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Sample records for olive fruit fly

  1. Recent progress in a classical biological control program for olive fruit fly in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), causes severe damage to olive production worldwide. Control of olive fruit fly typically relies on pesticides, and under such conditions the impact of natural enemies is relatively low. About 15 years ago, the USDA-ARS European Biologic...

  2. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California with a Parasitoid Imported from Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    The parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), was imported into California from the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Moscamed, San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. The parasitoid did not develop in the seedhead fly, Cha...

  3. Virulence of selected entomopathogenic fungi against the olive fruit fly and their potential for biocontrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most serious pest of cultivated olives worldwide. Its recent invasion into North America, specifically California, has initiated renewed interest in management strategies for this pest. Research into classical biological control ha...

  4. Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Rendón, Pedro A; Sivinski, John

    2008-06-01

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), by the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Guatemala City, Guatemala, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. Mean percentage parasitism of olive fruit fly third instars infesting fruit in field cages ranged from 7.0 in Grapevine to 59.7 in Santa Barbara and in free releases ranged from 0 in Grapevine to 10.6 in Santa Barbara after 4- to 6-d exposures. In the laboratory, more parasitoids developed to adults in olive fruit fly larvae that were 11-13 d old than in larvae 8-10 d old. Adult parasitoids lived significantly longer when provided with water than adults without water in environmental chambers at 5 degrees C, 85% RH; 15 degrees C, 65% RH; 25 degrees C, 25% RH; and 35 degrees C, 25% RH. Adult parasitoids lived for 48 d with honey for food and water and 32 d with food and sugar solution at 15 degrees C and 65% RH. Survival of adult parasitoids without food and water in greenhouse tests was approximately 4 d in a simulated coastal climate and 1 d in a simulated inland valley climate and was significantly increased by providing food and water. The parasitoid did not develop in the beneficial seedhead fly, Chaetorellia succinea (Costa), in yellow star thistle. The rate of parasitism of walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, larvae in green walnut husks was 28.4% in laboratory no-choice tests. In choice tests, the rate of parasitism of walnut husk fly versus olive fruit fly larvae in olives was 11.5 and 24.2%, respectively.

  5. Olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations in relation to region, trap type, season, and availability of fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Miller, Gina T; Stewart-Leslie, Judy; Rice, Richard E; Phillips, Phil A

    2006-12-01

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), was monitored with adult captures by season and trap type, and was related to fruit volume and nonharvested fruit to elucidate the occurrence of the newly introduced pest in California. The highest numbers of adults captured in ChamP traps in olive trees, Olea europaea, were in October in an inland valley location, and in September in a coastal location. Comparisons of trap types showed that the number of olive fruit fly adults captured in Pherocon AM traps in a commercial orchard was significantly greater than in ChamP traps. A significantly greater number of females were captured in Pherocon AM traps with bait packets and pheromone lures than traps with pheromone lures alone, while a significantly greater number of adults and males were captured in traps with pheromone lures alone. Significantly more adults were captured in ChamP traps with bait packets and pheromone lures versus traps with bait packets alone. Fruit volume increased by four times from mid-June to mid-November. Olive fruit fly was found to oviposit on small olive fruit fruit set, the maximum number of ovipositional sites per fruit occurred in October, and the greatest number of pupae and adults were reared from fruit collected in September and October. The highest numbers of pupae were collected from nonharvested fruit in March when high numbers of adults were captured in the same orchard.

  6. Transcriptomic responses of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae and its symbiont Candidatus Erwinia dacicola to olive feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidi, Nena; Gioti, Anastasia; Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Ben-Yosef, Michael; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevich, Edouard; Kampouraki, Anastasia; van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John

    2017-02-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most destructive pest of olive orchards worldwide. The monophagous larva has the unique capability of feeding on olive mesocarp, coping with high levels of phenolic compounds and utilizing non-hydrolyzed proteins present, particularly in the unripe, green olives. On the molecular level, the interaction between B. oleae and olives has not been investigated as yet. Nevertheless, it has been associated with the gut obligate symbiotic bacterium Candidatus Erwinia dacicola. Here, we used a B.oleae microarray to analyze the gene expression of larvae during their development in artificial diet, unripe (green) and ripe (black) olives. The expression profiles of Ca. E. dacicola were analyzed in parallel, using the Illumina platform. Several genes were found overexpressed in the olive fly larvae when feeding in green olives. Among these, a number of genes encoding detoxification and digestive enzymes, indicating a potential association with the ability of B. oleae to cope with green olives. In addition, a number of biological processes seem to be activated in Ca. E. dacicola during the development of larvae in olives, with the most notable being the activation of amino-acid metabolism.

  7. Transcriptomic responses of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae and its symbiont Candidatus Erwinia dacicola to olive feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidi, Nena; Gioti, Anastasia; Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Ben-Yosef, Michael; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevich, Edouard; Kampouraki, Anastasia; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John

    2017-01-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most destructive pest of olive orchards worldwide. The monophagous larva has the unique capability of feeding on olive mesocarp, coping with high levels of phenolic compounds and utilizing non-hydrolyzed proteins present, particularly in the unripe, green olives. On the molecular level, the interaction between B. oleae and olives has not been investigated as yet. Nevertheless, it has been associated with the gut obligate symbiotic bacterium Candidatus Erwinia dacicola. Here, we used a B.oleae microarray to analyze the gene expression of larvae during their development in artificial diet, unripe (green) and ripe (black) olives. The expression profiles of Ca. E. dacicola were analyzed in parallel, using the Illumina platform. Several genes were found overexpressed in the olive fly larvae when feeding in green olives. Among these, a number of genes encoding detoxification and digestive enzymes, indicating a potential association with the ability of B. oleae to cope with green olives. In addition, a number of biological processes seem to be activated in Ca. E. dacicola during the development of larvae in olives, with the most notable being the activation of amino-acid metabolism. PMID:28225009

  8. Olive fruits infested with olive fly larvae respond with an ethylene burst and the emission of specific volatiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fiammetta Alagna; Mario Kallenbach; Andrea Pompa; Francesca De Marchis; Rosa Rao; Ian T Baldwin; Gustavo Bonaventure; y Luciana Baldoni

    2016-01-01

    Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae R.) is the most harmful insect pest of olive (Olea europaea L.) which strongly affects fruits and oil production. Despite the expanding economic importance of olive cultivation, up to now, only limited information on plant responses to B. oleae is available. Here, we demonstrate that olive fruits respond to B. oleae attack by producing changes in an array of different defensive compounds including phytohormones, volatile organic com-pounds (VOCs), and defense proteins. Bactrocera oleae-infested fruits induced a strong ethylene burst and transcript levels of several putative ethylene-responsive transcription factors became significantly upregulated. Moreover, infested fruits induced significant changes in the levels of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid and C12 derivatives of the hydroperoxide lyase. The emission of VOCs was also changed quantitatively and qualitatively in insect-damaged fruits, indicating that B. oleae larval feeding can specifically affect the volatile blend of fruits. Finally, we show that larval infestation maintained high levels of trypsin protease inhibitors in ripe fruits, probably by affecting post-transcriptional mechanisms. Our results pro-vide novel and important information to understand the response of the olive fruit to B. oleae attack;information that can shed light onto potential new strategies to combat this pest.

