty acid and omega 3-fatty acid status by measurement of erythrocyte 20 : 3 omega 9 (Mead acid), 22 : 5 omega 6/20 : 4 omega 6 and 22 : 5 omega 6/22 : 6 omega 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Martini, IA; Woltil, HA; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    2002-01-01

    Background. Early suspicion of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) or omega3-deficiency may rather focus on polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or long-chain PUFA (LCP) analyses than clinical symptoms. We determined cut-off values for biochemical EFAD, omega3-and omega3/22:6omega3 [docosahexaenoic

  19. Assessment of essential fatty acid and omega 3-fatty acid status by measurement of erythrocyte 20 : 3 omega 9 (Mead acid), 22 : 5 omega 6/20 : 4 omega 6 and 22 : 5 omega 6/22 : 6 omega 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Martini, IA; Woltil, HA; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    2002-01-01

    Background. Early suspicion of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) or omega3-deficiency may rather focus on polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or long-chain PUFA (LCP) analyses than clinical symptoms. We determined cut-off values for biochemical EFAD, omega3-and omega3/22:6omega3 [docosahexaenoic

  20. The effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and genetic variants on methylation levels of the interleukin-6 gene promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yiyi; Smith, Caren E.; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Parnell, Laurence D.; Lee, Yu-Chi; Pham, Lucia D.; Aslibekyan, Stella; Claas, Steven A.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Ordovás, José M.; Absher, Devin M.; Arnett, Donna K.

    2016-01-01

    Scope Omega-3 PUFAs (n-3 PUFAs) reduce IL-6 gene expression, but their effects on transcription regulatory mechanisms are unknown. We aimed to conduct an integrated analysis with both population and in vitro studies to systematically explore the relationships among n-3 PUFA, DNA methylation, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene expression, and protein concentration of IL6. Methods and results Using data in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study and the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) consortium, we found that higher methylation of IL6 promoter cg01770232 was associated with higher IL-6 plasma concentration (p = 0.03) and greater IL6 gene expression (p = 0.0005). Higher circulating total n-3 PUFA was associated with lower cg01770232 methylation (p = 0.007) and lower IL-6 concentration (p = 0.02). Moreover, an allele of IL6 rs2961298 was associated with higher cg01770232 methylation (p = 2.55 × 10−7). The association between n-3 PUFA and cg01770232 methylation was dependent on rs2961298 genotype (p = 0.02), but higher total n-3 PUFA was associated with lower cg01770232 methylation in the heterozygotes (p = 0.04) not in the homozygotes. Conclusion Higher n-3 PUFA is associated with lower methylation at IL6 promoter, which may be modified by IL6 SNPs. PMID:26518637

  1. Important bioactive properties of omega-3 fatty acids

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Xu

    2015-01-01

    Good health has been linked with healthy diet. N-3 fatty acids are required for proper functioning of many physiological systems. There is a large body of evidence documenting the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids with the first double bond at the third position from methyl-terminal on health benefits. Scientific evidence is accumulating to substantiate the role omega-3 fatty acids play in conditions such as cardiovascular disease, certain cancers and other diseases. The availability of ...

  2. Long Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation Alleviates Doxorubicin-Induced Depressive-Like Behaviors and Neurotoxicity in Rats: Involvement of Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-Qin; Dang, Rui-Li; Tang, Mi-Mi; Cai, Hua-Lin; Li, Huan-De; Liao, De-Hua; He, Xin; Cao, Ling-Juan; Xue, Ying; Jiang, Pei

    2016-04-23

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a chemotherapeutic agent widely used in human malignancies. Its long-term use can cause neurobiological side-effects associated with depression. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs), the essential fatty acids found in fish oil, possess neuroprotecitve and antidepressant activities. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the potential protective effects of ω-3 PUFAs against DOX-induced behavioral changes and neurotoxicity. ω-3 PUFAs were given daily by gavage (1.5 g/kg) over three weeks starting seven days before DOX administration (2.5 mg/kg). Open-field test (OFT) and forced swimming test (FST) were conducted to assess exploratory activity and despair behavior, respectively. Our data showed that ω-3 PUFAs supplementation significantly mitigated the behavioral changes induced by DOX. ω-3 PUFAs pretreatment also alleviated the DOX-induced neural apoptosis. Meanwhile, ω-3 PUFAs treatment ameliorated DOX-induced oxidative stress in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Additionally, gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, and the protein levels of NF-κB and iNOS were significantly increased in brain tissues of DOX-treated group, whereas ω-3 PUFAs supplementation significantly attenuated DOX-induced neuroinflammation. In conclusion, ω-3 PUFAs can effectively protect against DOX-induced depressive-like behaviors, and the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect are potentially associated with its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties.

  3. Long Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation Alleviates Doxorubicin-Induced Depressive-Like Behaviors and Neurotoxicity in Rats: Involvement of Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Qin Wu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin (DOX is a chemotherapeutic agent widely used in human malignancies. Its long-term use can cause neurobiological side-effects associated with depression. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs, the essential fatty acids found in fish oil, possess neuroprotecitve and antidepressant activities. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the potential protective effects of ω-3 PUFAs against DOX-induced behavioral changes and neurotoxicity. ω-3 PUFAs were given daily by gavage (1.5 g/kg over three weeks starting seven days before DOX administration (2.5 mg/kg. Open-field test (OFT and forced swimming test (FST were conducted to assess exploratory activity and despair behavior, respectively. Our data showed that ω-3 PUFAs supplementation significantly mitigated the behavioral changes induced by DOX. ω-3 PUFAs pretreatment also alleviated the DOX-induced neural apoptosis. Meanwhile, ω-3 PUFAs treatment ameliorated DOX-induced oxidative stress in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Additionally, gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, and the protein levels of NF-κB and iNOS were significantly increased in brain tissues of DOX-treated group, whereas ω-3 PUFAs supplementation significantly attenuated DOX-induced neuroinflammation. In conclusion, ω-3 PUFAs can effectively protect against DOX-induced depressive-like behaviors, and the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect are potentially associated with its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties.

  4. Double transgenesis of humanized fat1 and fat2 genes promotes omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids synthesis in a zebrafish model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Shao-Chen; Wang, Hou-Peng; Li, Kuo-Yu; Zhu, Zuo-Yan; Kang, Jing X; Sun, Yong-Hua

    2014-10-01

    Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA), especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are essential nutrients for human health. However, vertebrates, including humans, have lost the abilities to synthesize EPA and DHA de novo, majorly due to the genetic absence of delta-12 desaturase and omega-3 desaturase genes. Fishes, especially those naturally growing marine fish, are major dietary source of EPA and DHA. Because of the severe decline of marine fishery and the decrease in n-3 LC-PUFA content of farmed fishes, it is highly necessary to develop alternative sources of n-3 LC-PUFA. In the present study, we utilized transgenic technology to generate n-3 LC-PUFA-rich fish by using zebrafish as an animal model. Firstly, fat1 was proved to function efficiently in fish culture cells, which showed an effective conversion of n-6 PUFA to n-3 PUFA with the n-6/n-3 ratio that decreased from 7.7 to 1.1. Secondly, expression of fat1 in transgenic zebrafish increased the 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 contents to 1.8- and 2.4-fold, respectively. Third, co-expression of fat2, a fish codon-optimized delta-12 desaturase gene, and fat1 in fish culture cell significantly promoted n-3 PUFA synthesis with the decreased n-6/n-3 ratio from 7.7 to 0.7. Finally, co-expression of fat1 and fat2 in double transgenic zebrafish increased the 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 contents to 1.7- and 2.8-fold, respectively. Overall, we generated two types of transgenic zebrafish rich in endogenous n-3 LC-PUFA, fat1 transgenic zebrafish and fat1/fat2 double transgenic zebrafish. Our results demonstrate that application of transgenic technology of humanized fat1 and fat2 in farmed fishes can largely improve the n-3 LC-PUFA production.

  5. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A P; Aggarwal, K K; Zhang, P-Y

    2015-01-01

    Cardioceuticals are nutritional supplements that contain all the essential nutrients including vitamins, minerals, omega-3-fatty acids and other antioxidants like a-lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10 in the right proportion that provide all round protection to the heart by reducing the most common risks associated with the cardiovascular disease including high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels and factors that contribute to coagulation of blood. Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to significantly reduce the risk for sudden death caused by cardiac arrhythmias and all-cause mortality in patients with known coronary heart disease. Omega-3 fatty acids are also used to treat hyperlipidemia and hypertension. There are no significant drug interactions with omega-3 fatty acids. The American Heart Association recommends consumption of two servings of fish per week for persons with no history of coronary heart disease and at least one serving of fish daily for those with known coronary heart disease. Approximately 1 g/day of eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid is recommended for cardio protection. Higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids are required to reduce elevated triglyceride levels (2-4 g/day). Modest decreases in blood pressure occur with significantly higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids.

  6. A randomized controlled study of the efficacy of six-month supplementation with concentrated fish oil rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in first episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawełczyk, Tomasz; Grancow-Grabka, Marta; Kotlicka-Antczak, Magdalena; Trafalska, Elżbieta; Pawełczyk, Agnieszka

    2016-02-01

    Short-term clinical trials of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) as add-on therapy in patients with schizophrenia revealed mixed results. The majority of these studies used an 8- to 12-week intervention based on ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid. A randomized placebo-controlled trial was designed to compare the efficacy of 26-week intervention, composed of either 2.2 g/day of n-3 PUFA, or olive oil placebo, with regard to symptom severity in first-episode schizophrenia patients. Seventy-one patients (aged 16-35) were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to the study arms. The primary outcome measure of the clinical evaluation was schizophrenia symptom severity change measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Mixed models repeated measures analysis revealed significant differences between the study arms regarding total PANSS score change favouring n-3 PUFA (p = 0.016; effect size (ES) = 0.29). A fifty-percent improvement in symptom severity was achieved significantly more frequently in the n-3 PUFA group than in the placebo group (69.4 vs 40.0%; p = 0.017). N-3 PUFA intervention was also associated with an improvement in general psychopathology, measured by means of PANSS (p = 0.009; ES = 0.32), depressive symptoms (p = 0.006; ES = 0.34), the level of functioning (p = 0.01; ES = 0.31) and clinical global impression (p = 0.046; ES = 0.29). The findings suggest that 6-month intervention with n-3 PUFA may be a valuable add-on therapy able to decrease the intensity of symptoms and improve the level of functioning in first-episode schizophrenia patients.

  7. Marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids induce sex-specific changes in reinforcer-controlled behaviour and neurotransmitter metabolism in a spontaneously hypertensive rat model of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dervola Kine S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reports suggest that omega-3 (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA supplements may reduce ADHD-like behaviour. Our aim was to investigate potential effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation in an animal model of ADHD. Methods We used spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. SHR dams were given n-3 PUFA (EPA and DHA-enriched feed (n-6/n-3 of 1:2.7 during pregnancy, with their offspring continuing on this diet until sacrificed. The SHR controls and Wistar Kyoto (WKY control rats were given control-feed (n-6/n-3 of 7:1. During postnatal days (PND 25–50, offspring were tested for reinforcement-dependent attention, impulsivity and hyperactivity as well as spontaneous locomotion. The animals were then sacrificed at PND 55–60 and their neostriata were analysed for monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitters with high performance liquid chromatography. Results n-3 PUFA supplementation significantly enhanced reinforcement-controlled attention and reduced lever-directed hyperactivity and impulsiveness in SHR males whereas the opposite or no effects were observed in females. Analysis of neostriata from the same animals showed significantly enhanced dopamine and serotonin turnover ratios in the male SHRs, whereas female SHRs showed no change, except for an intermediate increase in serotonin catabolism. In contrast, both male and female SHRs showed n-3 PUFA-induced reduction in non-reinforced spontaneous locomotion, and sex-independent changes in glycine levels and glutamate turnover. Conclusions Feeding n-3 PUFAs to the ADHD model rats induced sex-specific changes in reinforcement-motivated behaviour and a sex-independent change in non-reinforcement-associated behaviour, which correlated with changes in presynaptic striatal monoamine and amino acid signalling, respectively. Thus, dietary n-3 PUFAs may partly ameliorate ADHD-like behaviour by reinforcement-induced mechanisms in males and partly via reinforcement-insensitive mechanisms

  8. Systematic metabolomic analysis of eicosanoids after omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation by a highly specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Yang, Nan; Ai, Ding; Zhu, Yi

    2015-04-03

    Omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have beneficial effects in many pathological processes, especially cardiovascular disease, and their protective eicosanoid metabolites are thought to play important roles. However, how ω-3 PUFAs affect the eicosanoid profile has not been elucidated comprehensively. Here, we systematically analyzed the eicosanoid metabolites induced by ω-3 PUFA supplementation. We developed an LC-MS/MS-based method covering 32 arachidonic acid (ARA) metabolites and 37 ω-3 PUFA-derived products. The limits of detection for eicosanoids were between 0.0625 and 1 pg and the detection specificity was optimized. We then quantified eicosanoids in mouse and human plasma and mouse aorta samples after ω-3 PUFA supplementation. Levels of EPA hydroxyl products, 4-HDoHE, 17,18-EEQ, 17,18-DiHETE, TXB2, and LXA4 were significantly changed in both mouse samples, and those of 2-series PGs, EDPs and DHA hydroxyl products were changed in aorta samples. Correlation network analysis of mouse plasma data revealed that some eicosanoids had higher connection degree or betweenness centrality score than others after ω-3 PUFA supplementation. Eicosanoids in human plasma were profiled across five time points after ω-3 PUFA supplementation. Fuzzy c-mean clustering algorithm suggested that the time curves of eicosanoid activity could be described with three kinetic patterns: sustained upregulation, short-term upregulation, and downregulation. This is the first systematic profiling of eicosanoids with ω-3 PUFA supplementation. The highly specific eicosanoid metabolomic and related data analysis methods would be powerful tools for comprehensive eicosanoid study.

  9. Pattern of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and fish consumption and retinal vascular caliber in children and adolescents: A cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshtaghian, Hanieh; Flood, Victoria M.; Louie, Jimmy C. Y.; Liew, Gerald; Burlutsky, George; Mitchell, Paul

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether fish and long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCn-3 PUFA) consumption changed appreciably during adolescence. We also assessed whether these dietary variables are associated with retinal microvascular signs (possible markers of future cardiovascular disease risk). 633 children had dietary data at ages 12 and 17. Fish and LCn-3 PUFA [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Retinal vessel caliber was quantified from digital photographs using computer software. Mean energy-adjusted intakes (mg/day) of total LCn-3 PUFA, EPA, and DHA at age 12 were 297.1±261.1; 102.5±106.9; and 129.7±137.7, respectively; and this increased significantly at age 17 to: 347.0±324.0 (p<0.0001); 122.5±132.7 (p = 0.0001); and 160.3±171.4 (p <0.0001), respectively. Increasing quartiles of LCn-3PUFA intake were associated with widening of mean retinal arteriolar caliber among 17-year old girls ~3.9 μm (multivariable-adjusted P-trend = 0.001). Girls who consumed ≥2 serves of fish/week versus those who did not had ~2.1 μm wider retinal arterioles (p = 0.03). No associations were observed among boys or with retinal venules. Mean dietary intakes of LCn-3 PUFA increased during adolescence, but are still below recommended levels of consumption. These results suggest that LCn-3 PUFA and fish intake might have a beneficial influence. PMID:28192538

  10. Different sources of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids affects apparent digestibility, tissue deposition, and tissue oxidative stability in growing female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Vagner A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous health benefits associated with increased omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA consumption has lead to an increasing variety of available n-3 PUFA sources. However, sources differ in the type, amount, and structural form of the n-3 PUFAs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of different sources of ω-3 PUFAs on digestibility, tissue deposition, eicosanoid metabolism, and oxidative stability. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats (age 28 d were randomly assigned (n = 10/group to be fed a high fat 12% (wt diet consisting of either corn oil (CO or n-3 PUFA rich flaxseed (FO, krill (KO, menhaden (MO, salmon (SO or tuna (TO oil for 8 weeks. Rats were individually housed in metabolic cages to determine fatty acid digestibility. Diet and tissue fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography and lipid classes using thin layer chromatography. Eicosanoid metabolism was determined by measuring urinary metabolites of 2-series prostaglandins (PGs and thromoboxanes (TXBs using enzyme immunoassays. Oxidative stability was assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and total antioxidant capacity (TAC using colorimetric assays. Gene expression of antioxidant defense enzymes was determined by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR. Results Rats fed KO had significantly lower DHA digestibility and brain DHA incorporation than SO and TO-fed rats. Of the n-3 PUFA sources, rats fed SO and TO had the highest n-3 PUFAs digestibility and in turn, tissue accretion. Higher tissue n-3 LC-PUFAs had no significant effect on 2-series PG and TXB metabolites. Despite higher tissue n-3 LC-PUFA deposition, there was no increase in oxidation susceptibility indicated by no significant increase in TBARS or decrease in TAC and gene expression of antioxidant defense enzymes, in SO or TO-fed rats. Conclusions On the basis that the optimal n-3 PUFA sources should

  11. Omega-3 and Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels and Correlations with Symptoms in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Typically Developing Controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Parletta

    Full Text Available There is evidence that children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD have lower omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA levels compared with controls and conflicting evidence regarding omega-6 (n-6 PUFA levels.This study investigated whether erythrocyte n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were lower and n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA higher in children with ADHD, ASD and controls, and whether lower n-3 and higher n-6 PUFAs correlated with poorer scores on the Australian Twin Behaviour Rating Scale (ATBRS; ADHD symptoms and Test of Variable Attention (TOVA in children with ADHD, and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS in children with ASD.Assessments and blood samples of 565 children aged 3-17 years with ADHD (n = 401, ASD (n = 85 or controls (n = 79 were analysed. One-way ANOVAs with Tukey's post-hoc analysis investigated differences in PUFA levels between groups and Pearson's correlations investigated correlations between PUFA levels and ATBRS, TOVA and CARS scores.Children with ADHD and ASD had lower DHA, EPA and AA, higher AA/EPA ratio and lower n-3/n-6 than controls (P<0.001 except AA between ADHD and controls: P = 0.047. Children with ASD had lower DHA, EPA and AA than children with ADHD (P<0.001 for all comparisons. ATBRS scores correlated negatively with EPA (r = -.294, P<0.001, DHA (r = -.424, P<0.001, n-3/n-6 (r = -.477, P<0.001 and positively with AA/EPA (r = .222, P <.01. TOVA scores correlated positively with DHA (r = .610, P<0.001, EPA (r = .418, P<0.001 AA (r = .199, P<0.001, and n-3/n-6 (r = .509, P<0.001 and negatively with AA/EPA (r = -.243, P<0.001. CARS scores correlated significantly with DHA (r = .328, P = 0.002, EPA (r = -.225, P = 0.038 and AA (r = .251, P = 0.021.Children with ADHD and ASD had low levels of EPA, DHA and AA and high ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and these correlated significantly with symptoms. Future research should further

  12. Important bioactive properties of omega-3 fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Xu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Good health has been linked with healthy diet. N-3 fatty acids are required for proper functioning of many physiological systems. There is a large body of evidence documenting the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids with the first double bond at the third position from methyl-terminal on health benefits. Scientific evidence is accumulating to substantiate the role omega-3 fatty acids play in conditions such as cardiovascular disease, certain cancers and other diseases. The availability of n-3 fatty acids to various tissues is of major importance to health and depends on dietary intake for both normal development and in the prevention and management of chronic diseases.In this review we will summarize the biological properties of omega-3 fatty acids.

  13. Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids alter the fatty acid composition of hepatic and plasma bioactive lipids in C57BL/6 mice: a lipidomic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayode A Balogun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Omega (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA are converted to bioactive lipid components that are important mediators in metabolic and physiological pathways; however, which bioactive compounds are metabolically active, and their mechanisms of action are still not clear. We investigated using lipidomic techniques, the effects of diets high in n-3 PUFA on the fatty acid composition of various bioactive lipids in plasma and liver. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Female C57BL/6 mice were fed semi-purified diets (20% w/w fat containing varying amounts of n-3 PUFA before mating, during gestation and lactation, and until weaning. Male offspring were continued on their mothers' diets for 16 weeks. Hepatic and plasma lipids were extracted in the presence of non-naturally occurring internal standards, and tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry methods were used to measure the fatty acyl compositions. There was no significant difference in total concentrations of phospholipids in both groups. However, there was a significantly higher concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid containing phosphatidylcholine (PC, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC, and cholesteryl esters (CE (p < 0.01 in the high n-3 PUFA group compared to the low n-3 PUFA group in both liver and plasma. Plasma and liver from the high n-3 PUFA group also had a higher concentration of free n-3 PUFA (p < 0.05. There were no significant differences in plasma concentrations of different fatty acyl species of phosphatidylethanolamine, triglycerides, sphingomyelin and ceramides. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings reveal for the first time that a diet high in n-3 PUFA caused enrichment of n-3 PUFA in PC, LPC, CE and free fatty acids in the plasma and liver of C57BL/6 mice. PC, LPC, and unesterified free n-3 PUFA are important bioactive lipids, thus altering their fatty acyl composition will have important metabolic and physiological roles.

  14. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourre, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    This review details the specific needs of women for omega-3 fatty acids, including alpha linoleic acid (ALA) and the very long chain fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acid (dietary or in capsules) ensures that a woman's adipose tissue contains a reserve of these fatty acids for the developing fetus and the breast-fed newborn infant. This ensures the optimal cerebral and cognitive development of the infant. The presence of large quantities of EPA and DHA in the diet slightly lengthens pregnancy, and improves its quality. Human milk contains both ALA and DHA, unlike that of other mammals. Conditions such as diabetes can alter the fatty acid profile of mother's milk, while certain diets, like those of vegetarians, vegans, or even macrobiotic diets, can have the same effect, if they do not include seafood. ALA, DHA and EPA, are important for preventing ischemic cardiovascular disease in women of all ages. Omega-3 fatty acids can help to prevent the development of certain cancers, particularly those of the breast and colon, and possibly of the uterus and the skin, and are likely to reduce the risk of postpartum depression, manic-depressive psychosis, dementias (Alzheimer's disease and others), hypertension, toxemia, diabetes and, to a certain extend, age-related macular degeneration. Omega-3 fatty acids could play a positive role in the prevention of menstrual syndrome and postmenopausal hot flushes. The normal western diet contains little ALA (less than 50% of the RDA). The only adequate sources are rapeseed oil (canola), walnuts and so-called "omega-3" eggs (similar to wild-type or Cretan eggs). The amounts of EPA and DHA in the diet vary greatly from person to person. The only good sources are fish and seafood, together with "omega-3" eggs.

  15. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Upregulate 15-PGDH Expression in Cholangiocarcinoma Cells by Inhibiting miR-26a/b Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lu; Han, Chang; Song, Kyoungsub; Zhang, Jinqiang; Lim, Kyu; Wu, Tong

    2015-04-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a proinflammatory lipid mediator that promotes cancer growth. The 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) catalyzes oxidation of the 15(S)-hydroxyl group of PGE2, leading to its inactivation. Therefore, 15-PGDH induction may offer a strategy to treat cancers that are driven by PGE2, such as human cholangiocarcinoma. Here, we report that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) upregulate 15-PGDH expression by inhibiting miR-26a and miR-26b, thereby contributing to ω-3 PUFA-induced inhibition of human cholangiocarcinoma cell growth. Treatment of human cholangiocarcinoma cells (CCLP1 and TFK-1) with ω-3 PUFA (DHA) or transfection of these cells with the Fat-1 gene (encoding Caenorhabditis elegans desaturase, which converts ω-6 PUFA to ω-3 PUFA) significantly increased 15-PGDH enzymes levels, but with little effect on the activity of the 15-PGDH gene promoter. Mechanistic investigations revealed that this increase in 15-PGDH levels in cells was mediated by a reduction in the expression of miR-26a and miR-26b, which target 15-PGDH mRNA and inhibit 15-PGDH translation. These findings were extended by the demonstration that overexpressing miR-26a or miR-26b decreased 15-PGDH protein levels, reversed ω-3 PUFA-induced accumulation of 15-PGDH protein, and prevented ω-3 PUFA-induced inhibition of cholangiocarcinoma cell growth. We further observed that ω-3 PUFA suppressed miR-26a and miR-26b by inhibiting c-myc, a transcription factor that regulates miR-26a/b. Accordingly, c-myc overexpression enhanced expression of miR-26a/b and ablated the ability of ω-3 PUFA to inhibit cell growth. Taken together, our results reveal a novel mechanism for ω-3 PUFA-induced expression of 15-PGDH in human cholangiocarcinoma and provide a preclinical rationale for the evaluation of ω-3 PUFA in treatment of this malignancy.

  16. The effects of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on attention and impulsivity in an animal model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Makulska-Gertruda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the commonest psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. The main symptoms of ADHD are hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity. Both etiology and neurobiological basis of ADHD are unknown. In this context, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs, especially omega-3 (n-3 PUFAs, have become a focus of interest. The symptoms of ADHD have been suggested to be associated with a deficiency of n-3 PUFAs. In addition, the impact of a supply of dietary n-3 PUFAs in the treatment of ADHD has frequently been discussed. Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of n-3 PUFA supplementation on attention and impulsivity in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR which has been proposed to be a valid genetic animal model of ADHD. Methods: Seven-week-old male SHRs were randomly divided into two groups of 15 rats and fed one of two experimental diets (n-3 PUFA-enriched or n-3 PUFA-deficient prior to and during behavioral testing. Attention and impulsivity were assessed using a three-choiceserial-reaction-time-task (3CSRTT which is based on the five-choice-serial-reaction-timetask. The experiment was performed with three-month-old rats. Results: Our findings demonstrate a marked difference between groups regarding impulsivity but not attention. The n-3 PUFA-enriched diet significantly reduced impulsivity in SHRs compared with rats fed with the n-3 PUFA-deficient diet. Conclusion: The present data show a decrease in impulsivity following a dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation, but no changes in attention. A possible explanation for these results is that the attention displayed by SHR may not be linked to n-3 PUFA supply. It is important to note that inattention and impulsiveness are two of the main symptoms of ADHD. Our results regarding dietary n-3 PUFA supply may support the positive findings in human studies demonstrating that n-3 PUFA administration

  17. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids in health and disease: Part 1--cardiovascular disease and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Fereidoon; Miraliakbari, Homan

    2004-01-01

    The omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids have a wide range of beneficial effects in several human health conditions. Animal and in vitro studies have indicated that omega-3 fatty acids affect blood lipid profiles, cardiovascular health, membrane lipid composition, eicosanoid biosynthesis, cell signaling cascades, and gene expression. Findings from epidemiological studies suggest that intake of omega-3 fatty acids from natural sources or supplements may influence the onset and progression of several disease states, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. This review highlights some recent research findings that help advance our understanding of how omega-3 fatty acids influence cardiovascular disease and cancer.

  18. Omega 3 fatty acids and the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakiner-Egilmez, Tulay

    2008-01-01

    The health benefits of fish oil have been known for decades. Most of the health benefits of fish oil can be attributed to the presence of omega-3 essential fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Clinical studies have suggested that DHA and EPA lower triglycerides; slow the buildup of atherosclerotic plaques; lower blood pressure slightly; as well as reduce the risk of death, heart attack, and arrhythmias. Studies have also shown that omega-3 fatty acids may slow the progression of vision loss from AMD and reverse the signs of dry eye syndrome.

  19. Polymorphisms in Fatty Acid Desaturase (FADS Gene Cluster: Effects on Glycemic Controls Following an Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Couture

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in desaturase activity are associated with insulin sensitivity and may be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Polymorphisms (SNPs in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS gene cluster have been associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS and serum fatty acid composition. Objective: To investigate whether common genetic variations in the FADS gene cluster influence fasting glucose (FG and fasting insulin (FI responses following a 6-week n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA supplementation. Methods: 210 subjects completed a 2-week run-in period followed by a 6-week supplementation with 5 g/d of fish oil (providing 1.9 g–2.2 g of EPA + 1.1 g of DHA. Genotyping of 18 SNPs of the FADS gene cluster covering 90% of all common genetic variations (minor allele frequency ≥ 0.03 was performed. Results: Carriers of the minor allele for rs482548 (FADS2 had increased plasma FG levels after the n-3 PUFA supplementation in a model adjusted for FG levels at baseline, age, sex, and BMI. A significant genotype*supplementation interaction effect on FG levels was observed for rs482548 (p = 0.008. For FI levels, a genotype effect was observed with one SNP (rs174456. For HOMA-IS, several genotype*supplementation interaction effects were observed for rs7394871, rs174602, rs174570, rs7482316 and rs482548 (p = 0.03, p = 0.01, p = 0.03, p = 0.05 and p = 0.07; respectively. Conclusion: Results suggest that SNPs in the FADS gene cluster may modulate plasma FG, FI and HOMA-IS levels in response to n-3 PUFA supplementation.

  20. Effect of long-term omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation with or without multidomain intervention on cognitive function in elderly adults with memory complaints (MAPT): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrieu, Sandrine; Guyonnet, Sophie; Coley, Nicola; Cantet, Christelle; Bonnefoy, Marc; Bordes, Serge; Bories, Lawrence; Cufi, Marie-Noëlle; Dantoine, Thierry; Dartigues, Jean-François; Desclaux, Françoise; Gabelle, Audrey; Gasnier, Yannick; Pesce, Alain; Sudres, Kristel; Touchon, Jacques; Robert, Philippe; Rouaud, Olivier; Legrand, Philippe; Payoux, Pierre; Caubere, Jean-Paul; Weiner, Michael; Carrié, Isabelle; Ousset, Pierre-Jean; Vellas, Bruno

    2017-05-01

    No large trials have been done to investigate the efficacy of an intervention combining a specific compound and several lifestyle interventions compared with placebo for the prevention of cognitive decline. We tested the effect of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation and a multidomain intervention (physical activity, cognitive training, and nutritional advice), alone or in combination, compared with placebo, on cognitive decline. The Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial was a 3-year, multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled superiority trial with four parallel groups at 13 memory centres in France and Monaco. Participants were non-demented, aged 70 years or older, and community-dwelling, and had either relayed a spontaneous memory complaint to their physician, limitations in one instrumental activity of daily living, or slow gait speed. They were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to either the multidomain intervention (43 group sessions integrating cognitive training, physical activity, and nutrition, and three preventive consultations) plus omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ie, two capsules a day providing a total daily dose of 800 mg docosahexaenoic acid and 225 mg eicosapentaenoic acid), the multidomain intervention plus placebo, omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids alone, or placebo alone. A computer-generated randomisation procedure was used to stratify patients by centre. All participants and study staff were blinded to polyunsaturated fatty acid or placebo assignment, but were unblinded to the multidomain intervention component. Assessment of cognitive outcomes was done by independent neuropsychologists blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome was change from baseline to 36 months on a composite Z score combining four cognitive tests (free and total recall of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding test, ten Mini-Mental State Examination orientation items, Digit Symbol Substitution Test, and Category Naming Test) in the modified

  1. Encapsulation of vegetable oils as source of omega-3 fatty acids for enriched functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Ortiz Vazquez, Elizabeth De La Luz; Segura Campos, Maira Rubi

    2017-05-03

    Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (PUFAs), a functional component present in vegetable oils, are generally recognized as being beneficial to health. Omega-3 PUFAs are rich in double bonds and unsaturated in nature; this attribute makes them highly susceptible to lipid oxidation and unfit for incorporation into long shelf life foods. The microencapsulation of oils in a polymeric matrix (mainly polysaccharides) offers the possibility of controlled release of the lipophilic functional ingredient and can be useful for the supplementation of foods with PUFAs. The present paper provides a literature review of different vegetable sources of omega-3 fatty acids, the functional effects of omega-3 fatty acids, different microencapsulation methods that can possibly be used for the encapsulation of oils, the properties of vegetable oil microcapsules, the effect of encapsulation on oxidation stability and fatty acid composition of vegetable oils, and the incorporation of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in foods.

  2. Aspirin and (or) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids protect against corticohippocampal neurodegeneration and downregulate lipoxin A4 production and formyl peptide receptor-like 1 expression in pentylenetetrazole-kindled rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elghafour, Basma A; El-Sayed, Norhan M; Ahmed, Amal A M; Zaitone, Sawsan A; Moustafa, Yasser M

    2017-04-01

    There is evidence for a relationship between inflammation and seizures because epilepsy can be caused by or result in inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the effect of aspirin and (or) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on seizure activity and neurodegeneration in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindled rats focusing on their effect on corticohippocampal production of lipoxin A4 (LXA4) and expression of formyl peptide receptor-like 1 (FPRL1) receptors. Male rats were injected with PTZ (35 mg/kg, i.p.) 3 times per week for a total of 15 doses. Rats were treated daily with aspirin (20 mg/kg, i.p.), omega-3 PUFAs (85 mg/kg, p.o.), or a combination of them for 35 days. Both LXA4 level and expression of FPRL1 receptor in the cortices and hippocampi of rats' brains were greater in PTZ-kindled rats compared to a saline control group. Cotreatment with aspirin and (or) omega-3 PUFAs reduced convulsive behaviour; reduced levels of LXA4, interleukin-1β, and nuclear factor-κB; and showed a lower percentage of corticohippocampal degenerative cells compared to PTZ-kindled rats. The combination of the 2 therapeutic agents did not provide significant improvement in comparison with the monotherapies. These findings suggest the use of aspirin or omega-3 PUFAs may delay the development of seizures and provide neuroprotection in a clinical setting.

  3. A Review of Recruitment, Adherence and Drop-Out Rates in Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation Trials in Children and Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wurff, Inge; Meyer, Barbara; De Groot, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The influence of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) supplementation on health outcomes has been studied extensively with randomized controlled trials (RCT). In many research fields, difficulties with recruitment, adherence and high drop-out rates have been

  4. Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Treatment on Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogoş Tiberius

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Insulin resistance (IR is a common pathogenic factor of several diseases: diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome, arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, etc. There are many therapeutic factors involved in decreasing IR. Among them we mention metformin, pioglitazone, physical activity, weight loss, diet, etc. In the last decade, there are more observations of the influence of polyunsaturated fatty acids on IR. The most powerful seem to be omega-3 fatty acids. In our study, we wanted to asses if the administration of omega-3 fatty acids is involved in modifying IR. Materials and methods: We evaluated 126 diabetic patients with IR from January 2011 until July 2014. The study was open-label and non-randomized. For the determination of IR we used the HOMA-IR method. Results: For both males and females there was a regression of HOMA-IR during the 4 weeks of treatment with omega-3 and also after 2 weeks after stopping the administration of these fatty acids. The decrease of HOMA-IR was statistically significant (p<0.05. The statistic result observed in the next 2 weeks after stopping administration of omega-3 was also significant (p<0.05.

  5. Changes in plasma and erythrocyte omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in response to intravenous supply of omega-3 fatty acids in patients with hepatic colorectal metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Taan, Omer; Stephenson, James A.; Spencer, Laura; Pollard, Cristina; West, Annette L; Philip C. Calder; Metcalfe, Matthew; Dennison, Ashley R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are functionally the most important omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Oral supply of these fatty acids increases their levels in plasma and cell membranes, often at the expense of the omega-6 PUFAs arachidonic acid (ARA) and linoleic acid. This results in an altered pattern of lipid mediator production to one which is less pro-inflammatory. We investigated whether short term intravenous supply of omega-3 PUFAs co...

  6. Using Caenorhabditis elegans to Uncover Conserved Functions of Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model organism to study functions of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The ability to alter fatty acid composition with genetic manipulation and dietary supplementation permits the dissection of the roles of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in many biological process including reproduction, aging and neurobiology. Studies in C. elegans to date have mostly identified overlapping functions of 20-carbon omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in reproduction a...

  7. Effects of omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on ovine follicular cell steroidogenesis, embryo development and molecular markers of fatty acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jaime; Kwong, Wing Yee; Li, Dongfang; Salter, Andrew M; Lea, Richard G; Sinclair, Kevin D

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported increased follicular fluid progesterone (P(4)) concentrations in ewes fed an n-3 compared to an n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-enriched diet, but detected no differential effect of n-3 and n-6 PUFA-enriched high-density lipoproteins (HDL) on granulosa cell (GC) steroidogenesis in vitro. Moreover, net n-6 PUFA-enriched HDL reduced early embryo development, but in the absence of a net uptake of FA. Consequently, we hypothesised that a) effects of n-3 PUFA on ovarian steroidogenesis are mediated by theca rather than GCs and b) during embryo culture lipids are acquired solely from the albumin fraction of serum, so that albumin-delivered n-3 and n-6 PUFA exert a greater differential effect on embryo development than either low-density lipoprotein (LDL)- or HDL-delivered PUFA. Data confirmed that n-3 PUFA increases P(4) production solely in theca cells and that this is associated with an increase in STAR transcript expression. Furthermore, LDL- and HDL-delivered n-3 PUFA are equally efficacious in this regard during the first 96 h of culture, but thereafter only HDL-delivered n-3 PUFA induces this effect in partially luteinised theca cells. We also demonstrate that albumin is the sole serum fraction that leads to a net uptake of FA during embryo culture. PUFA-enriched serum and albumin increased the yield of morphologically poorer quality blastocysts with increased transcript expression for the antioxidant enzyme SOD1. Important differential effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFA on ovarian steroidogenesis acting solely on theca cells are identified, but differential effects of PUFA on embryo development are less apparent.

  8. Omega-3 fatty acids as treatments for mental illness: which disorder and which fatty acid?

    OpenAIRE

    Sieswerda Lee E; Seguin Jennifer; Ross Brian M

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background A growing number of observational and epidemiological studies have suggested that mental illness, in particular mood disorders, is associated with reduced dietary intake and/or cellular abundance of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). This has prompted researchers to test the efficacy of omega-3 PUFA in a range of different psychiatric disorders. We have critically reviewed the double blind placebo controlled clinical trials published prior to April 2007 to determi...

  9. The Research Progress in the Relationship between Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid and Chronic Diseases%ω-3多不饱和脂肪酸与慢性病关系的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨茜; 王心昕; 李媛; 起德丽; 殷建忠

    2012-01-01

    流行病学研究表明,膳食中脂肪的摄人与多种慢性病密切相关.ω-3多不饱和脂肪酸(ω-3 PUFA)能调节人体的脂质代谢,治疗和预防心脑血管疾病、肥胖,改善糖尿病患者胰岛素抵抗,对抗癌、免疫调节等具有重要的生理作用.对ω-3多不饱和脂肪酸与相关慢性病的关系进行综述.%Epidemiological study suggests that dietary fat intake is closely related to many chronic diseases. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ( ω - 3 PUFA) can regulate lipid metabolism, treatment and prevention cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and obesity, improve diabetes patients with insulin resistance, to anticancer, immune regulation is of important physiological role. In this paper, the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and the relationship between the relevant chronic diseases were summarized.

  10. Effect of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid enriched diet on plasma IGF-1 and testosterone concentration, puberty and semen quality in male buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, L V; Malla, B A; Sharma, A N; Kumar, Sachin; Tyagi, Nitin; Tyagi, A K

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA enriched diet on plasma IGF-1 and testosterone concentrations, puberty, sperm fatty acid profile and semen quality in male buffalo. Eighteen male buffalo calves were distributed randomly in three different groups and fed concentrate mixture along with green fodder and wheat straw in 50:40:10 ratios as per requirements. Basis ration of animals in group I was supplemented with 4% of prilled fat (PFA), while in group II and group III were added 4.67% of Calcium salt from Soybean (CaSFA) and Linseed oil (CaLFA), respectively. Male buffalo fed omega-3 PUFA high diet significantly increased concentrations of IGF-1 and testosterone in plasma as compared to two other diets (pdiet (CaLFA) had the largest influence as compared to other diets (PFA and CaSFA). Feeding of n-3 PUFA rich diet significantly increased the DHA (C22:6n-3) content in sperm (pdiet increased IGF-1 and testosterone secretion, reduced pubertal age and improved both fresh and post-thawing semen quality in male buffalo.

  11. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles and relationship with cardiometabolic risk factors in Cree (Eeyouch) of Northern Québec

    OpenAIRE

    Proust, Françoise; Drescher, Olivia; Laouan-Sidi, Elhadji A.; Robinson, Elizabeth; Lucas, Michel; Dewailly, Éric

    2016-01-01

    Background. n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) from fish are known modulators of cardiometabolic risk factors.Objective. To examine fatty acids (FAs) status and the relationship between n-3 LC-PUFA and cardiometabolic risk factors in Cree participants.Design. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional study (n=829) conducted in Cree adults (aged 18–74 years) from 7 communities of the James Bay territory of Quebec (Canada) in 2005–2009. Sociodemographic, lifestyle, clinical and...

  12. The effects of extra-supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cardiac rhythm:antiarrhythmic, proarrhythmic, both or neither ?It depends….