  9. Olive fruits infested with olive fly larvae respond with an ethylene burst and the emission of specific volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagna, Fiammetta; Kallenbach, Mario; Pompa, Andrea; De Marchis, Francesca; Rao, Rosa; Baldwin, Ian T; Bonaventure, Gustavo; Baldoni, Luciana

    2016-04-01

    Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae R.) is the most harmful insect pest of olive (Olea europaea L.) which strongly affects fruits and oil production. Despite the expanding economic importance of olive cultivation, up to now, only limited information on plant responses to B. oleae is available. Here, we demonstrate that olive fruits respond to B. oleae attack by producing changes in an array of different defensive compounds including phytohormones, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and defense proteins. Bactrocera oleae-infested fruits induced a strong ethylene burst and transcript levels of several putative ethylene-responsive transcription factors became significantly upregulated. Moreover, infested fruits induced significant changes in the levels of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid and C12 derivatives of the hydroperoxide lyase. The emission of VOCs was also changed quantitatively and qualitatively in insect-damaged fruits, indicating that B. oleae larval feeding can specifically affect the volatile blend of fruits. Finally, we show that larval infestation maintained high levels of trypsin protease inhibitors in ripe fruits, probably by affecting post-transcriptional mechanisms. Our results provide novel and important information to understand the response of the olive fruit to B. oleae attack; information that can shed light onto potential new strategies to combat this pest.

  10. Control of the olive fruit fly using genetics-enhanced sterile insect technique

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    Ant Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major arthropod pest of commercial olive production, causing extensive damage to olive crops worldwide. Current control techniques rely on spraying of chemical insecticides. The sterile insect technique (SIT presents an alternative, environmentally friendly and species-specific method of population control. Although SIT has been very successful against other tephritid pests, previous SIT trials on olive fly have produced disappointing results. Key problems included altered diurnal mating rhythms of the laboratory-reared insects, resulting in asynchronous mating activity between the wild and released sterile populations, and low competitiveness of the radiation-sterilised mass-reared flies. Consequently, the production of competitive, male-only release cohorts is considered an essential prerequisite for successful olive fly SIT. Results We developed a set of conditional female-lethal strains of olive fly (named Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal; RIDL®, providing highly penetrant female-specific lethality, dominant fluorescent marking, and genetic sterility. We found that males of the lead strain, OX3097D-Bol, 1 are strongly sexually competitive with wild olive flies, 2 display synchronous mating activity with wild females, and 3 induce appropriate refractoriness to wild female re-mating. Furthermore, we showed, through a large proof-of-principle experiment, that weekly releases of OX3097D-Bol males into stable populations of caged wild-type olive fly could cause rapid population collapse and eventual eradication. Conclusions The observed mating characteristics strongly suggest that an approach based on the release of OX3097D-Bol males will overcome the key difficulties encountered in previous olive fly SIT attempts. Although field confirmation is required, the proof-of-principle suppression and elimination of caged wild-type olive fly populations through OX3097D

  11. Overwintering survival of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and two introduced parasitoids in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Geng; Levy, Karmit; Nadel, Hannah; Johnson, Marshall W; Blanchet, Arnaud; Argov, Yael; Pickett, Charles H; Daane, Kent M

    2013-06-01

    The overwintering survival and development of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), and the endoparasitoids, Psyttalia humilis Silvestri and P. lounsburyi (Silvestri), were investigated at sites in California's interior valley and coastal region. In the interior valley, adult flies survived up to 4-6 mo during the winter when food was provided. Adult female flies could oviposit in late fall and early winter on nonharvested fruit and, although egg survival was low (0.23-8.50%), a portion of the overwintered cohort developed into adults the following spring; percentage of survival was negatively correlated to daily minimum temperature. P. humilis and P. lounsburyi successfully oviposited into host larvae in late fall, and their progeny developed into adults the following spring, although with a low percentage (0-11.9%) survivorship. Overwintering survival of puparia of the olive fruit fly and immature larvae of P. humilis and P. lounsburyi (inside host puparia), buried in the soil, were tested at an interior valley and coastal site. Survival of olive fruit fly ranged from 0 to 60% and was affected by the trial date and soil moisture. Overwintering survival of both the fruit fly and tested parasitoids was lower at the colder interior valley than the coastal site; P. humilis immature stages had the highest mortality levels while B. oleae pupae had the lowest mortality levels. The spring emergence pattern of the tested insects was well predicted by a degree-day model. We discuss factors potentially impeding establishment of introduced olive fruit fly parasitoids in California and elsewhere.

  12. Prevalence of Candidatus Erwinia dacicola in wild and laboratory olive fruit fly populations and across developmental stages.

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    Estes, Anne M; Hearn, David J; Burrack, Hannah J; Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Pierson, Elizabeth A

    2012-04-01

    The microbiome of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), a worldwide pest of olives (Olea europaea L.), has been examined for >100 yr as part of efforts to identify bacteria that are plant pathogens vectored by the fly or are beneficial endosymbionts essential for the fly's survival and thus targets for possible biological control. Because tephritid fruit flies feed on free-living bacteria in their environment, distinguishing between the transient, acquired bacteria of their diet and persistent, resident bacteria that are vertically transmitted endosymbionts is difficult. Several culture-dependent and -independent studies have identified a diversity of species in the olive fruit fly microbiome, but they have not distinguished the roles of the microbes. Candidatus Erwinia dacicola, has been proposed to be a coevolved endosymbiont of the olive fruit fly; however, this was based on limited samples from two Italian populations. Our study shows that C. Erwinia dacicola was present in all New and Old World populations and in the majority of individuals of all life stages sampled in 2 yr. Olive fruit flies reared on olives in the laboratory had frequencies of C. Erwinia dacicola similar to that of wild populations; however, flies reared on artificial diets containing antibiotics in the laboratory rarely had the endosymbiont. The relative abundance of C. Erwinia dacicola varied across development stages, being most abundant in ovipositing females and larvae. This uniform presence of C. Erwini dacicola suggests that it is a persistent, resident endosymbiont of the olive fruit fly.

  13. Analysis of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae transcriptome and phylogenetic classification of the major detoxification gene families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlidi, N.; Dermauw, W.; Rombauts, S.; Chrisargiris, A.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Vontas, J.

    2013-01-01

    The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae has a unique ability to cope with olive flesh, and is the most destructive pest of olives worldwide. Its control has been largely based on the use of chemical insecticides, however, the selection of insecticide resistance against several insecticides has evolved.

  14. Biological and Cultural Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California---Utilization of Parasitoids from USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    The parasitoid Psytallia cf. concolor (Szépligeti) was reared on sterile Mediterranean fruit fly larvae at the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Petapa Quarantine Laboratory in Guatemala and shipped to the USDA-ARS, Parlier, for wide-spread release and biological control of olive fruit fly in California. As many as 3...