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard eRauch

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Extra supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids (Ω-3 has been associated with a decreased cardiovascular risk, thereby focusing on a potentially preventive effect on tachyarrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Recent randomized controlled trials, however, challenge the efficiency of the additional application of Ω-3 in its anti-arrhythmic effect under certain clinical conditions. The present paper reflects the results of earlier and recent clinical studies with respect to the individual background conditions that potentially may explain apparently conflicting clinical data. It is suggested that the efficiency of Ω-3 supplementation to prevent cardiac arrhythmias strongly depends on the underlying clinical and pharmacological conditions, a hypothesis that may be supported by the data from experimental animal studies and the molecular interactions of Ω-3 at the cellular level.

  13. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Primary and Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yong; Lu, Lei; Liang, Jun; Liu, Min; Li, Xianchi; Sun, RongRong; Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Peiying

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing dramatically especially in developing countries like India. CVD is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. There has been a growing awareness of the role of nutrients in the prevention of CVD. One specific recommendation in the battle against CVD is the increased intake of omega-3 fatty acids, which are polyunsaturated fatty acids. Studies have reported inverse associations of CVD with dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids, suggesting that omega-3 fatty acids supplementation might exert protective effects on CVD. They exert their cardioprotective effect through multiple mechanisms. Omega-3 fatty acid therapy has shown promise as a useful tool in the primary and secondary prevention of CVD. This review briefly summarizes the effects of omega-3 fatty acids in primary and secondary prevention of CVD.

  14. Using Caenorhabditis elegans to Uncover Conserved Functions of Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Jennifer L

    2016-02-02

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model organism to study functions of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The ability to alter fatty acid composition with genetic manipulation and dietary supplementation permits the dissection of the roles of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in many biological process including reproduction, aging and neurobiology. Studies in C. elegans to date have mostly identified overlapping functions of 20-carbon omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in reproduction and in neurons, however, specific roles for either omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids are beginning to emerge. Recent findings with importance to human health include the identification of a conserved Cox-independent prostaglandin synthesis pathway, critical functions for cytochrome P450 derivatives of polyunsaturated fatty acids, the requirements for omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in sensory neurons, and the importance of fatty acid desaturation for long lifespan. Furthermore, the ability of C. elegans to interconvert omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids using the FAT-1 omega-3 desaturase has been exploited in mammalian studies and biotechnology approaches to generate mammals capable of exogenous generation of omega-3 fatty acids.

  15. Omega-3多不饱和脂肪酸对不稳定型心绞痛血清炎症因子的影响%Effects of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on serum inflammatory factors in patients with unstable angina pectoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧书文; 王开成

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察Omega-3多不饱和脂肪酸对不稳定型心绞痛患者血清炎症因子的影响及疗效。方法:选择未行冠脉成形术(percutaneous coronary intervention,PCI)治疗的不稳定型心绞痛(unstable angina,UA)患者54例,随机分为Omega-3多不饱和脂肪酸组及安慰剂治疗组各27例。分别于入院时及治疗8周后检测患者空腹血清中白介素6、肿瘤坏死因子α、高敏C反应蛋白、IL-10及转化生长因子β等炎症因子表达变化;记录不良反应及半年内心血管事件发生率。结果:治疗后Omega-3组血清IL-6、TNF-α及CRP表达水平均较治疗前显著下降(P0.05);与对照组比较, Omega-3组用药8周后血清IL-6、TNF-α及CRP表达水平显著降低,IL-10、TGF-β表达显著上升;差异均有统计学意义(P0.05),两组不良反应发生比较差异无统计学意义。结论:不稳定型心绞痛患者口服Omega-3多不饱和脂肪酸能显著抑制炎症,纠正促炎和抑炎失衡,发挥其抗动脉粥样硬化作用。%Objective:To evaluate the changes and effects of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids(PUFAs) on serum levels of inflammatory factors in patients with unstable angina(UAP). Methods:54 patients with UAP admitted between Mar 2013 and June 2014 were randomly divided into the Omega-3 PUFAs group(n=27) who received Omega-3 PUFAs, and the placebo group(n=27). The serum levels of inflammatory factors such as tumor necrosis factor(TNF-α), interleukin 6(IL-6), High sensitivity C reactive protein(Hs-CRP), IL-10 and transforming growth factorβ(TGF-β)were measured before and after treatment, and Major adverse cardiovascular event and side effects were observed. Results:after treatment, The serum expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and CRP in the Omega-3 PUFAs group were lower than the placebo group(P<0.05), and the serum expression levels of IL-10 and TGF-βwere higher than in the placebo group(P<0.05). The incidence rate of

  16. The role of omega-3 fatty acids in child development*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osendarp Saskia JM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA are important constituents of the maturing brain and therefore considered crucial for brain development in utero and in early infancy. However, it is uncertain whether n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy and lactation can have beneficial, sustainable effects on visual or cognitive development. Beneficial effects on child cognitive function after supplementation with EPA and DHA during pregnancy and lactation were observed at 4 years of age, but not at 3, 6 months or 7 years. In term infants LCPUFA when given in relative high dosages, seems to improve visual acuity, but not cognitive function. Evidence for an effect of LCPUFA supplementation of preterm infants remains inconclusive. In children older than 2 years of age, epidemiological evidence suggests an association between psychiatric or neurodevelopmental disorders and omega-3 fatty acid deficiencies. However, the evidence from randomized controlled trials exploring the impact of omega-3 fatty acids on cognitive performance or brain function in school-aged children is not conclusive. In conclusion, n-3 LCPUFA are highly present in the maturing brain and are important for normal brain functioning and development. When provided in relative high dosages, n-3 LCPUFA may improve visual acuity in term infants. However, it remains unclear whether supplementation with n-3 LCPUFA during pregnancy, early infancy, and childhood can improve cognitive function.

  17. Plasma omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid status and monounsaturated fatty acids are altered by chronic social stress and predict endocrine responses to acute stress in titi monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disturbances in fatty acid (FA) metabolism may link chronic psychological stress, endocrine responsiveness, and psychopathology. Therefore, lipid metabolome-wide responses and their relationships with endocrine (cortisol; insulin; adiponectin) responsiveness to acute stress (AS) were assessed in a ...

  18. The Current Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Management of Atrial Fibrillation

    OpenAIRE

    Christou, Georgios A.; Konstantinos A. Christou; Panagiotis Korantzopoulos; Rizos, Evangelos C.; Nikas, Dimitrios N.; Goudevenos, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main dietary source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is fish, which contains eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In the present manuscript, we aimed to review the current evidence regarding the clinical role of n-3 PUFA in the prevention of atrial fibrillation (AF) and the possible underlying mechanisms. Methods: A literature search based on PubMed listings was performed using “Omega-3 fatty acids” and “atrial fibrilation” as key search...

  19. Effect of zeolite (clinoptilolite as feed additive in Tunisian broilers on the total flora, meat texture and the production of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallek Zouhir

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing consumer demand for healthier food products has led to the development of governmental policies regarding health claims in many developed countries. In this context, contamination of poultry by food-borne pathogens is considered one of the major problems facing the progress of the poultry industry in Tunisia. Result Zeolite (Clinoptilolites was added to chicken feed at concentrations 0,5% or 1% and was evaluated for its effectiveness to reduce total flora in chickens and its effects on performance of the production. The broilers were given free and continuous access to a nutritionally non-limiting diet (in meal formthat was either a basal diet or a' zeolite diet' (the basal diet supplemented with clinoptilolite at a level of 0,5% or 1%. It was found that adding zeolite in the broiler diet significantly (p Conclusion This study showed the significance of using zeolite, as a feed additive for broilers, as part of a comprehensive program to control total flora at the broiler farm and to increase level of Omega 3 fatty acid on the chicken body.

  20. Ácidos graxos poliinsaturados ômega-3 e ômega-6: importância e ocorrência em alimentos Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids: importance and occurrence in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Antunes Martin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Os ácidos graxos poliinsaturados abrangem as famílias de ácidos graxos ômega-3 e ômega-6. Os ácidos graxos de cadeia muito longa, como os ácidos araquidônico e docosaexaenóico, desempenham importantes funções no desenvolvimento e funcionamento do cérebro e da retina. Esse grupo de ácidos graxos não pode ser obtido pela síntese de novo, mas pode ser sintetizado a partir dos ácidos linoléico e alfa-linolênico presentes na dieta. Neste artigo são considerados os principais fatores que podem inibir a atividade das enzimas dessaturases envolvidas na síntese dos ácidos graxos de cadeia muito longa. São apresentadas as recomendações da razão ômega-6/ômega-3 na dieta, propostas em diversos países, sendo verificada a convergência para o intervalo de 4 a 5:1. São relacionados alimentos que podem contribuir para aumentar a ingestão do ácido alfa-linolênico e dos ácidos graxos de cadeia muito longa. A essencialidade dos ácidos graxos de cadeia muito longa é muito dependente do metabolismo do indivíduo, sendo que a razão n-6/n-3 da dieta exerce grande influência nesse sentido.Polyunsaturated fatty acids include the classes of fatty acids designated as omega-3 and omega-6. Very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids as arachidonic and docosahexaenoic have important roles in the development and functioning of the brain and retina. This group of fatty acids cannot be synthesized by de novo pathway, but can be formed from linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid present in diet. In this article, the main factors that can inhibit desaturase enzymes activity involved in the synthesis of MLC-PUFAs are considered. Recommendations of omega-6/omega-3 ratio in diet proposed in several countries are presented, showing a coverage range from 4 to 5:1. Foods that are sources of alpha-linolenic acid and Very-long-chain are listed. The essentiality of Very-long-chain is very dependent of individual metabolism, and omega-6/omega-3 dietary ratio

  1. Omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants in edible wild plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simopoulos, Artemis P

    2004-01-01

    Human beings evolved on a diet that was balanced in the omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and was high in antioxidants. Edible wild plants provide alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and higher amounts of vitamin E and vitamin C than cultivated plants. In addition to the antioxidant vitamins, edible wild plants are rich in phenols and other compounds that increase their antioxidant capacity. It is therefore important to systematically analyze the total antioxidant capacity of wild plants and promote their commercialization in both developed and developing countries. The diets of Western countries have contained increasingly larger amounts of linoleic acid (LA), which has been promoted for its cholesterol-lowering effect. It is now recognized that dietary LA favors oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and increases platelet response to aggregation. In contrast, ALA intake is associated with inhibitory effects on the clotting activity of platelets, on their response to thrombin, and on the regulation of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism. In clinical studies, ALA contributed to lowering of blood pressure, and a prospective epidemiological study showed that ALA is inversely related to the risk of coronary heart disease in men. Dietary amounts of LA as well as the ratio of LA to ALA appear to be important for the metabolism of ALA to longer-chain omega-3 PUFAs. Relatively large reserves of LA in body fat. as are found in vegans or in the diet of omnivores in Western societies, would tend to slow down the formation of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids from ALA. Therefore, the role of ALA in human nutrition becomes important in terms of long-term dietary intake. One advantage of the consumption of ALA over omega-3 fatty acids from fish is that the problem of insufficient vitamin E intake does not exist with high intake of ALA from plant sources.

  2. Fishy Business: Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Zinc Transporters and Free Zinc Availability in Human Neuronal Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Damitha De Mel; Cenk Suphioglu

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids are one of the two main families of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The main omega-3 fatty acids in the mammalian body are α-linolenic acid (ALA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Central nervous tissues of vertebrates are characterized by a high concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. Moreover, in the human brain, DHA is considered as the main structural omega-3 fatty acid, which comprises about 40% of the PUFAs in total. DHA...

  3. Marine lipids and the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Müllertz, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Marine lipids are enriched with omega-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acids are important membrane lipids and have many recognized health benefits, the bioavailability of these fatty acids can therefore be important for achieving...... of omega-3 fatty acids has been reported to be affected by several factors; among the important factors were the digestion and absorption processes of omega-3 containing lipids in the gastrointestinal tract. Both lipid structures and food structures can affect the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids....... Human studies have shown that the relative bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil (triglyceride formulation) was similar to that from fish, whereas lower relative bioavailability was observed from fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) formulation in comparison with other lipid formulations...

  4. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles and relationship with cardiometabolic risk factors in Cree (Eeyouch of Northern Québec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Proust

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs from fish are known modulators of cardiometabolic risk factors. Objective: To examine fatty acids (FAs status and the relationship between n-3 LC-PUFA and cardiometabolic risk factors in Cree participants. Design: We analyzed data from a cross-sectional study (n=829 conducted in Cree adults (aged 18–74 years from 7 communities of the James Bay territory of Quebec (Canada in 2005–2009. Sociodemographic, lifestyle, clinical and anthropometric data were collected. FAs were quantified in red blood cells (RBCs under fasting conditions. Results: A total of 89% of the participants were overweight (with 69% obesity, 33% had hypertriglyceridemia, 44% had low plasma HDL-c and 77% had fasting plasma insulin ≥90 pmol/l. Total n-3 PUFAs accounted for 6% of total FAs and were higher among older participants, while n-6 PUFAs accounted for 31% of total FAs and were higher among younger participants. According to the adjusted multiple linear regression models, n-3 LC-PUFA was associated (p<0.05 with higher total cholesterol, LDL-c and apo B-100, and was also associated (p<0.05 with lower blood glucose. Conclusion: Overall, this study showed that n-3 LC-PUFA levels measured in the RBCs of the Cree adults are relatively low and tend towards lower levels among youth. These levels might be insufficient to offset the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors.

  5. A combination of omega-3 fatty acids, folic acid and B-group vitamins is superior at lowering homocysteine than omega-3 alone: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Samantha Loren; Bowe, Steven John; Crowe, Timothy Charles

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation alone or in combination with folic acid and B-group vitamins is effective in lowering homocysteine. The Medline Ovid, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched for randomized-controlled trial studies that intervened with omega-3 supplementation (with or without folic acid) and measured changes in homocysteine concentration. Studies were pooled using a random effects model for meta-analysis. Three different models were analyzed: all trials combined, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid trials, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with folic acid and B-group vitamin trials. Nineteen studies were included, consisting of 3267 participants completing 21 trials. Studies were heterogeneous; varying by dose, duration and participant health conditions. Across all trials, omega-3 supplementation was effective in lowering homocysteine by an average of 1.18μmol/L (95%CI: (-1.89, -0.48), P=.001). The average homocysteine-lowering effect was greater when omega-3 supplementation was combined with folic acid and B-group vitamins (-1.37μmol/L, 95%CI: (-2.38, -0.36), Pomega-3 supplementation alone (-1.09μmol/L 95%CI: (-2.04, -0.13), P=.03). Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation was associated with a modest reduction in homocysteine. For the purposes of reducing homocysteine, a combination of omega-3s (0.2-6g/day), folic acid (150 - 2500μg/day) and vitamins B6 and B12 may be more effective than omega-3 supplementation alone.

  6. The effect of dietary fat and omega-3 fatty acids on whole body lipid oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids yields several electrophilic, reactive carbonyl metabolites. We hypothesized that an increased intake of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) would lead to increased lipid peroxidation metabolites compared to a diet low in n-3. As part of a randomized crossov...

  7. Balancing omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenna, J Thomas; Akomo, Peter; Bahwere, Paluku

    2015-01-01

    Ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTFs) are a key component of a life-saving treatment for young children who present with uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition in resource limited settings. Increasing recognition of the role of balanced dietary omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids...... with altered PUFA content and looked at the effects on circulating omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status as a measure of overall omega-3 status. Supplemental oral administration of omega-3 DHA or reduction of RUTF omega-6 linoleic acid using high oleic peanuts improved DHA status, whereas increasing omega......-3 alpha-linolenic acid in RUTF did not. The results of these two small studies are consistent with well-established effects in animal studies and highlight the need for basic and operational research to improve fat composition in support of omega-3-specific development in young children as RUTF use...

  8. Omacor and omega-3 fatty acids for treatment of coronary artery disease and the pleiotropic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Subrata

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are found in fish oil and they have been shown to mitigate the risk of cardiovascular disease. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential fatty acids because they cannot be synthesized de novo and must be consumed from dietary sources such as marine fish. It reduces fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary artery disease, sudden cardiac death, and all-cause mortality. It also has beneficial effects in mortality reduction after a myocardial infarction. Omacor is a highly potent form of Omega-3 fatty acids that lowers plasma triglycerides. In patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia who are refractory to statins, it helps augment triglyceride reduction. Omacor also increases high-density lipoprotein and decreases low-density lipoprotein levels. It is well tolerated with minimal adverse effects and no known interactions causing rhabdomyolysis. In high doses, Omacor has pronounced cardiovascular benefits with improvement of triglycerides and various lipid parameters. Omega-3 fatty acids have also been shown to have beneficial effects on arrhythmias, inflammation, and heart failure. It may also decrease platelet aggregation and induce vasodilation. Omega-3 fatty acids also reduce atherosclerotic plaque formation and stabilize plaques preventing plaque rupture leading to acute coronary syndrome. Moreover, omega-3 fatty acids may have antioxidant properties that improve endothelial function and may contribute to its antiatherosclerotic benefits. In this review, we sought to provide the current literature on the use of omega-3 fatty acids and the potent formulation Omacor in the treatment of coronary artery disease.

  9. Update on marine omega-3 fatty acids: management of dyslipidemia and current omega-3 treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Howard

    2013-10-01

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is currently the primary target in the management of dyslipidemia, and statins are first-line pharmacologic interventions. Adjunct therapy such as niacins, fibrates, bile acid sequestrants, or cholesterol absorption inhibitors may be considered to help reduce cardiovascular risk. This review discusses the need for alternative adjunct treatment options and the potential place for omega-3 fatty acids as such. The cardiovascular benefits of fish consumption are attributed to the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and a variety of omega-3 fatty acid products are available with varied amounts of EPA and DHA. The product types include prescription drugs, food supplements, and medical foods sourced from fish, krill, algal and plant oils or purified from these oils. Two prescription omega-3 fatty acids are currently available, omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters (contains both EPA and DHA ethyl esters), and icosapent ethyl (IPE; contains high-purity EPA ethyl ester). A pharmaceutical containing free fatty acid forms of omega-3 is currently in development. Omega-3 fatty acid formulations containing EPA and DHA have been shown to increase LDL-C levels while IPE has been shown to lower triglyceride levels without raising LDL-C levels, alone or in combination with statin therapy. In addition, recent studies have not been able to demonstrate reduced cardiovascular risk following treatment with fibrates, niacins, cholesterol absorption inhibitors, or omega-3 fatty acid formulations containing both EPA and DHA in statin-treated patients; thus, there remains a need for further cardiovascular outcomes studies for adjunct therapy.

  10. Enrichment of foods with omega-3 fatty acids: A multidisciplinary challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Enrichment of foods with marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) poses a multidisciplinary challenge to food industry and academia. Although our knowledge about possible health effects of omega-3 PUFA has increased tremendously during the last 30 years, there is still a lot to be learned...... about these healthy fatty acids. Moreover, consumer acceptance and lipid oxidation of omega-3 PUFA-enriched food are other major challenges that the food industry meet when developing omega-3-enriched foods. Two examples on multidisciplinary research projects to overcome some of these challenges...... are given in this article together with cases studies illustrating how lipid oxidation can be prevented in a range of different omega-3-enriched foods....

  11. Effectiveness and tolerability of dietary supplementation with a combination of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants in the treatment of dry eye symptoms: results of a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleñik A

    2014-01-01

    supplementation with a combination of omega-3 essential fatty acids and antioxidants was an effective treatment for dry eye.Keywords: antioxidants, Brudysec 1.5 g, dry eye symptoms, nutraceutics, omega-3, polyunsaturated fatty acids

  12. Effects of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated Fatty acids on the skeletal-muscle blood-flow response to exercise in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, Charles L; Hammel, Lauren E; Marshal, Benjamin J; Spangenberg, Espen E; Musch, Timothy I

    2010-12-01

    The polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) affect vascular relaxation and involve factors (e.g., nitric oxide) that contribute to exercise-induced increases in skeletal-muscle blood flow (Q). The authors investigated whether DHA and EPA supplementation augments skeletal-muscle Q and vascular conductance (VC) and attenuates renal and splanchnic Q and VC in exercising rats. Rats were fed a diet of 5% lipids by weight, of which 20% was DHA and 30% EPA (PUFA group, n = 9), or 5% safflower oil (SO group, n = 8) for 6 wk. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure (MAP), and hind-limb, renal, and splanchnic Q were measured at rest and during moderate treadmill running. MAP, HR, and renal and splanchnic Q and VC were similar between the 2 groups at rest and during exercise. In the PUFA group, Q (158 ± 27 vs. 128 ± 28 ml × min⁻¹ × 100 g⁻¹) and VC (1.16 ± 0.21 vs. 0.92 ± 0.23 ml × min⁻¹ × 100 g⁻¹ × mm Hg⁻¹) were greater in the exercising hind-limb muscle. Q and VC were also higher in 8 of 28 and 11 of 28 muscles and muscle parts, respectively. These increases were positively correlated to the percent sum of Types I and IIa fibers. Results suggest that DHA+EPA (a) enhances Q and VC in active skeletal muscle (especially Type I and IIa fibers) and that the increase in Q is due to an increase in cardiac output secondary to increases in VC and (b) has no apparent influence on vasoconstriction in renal and splanchnic tissue.

  13. A Review of Recruitment, Adherence and Drop-Out Rates in Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation Trials in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wurff, Inge S M; Meyer, Barbara J; de Groot, Renate H M

    2017-05-10

    The influence of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) supplementation on health outcomes has been studied extensively with randomized controlled trials (RCT). In many research fields, difficulties with recruitment, adherence and high drop-out rates have been reported. However, what is unknown is how common these problems are in n-3 LCPUFA supplementation studies in children and adolescents. Therefore, this paper will review n-3 LCPUFA supplementation studies in children and adolescents with regard to recruitment, adherence and drop-out rates. The Web of Science, PubMed and Ovid databases were searched for papers reporting on RCT supplementing children and adolescents (2-18 years) with a form of n-3 LCPUFA (or placebo) for at least four weeks. As a proxy for abiding to CONSORT guidelines, we noted whether manuscripts provided a flow-chart and provided dates defining the period of recruitment and follow-up. Ninety manuscripts (reporting on 75 studies) met the inclusion criteria. The majority of the studies did not abide by the CONSORT guidelines: 55% did not provide a flow-chart, while 70% did not provide dates. The majority of studies provided minimal details about the recruitment process. Only 25 of the 75 studies reported an adherence rate which was on average 85%. Sixty-five of the 75 studies included drop-out rates which were on average 17%. Less than half of the included studies abided by the CONSORT guidelines (45% included a flow chart, while 30% reported dates). Problems with recruitment and drop-out seem to be common in n-3 LCPUFA supplementation trials in children and adolescents. However, reporting about recruitment, adherence and dropout rates was very heterogeneous and minimal in the included studies. Some techniques to improve recruitment, adherence and dropout rates were identified from the literature, however these techniques may need to be tailored to n-3 LCPUFA supplementation studies in children and adolescents.

  14. The omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio: health implications

    OpenAIRE

    Simopoulos Artemis P.

    2010-01-01

    Today, Western diets are characterized by a higher omega-6 and a lower omega-3 fatty acid intake, whereas during the Paleolithic period when human’s genetic profile was established, there was a balance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Their balance is an important determinant for brain development and in decreasing the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and other autoimmune and possibly neurodegenerative diseases. Both omega-6 and omega-3...

  15. Comparison of algal and fish sources on the oxidative stability of poultry meat and its enrichment with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymer, C; Gibbs, R A; Givens, D I

    2010-01-01

    Human consumption of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) is below recommendations, and enriching chicken meat (by incorporating LC n-3 PUFA into broiler diets) is a viable means of increasing consumption. Fish oil is the most common LC n-3 PUFA supplement used but is unsustainable and reduces the oxidative stability of the mat. The objective of this experiment was to compare fresh fish oil (FFO) with fish oil encapsulated (EFO) in a gelatin matrix (to maintain its oxidative stability) and algal biomass at a low (LAG, 11), medium (MAG, 22), or high (HAG, 33 g/kg of diet) level of inclusion. The C22:6n-3 contents of the FFO, EFO, and MAG diets were equal. A control (CON) diet using blended vegetable oil was also made. As-hatched 1-d-old Ross 308 broilers (144) were reared (21 d) on a common starter diet then allocated to treatment pens (4 pens per treatment, 6 birds per pen) and fed treatment diets for 21 d before being slaughtered. Breast and leg meat was analyzed (per pen) for fatty acids, and cooked samples (2 pens per treatment) were analyzed for volatile aldehydes. Concentrations (mg/100 g of meat) of C20:5n-3, C22:5n-3, and C22:6n-3 were (respectively) CON: 4, 15, 24; FFO: 31, 46, 129; EFO: 18, 27, 122; LAG: 9, 19, 111; MAG: 6, 16, 147; and HAG: 9, 14, 187 (SEM: 2.4, 3.6, 13.1) in breast meat and CON: 4, 12, 9; FFO: 58, 56, 132; EFO: 63, 49, 153; LAG: 13, 14, 101; MAG: 11, 15, 102; HAG: 37, 37, 203 (SEM: 7.8, 6.7, 14.4) in leg meat. Cooked EFO and HAG leg meat was more oxidized (5.2 mg of hexanal/kg of meat) than the other meats (mean 2.2 mg/kg, SEM 0.63). It is concluded that algal biomass is as effective as fish oil at enriching broiler diets with C22:6 LC n-3 PUFA, and at equal C22:6n-3 contents, there is no significant difference between these 2 supplements on the oxidative stability of the meat that is produced.

  16. Dietary omega-3 fatty acid intake and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psota, Tricia L; Gebauer, Sarah K; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2006-08-21

    Dietary omega-3 fatty acids decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Both epidemiologic and interventional studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on many CVD end points, including all CVD (defined as all coronary artery disease [CAD], fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction [MI], and stroke combined), all CAD, fatal and nonfatal MI, stroke, sudden cardiac death, and all-cause mortality. Much of the evidence comes from studies with fish oil and fish; to a lesser extent, data relate to plant-derived omega-3 fatty acids. Cardioprotective benefits have been observed with daily consumption of as little as 25 to 57 g (approximately 1 to 2 oz) of fish high in omega-3 fatty acids, an intake equivalent to >or=1 fish meal weekly or even monthly, with greater intakes decreasing risk further in a dose-dependent manner, up to about 5 servings per week. Fish, including farm-raised fish and their wild counterparts, are the major dietary sources of the longer-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Sources of plant-derived omega-3 fatty acids include flaxseed, flaxseed oil, walnuts, canola oil, and soybean oil. Because of the remarkable cardioprotective effects of omega-3 fatty acids, consumption of food sources that provide omega-3 fatty acids--especially the longer-chain fatty acids (>or=20 carbons) from marine sources--should be increased in the diet to decrease CVD risk significantly.

  17. Bioavailability of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    Supplements have reached a prominent role in improving the supply of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, such as Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA 20:5n-3) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6n-3). Similar to other nutrients, the availability of omega-3 fatty acids is highly variable and determined by numerous factors. However, the question of omega-3 fatty acids bioavailability has long been disregarded, which may have contributed to the neutral or negative results concerning their effects in several studies. This review provides an overview of the influence of chemical binding form (free fatty acids bound in ethylesters, triacylglycerides or phospholipids), matrix effects (capsule ingestion with concomitant intake of food, fat content in food) or galenic form (i.e. microencapsulation, emulsification) on the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids. There is a need to systematically investigate the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids formulations, which might be a key to designing more effective studies in the future.

  18. Omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids predict accelerated decline of peripheral nerve function in older persons

    OpenAIRE

    Lauretani, F.; BANDINELLI, S.; Benedetta, B.; Cherubini, A; Iorio, A. D.; Blè, A.; Giacomini, V.; Corsi, A.M.; Guralnik, J.M.; Ferrucci, L.

    2007-01-01

    Pre-clinical studies suggest that both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids have beneficial effects on peripheral nerve function. Rats feed a diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) showed modification of phospholipid fatty acid composition in nerve membranes and improvement of sciatic nerve conduction velocity (NCV). We tested the hypothesis that baseline plasma omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids levels predict accelerated decline of peripheral nerve function. Changes between baseline and t...

  19. Marine lipids and the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Müllertz, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Marine lipids are enriched with omega-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acids are important membrane lipids and have many recognized health benefits, the bioavailability of these fatty acids can therefore be important for achieving...... the beneficial healthy effects. As important membrane lipids, the incorporation and depletion kinetics of EPA and DHA in biological membranes have been found to be different, DHA was depleted slowly from both erythrocyte and plasma membranes due to the slow re-synthesis of DHA in the body. The bioavailability...... of omega-3 fatty acids has been reported to be affected by several factors; among the important factors were the digestion and absorption processes of omega-3 containing lipids in the gastrointestinal tract. Both lipid structures and food structures can affect the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids...

  20. Enteral nutrition with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in acute respiratory distress syndrome%ω-3多不饱和脂肪酸肠内营养治疗急性呼吸窘迫综合征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪红军

    2014-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common clinical critical disease threatening patient's life,inflammation caused by diffuse alveolar damage is the essence.Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid(ω-3PUFAs) can inhibit inflammation by decreasing arachidonic acid metabolites through competing with arachidonic acid by a variety of ways,by changing the nature of cell membrane signal platform "lipid rafts",by involving in inflammation regression and tissue repairment using its metabolites,by reducing the activation of nulear factors-κB and inhibiting the release of inflammatory mediators in local lung tissue.So,ω-3PUFAs has become the research hot spot in ARDS drug treatment.The clinical study on ω-3PUFAs enteral nutrition in the treatment of ARDS has not yet reached the consistent conclusion,therefore,the multicenter randomized controlled trial is needed.%急性呼吸窘迫综合征(acute respiratory distress syndrome,ARDS)是严重威胁患者生命的常见临床危重病,失控的炎症反应所导致的弥漫性肺泡损伤是其本质.ω-3多不饱和脂肪酸(omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid,ω-3PUFAs)可通过多种途径与花生四烯酸竞争,减少来源于花生四烯酸的代谢产物;通过改变细胞膜信号平台“脂筏”的性质;通过其代谢产物参与炎症的消退与组织修复以及通过降低核因子-κB的激活,从而抑制炎症反应,抑制局部肺组织炎症介质释放,成为ARDS药物治疗的研究热点.目前关于ω-3 PUFAs肠内营养治疗ARDS的临床研究尚未得出一致的结论,因此,设计更加完善的多中心随机对照研究很有必要.

  1. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and FFAR4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Young eOh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial roles of omega-3 fatty acids (ω3-FAs on obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other metabolic diseases are well known. Most of these effects can be explained by their anti-inflammatory effects, triggered through their receptor, G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120 activation. Although the whole mechanism of action is not fully described yet, it has been shown that stimulation of ω3-FA to GPR120 is followed by receptor phosphorylation. This makes GPR120 be capable of interacting to beta-arrestin-2, which in turn results in association, of beta-arrestin-2 to TAB1. This stealing of an important partaker of the inflammatory cascade, leads to interruption of the pathway, resulting in reduced inflammation. Besides this regulation of the anti-inflammatory response, GPR120 signaling also has been shown to regulate glucose homeostasis, adiposity, gastrointestinal peptide secretion, and taste preference. In this review we summarize the current knowledge about the interaction of ω3-FAs with GPR120 and the consequent opportunities for the application of ω3-FAs and possible GPR120 targets.

  2. Dietary intake of fish, omega-3, omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D and the prevalence of psychotic-like symptoms in a cohort of 33 000 women from the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewander Tommy

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low intake of fish, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to play a role in the development of schizophrenia. Our aim was to evaluate the association between the intake of different fish species, PUFA and vitamin D and the prevalence of psychotic-like symptoms in a population-based study among Swedish women. Methods Dietary intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire among 33 623 women aged 30-49 years at enrolment (1991/92. Information on psychotic-like symptoms was derived from a follow-up questionnaire in the years 2002/03. Participants were classified into three predefined levels: low, middle and high frequency of symptoms. The association between diet and psychotic-like symptoms was summarized in terms of relative risks (RR and corresponding 95% confidence intervals and was evaluated by energy-adjusted multinomial logistic regression. Results 18 411 women were classified as having a low level of psychotic-like symptoms, 14 395 as middle and 817 as having a high level. The risk of high level symptoms was 53% (95% CI, 30-69% lower among women who ate fish 3-4 times per week compared to women who never ate fish. The risk was also lower for women with a high intake of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA compared to women with a lower intake of these fatty acids. The effect was most pronounced for omega-6 PUFAs. The RR comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of omega-6 PUFAs intake was 0.78 (95% CI, 0.64-0.97. The associations were J-shaped with the strongest reduced risk for an intermediate intake of fish or PUFA. For fatty fish (herring/mackerel, salmon-type fish, the strongest inverse association was found for an intermediate intake (RR: 0.81, 95% CI, 0.66-0.98, whereas a high intake of fatty fish was associated with an increased risk of psychotic-like symptoms (RR: 1.90, 95% CI, 1.34-2.70. Women in the highest compared with the lowest quartile of vitamin D consumption

  3. THE USE OF OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS FOR THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Malygin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Antiarrhythmic effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in patients with recurrent atrial fibrillation and ventricular arrhythmias had been proven. The positive effect of the ω-3 PUFA on the risk of sudden arrhythmic death and overall mortality in the patients after myocardial infarction and patients with chronic heart failure had been also proven.

  4. Balancing omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenna, J Thomas; Akomo, Peter; Bahwere, Paluku;

    2015-01-01

    Ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTFs) are a key component of a life-saving treatment for young children who present with uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition in resource limited settings. Increasing recognition of the role of balanced dietary omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (P...

  5. Omega-3 fatty acids and cognitive function in women

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Jennifer G.; Ijioma, Nkechinyere; Harris, William

    2010-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) could play an important role in maintaining cognitive function in aging individuals. The omega-3 FA docosahexaenoic acid is a major constituent of neuronal membranes and, along with the other long-chain omega-3 FAs from fish such as eicosapentaentoic acid, has been shown to have a wide variety of beneficial effects on neuronal functioning, inflammation, oxidation and cell death, as well as on the development of the characteristic pathology of Alzheimer’s disease. Ome...

  6. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce the development of preneoplasic lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques,Viviana Teixeira; Dias,Cristina Maria Ganns Chaves; Sylvia do Carmo Castro FRANCESCHINI; Sabarense,Céphora Maria; Neuza Maria Brunoro COSTA; Leite,Jacqueline Isaura Alvarez; Peluzio,Maria do Carmo Gouveia

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anticancer potential of dietary omega-3 supplementation to reduce induced intestinal preneoplastic lesions in Wistar rats. METHODS: A total of 58 11-week-old male Wistar rats (Rattus norvergicus, albinus variety, Rodentia) were distributed into two groups: a control group (n=25) and an omega-3-treated group (n=28). Aberrant crypt foci were induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Tissue incorporation of the supplemented omega-3 fatty acids was...

  7. ω-3多聚不饱和脂肪酸对心血管疾病的保护作用%The Protective Effects of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Cardiovascular Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迪拉热·阿迪

    2012-01-01

    ω-3多聚不饱和脂肪酸是在鱼类或鱼油中发现的,目前被认为对人体健康有诸多益处,在人整个生命周期中能减少心血管疾病的风险性,对机体生长发育有着很重要的作用.这篇综述将系统地阐述ω-3多聚不饱和脂肪酸对心脏性猝死、心力衰竭、心律失常、动脉粥样硬化及高三酰甘油血症等心血管疾病的影响.%Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ( m-3 PUFAs ) are found in fish and fish oil. ω-3 PUFAs have been attributed with several health benefits including mitigating the risk of cardiovascular disease and affecting human growth and development. This review describes the efficacy of ω-3 PUFAs on sudden cardiac death, arrhythmias, heart failure, hypertriglyceridemia and atherosclerosis.

  8. Australians are not Meeting the Recommended Intakes for Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Results of an Analysis from the 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Barbara J

    2016-02-24

    Health benefits have been attributed to omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA). Therefore it is important to know if Australians are currently meeting the recommended intake for n-3 LCPUFA and if they have increased since the last National Nutrition Survey in 1995 (NNS 1995). Dietary intake data was obtained from the recent 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2011-2012 NNPAS). Linoleic acid (LA) intakes have decreased whilst alpha-linolenic acid (LNA) and n-3 LCPUFA intakes have increased primarily due to n-3 LCPUFA supplements. The median n-3 LCPUFA intakes are less than 50% of the mean n-3 LCPUFA intakes which highlights the highly-skewed n-3 LCPUFA intakes, which shows that there are some people consuming high amounts of n-3 LCPUFA, but the vast majority of the population are consuming much lower amounts. Only 20% of the population meets the recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes and only 10% of women of childbearing age meet the recommended docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake. Fish and seafood is by far the richest source of n-3 LCPUFA including DHA.

  9. Associations between omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids from fish consumption and severity of depressive symptoms: an analysis of the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmire, Claire A; Block, Robert C; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; van Wijngaarden, Edwin

    2012-04-01

    Fish is the primary source of dietary omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids EPA and DHA, which have been reported to reduce depressive symptoms in clinical trials. We assessed the association between fish consumption and depressive symptoms in a nationally representative sample of 10,480 adults from the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Depressive symptoms were classified by severity using the Patient Health Questionnaire. Fish meal consumption reported in 30-day food frequency questionnaires, and EPA+DHA intake computed from 24-h dietary recalls were evaluated in relation to depressive symptoms using multivariable ordinal logistic regression. Consumption of breaded fish showed an increased risk of greater depressive symptom severity, while all fish, non-breaded fish, and shell fish were not associated. Any EPA+DHA intake was significantly associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Exposure-response analyses revealed no clear patterns for any intake measures. Inconsistent patterns of associations in our study may be partially explained by exposure misclassification.

  10. Australians are not Meeting the Recommended Intakes for Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Results of an Analysis from the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara J. Meyer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Health benefits have been attributed to omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA. Therefore it is important to know if Australians are currently meeting the recommended intake for n-3 LCPUFA and if they have increased since the last National Nutrition Survey in 1995 (NNS 1995. Dietary intake data was obtained from the recent 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2011–2012 NNPAS. Linoleic acid (LA intakes have decreased whilst alpha-linolenic acid (LNA and n-3 LCPUFA intakes have increased primarily due to n-3 LCPUFA supplements. The median n-3 LCPUFA intakes are less than 50% of the mean n-3 LCPUFA intakes which highlights the highly-skewed n-3 LCPUFA intakes, which shows that there are some people consuming high amounts of n-3 LCPUFA, but the vast majority of the population are consuming much lower amounts. Only 20% of the population meets the recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes and only 10% of women of childbearing age meet the recommended docosahexaenoic acid (DHA intake. Fish and seafood is by far the richest source of n-3 LCPUFA including DHA.

  11. The omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio: health implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simopoulos Artemis P.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, Western diets are characterized by a higher omega-6 and a lower omega-3 fatty acid intake, whereas during the Paleolithic period when human’s genetic profile was established, there was a balance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Their balance is an important determinant for brain development and in decreasing the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD, hypertension, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and other autoimmune and possibly neurodegenerative diseases. Both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids influence gene expression. Because of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in their metabolic pathways, blood levels of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids are determined by both endogenous metabolism and dietary intake making the need of balanced dietary intake essential for health and disease prevention. Whether an omega-6/omega-3 ratio of 3:1 to 4:1 could prevent the pathogenesis of many diseases induced by today’s Western diets (AFSSA, 2010, a target of 1:1 to 2:1 appears to be consistent with studies on evolutionary aspects of diet, neurodevelopment, and genetics. A target of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio of 1:1 to 2:1 appears to be consistent with studies on evolutionary aspects of diet, neurodevelopment and genetics. A balanced ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids is important for health and in the prevention of CHD and possibly other chronic diseases.

  12. Omega-3 fatty acids in baked freshwater fish from south of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, A D; Visentainer, J V; Matsushita, M; de Souza, N E

    1997-03-01

    Lipid and fatty acid levels in the edible flesh of 17 baked freshwater fish from Brazil's southern region were determined. Analyses of fatty acids methyl esters were performed by gas chromatography. Palmitic acid (C16:0) was the predominant saturated fatty acid, accouting for 50-70% of total saturated acids. Linoleic acid (C18:2 omega 6), linolenic acid (C18:3 omega 3), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 omega 3) were the predominant polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFA). The data revealed that species such as barbado, corvina, pintado, and truta were good sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and that most freshwater fish examined were good sources of PUFA-omega 3.

  13. Long-chain omega 3 fatty acids: molecular bases of potential antioxidant actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Elena; Visioli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of investigation are being developed to assess the impact of polyunsaturated fatty acids, namely those of the omega 3 series, intake on oxidative stress. Keeping in mind that there might be a dose-response relation, in vivo and in vitro data strongly suggest that omega 3 fatty acids might act as anti- rather than pro-oxidant in several cells such as vascular cells, hence diminishing inflammation, oxidative stress, and, in turn, the risk of atherosclerosis and degenerative disorders such as cardiovascular disease. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Omega-3 fatty acids in mood disorders: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This review addresses the potential role of omega-3 fatty acids in mood disorders, from the biochemical rationale for their use to the growing body of data supporting their clinical efficacy.

  15. Omega-3 fatty acids as treatments for mental illness: which disorder and which fatty acid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieswerda Lee E

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing number of observational and epidemiological studies have suggested that mental illness, in particular mood disorders, is associated with reduced dietary intake and/or cellular abundance of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. This has prompted researchers to test the efficacy of omega-3 PUFA in a range of different psychiatric disorders. We have critically reviewed the double blind placebo controlled clinical trials published prior to April 2007 to determine whether omega-3 PUFA are likely to be efficacious in these disorders. Results Most trials involved a small number of participants but were largely well designed. Omega-3 PUFA were well tolerated by both children and adults with mild gastrointestinal effects being the only consistently reported adverse event. For schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder we found little evidence of a robust clinically relevant effect. In the case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and related disorders, most trials showed at most small benefits over placebo. A limited meta-analysis of these trials suggested that benefits of omega-3 PUFA supplementation may be greater in a classroom setting than at home. Some evidence indicates that omega-3 PUFA may reduce symptoms of anxiety although the data is preliminary and inconclusive. The most convincing evidence for beneficial effects of omega-3 PUFA is to be found in mood disorders. A meta-analysis of trials involving patients with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder provided evidence that omega-3 PUFA supplementation reduces symptoms of depression. Furthermore, meta-regression analysis suggests that supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid may be more beneficial in mood disorders than with docosahexaenoic acid, although several confounding factors prevented a definitive conclusion being made regarding which species of omega-3 PUFA is most beneficial. The mechanisms underlying the apparent efficacy of

  16. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Modern Parenteral Nutrition: A Review of the Current Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislaw Klek

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous lipid emulsions are an essential component of parenteral nutrition regimens. Originally employed as an efficient non-glucose energy source to reduce the adverse effects of high glucose intake and provide essential fatty acids, lipid emulsions have assumed a larger therapeutic role due to research demonstrating the effects of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on key metabolic functions, including inflammatory and immune response, coagulation, and cell signaling...

  17. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ameer Y; Burnham, W McIntyre; Auvin, Stéphane

    2010-08-01

    Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are dietary fatty acids that are involved in a myriad of physiologic processes in the brain. There is some evidence suggesting that PUFAs-and particularly omega-3 PUFAs-may have anticonvulsant effects, both in humans and in animals. In the present review, we assess the evidence related to the antiseizure properties of the n-3 PUFAs, discuss their possible mechanism(s) of action, and make recommendations for future clinical trials. In general, the available data from cell cultures and whole animal studies support the idea that the n-3 PUFAs have antiseizure properties. Future clinical trials involving the n-3 PUFAs should involve higher doses and longer periods of administration in order to definitively assess their possible antiseizure effects.

  18. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Modern Parenteral Nutrition: A Review of the Current Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klek, Stanislaw

    2016-03-07

    Intravenous lipid emulsions are an essential component of parenteral nutrition regimens. Originally employed as an efficient non-glucose energy source to reduce the adverse effects of high glucose intake and provide essential fatty acids, lipid emulsions have assumed a larger therapeutic role due to research demonstrating the effects of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on key metabolic functions, including inflammatory and immune response, coagulation, and cell signaling. Indeed, emerging evidence suggests that the effects of omega-3 PUFA on inflammation and immune response result in meaningful therapeutic benefits in surgical, cancer, and critically ill patients as well as patients requiring long-term parenteral nutrition. The present review provides an overview of the mechanisms of action through which omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA modulate the immune-inflammatory response and summarizes the current body of evidence regarding the clinical and pharmacoeconomic benefits of intravenous n-3 fatty acid-containing lipid emulsions in patients requiring parenteral nutrition.

  19. THE COMPETITION BETWEEN METHYLMERCURY RISKS AND OMEGA-3 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACID BENEFITS: A REVIEW OF CONFLICTING EVIDENCE ON FISH CONSUMPTION AND CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LIPFERT, F.W.; SULLIVAN, T.M.

    2006-10-31

    The health concerns of methylmercury (MeHg) contamination of seafood have recently been extended to include cardiovascular effects, especially premature mortality. Although the fatty acids (fish oils) found in most species are thought to confer a wide range of health benefits, especially to the cardiovascular system, some epidemiological studies have suggested that such benefits may be offset by adverse effects of MeHg. This comprehensive review is based on searches of the NIH MEDLINE database and compares and contrasts 145 published studies involving cardiovascular effects and exposures to mercury and other fish contaminants, intake of fatty acids including dietary supplements of fish oils, and rates of seafood consumption. Since few of these studies include adequate simultaneous measurements of all of these potential predictor variables, we summarized their effects separately, across the available studies of each, and then drew conclusions based on the aggregated findings. It is important to realize that studies of seafood consumption encompass the net effects of all of these predictor variables, but that seafood intake studies are rarely supported by human biomarker measurements that reflect the actual uptake of harmful as well as beneficial fish ingredients. As a result, exposure measurement error is an issue when comparing studies and predictor variables. It is also possible that the observed benefits of eating fish may relate more to the characteristics of the consumers than to those of the fish. We found the evidence for adverse cardiovascular effects of MeHg to be sparse and unconvincing. Studies of cardiovascular mortality show net benefits, and the findings of adverse effects are mainly limited to studies Finland at high mercury exposure levels. By contrast, a very consistent picture of beneficial effects is seen for fatty acids, after recognizing the effects of exposure uncertainties and the presence of threshold effects. Studies based on measured

  20. Omega-3 fatty acids: cardiovascular benefits, sources and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John H; O'Keefe, James H; Lavie, Carl J; Harris, William S

    2009-12-01

    The evidence for the cardioprotective nature of omega-3 fatty acids is abundant, and currently available data indicate that patients with known coronary heart disease should consume at least 1 g daily of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids from either oily fish or fish-oil supplements, and that individuals without disease should consume at least 250-500 mg daily. However, this area of research poses two questions. Firstly, which is the best source of omega-3 fatty acids-fish or fish-oil supplements? Secondly, are recommendations for omega-3 supplementation warranted in view of the rapid depletion of world fish stocks? The argument that eating fish is better than taking fish-oil supplements stems from the fact that several important nutrients, such as vitamin D, selenium, and antioxidants, are missing from the supplements. However, three major prevention trials have clearly indicated that omega-3 fatty acid capsules confer cardiovascular benefits and, therefore, that both are cardioprotective. Sustainable sources of omega-3 fatty acids will need to be identified if long-term cardiovascular risk reduction is to be achieved at the population level.

  1. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeromson, Stewart; Gallagher, Iain J; Galloway, Stuart D R; Hamilton, D Lee

    2015-11-19

    Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscle metabolism. Furthermore, recent human studies demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin can influence the exercise and nutritional response of skeletal muscle. These studies show that the prior omega-3 status influences not only the metabolic response of muscle to nutrition, but also the functional response to a period of exercise training. Omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin therefore have the potential to alter the trajectory of a number of human diseases including the physical decline associated with aging. We explore the potential molecular mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may act in skeletal muscle, considering the n-3/n-6 ratio, inflammation and lipidomic remodelling as possible mechanisms of action. Finally, we suggest some avenues for further research to clarify how omega-3 fatty acids may be exerting their biological action in skeletal muscle.

  2. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Jeromson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscle metabolism. Furthermore, recent human studies demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin can influence the exercise and nutritional response of skeletal muscle. These studies show that the prior omega-3 status influences not only the metabolic response of muscle to nutrition, but also the functional response to a period of exercise training. Omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin therefore have the potential to alter the trajectory of a number of human diseases including the physical decline associated with aging. We explore the potential molecular mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may act in skeletal muscle, considering the n-3/n-6 ratio, inflammation and lipidomic remodelling as possible mechanisms of action. Finally, we suggest some avenues for further research to clarify how omega-3 fatty acids may be exerting their biological action in skeletal muscle.

  3. Omega-3 fatty acids in health and disease and in growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simopoulos, A P

    1991-09-01

    elapsed before appearance of tumors. Studies with nonhuman primates and human newborns indicate that DHA is essential for the normal functional development of the retina and brain, particularly in premature infants. Because omega 3 fatty acids are essential in growth and development throughout the life cycle, they should be included in the diets of all humans. Omega-3 and omega 6 fatty acids are not interconvertible in the human body and are important components of practically all cell membranes. Whereas cellular proteins are genetically determined, the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition of cell membranes is to a great extent dependent on the dietary intake.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  4. The Role for Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Molfino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Optimal nutrition is one of the most important determinants of healthier ageing, reducing the risk of disability, maintaining mental and physical functions, and thus preserving and ensuring a better quality of life. Dietary intake and nutrient absorption decline with age, thus increasing the risk of malnutrition, morbidity and mortality. Specific nutrients, particularly long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, might have the potential of preventing and reducing co-morbidities in older adults. Omega-3 PUFAs are able to modulate inflammation, hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, and hypertension. Different mechanisms contribute to these effects, including conditioning cell membrane function and composition, eicosanoid production, and gene expression. The present review analyzes the influence of omega-3 PUFAs status and intake on brain function, cardiovascular system, immune function, muscle performance and bone health in older adults. Omega-3 FAs may have substantial benefits in reducing the risk of cognitive decline in older people. The available data encourage higher intakes of omega-3 PUFAs in the diet or via specific supplements. More studies are needed to confirm the role of omega-3 FAs in maintaining bone health and preventing the loss of muscle mass and function associated with ageing. In summary, omega-3 PUFAs are now identified as potential key nutrients, safe and effective in the treatment and prevention of several negative consequences of ageing.

  5. Conversion of α-linolenic acid to long-chain omega-3 fatty acid derivatives and alterations of HDL density subfractions and plasma lipids with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzinger, C; Larner, C; Heatley, J J; Bailey, C A; MacFarlane, R D; Bauer, J E

    2014-04-01

    The effect of α-linolenic acid from a flaxseed (FLX)-enriched diet on plasma lipid and fatty acid metabolism and possible atherosclerosis risk factors was studied in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus). Twenty-four Monk parrots were randomly assigned to diets containing either 10% ground SUNs or 10% ground FLXs. Feed intake was calculated daily. Blood samples, body condition scores and body weights were obtained at -5 weeks, day 0, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 70. Plasma samples were analysed for total cholesterol, free cholesterol, triacylglycerols and lipoproteins. Phospholipid subfraction fatty acid profiles were determined. By day 70, the FLX group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid fatty acids including 18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid), 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid). The sunflower group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid levels of 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid). By day 70, the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) peak shifted resulting in significantly different HDL peak densities between the two experimental groups (1.097 g/ml FLX group and 1.095 g/ml SUN group, p = 0.028). The plasma fatty acid results indicate that Monk parrots can readily convert α-linolenic acid to the long-chain omega-3 derivatives including docosahexaenoic acid and reduce 20:4n-6 accumulation in plasma phospholipids. The reason for a shift in the HDL peak density is unknown at this time.

  6. Effects of Endogenous omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids(PUFAs) on Psoriatic Lesion and Th17 Cells in IMQ-induced Psoriasis-like Model%内源性omega-3多元不饱和脂肪酸对小鼠银屑病样皮损以及Th17细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦思; 温炬; 郑荣昌; 马静; 周贵滨; 冯洁莹

    2014-01-01

    目的 观察内源性omega-3多元不饱和脂肪酸(polyunsaturated fatty acids,PUFAs)对小鼠银屑病样皮损以及脾脏Th17细胞因子的影响.方法 本实验采用Fat-1转基因小鼠模型,将野生型(Wild-type)小鼠和Fat-1小鼠各分为2组,背部以及右耳背外涂咪喹莫特乳膏(Imiquimod,IMQ)和凡士林乳膏(cream),建立银屑病样皮损模型及对照组.观察4组小鼠给药部位皮肤变化,对表皮组织进行病理切片和HE染色,流式细胞术测定脾细胞内Th17细胞因子的百分比.结果 Fat-1 IMQ与WT IMQ组相比,表皮因IMQ作用而出现角质层、棘细胞层的增厚,大体表现的红斑、增厚、鳞屑反应均较后者轻微,同时IMQ所造成的脾细胞内Th17细胞以及炎症因子IL-17升高,也在Fat-1组小鼠中呈现出了较低的水平(P<0.05).而两组cream组间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 内源性omega-3 PUFAs在银屑病中能够减少脾细胞内Th17细胞的水平,减少IL-17炎症因子的分泌以及改善银屑病样红斑、鳞屑、增厚等临床症状,从而发挥治疗银屑病的作用.

  7. Polyunsaturated fatty acids for multiple sclerosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monserrat Kong-González

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Fatty acids have an important role in structure and function of the nervous system. Recently, epidemiologic studies on neurodegenerative disorders have evaluated the usefulness of polyunsaturated fatty acids on multiple sclerosis. OBJECTIVE To examine recent studies, clinical trials, and reviews on the therapeutic effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids in multiple sclerosis. METHODS We conducted a search in MEDLINE/PubMed and Cochrane Library with the terms "fatty acids", "omega-3" and "omega-6" in combination with "multiple sclerosis". Articles were selected according to their relevance on the topic. RESULTS Epidemiologic studies have shown benefits of dietary supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids -especially omega-3- in relation to inflammatory, autoimmune and neurodegenerative disorders. In contrast, the studies do not show a beneficial effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids in multiple sclerosis. However, there are limitations related to design and sample issues in these studies CONCLUSIONS There is some evidence of a protective effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids on the risk of multiple sclerosis. Despite this, to date controlled trials have not produced definite results on the benefits of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with multiple sclerosis. Any potential benefit will have to be confirmed in the long term.

  8. [Treatment of hypertriglyceridemia with omega-3 fatty acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Toru; Ito, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid(EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid(DHA) have important biologic functions, including effects on membranes, eicosanoid metabolism, and gene transcription. Studies indicate that the use of EPA and DHA lowered triglyceride levels, which is accomplished by decreasing the production of hepatic triglycerides and increasing the clearance of plasma triglycerides. Recent clinical studies showed that intake of omega-3 fatty acids reduced cardiovascular events. In addition, combination therapy with omega-3 fatty acids and a statin is a safe and effective way to improve lipid levels and cardiovascular prognosis beyond the benefits provided by statin therapy alone. Our focus is to review the potential mechanisms by which these fatty acids reduce cardiovascular disease risk.

  9. The potential role of omega-3 fatty acids supplements in increasing athletic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Șerban GLIGOR

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are essential fatty acids that cannot be produced by the body itself and therefore must be provided through nutrition. Omega-6 and particularly omega-3 fatty acids have important roles in the organism, contributing to the maintenance and promotion of health. The optimal proportion of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids is 2:1, or even better 1:1. They are involved in normal growth and development, play a role in the prevention of coronary and cardiovascular diseases, of diabetes mellitus, of arterial hypertension, arthritis and cancer. Omega-3 fatty acids mainly have an anti-inflammatory effect, but also act as hypolipidemic and antithrombotic agents. A potential role of omega-3 fatty acids is that of increasing physical performance. Their role in the physical activity refers on one side to the global health of athletes and on the other side to their anti-inflammatory effect, as high intensity physical exercise induces increased free-radical production and microtraumas, with the induction of an inflammatory status. The anti-inflammatory effect of these fatty acids manifests through an increased production of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, through decreasing the production of prostaglandins metabolites, decreasing the production of leukotriene B4, etc. They are also effective on reducing muscle pain post eccentric exercise and on decreasing the severity of bronchoconstriction induced by exercise, as well as improving pulmonary function variables. In conclusion it seems that supplementing diets with omega-3 fatty acids, apart from having benefic effects on health and on the prevention and management of certain affections, proves to be a beneficial for physical activity and athletic performance.

  10. Omega-3 fatty acid production from enzyme saccharified hemp hydrolysate using a novel marine thraustochytrid strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Adarsha; Abraham, Reinu E; Barrow, Colin J; Puri, Munish

    2015-05-01

    In this work, a newly isolated marine thraustochytrid strain, Schizochytrium sp. DT3, was used for omega-3 fatty acid production by growing on lignocellulose biomass obtained from local hemp hurd (Cannabis sativa) biomass. Prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, hemp was pretreated with sodium hydroxide to open the biomass structure for the production of sugar hydrolysate. The thraustochytrid strain was able to grow on the sugar hydrolysate and accumulated polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). At the lowest carbon concentration of 2%, the PUFAs productivity was 71% in glucose and 59% in the sugars hydrolysate, as a percentage of total fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) levels were highest at about 49% of TFA using 6% glucose as the carbon source. SFAs of 41% were produced using 2% of SH. This study demonstrates that SH produced from lignocellulose biomass is a potentially useful carbon source for the production of omega-3 fatty acids in thraustochytrids, as demonstrated using the new strain, Schizochytrium sp. DT3.

  11. Omega-3 fatty acids and non-communicable diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铎

    2003-01-01

    Objective To review the relation between dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) and non-communicable diseases. Method Data were collected from scientific journals and conference publications, MEDLINE (1979-2002) and current content which included 68 prospective, cross-sectional, case control and dietary-intervention studies. Scientific paper selections were based on the association between ω-3 PUFA and non-communicable diseases. Results ω-3 PUFA has beneficial effects on increasing heart rate variability, decreasing the risk of stroke, reducing both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, insulin resistance and glucose metabolism. Long chain ω-3 PUFA has anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities. ω-3 PUFA has also been reported to have a beneficial effect on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia, and may be effective in managing depression in adults. Conclusions Results from epidemiological and dietary intervention studies have shown that ω-3 PUFA represent powerfully a class of bioactive compounds and that dietary intake of ω-3 PUFA plays a critical role in human health in relation to non-communicable diseases.

  12. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Vitamin D in Cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Güttler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary modification and supplementation play an increasingly important role in the conservative treatment of cardiovascular disease. Current interest has focused on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and vitamin D. Clinical trial results on this subject are contradictory in many aspects. Several studies indicate that n-3 PUFA consumption improves vascular and cardiac hemodynamics, triglycerides, and possibly endothelial function, autonomic control, inflammation, thrombosis, and arrhythmia. Experimental studies show effects on membrane structure and associated functions, ion channel properties, genetic regulation, and production of anti-inflammatory mediators. Clinical trials evaluating a possible reduction in cardiovascular disease by n-3 PUFA have shown different results. Supplementation of vitamin D is common regarding prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. But vitamin D also seems to have several effects on the cardiovascular system. Vitamin D deficiency appears to be related to an increase in parathyroid hormone levels and can predispose to essential hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy, increased insulin resistance, and eventually to atherosclerosis and adverse cardiovascular events. Randomized prospective clinical trials are needed to determine whether vitamin D and omega-3 FA supplementation therapy should be recommended as a routine therapy for primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  13. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Vitamin D in Cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güttler, Norbert; Zheleva, Kirila; Parahuleva, Mariana; Chasan, Ridvan; Bilgin, Mehmet; Neuhof, Christiane; Burgazli, Mehmet; Niemann, Bernd; Erdogan, Ali; Böning, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Dietary modification and supplementation play an increasingly important role in the conservative treatment of cardiovascular disease. Current interest has focused on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and vitamin D. Clinical trial results on this subject are contradictory in many aspects. Several studies indicate that n-3 PUFA consumption improves vascular and cardiac hemodynamics, triglycerides, and possibly endothelial function, autonomic control, inflammation, thrombosis, and arrhythmia. Experimental studies show effects on membrane structure and associated functions, ion channel properties, genetic regulation, and production of anti-inflammatory mediators. Clinical trials evaluating a possible reduction in cardiovascular disease by n-3 PUFA have shown different results. Supplementation of vitamin D is common regarding prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. But vitamin D also seems to have several effects on the cardiovascular system. Vitamin D deficiency appears to be related to an increase in parathyroid hormone levels and can predispose to essential hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy, increased insulin resistance, and eventually to atherosclerosis and adverse cardiovascular events. Randomized prospective clinical trials are needed to determine whether vitamin D and omega-3 FA supplementation therapy should be recommended as a routine therapy for primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23346457

  14. Omega-3多不饱和脂肪酸抗心律失常作用及其机制研究进展%Anti-arrhythmic effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and its underlying mechanism:a review of research progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝云锋; 李泱

    2014-01-01

    越来越多的研究表明,n-3多不饱和脂肪酸(n-3PUFAs)能降低心率,提高心率变异性,减少室性心律失常的发生,预防心源性猝死及减少心房颤动复发等抗心律失常作用,也有研究发现n-3PUFAs具有致心律失常的作用。本文通过分析n-3PUFAs离子通道作用特点及其抗心律失常作用机制,发现n-3PUFAs干预方式不同,作用机制不完全一样,表明n-3PUFAs在抗心律失常方面具有两面性。%Much evidence shows that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs) protect the heart by reducing heart rate, increasing heart rate variability, decreasing atrial fibrillation, and preventing ventricular fibrillation arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. However, some researches suggest that n-3PUFAs exert pro-arrhythmic action. The purpose of this review was to summarize the effects of n-3PUFAs on ion channels and anti-arrhythmic mechanism. Acute administration and long-term use of n-3PUFAs have quite different electrophysiological actions, indicating their anti-and pro-arrhythmic actions in different clinical settings.

  15. Omega-3 fatty acids in ADHD and related neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Alexandra J

    2006-04-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids are dietary essentials, and are critical to brain development and function. Increasing evidence suggests that a relative lack of omega-3 may contribute to many psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. This review focuses on the possible role of omega-3 in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and related childhood developmental disorders, evaluating the existing evidence from both research and clinical perspectives. Theory and experimental evidence support a role for omega-3 in ADHD, dyslexia, developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and autism. Results from controlled treatment trials are mixed, but the few studies in this area have involved different populations and treatment formulations. Dietary supplementation with fish oils (providing EPA and DHA) appears to alleviate ADHD-related symptoms in at least some children, and one study of DCD children also found benefits for academic achievement. Larger trials are now needed to confirm these findings, and to establish the specificity and durability of any treatment effects as well as optimal formulations and dosages. Omega-3 is not supported by current evidence as a primary treatment for ADHD or related conditions, but further research in this area is clearly warranted. Given their relative safety and general health benefits, omega-3 fatty acids offer a promising complementary approach to standard treatments.

  16. Ácidos graxos poli-insaturados n-3 e n-6: metabolismo em mamíferos e resposta imune Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids: metabolism in mammals and immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ângelo De Lima Perini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A experimentação animal apresenta uma grande importância para o desenvolvimento da ciência. O uso de camundongos em experimentos ocorre devido à semelhança destes animais com os seres humanos, fácil criação e manutenção e resposta experimental bastante rápida. Esses animais possuem as mesmas enzimas dessaturases e elongases que os humanos, por isso são usados em pesquisas envolvendo incorporação e síntese de ácidos graxos em tecidos. Os ácidos graxos da família ômega-3 e ômega-6 são de suma importância na dieta humana, pois estes não são sintetizados pela síntese de novo e são precursores dos ácidos graxos poli-insaturados de cadeia muito longa, como os ácidos eicosapentaenóico, docosahexaenóico e araquidônico. Estes desempenham funções importantes no organismo, como a síntese de eicosanóides que estão envolvidos diretamente no sistema imune e nas respostas inflamatórias. A razão entre o consumo de ácidos graxos n-6 e n-3 na dieta é um importante fator para determinar a ingestão adequada de ácidos graxos bem como prevenir o aparecimento de doenças. Este artigo tem como objetivo avaliar a incorporação de ácidos graxos em tecidos de animais e discutir a importância dos ácidos da família n-3 e seus metabólitos no sistema imunológico.Experiments with animals are very important for the improvement of science. The use of mice in experiments is due to their similarity with humans, the easy of raising and maintaining them and their very fast response. These animals have the same desaturase and elongase enzymes as humans and so they are used in research involving the incorporation and synthesis of fatty acids in tissues. The fatty acids omega-3 and omega-6 are extremely important in the human diet because they are not synthesized de novo and are precursors of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as the eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids. These acids play important roles

  17. ω-3多不饱和脂肪酸治疗慢性心力衰竭效果的meta分析%A Meta-Analysis of Curative Effects of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Chronic Heart Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张尧; 唐其柱; 李芳芳; 张宁; 周梦桥

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the effectiveness of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of chronic heart failure. Methods The documents of randomized controlled trials ( RCT) related to the treatment of chronic heart failure withω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids published during 1990 and 2014 were retrieved from the databases of CNKI, CBM, VIP, PubMed, Cochrane and Embase. The documents were screened, extracted and evaluated according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, and a meta-analysis was performed by using RevMan 5. 1 software. Results In total there were 4 RCT (7149 pa-tients) , in which 3583 cases were in test group, and 3566 cases were in the observation group. Through the quality assessment of literature, there were three articles of class B and one article of class A. 3 papers reported left ventricular ejection fraction ( LVEF) and brain natriuretic peptide ( BNP) , and 2 papers reported tumor necrosis factor-alpha ( TNF-α) and all-cause mor-tality rate. The results of meta-analysis showed as follows: the differences of LVEF, BNP and TNF-α between the two groups were significant (MD=0. 85, 95%CI:0. 10-1. 61, P=0. 03;MD= -169. 20, 95%CI:-208. 77-129. 63, P<0. 00001;MD=0. 32, 95%CI:0. 20-0. 43, P<0. 00001). While its influences on all-cause mortality rate showed no statistical difference be-tween the two groups (OR=0. 91, 95%CI:0. 81-1. 02, P=0. 10). Conclusion Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can sig-nificantly improve heart function and vascular inflammatory status in the patients with chronic heart failure, but not reduce the all-cause mortality of patients.%目的:评价ω-3多不饱和脂肪酸治疗慢性心力衰竭( chronic heart failure, CHF)的效果。方法检索1990—2014年中国期刊全文数据库、中国生物医学文献数据库、维普中文科技期刊、万方医学数据库、PubMed、Co-chrane 图书馆及Embase中收录的关于ω-3多不饱和脂肪酸治疗CHF效果的随机对照试验,严格资料提取并评

  18. Retinal pigment epithelial acid lipase activity and lipoprotein receptors: effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acids.

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To show that fish oil-derived omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, delivered to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) by circulating low-density lipoproteins (LDL), enhance already considerable RPE lysosomal acid lipase activity, providing for more efficient hydrolysis of intralysosomal RPE lipids, an effect that may help prevent development of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). METHODS: Colorimetric biochemical and histochemical techniques were used to demonstrate RPE acid lipa...

  19. Omega 3 fatty acids on child growth, visual acuity and neurodevelopment

    OpenAIRE

    Campoy, C.; Escolano-Margarit, MV; Anjos, T.; Szajewska, H.; Uauy, R

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review is to evaluate the effects of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) supplementation in pregnant and lactating women and infants during postnatal life, on the visual acuity, psychomotor development, mental performance and growth of infants and children. Eighteen publications (11 sets of randomized control clinical trial [RCTs]) assessed the effects of the n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy on neurodevelopment and growth, in the same subject...

  20. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: epidemiology and effects on cardiometabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Trevor A

    2014-09-01

    Clinical and epidemiological studies provide support that the polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid from fish and fish oils are cardioprotective, particularly in the setting of secondary prevention. Omega-3 fatty acids benefit multiple cardiometabolic risk factors including lipids, blood pressure, vascular reactivity and cardiac function, as well as having antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative actions. Omega-3 fatty acids do not associate with any adverse effects and do not adversely interact with prescriptive drugs such as lipid-lowering, antihypertensive or hypoglycaemic medications. Clinical studies suggest that doses up to 4 g daily when prescribed with anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs do not associate with increased risk of major bleeding episodes. Omega-3 fatty acids have gained widespread usage by general practitioners and clinicians in clinical settings such as pregnancy and infant development, secondary prevention in coronary heart disease patients and treatment of dyslipidaemias. Health authorities currently recommend an intake of at least two oily fish meals per week for the general population which equates to approximately 500 mg per day of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. In patients with coronary heart disease the guidelines recommend 1 g daily supplements and in hypertriglyceridaemic patients up to 4 g per day. These doses are now achievable with readily available purified encapsulated preparations of omega-3 fatty acids. However, a more practical recommendation for increasing omega-3 fatty acid intake in the general population is to incorporate fish as part of a healthy diet that includes increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, and moderation of salt intake.

  1. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Attenuates Cardiovascular Effects in Healthy Older Volunteers Exposed to Concentrated Ambient Fine and UltrafineParticulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. A recent epidemiology study reported that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (fish oil) supplementation blunted the response of study participants to PM. Our study was des...

  2. Therapeutic Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Chronic Kidney Disease-Associated Pruritus: a Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Yunes; Dashti-Khavidaki, Simin; Farnood, Farahnoosh; Noshad, Hamid; Lotfi, Mahsa; Gharekhani, Afshin

    2016-12-01

    Uremic pruritus remains one of the most tormenting, frequent and potentially disabling problem in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. However, an area of substantial etiological interest with relation to uremic pruritus is the essential fatty acids deficiency. So we performed a literature review to elucidate the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids on uremic pruritus. This review evaluated all of the studies published in English language, focusing on the clinical effects of omega-3 fatty acids on uremic pruritus. The literature review was conducted in December 2015 and carried out by searching Scopus, Medline, Cochrane central register of controlled trials, and Cochrane database of systematic reviews. The search terms were "kidney injury", "kidney failure", "chronic kidney disease", "end-stage renal disease", "dialysis", "hemodialysis", "peritoneal dialysis", "pruritus", "itch", "skin problems", "fish oil", "omega 3", "n-3 fatty acids", "polyunsaturated fatty acids", "docosahexaenoic acid", and "eicosapentaenoic acid". Four small studies investigating potential benefits of omega-3 fatty acids on symptoms of uremic pruritus were found. Among them, three small randomized controlled trials have shown a significant improvement in pruritus symptoms (evaluated by a standard questionnaire) in CKD patients who took omega-3 supplement compared to omega-6, omega-9, and placebo supplementation. Despite numerous limitations of the studies, it is worth noting that even minor reduction in itching symptoms may be clinically significant for CKD patients. Therefore, and considering multiple health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids in advanced CKD and negligible risk profile, omega-3 intake can wisely be applied to CKD patients with uremic pruritus.

  3. Conjugated linoleic acid or omega 3 fatty acids increase mitochondrial biosynthesis and metabolism in skeletal muscle cells

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan Roger A; Garcia-Smith Randi; Bisoffi Marco; Conn Carole A; Trujillo Kristina A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Polyunsaturated fatty acids are popular dietary supplements advertised to contribute to weight loss by increasing fat metabolism in liver, but the effects on overall muscle metabolism are less established. We evaluated the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) or combination omega 3 on metabolic characteristics in muscle cells. Methods Human rhabdomyosarcoma cells were treated with either DMSO control, or CLA or combination omega 3 for 24 or 48 hours. RNA was determine...

  4. Omega-3 fatty acids and depression: scientific evidence and biological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Galvano, Fabio; Marventano, Stefano; Malaguarnera, Michele; Bucolo, Claudio; Drago, Filippo; Caraci, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    The changing of omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the food supply of Western societies occurred over the last 150 years is thought to promote the pathogenesis of many inflammatory-related diseases, including depressive disorders. Several epidemiological studies reported a significant inverse correlation between intake of oily fish and depression or bipolar disorders. Studies conducted specifically on the association between omega-3 intake and depression reported contrasting results, suggesting that the preventive role of omega-3 PUFA may depend also on other factors, such as overall diet quality and the social environment. Accordingly, tertiary prevention with omega-3 PUFA supplement in depressed patients has reached greater effectiveness during the last recent years, although definitive statements on their use in depression therapy cannot be yet freely asserted. Among the biological properties of omega-3 PUFA, their anti-inflammatory effects and their important role on the structural changing of the brain should be taken into account to better understand the possible pathway through which they can be effective both in preventing or treating depression. However, the problem of how to correct the inadequate supply of omega-3 PUFA in the Westernized countries' diet is a priority in order to set food and health policies and also dietary recommendations for individuals and population groups.

  5. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Depression: Scientific Evidence and Biological Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Grosso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The changing of omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in the food supply of Western societies occurred over the last 150 years is thought to promote the pathogenesis of many inflammatory-related diseases, including depressive disorders. Several epidemiological studies reported a significant inverse correlation between intake of oily fish and depression or bipolar disorders. Studies conducted specifically on the association between omega-3 intake and depression reported contrasting results, suggesting that the preventive role of omega-3 PUFA may depend also on other factors, such as overall diet quality and the social environment. Accordingly, tertiary prevention with omega-3 PUFA supplement in depressed patients has reached greater effectiveness during the last recent years, although definitive statements on their use in depression therapy cannot be yet freely asserted. Among the biological properties of omega-3 PUFA, their anti-inflammatory effects and their important role on the structural changing of the brain should be taken into account to better understand the possible pathway through which they can be effective both in preventing or treating depression. However, the problem of how to correct the inadequate supply of omega-3 PUFA in the Westernized countries’ diet is a priority in order to set food and health policies and also dietary recommendations for individuals and population groups.

  6. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip C. Calder

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Long chain fatty acids influence inflammation through a variety of mechanisms; many of these are mediated by, or at least associated with, changes in fatty acid composition of cell membranes. Changes in these compositions can modify membrane fluidity, cell signaling leading to altered gene expression, and the pattern of lipid mediator production. Cell involved in the inflammatory response are typically rich in the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, but the contents of arachidonic acid and of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA can be altered through oral administration of EPA and DHA. Eicosanoids produced from arachidonic acid have roles in inflammation. EPA also gives rise to eicosanoids and these often have differing properties from those of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids. EPA and DHA give rise to newly discovered resolvins which are anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving. Increased membrane content of EPA and DHA (and decreased arachidonic acid content results in a changed pattern of production of eicosanoids and resolvins. Changing the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response also affects production of peptide mediators of inflammation (adhesion molecules, cytokines etc.. Thus, the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response influences their function; the contents of arachidonic acid, EPA and DHA appear to be especially important. The anti-inflammatory effects of marine n-3 PUFAs suggest that they may be useful as therapeutic agents in disorders with an inflammatory component.

  7. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Increase Survival and Decrease Bacterial Load in Mice Subjected to Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svahn, Sara L; Ulleryd, Marcus A; Grahnemo, Louise; Ståhlman, Marcus; Borén, Jan; Nilsson, Staffan; Jansson, John-Olov; Johansson, Maria E

    2016-04-01

    Sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus is increasing in incidence. With the alarming use of antibiotics,S. aureus is prone to become methicillin resistant. Antibiotics are the only widely used pharmacological treatment for sepsis. Interestingly, mice fed high-fat diet (HFD) rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids have better survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis than mice fed HFD rich in saturated fatty acids (HFD-S). To investigate what component of polyunsaturated fatty acids, i.e., omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids, exerts beneficial effects on the survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis, mice were fed HFD rich in omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids for 8 weeks prior to inoculation with S. aureus Further, mice fed HFD-S were treated with omega-3 fatty acid metabolites known as resolvins. Mice fed HFD rich in omega-3 fatty acids had increased survival and decreased bacterial loads compared to those for mice fed HFD-S after S. aureus-induced sepsis. Furthermore, the bacterial load was decreased in resolvin-treated mice fed HFD-S after S. aureus-induced sepsis compared with that in mice treated with vehicle. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids increase the survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis by reversing the deleterious effect of HFD-S on mouse survival.

  8. Omega-3 fatty acids: a novel resort against gastrointestinal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianiro, G; Franceschi, F; Bibbò, S; Gasbarrini, A

    2014-10-01

    The integrity of gastric barrier derives from the balance between defending and damaging factors. In particular, prostaglandins play a relevant role in the maintenance of gastric homeostasis and prevention of peptic disease, at different levels. Omega-3 fatty acids, particularly eicosapentanoic acid, are the precursors of the third series of prostaglandins (with anti-inflammatory properties), also reducing the formation of the second series of prostaglandins (pro-inflammatory ones). Such a pathophysiological rationale brought to the experimental application, both in animal models and, more recently, in humans, of omega-3 fatty acids against gastrointestinal damage. Omega-3 fatty acids have shown interesting results in preventing different types of gastric damage in mouse models. A large retrospective case-control study on patients taking both anti-thrombotic therapy and eicosapentanoic acid showed (although only at unadjusted analysis) an inverse correlation between consumption of eicosapentanoic acid and gastrointestinal injury. Prospective, well-designed, comparative studies are warranted to clarify if omega-3 fatty acids may represent, or not, a novel resort against gastrointestinal injury.

  9. Omega 3 fatty acids increase spontaneous release of cytosolic components from tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenski, L.J.; Sturdevant, L.K.; Ehringer, W.D.; Stillwell, W. (Department of Biology, Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis (United States))

    1991-05-01

    Mice fed menhaden (fish) oil or coconut oil-rich diets were inoculated intraperitoneally with a rapidly growing leukemia, T27A. After one week, the tumor cells were harvested, and 51Cr was used to label intracellular molecules. Spontaneous release of 51Cr was used as a measure of plasma membrane permeability. Compared to cells from mice fed coconut oil (rich in saturated fatty acids), tumor cells from mice fed menhaden oil (rich in long chain polyunsaturated omega 3 fatty acids) showed an increased level of spontaneous 51Cr release, which was exacerbated by increased temperature and reduced by extracellular protein. At physiological salt concentrations, the released 51Cr was detected in particles of approximately 2700 daltons. Enhanced permeability correlated with the incorporation of dietary (fish oil) omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid into the tumor cells. The results demonstrate that omega 3 fatty acids are incorporated into cellular constituents of tumor cells and change properties associated with the plasma membrane. This result suggests that dietary manipulation may be used to enhance tumor cell permeability and contribute to tumor eradication.

  10. Differentiating prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters (P-OM3) from dietary-supplement omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Stephen; Collins, Nancy

    2007-05-01

    A reliable means of treating hyper-triglyceridemia is the use of large doses of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Modest levels of EPA and DHA may be obtained from food, particularly fatty fish. This article is intended to review clinically relevant differences between dietary-supplement omega-3 fatty acids and prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters (P-OM3). PubMed and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Website were searched for articles published between 1995 and 2007 that contained the terms fish oil, fatty acids, n-3 fatty acids, omega fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid, or eicosapentaenoic acid. Articles discussing sources, recommended intake, and differences among various formulations of omega-3 fatty acids were selected for review. A limitation to this review is the lack of head-to-head clinical trials using P-OM3 and dietary-supplement omega-3 fatty acids. Many types of nonprescription dietary supplements of omega-3 fatty acids are available; however, the efficacy, quality, and safety of these products are open to question because they are not regulated by the same standards as pharmaceutical agents. P-OM3 is the only omega-3 fatty acid product (Omacor capsules) approved by the US FDA available in the United States as an adjunct to diet to reduce very high (> or = 500 mg/dL) triglyceride levels in adult patients. P-OM3 can be used with confidence by practitioners who want to provide therapeutic doses of omega-3 fatty acids in a preparation that has been documented to be both safe and effective.

  11. Jumping on the omega-3 bandwagon: distinguishing the role of long-chain and short-chain omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchini, Giovanni M; Nichols, Peter D; Barrow, Colin; Sinclair, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) are almost unanimously recognized for their health benefits, while only limited evidence of any health benefit is currently available specifically for the main precursor of these fatty acids, namely α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3). However, both the n-3 LC-PUFA and the short-chain C₁₈ PUFA (i.e., ALA) are commonly referred to as "omega-3" fatty acids, and it is difficult for consumers to recognize this difference. A current gap of many food labelling legislations worldwide allow products containing only ALA and without n-3 LC-PUFA to be marketed as "omega-3 source" and this misleading information can negatively impact the ability of consumers to choose more healthy diets. Within the context of the documented nutritional and health promoting roles of omega-3 fatty acids, we briefly review the different metabolic fates of dietary ALA and n-3 LC-PUFA. We also review food sources rich in n-3 LC-PUFA, some characteristics of LC-PUFA and current industry and regulatory trends. A further objective is to present a case for regulatory bodies to clearly distinguish food products containing only ALA from foods containing n-3 LC-PUFA. Such information, when available, would then avoid misleading information and empower consumers to make a more informed choice in their food purchasing behavior.

  12. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxia Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation (n-3 PUFAs in lowering liver fat, liver enzyme (alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT levels, and blood lipids (triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein (HDL, and low density lipoprotein (LDL in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. Methods. MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, Science Citation Index (ISI Web of Science, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials on the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs in patients with NAFLD from inception to May 2015. Ten studies were included in this meta-analysis. Results. 577 cases of NAFLD/NASH in ten randomized controlled trials (RCTs were included. The results of the meta-analysis showed that benefit changes in liver fat favored PUFA treatment, and it was also beneficial for GGT, but it was not significant on ALT, AST, TC, and LDL. Conclusions. In this meta-analysis, omega-3 PUFAs improved liver fat, GGT, TG, and HDL in patients with NAFLD/NASH. Therefore, n-3 PUFAs may be a new treatment option for NAFLD.