  15. Olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California: longevity, oviposition, and development in canning olives in the laboratory and greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y

    2012-02-01

    The biology of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), was studied in the laboratory, greenhouse, and in canning olives, Olea europaea L., in relation to California regional climates. Adults survived in laboratory tests at constant temperatures and relative humidities of 5 degrees C and 83%; 15 degrees C and 59%; 25 degrees C and 30%; and 35 degrees C and 29% for 15, 6, 3, and 2 d without provisions of food and water and for 37, 63, 25, and 4 d with provisions, respectively. In a divided greenhouse, adults survived for 8-11 d in the warm side (36 degrees C and 31% RH daytime); and in the cool side (26 degrees C and 63% RH daytime) 10 d without provisions and 203 d with provisions. A significantly greater number of adults survived in the cool side than the warm side, and with provisions than without. First and last eggs were oviposited in olive fruit when females were 6 and 90 d old, respectively. The highest number of eggs was 55 per day in 10 olive fruit oviposited by 10 28 d-old females, with maximum egg production by 13-37 d-old females. A significantly greater number of ovipositional sites occurred in all sizes of immature green fruit when exposed to adults in cages for 5 d than 2 d. Adults emerged from fruit with a height of > or = 1.0 cm or a volume of > or = 0.2 cm3. More than seven adults per 15 fruit emerged from field infested fruit with a height of 1.1 cm and volume of 0.1 cm3. Larval length was significantly different among the first, second, and third instars and ranged from 0.7 to 1.6, 2.4-4.3, and 4.8-5.6 mm at 14 degrees C; 0.8-1.1, 1.9-2.9, and 3.9-4.4 mm at 21 degrees C, and 0.7-1.3, 2.4-2.9, and 4.4-4.8 mm at 26 degrees C, respectively. Survival of pupae to the adult stage was significantly lower at 26 degrees C than 14 degrees C or 21 degrees C. The period of adult emergence began at 38, 14, and 11 d over a period of 8, 5, and 1 d at 14, 21, and 26 degrees C, respectively. Findings were related to the occurrence and control of California

  16. Molecular interactions between the olive and the fruit fly Bactrocera oleae

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    Corrado Giandomenico

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fruit fly Bactrocera oleae is the primary biotic stressor of cultivated olives, causing direct and indirect damages that significantly reduce both the yield and the quality of olive oil. To study the olive-B. oleae interaction, we conducted transcriptomic and proteomic investigations of the molecular response of the drupe. The identifications of genes and proteins involved in the fruit response were performed using a Suppression Subtractive Hybridisation technique and a combined bi-dimensional electrophoresis/nanoLC-ESI-LIT-MS/MS approach, respectively. Results We identified 196 ESTs and 26 protein spots as differentially expressed in olives with larval feeding tunnels. A bioinformatic analysis of the identified non-redundant EST and protein collection indicated that different molecular processes were affected, such as stress response, phytohormone signalling, transcriptional control and primary metabolism, and that a considerable proportion of the ESTs could not be classified. The altered expression of 20 transcripts was also analysed by real-time PCR, and the most striking differences were further confirmed in the fruit of a different olive variety. We also cloned the full-length coding sequences of two genes, Oe-chitinase I and Oe-PR27, and showed that these are wound-inducible genes and activated by B. oleae punctures. Conclusions This study represents the first report that reveals the molecular players and signalling pathways involved in the interaction between the olive fruit and its most damaging biotic stressor. Drupe response is complex, involving genes and proteins involved in photosynthesis as well as in the production of ROS, the activation of different stress response pathways and the production of compounds involved in direct defence against phytophagous larvae. Among the latter, trypsin inhibitors should play a major role in drupe resistance reaction.

  17. Olive Fruit Fly (Bactrocera oleae) Population Dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean: Influence of Exogenous Uncertainty on a Monophagous Frugivorous Insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordano, Mariano; Engelhard, Izhar; Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Nemny-Lavy, Esther; Blum, Moshe; Yasin, Sami; Lensky, Itamar M; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Nestel, David

    2015-01-01

    Despite of the economic importance of the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) and the large amount of biological and ecological studies on the insect, the factors driving its population dynamics (i.e., population persistence and regulation) had not been analytically investigated until the present study. Specifically, our study investigated the autoregressive process of the olive fly populations, and the joint role of intrinsic and extrinsic factors molding the population dynamics of the insect. Accounting for endogenous dynamics and the influences of exogenous factors such as olive grove temperature, the North Atlantic Oscillation and the presence of potential host fruit, we modeled olive fly populations in five locations in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Our models indicate that the rate of population change is mainly shaped by first and higher order non-monotonic, endogenous dynamics (i.e., density-dependent population feedback). The olive grove temperature was the main exogenous driver, while the North Atlantic Oscillation and fruit availability acted as significant exogenous factors in one of the five populations. Seasonal influences were also relevant for three of the populations. In spite of exogenous effects, the rate of population change was fairly stable along time. We propose that a special reproductive mechanism, such as reproductive quiescence, allows populations of monophagous fruit flies such as the olive fly to remain stable. Further, we discuss how weather factors could impinge constraints on the population dynamics at the local level. Particularly, local temperature dynamics could provide forecasting cues for management guidelines. Jointly, our results advocate for establishing monitoring programs and for a major focus of research on the relationship between life history traits and populations dynamics.

  18. Analysis of the Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera oleae Transcriptome and Phylogenetic Classification of the Major Detoxification Gene Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidi, Nena; Dermauw, Wannes; Rombauts, Stephane; Chrysargyris, Antonios; Chrisargiris, Antonis; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John

    2013-01-01

    The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae has a unique ability to cope with olive flesh, and is the most destructive pest of olives worldwide. Its control has been largely based on the use of chemical insecticides, however, the selection of insecticide resistance against several insecticides has evolved. The study of detoxification mechanisms, which allow the olive fruit fly to defend against insecticides, and/or phytotoxins possibly present in the mesocarp, has been hampered by the lack of genomic information in this species. In the NCBI database less than 1,000 nucleotide sequences have been deposited, with less than 10 detoxification gene homologues in total. We used 454 pyrosequencing to produce, for the first time, a large transcriptome dataset for B. oleae. A total of 482,790 reads were assembled into 14,204 contigs. More than 60% of those contigs (8,630) were larger than 500 base pairs, and almost half of them matched with genes of the order of the Diptera. Analysis of the Gene Ontology (GO) distribution of unique contigs, suggests that, compared to other insects, the assembly is broadly representative for the B. oleae transcriptome. Furthermore, the transcriptome was found to contain 55 P450, 43 GST-, 15 CCE- and 18 ABC transporter-genes. Several of those detoxification genes, may putatively be involved in the ability of the olive fruit fly to deal with xenobiotics, such as plant phytotoxins and insecticides. In summary, our study has generated new data and genomic resources, which will substantially facilitate molecular studies in B. oleae, including elucidation of detoxification mechanisms of xenobiotic, as well as other important aspects of olive fruit fly biology.