  13. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and their Role in Central Nervous System - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysoczański, Tomasz; Sokoła-Wysoczańska, Ewa; Pękala, Jolanta; Lochyński, Stanisław; Czyż, Katarzyna; Bodkowski, Robert; Herbinger, Grzegorz; Patkowska-Sokoła, Bożena; Librowski, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are crucial for our health and wellbeing; therefore, they have been widely investigated for their roles in maintaining human health and in disease treatment. Most Western diets include significant amount of saturated and omega-6 fatty acids and insufficient quantity of omega-3; however, the balance between omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA, in particular, is essential for the formation of pro- and anti-inflammatory lipids to promote health and prevent disease. As our daily diet affects our health, this paper draws attention to unique representatives of the omega-3 fatty acid group: alpha-linolenic acid and its derivatives. Recently, this has been shown to be effective in treating and preventing various diseases. It has been confirmed that omega-3 PUFAs may act as therapeutic agents as well and their significant role against inflammatory diseases, such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, has been described. Some of nutritional factors have been described as a significant modifiers, which can influence brain elasticity and thus, effect on central nervous system functioning. Therefore, appropriate dietary management appears to be a non-invasive and effective approach to counteract neurological and cognitive disorders.

  14. Omega 3 fatty acids, gestation and pregnancy outcomes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larqué, Elvira; Gil-Sánchez, Alfonso; Prieto-Sánchez, María Teresa; Koletzko, Berthold

    2012-01-01

    .... Since the synthesis of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in the fetus and placenta is low, both the maternal LCPUFA status and placental function are critical for their supply to the fetus...

  15. Effect of a diet enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on the pig liver transcriptome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szostak, Agnieszka; Ogłuszka, Magdalena; Pas, Te Marinus F.W.; Poławska, Ewa; Urbański, Paweł; Juszczuk Kubiak, Edyta; Blicharski, Tadeusz; Pareek, Chandra Shekhar; Dunkelberger, Jenelle R.; Horbańczuk, Jarosław O.; Pierzchała, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    The optimal ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is important for keeping the homeostasis of biological processes and metabolism, yet the underlying biological mechanism is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to identify changes in the pig liver transcriptom

  16. Pancreatic islet function in omega-3 fatty acid-depleted rats : Alteration of calcium fluxes and calcium-dependent insulin release

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ying; Oguzhan, Berrin; Louchami, Karim; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Portois, Laurence; Carpentier, Yvon; Malaisse, Willy-Jean; Herchuelz, André; Sener, Abdullah

    2006-01-01

    Considering the insufficient supply of long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids often prevailing in Western populations, this report deals mainly with alterations of Ca2+ fluxes and Ca2+-dependent insulin secretory events in isolated pancreatic islets from omega-3-depleted rats. In terms of Ca-45(2+) handling, the islets from omega-3-depleted rats, compared with those from normal animals, displayed an unaltered responsiveness to an increase in extracellular K+ concentration, a lower inf...

  17. Prevention of Sports Injuries by Marine Omega-3 Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryhn, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Sport injuries are common and costly for the professional athlete, the "weekend warrior," and the community. Acute injuries are treated according to current guidelines with the aim of bringing the athlete back into the arena. These guidelines have not taken into account new scientific results of the inflammatory process following a trauma. The 4 hallmarks of inflammation, namely, pain, swelling, redness, and heat, are results of an adequate inflammatory response with the aim of bringing the affected tissue back to restitution (Latin: restitutio ad integrum). Cooling of the affected limb and anti-inflammatory drugs are widely used but may deter healing. The healing process is governed by fatty acids of the omega-3 and omega-6 series. In order to facilitate healing, these fatty acids have to be present in significant amounts in the affected tissues before the trauma occurs. This is particularly relevant for marine omega-3 fatty acids, which are often running low due to insignificant intake of seafood, common in individuals practicing sports. High-energy sports often lead to head and brain trauma. Continuous head traumata may even result in later mental defects. Saturation of brain cells with omega-3 fatty acids, in particular docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may facilitate healing after brain trauma, thereby counteracting negative long-term results. The present understanding of a normal inflammatory process leading to restitution will be discussed along with data from recent scientific trials.

  18. Comparative cardiometabolic effects of fibrates and omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Hwan; Oh, Pyung Chun; Lim, Soo; Eckel, Robert H; Koh, Kwang Kon

    2013-09-10

    Even with the aggressive reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by statin therapy, a high residual risk of cardiovascular events remains substantially and attracts attention to the need for additional preventive therapies. Therefore, effective reductions of residual risk of cardiovascular disease have emerged as therapeutic targets. Fibrates and omega-3 fatty acids have been introduced to reduce triglycerides and to increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and have shown anti-atherosclerotic, vascular and metabolic effects. However, some effects are controversial and very recent randomized clinical trials report different results from the earlier ones. In this review, we address the vascular and metabolic effects and the results of recent clinical trials of fibrates and omega-3 fatty acids. We also compared their effects under modern guideline therapy regarding potential drugs to reduce a residual cardiometabolic risk of cardiovascular disease.

  19. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Could Alleviate the Risks of Traumatic Brain Injury – A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvathy R. Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is an acquired brain trauma that occurs when any sudden trauma/injury causes damage to the brain. TBI is characterized by tissue damage and imbalance in the cerebral blood flow and metabolism. It has been established through laboratory experiments that the dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids (FAs could reduce the oxidative stress developed in brain due to TBI. The inclusion of omega-3 FA in diet could normalize the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and thus, it could restore the survival of neuronal cells. BDNF improves the synaptic transmission by regulating synapsin 1 and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP response element binding protein. The brain tissue analysis of TBI models supplemented with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs showed significantly reduced lipid peroxidation, nucleic acid and protein oxidation, thereby promoting neuronal and glial cell survival. Thus, omega-3 FA intake could be considered as a therapeutic option to reduce the secondary neuronal damages initiated by TBI.

  20. Omega-3 fatty acids: Mechanisms of benefit and therapeutic effects in pediatric and adult NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobili, Valerio; Alisi, Anna; Musso, Giovanni; Scorletti, Eleonora; Calder, Philip C; Byrne, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently considered the most common liver disease in industrialized countries, and it is estimated that it will become the most frequent indication for liver transplantation in the next decade. NAFLD may be associated with moderate (i.e. steatosis) to severe (i.e. steatohepatitis and fibrosis) liver damage and affects all age groups. Furthermore, subjects with NAFLD may be at a greater risk of other obesity-related complications later in life, and people with obesity and obesity-related complications (e.g. metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease) are at increased risk of developing NAFLD. To date, there is no licensed treatment for NAFLD and therapy has been mainly centered on weight loss and increased physical activity. Unfortunately, it is often difficult for patients to adhere to the advised lifestyle changes. Therefore, based on the known pathogenesis of NAFLD, several clinical trials with different nutritional supplementation and prescribed drugs have been undertaken or are currently underway. Experimental evidence has emerged about the health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids, a group of polyunsaturated fatty acids that are important for a number of health-related functions. Omega-3 fatty acids are present in some foods (oils, nuts and seeds) that also contain omega-6 fatty acids, and the best sources of exclusively omega-3 fatty acids are oily fish, krill oil and algae. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the pathogenesis of NAFLD, and we also discuss the molecular and clinical evidence for the benefits of different omega-3 fatty acid preparations in NAFLD.

  1. Omega-3 fatty acids for breast cancer prevention and survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Carol J; Kimler, Bruce F; Hursting, Stephen D

    2015-05-04

    Women with evidence of high intake ratios of the marine omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) relative to the omega-6 arachidonic acid have been found to have a reduced risk of breast cancer compared with those with low ratios in some but not all case-control and cohort studies. If increasing EPA and DHA relative to arachidonic acid is effective in reducing breast cancer risk, likely mechanisms include reduction in proinflammatory lipid derivatives, inhibition of nuclear factor-κB-induced cytokine production, and decreased growth factor receptor signaling as a result of alteration in membrane lipid rafts. Primary prevention trials with either risk biomarkers or cancer incidence as endpoints are underway but final results of these trials are currently unavailable. EPA and DHA supplementation is also being explored in an effort to help prevent or alleviate common problems after a breast cancer diagnosis, including cardiac and cognitive dysfunction and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. The insulin-sensitizing and anabolic properties of EPA and DHA also suggest supplementation studies to determine whether these omega-3 fatty acids might reduce chemotherapy-associated loss of muscle mass and weight gain. We will briefly review relevant omega-3 fatty acid metabolism, and early investigations in breast cancer prevention and survivorship.

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids plus rosuvastatin improves endothelial function in South Asians with dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Mindrescu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Catalin Mindrescu1,2,3, Rakesh P Gupta1,3, Eileen V Hermance1, Mary C DeVoe1, Vikas R Soma1, John T Coppola1,2, Cezar S Staniloae1,21Comprehensive Cardiovascular Center, Saint Vincent’s Hospital Manhattan, New York, NY, USA; 2New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA; 3Rakesh P Gupta and Catalin Mindrescu contributed equally to this article.Background: The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of statins plus omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs on endothelial function and lipid profile in South Asians with dyslipidemia and endothelial dysfunction, a population at high risk for premature coronary artery disease.Methods: Thirty subjects were randomized to rosuvastatin 10 mg and omega-3-PUFAs 4 g or rosuvastatin 10 mg. After 4 weeks, omega-3-PUFAs were removed from the first group and added to subjects in the second group. All subjects underwent baseline, 4-, and 8-week assessment of endothelial function and lipid profile.Results: Compared to baseline, omega-3-PUFAs plus rosuvastatin improved endothelial-dependent vasodilation (EDV: −1.42% to 11.36%, p = 0.001, and endothelial-independent vasodilation (EIV: 3.4% to 17.37%, p = 0.002. These effects were lost when omega-3-PUFAs were removed (EDV: 11.36% to 0.59%, p = 0.003. In the second group, rosuvastatin alone failed to improve both EDV and EIV compared to baseline. However, adding omega-3-PUFAs to rosuvastatin, significantly improved EDV (−0.66% to 14.73%, p = 0.001 and EIV (11.02% to 24.5%, p = 0.001. Addition of omega-3-PUFAs further improved the lipid profile (triglycerides 139 to 91 mg/dl, p = 0.006, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 116 to 88 mg/dl, p = 0.014.Conclusions: Combined therapy with omega-3-PUFAs and rosuvastatin improves endothelial function in South Asian subjects with dyslipidemia and endothelial dysfunction.Keywords: omega-3 fatty acids, endothelial function, South Asians, dyslipidemia, rosuvastatin

  3. Omega-3 fatty acids for depression in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Katherine M; Sallis, Hannah M; Perry, Rachel; Ness, Andrew R; Churchill, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly debilitating, difficult to treat, has a high rate of recurrence, and negatively impacts the individual and society as a whole. One emerging potential treatment for MDD is n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs), also known as omega-3 oils, naturally found in fatty fish, some other seafood, and some nuts and seeds. Various lines of evidence suggest a role for n-3PUFAs in MDD, but the evidence is far from conclusive. Reviews and meta-analyses clearly demonstrate heterogeneity between studies. Investigations of heterogeneity suggest differential effects of n-3PUFAs, depending on severity of depressive symptoms, where no effects of n-3PUFAs are found in studies of individuals with mild depressive symptomology, but possible benefit may be suggested in studies of individuals with more severe depressive symptomology. Objectives To assess the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (also known as omega-3 fatty acids) versus a comparator (e.g. placebo, anti-depressant treatment, standard care, no treatment, wait-list control) for major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review Group’s Specialised Registers (CCDANCTR) and International Trial Registries over all years to May 2015. We searched the database CINAHL over all years of records to September 2013. Selection criteria We included studies in the review if they: were a randomised controlled trial; provided n-3PUFAs as an intervention; used a comparator; measured depressive symptomology as an outcome; and were conducted in adults with MDD. Primary outcomes were depressive symptomology (continuous data collected using a validated rating scale) and adverse events. Secondary outcomes were depressive symptomology (dichotomous data on remission and response), quality of life, and failure to complete studies. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures as expected by

  4. Omega 3 fatty acids supplementation has an ameliorative effect in experimental ulcerative colitis despite increased colonic neutrophil infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnalidis, Ioannis; Ioannidis, Orestis; Karamanavi, Elisavet; Ampas, Zafeiris; Poutahidis, Theofilos; Taitzoglou, Ioannis; Paraskevas, George; Botsios, Dimitrios

    2011-10-01

    omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties and can be beneficial in the treatment of inflammatory diseases, such as ulcerative colitis. Dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) colitis in rats appears to mimic nearly all of the morphological characteristics and lesion distributions of ulcerative colitis. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the efficacy of omega 3 fatty acids in the treatment of experimental ulcerative colitis. thirty-six Wistar rats were randomly assigned to group A or group B receiving 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in their drinking water for eight days. For the next eight days post-DSS, group A animals received tap-water, and group B animals were fed a nutritional solution containing high levels of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ProSure®, Abbott Laboratories, Zwolle, Netherlands) once per day, administrated with a orogastric feeding tube. animals fed an omega 3 rich diet exhibited a statistically significant increase in hematocrit and hemoglobin levels, compared to animals drinking tap water, and a trend towards histopathological and clinical improvement, with the administration of omega 3 fatty acids ameliorating epithelial erosion by day 8 post-DSS, but no statistically significant difference was observed between group A and group B animals at 4 or 8 days post-DSS. Also, a statistically significant increase in neutrophil infiltration was observed, as depicted by myelohyperoxidase activity. our findings support a positive role of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation in an experimental model of ulcerative colitis despite the increased colonic neutrophil infiltration. Further studies are needed in order to investigate the role of increased neutrophils in colonic mucosa.

  5. Fatty acid composition in major depression: decreased omega 3 fractions in cholesteryl esters and increased C20: 4 omega 6/C20:5 omega 3 ratio in cholesteryl esters and phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, M; Smith, R; Christophe, A; Cosyns, P; Desnyder, R; Meltzer, H

    1996-04-26

    Recently, there were some reports that major depression may be accompanied by alterations in serum total cholesterol, cholesterol ester and omega 3 essential fatty acid levels and by an increased C20: 4 omega 6/C20: 5 omega 3, i.e., arachidonic acid/eicosapentaenoic, ratio. The present study aimed to examine fatty acid composition of serum cholesteryl esters and phospholipids in 36 major depressed, 14 minor depressed and 24 normal subjects. Individual saturated (e.g., C14:0; C16:0, C18:0) and unsaturated (e.g., C18:1, C18:2, C20:4) fatty acids in phospholipid and cholesteryl ester fractions were assayed and the sums of the percentages of omega 6 and omega 3, saturated, branched chain and odd chain fatty acids, monoenes as well as the ratios omega 6/omega 3 and C20:4 omega 6/C20:5 omega 3 were calculated. Major depressed subjects had significantly higher C20:4 omega 6/C20:5 omega 3 ratio in both serum cholesteryl esters and phospholipids and a significantly increased omega 6/omega 3 ratio in cholesteryl ester fraction than healthy volunteers and minor depressed subjects. Major depressed subjects had significantly lower C18:3 omega 3 in cholesteryl esters than normal controls. Major depressed subjects showed significantly lower total omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in cholesteryl esters and significantly lower C20:5 omega 3 in serum cholesteryl esters and phospholipids than minor depressed subjects and healthy controls. These findings suggest an abnormal intake or metabolism of essential fatty acids in conjunction with decreased formation of cholesteryl esters in major depression.

  6. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Modern Parenteral Nutrition: A Review of the Current Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Klek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous lipid emulsions are an essential component of parenteral nutrition regimens. Originally employed as an efficient non-glucose energy source to reduce the adverse effects of high glucose intake and provide essential fatty acids, lipid emulsions have assumed a larger therapeutic role due to research demonstrating the effects of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA on key metabolic functions, including inflammatory and immune response, coagulation, and cell signaling. Indeed, emerging evidence suggests that the effects of omega-3 PUFA on inflammation and immune response result in meaningful therapeutic benefits in surgical, cancer, and critically ill patients as well as patients requiring long-term parenteral nutrition. The present review provides an overview of the mechanisms of action through which omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA modulate the immune-inflammatory response and summarizes the current body of evidence regarding the clinical and pharmacoeconomic benefits of intravenous n-3 fatty acid-containing lipid emulsions in patients requiring parenteral nutrition.

  7. Fishy business: effect of omega-3 fatty acids on zinc transporters and free zinc availability in human neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mel, Damitha; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2014-08-15

    Omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids are one of the two main families of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The main omega-3 fatty acids in the mammalian body are α-linolenic acid (ALA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Central nervous tissues of vertebrates are characterized by a high concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. Moreover, in the human brain, DHA is considered as the main structural omega-3 fatty acid, which comprises about 40% of the PUFAs in total. DHA deficiency may be the cause of many disorders such as depression, inability to concentrate, excessive mood swings, anxiety, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, dry skin and so on. On the other hand, zinc is the most abundant trace metal in the human brain. There are many scientific studies linking zinc, especially excess amounts of free zinc, to cellular death. Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, are characterized by altered zinc metabolism. Both animal model studies and human cell culture studies have shown a possible link between omega-3 fatty acids, zinc transporter levels and free zinc availability at cellular levels. Many other studies have also suggested a possible omega-3 and zinc effect on neurodegeneration and cellular death. Therefore, in this review, we will examine the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on zinc transporters and the importance of free zinc for human neuronal cells. Moreover, we will evaluate the collective understanding of mechanism(s) for the interaction of these elements in neuronal research and their significance for the diagnosis and treatment of neurodegeneration.

  8. Fishy Business: Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Zinc Transporters and Free Zinc Availability in Human Neuronal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damitha De Mel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 (ω-3 fatty acids are one of the two main families of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. The main omega-3 fatty acids in the mammalian body are α-linolenic acid (ALA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA. Central nervous tissues of vertebrates are characterized by a high concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. Moreover, in the human brain, DHA is considered as the main structural omega-3 fatty acid, which comprises about 40% of the PUFAs in total. DHA deficiency may be the cause of many disorders such as depression, inability to concentrate, excessive mood swings, anxiety, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, dry skin and so on. On the other hand, zinc is the most abundant trace metal in the human brain. There are many scientific studies linking zinc, especially excess amounts of free zinc, to cellular death. Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, are characterized by altered zinc metabolism. Both animal model studies and human cell culture studies have shown a possible link between omega-3 fatty acids, zinc transporter levels and free zinc availability at cellular levels. Many other studies have also suggested a possible omega-3 and zinc effect on neurodegeneration and cellular death. Therefore, in this review, we will examine the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on zinc transporters and the importance of free zinc for human neuronal cells. Moreover, we will evaluate the collective understanding of mechanism(s for the interaction of these elements in neuronal research and their significance for the diagnosis and treatment of neurodegeneration.

  9. Effect of a diet enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on the pig liver transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Agnieszka; Ogłuszka, Magdalena; Te Pas, Marinus F W; Poławska, Ewa; Urbański, Paweł; Juszczuk-Kubiak, Edyta; Blicharski, Tadeusz; Pareek, Chandra Shekhar; Dunkelberger, Jenelle R; Horbańczuk, Jarosław O; Pierzchała, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    The optimal ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is important for keeping the homeostasis of biological processes and metabolism, yet the underlying biological mechanism is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to identify changes in the pig liver transcriptome induced by a diet enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids and to characterize the biological mechanisms related to PUFA metabolism. Polish Landrace pigs (n = 12) were fed diet enriched with linoleic acid (LA, omega-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, omega-3) or standard diet as a control. The fatty acid profiling was assayed in order to verify how feeding influenced the fatty acid content in the liver, and subsequently next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEG) between transcriptomes between dietary groups. The biological mechanisms and pathway interaction networks were identified using DAVID and Cytoscape tools. Fatty acid profile analysis indicated a higher contribution of PUFAs in the liver for LA- and ALA-enriched diet group, particularly for the omega-3 fatty acid family, but not omega-6. Next-generation sequencing identified 3565 DEG, 1484 of which were induced and 2081 were suppressed by PUFA supplementation. A low ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids resulted in the modulation of fatty acid metabolism pathways and over-representation of genes involved in energy metabolism, signal transduction, and immune response pathways. In conclusion, a diet enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids altered the transcriptomic profile of the pig liver and would influence animal health status.

  10. Functions of omega-3 fatty acids and FFA4 (GPR120) in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Dong-Soon

    2016-08-15

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), which are plentiful in fish oil, have been known for decades to be beneficial functional nutrients in different disease states. GPR120 is a G protein-coupled receptor for long-chain unsaturated fatty acids, including n-3 PUFAs, and was recently renamed free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4). Studies on FFA4-deficient mice and the development of specific pharmacological tools have started to unravel the functions of FFA4 associated with the actions of n-3 PUFAs in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and inflammation-related diseases. Here, the state of the art regarding the roles and functions of FFA4 and n-3 PUFA in macrophages are reviewed from the pharmacological perspective. In particular, the functions of n-3 PUFA on the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotypes of macrophages in different organs, such as, adipose tissues and liver, are discussed along with future research directions.

  11. Omega-3 fatty acids as adjunctive therapy in Crohns disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Angie

    2006-01-01

    Crohns disease is an inflammatory bowel disease that can have a significant impact on the health of those afflicted. The etiology of the disease is unknown, but genetic, environmental, dietary, and immunological factors are thought to be involved. Multiple nutrients can become depleted during active disease due to inadequate intake or malabsorption. Preventing these deficiencies is paramount in the care of those suffering from Crohns disease. Often the traditional treatments (medications) have limited effectiveness and negative side effects that inhibit their use. Enteral nutrition has promising therapeutic benefits, but its use is often limited to the pediatric population due to poor patient acceptability. Omega-3 fatty acids have been investigated for their anti-inflammatory properties as an alternative to traditional care. This article reviews the etiology of Crohns disease, nutritional deficiencies, traditional treatments, and the use of omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention of Crohns recurrence. The results from clinical trials have been conflicting, but a new fish oil preparation that limits the side effects of traditional fish oil therapy shows promise as an adjunctive treatment for Crohns disease. Continued research is needed to validate these findings.

  12. Omega-3 free fatty acids for the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastelein, John J P; Maki, Kevin C; Susekov, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids in free fatty acid form have enhanced bioavailability, and plasma levels are less influenced by food than for ethyl ester forms.......Omega-3 fatty acids in free fatty acid form have enhanced bioavailability, and plasma levels are less influenced by food than for ethyl ester forms....

  13. Docosahexaenoic acid, an omega-3 polyunsaturated acid protects against indomethacin-induced gastric injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Peña, Elizabeth Arlen; Jiménez-Andrade, Juan Miguel; Castañeda-Hernández, Gilberto; Chávez-Piña, Aracely Evangelina

    2012-12-15

    Previous studies have shown gastroprotective effect of fish oil in several experimental models. However, the mechanisms and active compounds underlying this effect are not fully understood. Fish oil has several components; among them, one of the most studied is docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is an omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid. The aim of this study was to examine the gastroprotective effect of DHA as a pure compound in a rat model of indomethacin-induced gastric injury as well as elucidate some of the mechanism(s) behind DHA's gastroprotective effect. Indomethacin was orally administered to induce an acute gastric injury (3, 10 and 30mg/kg). Omeprazol (a proton pump inhibitor, 30mg/kg, p.o.) and DHA (3, 10, 30mg/kg, p.o.) were gavaged 30 and 120min, respectively, before indomethacin insult (30mg/kg p.o.). Three hours after indomethacin administration, rats were sacrificed, gastric injury was evaluated by determining the total damaged area. A sample of gastric tissue was harvested and processed to quantify prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Indomethacin produced gastric injury in dose-dependent manner. DHA protected against indomethacin-induced gastric damage, and this effect was comparable with omeprazol's gastroprotective effect. DHA did not reverse the indomethacin-induced reduction of PGE(2) gastric levels. In contrast, DHA partially prevented the indomethacin-induced increase in LTB(4) gastric levels. This is the first report demonstrating DHA's gastroprotective effect as a pure compound. Furthermore, the results reveal that the gastroprotective effect is mediated by a decrease in gastric LTB(4) levels in indomethacin-induced gastric damage.

  14. Retina and Omega-3

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Querques; Raimondo Forte; Souied, Eric H.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, several epidemiological studies based on food frequency questionnaires suggest that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids could have a protective role in reducing the onset and progression of retinal diseases. The retina has a high concentration of omega-3, particularly DHA, which optimizes fluidity of photoreceptor membranes, retinal integrity, and visual function. Furthermore, many studies demonstrated that DHA has a protective, for example antiapoptotic, role in the ret...

  15. Towards sustainable sources for omega-3 fatty acids production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adarme-Vega, T Catalina; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Schenk, Peer M

    2014-04-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docohexaenoic acid (DHA), provide significant health benefits for brain function/development and cardiovascular conditions. However, most EPA and DHA for human consumption is sourced from small fatty fish caught in coastal waters and, with depleting global fish stocks, recent research has been directed towards more sustainable sources. These include aquaculture with plant-based feeds, krill, marine microalgae, microalgae-like protists and genetically-modified plants. To meet the increasing demand for EPA and DHA, further developments are needed towards land-based sources. In particular large-scale cultivation of microalgae and plants is likely to become a reality with expected reductions in production costs, yield increasese and the adequate addressing of genetically modified food acceptance issues.

  16. Relation between Omega 3 Fatty Acid, Iron, Zinc and Treatment of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shalileh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In some studies, it is suggested that a number of dietary factors including essential fatty acid, iron and zinc deficiency, may be linked to attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD. However, the exact mechanism of this relationship is yet unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between omega-3 fatty acids, zinc, and iron in etiopathology and management of ADHD. For the purpose of this study, Science Direct, PubMed, and Medline databases were explored and thirty-four relevant articles in english language were collected. Eighteen out of twenty-two studies confirmed the relationship between omega-3 fatty acid and ADHD. In addition, the role of insufficient store of iron in developing ADHD symptoms and the positive effect of iron supplement in improvement of ADHD behavioral symptoms have been shown. Also, plasma zinc concentration in children with ADHD was lower than the normal population, and the effect of zinc supplement on reducing on attentive-deficit symptoms was contradictory. Although polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and iron supplements are not suggested as main treatment for ADHD, but if future studies confirm the positive results of that, use of these supplements as complementary treatment will affect ADHD symptoms. Considering the little amount of studies on zinc, more research is necessary.

  17. omega-3多不饱和脂肪酸对人肺腺癌细胞H460及H1975细胞周期及细胞凋亡的影响%Effect of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Cell Cycle and Apoptosis of Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells Line H1975 and H460

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾斯逊; 李昌林; 丁振宇; 王椿

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of the omega-3 PUFAs on cell cycle and apoptosis of human lung ade-nocarcinoma cells Line H1975 and H460. Methods:CCK-8 method was used to detect the effect of omega-3 PUFAs on the cell activities of human lung adenocarcinoma cells line H1975 and H460, flow cytometry was used to detect the effect of o-mega-3 PUFAs on the cell apoptosis and cell cycle of human lung adenocarcinoma cells Line H1975 and H460. Western blot method was used to detect the expression of survivin protein in cells line H1975 and H460. Results:Omega-3 PUFAs inhibited the growth of tumor cells and promote cell apoptosis of human lung adenocarcinoma cells line H460 and H1975 ( P<0. 05), However, the cell cycles were not significantly changed by Omega-3 PUFAs . The expression of survivin de-creased after treated with omega-3 PUFAs. Conclusion:Omega-3 PUFAs can inhibit cell activity and promote apoptosis of lung adenocarcinoma cells line H1975 and H460.%目的::探讨omega-3多不饱和脂肪酸(omega-3PUFAs)对人肺腺癌细胞H460及H1975细胞周期及细胞凋亡的影响。方法:采用CCK-8法检测omega-3PUFAs对人肺腺癌细胞H1975及H460细胞活性的影响,采用流式细胞仪检测omega-3PUFAs对H1975及H460细胞凋亡及细胞周期的影响,采用Western-blot法检测survivin蛋白在H460及H1975肿瘤细胞中的表达。结果:omega-3PUFAs可抑制人肺腺癌细胞H460及H1975肿瘤细胞的生长及诱导细胞凋亡(P<0.05),而omega-3PUFAs对人肺腺癌细胞H1975及H460的细胞周期无明显影响。 omega-3PUFAs处理肿瘤细胞后,survivin表达减弱。结论:omega-3PUFAs可抑制人肺腺癌细胞的细胞活性及诱导肿瘤细胞凋亡。

  18. Omega-3 Fatty Acids EPA and DHA: Health Benefits Throughout Life12

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, Danielle; Block, Robert; Mousa, Shaker A

    2012-01-01

    Omega-3 [(n-3)] fatty acids have been linked to healthy aging throughout life. Recently, fish-derived omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA have been associated with fetal development, cardiovascular function, and Alzheimer’s disease. However, because our bodies do not efficiently produce some omega-3 fatty acids from marine sources, it is necessary to obtain adequate amounts through fish and fish-oil products. Studies have shown that EPA and DHA are important for proper fetal development, includin...

  19. OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS AND AGE-RELATED DISEASES: REALITIES AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Drapkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiology is so high that in many countries omega-3 fatty acids are included into the treatment protocols for patients with cardiovascular diseases. This therapeutic class slows down oxidative stress and chronic inflammation processes, thereby providing a significant contribution to the complex treatment of hypertension. Besides, omega-3 fatty acids slow down the aging process and prevent the development of age-related diseases affecting the rate of telomere shortening.

  20. Potential Production of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Abyor Handayani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, public awareness of healthcare importance increase. Polyunsaturated fatty acid is an essential nutrition for us, such arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. The need of Polyunsaturated fatty acid generally derived from fish oil, but fish oil has a high risk chemical contamination. Microalgae are single cell microorganism, one of Phaeodactylum tricornutum which have relatively high content of eicosapentaenoic acid (29,8%. Biotechnology market of Polyunsaturated fatty acid is very promising for both foods and feeds, because the availability of abundant raw materials and suitable to develop in the tropics. This literature review discusses about the content of Polyunsaturated fatty acid in microalgae, omega-3, omega-6, Polyunsaturated fatty acid production processes, and applications in public health

  1. Inflammation and wound healing in cats with chronic gingivitis/stomatitis after extraction of all premolars and molars were not affected by feeding of two diets with different omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J; Booij-Vrieling, H E; van de Lest, C H A; Penning, L C; Tryfonidou, M A; Riemers, F M; Hazewinkel, H A W

    2012-08-01

    Feline chronic gingivitis/stomatitis (FCGS) is a painful inflammatory disease in cats. Extraction of teeth, including all premolars and molars, has been shown to be the therapy of choice in cats not responding sufficiently to home care (e.g. tooth brushing) and/or medical treatment (corticosteroids and/or antibiotics). In this study, we hypothesize that a cat food with an omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω6 PUFA) to ω3 PUFA ratio of 10:1 reduces inflammation of the FCGS and accelerates soft tissue wound healing of the gingiva after dental extractions, compared to a cat food with a ω6:ω3 PUFA ratio of 40:1. The cats were fed diets with chicken fat and fish oil as sources of fatty acids. In one diet, part of the fish oil was replaced by safflower oil, resulting in two diets with ω6:ω3 PUFA ratios of 10:1 and 40:1. This double-blinded study in two groups of seven cats revealed that dietary fatty acids influence the composition of plasma cholesteryl esters and plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines. The diet with the 10:1 ratio lowered PGD(2) , PGE(2) and LTB(4) plasma levels significantly, compared to the diet with the 40:1 ratio (p = 0.05, p = 0.04, and p = 0.02 respectively). However, feeding diets with dietary ω6:ω3 PUFA ratios of 10:1 and 40:1, given to cats with FCGS for 4 weeks after extraction of all premolars and molars, did not alter the degree of inflammation or wound healing.

  2. The Impact of the 6:3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Ratio on Intermediate Markers of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    omega -6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids ( PUFAs ) promote breast cancer whereas omega -3 (n- 3) PUFAs inhibit breast cancer...11 4 1 Introduction Experimental evidence suggests that omega -6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acid ( PUFA ) intake promotes breast cancer growth (1...pitt.edu 15 ABSTRACT Elevated intake of omega -6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids ( PUFAs ) may promote breast cancer, whereas

  3. Handmade cloned transgenic sheep rich in omega-3 Fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Liu, Peng; Dou, Hongwei; Chen, Lei; Chen, Longxin; Lin, Lin; Tan, Pingping; Vajta, Gabor; Gao, Jianfeng; Du, Yutao; Ma, Runlin Z

    2013-01-01

    Technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been adapted worldwide to generate transgenic animals, although the traditional procedure relies largely on instrumental micromanipulation. In this study, we used the modified handmade cloning (HMC) established in cattle and pig to produce transgenic sheep with elevated levels of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids. Codon-optimized nematode mfat-1 was inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector and was transferred into the genome of primary ovine fibroblast cells from a male Chinese merino sheep. Reverse transcriptase PCR, gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select nuclear donor cells capable of converting omega-6 (n-6) into n-3 fatty acids. Blastocysts developed after 7 days of in vitro culture were surgically transplanted into the uterus of female ovine recipients of a local sheep breed in Xinjiang. For the HMC, approximately 8.9% (n  =925) of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Four recipients became pregnant after 53 blastocysts were transplanted into 29 naturally cycling females, and a total of 3 live transgenic lambs were produced. Detailed analyses on one of the transgenic lambs revealed a single integration of the modified nematode mfat-1 gene at sheep chromosome 5. The transgenic sheep expressed functional n-3 fatty acid desaturase, accompanied by more than 2-folds reduction of n-6/n-3 ratio in the muscle (psheep produced by the HMC. Compared to the traditional SCNT method, HMC showed an equivalent efficiency but proved cheaper and easier in operation.

  4. Cost and effectiveness of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in Chinese ICU patients receiving parenteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu GH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Guo Hao Wu,1 Jian Gao,2 Chun Yan Ji,2 Lorenzo Pradelli,3 Qiu Lei Xi,1 Qiu Lin Zhuang1 1Department of General Surgery, 2Department of Nutrition, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 3AdRes Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Piazza Carlo Emanuele II, Torino, Italy Background and objectives: Clinical evidence supports the use of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA-enriched lipid emulsions in place of standard lipid emulsions in parenteral nutrition (PN for intensive care unit (ICU patients, but uptake may be limited by higher costs. We compared clinical and economic outcomes for these two types of lipid emulsion in the Chinese ICU setting. Methods: We developed a pharmacoeconomic discrete event simulation model, based on efficacy data from an international meta-analysis and patient characteristics, resource consumption, and unit costs from a Chinese institutional setting. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were undertaken to assess the effects of uncertainty around input parameters. Model predictive validity was assessed by comparing results with data observed in a patient subset not used in the modeling. Results: The model predicted that omega-3 PUFA-enriched emulsion (Omegaven® 10% fish oil emulsion would dominate standard lipid emulsions, with better clinical outcomes and lower overall health care costs (mean savings ~10,000 RMB, mainly as a result of faster recovery and shorter hospital stay (by ~6.5 days. The external validation process confirmed the reliability of the model predictions. Conclusion: Omega-3 PUFA-enriched lipid emulsions improved clinical outcome and decreased overall costs in Chinese ICU patients requiring PN. Keywords: omega-3 PUFA-enriched lipids, ICU patients, total costs, microsimulation, external validation, length of hospital stay

  5. Vitamin E supplementation modulates the biological effects of omega-3 fatty acids in naturally aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanankutty, Arunaksharan; Kottekkat, Anagha; Mathew, Shaji E; Illam, Soorya P; Suseela, Indu M; Raghavamenon, Achuthan C

    2017-03-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids are well-known class of nutraceuticals with established health benefits. Recently, the oxidation products of these fatty acids are gaining attention, as they are likely to disturb body redox balance. Therefore, the efficacy of omega-3 fats under conditions of diminished antioxidant status, such as aging, is always a concern. Present study assessed the effects of omega-3 fats (DHA and EPA) together with or without vitamin-E in naturally aged rats. It was found that in omega-3 fats alone consumed rats the lipid profile was improved, while in omega-3 fat with vitamin-E-consumed group (OMVE), the hepato protective and antioxidant properties were pronounced, especially the redox status of brain tissue. It is possible that vitamin-E might have reduced the peroxidation of omega-3 fats, thereby allowing their synergistic effects. Hence, the use of vitamin-E along with omega-3 fat may be beneficial under aged conditions.

  6. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids through the Lifespan: Implication for Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusceddu, Matteo M; Kelly, Philip; Stanton, Catherine; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G

    2016-12-01

    The impact of lifetime dietary habits and their role in physical, mental, and social well-being has been the focus of considerable recent research. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as a dietary constituent have been under the spotlight for decades. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids constitute key regulating factors of neurotransmission, neurogenesis, and neuroinflammation and are thereby fundamental for development, functioning, and aging of the CNS. Of note is the fact that these processes are altered in various psychiatric disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, and Alzheimer's disease. Relevant literature was identified through a search of MEDLINE via PubMed using the following words, "n-3 PUFAs," "EPA," and "DHA" in combination with "stress," "cognition," "ADHD," "anxiety," "depression," "bipolar disorder," "schizophrenia," and "Alzheimer." The principal focus was on the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids throughout the lifespan and their implication for psychopathologies. Recommendations for future investigation on the potential clinical value of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were examined. The inconsistent and inconclusive results from randomized clinical trials limits the usage of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in clinical practice. However, a body of literature demonstrates an inverse correlation between omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels and quality of life/ psychiatric diseases. Specifically, older healthy adults showing low habitual intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids benefit most from consuming them, showing improved age-related cognitive decline. Although further studies are required, there is an exciting and growing body of research suggesting that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may have a potential clinical value in the prevention and treatment of psychopathologies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  7. Oral omega-3 fatty acids promote resolution in chemical peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Alexander C; Phillips, Brett E; Chacon, Miranda A; Brunke-Reese, Deborah; Kelleher, Shannon L; Soybel, David I

    2016-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that purified omega-3 fatty acids may attenuate acute inflammation and hasten the transition to healing. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that pretreatment with omega-3-rich fish oil (FO) would promote resolution of peritoneal inflammation through production of specific lipid mediators. C57/BL6 mice were given a daily 200-μL oral gavage of saline (CTL) or FO (1.0-1.5 g/kg/d docosahexaenoic acid and 1.3-2.0 g/kg/d eicosapentaenoic acid) for 7 d before chemical peritonitis was induced with thioglycollate. Peritoneal lavage fluid was collected before induction and at days 2 and 4 after peritonitis onset. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), Leukotriene B4 (LTB4), Resolvin D1 (RvD1), and the composition of immune cell populations were examined in peritoneal lavage exudates. Cells harvested from the peritoneum were assessed for macrophage differentiation markers, phagocytosis, and lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine secretion profiles (interleukin [IL]-6, IL-10, IL-1β, TNFα). The ratio of RvD1 to pro-inflammatory PGE2 and LTB4 was increased in the peritoneal cavity of FO-supplemented animals. FO induced a decrease in the number of monocytes in the lavage fluid, with no change in the number of macrophages, neutrophils, or lymphocytes. Macrophage phagocytosis and M1/M2 messenger RNA markers were unchanged by FO with the exception of decreased PPARγ expression. FO increased ex vivo TNFα secretion after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. Our findings provide evidence that nutraceutically relevant doses of FO supplements given before and during chemical peritonitis shift the balance of lipid mediators towards a proresolution, anti-inflammatory state without drastically altering the number or phenotype of local innate immune cell populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Content in Various Tissues of Different Persian Gulf Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Zibaee Nezhad

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fatty acids of omega-3 family have high nutritional value and can prevent coronary heart disease.These fatty acids are found in various fish and sea foods. To investigate the level of omega-3 fatty acids indifferent kind of fish head, muscle and liver from 30 species of fish collected from Persian Gulf.Material and Methods: In this experimental study, the fish were collected by hunting from Boushehr and Hormozgansea ports. Their head, muscle and liver fatty acids were determined on their methylated fatty acids dissolvedin N-hexin. Quantitative analysis of fatty acids was performed by gas chromatography (GC with methylmyristateused as the reference material in this analysis and the qualitative analysis of fatty acids was done bygas chromatography and mass spectrometer (GC- mass and cod liver oil which contained all of omega-3 fattyacids used as standard.Results: Our study showed that some fish were good sources of omega-3 fatty acids and Trout (Ghezel-ALA,Bartail flathead (Zaminkan-e-domnavari, Malabar blood snapper (Sorkhoo malabari had maximum levels ofomega-3 in all body tissues. Other types of fish were rich in omega 3 fatty acids in separate organs, such as liverin Bartail flathead (Zaminkan-e-domnavari, head in Sillago Sihama (Shoort and muscle in Trout (Ghezel-ALA. In contrast, lesser amount of omega 3 fatty acids is found in tissues of other species of fish such as Silverpomfret (Halva sefid, Longfin trevally (Gish-e-derazbale and Xiphophorus Hellerii (Dom-shamshiri.Conclusion: This research showed that the liver of fish had the highest level of omega-3 fatty acids and fish musclecontained more omega-3 fatty acids than the head. Thus for having maximum levels of omega-3 fatty acids inthe diet, all fish tissues can be served. As liver and head of fish are not usually consumed, it is recommended thatsuch organs be used for preparation of omega 3-containing cardio supportive supplements.