  19. Analysis of the Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera oleae Transcriptome and Phylogenetic Classification of the Major Detoxification Gene Families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nena Pavlidi

    Full Text Available The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae has a unique ability to cope with olive flesh, and is the most destructive pest of olives worldwide. Its control has been largely based on the use of chemical insecticides, however, the selection of insecticide resistance against several insecticides has evolved. The study of detoxification mechanisms, which allow the olive fruit fly to defend against insecticides, and/or phytotoxins possibly present in the mesocarp, has been hampered by the lack of genomic information in this species. In the NCBI database less than 1,000 nucleotide sequences have been deposited, with less than 10 detoxification gene homologues in total. We used 454 pyrosequencing to produce, for the first time, a large transcriptome dataset for B. oleae. A total of 482,790 reads were assembled into 14,204 contigs. More than 60% of those contigs (8,630 were larger than 500 base pairs, and almost half of them matched with genes of the order of the Diptera. Analysis of the Gene Ontology (GO distribution of unique contigs, suggests that, compared to other insects, the assembly is broadly representative for the B. oleae transcriptome. Furthermore, the transcriptome was found to contain 55 P450, 43 GST-, 15 CCE- and 18 ABC transporter-genes. Several of those detoxification genes, may putatively be involved in the ability of the olive fruit fly to deal with xenobiotics, such as plant phytotoxins and insecticides. In summary, our study has generated new data and genomic resources, which will substantially facilitate molecular studies in B. oleae, including elucidation of detoxification mechanisms of xenobiotic, as well as other important aspects of olive fruit fly biology.

  20. Probabilities for survival of glassy-winged sharpshooter and olive fruit fly pests in urban yard waste piles.

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    Crohn, David M; Faber, Ben; Downer, A James; Daugovish, Oleg

    2008-03-01

    Glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homolodisca coagulate) and olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) were introduced into unturned, chipped yard waste piles to evaluate their survival with time and depth within the piles. In all three trials, no pests lasted more than 14 d, and in no trial did pests survive more than 4d at the 30 and 100 cm depths. No survivors were found after 14 d in any of the treatments at any depth. Neither of the pests survived 100 cm after 2d. A mathematical model for describing pest survival probabilities is described. The model modifies time according to the Arrhenius equation in order to include heat effects on pest survival and can be used to determine exposure times necessary to eliminate these pests with a determined statistical probability. Model projections suggest that for conditions similar to this study, there is 99% confidence that all glassy-winged sharpshooter eggs would be eliminated from 1000 infected leaves in 6.1d at 15 cm depth and in 4.8d at 30 cm or below. Olive fruit fly larvae at these depths would require 4.8 and 4.1d, respectively, for 1000 infected olive fruits. Projected elimination times at the surface were longer, 6.5d for sharpshooter eggs and 14.3d for fruit fly larvae.

  1. PRESENCE OF THE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY(Ceratitis capitata Wied. IN SELECTED OLIVE ORCHARDS OF CENTRAL DALMATIA

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    M. Bjeliš

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann is a regular pest of large number of cultivated and wild host plants in Dalmatia. However, this pest does not develop either inside fruits of cultivated olive - Olea europaea sativa or wild olive „ mastrinka“ - Olea europaea oleaster. The main objective of this research was to prove regular presence, time of appearance and flight duration of the Mediterranean fruit fly inside selected orchards of central Dalmatia. During the four years of research, from 2001 to 2004 by using of traps and parapheromone trimedlure, the regular presence of the Mediterranean fruit fly was proved inside four selected orchards on the area of cities of Split and Kaštela, with differences in adult caught between localities and years. During the 2001 year, on the three locations in the area of city of Kaštela, the highest capture during the total research period was recorded, while on the locations in Split, the highest capture was recorded during 2003 year, but also significant during 2001 year. The lowest number of adult, less than 5 flies/trap was captured on all four locations during 2002 year.

  2. The effect of the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) on quality parameters, and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of olive oil.

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    Medjkouh, Lynda; Tamendjari, Abderezak; Keciri, Sonia; Santos, Joana; Nunes, M Antónia; Oliveira, M B P P

    2016-06-15

    The present study was performed on olives from two Algerian cultivars (Limli and Rougette de Metidja) with different rates of attack by the Bactrocera oleae fly (0%, not attacked; 100%, all attacked; and real attacked %) and the corresponding olive oils. The aim was to verify the attack effect on quality parameters (free fatty acid, peroxide value, K232 and K270, oxidation stability), bioactive compounds (fatty acids and tocopherols, and total phenols and flavonoids), and on the antioxidant (reducing power, FRAP, β-carotene bleaching inhibition, ABTS and DPPH) and antibacterial (against 8 referenced human enteropathogenic bacteria by the agar disc diffusion method) capacities. Oils from infested olives were downgraded to the virgin olive oil category. Rougette de Metidja, the cultivar with a higher drupe size, was more attacked than Limli. The B. oleae attack causes an important decrease in the total phenolic contents (>30%) but to a lesser degree in the case of tocopherols. Among them, α-tocopherol is the most affected. The antioxidant and antibacterial activities were highly correlated with phenolic levels. The results of this study show the importance of controlling the fly attack because it causes a decrease in the beneficial health effects of olive oils.

  3. Biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in California, parasitoid longevity in presence of the host, and host status of Walnut Husk Fly

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    Yokoyama, Victoria Y., E-mail: vyokoyama@fresno.ars.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/SJVASC), Parlier, CA (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Subtropical Horticulture Research Station; Rendon, Pedro A., E-mail: prendon@aphisguate.co [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/APHIS), Guatemala City (Guatemala). Center for Plant Health Science and Technology. Animal and Plant Health Inspection.; Sivinski, John, E-mail: jsivinski@gainesville.usda.ufl.ed [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/CMAVE), Gainesville, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology

    2006-07-01

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, collected from tephritids infesting coffee in Kenya and reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala by USDA-APHIS, PPQ, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea. Free releases of the parasitoids were made in olive trees infested with olive fruit fly at a coastal and inland valley location during the fall and early winter of 2005. The relative humidity during the releases was significantly higher at the coastal location. Mean percentage parasitism ranged from 0.5 to 4 and 1.5 to 30 at the coastal and inland valley locations respectively, based on same season recovery of the F1 generation. One parasitoid was found in infested olives in the next crop of the following year in San Jose. Survival of the parasitoid in the greenhouse in the presence of olive fruit fly infested olives was not significantly different than in the presence of non-infested olives. The greatest number of progeny was produced from female parasitoids that were 12-16 d old. In laboratory tests, a few individuals of the parasitoid successfully completed one life cycle in walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, infested English walnuts, Juglans regia L. (author)

  4. Acetobacter tropicalis is a major symbiont of the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounatidis, Ilias; Crotti, Elena; Sapountzis, Panagiotis; Sacchi, Luciano; Rizzi, Aurora; Chouaia, Bessem; Bandi, Claudio; Alma, Alberto; Daffonchio, Daniele; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Bourtzis, Kostas

    2009-05-01

    Following cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques, we investigated the microbiota associated with Bactrocera oleae, one of the major agricultural pests in olive-producing countries. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene libraries and ultrastructural analyses revealed the presence of several bacterial taxa associated with this insect, among which Acetobacter tropicalis was predominant. The recent increased detection of acetic acid bacteria as symbionts of other insect model organisms, such as Anopheles stephensi (G. Favia et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:9047-9051, 2007) or Drosophila melanogaster (C. R. Cox and M. S. Gilmore, Infect. Immun. 75:1565-1576, 2007), prompted us to investigate the association established between A. tropicalis and B. oleae. Using an A. tropicalis-specific PCR assay, the symbiont was detected in all insects tested originating from laboratory stocks or field-collected from different locations in Greece. This acetic acid bacterium was successfully established in cell-free medium, and typing analyses, carried out on a collection of isolates, revealed that different A. tropicalis strains are present in fly populations. The capability to colonize and lodge in the digestive system of both larvae and adults and in Malpighian tubules of adults was demonstrated by using a strain labeled with a green fluorescent protein.

  5. A centralised remote data collection system using automated traps for managing and controlling the population of the Mediterranean (Ceratitis capitata) and olive (Dacus oleae) fruit flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philimis, Panayiotis; Psimolophitis, Elias; Hadjiyiannis, Stavros; Giusti, Alessandro; Perelló, Josep; Serrat, Albert; Avila, Pedro

    2013-08-01

    The present paper describes the development of a novel monitoring system (e-FlyWatch system) for managing and controlling the population of two of the world's most destructive fruit pests, namely the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae, Rossi - formerly Dacus oleae) and the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, also called medfly). The novel monitoring system consists of a) novel automated traps with optical and motion detection modules for capturing the flies, b) local stations including a GSM/GPRS module, sensors, flash memory, battery, antenna etc. and c) a central station that collects, stores and publishes the results (i.e. insect population in each field, sensor data, possible error/alarm data) via a web-based management software.The centralised data collection system provides also analysis and prediction models, end-user warning modules and historical analysis of infested areas. The e-FlyWatch system enables the SMEs-producers in the Fruit, Vegetable and Olive sectors to improve their production reduce the amount of insecticides/pesticides used and consequently the labour cost for spraying activities, and the labour cost for traps inspection.

  6. Symbiotic bacteria enable olive fly larvae to overcome host defences

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Yuval, Boaz

    2015-01-01

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. ...

  7. Acetobacter tropicalis is a major symbiont of the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kounatidis, Ilias; Crotti, Elena; Sapountzis, Panagiotis;

    2009-01-01

    Following cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques, we investigated the microbiota associated with Bactrocera oleae, one of the major agricultural pests in olive-producing countries. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene libraries and ultrastructural analyses revealed the presence of several bacterial...

  8. ( Z)-9-tricosene identified in rectal gland extracts of Bactrocera oleae males: first evidence of a male-produced female attractant in olive fruit fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpita, Adriano; Canale, Angelo; Raffaelli, Andrea; Saba, Alessandro; Benelli, Giovanni; Raspi, Alfio

    2012-01-01

    It is well-known that Bactrocera oleae (olive fruit fly) females attract conspecific males by using 1,7-dioxaspiro[5,5]undecane ( 1) as the main component of their sex pheromone, and that 1 is produced in the female rectal gland. Although some authors have claimed that B. oleae males also attract females, to date no male-produced female attractants have been found in this species. In this paper, we report the first identification of a substance unique to males and able to attract females. The findings of the study include the following: (1) females responded in a bioassay to hexane extracts obtained from rectal glands of 15-day-old B. oleae males, (2) the presence of ( Z)-9-tricosene ( 2) was consistently and unambiguously identified in these extracts using gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry methods, (3) in preliminary bioactivity tests, low doses (equivalent to a few males) of chemically and stereoisomerically pure synthetic ( Z)-9-tricosene ( 2) attracted olive fruit fly females. Interestingly, compound 2, commonly called muscalure, is also a well-known component of the house fly ( Musca domestica) sex pheromone.

  9. Symbiotic bacteria enable olive fly larvae to overcome host defences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Yuval, Boaz

    2015-07-01

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. We examined the interaction between larvae, their associated bacteria, and fruit chemical defence, hypothesizing that bacterial contribution to larval development is contingent on the phenology of fruit defensive chemistry. We demonstrate that larvae require their natural complement of bacteria (Candidatus Erwinia dacicola: Enterobacteriaceae) in order to develop in unripe olives. Conversely, when feeding on ripe fruit, larval development proceeds independently of these bacteria. Our experiments suggest that bacteria counteract the inhibitory effect of oleuropein-the principal phenolic glycoside in unripe olives. In light of these results, we suggest that the unique symbiosis in olive flies, compared with other frugivorous tephritids, is understood by considering the relationship between the fly, bacteria and fruit chemistry. When applied in an evolutionary context, this approach may also point out the forces which shaped symbioses across the Tephritidae.

  10. Achilles, a New Family of Transcriptionally Active Retrotransposons from the Olive Fruit Fly, with Y Chromosome Preferential Distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantina T Tsoumani

    Full Text Available Sex chromosomes have many unusual features relative to autosomes. The in depth exploration of their structure will improve our understanding of their origin and divergence (degeneration as well as the evolution of genetic sex determination pathways which, most often are attributed to them. In Tephritids, the structure of Y chromosome, where the male-determining factor M is localized, is largely unexplored and limited data concerning its sequence content and evolution are available. In order to get insight into the structure and organization of the Y chromosome of the major olive insect pest, the olive fly Bactrocera oleae, we characterized sequences from a Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE-isolated Y chromosome. Here, we report the discovery of the first olive fly LTR retrotransposon with increased presence on the Y chromosome. The element belongs to the BEL-Pao superfamily, however, its sequence comparison with the other members of the superfamily suggests that it constitutes a new family that we termed Achilles. Its ~7.5 kb sequence consists of the 5'LTR, the 5'non-coding sequence and the open reading frame (ORF, which encodes the polyprotein Gag-Pol. In situ hybridization to the B. oleae polytene chromosomes showed that Achilles is distributed in discrete bands dispersed on all five autosomes, in all centromeric regions and in the granular heterochromatic network corresponding to the mitotic sex chromosomes. The between sexes comparison revealed a variation in Achilles copy number, with male flies possessing 5-10 copies more than female (CI range: 18-38 and 12-33 copies respectively per genome. The examination of its transcriptional activity demonstrated the presence of at least one intact active copy in the genome, showing a differential level of expression between sexes as well as during embryonic development. The higher expression was detected in male germline tissues (testes. Moreover, the presence of Achilles-like elements in

  11. 外来入侵害虫橄榄果蝇Bactrocera oleae在中国的适生区预测%Prediction of Potential Distribution Areas of Olive Fruit Fly (Bactrocera oleae)in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪; 李白尼; 魏武; 张文军