  9. Proporções entre ácidos graxos poliinsaturados em ovos comerciais convencionais e enriquecidos com ômega-3 Proportions between polyunsaturated fatty acids in conventional commercial and enriched eggs with omega-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaiz Marinho Magalhães Cedro

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi realizado para comparar as proporções entre ácidos graxos (AG em gemas de ovos comerciais convencionais e enriquecidos com ômega-3 (ω-3. No grupo 1, foram alimentadas 432 aves durante toda vida produtiva com ração à base de milho e farelo de soja (produção de ovos convencionais e, no grupo 2, a partir da 22a semana de idade, as aves foram alimentadas com ração contendo 1,5% de substrato de algas marinhas e 1,8% de óleo de peixe (produção de ovos enriquecidos com ω-3. Coletaram-se aleatoriamente 180 ovos de cada grupo de poedeira e estes distribuídos em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, considerando um ovo como uma repetição. As relações entre ácidos graxos insaturados/saturados, poliinsaturados das séries ω-6/ ω-3, linoléico/alfa-linolênico, araquidônico/docosahexanóico dos ovos enriquecidos com ω-3 foram inferiores a dos ovos convencionais. As proporções entre AG estudadas dos ovos enriquecidos com ω-3 foram inferiores a dos ovos convencionais, ficando, portanto, dentro do limiar ideal estimado para o consumo de gordura por humanos.An experiment was carried out to compare the proportions of fatty acids in conventional and enriched ω-3 commercial yolk eggs. In group 1, 432 birds were fed throughout productive life with basal diet of corn and soybean meal (production of conventional eggs and in group 2, the others hens, from the 22nd week-old, was added to the basic diet, 1.5% of substrate of marine algae and 1.8% of fish oil (production of designer ω-3 eggs. There were randomly collected 180 eggs from each group of hens and those distributed in complete randomized blocks design, considering one egg as a replicate. The proportions between unsaturated/saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated ω-6/ ω-3 series, linoleic/alpha-linolenic acid, arachidonic/docosahexaenoic eggs enriched with ω-3 were lower than conventional eggs. The interrelationships between fatty acid studied of the ω-3 enriched

  10. The Current Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Management of Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios A. Christou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main dietary source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA is fish, which contains eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. In the present manuscript, we aimed to review the current evidence regarding the clinical role of n-3 PUFA in the prevention of atrial fibrillation (AF and the possible underlying mechanisms. Methods: A literature search based on PubMed listings was performed using “Omega-3 fatty acids” and “atrial fibrilation” as key search terms. Results: n-3 PUFA have been shown to attenuate structural atrial remodeling, prolong atrial effective refractory period through the prevention of reentry and suppress ectopic firing from pulmonary veins. Dietary fish intake has been found to have no effect on the incidence of AF in the majority of studies. Circulating DHA has been consistently reported to be inversely associated with AF risk, whereas EPA has no such effect. The majority of studies investigating the impact of n-3 PUFA supplementation on the incidence of AF following cardiac surgery reported no benefit, though most of them did not use n-3 PUFA pretreatment for adequate duration. Studies using adequate four-week pretreatment with n-3 PUFA before cardioversion of AF showed a reduction of the AF incidence. Conclusions: Although n-3 PUFA have antiarrhythmogenic properties, their clinical efficacy on the prevention of AF is not consistently supported. Further well-designed studies are needed to overcome the limitations of the existing studies and provide robust conclusions.

  11. α-linolenic omega-3 fatty acid for stroke protection: from brain preconditioning paradigm to nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blondeau Nicolas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is the third leading cause of death, due to its high incidence, the severity of the insult, and lack of treatment options. The only therapeutic is restoration of cerebral blood flow achieved by recombinant tissue plasminogen activator treatment, but only approximately 5% of patients receive it. In addition, therapeutics aimed at achieving neuroprotection by blocking the ischemic cascade, as identified in numerous preclinical studies, failed in clinical trials. This failure in translation from experimental models to clinical trials led to a re-evaluation of properties which would constitute the ‘‘best-in class’’ therapeutics to be used against stroke. Given that neuroprotection appears ineffective per se, an emerging direction is to identify therapies, probably combinatorial in nature, which protect the whole neurovascular unit and target timedependent neurotoxic mechanisms. Molecules that activate complex cellular signaling cascades that render the brain resistant to subsequent ischemia, known as preconditioners, offer a novel perspective in stroke protection. Preconditioning elicits complex endogenous neuroprotective responses that act by pleiotropic mechanisms to block death pathways, promote survival pathways and increase resistance. In addition to chemical preconditioners, natural/endogenous compounds such as adenosine, glutamate, lysophospholipids, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been demonstrated to be excellent preconditioners. Consequently, a major new concept in preconditioning to combat stroke is introduced, which is preconditioning achieved through supplementation of an essential item in diet or as a nutraceutical. Several epidemiologic studies suggested a beneficial effect of a seafood/omega-3-enriched diet in cerebral diseases, but the omega-3-induced protective mechanisms are still poorly identified. This review highlights how α-linolenic acid (ALA, the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid precursor

  12. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease: A Case for Omega-3 Index as a New Risk Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, William S.

    2007-01-01

    The omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) found in fish and fish oils (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, EPA and DHA) have been reported to have a variety of beneficial effects in cardiovascular diseases. Ecological and prospective cohort studies as well as randomized, controlled trials have supported the view that the effects of these FAs are clinically-relevant. They operate via several mechanisms, all beginning with the incorporation of EPA and DHA into cell membranes. From here, these omega...

  13. Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Stephen; Bertoglio, Kiah; Hendren, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review to determine the safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids for autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Articles were identified by a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database using the terms autism or autistic and omega-3 fatty acids. The search identified 143 potential articles and six satisfied all…

  14. Omega-3 fatty acids in adipose tissue and risk of myocardial infarction: The EURAMIC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guallar, E.; Aro, A.; Jiménez, F.J.; Martín-Moreno, J.M.; Salminen, I.; Veer, P. van 't; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Gömez-Aracena, J.; Martin, B.C.; Kohlmeier, L.; Kark, J.D.; Mazaev, V.P.; Ringstad, J.; Guillén, J.; Riemersma, R.A.; Huttunen, J.K.; Thamm, M.; Kok, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids have potential antiatherogenic, antithrombotic, and antiarrhythmic properties, but their role in coronary heart disease remains controversial. To evaluate the association of omega-3 fatty acids in adipose tissue with the risk of myocardial infarction in men, a case-control study

  15. Fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease: do they really work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.; Yasuda, S.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Shimokawa, H.

    2012-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids, which are found abundantly in fish oil, exert pleiotropic cardiometabolic effects with a diverse range of actions. The results of previous studies raised a lot of interest in the role of fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disea

  16. Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Stephen; Bertoglio, Kiah; Hendren, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review to determine the safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids for autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Articles were identified by a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database using the terms autism or autistic and omega-3 fatty acids. The search identified 143 potential articles and six satisfied all…

  17. Update on the management of severe hypertriglyceridemia – focus on free fatty acid forms of omega-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirillo A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Angela Pirillo,1,2 Alberico Luigi Catapano2,3 1Center for the Study of Atherosclerosis, Bassini Hospital, Cinisello Balsamo, Italy; 2IRCCS Multimedica, Milan, Italy; 3Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy Abstract: High levels of plasma triglycerides (TG are a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, often associated with anomalies in other lipids or lipoproteins. Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG, particularly at very high levels, significantly increases also the risk of acute pancreatitis. Thus, interventions to lower TG levels are required to reduce the risk of pancreatitis and cardiovascular disease. Several strategies may be adopted for TG reduction, including lifestyle changes and pharmacological interventions. Among the available drugs, the most commonly used for HTG are fibrates, nicotinic acid, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (usually a mixture of eicosapentaenoic acid, or EPA, and docosahexaenoic acid, or DHA. These last are available under different concentrated formulations containing high amounts of omega-3 fatty acids, including a mixture of EPA and DHA or pure EPA. The most recent formulation contains a free fatty acid (FFA form of EPA and DHA, and exhibits a significantly higher bioavailability compared with the ethyl ester forms contained in the other formulations. This is due to the fact that the ethyl ester forms, to be absorbed, need to be hydrolyzed by the pancreatic enzymes that are secreted in response to fat intake, while the FFA do not. This higher bioavailability translates into a higher TG-lowering efficacy compared with the ethyl ester forms at equivalent doses. Omega-3 FFA are effective in reducing TG levels and other lipids in hypertriglyceridemic patients as well as in high cardiovascular risk patients treated with statins and residual HTG. Currently, omega-3 FFA formulation is under evaluation to establish whether, in high cardiovascular risk

  18. Handmade cloned transgenic sheep rich in omega-3 Fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    Full Text Available Technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT has been adapted worldwide to generate transgenic animals, although the traditional procedure relies largely on instrumental micromanipulation. In this study, we used the modified handmade cloning (HMC established in cattle and pig to produce transgenic sheep with elevated levels of omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids. Codon-optimized nematode mfat-1 was inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector and was transferred into the genome of primary ovine fibroblast cells from a male Chinese merino sheep. Reverse transcriptase PCR, gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select nuclear donor cells capable of converting omega-6 (n-6 into n-3 fatty acids. Blastocysts developed after 7 days of in vitro culture were surgically transplanted into the uterus of female ovine recipients of a local sheep breed in Xinjiang. For the HMC, approximately 8.9% (n  =925 of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Four recipients became pregnant after 53 blastocysts were transplanted into 29 naturally cycling females, and a total of 3 live transgenic lambs were produced. Detailed analyses on one of the transgenic lambs revealed a single integration of the modified nematode mfat-1 gene at sheep chromosome 5. The transgenic sheep expressed functional n-3 fatty acid desaturase, accompanied by more than 2-folds reduction of n-6/n-3 ratio in the muscle (p<0.01 and other major organs/tissues (p<0.05. To our knowledge, this is the first report of transgenic sheep produced by the HMC. Compared to the traditional SCNT method, HMC showed an equivalent efficiency but proved cheaper and easier in operation.

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids have antidepressant activity in forced swimming test in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhwani, Lalit; Tongia, Sudheer K; Pal, Veerendra S; Agrawal, Rajendra P; Nyati, Prem; Phadnis, Pradeep

    2007-01-01

    Forced swimming test is used to induce a characteristic behavior of immobility in rats, which resembles depression in humans to some extent. We evaluated the effect of omega-3 fatty acids alone as well as compared it with the standard antidepressant therapy with fluoxetine in both acute and chronic studies. In both the studies, rats were divided into 4 groups and subjected to the following drug interventions - Group 1- control: Group 2- fluoxetine in dose of 10 mg/kg subcutaneously 23.5, 5 and 1 h before the test: Group 3- omega-3 fatty acids in dose of 500 mg/kg orally; Group 4- fluoxetine plus omega-3 fatty acids both. In acute study, omega-3 fatty acids were given in single dose 2 h prior to the test while in chronic study omega-3 fatty acids were given daily for a period of 28 days. All animals were subjected to a 15-min pretest followed 24 h later by a 5-min test. A time sampling method was used to score the behavioral activity in each group. The results revealed that in acute study, omega-3 fatty acids do not have any significant effect in forced swimming test. However, in chronic study, omega-3 fatty acids affect the immobility and swimming behavior significantly when compared with control (p climbing behavior and the efficacy of combination of omega-3 fatty acids and fluoxetine is significantly more than that of fluoxetine alone in changing the behavioral activity of rats in forced swimming test. It leads to the conclusion that omega-3 fatty acids have antidepressant activity per se, and the combination of fluoxetine and omega-3 fatty acids has more antidepressant efficacy than fluoxetine alone in forced swimming test in Wistar rats.

  20. Improvement of Semen Quality in Holstein Bulls during Heat Stress by Dietary Supplementation of Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Gholami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs of the omega-3 family are importantfor sperm membrane integrity, sperm motility and viability. There are evidences to suggest thatdietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids affects reproduction in men and males ofdifferent animal species. Therefore, the aim of current study was to investigate changes in thequality parameters of Holstein bull semen during heat stress and the effect of feeding a source ofomega-3 fatty acids during this period.Materials and Methods: Samples were obtained from 19 Holstein bulls during the expected time ofheat stress in Iran (June to September 2009. Control group (n=10 were fed a standard concentratefeed while the treatment group (n=9 had this feed top dressed with 100 g of an omega-3 enrichednutriceutical. Semen volume, sperm concentration and total sperm production were evaluated onejaculates collected after 1, 5, 9 and 12 weeks of supplementation. Moreover, computer-assistedassessment of sperm motility, viability (eosin-nigrosin and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOSTwere conducted.Results: Heat stress affected sperm quality parameters by weeks five and nine of the study (p<0.05.Supplementation significantly increased total motility, progressive motility, HOST-positivespermatozoa and average path velocity in the fresh semen of bulls (p<0.05.Conclusion: Dietary omega-3 supplementation improved in vitro quality and motility parametersof fresh semen in Holstein bulls. However, this effect was not evident in frozen-thawed semen.

  1. Influence of omega-3 fatty acid status on the way rats adapt to chronic restraint stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hennebelle

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids are important for several neuronal and cognitive functions. Altered omega-3 fatty acid status has been implicated in reduced resistance to stress and mood disorders. We therefore evaluated the effects of repeated restraint stress (6 h/day for 21 days on adult rats fed omega-3 deficient, control or omega-3 enriched diets from conception. We measured body weight, plasma corticosterone and hippocampus glucocorticoid receptors and correlated these data with emotional and depression-like behaviour assessed by their open-field (OF activity, anxiety in the elevated-plus maze (EPM, the sucrose preference test and the startle response. We also determined their plasma and brain membrane lipid profiles by gas chromatography. Repeated restraint stress caused rats fed a control diet to lose weight. Their plasma corticosterone increased and they showed moderate behavioural changes, with increases only in grooming (OF test and entries into the open arms (EPM. Rats fed the omega-3 enriched diet had a lower stress-induced weight loss and plasma corticosterone peak, and reduced grooming. Rats chronically lacking omega-3 fatty acid exhibited an increased startle response, a stress-induced decrease in locomotor activity and exaggerated grooming. The brain omega-3 fatty acids increased as the dietary omega-3 fatty acids increased; diets containing preformed long-chain omega-3 fatty acid were better than diets containing the precursor alpha-linolenic acid. However, the restraint stress reduced the amounts of omega-3 incorporated. These data showed that the response to chronic restraint stress was modulated by the omega-3 fatty acid supply, a dietary deficiency was deleterious while enrichment protecting against stress.

  2. Omega 3 Fatty Acids: Novel Neurotherapeutic Targets for Cognitive Dysfunction in Mood Disorders and Schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöchel, Christian; Voss, Martin; Grüter, Florian; Alves, Gilberto S; Matura, Silke; Sepanski, Beate; Stäblein, Michael; Wenzler, Sofia; Prvulovic, David; Carvalho, André F; Oertel-Knöchel, Viola

    2015-01-01

    An increasing body of evidences from preclinical as well as epidemiological and clinical studies suggest a potential beneficial role of dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids for cognitive functioning. In this narrative review, we will summarize and discuss recent findings from epidemiological, interventional and experimental studies linking dietary consumption of omega-3 fatty acids to cognitive function in healthy adults. Furthermore, affective disorders and schizophrenia (SZ) are characterized by cognitive dysfunction encompassing several domains. Cognitive dysfunction is closely related to impaired functioning and quality of life across these conditions. Therefore, the current review focues on the potential influence of omega-3 fatty acids on cognition in SZ and affective disorders. In sum, current data predominantly from mechanistic models and animal studies suggest that adjunctive omega-3 fatty acid supplementation could lead to improved cognitive functioning in SZ and affective disorders. However, besides its translational promise, evidence for clinical benefits in humans has been mixed. Notwithstanding evidences indicate that adjunctive omega-3 fatty acids may have benefit for affective symptoms in both unipolar and bipolar depression, to date no randomized controlled trial had evaluated omega-3 as cognitive enhancer for mood disorders, while a single published controlled trial suggested no therapeutic benefit for cognitive improvement in SZ. Considering the pleiotropic mechanisms of action of omega-3 fatty acids, the design of well-designed controlled trials of omega-3 supplementation as a novel, domain-specific, target for cognitive impairment in SZ and affective disorders is warranted.

  3. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simopoulos, Artemis P

    2016-03-02

    In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity.

  4. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity.

  5. The omega-3 fatty acid DHA dose-dependently reduces atherosclerosis: a putative role for F4-neuroprostanes a specific class of peroxidized metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective. Consumption of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease but the role of their oxygenated metabolites remains unclear. We hypothesized that peroxidized metabolites of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) could play a role in ...

  6. A porcine gluteus medius muscle genome-wide transcriptome analysis: dietary effects of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on biological mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogłuszka, Magdalena; Szostak, Agnieszka; Pas, te Marinus F.W.; Poławska, Ewa; Urbański, Paweł; Blicharski, Tadeusz; Pareek, Chandra Shekhar; Juszczuk-Kubiak, Edyta; Dunkelberger, Jenelle R.; Horbańczuk, Jarosław O.; Pierzchała, Mariusz

    2017-01-01


    Background

    The level of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can affect many cellular systems and function via nuclear receptors or the bioactive lipid regulation of gene expression. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in the muscle transcriptome and the b

  7. Supplementation with Eicosapentaenoic Omega-3 Fatty Acid Does Not Influence Serum Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Major Depression : A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, Mariska; Pouwer, Francois; Assies, Johanna; Jansen, Eugene H. J. M.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; de Jonge, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background: Low brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels are observed in both depressed and diabetes patients. Animal research has shown that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids increase BDNF levels. In this exploratory randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study in diabetes patients wit

  8. Roles of unsaturated fatty acids (especially omega-3 fatty acids) in the brain at various ages and during ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourre, J M

    2004-01-01

    Among various organs, in the brain, the fatty acids most extensively studied are omega-3 fatty acids. Alpha-linolenic acid (18:3omega3) deficiency alters the structure and function of membranes and induces minor cerebral dysfunctions, as demonstrated in animal models and subsequently in human infants. Even though the brain is materially an organ like any other, that is to say elaborated from substances present in the diet (sometimes exclusively), for long it was not accepted that food can have an influence on brain structure, and thus on its function. Lipids, and especially omega-3 fatty acids, provided the first coherent experimental demonstration of the effect of diet (nutrients) on the structure and function of the brain. In fact the brain, after adipose tissue, is the organ richest in lipids, whose only role is to participate in membrane structure. First it was shown that the differentiation and functioning of cultured brain cells requires not only alpha-linolenic acid (the major component of the omega-3, omega3 family), but also the very long omega-3 and omega-6 carbon chains (1). It was then demonstrated that alpha-linolenic acid deficiency alters the course of brain development, perturbs the composition and physicochemical properties of brain cell membranes, neurones, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes (2). This leads to physicochemical modifications, induces biochemical and physiological perturbations, and results in neurosensory and behavioural upset (3). Consequently, the nature of polyunsaturated fatty acids (in particular omega-3) present in formula milks for infants (premature and term) conditions the visual and cerebral abilities, including intellectual. Moreover, dietary omega-3 fatty acids are certainly involved in the prevention of some aspects of cardiovascular disease (including at the level of cerebral vascularization), and in some neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly depression, as well as in dementia, notably Alzheimer's disease. Recent

  9. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids improve brain function and structure in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, A Veronica; Kerti, Lucia; Hermannstädter, Henrike M; Fiebach, Jochen B; Schreiber, Stephan J; Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas; Flöel, Agnes

    2014-11-01

    Higher intake of seafish or oil rich in long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-n3-FA) may be beneficial for the aging brain. We tested in a prospective interventional design whether high levels of supplementary LC-n3-FA would improve cognition, and addressed potential mechanisms underlying the effects. Sixty-five healthy subjects (50-75 years, 30 females) successfully completed 26 weeks of either fish oil (2.2 g/day LC-n3-FA) or placebo intake. Before and after the intervention period, cognitive performance, structural neuroimaging, vascular markers, and blood parameters were assayed. We found a significant increase in executive functions after LC-n3-FA compared with placebo (P = 0.023). In parallel, LC-n3-FA exerted beneficial effects on white matter microstructural integrity and gray matter volume in frontal, temporal, parietal, and limbic areas primarily of the left hemisphere, and on carotid intima media thickness and diastolic blood pressure. Improvements in executive functions correlated positively with changes in omega-3-index and peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and negatively with changes in peripheral fasting insulin. This double-blind randomized interventional study provides first-time evidence that LC-n3-FA exert positive effects on brain functions in healthy older adults, and elucidates underlying mechanisms. Our findings suggest novel strategies to maintain cognitive functions into old age.

  10. Renal-protective and ameliorating impacts of omega-3 fatty acids against aspartame damaged MDCK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Veerappan, Muthuviveganandavel; Mistry, Bhupendra; Patel, Rahul; Moon, So Hyun; Nagajyothi, Patnamsetty Chidanandha; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2017-09-07

    Aspartame is widely used artificial sweeteners as food additives. Several researchers have pointed that the controversial report on the use of aspartame over more than decades. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential and unsaturated fatty acids, and it plays a remarkable role in vision, intelligence, neural development, and metabolism of neurotransmitters. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on aspartame treated renal cells. Experimental groups were divided into three such as sham control, aspartame treated, and aspartame with omega-3 fatty acids. Cell viability was determined by sulforhodamine-b assay and flow cytometric analysis. The experimental results showed that the aspartame induced altered cell viability were reduced following treatment of aspartame with omega-3 fatty acids. Altered cell morphology was recovered by omega-3 fatty acids. DNA damage appeared in the highest concentration of aspartame used in this study. DNA damage characteristics such as comet tail and tiny head sections did not appear in the omega-3 fatty acids treated cells. Several microvilli and vesicular structures were found in aspartame treated cells. Altered morphology such as rounding, microvilli, and formation of dome-like structures did not appear in the omega-3 fatty acids with aspartame treated cells. Caspase-3 mRNA and protein expression were increased in aspartame treated cells, and these levels were reduced following omega-3 fatty acids treatment. Taking all these data together, it is suggested that the omega-3 fatty acids may be a therapeutic agent to reduce the aspartame induced biochemical and morphological alterations in normal renal cells. © 2017 BioFactors, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  11. Vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids together regulate lipid metabolism in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2015-08-01

    Our recent study indicates that maternal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid status influence plasma and erythrocyte fatty acid profile in dams. The present study examines the effects of prenatal and postnatal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid status on lipid metabolism in the offspring. Pregnant dams were divided into five groups: Control; Vitamin B12 deficient (BD); Vitamin B12 supplemented (BS); Vitamin B12 deficient group supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids (BDO); Vitamin B12 supplemented group with omega-3 fatty acids (BSO). The offspring were continued on the same diets till 3 month of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency increased cholesterol levels (pomega-3 fatty acids together play a crucial role in regulating the genes involved in lipid metabolism in adult offspring.

  12. Impact of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Memory Functions in Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külzow, Nadine; Witte, A Veronica; Kerti, Lucia; Grittner, Ulrike; Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas; Flöel, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    As the process of Alzheimer's disease (AD) begins years before disease onset, searching for prevention strategies is of major medical and economic importance. Nutritional supplementation with long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (LC-n3-FA) may exert beneficial effects on brain structure and function. However, experimental evidence in older adults without clinical dementia is inconsistent, possibly due to low sensitivity of previously employed test batteries for detecting subtle improvements in cognition in healthy individuals. Here we used LOCATO, recently described as a robust and sensitive tool for assessing object-location memory (OLM) in older adults, to evaluate the impact of LC-n3-FA supplementation on learning and memory formation. In a double-blind placebo-controlled proof-of-concept study, 44 (20 female) cognitively healthy individuals aged 50-75 years received either LC-n3-FA (2,200 mg/day, n = 22) or placebo (n = 22) for 26 weeks. Before and after intervention, memory performance in the OLM-task (primary) was tested. As secondary outcome parameters, performance in Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), dietary habits, omega-3-index, and other blood-derived parameters were assessed. Omega-3 index increased significantly in the LC-n3-FA group compared with the placebo group. Moreover, recall of object locations was significantly better after LC-n3-FA supplementation compared with placebo. Performance in the AVLT was not significantly affected by LC-n3-FA. This double-blind placebo-controlled proof-of-concept study provides further experimental evidence that LC-n3-FA exert positive effects on memory functions in healthy older adults. Our findings suggest novel strategies to maintain cognitive functions into old age.

  13. The Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Prevention of Post-Operative Atrial Fibrillation (OPERA) Trial – Rationale and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Marchioli, Roberto; Gardner, Tim; Ferrazzi, Paolo; O’Gara, Patrick; Latini, Roberto; Libby, Peter; Lombardi, Federico; Macchia, Alejandro; Page, Richard; Santini, Massimo; Tavazzi, Luigi; Tognoni, Gianni

    2011-01-01

    Post-operative atrial fibrillation/flutter (PoAF) commonly complicates cardiac surgery, occurring in 25–60% of patients. PoAF is associated with significant morbidity, higher long-term mortality, and increased healthcare costs. Novel preventive therapies are clearly needed. In experiments and short-term trials, seafood-derived long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) influence several risk factors that might reduce risk of PoAF. A few small and generally underpowered trials have evaluated effects of omega-3-PUFA supplementation on PoAF, with mixed results. The Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Prevention of Post-operative Atrial Fibrillation (OPERA) trial is an appropriately powered, investigator-initiated, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational trial to determine whether peri-operative oral omega-3-PUFA reduces occurrence of PoAF in 1,516 patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Additional aims include evaluation of resource utilization, biologic pathways and mechanisms, postoperative cognitive decline, and safety. Broad inclusion criteria encompass a real-world population of outpatients and inpatients scheduled for cardiac surgery. Treatment comprises a total pre-operative loading dose of 8–10 g of omega-3-PUFA or placebo divided over 2–5 days, followed by 2 g/d until hospital discharge or post-operative day 10, whichever first. Based on anticipated 30% event rate in controls, total enrollment of 1,516 patients (758 per treatment arm) will provide 90% power to detect 25% reduction in PoAF. OPERA will provide invaluable evidence to inform biologic pathways, proof-of-concept that omega-3-PUFA influence cardiac arrhythmias, and potential regulatory standards and clinical use of this simple, inexpensive, and low-risk intervention to prevent PoAF. PMID:21742090

  14. Fluoxetine potentiation of omega-3 fatty acid antidepressant effect: evaluating pharmacokinetic and brain fatty acid-related aspects in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laino, Carlos Horacio; Garcia, Pilar; Podestá, María Fernanda; Höcht, Christian; Slobodianik, Nora; Reinés, Analía

    2014-10-01

    We previously reported that combined fluoxetine administration at antidepressant doses renders additive antidepressant effects, whereas non-antidepressant doses potentiate the omega-3 fatty acid antidepressant effect. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate putative pharmacokinetic and brain omega-3 fatty acid-related aspects for fluoxetine potentiation of omega-3 fatty acid antidepressant effect in rats. Coadministration of omega-3 fatty acids with a non-antidepressant dose of fluoxetine (1 mg/kg day) failed to affect both brain fluoxetine concentration and norfluoxetine plasma concentration profile. Fluoxetine plasma concentrations remained below the sensitivity limit of the detection method. Either antidepressant (10 mg/kg day) or non-antidepressant (1 mg/kg day) doses of fluoxetine in combination with omega-3 fatty acids increased hippocampal docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5 omega-3) levels. Although individual treatments had no effects on DPA concentration, DPA increase was higher when omega-3 were combined with the non-antidepressant dose of fluoxetine. Chronic DPA administration exerted antidepressant-like effects in the forced swimming test while increasing hippocampal docosahexaenoic (22:6 omega-3) and DPA levels. Our results suggest no pharmacokinetic interaction and reveal specific hippocampal DPA changes after fluoxetine and omega-3 combined treatments in our experimental conditions. The DPA role in the synergistic effect of fluoxetine and omega-3 combined treatments will be for sure the focus of future studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:3316-3325, 2014.

  15. Omega-3 fatty acids, lipid rafts, and T cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tim Y; McMurray, David N; Chapkin, Robert S

    2016-08-15

    n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been shown in many clinical studies to attenuate inflammatory responses. Although inflammatory responses are orchestrated by a wide spectrum of cells, CD4(+) T cells play an important role in the etiology of many chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease and obesity. In light of recent concerns over the safety profiles of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), alternatives such as bioactive nutraceuticals are becoming more attractive. In order for these agents to be accepted into mainstream medicine, however, the mechanisms by which nutraceuticals such as n-3 PUFA exert their anti-inflammatory effects must be fully elucidated. Lipid rafts are nanoscale, dynamic domains in the plasma membrane that are formed through favorable lipid-lipid (cholesterol, sphingolipids, and saturated fatty acids) and lipid-protein (membrane-actin cytoskeleton) interactions. These domains optimize the clustering of signaling proteins at the membrane to facilitate efficient cell signaling which is required for CD4(+) T cell activation and differentiation. This review summarizes novel emerging data documenting the ability of n-3 PUFA to perturb membrane-cytoskeletal structure and function in CD4(+) T cells. An understanding of these underlying mechanisms will provide a rationale for the use of n-3 PUFA in the treatment of chronic inflammation.

  16. Dietary sources of omega 3 fatty acids: public health risks and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tur, J A; Bibiloni, M M; Sureda, A; Pons, A

    2012-06-01

    Omega 3 fatty acids can be obtained from several sources, and should be added to the daily diet to enjoy a good health and to prevent many diseases. Worldwide, general population use omega-3 fatty acid supplements and enriched foods to get and maintain adequate amounts of these fatty acids. The aim of this paper was to review main scientific evidence regarding the public health risks and benefits of the dietary sources of omega-3 fatty acids. A systematic literature search was performed, and one hundred and forty-five articles were included in the results for their methodological quality. The literature described benefits and risks of algal, fish oil, plant, enriched dairy products, animal-derived food, krill oil, and seal oil omega-3 fatty acids.

  17. Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids Act as Inhibitors of the Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, Eleonora; Sinibaldi, Federica; Sannino, Gianpaolo; Laganà, Giuseppina; Basoli, Francesco; Licoccia, Silvia; Cozza, Paola; Santucci, Roberto; Piro, Maria Cristina

    2017-08-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids have been reported to play a protective role in a wide range of diseases characterized by an increased metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity. The recent finding that omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids exert an anti-inflammatory effect in periodontal diseases has stimulated the present study, designed to determine whether such properties derive from a direct inhibitory action of these compounds on the activity of MMPs. To this issue, we investigated the effect exerted by omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids on the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9, two enzymes that actively participate to the destruction of the organic matrix of dentin following demineralization operated by bacteria acids. Data obtained (both in vitro and on ex-vivo teeth) reveal that omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids inhibit the proteolytic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9, two enzymes present in dentin. This observation is of interest since it assigns to these compounds a key role as MMPs inhibitors, and stimulates further study to better define their therapeutic potentialities in carious decay.

  18. Intake of omega-3 fatty acids contributes to bone mineral density at the hip in a younger Japanese female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, T; Ohta, H; Onoe, Y; Tsugawa, N; Shiraki, M

    2017-06-23

    This study investigated the relationships between intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, and omega-6 fatty acids and bone mineral density in Japanese women aged 19 to 25 years. Intakes of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) were positively associated with peak bone mass at the hip. Lifestyle factors such as physical activity and nutrition intake are known to optimize the peak bone mass (PBM). Recently, intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been reported to contribute to bone metabolism. In this study, the relationships of intakes of n-3 and omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids with PBM were evaluated in Japanese female subjects. A total of 275 healthy female subjects (19-25 years) having PBM were enrolled, and lumbar and total hip bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolic parameters were measured. Dietary intakes of total energy, total n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and total n-6 fatty acids were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Physical activity information was also assessed. The mean ± SD age was 20.6 ± 1.4 years, and BMI was 21.2 ± 2.7 kg/m(2). BMI and serum bone alkaline phosphatase contributed significantly to lumbar BMD on multiple regression analysis. Intake of n-3 fatty acids and physical activity were also significantly related to total hip BMD. Using EPA or DHA instead of total n-3 fatty acids in the model did not result in a significant result. Adequate total n-3 fatty acid intake may help maximize PBM at the hip.

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids and oxidative stability of ice cream supplemented with olein fraction of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Rahman; Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad

    2017-02-07

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) has been regarded as good source of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids with cardiac, hepatic, hypotensive, antiallergic and antidiabetic role. Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in chia oil can be enhanced by fractionation. Olein/low melting fraction of chia oil has higher concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. Therefore, main objective of current investigation was determination of various concentration effect of olein fraction of chia oil on omega-3 fatty acids, oxidative stability and sensory characteristics of ice cream. Ice cream samples were prepared by partially replacing the milk fat with olein fraction of chia oil at 5, 10, 15 and 20% concentrations (T1, T2, T3 and T4), respectively. Ice cream prepared from 100% milk fat was kept as control. Ice cream samples stored at -18 °C for 60 days were analysed at 0, 30 and 60 days of the storage period. Fatty acid profile, total phenolic contents, total flavonoids, free fatty acids, peroxide value, anisidine value and sensory characteristics of ice cream samples was studied. Concentration of α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in T4 was 13.24, 0.58, 0.42 and 0.31%, respectively. Total phenolic contents of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were recorded 0.12, 1.65, 3.17, 5.19 and 7.48 mg GAE/mL, respectively. Total flavonoid content of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were found 0.08, 0.64, 1.87, 3.16 and 4.29 mg Quercetin Equivalent/mL. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 was noted 5.61, 17.43, 36.84, 51.17 and 74.91%, respectively. After 60 days of storage period, the highest peroxide value of 1.84 (MeqO2/kg) was observed in T4, which was much less than allowable limit of 10 (MeqO2/kg). Flavour score was non-significant after 30 days of storage period. Supplementation of ice cream with olein fraction of chia oil enhanced the concentration of omega-3 fatty acids and improved

  20. [The essential fatty acids omega-6 and omega-3: from their discovery to their use in therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramia, G

    2008-04-01

    In 1929 Burr and Burr discovered the essential fatty acids omega-6 and omega-3. Since then, researchers have shown a growing interest in unsaturated essential fatty acids as they form the framework for the organism's cell membranes, particularly the neurones in the brain, are involved in the energy-transformation process, regulate the information flows between cells. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are also precursors of ''hormonal'' molecules, often with opposing effects, prostaglandins, prostacyclins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes, lipossines, resolvines, protectines that regulate immunity, platelet aggregation, inflammation, etc. They showed that raised levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 in tissue correlate with a reduced incidence of degenerative cardiovascular disease, some mental illnesses such as depression, and neuro-degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. The balance between omega-3 and omega-6 acids allows the cell membranes to develop with exactly the right flexibility and fluidity, to carry messages between neurones, that is a determining factor in physical and mental well-being and has a profound influence on all the body's inflammatory responses. The results of a number of scientific studies suggest that omega-3 acids contribute to measuring and restricting inflammatory symptoms, whereas omega-6 acids (and saturated fats) give free range to inflammatory responses and amplify allergic reactions. Today in the Western countries, the ratio of omega-3 acids to omega-6 in the diet is weighted 1:10 in favour of omega-6 to up to 1:25 in some areas, while for proper functioning a 4:1 ratio of omega-6 acids to omega-3 acids is generally considered the optimum. In addition, the type of diet followed in the Western countries is very rich in saturated fats like butter and animal fats, but because of an excessive supply of these less noble fats, the cell membranes lose flexibility and this can affect the way they work. An appropriate supplement can be an

  1. Microalgal biofactories: a promising approach towards sustainable omega-3 fatty acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adarme-Vega T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA provide significant health benefits and this has led to an increased consumption as dietary supplements. Omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA are found in animals, transgenic plants, fungi and many microorganisms but are typically extracted from fatty fish, putting additional pressures on global fish stocks. As primary producers, many marine microalgae are rich in EPA (C20:5 and DHA (C22:6 and present a promising source of omega-3 fatty acids. Several heterotrophic microalgae have been used as biofactories for omega-3 fatty acids commercially, but a strong interest in autotrophic microalgae has emerged in recent years as microalgae are being developed as biofuel crops. This paper provides an overview of microalgal biotechnology and production platforms for the development of omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. It refers to implications in current biotechnological uses of microalgae as aquaculture feed and future biofuel crops and explores potential applications of metabolic engineering and selective breeding to accumulate large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids in autotrophic microalgae.

  2. Potential Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on the Myogenic Program of Satellite Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhullar, Amritpal S; Putman, Charles T; Mazurak, Vera C

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle loss is associated with aging as well as pathological conditions. Satellite cells (SCs) play an important role in muscle regeneration. Omega-3 fatty acids are widely studied in a variety of muscle wasting diseases; however, little is known about their impact on skeletal muscle regeneration. The aim of this review is to evaluate studies examining the effect of omega-3 fatty acids, α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid on the regulation of SC proliferation and differentiation. This review highlights mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may modulate the myogenic program of the stem cell population within skeletal muscles and identifies considerations for future studies. It is proposed that minimally three myogenic transcriptional regulatory factors, paired box 7 (Pax7), myogenic differentiation 1 protein, and myogenin, should be measured to confirm the stage of SCs within the myogenic program affected by omega-3 fatty acids.

  3. Resveratrol and Omega 3 fatty acid: Its implications in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibhuti B Kakoti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present review aimed at summarizing the major therapeutic roles of resveratrol and omega-3 fatty acids along with their related pathways. This article reviews some of the key studies involving the health benefits of resveratrol and omega 3 fatty acids. Oxidative stress has been considered as one of the most important pathophysiological factor associated with various cardiovascular disease conditions. Resveratrol with the potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties has been proven to be a significantly protective compound in restoring the normal cardiac health. A plethora of research also demonstrated the reduction of the risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension and stroke, and their complications by omega-3 fatty acids derived from fish and fish oils. This review describes the potential cardioprotective role of resveratrol and omega 3 fatty acids in ameliorating the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress.

  4. Potential adverse effects of omega-3 Fatty acids in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenox, C E; Bauer, J E

    2013-01-01

    Fish oil omega-3 fatty acids, mainly eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, are used in the management of several diseases in companion animal medicine, many of which are inflammatory in nature. This review describes metabolic differences among omega-3 fatty acids and outlines potential adverse effects that may occur with their supplementation in dogs and cats with a special focus on omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil. Important potential adverse effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation include altered platelet function, gastrointestinal adverse effects, detrimental effects on wound healing, lipid peroxidation, potential for nutrient excess and toxin exposure, weight gain, altered immune function, effects on glycemic control and insulin sensitivity, and nutrient-drug interactions.

  5. [Proposed profile of omega 3 fatty acids in enteral nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz París, A; Marí Sanchis, A; García Malpartida, K; García Gómez, M C

    2012-01-01

    We review the international recommendations on oral intake of n-3 fatty acids and their content in the enteral nutrition formulas. Their metabolic actions depend on their metabolization to EPA and DHA. The activity of desaturases catalyzing this process increases with exercise, insulin, estrogens in the fertile women, and peroxisomal proliferators, whereas it decreases with fasting, protein and oligoelements deficiencies, age < 30 years, sedentary lifestyle, cigarette smoking, alcohol, cholesterol, trans and saturated fatty acids, insulin deficiency, and stress hormones (adrenalin and glucocorticoids). Most of the guidelines recommend that 20-35% of the total energy comes from fat, being 7-10% saturated fats, 6-10% polyunsaturated, and 20% monounsaturated, in Spain. The recommendation for n-3 FA is 0.5-2 g/day or 0.5-2% of total caloric intake, with an upper limit of 3 g/day. For n-6 FA, 2.5-10% of total caloric intake, the n-6/n-3 ratio not being well established although most of the guidelines recommend 5:1. The EPA and DHA content should be at least 500 mg per day. Finally, the EPA/DHA ratio is 2:1 in most of them. Standard nutrition formulas present an appropriate fat content, although most of the products containing EPA and DHA exceed the limit of 3 g/day. Among the products with hyperprotein and/or concentrated, only of them contains EPA y DHA. Not all the formulas used for the frail elderly contain EPA or DHA, and in those containing them their concentration may be excessive and with a proportion very dissimilar to that of fish oil.

  6. Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Bent, Stephen; Bertoglio, Kiah; Hendren, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review to determine the safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids for autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Articles were identified by a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database using the terms autism or autistic and omega-3 fatty acids. The search identified 143 potential articles and six satisfied all inclusion criteria. One small randomized controlled trial (n = 13) noted non-significant improvements in hyperactivity and stereotypy. The remaining five st...