    2011-01-01

    基于两种常用的生态位模型GARP和MAXENT,通过模拟橄榄果蝇的生态需求,分析了其在中国的适宜生境,结合地理信息系统GIS从而模拟出橄榄果蝇在中国的潜在地理分布区.该研究在理论上为掌握橄榄果蝇的扩散趋势和监测范围提供指导.研究结果表明,GARP模型预测我国南方大部分地区为橄榄果蝇的适生区;MAXENT模型的预测结果显示我国西南三省云贵川以及广西为橄榄果蝇的适生区.综合分析,我国云南、四川和贵州的部分地区为橄榄果蝇的高度适生区,对于此地区应该加强对该虫的检疫控制.%Two ecological niche models, GARP and MAXENT, were used to simulate the ecological conditions of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae. Suitability analysis and Geographic Information System (GIS) were applied to simulate potential distribution areas of the olive fruit fly in China. The GARP results showed that the most areas of southern China are the suitable areas of olive fruit fly. MAXENT model showed that the provinces in southwest China, Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan and Guangxi are suitable distribution areas of the olive fruit fly. Comprehensive analysis indicated that Yunnan, Sichuan and Guizhou are the most suitable distribution areas of the olive fruit fly.

  12. Olive orchard amended with olive mill wastewater: effects on olive fruit and olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechri, B; Issaoui, M; Echbili, A; Chehab, H; Mariem, F B; Braham, M; Hammami, M

    2009-12-30

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of agronomic application of olive mill wastewater (OMW) in a field of olive trees on olive fruit and olive oil quality. Agronomic application of OMW increased significantly the fungal:bacteria ratio, whereas the root colonisation and the photosynthetic rates decreased significantly. Consequently, the oil content expressed as a percentage of dry weight, decreased significantly after agronomic application of OMW. Land spreading of OMW altered the relative proportion of individual olive fruit sugar and decreased significantly the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) of the fruit. A significant increase was observed in total phenol content of oil after agronomic application of OMW. alpha-Tocopherol content, on the contrary, decreased with OMW application. The fatty acid composition of the oil was not affected by the treatments. To our knowledge, this is the first report of change in the olive fruit and olive oil quality following agronomic application of OMW.

  13. Evaluating potential olive orchard sugar food sources for the olive fly parasitoid Psyttalia concolor

    OpenAIRE

    Furtado, C.; A.F. Belo; Nunes, F. M.; Ganhão, E.; Müller, Carsten Theodor; Torres, L.; Rei, F. T.

    2016-01-01

    Olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a major olive pest in the Mediterranean basin where increasing insecticide resistance has enhanced damage and necessitates more reliance on other control strategies, such as biological control. Provision of floral resources has been reported to improve the effectiveness of natural enemies. Here, we tested the effect of six plant nectars and two honeydew sources on the survival of Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti) (Hymenoptera: B...

  14. The genetic polymorphisms and colonization process of olive fly populations in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaç, Ersin; Kandemir, İrfan; Taskin, Vatan

    2013-01-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most important pest of olives in olive growing regions worldwide, especially in the Mediterranean basin and North America. Despite the economic importance of the olive fly, the colonization route of this species is unclear. We used nuclear microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA to provide information about the population structure and invasion route of olive fly populations in Turkey, as representative of the Eastern Mediterranean region. Adult fly samples were collected from 38 sublocations covering all olive growing regions in Turkey. The simple sequence variability data revealed a significant genetic variability in olive fly populations and a certain degree of differentiation between Mediterranean and Aegean populations. Mediterranean populations harbor higher levels of microsatellite variation than Aegean populations, which points to the eastern part of the Mediterranean as the putative source of invasion. mtDNA results suggest olive flies from the western part of Turkey are closely related to Italo-Aegean flies of the Mediterranean basin and the olive fly populations have invaded the northern part of the Mediterranean basin through western Turkey. In addition, finding specific American haplotypes in high frequencies might indicate that Turkey is the possible source of American olive fly populations. In order to more precisely characterize the population structure and invasion routes of this organism, more DNA-based sequence analysis should be carried out worldwide.

  15. Is bigger better? Male body size affects wing-borne courtship signals and mating success in the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Donati, Elisa; Romano, Donato; Ragni, Giacomo; Bonsignori, Gabriella; Stefanini, Cesare; Canale, Angelo

    2016-12-01

    Variations in male body size are known to affect inter- and intrasexual selection outcomes in a wide range of animals. In mating systems involving sexual signaling before mating, body size often acts as a key factor affecting signal strength and mate choice. We evaluated the effect of male size on courtship displays and mating success of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae). Wing vibrations performed during successful and unsuccessful courtships by large and small males were recorded by high-speed videos and analyzed through frame-by-frame analysis. Mating success of large and small males was investigated. The effect of male-male competition on mating success was evaluated. Male body size affected both male courtship signals and mating outcomes. Successful males showed wing-borne signals with high frequencies and short interpulse intervals. Wing vibrations displayed by successful large males during copulation attempt had higher frequencies over smaller males and unsuccessful large males. In no-competition conditions, large males achieved higher mating success with respect to smaller ones. Allowing large and small males to compete for a female, large males achieve more mating success over smaller ones. Mate choice by females may be based on selection of the larger males, able to produce high-frequency wing vibrations. Such traits may be indicative of "good genes," which under sexual selection could means good social-interaction genes, or a good competitive manipulator of conspecifics. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. The parasitoid complex associated with the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, in Southern Portugal (Algarve)

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Maria Albertina; Andrade, Laura,

    2014-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), is the most destructive pest of the olive trees in the Mediterranean Basin. Since 2004 several studies have been carried out in order to identify the beneficial insect species of the Hymenoptera order that usually inhabiting the olive ecosystem in Algarve. For that purpose samples of infested olive fruits were collected during the autumn season from several olive trees at Loulé and S. Brás de Alportel regions. The collected fruits were placed in labor...

  17. Proteins in olive fruit and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montealegre, Cristina; Esteve, Clara; García, Maria Concepción; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a comprehensive review grouping the information on the extraction, characterization, and quantitation of olive and olive oil proteins and providing a practical guide about these proteins. Most characterized olive proteins are located in the fruit, mainly in the seed, where different oleosins and storage proteins have been found. Unlike the seed, the olive pulp contains a lower protein content having been described a polypeptide of 4.6 kDa and a thaumain-like protein. Other important proteins studied in olive fruits have been enzymes which could play important roles in olives characteristics. Part of these proteins is transferred from the fruit to the oil during the manufacturing process of olive oil. In fact, the same polypeptide of 4.6 kDa found in the pulp has been described in the olive oil and, additionally, the presence of other proteins and enzymes have also been described. Protein profiles have recently been proposed as an interesting strategy for the varietal classification of olive fruits and oils. Nevertheless, there is still a lot of knowledge without being explored requiring new studies focused on the determination and characterization of these proteins.

  18. Estimating Orientation of Flying Fruit Flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi En Cheng

    Full Text Available The recently growing interest in studying flight behaviours of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has highlighted the need for developing tools that acquire quantitative motion data. Despite recent advance of video tracking systems, acquiring a flying fly's orientation remains a challenge for these tools. In this paper, we present a novel method for estimating individual flying fly's orientation using image cues. Thanks to the line reconstruction algorithm in computer vision field, this work can thereby focus on the practical detail of implementation and evaluation of the orientation estimation algorithm. The orientation estimation algorithm can be incorporated into tracking algorithms. We rigorously evaluated the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed algorithm by running experiments both on simulation data and on real-world data. This work complements methods for studying the fruit fly's flight behaviours in a three-dimensional environment.

  19. Analysis of olive fly invasion in California based on microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygouridis, N E; Augustinos, A A; Zalom, F G; Mathiopoulos, K D

    2009-04-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the main pest of the olive fruit and its expansion is exclusively restricted to the cultivation zone of the olive tree. Even though olive production has a century-old history in California, the olive fly was first detected in the Los Angeles area in 1998. Within 5 years of the first observation, the insect was reported from all olive cultivation areas of the state. Field-collected flies from five locations in California and another from Israel were analyzed on the basis of microsatellite polymorphisms in 10 microsatellite loci. These results were integrated with those of a previous study of olive fly populations around the European part of the Mediterranean basin. The analysis pointed to the eastern part of the Mediterranean as the putative source of the observed invasion. Moreover, samples from California were quite different from Mediterranean samples implying the participation of phenomena such as genetic drift during the invasion and expansion of the olive fly in California.

  20. Biological and Cultural Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California---Utilization of Parasitoids from USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Guatemala and Cultural Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The parasitoid Psytallia humilis = P. cf. concolor (Szépligeti) was reared on sterile Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), larvae at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala and shipped to the USDA, ARS, Parlier, for biological ...

  1. Managing the Fruit Fly Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeszenszky, Arleen W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a sophisticated version of the fruit fly experiment for teaching concepts about genetics to biology students. Provides students with the opportunity to work with live animals over an extended period. (JRH)

  2. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs.

  3. Subtropical Fruit Fly Invasions into Temperate Fruit Fly Territory in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subtropical fruit fly species including peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders); melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett); oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel); and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, have been detected in the past decade in the San Joaquin Valley of Califo...

  4. Caribbean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Small Fruit in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tephritid fruit flies are among the most important pests of fruits and vegetables worldwide. The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), is a tephritid pest that became established in Florida following introduction in 1965. Populations of this fruit fly also occur in Puerto Rico and Cuba, ...

  5. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research Past Issues / Summer 2007 ... courtesy of NIGMS Neuroscientist Chiara Cirelli uses experimental fruit flies to study sleep. Although it may be tough ...

  6. The effect of different processing stages of olive fruit on the extracted olive oil polyphenol content

    OpenAIRE

    Koutsaftakis, A.; Vekiari, S. A.

    2002-01-01

    In the present study the distribution of olive fruit polyphenolic fraction through the phases of olive oil extraction by a classical and a centrifugal system has been investigated. Olives of two Cretan origin varieties were used. Consequently, samples from different stages of oil extraction with and without their polyphenols were stored for a month under 64 ºC by periodical testing their peroxide value. In olive oils extracted by the centrifugal factory a large reduction of polyphe...

  7. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to Mediterranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A; Zee, Francis T; Hamasaki, Randall T; Hummer, Kim; Nakamoto, Stuart T

    2011-04-01

    No-choice tests were conducted to determine whether fruit of southern highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., hybrids are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. Fruit of various blueberry cultivars was exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (oriental fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), or Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly) in screen cages outdoors for 6 h and then held on sand in the laboratory for 2 wk for pupal development and adult emergence. Each of the 15 blueberry cultivars tested were infested by oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly, confirming that these fruit flies will oviposit on blueberry fruit and that blueberry is a suitable host for fly development. However, there was significant cultivar variation in susceptibility to fruit fly infestation. For oriental fruit fly, 'Sapphire' fruit produced an average of 1.42 puparia per g, twice as high as that of the next most susceptible cultivar 'Emerald' (0.70 puparia per g). 'Legacy', 'Biloxi', and 'Spring High' were least susceptible to infestation, producing only 0.20-0.25 oriental fruit fly puparia per g of fruit. For Mediterranean fruit fly, 'Blue Crisp' produced 0.50 puparia per g of fruit, whereas 'Sharpblue' produced only 0.03 puparia per g of fruit. Blueberry was a marginal host for melon fly. This information will aid in development of pest management recommendations for blueberry cultivars as planting of low-chill cultivars expands to areas with subtropical and tropical fruit flies. Planting of fruit fly resistant cultivars may result in lower infestation levels and less crop loss.

  8. Bringing back the fruit into fruit fly-bacteria interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, A; Jurkevitch, E; Yuval, B

    2008-03-01

    Female Mediterranean fruit flies (Ceratitis capitata) oviposit in fruits, within which the larvae develop. This development is associated with rapid deterioration of the fruit, and frequently with invasion by secondary pests. Most research on the associations between medflies and microorganisms has focused on the bacteria inhabiting the digestive system of the adult fly, while the role of the fruit in mediating, amplifying or regulating the fruit fly microflora has been largely neglected. In this study, we examine the hypothesis that the host fruit plays a role in perpetuating the fly-associated bacterial community. Using direct and cultured-based approaches, we show that this community is composed in its very large majority of diazotrophic and pectinolytic Enterobacteriaceae. Our data suggest that this fly-associated enterobacterial community is vertically transmitted from the female parent to its offspring. During oviposition, bacteria are transferred to the fruit, establish and proliferate within it, causing its decay. These results show that the host fruit is indeed a central partner in the fruit fly-bacterial interaction as these transmitted bacteria are amplified by the fruit, and subsequently maintained throughout the fly's life. This enterobacterial community may contribute to the fly's nitrogen and carbon metabolism, affecting its development and ultimately, fitness.

  9. Testing for Mutagens Using Fruit Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebl, Eric C.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a laboratory employed in undergraduate teaching that uses fruit flies to test student-selected compounds for their ability to cause mutations. Requires no prior experience with fruit flies, incorporates a student design component, and employs both rigorous controls and statistical analyses. (DDR)

  10. How 'ground-picked' olive fruits affect virgin olive oil ethanol content, ethyl esters and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Gabriel; Sánchez, Raquel; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Aguilera, Maria P; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Jimenez, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Olives dropped on the ground naturally sometimes are not separated from those fresh and healthy collected from the tree for harvest and processing. In this work we compared the quality, ethanol content and bioactive components of virgin olive oils from ground-picked olives, tree-picked fruits and their mixture. Ground-picked olives produced 'Lampante' virgin olive oils; these are of a lower quality category, because of important alterations in chemical and sensory characteristics. Ethyl esters showed the highest values, although under the regulated limit. The mixture of ground and tree-picked olives gave oils classified as 'virgin' because of sensory defects, although the quality parameters did not exceed the limits for the 'extra' category. Ethanol content showed a significant increase in the oils from ground- picked olives and their mixture with respect to those from tree-picked fruits. Furthermore, bioactive compounds showed a significant decrease as fruit quality was poorer. Ground-picked olives must be harvested and processed separately since they produce low-quality virgin olive oils with sensory defects and lower concentrations of bioactive compounds. The higher acidity and ethanol concentration observed in oils from ground-picked fruits or their mixture may help ethyl ester synthesis during storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Predicting fruit fly's sensing rate with insect flight simulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Song Chang; Z. Jane Wang

    2014-01-01

    .... Interpreting our findings together with experimental results on fruit flies' reaction time and sensory motor reflexes, we conjecture that fruit flies sense their kinematic states every wing beat...