  7. Effect of dietary selenium and omega-3 fatty acids on muscle composition and quality in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetland Harald

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human health may be improved if dietary intakes of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids are increased. Consumption of broiler meat is increasing, and the meat content of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids are affected by the composition of broiler feed. A two-way analyses of variance was used to study the effect of feed containing omega-3 rich plant oils and selenium enriched yeast on broiler meat composition, antioxidation- and sensory parameters. Four different wheat-based dietary treatments supplemented with 5% rapeseed oil or 4% rapeseed oil plus 1% linseed oil, and either 0.50 mg selenium or 0.84 mg selenium (organic form per kg diet was fed to newly hatched broilers for 22 days. Results The different dietary treatments gave distinct different concentrations of selenium and fatty acids in thigh muscle; one percent linseed oil in the diet increased the concentration of the omega-3 fatty acids 18:3, 20:5 and 22:5, and 0.84 mg selenium per kg diet gave muscle selenium concentration at the same level as is in fish muscle (0.39 mg/kg muscle. The high selenium intake also resulted in increased concentration of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA (20:5, DPA (22:5 and DHA (22:6, thus it may be speculated if high dietary selenium might have a role in increasing the concentration of EPA, DPA and DHA in tissues after intake of plant oils contning omega-3 fatty acids. Conclusion Moderate modifications of broiler feed may give a healthier broiler meat, having increased content of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids. High intakes of selenium (organic form may increase the concentration of very long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in muscle.

  8. Micronutrients, omega-3 fatty acids and cognitive performance in Indian schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Eilander, J.H.C.

    2009-01-01

    In developing countries, approximately 30-40% of school-age children suffer from iodine and iron deficiencies. Poverty and consumption of monotonous diets are underlying causes of inadequate intakes of micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids and may have severe consequences for children’s cognitive development. Multiple micronutrient interventions have shown to benefit mental performance of children, but a systematic evaluation of the evidence is currently lacking. The omega-3 fatty acid, -li...

  9. Omega-3 fatty acids' supplementation in Alzheimer's disease: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canhada, Scheine; Castro, Kamila; Perry, Ingrid Schweigert; Luft, Vivian Cristine

    2017-05-03

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegeneration disorder characterized by progressive impairments of memory, language, reasoning, and other cognitive functions. Evidence suggests that omega-3 fatty acids may act as a possible protection factor in AD. To evaluate the results available in the literature involving omega-3 fatty acids supplementation and its effect on cognitive function in AD patients. A systematic review of MEDLINE (from PubMed), Excerpta Medica Database, and Cochrane Library databases was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Inclusion criteria consisted in original intervention studies, controlled by placebo, that assessed the impact of supplementation or dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids on cognitive function, in humans with AD, without limitation for prime date of publication. Initial search resulted in 361 articles. Seven studies fully met the inclusion criteria. Most studies did not find statistically significant results for the omega-3 fatty acids supplementation compared to placebo, and those who show some benefit do it only in a few cognitive assessment scales. However, the effects of omega-3 fatty acids appear to be most effectively demonstrated in patients with very mild AD. The effects of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in mild AD corroborate epidemiological observational studies showing that omega-3 fatty acids may be beneficial in disease onset, when there is slight impairment of brain function. Although some studies have shown changes in scales of cognitive function in more severe cases, they are not enough to support omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in the treatment of AD.

  10. Omega-3 fatty acids: potential role in the management of early Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jicha, Greg

    2010-01-01

    Gregory A Jicha, William R MarkesberyUniversity of Kentucky Alzheimer’s Disease Center and the Sanders-Brown Center on Aging University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, USAbstract: Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for brain growth and development. They play an important role throughout life, as critical modulators of neuronal function and regulation of oxidative stress mechanisms, in brain health and disease. Docosahexanoic acid (DHA), the major omega-3 fatty acid fo...

  11. Omega-3 fatty acids: potential role in the management of early Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jicha, Gregory A.; Markesbery, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for brain growth and development. They play an important role throughout life, as critical modulators of neuronal function and regulation of oxidative stress mechanisms, in brain health and disease. Docosahexanoic acid (DHA), the major omega-3 fatty acid found in neurons, has taken on a central role as a target for therapeutic intervention in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A plethora of in vitro, animal model, and human data, gathered over the past decade, highlig...

  12. Omega-3 fatty acids: potential role in the management of early Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jicha, Gregory A.; Markesbery, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Gregory A Jicha, William R MarkesberyUniversity of Kentucky Alzheimer’s Disease Center and the Sanders-Brown Center on Aging University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, USAbstract: Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for brain growth and development. They play an important role throughout life, as critical modulators of neuronal function and regulation of oxidative stress mechanisms, in brain health and disease. Docosahexanoic acid (DHA), the major omega-3 fatty acid fo...

  13. Omega-3 fats: Good for your heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a type of polyunsaturated fat . We need these fats to build brain cells and for other important functions. Omega-3s help keep your heart healthy and protected against stroke. They also help improve your heart health ...

  14. Emerging importance of omega-3 fatty acids in the innate immune response: molecular mechanisms and lipidomic strategies for their analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskrey, Benjamin H; Megson, Ian L; Rossi, Adriano G; Whitfield, Phillip D

    2013-08-01

    The beneficial health properties of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have long been known and their metabolic dysfunction has been linked to a range of diseases including various inflammatory disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying their health benefits have remained unclear. Recent technological advances in lipidomic analytical strategies have resulted in the discovery of a range of bioactive mediators derived from EPA and DHA that possess potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving properties and that may be responsible, at least in part, for the beneficial effects observed. These mediators include resolvins, protectins and maresins, as well as EPA derivatives of classical arachidonic acid derived eicosanoids, such as prostaglandin E3 . The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the biosynthetic pathways and biological properties of these omega-3 mediators, with a particular focus on the emerging importance of the counter-regulatory role of omega-3 and -6 fatty acids in the spatial and temporal regulation of the inflammatory response. It will also provide an insight into a range of lipidomic approaches, which are currently available to analyse these fatty acids and their metabolites in biological matrices. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Depression in Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Shinto

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is the most common chronic disabling disease in the central nervous system in young to middle aged adults. Depression is common in multiple sclerosis (MS affecting between 50–60% of patients. Pilot studies in unipolar depression report an improvement in depression when omega-3 fatty acids are given with antidepressants. The objective of this study was to investigate whether omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, as an augmentation therapy, improves treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD in people with MS. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of omega-3 fatty acids at six grams per day over three months. The primary outcome was a 50% or greater improvement on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS. Thirty-nine participants were randomized and thirty-one completed the 3-month intervention. Improvement on MADRS between groups was not significantly different at the 3-month end point with 47.4% in the omega-3 fatty acid group and 45.5% in the placebo group showing 50% or greater improvement (p = 0.30. Omega-3 fatty acids as an augmentation therapy for treatment-resistant depression in MS was not significantly different than placebo in this pilot trial. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation at the dose given was well-tolerated over 3 months.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00122954.

  16. A computational search for lipases that can preferentially hydrolyze long-chain omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil triacylglycerols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Md Zahid; Barrow, Colin J; Rao, Nalam Madhusudhana

    2015-04-15

    Consumption of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids is known to decrease the risk of major cardiovascular events. Lipases, a class of triacylglycerol hydrolases, have been extensively tested to concentrate omega-3 fatty acids from fish oils, under mild enzymatic conditions. However, no lipases with preference for omega-3 fatty acids selectivity have yet been discovered or developed. In this study we performed an exhaustive computational study of substrate-lipase interactions by docking, both covalent and non-covalent, for 38 lipases with a large number of structured triacylglycerols containing omega-3 fatty acids. We identified some lipases that have potential to preferentially hydrolyze omega-3 fatty acids from structured triacylglycerols. However omega-3 fatty acid preferences were found to be modest. Our study provides an explanation for absence of reports of lipases with omega-3 fatty acid hydrolyzing ability and suggests methods for developing these selective lipases.

  17. Omega-3 fatty acids for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matteo Nicola Dario Di Minno; Anna Russolillo; Roberta Lupoli; Pasquale Ambrosino; Alessandro Di Minno; Giovanni Tarantino

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been recognized as a major health burden.It is the most important cause of chronic liver disease and a major independent cardiovascular risk factor.Lacking a definite treatment for NAFLD,a specific diet and an increase in physical activity represent the most commonly used therapeutic approaches.In this review,major literature data about the use of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) as a potential treatment of NAFLD have been described.n-3 PUFAs,besides having a beneficial impact on most of the cardio-metabolic risk factors (hypertension,hyperlipidemia,endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis) by regulating gene transcription factors [i.e.,peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α,PPARγ,sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1,carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein],impacts both lipid metabolism and on insulin sensitivity.In addition to an enhancement of hepatic beta oxidation and a decrease of the endogenous lipid production,n-3 PUFAs are able to determine a significant reduction of the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6) and of oxygen reactive species.Further strengthening the results of the in vitro studies,both animal models and human intervention trials,showed a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFAs on the severity of NAFLD as expressed by laboratory parameters and imaging measurements.Despite available results provided encouraging data about the efficacy of n-3 PUFAs as a treatment of NAFLD in humans,well-designed randomized controlled trials of adequate size and duration,with histological endpoints,are needed to assess the long-term safety and efficacy of PUFA,as well as other therapies,for the treatment of NAFLD and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis patients.It is worthwhile to consider that n-3 PUFAs cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be derived from exogenous sources (fish oil,flaxseeds,olive oil) which are typical foods

  18. Obesity-induced insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis are alleviated by omega-3 fatty acids: a role for resolvins and protectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Périz, Ana; Horrillo, Raquel; Ferré, Natàlia; Gronert, Karsten; Dong, Baiyan; Morán-Salvador, Eva; Titos, Esther; Martínez-Clemente, Marcos; López-Parra, Marta; Arroyo, Vicente; Clària, Joan

    2009-06-01

    Omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3-PUFAs) have well-documented protective effects that are attributed not only to eicosanoid inhibition but also to the formation of novel biologically active lipid mediators (i.e., resolvins and protectins). In this study, we examined their effects on ob/ob mice, an obesity model of insulin resistance and fatty liver disease. Dietary intake of omega-3-PUFAs had insulin-sensitizing actions in adipose tissue and liver and improved insulin tolerance in obese mice. Genes involved in insulin sensitivity (PPARgamma), glucose transport (GLUT-2/GLUT-4), and insulin receptor signaling (IRS-1/IRS-2) were up-regulated by omega-3-PUFAs. Moreover, omega-3-PUFAs increased adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing adipokine, and induced AMPK phosphorylation, a fuel-sensing enzyme and a gatekeeper of the energy balance. Concomitantly, hepatic steatosis was alleviated by omega-3-PUFAs. A lipidomic analysis with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry revealed that omega-3-PUFAs inhibited the formation of omega-6-PUFA-derived eicosanoids, while triggering the formation of omega-3-PUFA-derived resolvins and protectins. Moreover, representative members of these lipid mediators, namely resolvin E1 and protectin D1, mimicked the insulin-sensitizing and antisteatotic effects of omega-3-PUFAs and induced adiponectin expression to a similar extent that of rosiglitazone, a member of the thiazolidinedione family of antidiabetic drugs. Taken together, these findings uncover beneficial actions of omega-3-PUFAs and their bioactive lipid autacoids in preventing obesity-induced insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis.

  19. HIDROLISIS ENZIMATIK MINYAK IKAN UNTUK PRODUKSI ASAM LEMAK OMEGA-3 MENGGUNAKAN LIPASE DARI Aspergillus niger [Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Fish Oil for Production of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Using Lipase Derived from Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapta Raharja*

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil is the source of important fatty-acid, especially polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA omega-3, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Lipase catalysis activity of Aspergillus niger is low when it is used in fish oil hydrolysis. The activity of the lipase can be increased by adding organic solvent such as hexane into the media. This research aimed to determine temperature, pH and amount of water which produce the highest degree of hydrolysis of fish oil in the presence of hexane. Correlation between the highest degree of hydrolysis and the amount of omega-3 fatty acid was also investigated. The variables used in this research were temperatures (25-65 oC, pH (5-9, and water addition (1-5 %v/v. The highest degree of enzymatic hydrolysis of fish oil in the media without hexane was 28.07 % that was reached at 45oC and pH 5. In the presence of hexane, the highest degree of hydrolysis was 75.12 % which was reached at 5% water addition, temperature 45oC, and pH 5. GC-MS analysis showed that omega-3 fatty acid content especially EPA and DHA increased along with increase in the degree of hydrolysis. Concentration of omega-3 fatty acid produced without hexane addition was 18.42 % with EPA amounted to 12,17% and DHA 0,86%. Meanwhile omega-3 fatty acid content in the presence of hexane reached 21.93 % with EPA amounted to 17.75 % and DHA 1.21 %.

  20. TRP channels, omega-3 fatty acids, and oxidative stress in neurodegeneration: from the cell membrane to intracellular cross-links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Leonelli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The transient receptor potential channels family (TRP channels is a relatively new group of cation channels that modulate a large range of physiological mechanisms. In the nervous system, the functions of TRP channels have been associated with thermosensation, pain transduction, neurotransmitter release, and redox signaling, among others. However, they have also been extensively correlated with the pathogenesis of several innate and acquired diseases. On the other hand, the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 fatty acids have also been associated with several processes that seem to counterbalance or to contribute to the function of several TRPs. In this short review, we discuss some of the remarkable new findings in this field. We also review the possible roles played by n-3 fatty acids in cell signaling that can both control or be controlled by TRP channels in neurodegenerative processes, as well as both the direct and indirect actions of n-3 fatty acids on TRP channels.

  1. Bioengineered Plants Can Be a Useful Source of Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Amjad Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids have proven to be very essential for human health due to their multiple health benefits. These essential fatty acids (EFAs need to be uptaken through diet because they are unable to be produced by the human body. These are important for skin and hair growth as well as for proper visual, neural, and reproductive functions of the body. These fatty acids are proven to be extremely vital for normal tissue development during pregnancy and infancy. Omega-3 fatty acids can be obtained mainly from two dietary sources: marine and plant oils. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5 n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3 are the primary marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids. Marine fishes are high in omega-3 fatty acids, yet high consumption of those fishes will cause a shortage of fish stocks existing naturally in the oceans. An alternative source to achieve the recommended daily intake of EFAs is the demand of today. In this review article, an attempt has, therefore, been made to discuss the importance of omega-3 fatty acids and the recent developments in order to produce these fatty acids by the genetic modifications of the plants.

  2. Incorporation of a dietary omega 3 fatty acid impairs murine macrophage responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana L Bonilla

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Beside their health benefits, dietary omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA might impair host resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb by creating an immunosuppressive environment. We hypothesized that incorporation of n-3 PUFA suppresses activation of macrophage antimycobacterial responses and favors bacterial growth, in part, by modulating the IFNgamma-mediated signaling pathway. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Murine macrophage-like J774A.1 cells were incubated with bovine serum albumin (BSA-conjugated docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3 or BSA alone, activated with recombinant IFNgamma, and infected with a virulent strain (H37Rv of M. tuberculosis. The fatty acid composition of macrophage membranes was modified significantly by DHA treatment. DHA-treated macrophages were less effective in controlling intracellular mycobacteria and showed impaired oxidative metabolism and reduced phagolysosome maturation. Incorporation of DHA resulted in defective macrophage activation, as characterized by reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFalpha, IL-6 and MCP-1, and lower expression of co-stimulatory molecules (CD40 and CD86. DHA treatment impaired STAT1 phosphorylation and colocalization of the IFNgamma receptor with lipid rafts, without affecting surface expression of IFNgamma receptor. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that DHA reduces the ability of J774A.1 cells to control M. tuberculosis in response to activation by IFNgamma, by modulation of IFNgamma receptor signaling and function, suggesting that n-3 PUFA-enriched diets may have a detrimental effect on host immunity to tuberculosis.

  3. Interaction Effect of 8-Week Aerobic Exercise and Omega-3 Fatty Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Khedri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scientific evidence indicates the impact of aerobic exercise and omega-3 fatty acids - both –are for the improvement of the cardiovascular system .The purpose of this research was about studies interaction effect of 8 weeks aerobic exercise and omega- 3 fatty acids supplementation on plasma adiponectin concentration of elderly men.Materials and Methods: In this study, 36 male non-athletes aged were between 50 to 70 year age range of men aged the city of Genaveh. Statistical sample of 36 male non- athletes in the age range 50 to 70 years old randomly selected in four groups of nine persons, respectively, the first group: exercise supplemental omega-3, Group II: Exercise placebo group: supplementation with omega-3 groups quarter: placebo. Endurance exercise training program includes 24 sessions and 3 sessions per week, with duration and intensity was determined. (55-70% HRmax. Daily supplements of omega-3 fatty acids were 2 Capsule. Blood samples were taken after fasting 14 hours before the study and 48 hours after the last training session was conducted. The data Kolmogrov-Smirnov, t-test, One-Way Anova at significance level of p≤ 0.05 were analyzed in SPSS 17. Results: The results of research after 8 weeks showed that moderate-intensity aerobic exercise and omega-3 fatty acids supplementation, only increased in the exercise + omega-3 fatty acids group (7.8% that could not created a significant increase in plasma adiponectin concentration groups. Also in final of research did not show a significant difference between groups in compare after 8 weeks. Conclusion: The results showed that by aerobic exercise and use of omega-3 fatty acids and increase amounts of adiponectin and its anti boil property, perhaps maybe that, adiponectin by effect of its preservation has a great role in prevention and reduce of cardiovascular diseases.

  4. HIDROLISIS ENZIMATIK MINYAK IKAN UNTUK PRODUKSI ASAM LEMAK OMEGA-3 MENGGUNAKAN LIPASE DARI Aspergillus niger [Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Fish Oil for Production of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Using Lipase Derived from Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Fish oil is the source of important fatty-acid, especially polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) omega-3, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Lipase catalysis activity of Aspergillus niger is low when it is used in fish oil hydrolysis. The activity of the lipase can be increased by adding organic solvent such as hexane into the media. This research aimed to determine temperature, pH and amount of water which produce the highest degree of hydrolysis of fish oil in t...

  5. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on orexigenic and anorexigenic modulators at the onset of anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Eduardo J B; Romanova, Irina V; Suzuki, Susumu; Chen, Chung; Ugrumov, Michael V; Sato, Tomoi; Goncalves, Carolina G; Meguid, Michael M

    2005-06-07

    In cancer anorexia, a decrease in food intake (FI) occurs concomitant with changes in orexigenic peptides such as neuropeptide Y (NPY) and anorexigenic peptides such as alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and anorexigenic neurotransmitter serotonin. omega-3 Fatty acid (omega-3FA) inhibits cytokine synthesis, and delays tumor appearance, tumor growth, and onset of anorexia in tumor-bearing rats. We hypothesize that, in cancer anorexia, omega-3FA is associated with quantitative reversal of hypothalamic NPY, alpha-MSH, and serotonin receptor (5-HT(1B)-receptor) enhancing FI. Fischer rats were divided into: MCA tumor bearing fed chow (TB-Chow) or omega-3FA diet (TB-omega-3FA) and controls: non-tumor bearing fed chow (NTB-Chow) or omega-3FA diet (NTB-omega-3FA). Rats were euthanized at anorexia and brains were removed for hypothalamic immunohistochemical study, using NPY, alpha-MSH, and 5-HT(1B)-receptor-specific antibodies and slides assessed by image analysis. Immunostaining specificity was controlled by omission of primary or secondary antibodies and pre-absorption test. At anorexia, FI decreased (P anorexia, concomitant with an increase in FI, were probably mediated by omega-3FA inhibition of tumor-induced cytokines.

  6. The effect of omega-3 fatty acids on aggression: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajos, Jamie M; Beaver, Kevin M

    2016-10-01

    Evidence suggests that omega-3 fatty acids are important for a variety of mental health outcomes and have been shown to improve both mood and behaviors. However, there is little consensus on whether omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial for reducing aggressive behaviors. The current study assesses the relationship between omega-3 fatty acids and aggression. A total of 73 effect sizes were calculated among 40 studies involving 7173 participants from both intervention and observational research designs. Effect sizes were separately meta-analyzed for two-group comparison studies (SMD=0.20), pre-post contrast studies (ESsg=0.62), and associational studies (r=-0.06), in the fixed-effect model. Results from the random-effects model also suggest a range of effects of omega-3 fatty acids on reducing aggression (SMD=0.24; ESsg=0.82; r=-0.09). Patterns in the relationship between omega-3s and aggression were additionally observed. Moderator analyses indicated that the effect of omega-3s on aggression is conditioned by how aggressive behaviors are measured, such as through self-report or parent/teacher surveys.

  7. Genetic relationship of Sardinella lemuru from lombok strait with fish rich in omega-3 fatty acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrus; Sumitro, Sutiman Bambang; Utomo, Didik Huswo; Sartimbul, Aida; Toha, Abdul Hamid; Widodo, Nashi

    2012-01-01

    Lombok Strait has abundance of Sardine, Sardinella lemuru, which contains such high amount of omega-3 fatty acid (omega-3). However, the genetic relationship of S. lemuru with other commercial fish rich in omega-3 has not been widely studied yet. Studies on genetic proximity of S. lemuru with the other marine fish using 12S rRNA gene is very important in order to obtain genetic information of the Sardine to develop an appropriate strategy for future conservation of the fish in Lombok Strait. The aim of this study was to find out the genetic relationship of Sardinella lemuru living in Lombok Strait with the economically valuable fish and its correlation with omega-3 production. Sardinella lemuru were collected from Lombok Strait, the phylogenetic tree was done based on 12S rRNA gene through a neighbor-joining method to identify the relationship of Sardines and fish rich in omega-3 fatty acid. The phylogenetic tree showed that Sardinella lemuru is similar to Sardinella aurita and has a close similarity with Sardinella maderensis. However, the relationship did not correspond to omega-3 production. Based on the results of the study, it is suggested that the production of omega-3 is not specifically based on the proximity of the species, but it is more associated with conserved domain of Δ6-desaturase. Nevertheless, detailed mechanisms still need to be elucidated.

  8. Omega-3 fatty acids moderate effects of physical activity on cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckie, Regina L; Manuck, Stephen B; Bhattacharjee, Neha; Muldoon, Matthew F; Flory, Janine M; Erickson, Kirk I

    2014-07-01

    Greater amounts of physical activity (PA) and omega-3 fatty acids have both been independently associated with better cognitive performance. Because of the overlapping biological effects of omega-3 fatty acids and PA, fatty acid intake may modify the effects of PA on neurocognitive function. The present study tested this hypothesis by examining whether the ratio of serum omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid levels would moderate the association between PA and executive and memory functions in 344 participants (Mean age=44.42 years, SD=6.72). The Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ), serum fatty acid levels, and performance on a standard neuropsychological battery were acquired on all subjects. A principal component analysis reduced the number of cognitive outcomes to three factors: n-back working memory, Trail Making test, and Logical Memory. We found a significant interaction between PA and the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid serum levels on Trail Making performance and n-back performance, such that higher amounts of omega-3 levels offset the deleterious effects of lower amounts of PA. These effects remained significant in a subsample (n=299) controlling for overall dietary fat consumption. There were no significant additive or multiplicative benefits of higher amounts of both omega-3 and PA on cognitive performance. Our results demonstrate that a diet high in omega-3 fatty acids might mitigate the effect of lower levels of PA on cognitive performance. This study illuminates the importance of understanding dietary and PA factors in tandem when exploring their effects on neurocognitive health.

  9. Dietary omega-3 Fatty acids and psychiatry: mood, behaviour, stress, depression, dementia and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourre, J M

    2005-01-01

    In view of the high omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acid content of the brain, it is evident that these fats are involved in brain biochemistry, physiology and functioning; and thus in some neuropsychiatric diseases and in the cognitive decline of ageing. Though omega-3 fatty acids (from fatty fish in the human diet) appear effective in the prevention of stress, their role as regulator of mood and of libido is a matter for discussion pending experimental proof in animal and human models. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids play a role in the prevention of some disorders including depression, as well as in dementia, particularly Alzheimer's disease. Their direct role in major depression, bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disease) and schizophrenia is not yet established. Their deficiency can prevent the renewal of membranes, and thus accelerate cerebral ageing; none the less, the respective roles of the vascular component on one hand (where the omega-3's are active) and the cerebral parenchyma itself on the other, have not yet been clearly resolved. The role of omega-3 in certain diseases such as dyslexia and autism is suggested. In fact, omega-3 fatty acids participated in the first coherent experimental demonstration of the effect of dietary substances (nutrients) on the structure and function of the brain. Experiments were first of all carried out one x-vivo cultured brain cells (1), then on in vivo brain cells(2), finally on physiochemical, biochemical, physiological, neurosensory, and behavioural parameters (3). These findings indicated that the nature of poly unsaturated fatty acids(in particular omega-3) present in formula milks for infants (both premature and term) determines the visual, cerebral,and intellectual abilities, as described in a recent review (4). Indeed,the insufficient dietary supply of omega-3 fatty acids in today's French and occidental diet raises the problem of how to correct dietary habits so that the consumer will select foods that are genuinely

  10. The importance of omega-3 fatty acids for behaviour, cognition and mood

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Alexandra J.

    2003-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that functional deficiencies or imbalances in certain highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) of the omega-3 and omega-6 series may contribute to a wide range of developmental and psychiatric conditions, including dyslexia, dyspraxia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, depression, bipolar disorder and the schizophrenia spectrum. These nutrients are essential to the development and function of the brain, but the omega-3 HUFA in particular (eicosap...

  11. Internet-based, randomized, controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acids for hyperactivity in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Stephen; Hendren, Robert L; Zandi, Tara; Law, Kiely; Choi, Jae-Eun; Widjaja, Felicia; Kalb, Luther; Nestle, Jay; Law, Paul

    2014-06-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests that omega-3 fatty acids may reduce hyperactivity in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We sought to examine the feasibility of a novel, Internet-based clinical trial design to evaluate the efficacy of this supplement. E-mail invitations were sent to parents of children aged 5 to 8 years enrolled in the Interactive Autism Network. All study procedures, including screening, informed consent, and collection of outcome measures took place over the Internet. The primary outcome measures were parent- and teacher-rated changes in hyperactivity on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-H). During the 6-week recruitment period, 57 children from 28 states satisfied all eligibility criteria and were randomly assigned to 1.3 grams of omega-3 fatty acids or an identical placebo daily for 6 weeks. Outcome assessments were obtained from all 57 participants and 57 teachers, and the study was completed in 3 months. Children in the omega-3 fatty acid group had a greater reduction in hyperactivity (-5.3 points) compared to the placebo group (-2.6 points), but the difference was not statistically significant (1.9-point greater improvement in the omega-3 group, 95% CI = -2.2 to 5.2). Adverse events were rare and not associated with omega-3 fatty acids. Participant feedback was positive. Internet-based, randomized controlled trials of therapies in children with ASD are feasible and may lead to marked reductions in the time and cost of completing trials. A larger sample size is required to definitively determine the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids. Clinical trial registration information-Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Hyperactivity Treatment in Autism Spectrum Disorder; http://clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01694667. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Supplementation with Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Psychiatric Disorders: A Review of Literature Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzatello, Paola; Brignolo, Elena; De Grandi, Elisa; Bellino, Silvio

    2016-07-27

    A new application for omega-3 fatty acids has recently emerged, concerning the treatment of several mental disorders. This indication is supported by data of neurobiological research, as highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) are highly concentrated in neural phospholipids and are important components of the neuronal cell membrane. They modulate the mechanisms of brain cell signaling, including the dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways. The aim of this review is to provide a complete and updated account of the empirical evidence of the efficacy and safety that are currently available for omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. The main evidence for the effectiveness of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been obtained in mood disorders, in particular in the treatment of depressive symptoms in unipolar and bipolar depression. There is some evidence to support the use of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of conditions characterized by a high level of impulsivity and aggression and borderline personality disorders. In patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, small-to-modest effects of omega-3 HUFAs have been found. The most promising results have been reported by studies using high doses of EPA or the association of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. In schizophrenia, current data are not conclusive and do not allow us either to refuse or support the indication of omega-3 fatty acids. For the remaining psychiatric disturbances, including autism spectrum disorders, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders and substance use disorder, the data are too scarce to draw any conclusion. Concerning tolerability, several studies concluded that omega-3 can be considered safe and well tolerated at doses up to 5 g/day.

  13. Supplementation with Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Psychiatric Disorders: A Review of Literature Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Bozzatello

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new application for omega-3 fatty acids has recently emerged, concerning the treatment of several mental disorders. This indication is supported by data of neurobiological research, as highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs are highly concentrated in neural phospholipids and are important components of the neuronal cell membrane. They modulate the mechanisms of brain cell signaling, including the dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways. The aim of this review is to provide a complete and updated account of the empirical evidence of the efficacy and safety that are currently available for omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. The main evidence for the effectiveness of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA has been obtained in mood disorders, in particular in the treatment of depressive symptoms in unipolar and bipolar depression. There is some evidence to support the use of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of conditions characterized by a high level of impulsivity and aggression and borderline personality disorders. In patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, small-to-modest effects of omega-3 HUFAs have been found. The most promising results have been reported by studies using high doses of EPA or the association of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. In schizophrenia, current data are not conclusive and do not allow us either to refuse or support the indication of omega-3 fatty acids. For the remaining psychiatric disturbances, including autism spectrum disorders, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders and substance use disorder, the data are too scarce to draw any conclusion. Concerning tolerability, several studies concluded that omega-3 can be considered safe and well tolerated at doses up to 5 g/day.

  14. Cell type-specific modulation of lipid mediator's formation in murine adipose tissue by omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuda, Ondrej; Rombaldova, Martina; Janovska, Petra; Flachs, Pavel; Kopecky, Jan

    2016-01-15

    Mutual interactions between adipocytes and immune cells in white adipose tissue (WAT) are involved in modulation of lipid metabolism in the tissue and also in response to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which counteract adverse effects of obesity. This complex interplay depends in part on in situ formed anti- as well as pro-inflammatory lipid mediators, but cell types engaged in the synthesis of the specific mediators need to be better characterized. We used tissue fractionation and metabolipidomic analysis to identify cells producing lipid mediators in epididymal WAT of mice fed for 5 weeks obesogenic high-fat diet (lipid content 35% wt/wt), which was supplemented or not by omega-3 PUFA (4.3 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 14.7 mg docosahexaenoic acid per g of diet). Our results demonstrate selective increase in levels of anti-inflammatory lipid mediators in WAT in response to omega-3, reflecting either their association with adipocytes (endocannabinoid-related N-docosahexaenoylethanolamine) or with stromal vascular cells (pro-resolving lipid mediator protectin D1). In parallel, tissue levels of obesity-associated pro-inflammatory endocannabinoids were suppressed. Moreover, we show that adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs), which could be isolated using magnetic force from the stromal vascular fraction, are not the major producers of protectin D1 and that omega-3 PUFA lowered lipid load in ATMs while promoting their less-inflammatory phenotype. Taken together, these results further document specific roles of various cell types in WAT in control of WAT inflammation and metabolism and they suggest that also other cells but ATMs are engaged in production of pro-resolving lipid mediators in response to omega-3 PUFA.

  15. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2016-01-01

    In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have sugg...

  16. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Simopoulos, Artemis P.

    2016-01-01

    In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have sugg...

  17. Mitigation of hepatotoxic effects of arsenic trioxide through omega-3 fatty acid in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Varghese V; Paul, Mv Sauganth; Abhilash, M; Manju, Alex; Abhilash, S; Nair, R Harikumaran

    2014-10-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) is an effective drug in the treatment of leukaemia and many solid tumours. In clinical trials, arsenic therapy is closely associated with hepatic toxicity. The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid against As(2)O(3)-induced hepatotoxicity. A 4 mg/kg body weight (bw) of As(2)O(3) was orally administered to Wistar male rats for 45 days. Hepatotoxicity was evaluated by biochemical tests, antioxidant assays and histopathological examinations. Arsenic accumulation was found in the liver tissue of rats treated with As(2)O(3). Hepatoprotective efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid was analysed by the combination therapy with As(2)O(3). In vivo studies revealed a significant rise in lipid peroxidation with concomitant decline in reduced glutathione, glutathione-dependant antioxidant enzymes and antiperoxidative enzymes in the liver tissue of rats treated with arsenic. The supplementation of omega-3 fatty acid at a dose of 50 mg/kg bw with As(2)O(3) offers ameliorative effect against hepatocellular toxicity. Omega-3 fatty acid maintained hepatic marker enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and decreased lipid peroxidation. The combination treatment clearly reduced the hepatic structural abnormalities such as haemorrhage, necrosis and cholangiofibrosis in the rats treated with arsenic. This study concludes that the omega-3 fatty acid might be useful for the protection against As(2)O(3)-induced hepatotoxicity. © The Author(s) 2012.

  18. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acid supply in pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Irene; Koletzko, Berthold

    2008-05-01

    Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids are essential for the developing fetus. Docosahexaenoic acid, the most important omega-3 fatty acid, is an important component of neural and retinal membranes, and rapidly accumulates in the brain during gestation and the postnatal period. Positive associations have been shown between maternal intake of fish, seafood and omega-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and/or lactation and visual and cognitive development. The review focuses on new findings by both observational and interventional studies on the influence of omega-3 fatty acids during pregnancy or lactation on gestation length and birth weight, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, maternal depression and infant visual function and neural development. Omega-3 fatty acids have been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other diseases. Observational and interventional studies indicate a significant association with prolonging gestation and reducing the risk of preterm delivery both in low-risk and in high-risk pregnancies. Further benefits have been suggested for intrauterine growth restriction, preeclampsia and postpartum depression, but the evidence is inconclusive. Higher maternal docosahexaenoic acid intake both in pregnancy and lactation is associated with positive infant neurodevelopmental outcomes. Women of reproductive age should achieve an average dietary docosahexaenoic acid intake of at least 200 mg/day.

  19. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and cognitive function: are smaller dosages more beneficial?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakari AR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdul-Razak Abubakari,1 Mohammad-Mahdi Naderali,2 Ebrahim K Naderali3 1School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, London, UK; 2Blue Coat School, Liverpool, UK; 3School of Health Sciences, Liverpool Hope University, Hope Park Campus, Liverpool, UK Abstract: As longevity increases, so does the global prevalence of cognitive dysfunction. Numerous lifestyle and/or dietary interventions such as omega-3 fatty acids have been suggested to improve memory. Therefore, this study examined the consistency and strength of the impact of supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids on overall cognitive function using systematic reviews and meta-analytic methods. Of 905 studies retrieved from all searches, 12 randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. There were differences between studies reporting outcomes for single memory function parameters. Subgroup analysis of doses used (low versus high indicated that subjects receiving low (<1.73 g/day doses of omega-3 fatty acids had a significant reduction in cognitive decline rate (-0.07, 95% confidence interval -0.01, -0.02 but there was no evidence for beneficial effects at higher doses (+0.04, 95% confidence interval -0.06, +0.14 compared with the placebo group. This study suggests that omega-3 fatty acids may be beneficial in preventing memory decline at lower doses. Keywords: cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, dietary fatty acids, omega-3, docosahexaenoic acid

  20. Omega-3 fatty acids: potential role in the management of early Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A Jicha

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Gregory A Jicha, William R MarkesberyUniversity of Kentucky Alzheimer’s Disease Center and the Sanders-Brown Center on Aging University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, USAbstract: Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for brain growth and development. They play an important role throughout life, as critical modulators of neuronal function and regulation of oxidative stress mechanisms, in brain health and disease. Docosahexanoic acid (DHA, the major omega-3 fatty acid found in neurons, has taken on a central role as a target for therapeutic intervention in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. A plethora of in vitro, animal model, and human data, gathered over the past decade, highlight the important role DHA may play in the development of a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including AD. Cross sectional and prospective cohort data have demonstrated that reduced dietary intake or low brain levels of DHA are associated with accelerated cognitive decline or the development of incipient dementia, including AD. Several clinical trials investigating the effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in AD have been completed and all failed to demonstrate its efficacy in the treatment of AD. However, these trials produced intriguing data suggesting that the beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may depend on the stage of disease, other dietary mediators, and apolipoprotein E status.Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, omega-3 fatty acids, oxidative stress, clinical studies, treatment

  1. 围手术期序贯应用ω-3多不饱和脂肪酸对胃癌患者术后炎性反应及临床疗效的影响%Effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on postoperative inflammatory reaction and clinical efficacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王大广; 张华; 张洋; 李伟; 孙璇; 邢雁鹏; 所剑

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on postoperative inflammatory response and clinical efficacy in gastric cancer patients with nutritional risk. Methods All patients with gastric cancer in our department from June 2013 to January 2014 undergoing radical gastrectomy were prospectively enrolled in the study. Patients who matched the selection criteria were randomly divided into two groups: trial group (with omega-3 PUFA in parenteral nutrition) and control group (without omega-3 PUFA in parenteral nutrition). Levels of inflammatory factors (serum CRP, TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, IL-10) and nutrition-related proteins (prealbumin, retinol conjugated protein and transferrin) were compared between the two groups before operation and 2, 4 and 6 days after operation. Incidence of postoperative systemic inflammatory response syndrome(SIRS) and other indicators associated with efficacy were compared between the two groups as well. Results Forty-seven patients were finally included in this study with 21 patients in the trial group and other 26 in the control group. There were no significant differences of inflammatory factors and nutrition-related proteins between the two groups before operation (all P>0.05). In the 6th days after operation, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including CRP, IL-1 and IL-6 were significantly lower in the trial group as compared to the control group, while the level of IL-10 (inhibiting inflammatory cytokine) was higher in the trial group, as well as levels of nutrition proteins (all P0.05)。术后第6天,试验组促炎因子TNF-α、IL-1、IL-6及CRP水平均明显低于对照组(均P<0.05),而抑炎因子IL-10及营养学指标前白蛋白、视黄醇结合蛋白和转铁蛋白则均明显高于对照组(均P<0.05)。试验组患者术后SIRS发生率明显低于对照组[57.1%(12/21)比84.6%(22/26), P=0.036]。与对照组相比,试验组患者的肠鸣音恢复时间明显加快[(12.3±1.1) d

  2. Beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids in the proteome of high-density lipoprotein proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burillo Elena

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs have demonstrated to be beneficial in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, however, the mechanisms by which they perform their cardiovascular protection have not been clarified. Intriguingly, some of these protective effects have also been linked to HDL. The hypothesis of this study was that ω-3 PUFAs could modify the protein cargo of HDL particle in a triglyceride non-dependent mode. The objective of the study was to compare the proteome of HDL before and after ω-3 PUFAs supplemented diet. Methods A comparative proteomic analysis in 6 smoker subjects HDL before and after a 5 weeks ω-3 PUFAs enriched diet has been performed. Results Among the altered proteins, clusterin, paraoxonase, and apoAI were found to increase, while fibronectin, α-1-antitrypsin, complement C1r subcomponent and complement factor H decreased after diet supplementation with ω-3 PUFAs. Immunodetection assays confirmed these results. The up-regulated proteins are related to anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic properties of HDL, while the down-regulated proteins are related to regulation of complement activation and acute phase response. Conclusions Despite the low number of subjects included in the study, our findings demonstrate that ω-3 PUFAs supplementation modifies lipoprotein containing apoAI (LpAI proteome and suggest that these protein changes improve the functionality of the particle.

  3. Insulin-Sensitizing Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Lost in Translation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antigoni Z. Lalia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA of marine origin, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, have been long studied for their therapeutic potential in the context of type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, and glucose homeostasis. Glaring discordance between observations in animal and human studies precludes, to date, any practical application of n-3 PUFA as nutritional therapeutics against insulin resistance in humans. Our objective in this review is to summarize current knowledge and provide an up-to-date commentary on the therapeutic value of EPA and DHA supplementation for improving insulin sensitivity in humans. We also sought to discuss potential mechanisms of n-3 PUFA action in target tissues, in specific skeletal muscle, based on our recent work, as well as in liver and adipose tissue. We conducted a literature search to include all preclinical and clinical studies performed within the last two years and to comment on representative studies published earlier. Recent studies support a growing consensus that there are beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA on insulin sensitivity in rodents. Observational studies in humans are encouraging, however, the vast majority of human intervention studies fail to demonstrate the benefit of n-3 PUFA in type 2 diabetes or insulin-resistant non-diabetic people. Nevertheless, there are still several unanswered questions regarding the potential impact of n-3 PUFA on metabolic function in humans.

  4. Omega-3 fatty acids improve psychomotor performance via mechanism not related to nitric acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan S. M. Al-Nimer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3FAs are essential polyunsaturated fats that protect the brain from cognitive impairment. It increases the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthetase (eNOS and thereby increases the nitric acid (NO production. This study aimed to explore the effect of ω-3FAs on psychomotor performance and to relate this effect to the reactive nitrogen species. This study was conducted in Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Al-Mustansiriya University in Baghdad, Iraq. Twenty healthy subjects, allocated randomly from medical college students, were participated in the single blind clinical trial. Participants were divided into two groups, each of ten subjects to receive either placebo or (ω-3FAs (750 mg single oral dose daily for 5 days. They were asked to perform psychomotor performance before and after 5 days of treatment, and venous blood was obtained for determination of serum nitric oxide (NO and peroxynitrite (ONOO. ω-3FAs treated group was significantly different from placebo-treated group in reducing choice and motor reaction times as well as the critical flicker frequency threshold. The serum levels of NO and ONOO in ω-3FAs-treated group did not significantly differ from placebo-treated group. Short term supplementation of ω-3FAs improves the psychomotor performance in young healthy subjects via a mechanism not related to the production of nitric oxide production. Inflorescence is a panicle few flowered and fruit is a capsule. The data of the results obtained were presented and discussed.

  5. Role of Arginine and Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Wound Healing and Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, J Wesley; Supp, Dorothy M

    2014-11-01

    Significance: Only a few decades ago, the primary focus of nutritional supplementation was to prevent deficiencies of essential nutrients. It is now recognized that, at higher than essential levels, selected nutrients can have a pharmacologic effect to prevent or treat disease. Recent Advances: Two of the most important pharmaconutrients, arginine, and the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oil, have been shown to have profound effects on wound healing and infections. Critical Issues: Both arginine and fish oils have independent benefits, but the combination appears to be much more effective. This combination has been shown to affect outcomes involving wound healing and infections, as reviewed here, and can also affect incidence and outcomes in cardiovascular disease, diabetes, organ transplant rejection, and other inflammatory conditions. These possibilities have not yet progressed to widespread clinical application. Future Directions: The optimal combinations of immunonutrients, timing of administration, and the doses needed for best results need to be determined in preclinical and clinical studies. Also, the mechanisms involved in the administration of pharmaconutrients need to be established.

  6. Omega-3 long chain fatty acid "bioavailability": a review of evidence and methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemifard, Samaneh; Turchini, Giovanni M; Sinclair, Andrew J

    2014-10-01

    This review considers the bioavailability of different forms of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA), including ethyl esters (EEs), free fatty acids (FFAs), triacylglycerols (TAGs) and phospholipids (PLs). The retrieved studies include short-term and longer-term studies in humans, and a number of animal studies, which were highly heterogeneous in their design making it difficult to draw substantiated conclusions. The apparent bioavailability (as defined by the authors of these studies) seems to be lowest for the EE form and highest for the FFA form, whilst no conclusion can be made for TAG versus PL from human data. Animal studies suggest that there are substantial differences in the bioavailability of PL form of LC-PUFA compared with the TAG form. This apparent limited knowledge and understanding is fundamentally driven by methodological limitations of these studies. The major limitations with the studies to date include: (between studies) loose definition of the term "bioavailability", lack of standardisation of analytical methodology, and differences in which blood compartment was analysed; (within a study) failure to provide equal amounts the n-3 LC-PUFA of the different forms being compared, failure to provide the dose of n-3 LC-PUFA on a body weight basis, failure to measure fatty acid excretion, failure to control the total fat intake, and failure to adequately power the studies from a statistical point of view. This review has laid out a set of suggestions and criteria for conducting future studies on the bioavailability of different chemical forms of n-3 LC-PUFA.

  7. Interactions between prebiotics, probiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols: diet or supplementation for metabolic syndrome prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Ilaria; Romanelli, Luca; Palmery, Maura

    2014-05-01

    The metabolic syndrome can be prevented by the Mediterranean diet, characterized by fiber, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols. However, the composition of the Mediterranean diet, which can be viewed as a natural multiple supplement, is poorly controlled, and its beneficial effects poorly predictable. The metabolic syndrome is associated with intestinal dysbiosis and the gut microbioma seems to be the main target and player in the interactions occurring between probiotics, prebiotics, omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and polyphenols. From the reviewed evidence, it is reasonable to manage growth and metabolism of gut microflora with specific prebiotics and polyphenols. Even though the healthy properties of functional foods and nutraceuticals still need to be fully elucidated, available data suggest that well-designed supplements, containing the better ratio of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants, specific probiotic strains, and selected polyphenols and prebiotics, could be useful in metabolic syndrome prevention and treatment.

  8. Treating asthma with omega-3 fatty acids: where is the evidence? A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampson M

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable interest exists in the potential therapeutic value of dietary supplementation with the omega-3 fatty acids. Given the interplay between pro-inflammatory omega-6 fatty acids, and the less pro-inflammatory omega-3 fatty acids, it has been thought that the latter could play a key role in treating or preventing asthma. The purpose was to systematically review the scientific-medical literature in order to identify, appraise, and synthesize the evidence for possible treatment effects of omega-3 fatty acids in asthma. Methods Medline, Premedline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CAB Health, and, Dissertation Abstracts were searched to April 2003. We included randomized controlled trials (RCT's of subjects of any age that used any foods or extracts containing omega-3 fatty acids as treatment or prevention for asthma. Data included all asthma related outcomes, potential covariates, characteristics of the study, design, population, intervention/exposure, comparators, and co interventions. Results Ten RCT's were found pertinent to the present report. Conclusion Given the largely inconsistent picture within and across respiratory outcomes, it is impossible to determine whether or not omega-3 fatty acids are an efficacious adjuvant or monotherapy for children or adults. Based on this systematic review we recommend a large randomized controlled study of the effects of high-dose encapsulated omega-3 fatty acids on ventilatory and inflammatory measures of asthma controlling diet and other asthma risk factors. This review was limited because Meta-analysis was considered inappropriate due to missing data; poorly or heterogeneously defined populations, interventions, intervention-comparator combinations, and outcomes. In addition, small sample sizes made it impossible to meaningfully assess the impact on clinical outcomes of co-variables. Last, few significant effects were found.

  9. Fish Oil Microencapsulation as Omega-3 Fatty Acids Fortification Material for Cream of Crab Soup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiara Putri Pramesti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids have important roles in improvement of intelligent and health of human. Microencapsulation of fish oil as source of omega-3 fatty acids is an effort to maintain flavor, aroma, stability, and also to successfully transfer bioactive component from the fish oil as fortification material for foods or medicines. Improvement of instant crab cream soup enriched with fish oil as source of omega-3 fatty acid has never been conducted before. The purpose of this research was to improve microencapsulation method for fish oil as source of omega-3 fatty acids as fortification material for instant cream of crab soup. Microencapsulation methods in this research are homogenization and spray drying. The results showed that the best microcapsule was obtained from homogenization treatment for 10 minutes with efficiency of 90.41±0.64%. The shape of the obtained microcapsule was spherical with average size of 6.52 μm, with induction time up to 26.09±0.01 hours. The best cream of crab soup formula was at fish oil microcapsule concentration of 3.30%, with 8.19% daily value of omega-3, inclusion 11.32% of EPA and DHA at serving size of 17.56 gram.

  10. Childrens' Learning and Behaviour and the Association with Cheek Cell Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, A.; Woodward, A.; Jackson, S.; Wang, Y.; Crawford, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing interest in the role of omega-3 fatty acids in relation to neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. ADHD, dyslexia, autism) has occurred as a consequence of some international studies highlighting this link. In particular, some studies have shown that children with ADHD may have lower concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs),…

  11. Omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA: health benefits throughout life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Danielle; Block, Robert; Mousa, Shaker A

    2012-01-01

    Omega-3 [(n-3)] fatty acids have been linked to healthy aging throughout life. Recently, fish-derived omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA have been associated with fetal development, cardiovascular function, and Alzheimer's disease. However, because our bodies do not efficiently produce some omega-3 fatty acids from marine sources, it is necessary to obtain adequate amounts through fish and fish-oil products. Studies have shown that EPA and DHA are important for proper fetal development, including neuronal, retinal, and immune function. EPA and DHA may affect many aspects of cardiovascular function including inflammation, peripheral artery disease, major coronary events, and anticoagulation. EPA and DHA have been linked to promising results in prevention, weight management, and cognitive function in those with very mild Alzheimer's disease.

  12. Supplementation with eicosapentaenoic omega-3 fatty acid does not influence serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in diabetes mellitus patients with major depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bot, Mariska; Pouwer, Francois; Assies, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels are observed in both depressed and diabetes patients. Animal research has shown that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids increase BDNF levels. In this exploratory randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study in diabetes patients...... severity were not significantly associated (Spearman's ρ = -0.115, p = 0.593). CONCLUSION: Our study does not provide evidence that supplementation with E-EPA improves BDNF levels in depressed diabetes patients already using antidepressants....

  13. Feasibility of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation as an adjunct therapy for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, Ashley S; Hill, Alison M.; Williams, Marie T; Howe, Peter RC; Frith, Peter A; Wood, Lisa G.; Garg, Manohar L.; Coates, Alison M.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is evidence to support the use of supplementation with long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFA) from oily fish or fish oil for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive, terminal disease characterized by persistent airflow limitation, lung and systemic inflammation. To date, one randomized controlled trial has been published that assessed the efficacy of LCn-3PUF...

  14. The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid is required for normal alcohol response behaviors in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C Raabe

    Full Text Available Alcohol addiction is a widespread societal problem, for which there are few treatments. There are significant genetic and environmental influences on abuse liability, and understanding these factors will be important for the identification of susceptible individuals and the development of effective pharmacotherapies. In humans, the level of response to alcohol is strongly predictive of subsequent alcohol abuse. Level of response is a combination of counteracting responses to alcohol, the level of sensitivity to the drug and the degree to which tolerance develops during the drug exposure, called acute functional tolerance. We use the simple and well-characterized nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans to model the acute behavioral effects of ethanol to identify genetic and environmental factors that influence level of response to ethanol. Given the strong molecular conservation between the neurobiological machinery of worms and humans, cellular-level effects of ethanol are likely to be conserved. Increasingly, variation in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels has been implicated in complex neurobiological phenotypes in humans, and we recently found that fatty acid levels modify ethanol responses in worms. Here, we report that 1 eicosapentaenoic acid, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is required for the development of acute functional tolerance, 2 dietary supplementation of eicosapentaenoic acid is sufficient for acute tolerance, and 3 dietary eicosapentaenoic acid can alter the wild-type response to ethanol. These results suggest that genetic variation influencing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels may be important abuse liability loci, and that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids may be an important environmental modulator of the behavioral response to ethanol.

  15. Exposure to omega-3 fatty acids at early age accelerate bone growth and improve bone quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Netta; Simsa-Maziel, Stav; Shahar, Ron; Schwartz, Betty; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat

    2014-06-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) are essential nutritional components that must be obtained from foods. Increasing evidence validate that omega-3 FAs are beneficial for bone health, and several mechanisms have been suggested to mediate their effects on bone, including alterations in calcium absorption and urinary calcium loss, prostaglandin synthesis, lipid oxidation, osteoblast formation and inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. However, to date, there is scant information regarding the effect of omega-3 FAs on the developing skeleton during the rapid growth phase. In this study we aim to evaluate the effect of exposure to high levels of omega-3 FAs on bone development and quality during prenatal and early postnatal period. For this purpose, we used the fat-1 transgenic mice that have the ability to convert omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids and the ATDC5 chondrogenic cell line as models. We show that exposure to high concentrations of omega-3 FAs at a young age accelerates bone growth through alterations of the growth plate, associated with increased chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. We further propose that those effects are mediated by the receptors G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) and hepatic nuclear factor 4α, which are expressed by chondrocytes in culture. Additionally, using a combined study on the structural and mechanical bone parameters, we show that high omega-3 levels contribute to superior trabecular and cortical structure, as well as to stiffer bones and improved bone quality. Most interestingly, the fat-1 model allowed us to demonstrate the role of maternal high omega-3 concentration on bone growth during the gestation and postnatal period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative analysis of the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids for hypertriglyceridaemia management in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-S; Kim, H; Jeong, Y J; Yang, S J; Baik, S J; Lee, H; Lee, S-H; Cho, J H; Choi, I-Y; Yim, H W; Yoon, K-H

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to compare the ability of statin monotherapy (ST group), omega-3 fatty acid monotherapy (OM_A group) and combination therapy with omega-3 fatty acids and a statin (OM_S group), to reduce triglyceride (TG) levels in patients with hypertriglyceridaemia. In this retrospective cohort study, we extracted data from the electronic medical records of patients initially prescribed either a statin or omega-3 fatty acids between January, 2009 and December, 2013. We performed a comparative analysis of the change in cholesterol levels between baseline and an average of 3 months later. Data were extracted for 2071 patients. The average daily eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ethyl ester and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ethyl ester intake was 1689 mg, and 79-86% of the OM_A and OM_S groups were prescribed two omega-3 fatty acid capsules. At a baseline TG level of between 200 and 500 mg/dL, TG levels were reduced by 16 ± 2·8% in the ST group, 28 ± 2·8% in the OM_A group and 29 ± 2·3% in the OM_S group (P = 0·001 for ST group vs. OM_A and OM_S groups), with no difference between the OM_A and OM_S groups. At a baseline TG level ≥500 mg/dL, there was no difference in TG level reduction between the three groups (54 ± 7·3%, 55·8 ± 3·5% and 51·8 ± 6·8%, respectively, P = 0·851). Although omega-3 fatty acids are not considered the primary medication for hypertriglyceridaemia, the prescription of omega-3 fatty acids is justifiable if reduction in TG levels is judged to be necessary. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The Microbiota of Freshwater Fish and Freshwater Niches Contain Omega-3 Fatty Acid-Producing Shewanella Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Frank E; McGraw, Joseph E; Jensen, Brittany J; Bishop, Sydney S; Lokken, James P; Dorff, Kellen J; Ripley, Michael P; Munro, James B

    2015-10-23

    Approximately 30 years ago, it was discovered that free-living bacteria isolated from cold ocean depths could produce polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (20:5n-3) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (22:6n-3), two PUFA essential for human health. Numerous laboratories have also discovered that EPA- and/or DHA-producing bacteria, many of them members of the Shewanella genus, could be isolated from the intestinal tracts of omega-3 fatty acid-rich marine fish. If bacteria contribute omega-3 fatty acids to the host fish in general or if they assist some bacterial species in adaptation to cold, then cold freshwater fish or habitats should also harbor these producers. Thus, we undertook a study to see if these niches also contained omega-3 fatty acid producers. We were successful in isolating and characterizing unique EPA-producing strains of Shewanella from three strictly freshwater native fish species, i.e., lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), lean lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and walleye (Sander vitreus), and from two other freshwater nonnative fish, i.e., coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and seeforellen brown trout (Salmo trutta). We were also able to isolate four unique free-living strains of EPA-producing Shewanella from freshwater habitats. Phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses suggest that one producer is clearly a member of the Shewanella morhuae species and another is sister to members of the marine PUFA-producing Shewanella baltica species. However, the remaining isolates have more ambiguous relationships, sharing a common ancestor with non-PUFA-producing Shewanella putrefaciens isolates rather than marine S. baltica isolates despite having a phenotype more consistent with S. baltica strains. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Influence of selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid on serum mineral profile and nutrient utilization of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid on serum mineral profile and nutrient utilization of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: The present study was a 2×3 factorial arrangement of two levels of selenomethionine (0 and 0.3 ppm and three levels of omega-3 fatty acid (0, 0.5 and 1%. Day-old Vencobb broiler chicks (n=180, were randomly assigned in six treatment groups. The experiment lasted for 42 days. Treatment groups followed of: Group I was a control. Group II, III, IV, V and VI were supplemented with 0 ppm selenomethionine with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid, 0 ppm selenomethionine with 1% omega-3 fatty acid, 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 0% omega-3 fatty acid, 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid and 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 1% omega-3 fatty acid, respectively. Linseed oil was used as a source of omega-3 fatty acid while sel-plex is used for selenomethionine supplementation. Results: Significant (p<0.05 interaction exist between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for serum zinc and iron concentration whereas, it was non-significant for serum calcium and copper. Significantly (p<0.05 increased concentration of selenium, zinc, iron and phosphorus was observed in birds fed 0.3 ppm selenomethionine whereas, significantly (p<0.05 increased zinc and iron was observed in birds fed 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid. There was significant (p<0.05 interaction exist between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for calcium and phosphorus retention percentage. The maximum retention of calcium and phosphorus was recorded in birds supplemented with 0.3 ppm selenomethionine in combination with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid. There was marked interaction between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for hemoglobin (Hb, total erythrocytic count, total leukocytic count and platelets (p<0.05 however, it was non-significant for mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular Hb, MCH concentration

  19. Coincidence of remission of postpartum Graves' disease and use of omega-3 fatty acid supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breese McCoy Sarah J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract I developed Graves' Disease four months postpartum. After one year on propylthiouracil, I learned that omega-3 fatty acids may reduce inflammation associated with certain autoimmune disorders, although no investigations for thyroiditis have been reported. Within eight weeks of beginning flaxseed oil supplements, TSH levels normalized, but fell somewhat when flaxseed was decreased and PTU discontinued. During another pregnancy, plasma TSH normalized, but was again suppressed by four weeks postpartum, then undetectable by four months. This time, flaxseed supplementation alone coincided with TSH normalization. Omega-3 fatty acids should be investigated as a potential treatment for autoimmune thyroid disease.

  20. Alternative origins for omega-3 fatty acids in the diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenihan-Geels, Georgia; Bishop, Karen S.

    2016-01-01

    Fish and seafood are important sources for LC PUFAs, EPA and DHA. These fatty acids may be synthesised in the body from short-chain fatty acids, including ALA; however, the enzymes involved in this pathway are considered inefficient. This means direct EPA and DHA sources are an important part of

  1. Supplementation with the omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid: influence on the lipid composition and fatty acid profile of human milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Aparecida Fagundes Queiroz Bortolozo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the impact of supplementing the diet of women during pregnancy and lactation with fish oil containing the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid, and its influence on the composition of human milk. METHODS: The sample comprised 60 women aged 18 to 38 years with appropriate dietary pattern, all of them healthy and nonsmokers. The intervention consisted of a daily supplementation with fish oil capsules that corresponded to a daily intake of 315mg of docosahexaenoic acid and 80mg of eicosapentaenoic acid during the third trimester of pregnancy and the first three months postpartum. The total fat content and fatty acid profile of their milk were determined by creamatocrit and gas chromatography. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis and the significance level was set at p<0.05. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference between the fat contents of the study (fish oil capsules and control (capsules containing corn starch as filler groups. However, the milk of women taking fish oil contained higher docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid levels 30 and 60 days after delivery. These results demonstrate that high omega-3 intake can influence its concentration in human milk. CONCLUSIONS: Given the importance of docosahexaenoic acid in the neonatal period, it is appropriate for pregnant and breastfeeding women to supplement on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which may be done by adding fish oil to the regular diet.

  2. ω-3多不饱和脂肪酸对胃癌病人术后炎性反应和疲劳综合征的影响%The effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on inflammatory reaction and postoperative fatigue of patients with gastric carcinoma after operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周锋; 张培趁; 余震; 章晓东; 余作黔; 姚建高

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究ω-3多不饱和脂肪酸(PUFA)对胃癌病人术后炎性反应和疲劳综合征的影响. 方法:42例胃癌病人随机分为对照组(n=23)和试验组(n=19).对照组病人按低氮、低热量原则,于术后连续5d行肠外营养(PN)治疗,试验组病人加用ω-3 PUFA.检测两组病人术前和术后第1、3、5天炎症因子IL-1β、IL-2、IL-6、TNF-α、IL-12水平和术前及术后第1、5天肝肾功能,同时记录病人术前和术后第1、3、5、7天的疲劳评分、术后肛门排气时间和并发症的发生情况. 结果:术后第3天IL-1β、TNF-α和IL-6浓度最高,两组无显著性差异.术后第5天,试验组IL-1-β、TNF-α和IL-6浓度明显低于对照组(P<0.05).疲劳评分分值术后第3天最高,试验组病人术后第3、5、7天疲劳评分均低于对照组,两组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).两组病人GPT、GOT、肌酐和尿酸术后第5天较第1天均有下降,试验组下降更明显,与对照组比有显著性差异(P<0.05). 结论:ω-3 PUFA能减轻胃癌病人术后的炎性反应和疲劳,促进术后康复.%Objective:To investigate the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid on inflammatory reaction and postoperative fatigue of patients with gastric carcinoma after operation. Methods: 42 cases with gastric carcinoma were randomly divided into control group (n = 23) and study group(n = 19).The two group patients were treated with hypocaloric parenteral nutrition, and the study group received ω-3 fatty acids additionally. The total parenteral nutrition was transfused from the first day to the fifth day after operation. The levels of serum IL-1-β,IL-2,IL-6,TNF-α,IL-12 were detected on the day before the operation,the first,third and fifth day after operation. Liver function,kidney function were detected on the day before the operation, the first and fifth day after operation. Fatigue score were measured on day before the operation, the first, third, fifth and seventh day after

  3. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyungjae; Kang, SeokBeom; Park, Woo Jung

    2016-01-04

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism.

  4. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Min Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism.

  5. Effects of microencapsulation on bioavailability of fish oil omega-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Philip Carsten B; Yang, Mingshi; Mu, Huiling

    2016-01-01

    Increased research interest in the health benefits of fish oils and the wide publicity of these studies have led to the marketing and launch of a wide array of new and traditional food and beverage products enriched with omega-3 fatty acids. This chapter focuses on the impact of microencapsulatio...... are equally efficient for providing these essential fatty acids as fish oil in long-term applications.......Increased research interest in the health benefits of fish oils and the wide publicity of these studies have led to the marketing and launch of a wide array of new and traditional food and beverage products enriched with omega-3 fatty acids. This chapter focuses on the impact of microencapsulation...... and other factors on the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oils. To help understand the impact of microencapsulation on bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids, it presents a brief overview of encapsulation techniques and excipients used. Microencapsulation of fish oil improves its chemical...

  6. Potential Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homer S. Black

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Considerable circumstantial evidence has accrued from both experimental animal and human clinical studies that support a role for omega-3 fatty acids (FA in the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC. Direct evidence from animal studies has shown that omega-3 FA inhibit ultraviolet radiation (UVR induced carcinogenic expression. In contrast, increasing levels of dietary omega-6 FA increase UVR carcinogenic expression, with respect to a shorter tumor latent period and increased tumor multiplicity. Both omega-6 and omega-3 FA are essential FA, necessary for normal growth and maintenance of health and although these two classes of FA exhibit only minor structural differences, these differences cause them to act significantly differently in the body. Omega-6 and omega-3 FA, metabolized through the lipoxygenase (LOX and cyclooxygenase (COX pathways, lead to differential metabolites that are influential in inflammatory and immune responses involved in carcinogenesis. Clinical studies have shown that omega-3 FA ingestion protects against UVR-induced genotoxicity, raises the UVR-mediated erythema threshold, reduces the level of pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 in UVR-irradiated human skin, and appears to protect human skin from UVR-induced immune-suppression. Thus, there is considerable evidence that omega-3 FA supplementation might be beneficial in reducing the occurrence of NMSC, especially in those individuals who are at highest risk.

  7. Potential Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Homer S; Rhodes, Lesley E

    2016-02-04

    Considerable circumstantial evidence has accrued from both experimental animal and human clinical studies that support a role for omega-3 fatty acids (FA) in the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Direct evidence from animal studies has shown that omega-3 FA inhibit ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induced carcinogenic expression. In contrast, increasing levels of dietary omega-6 FA increase UVR carcinogenic expression, with respect to a shorter tumor latent period and increased tumor multiplicity. Both omega-6 and omega-3 FA are essential FA, necessary for normal growth and maintenance of health and although these two classes of FA exhibit only minor structural differences, these differences cause them to act significantly differently in the body. Omega-6 and omega-3 FA, metabolized through the lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclooxygenase (COX) pathways, lead to differential metabolites that are influential in inflammatory and immune responses involved in carcinogenesis. Clinical studies have shown that omega-3 FA ingestion protects against UVR-induced genotoxicity, raises the UVR-mediated erythema threshold, reduces the level of pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive prostaglandin E2 (PGE₂) in UVR-irradiated human skin, and appears to protect human skin from UVR-induced immune-suppression. Thus, there is considerable evidence that omega-3 FA supplementation might be beneficial in reducing the occurrence of NMSC, especially in those individuals who are at highest risk.

  8. The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid accelerates disease progression in a model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping K Yip

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a progressive fatal neurodegenerative disease characterised by loss of motor neurons that currently has no cure. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, have many health benefits including neuroprotective and myoprotective potential. We tested the hypothesis that a high level of dietary EPA could exert beneficial effects in ALS. The dietary exposure to EPA (300 mg/kg/day in a well-established mouse model of ALS expressing the G93A superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1 mutation was initiated at a pre-symptomatic or symptomatic stage, and the disease progression was monitored until the end stage. Daily dietary EPA exposure initiated at the disease onset did not significantly alter disease presentation and progression. In contrast, EPA treatment initiated at the pre-symptomatic stage induced a significantly shorter lifespan. In a separate group of animals sacrificed before the end stage, the tissue analysis showed that the vacuolisation detected in G93A-SOD1 mice was significantly increased by exposure to EPA. Although EPA did not alter motor neurone loss, EPA reversed the significant increase in activated microglia and the astrocytic activation seen in G93A-SOD1 mice. The microglia in the spinal cord of G93A-SOD1 mice treated with EPA showed a significant increase in 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, a highly toxic aldehydic oxidation product of omega-3 fatty acids. These data show that dietary EPA supplementation in ALS has the potential to worsen the condition and accelerate the disease progression. This suggests that great caution should be exerted when considering dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplements in ALS patients.

  9. Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Depressive Symptoms, and Cognitive Performance in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazereeuw, Graham; Herrmann, Nathan; Oh, Paul I.; Ma, David W.L.; Wang, Cheng Tao; Kiss, Alexander; Lanctôt, Krista L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This trial investigated the efficacy of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) treatment for improving depressive symptoms and cognitive performance in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) participating in cardiac rehabilitation. Patients with CAD aged 45 to 80 years were randomized to receive either 1.9-g/d n-3 PUFA treatment or placebo for 12 weeks. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D, primary outcome) and the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria were used to identify a depressive episode at baseline. Cognitive performance was measured using a standardized battery for vascular cognitive impairment. In 92 patients (age, 61.7 ± 8.7 y; 76% male, 40% depressed; HAM-D, 6.9 ± 5.9; BDI-II, 12.3 ± 10.9; n = 45 n-3 PUFA, n = 47 placebo), depression decreased (HAM-D, F3,91 = 2.71 and P = 0.049; BDI-II, F3,91 = 6.24 and P < 0.01), and cognitive performance improved (attention/processing speed, F1,91 = 5.57, P = 0.02; executive function, F1,91 = 14.64, P < 0.01; visuospatial memory, F1,91 = 4.01, P = 0.04) over cardiac rehabilitation. Omega-3 PUFA treatment increased plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (F1,29 = 33.29, P < 0.01) and docosahexaenoic acid (F1,29 = 15.29, P < 0.01) concentrations but did not reduce HAM-D (F3,91 = 1.59, P = 0.20) or BDI-II (F3,91 = 0.46, P = 0.50) scores compared with placebo. Treatment did not improve cognitive performance; however, n-3 PUFAs significantly increased verbal memory compared with placebo in a subgroup of nondepressed patients (F1,54 = 4.16, P = 0.04). This trial suggests that n-3 PUFAs do not improve depressive and associated cognitive symptoms in those with CAD. The possible benefits of n-3 PUFAs for verbal memory may warrant investigation in well-powered studies. PMID:27529771

  10. Significance of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for the development and behaviour of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Huss, Michael; Stauss-Grabo, Manuela; Hahn, Andreas

    2010-02-01

    omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play a central role in the normal development and functioning of the brain and central nervous system. Long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5omega-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6omega-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4omega-6), in particular, are involved in numerous neuronal processes, ranging from effects on membrane fluidity to gene expression regulation. Deficiencies and imbalances of these nutrients, not only during the developmental phase but throughout the whole life span, have significant effects on brain function. Numerous observational studies have shown a link between childhood developmental disorders and omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid imbalances. For instance, neurocognitive disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), dyslexia, dyspraxia and autism spectrum disorders are often associated with a relative lack of omega-3 fatty acids. In addition to a high omega-6 fatty acid intake and, in many cases, an insufficient supply of omega-3 fatty acids among the population, evidence is increasing to suggest that PUFA metabolism can be impaired in individuals with ADHD. In this context, PUFA imbalances are being discussed as potential risk factors for neurodevelopmental disorders. Another focus is whether the nutritive PUFA requirements-especially long-chain omega-3 fatty acid requirements-are higher among some individuals. Meanwhile, several controlled studies investigated the clinical benefits of LC-PUFA supplementation in affected children and adolescents, with occasionally conflicting results.

  11. DIETARY OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS MODIFIED THE ASSOCIATION OF PULMONARY FUNCTION WITH AIR POLLUTION IN ADOLESCENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous children's studies in North America and Germany have shown that ambient sulfate particles are associated with an increased prevalence of bronchitis and decreased lung function. We have now investigated the ability of dietary intake of anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty aci...

  12. A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Stephen; Bertoglio, Kiah; Ashwood, Paul; Bostrom, Alan; Hendren, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial to determine the feasibility and initial safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids (1.3 g/day) for the treatment of hyperactivity in 27 children ages 3-8 with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). After 12 weeks, hyperactivity, as measured by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, improved 2.7 (plus or minus…

  13. Role of omega-3 fatty acids and their metabolites in asthma and allergic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Miyata

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, are found naturally in fish oil and are commonly thought to be anti-inflammatory nutrients, with protective effects in inflammatory diseases including asthma and allergies. The mechanisms of these effects remain mostly unknown but are of great interest for their potential therapeutic applications. Large numbers of epidemiological and observational studies investigating the effect of fish intake or omega-3 fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adulthood on asthmatic and allergic outcomes have been conducted. They mostly indicate protective effects and suggest a causal relationship between decreased intake of fish oil in modernized diets and an increasing number of individuals with asthma or other allergic diseases. Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM: protectins, resolvins, and maresins are generated from omega-3 fatty acids such as EPA and DHA via several enzymatic reactions. These mediators counter-regulate airway eosinophilic inflammation and promote the resolution of inflammation in vivo. Several reports have indicated that the biosynthesis of SPM is impaired, especially in severe asthma, which suggests that chronic inflammation in the lung might result from a resolution defect. This article focuses on the beneficial aspects of omega-3 fatty acids and offers recent insights into their bioactive metabolites including resolvins and protectins.

  14. Micronutrients, omega-3 fatty acids and cognitive performance in Indian schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilander, J.H.C.

    2009-01-01

    In developing countries, approximately 30-40% of school-age children suffer from iodine and iron deficiencies. Poverty and consumption of monotonous diets are underlying causes of inadequate intakes of micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids and may have severe consequences for children’s cognitive d

  15. Antimicrobial potential of bioconverted products of omega-3 fatty acids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioconverted omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (bEPA) and docosahexanoic acid (bDHA), obtained from the microbial conversion of non-bioconverted eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 were evaluated for their antimicrobial potential. bEPA and bDHA at 5 µl/...

  16. Role of omega-3 fatty acids and their metabolites in asthma and allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Jun; Arita, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), are found naturally in fish oil and are commonly thought to be anti-inflammatory nutrients, with protective effects in inflammatory diseases including asthma and allergies. The mechanisms of these effects remain mostly unknown but are of great interest for their potential therapeutic applications. Large numbers of epidemiological and observational studies investigating the effect of fish intake or omega-3 fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adulthood on asthmatic and allergic outcomes have been conducted. They mostly indicate protective effects and suggest a causal relationship between decreased intake of fish oil in modernized diets and an increasing number of individuals with asthma or other allergic diseases. Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM: protectins, resolvins, and maresins) are generated from omega-3 fatty acids such as EPA and DHA via several enzymatic reactions. These mediators counter-regulate airway eosinophilic inflammation and promote the resolution of inflammation in vivo. Several reports have indicated that the biosynthesis of SPM is impaired, especially in severe asthma, which suggests that chronic inflammation in the lung might result from a resolution defect. This article focuses on the beneficial aspects of omega-3 fatty acids and offers recent insights into their bioactive metabolites including resolvins and protectins.

  17. Combination of Antiestrogens and Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Breast Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manni, Andrea; El-Bayoumy, Karam; Skibinski, Christine G; Thompson, Henry J; Santucci-Pereira, Julia; Bidinotto, Lucas Tadeu; Russo, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The molecular and biological heterogeneity of human breast cancer emphasizes the importance of a multitargeted approach for effective chemoprevention. Targeting the estrogen receptor pathway alone with the antiestrogens, Tamoxifen and Raloxifene reduces the incidence of estrogen receptor positive tumors but is ineffective against the development of hormone independent cancers. Our preclinical data indicate that the administration of omega-3 fatty acids potentiates the antitumor effects of Tamoxifen by inhibiting multiple proliferative and antiapoptotic pathways, several of which interact with estrogen receptor signaling. The complementarity in the mechanism of antitumor action of Tamoxifen and omega-3 fatty acids is well supported by our signaling, genomic, and proteomic studies. Furthermore, administration of omega-3 fatty acids allows the use of lower and, hence, likely less toxic doses of Tamoxifen. If these findings are supported in the clinical setting, the combination of omega-3 fatty acids and anteistrogens may emerge as a promising, effective, and safe chemopreventive strategy to be tested in a large multi-institutional trial using breast cancer incidence as the primary endpoint.

  18. Micronutrients, omega-3 fatty acids and cognitive performance in Indian schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilander, J.H.C.

    2009-01-01

    In developing countries, approximately 30-40% of school-age children suffer from iodine and iron deficiencies. Poverty and consumption of monotonous diets are underlying causes of inadequate intakes of micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids and may have severe consequences for children’s cognitive

  19. Combination of Antiestrogens and Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Breast Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Manni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular and biological heterogeneity of human breast cancer emphasizes the importance of a multitargeted approach for effective chemoprevention. Targeting the estrogen receptor pathway alone with the antiestrogens, Tamoxifen and Raloxifene reduces the incidence of estrogen receptor positive tumors but is ineffective against the development of hormone independent cancers. Our preclinical data indicate that the administration of omega-3 fatty acids potentiates the antitumor effects of Tamoxifen by inhibiting multiple proliferative and antiapoptotic pathways, several of which interact with estrogen receptor signaling. The complementarity in the mechanism of antitumor action of Tamoxifen and omega-3 fatty acids is well supported by our signaling, genomic, and proteomic studies. Furthermore, administration of omega-3 fatty acids allows the use of lower and, hence, likely less toxic doses of Tamoxifen. If these findings are supported in the clinical setting, the combination of omega-3 fatty acids and anteistrogens may emerge as a promising, effective, and safe chemopreventive strategy to be tested in a large multi-institutional trial using breast cancer incidence as the primary endpoint.

  20. Omega-3 fatty acids: potential role in the management of early Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jicha, Gregory A; Markesbery, William R

    2010-04-07

    Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for brain growth and development. They play an important role throughout life, as critical modulators of neuronal function and regulation of oxidative stress mechanisms, in brain health and disease. Docosahexanoic acid (DHA), the major omega-3 fatty acid found in neurons, has taken on a central role as a target for therapeutic intervention in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A plethora of in vitro, animal model, and human data, gathered over the past decade, highlight the important role DHA may play in the development of a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including AD. Cross sectional and prospective cohort data have demonstrated that reduced dietary intake or low brain levels of DHA are associated with accelerated cognitive decline or the development of incipient dementia, including AD. Several clinical trials investigating the effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in AD have been completed and all failed to demonstrate its efficacy in the treatment of AD. However, these trials produced intriguing data suggesting that the beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may depend on the stage of disease, other dietary mediators, and apolipoprotein E status.

  1. What health professionals should know about omega-3 fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    n-3 fatty acids might be of benefit include obesity, Crohn's disease, ... and Child Health Foundation ..... http://www.sacn.gov.uk/pdfs/fics_sacn_advice_fish.pdf. 7. ... of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism; Council on ...

  2. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids and locomotor activity in an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus W. Lange

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most frequent behavioral disorder of childhood and is characterized by hyperactivity, attention problems and impulsivity. Pharmacological and behavioral therapies have been shown to be effective. In addition, the role of dietary compounds in the etiology and possibly the treatment of ADHD has attracted increasing attention. For example, the lack of dietary essential fatty acids has been suggested to be associated with symptoms of ADHD in humans.Objective: To investigate the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs on locomotor activity in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR which has been proposed as an animal model of ADHD.Methods: Two groups of randomly assigned spontaneously hypertensive rats were fed with either n-3 PUFA-deficient or n-3 PUFA-enriched food (based on AIN93G for six weeks and this was continued during the phase of behavioral testing. Locomotor activity was subsequently assessed using an open field test.Results: The results showed a marked difference in locomotor activity between the two groups of SHRs. In comparison with rats fed with n-3 deficient food, the animals on an n-3 enriched diet showed a statistically significant decrease in motor activity as assessed by the distance traveled.Conclusions: The present study demonstrates a marked reduction in locomotor activity following an n-3 PUFA-enriched diet in SHRs, i.e. the dietary enrichment with n-3 PUFAs reduced the motor activity in an established animal model of ADHD. Dietary n-3 PUFAs may therefore play a role in the pathophysiology of ADHD.Key words: omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, animal model, spontaneously hypertensive rat, SHR, motor activity

  3. Total dietary fat and omega-3 fatty acids have modest effects on urinary sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total fat and omega-3 fatty acids in the diet may affect breast cancer risk by altering estrogen metabolism. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of differing total fat and omega-3 fatty acid content of diets on a panel of urinary estrogens and metabolites. A controlled, cross-ove...

  4. A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Bent, Stephen; Bertoglio, Kiah; Ashwood, Paul; Bostrom, Alan; Hendren, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial to determine the feasibility and initial safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids (1.3 g/day) for the treatment of hyperactivity in 27 children ages 3–8 with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). After 12 weeks, hyperactivity, as measured by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, improved 2.7 (±4.8) points in the omega-3 group compared to 0.3 (±7.2) points in the placebo group (p = 0.40; effect size = 0.38). Correlations were found between decreases in f...

  5. Omega-3 fatty acid is a potential preventive agent for recurrent colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Anita; Yu, Yingjie; Banerjee, Sanjeev; Woods, James; Farhana, Lulu; Rajendra, Sindhu G.; Patel, Aamil; Dyson, Gregory; Levi, Edi; Maddipati, Krishna Rao; Majumdar, Adhip P.N.; Nangia-Makker, Pratima

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports the contention that many malignancies, including sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC), are driven by the self-renewing, chemotherapy-resistant cancer stem/stem-like cells (CSCs/CSLCs) underscoring the need for improved preventive and therapeutic strategies targeting CSCs/CSLCs. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA), have been reported to inhibit the growth of primary tumors, but their potential as a preventive agent for recurring cancers is un-explored. The primary objectives of this investigation are to examine whether eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; one of the ω-3 PUFA) synergizes with FuOx (5-FU+Oxaliplatin), the backbone of colon cancer chemotherapy, and (b) whether EPA by itself or in combination with conventional chemotherapy prevents the recurrence of colon cancer via eliminating/suppressing CSCs/CSLCs. FuOx-resistant (chemo-resistant; CR) colon cancer cells, highly enriched in CSCs, were utilized for this study. While EPA alone was effective, combination of EPA and FuOx was more potent in (a) inhibiting cell growth, colonosphere formation and sphere-forming frequency, (b) increasing sphere disintegration, (c) suppressing the growth of SCID mice xenografts of CR colon cancer cells, and (d) decreasing pro-inflammatory metabolites in mice. Additionally, EPA + FuOx caused a reduction in CSC/CSLC population. The growth reduction by this regimen is the result of increased apoptosis as evidenced by PARP cleavage. Furthermore, increased pPTEN, decreased pAkt, normalization of β-catenin expression, localization and transcriptional activity by EPA suggests a role for PTEN/Akt axis and Wnt signaling in regulating this process. Our data suggest that EPA by itself or in combination with FuOx could be an effective preventive strategy for recurring CRC. PMID:25193342

  6. Critical appraisal of omega-3 fatty acids in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königs, Anja; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder. The classical treatment of ADHD where stimulant medication is used has revealed severe side effects and intolerance. Consequently, the demand to search for alternative treatment has increased rapidly. When comparing levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) in ADHD patients with those in age-matching controls, lower levels are found in ADHD patients' blood. ω-3 PUFAs are essential nutrients and necessary for a proper brain function and development. Additionally, there are strong indications that ω-3 PUFA supplements could have beneficial effects on ADHD. However, the results of ω-3 PUFA supplementation studies show a high variability. Therefore, we reviewed recent studies published between 2000 and 2015 to identify effective treatment combinations, the quality of design, and safety and tolerability of ω-3-containing food supplements. We searched the databases MEDLINE, PubMed, and Web of Science with keywords such as "ADHD" and "ω-3/6 PUFA" and identified 25 studies that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The results of these ω-3 PUFA studies are contradictory but, overall, show evidence for a successful treatment of ADHD symptoms. Tolerability of the given supplements was high, and only mild side effects were reported. In conclusion, there is evidence that a ω-3 PUFA treatment has a positive effect on ADHD. It should be added that treatment could be more effective in patients with mild forms of ADHD. Moreover, the dosage of stimulant medication could be reduced when used in combination with ω-3 PUFA supplements. Further studies are necessary to investigate underlying mechanisms that can lead to a reduction of ADHD symptoms due to ω-3 PUFA treatments and also to determine the optimal concentrations of ω-3 PUFAs, whether used as single treatment or in combination with other medication.

  7. Omega-3 fatty acid is a potential preventive agent for recurrent colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Anita; Yu, Yingjie; Banerjee, Sanjeev; Woods, James; Farhana, Lulu; Rajendra, Sindhu G; Patel, Aamil; Dyson, Gregory; Levi, Edi; Maddipati, Krishna Rao; Majumdar, Adhip P N; Nangia-Makker, Pratima

    2014-11-01

    Increasing evidence supports the contention that many malignancies, including sporadic colorectal cancer, are driven by the self-renewing, chemotherapy-resistant cancer stem/stem-like cells (CSC/CSLC), underscoring the need for improved preventive and therapeutic strategies targeting CSCs/CSLCs. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA), have been reported to inhibit the growth of primary tumors, but their potential as a preventive agent for recurring cancers is unexplored. The primary objectives of this investigation are (i) to examine whether eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; one of the ω-3 PUFA) synergizes with FuOx (5-FU+Oxaliplatin), the backbone of colon cancer chemotherapy, and (ii) whether EPA by itself or in combination with conventional chemotherapy prevents the recurrence of colon cancer via eliminating/suppressing CSCs/CSLCs. FuOx-resistant (chemoresistant; CR) colon cancer cells, highly enriched in CSCs, were used for this study. Although EPA alone was effective, combination of EPA and FuOx was more potent in (i) inhibiting cell growth, colonosphere formation, and sphere-forming frequency, (ii) increasing sphere disintegration, (iii) suppressing the growth of SCID mice xenografts of CR colon cancer cells, and (iv) decreasing proinflammatory metabolites in mice. In addition, EPA + FuOx caused a reduction in CSC/CSLC population. The growth reduction by this regimen is the result of increased apoptosis as evidenced by PARP cleavage. Furthermore, increased pPTEN, decreased pAkt, normalization of β-catenin expression, localization, and transcriptional activity by EPA suggests a role for the PTEN-Akt axis and Wnt signaling in regulating this process. Our data suggest that EPA by itself or in combination with FuOx could be an effective preventive strategy for recurring colorectal cancer.

  8. Supplementation with Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Psychiatric Disorders: A Review of Literature Data

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Bozzatello; Elena Brignolo; Elisa Grandi; Silvio Bellino

    2016-01-01

    A new application for omega-3 fatty acids has recently emerged, concerning the treatment of several mental disorders. This indication is supported by data of neurobiological research, as highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) are highly concentrated in neural phospholipids and are important components of the neuronal cell membrane. They modulate the mechanisms of brain cell signaling, including the dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways. The aim of this review is to provide a complete and upd...

  9. Oiling the Brain: A Review of Randomized Controlled Trials of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Psychopathology across the Lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R. C. Howe

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Around one in four people suffer from mental illness at some stage in their lifetime. There is increasing awareness of the importance of nutrition, particularly omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA, for optimal brain development and function. Hence in recent decades, researchers have explored effects of n-3 PUFA on mental health problems over the lifespan, from developmental disorders in childhood, to depression, aggression, and schizophrenia in adulthood, and cognitive decline, dementia and Alzheimer’s disease in late adulthood. This review provides an updated overview of the published and the registered clinical trials that investigate effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on mental health and behavior, highlighting methodological differences and issues.

  10. Omega-3 fatty acids improve glucose metabolism without effects on obesity values and serum visfatin levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafraf, Maryam; Mohammadi, Elahe; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Farzadi, Laya

    2012-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common female endocrine disorder. Affected women present a higher risk of type 2 diabetes. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on obesity status, insulin resistance, and serum levels of visfatin in PCOS patients. This double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted on 61 women who were diagnosed with PCOS, had a body mass index (BMI) between 25 and 40 kg/m(2), and were from 20-35 years old. Thirty of the subjects had taken four 1-g omega-3 fatty acids capsules per day, providing 1200 mg n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFA), and 31 were given a placebo over 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measurements, and dietary intake data were collected at the baseline and at the end of the trial. Data were analyzed by independent t test, paired t test, Pearson correlation test, and analysis of covariance. Omega-3 fatty acids had no significant effects on weight, BMI, waist circumference, and waist to hip ratio at the end of the study. Omega-3 fatty acids significantly decreased glucose (by 11.4%, p < 0.001), insulin (by 8.4%, p < 0.05), and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (by 21.8%, p < 0.001) compared with placebo. Changes in serum visfatin levels were not significant in either of the groups. Omega-3 fatty acids improved insulin sensitivity in PCOS patients. This beneficial effect was not associated with alteration in anthropometric measurements and serum visfatin levels.

  11. Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on haemostatic functions in urocortin-treated obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gendy, Ahmed A; Abbas, Amr M

    2014-09-01

    Urocortin 1 (UCN1) decreases food intake. We investigated the effects of UCN1 and omega-3 fatty acids (FA) on metabolic and coagulation parameters in high fat diet (HFD)-fed rats. Fifty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups; control, HFD, HFD with omega-3 FA, HFD with UCN1, and HFD with UCN1 and omega-3 FA. Food intake, body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), Lee index, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, cholesterol, low (LDL) and high (HDL) density lipoproteins, fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), fibrin degradation product (FDP), clotting time, bleeding time, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and platelet aggregation were measured. Food intake, BW, BMI, Lee index, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL, fibrinogen, platelet aggregation, PAI-1, and FDP increased while bleeding and clotting times, PT, and aPTT decreased in HFD rats. UCN1 decreased food intake, BW, BMI, Lee index, bleeding and clotting times, PT, and aPTT and increased fibrinogen, PAI-1, FDP, and platelet aggregation in HFD rats. Omega-3 FA decreased food intake, BW, BMI, Lee index, platelet aggregation, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, and increased HDL and bleeding time in HFD rats. We concluded that UCN1 worsens the hypercoagulable state in HFD rats while omega-3 FA improve the insulin resistance and decrease the platelet aggregation in those rats.

  12. Omega 3 fatty acids supplementation has an ameliorative effect in experimental ulcerative colitis despite increased colonic neutrophil infiltration Los suplementos de ácidos grasos omega 3 tienen efectos beneficiosos en colitis ulcerosa a pesar del aumento de la infiltracción por neutrófilos del colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Varnalidis

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties and can be beneficial in the treatment of inflammatory diseases, such as ulcerative colitis. Dextran sodium sulphate (DSS colitis in rats appears to mimic nearly all of the morphological characteristics and lesion distributions of ulcerative colitis. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the efficacy of omega 3 fatty acids in the treatment of experimental ulcerative colitis. Methods: thirty-six Wistar rats were randomly assigned to group A or group B receiving 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS in their drinking water for eight days. For the next eight days post-DSS, group A animals received tap-water, and group B animals were fed a nutritional solution containing high levels of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ProSure®, Abbott Laboratories, Zwolle, Netherlands once per day, administrated with a orogastric feeding tube. Results: animals fed an omega 3 rich diet exhibited a statistically significant increase in hematocrit and hemoglobin levels, compared to animals drinking tap water, and a trend towards histopathological and clinical improvement, with the administration of omega 3 fatty acids ameliorating epithelial erosion by day 8 post-DSS, but no statistically significant difference was observed between group A and group B animals at 4 or 8 days post-DSS. Also, a statistically significant increase in neutrophil infiltration was observed, as depicted by myelohyperoxidase activity. Conclusion: our findings support a positive role of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation in an experimental model of ulcerative colitis despite the increased colonic neutrophil infiltration. Further studies are needed in order to investigate the role of increased neutrophils in colonic mucosa.

  13. Omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention and control of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata López, P; Ortega, R M

    2003-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the main causes of death in developed countries. Several factors are involved in its appearance and progress, among which nutrition enjoys a certain protagonism. Until recently, the dietetic criteria for preventing and controlling cardiovascular disease were mainly restrictive (at least in terms of energy and fat intake), but such advice is difficult to follow, and without careful monitoring can lead to deficiencies that might negatively affect quality of life and perhaps even life expectancy. Several investigations show that some components of the lipid fraction of the diet, such as omega-3 fatty acids, are beneficial with respect to cardiovascular disease, and these have become the centre of much attention. This paper reviews the results of some of these studies and evaluates the benefit of these fatty acids in the prevention of coronary heart disease. The sources of omega-3 fatty acids, their recommended consumption, possible mechanisms of action and potential adverse effects are discussed.

  14. Cultural symbolism of fish and the psychotropic properties of omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, L C; Hibbeln, J R

    2006-01-01

    Fish is a food with unique psychotropic properties. Consumption of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, rich in seafood, reduces depression, aggression and anger while improving mental well-being. We posit that symbols of fish have become linked to the emotional states induced by long-chain fatty acid by associative pairings, both conscious and unconscious. The limbic and hippocampal activity necessary for memory formation containing emotional content and the labeling of social context by cortical processes appears to be optimized by diets rich in long-chain omega-3 fatty acid. In this critical literature survey, we find that fish have been culturally labeled as symbols of emotional well-being and social healing in religious and medical practices among independent cultures, for at least six millennia. This understanding of the perception of fish as a symbolically healing or purifying food can assist current messages improving public health.

  15. RBC and WBC fatty acid composition following consumption of an omega 3 supplement: Lessons for future clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballester Oscar F

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results from increasing numbers of in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that omega 3 fatty acids incorporated in cell culture media or in the diet of the animals can suppress the growth of cancers. When human clinical trials are initiated to determine the ability of omega 3 fatty acids to alter growth or response to chemotherapeutic interventions of cancers, it will be essential to determine the omega 3 intake of individuals in the trial to determine compliance with consumption of the supplement and to correlate with endpoints of efficacy. We wondered if the fatty acid composition of RBCs might accurately indicate incorporation of omega 3 fatty acids in the WBCs. In this report we determine and compare the changes in fatty acid compositions of red blood cells and white blood cells in response to consumption of three doses of an omega 3 fatty acid supplement. Results We found that the fraction of omega 3 fatty acids in both red blood cells and white blood cells increased following consumption of the supplement. There was a linear, dose responsive increase in the fraction of omega 3 fatty acids in red blood cells but the increase in omega 3 in white blood cells was not linear. The magnitude of increase in omega 3 fatty acids was different between the two cell types. Conclusions Fatty acid analysis of red blood cells is a good measure of compliance with supplement consumption. However, fatty acid analysis of white blood cells is needed to correlate changes in fatty acid composition of white blood cells with other biochemical changes in the white blood cells. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00899353.

  16. Rapid induction of omega-3 fatty acids (EPA) in Nannochloropsis sp. by UV-C radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kalpesh; Schenk, Peer M

    2015-06-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), provide substantial health benefits. As global fish stocks are declining and in some cases are contaminated with heavy metals, there is a need to find more sustainable land-based sources of these essential fatty acids. The oleaginous microalga Nannochloropsis sp. has been identified as a highly efficient producer of omega-3 fatty acids. In this study, we present a new process to rapidly induce biosynthesis of essential fatty acids, including EPA in Nannochloropsis sp. BR2. Short exposure to UV-C at a dose of 100 or 250 mJ/cm(2) led to a significant increase in total cellular lipid contents when compared to mock-treated controls. A low dosage of 100 mJ/cm(2) also led to a twofold increase in total EPA content within 24 h that constituted 30% of total fatty acids and up to 12% of total dry weight at higher dosages. UV-C radiation may find uses as an easily applicable external inducer for large-scale production of omega-3 production from microalgae.

  17. FFAR4 (GPR120) signaling is not required for anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects of omega-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pærregaard, Simone Isling; Andersen, Marianne Agerholm; Serup, Annette Karen Lundbeck

    2016-01-01

    Free fatty acid receptor-4 (FFAR4), also known as GPR120, has been reported to mediate the beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) by inducing an anti-inflammatory immune response. Thus, activation of FFAR4 has been reported to ameliorate chronic low-grade inflammatio...... proinflammatory molecules within visceral adipose tissue. In conclusion, we find that FFAR4 signaling is not required for the reported anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects mediated by ω3-PUFAs....

  18. Alpha-Linolenic Acid: An Omega-3 Fatty Acid with Neuroprotective Properties—Ready for Use in the Stroke Clinic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Blondeau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA is plant-based essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that must be obtained through the diet. This could explain in part why the severe deficiency in omega-3 intake pointed by numerous epidemiologic studies may increase the brain’s vulnerability representing an important risk factor in the development and/or deterioration of certain cardio- and neuropathologies. The roles of ALA in neurological disorders remain unclear, especially in stroke that is a leading cause of death. We and others have identified ALA as a potential nutraceutical to protect the brain from stroke, characterized by its pleiotropic effects in neuroprotection, vasodilation of brain arteries, and neuroplasticity. This review highlights how chronic administration of ALA protects against rodent models of hypoxic-ischemic injury and exerts an anti-depressant-like activity, effects that likely involve multiple mechanisms in brain, and may be applied in stroke prevention. One major effect may be through an increase in mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a widely expressed protein in brain that plays critical roles in neuronal maintenance, and learning and memory. Understanding the precise roles of ALA in neurological disorders will provide the underpinnings for the development of new therapies for patients and families who could be devastated by these disorders.

  19. Fish Lipids as a Valuable Source of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdzhanova, Albena; Ivanov, Ivaylo; Dobreva, Diana A.; Makedonski, Lyubomir

    2017-03-01

    This article presents information about omega-3 (h-3) and omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) contents in a broad range of commercially important fish species available on Bulgarian fish markets. The aim is to raise consumers' awareness and encourage them to eat fish. Fish species from the Black Sea coast have relatively high proportion of n-3 PUFAs, of which more than 80% is by EPf (eicosapentaenoic acid, C 20:5 n-3) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, C 22:6 n-3). Extensive epidemiological studies show that fish consumption is inversely associated with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), stroke and the functioning of the brain. About 0.5 g of omega-3 (EPA+DHA) a day or two savings of oily fish a week are required to reduce the risk of death from CVD. PUFAs needs should be satisfied not only with food additives but with fish lipids containing food.

  20. A protective lipidomic biosignature associated with a balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio in fat-1 transgenic mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astarita, G.; McKenzie, J.H.; Wang, B.; Strassburg, K.; Doneanu, A.; Johnson, J.; Baker, A.; Hankemeier, T.; Murphy, J.; Vreeken, R.J.; Langridge, J.; Kang, J.X.

    2014-01-01

    A balanced omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio has been linked to health benefits and the prevention of many chronic diseases. Current dietary intervention studies with different sources of omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3) lack appropriate control diets and carry many other confound

  1. Functional and safety evaluation of transgenic pork rich in omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Maoxue; Qian, Lili; Jiang, Shengwang; Zhang, Jian; Song, Pengkun; Chen, Yaoxing; Cui, Wentao; Li, Kui

    2014-08-01

    Genetically modified animals rich in omega-3 unsaturated fatty acid offer a new strategy to improve the human health, but at the same time present a challenge in terms of food safety assessment. In this study, we evaluated the function and safety of sFat-1 transgenic pork rich in omega-3 fatty acids in mice by feeding basic diet and diets that contain wild type pork and sFat-1 transgenic pork. Blood biochemistry, haematology, peripheral T cell distributions, bacterial counts, gross necropsy, histopathology and organ weights were performed in mice fed with different doses of wild type and transgenic pork. Results indicated that both low and high dose of wild type and transgenic pork had no significant effect on blood biochemistry, T cell distribution, immunoglobulins and bacterial counts in intestine and feces. However, it was noted that both low and high dose of transgenic pork improved the liver immune system in mice, which is probably due to the beneficial contribution of high level of the "good" fatty acids in transgenic pork. There is no significant effect of transgenic pork on all other organs in mice. In summary, our study clearly demonstrated that feeding transgenic pork rich in omega-3 fatty acids did not cause any harm to mice, and in fact, improved the liver immune system.

  2. Maternal omega-3 fatty acids and micronutrients modulate fetal lipid metabolism: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2015-07-01

    It is well established that alterations in the mother's diet or metabolism during pregnancy has long-term adverse effects on the lipid metabolism in the offspring. There is growing interest in the role of specific nutrients especially omega-3 fatty acids in the pathophysiology of lipid disorders. A series of studies carried out in humans and rodents in our department have consistently suggested a link between omega-3 fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid and micronutrients (vitamin B12 and folic acid) in the one carbon metabolic cycle and its effect on the fatty acid metabolism, hepatic transcription factors and DNA methylation patterns. However the association of maternal intake or metabolism of these nutrients with fetal lipid metabolism is relatively less explored. In this review, we provide insights into the role of maternal omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin B12 and their influence on fetal lipid metabolism through various mechanisms which influence phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase activity, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor, adiponectin signaling pathway and epigenetic process like chromatin methylation. This will help understand the possible mechanisms involved in fetal lipid metabolism and may provide important clues for the prevention of lipid disorders in the offspring.

  3. A Review of Nanoliposomal Delivery System for Stabilization of Bioactive Omega-3 Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadian, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Currently, bioactive compounds are required in the design and production of functional foods, with the aim of improving the health status of consumers all around the world. Various epidemiological and clinical studies have demonstrated the salutary role of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 22:6 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:5 n-3) in preventing diseases and reducing mortality from cardiovascular diseases. The unsaturated nature of bioactive lipids leads to susceptibility to oxidation under environmental conditions. Oxidative deterioration of omega-3 fatty acids can cause the reduction in their nutritional quality and sensory properties. Encapsulation of these fatty acids could create a barrier against reaction with harmful environmental factors. Currently, fortification of foods containing bioactive omega-3 fatty acids has found great application in the food industries of different countries. Previous studies have suggested that nano-encapsulation has significant effects on the stability of physical and chemical properties of bioactive compounds. Considering the functional role of omega-3 fatty acids, this study has provided a literature review on applications of nanoliposomal delivery systems for encapsulation of these bioactive compounds.

  4. Health Implications of High Dietary Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, E.; Wall, R.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; R. P. Ross; Stanton, C.

    2012-01-01

    Omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (e.g., arachidonic acid (AA)) and omega-3 (n-3) PUFA (e.g., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) are precursors to potent lipid mediator signalling molecules, termed “eicosanoids,” which have important roles in the regulation of inflammation. In general, eicosanoids derived from n-6 PUFA are proinflammatory while eicosanoids derived from n-3 PUFA are anti-inflammatory. Dietary changes over the past few decades in the intake of n-6 and n-3 PUFA show str...

  5. Molecular targets of omega 3 and conjugated linoleic fatty acids – micromanaging cellular response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eVisioli

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized de novo by mammals and need to be ingested either with the diet or through the use of supplements/functional foods to ameliorate cardiovascular prognosis. This review focus on the molecular targets of omega 3 fatty acids and CLA, as paradigmatic molecules that can be explored both as nutrients and as pharmacological agents, especially as related to cardioprotection. In addition, we indicate novel molecular targets, namely microRNAs that might contribute to the observed biological activities of such essential fatty acids.

  6. Generation and dietary modulation of anti-inflammatory electrophilic omega-3 fatty acid derivatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Cipollina

    Full Text Available Dietary ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs decrease cardiovascular risk via suppression of inflammation. The generation of electrophilic α,β-unsaturated ketone derivatives of the ω-3 PUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA in activated human macrophages is catalyzed by cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2. These derivatives are potent pleiotropic anti-inflammatory signaling mediators that act via mechanisms including the activation of Nrf2-dependent phase 2 gene expression and suppression of pro-inflammatory NF-κB-driven gene expression. Herein, the endogenous generation of ω-3 PUFAs electrophilic ketone derivatives and their hydroxy precursors was evaluated in human neutrophils. In addition, their dietary modulation was assessed through a randomized clinical trial.Endogenous generation of electrophilic omega-3 PUFAs and their hydroxy precursors was evaluated by mass spectrometry in neutrophils isolated from healthy subjects, both at baseline and upon stimulation with calcium ionophore. For the clinical trial, participants were healthy adults 30-55 years of age with a reported EPA+DHA consumption of ≤300 mg/day randomly assigned to parallel groups receiving daily oil capsule supplements for a period of 4 months containing either 1.4 g of EPA+DHA (active condition, n = 24 or identical appearing soybean oil (control condition, n = 21. Participants and laboratory technicians remained blinded to treatment assignments.5-lypoxygenase-dependent endogenous generation of 7-oxo-DHA, 7-oxo-DPA and 5-oxo-EPA and their hydroxy precursors is reported in human neutrophils stimulated with calcium ionophore and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA. Dietary EPA+DHA supplementation significantly increased the formation of 7-oxo-DHA and 5-oxo-EPA, with no significant modulation of arachidonic acid (AA metabolite levels.The endogenous detection of these electrophilic ω-3 fatty acid ketone derivatives supports the precept that the

  7. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake of Pregnant Women and Women of Childbearing Age in the United States: Potential for Deficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Tara M; Lyden, Elizabeth; Anderson-Berry, Ann; Hanson, Corrine

    2017-02-26

    Omega-3 fatty acids play critical roles during fetal growth and development with increased intakes associated with improved maternal-fetal outcomes. Omega-3 fatty acid intake in Western diets is low, and the impact of socioeconomic factors on omega-3 fatty acid intake in pregnant women and women of childbearing age has not been reported. We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles 2003-2012 to assess the relationship between omega-3 fatty acid intake and socioeconomic factors in women of childbearing age. Out of 7266 eligible participants, 6478 were women of childbearing age, while 788 were identified as pregnant at the time of the survey. Mean EPA+DHA intake of the population was 89.0 mg with no significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant women. By univariate and multivariate analyses adjusting for confounders, omega-3 fatty acid intake was significantly associated with poverty-to-income ratio, race, and educational attainment. Our results demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acid intake is a concern in pregnant women and women of childbearing age in the United States, and that socioeconomically disadvantaged populations are more susceptible to potential deficiencies. Strategies to increase omega-3 fatty acid intake in these populations could have the potential to improve maternal and infant health outcomes.

  8. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, A

    2002-10-01

    Inflammation is overall a protective response, whose main goal is to liberate the human being of cellular lesions caused by micro-organisms, toxins, allergens, etc., as well as its consequences, and of death cells and necrotic tissues. Chronic inflammation, which is detrimental to tissues, is the basic pathogenic mechanism of hypersensitivity reactions against xenobiotics. Other frequent pathologies, for instance atherosclerosis, chronic hepatitis, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), liver cirrhosis, lung fibrosis, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis are also chronic inflammatory diseases. Chemical mediators of inflammation are derived from blood plasma or different cell-type activity. Biogenic amines, eicosanoids and cytokines are within the most important mediators of inflammatory processes. The different activities of eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) versus those derived from eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) are one of the most important mechanisms to explain why n-3, or omega-3, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in many inflammatory diseases. Dietary supplements ranging 1-8 g per day of n-3 PUFA have been reportedly beneficial in the treatment of IBD, eczema, psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, recent experimental studies in rats with experimental ulcerative colitis, induced by intrarectal injection of trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid, have documented that treatment with n-3 long-chain PUFA reduces mucosal damage as assessed by biochemical and histological markers of inflammation. Moreover, the defence antioxidant system in this model is enhanced in treated animals, provided that the n-3 PUFA supply is adequately preserved from oxidation.

  9. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplement on Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toorang, Fatemeh; Djazayery, Abolghassem; Djalali, Mahmoud

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes is a major cause of death. Oxidative stress mainly caused by hyperglycemia is the primary reason of related complications. Omega-3 fatty acids are prescribed in diabetes but the effect on antioxidant defense is controversial. This study investigated effects of omega-3 supplementation on antioxidant enzymes activity in type 2 diabetic patients. A randomized, placebo controlled, double blind clinical trial was performed on 90 type2 diabetic patients. The treatment group took, daily, three capsules of omega-3 for two mo, which totally provided 2714mg omega-3 (EPA=1548 mg, DHA=828 mg and 338 mg of other omega=3 fatty acids). Placebo contained 2100 mg sunflower oil (12% SFA, 65% linoleic acid, 23% MUFA), which is the main oil used in the study population. Food intakes, anthropometric and demographic characteristics, and therapeutic regimen data were recorded before and after the intervention. Fasting blood samples were taken before and after the intervention to measure super oxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity in erythrocytes. A total of 81 subjects completed the study. Two study groups were similar as regards duration of diabetes, age and the enzymes at baseline. Energy and macro- and micronutrients intakes, weight and hypoglycemic agent consumption were similar in the two groups at baseline and did not change. Supplementation had no effect on antioxidant enzyme status. Glycated hemoglobin showed a significant reduction by supplementation. Daily supplementation of 2714 mg mega-3 for two mo results in a significant reduction in HbA1c level in type2 diabetic patients with no effects on antioxidant enzymes activity.

  10. Therapeutic Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Chronic Kidney Disease-Associated Pruritus: a Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Yunes Panahi; Simin Dashti-Khavidaki; Farahnoosh Farnood; Hamid Noshad; Mahsa Lotfi; Afshin Gharekhani

    2016-01-01

    Uremic pruritus remains one of the most tormenting, frequent and potentially disabling problem in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. However, an area of substantial etiological interest with relation to uremic pruritus is the essential fatty acids deficiency. So we performed a literature review to elucidate the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids on uremic pruritus. This review evaluated all of the studies published in English language, focusing on the clinical effects of omega-3 fatty acids ...

  11. Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

    OpenAIRE

    Javed Yakoob; Zaigham Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dietary supplementation with Omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids (FAs) has been demonstrated to elicit several effects ranging from decrease in blood pressure, anti-arrhythmic effect and decrease in inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease, asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic disorder characterized by abdominal pain and irregular bowel habit. It is associated with visceral hypersensitivity, increased mucosal permeability and a low-grade mucosal inf...

  12. KARAKTERISTIK MIKROKAPSUL MINYAK KAYA ASAM LEMAK OMEGA-3 DARI HASIL SAMPING PENEPUNGAN LEMURU [Characteristics of Microcapsule of omega-3 Fatty Acids Enriched Oil from Lemuru Meal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teti Estiasih 1

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids enriched fish oil from lemuru fishmeal processing met the quality standard of food grade fish oil, but it was susceptible to oxidation. Microencapsulation by spray drying was one method that could protect this oil against oxidation and the microcapsule could be applied more widely and easier to handle. The important factor that affected microencapsulation process by spray drying method was encapsulant to core ratio. The objective of research was to elucidate the effect of encapsulant to core ratio (2:1; 3:1; 4:1; 5:1; and 6:1 (w/w on characteristics of omega-3 fatty acids enriched fish oil microcapsule. The increase of microencapsulation efficiency and the decrease of surface oil proportion were related to better emulsion stability prior to spray drying and film forming ability around oil globule as the sodium caseinate proportion increased. Emulsification and heating during spray drying could induce hydrolysis of triglycerides in fish oil. Therefore, the quantity of free fatty acids relatively unchanged although the proportion of encapsulated oil decreased. The decrease of oxidation degree is caused by better protective effect of sodium caseinate during emulsification and spray drying due to better film forming ability as proportion of encapsulant increased. However, it was followed by the decrease of omega-3 fatty acids content that related to decreasing proportion of fish oil. This phenomenon was supported by unchanging omega-3 fatty acids retention that showed protective effect of sodium caseinate on oxidation during microencapsulation. Different encapsulant to core ratio did not change yield of microcapsule. Different proportion of surface oil did not affect microcapsule recovery.

  13. Omega-3 fatty acids, inflammation and angiogenesis: basic mechanisms behind the cardioprotective effects of fish and fish oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, M; Scoditti, E; Carluccio, M A; Campana, M C; De Caterina, R

    2010-02-25

    Atherosclerosis is now widely accepted to be an inflammatory disease, characterized by degenerative as well as proliferative changes and extracellular accumulation of lipid and cholesterol, in which an ongoing inflammatory reaction plays an important role both in initiation and progression/destabilization, converting a chronic process into an acute disorder. Neovascularization has also been recognized as an important process for the progression/destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. In fact, vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques prone to rupture are characterized by an enlarged necrotic core, containing an increased number of vasa vasorum, apoptotic macrophages, and more frequent intraplaque haemorrhage. Various functional roles have been assigned to intimal microvessels, however the relationship between the process of angiogenesis and its causal association with the progression and complications of atherosclerosis are still challenging and controversial. In the past 30 years, the dietary intake of omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids--mainly derived from fish--has emerged as an important way to modify cardiovascular risk through beneficial effects on all stages of atherosclerosis, including plaque angiogenesis. This review specifically focuses on the modulating effects of n-3 fatty acids on molecular events involved in early and late atherogenesis, including effects on endothelial expression of adhesion molecules, as well as pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic enzymes. By accumulating in endothelial membrane phospholipids, omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to decrease the transcriptional activation of several genes through an attenuation of activation of the nuclear factor-kappaB system of transcription factors. This occurs secondary to decreased generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species. This series of investigations configures a clear example of nutrigenomics--i.e., how nutrients may affect gene expression, ultimately affecting a wide spectrum

  14. Nutraceutical with Resveratrol and Omega-3 Fatty Acids Induces Autophagy in ARPE-19 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Ali; Reinisalo, Mika; Petrovski, Goran; Sinha, Debasish; Olmiere, Céline; Karjalainen, Reijo; Kaarniranta, Kai

    2016-05-11

    Impaired autophagic and proteasomal cleansing have been documented in aged retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Omega-3 fatty acids and resveratrol have many positive homeostatic effects in RPE cells. In this work, ARPE-19 cells were treated with 288 ng of Resvega, containing 30 mg of trans resveratrol and 665 mg of omega-3 fatty acids, among other nutrients, with proteasome inhibitor MG-132 or autophagy inhibitor bafilomycin A1 up to 48 h. Autophagy markers p62/SQSTM1 (p62) and LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3) were analyzed by Western blotting. Fluorescence microscopy with mCherry-GFP-LC3 plasmid was applied to study the autophagy flux, and cytoprotective effects were investigated with colorimetric MTT and LDH assays. Resvega induced autophagy by showing increased autolysosome formation and autophagy flux, and the change in the p62 and LC3 protein levels further confirmed the fluorescent microscopy results. Moreover, Resvega provided a clear cytoprotection under proteasome inhibition. These findings highlight the potential of the nutraceuticals containing resveratrol, omega-3 fatty acids and other nutrients in the prevention of ARPE-19 cell damage.

  15. Omega 3 Fatty Acids Supplementation and Oxidative Stress in HIV-Seropositive Patients. A Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador-Licona, Norma; Díaz-Murillo, Teresa A.; Pereyra-Nobara, Texar A.; Guízar-Mendoza, Juan M.; Barbosa-Sabanero, Gloria; Orozco-Aviña, Gustavo; Moreno-Martínez, Sandra C.; Luna-Montalbán, Rafael; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    HIV-seropositive patients show high incidence of coronary heart disease and oxidative stress has been described as relevant key in atherosclerosis development. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of omega 3 fatty acids on different markers of oxidative stress in HIV-seropositive patients. We performed a randomized parallel controlled clinical trial in The Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, a public health hospital. 70 HIV-seropositive patients aged 20 to 55 on clinical score A1, A2, B1 or B2 receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were studied. They were randomly assigned to receive omega 3 fatty acids 2.4 g (Zonelabs, Marblehead MA) or placebo for 6 months. At baseline and at the end of the study, anthropometric measurements, lipid profile, glucose and stress oxidative levels [nitric oxide catabolites, lipoperoxides (malondialdehyde plus 4-hydroxialkenals), and glutathione] were evaluated. Principal HAART therapy was EFV/TDF/FTC (55%) and AZT/3TC/EFV (15%) without difference between groups. Treatment with omega 3 fatty acids as compared with placebo decreased triglycerides (-0.32 vs. 0.54 mmol/L; p = 0.04), but oxidative stress markers were not different between groups. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02041520 PMID:27015634

  16. Omega 3 Fatty Acids Supplementation and Oxidative Stress in HIV-Seropositive Patients. A Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Amador-Licona

    Full Text Available HIV-seropositive patients show high incidence of coronary heart disease and oxidative stress has been described as relevant key in atherosclerosis development. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of omega 3 fatty acids on different markers of oxidative stress in HIV-seropositive patients. We performed a randomized parallel controlled clinical trial in The Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, a public health hospital. 70 HIV-seropositive patients aged 20 to 55 on clinical score A1, A2, B1 or B2 receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART were studied. They were randomly assigned to receive omega 3 fatty acids 2.4 g (Zonelabs, Marblehead MA or placebo for 6 months. At baseline and at the end of the study, anthropometric measurements, lipid profile, glucose and stress oxidative levels [nitric oxide catabolites, lipoperoxides (malondialdehyde plus 4-hydroxialkenals, and glutathione] were evaluated. Principal HAART therapy was EFV/TDF/FTC (55% and AZT/3TC/EFV (15% without difference between groups. Treatment with omega 3 fatty acids as compared with placebo decreased triglycerides (-0.32 vs. 0.54 mmol/L; p = 0.04, but oxidative stress markers were not different between groups.

  17. Omega 3 Fatty Acids Supplementation and Oxidative Stress in HIV-Seropositive Patients. A Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador-Licona, Norma; Díaz-Murillo, Teresa A; Gabriel-Ortiz, Genaro; Pacheco-Moises, Fermín P; Pereyra-Nobara, Texar A; Guízar-Mendoza, Juan M; Barbosa-Sabanero, Gloria; Orozco-Aviña, Gustavo; Moreno-Martínez, Sandra C; Luna-Montalbán, Rafael; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    HIV-seropositive patients show high incidence of coronary heart disease and oxidative stress has been described as relevant key in atherosclerosis development. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of omega 3 fatty acids on different markers of oxidative stress in HIV-seropositive patients. We performed a randomized parallel controlled clinical trial in The Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, a public health hospital. 70 HIV-seropositive patients aged 20 to 55 on clinical score A1, A2, B1 or B2 receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were studied. They were randomly assigned to receive omega 3 fatty acids 2.4 g (Zonelabs, Marblehead MA) or placebo for 6 months. At baseline and at the end of the study, anthropometric measurements, lipid profile, glucose and stress oxidative levels [nitric oxide catabolites, lipoperoxides (malondialdehyde plus 4-hydroxialkenals), and glutathione] were evaluated. Principal HAART therapy was EFV/TDF/FTC (55%) and AZT/3TC/EFV (15%) without difference between groups. Treatment with omega 3 fatty acids as compared with placebo decreased triglycerides (-0.32 vs. 0.54 mmol/L; p = 0.04), but oxidative stress markers were not different between groups.

  18. A combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids across two generations improves cardiometabolic variables in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Randhir, Karuna; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-09-14

    Our earlier studies indicate that micronutrients (vitamin B12, folic acid) and omega-3 fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are interlinked in one carbon cycle. The present study examines the effects of a sustained vitamin B12 deficiency/supplementation in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids across two generations on the pregnancy outcome and cardiometabolic profile [blood pressure, plasma lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides), plasma/liver fatty acid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism] in the second generation adult Wistar rat offspring. Two generations of animals were fed the following diets: control; vitamin B12 deficient; vitamin B12 supplemented; vitamin B12 deficient diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids; vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented diets. Male offspring were sacrificed at 3 months of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency lowered the weight gain (p B12 supplementation showed weight gain, blood pressure and the fatty acid profile similar to the control. However, it increased (p B12 deficient group lowered the weight gain although the levels of cardiometabolic variables were comparable to the control. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the presence of vitamin B12 improved the pregnancy outcome and all cardio-metabolic variables. Our study highlights the adverse effects of sustained vitamin B12 deficiency across two generations on the pregnancy outcome, fatty acid profile and blood pressure while a combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids is beneficial.

  19. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent progression of liver fibrosis and promote liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in cirrhotic rats%ω-3多不饱和脂肪酸对肝硬化大鼠肝切除术后肝细胞再生及肝纤维化程度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨跃; 段飞; 蔡浩; 陈靓; 林建宇; 仇毓东

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) on liver regeneration after hepatectomy and antifibrosis under the condition of liver cirrhosis in rats. Methods:Seventy precent hepatectomy was carried out in rats,which were subsequently divided into 4 groups: ①normal and hepatectomy group(PH) ,②liver cirrhosis and hepatectomy group(LC + PH) , ③liver cirrhosis,n-3 PUFA (1 ml/kg) and hepatectomy group (LC +n-3 PUFA[S] +PH) ,④liver cirrhosis , n-3 PUFA (2 ml/kg) and hepatectomy group (LC + n-3PUFA[ L] + PH). Body/liver weight ratios , Serum parameters, histopathological examination, immunostaining and quantification of mRNA expression were also investigated. Results:Liver regeneration in LC + PH group was significantly delayed compared with PH group 7 days after hepatectomy. On the other hand,liver regeneration in LC + n-3 PUFA[L] +PH group increased significantly. The liver fibrosis was significantly lower in the groups with use of n-3 PUFA. Conclusion: The n-3 PUFA can reduce liver fibrosis and promote liver regeneration, even under cirrhotic conditions.%目的:观察ω-3多不饱和脂肪酸(ω-3PUFA)对肝硬化大鼠70%肝切除术后肝细胞再生及肝纤维化程度的影响. 方法:将96只大鼠随机分为四组,即正常对照组(仅行70%肝切除);肝硬化对照组(肝硬化大鼠行70%肝切除);肝硬化小剂量组(肝硬化大鼠行70%肝切除后静脉注射ω-3PUFA 1 ml/kg);肝硬化大剂量组(肝硬化大鼠行70%肝切除后静脉注射ω-3PUFA 2 ml/kg).观察大鼠术后第1、3、5和7天肝细胞再生的情况,肝功能指标,残肝肝纤维化程度的变化等. 结果:与肝硬化对照组比,肝硬化大剂量组大鼠术后肝有明显的再生(P<0.05);术后第1和第3天ALT和AST有明显降低(P<0.05).术后第7天,肝硬化小剂量组和肝硬化大剂量组肝纤维化程度有明显减轻(P<0.05). 结论:ω-3PUFA不仅能促进肝硬化大鼠术后肝细胞再

  20. Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Treatment of Depressive Disorders: A Comprehensive Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Pajak, Andrzej; Marventano, Stefano; Castellano, Sabrina; Galvano, Fabio; Bucolo, Claudio; Drago, Filippo; Caraci, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplementation in depressed patients have been suggested to improve depressive symptomatology, previous findings are not univocal. Objectives To conduct an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of omega-3 PUFA treatment of depressive disorders, taking into account the clinical differences among patients included in the studies. Methods A search on MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane Database of RCTs using omega-3 PUFA on patients with depressive symptoms published up to August 2013 was performed. Standardized mean difference in clinical measure of depression severity was primary outcome. Type of omega-3 used (particularly eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) and omega-3 as mono- or adjuvant therapy was also examined. Meta-regression analyses assessed the effects of study size, baseline depression severity, trial duration, dose of omega-3, and age of patients. Results Meta-analysis of 11 and 8 trials conducted respectively on patients with a DSM-defined diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) and patients with depressive symptomatology but no diagnosis of MDD demonstrated significant clinical benefit of omega-3 PUFA treatment compared to placebo (standardized difference in random-effects model 0.56 SD [95% CI: 0.20, 0.92] and 0.22 SD [95% CI: 0.01, 0.43], respectively; pooled analysis was 0.38 SD [95% CI: 0.18, 0.59]). Use of mainly EPA within the preparation, rather than DHA, influenced final clinical efficacy. Significant clinical efficacy had the use of omega-3 PUFA as adjuvant rather than mono-therapy. No relation between efficacy and study size, baseline depression severity, trial duration, age of patients, and study quality was found. Omega-3 PUFA resulted effective in RCTs on patients with bipolar disorder, whereas no evidence was found for those exploring their efficacy on depressive symptoms in young populations, perinatal depression

  1. Correlation of omega-3 levels in serum phospholipid from 2053 human blood samples with key fatty acid ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe William

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This research was conducted to explore the relationships between the levels of omega-3 fatty acids in serum phospholipid and key fatty acid ratios including potential cut-offs for risk factor assessment with respect to coronary heart disease and fatal ischemic heart disease. Methods Blood samples (n = 2053 were obtained from free-living subjects in North America and processed for determining the levels of total fatty acids in serum phospholipid as omega-3 fatty acids including EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5 n-3 and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6 n-3 by combined thin-layer and gas-liquid chromatographic analyses. The omega-3 levels were correlated with selected omega-6: omega-3 ratios including AA (arachidonic acid, 20:4n-6: EPA and AA:(EPA+DHA. Based on previously-published levels of omega-3 fatty acids considered to be in a 'lower risk' category for heart disease and related fatality, 'lower risk' categories for selected