  12. 76 FR 26654 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal and... from Mediterranean fruit fly quarantined areas in the United States with a certificate if the fruit is... quarantine regulations to remove trapping requirements for Mediterranean fruit fly for Hass avocados...

  13. Puncture resistance in 'Sharwil' avocado to oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) oviposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A

    2009-06-01

    The physiological basis for host antibiosis or nonpreference to a quarantine pest is often not understood. Studies are needed on the mechanisms that impart resistance to better understand how resistance might fail. Experiments were conducted to examine the infestability of 'Sharwil' avocados by oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), after harvest and to quantify the effect of avocado skin hardness on resistance to infestation by oriental fruit fly. Infestation rate increased with decreasing fruit firmness, but fruit were generally poor hosts. Fruit with a patch of skin removed produced more flies than intact fruit, suggesting that skin puncture resistance was an important deterrent to oviposition. This study showed that fruit can be infested within 1 d after harvest, suggesting that fruit should be transferred to fruit fly-proof containers as they are harvested to minimize the risk of attack. Although risk of infestation is negatively correlated with fruit firmness, even some hard fruit may become infested. Therefore, fruit firmness cannot be used alone as an indicator to ensure fruit fly-free 'Sharwil' avocados. Measuring fruit firmness may be a useful component of a multiple component systems approach as an additional safeguard to reduce risk of infestation.

  14. Symbiotic bacteria enable olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) to exploit intractable sources of nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yosef, M; Pasternak, Z; Jurkevitch, E; Yuval, B

    2014-12-01

    Insects are often associated with symbiotic micro-organisms, which allow them to utilize nutritionally marginal diets. Adult fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) associate with extracellular bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae) that inhabit their digestive tract. These flies obtain nutrients by foraging for plant exudates, honeydew and bird droppings scattered on leaves and fruit—a nutritional niche which offers ample amounts of carbohydrates, but low quantities of available nitrogen. We identified the bacteria resident in the gut of the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae)—a worldwide pest of olives and examined their contribution to nitrogen metabolism in the adult insect. By suppressing bacteria in the gut and monitoring female fecundity, we demonstrate that bacteria contribute essential amino acids and metabolize urea into an available nitrogen source for the fly, thus significantly elevating egg production. In an ecological context, bacteria were found to be beneficial to females subsisting on bird droppings, but not on honeydew—two natural food sources. We suggest that a main gut bacterium (Candidatus Erwinia dacicola) forms an inseparable, essential part of this fly's nutritional ecology. The evolution of this symbiosis has allowed adult flies to utilize food substrates which are low or imbalanced in assimilable nitrogen and thereby to overcome the nitrogen limitations of their natural diet. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  15. Molecular characterization and chromosomal distribution of a species-specific transcribed centromeric satellite repeat from the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantina T Tsoumani

    Full Text Available Satellite repetitive sequences that accumulate in the heterochromatin consist a large fraction of a genome and due to their properties are suggested to be implicated in centromere function. Current knowledge of heterochromatic regions of Bactrocera oleae genome, the major pest of the olive tree, is practically nonexistent. In our effort to explore the repetitive DNA portion of B. oleae genome, a novel satellite sequence designated BoR300 was isolated and cloned. The present study describes the genomic organization, abundance and chromosomal distribution of BoR300 which is organized in tandem, forming arrays of 298 bp-long monomers. Sequence analysis showed an AT content of 60.4%, a CENP-B like-motif and a high curvature value based on predictive models. Comparative analysis among randomly selected monomers demonstrated a high degree of sequence homogeneity (88%-97% of BoR300 repeats, which are present at approximately 3,000 copies per haploid genome accounting for about 0.28% of the total genomic DNA, based on two independent qPCR approaches. In addition, expression of the repeat was also confirmed through RT-PCR, by which BoR300 transcripts were detected in both sexes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH of BoR300 on mitotic metaphases and polytene chromosomes revealed signals to the centromeres of two out of the six chromosomes which indicated a chromosome-specific centromeric localization. Moreover, BoR300 is not conserved in the closely related Bactrocera species tested and it is also absent in other dipterans, but it's rather restricted to the B. oleae genome. This feature of species-specificity attributed to BoR300 satellite makes it a good candidate as an identification probe of the insect among its relatives at early development stages.

  16. Saturated hydrocarbon content in olive fruits and crude olive pomace oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Coca, Raquel B; Pérez-Camino, María Del Carmen; Moreda, Wenceslao

    2016-01-01

    Olive fruits contain an n-alkane series of saturated hydrocarbons mainly in the pulp. Lower amounts of a complex mixture of paraffins, unresolved by gas chromatography (UCM--unresolved complex mixture), have been found in cuticle, stone (woody shell and seed), olive leaves, and talc used as an aid to olive oil extraction. The amounts of both kinds of hydrocarbons are related to the olive cultivar and are transferred to oils in a proportion depending on the oil-obtaining process (centrifugation or solvent extraction). In olive oil obtained by centrifugation, only n-alkanes were detected. However, in olive oil extracted by second centrifugation, small amounts of UCM paraffins were detected together with the n-alkanes. Olive pomace oils showed a very variable content of both types of hydrocarbons according to the different obtaining process, such as double centrifugation, solvent extraction or centrifugation followed by solvent extraction. 'White mineral oil' used in oil extraction machinery is the source of the high concentrations of UCM paraffins found in some olive and olive pomace oils. In the case of second centrifugation olive oil, a maximum limit of 50 mg kg(-1) of UCM is suggested, whereas in the case of crude olive pomace oil, it amounts to 250 mg kg(-1) plus an additional minimum of 1.0 for the n-alkanes/UCM ratio.

  17. Olive phenolic compounds: metabolic and transcriptional profiling during fruit development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alagna Fiammetta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olive (Olea europaea L. fruits contain numerous secondary metabolites, primarily phenolics, terpenes and sterols, some of which are particularly interesting for their nutraceutical properties. This study will attempt to provide further insight into the profile of olive phenolic compounds during fruit development and to identify the major genetic determinants of phenolic metabolism. Results The concentration of the major phenolic compounds, such as oleuropein, demethyloleuropein, 3–4 DHPEA-EDA, ligstroside, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside and lignans, were measured in the developing fruits of 12 olive cultivars. The content of these compounds varied significantly among the cultivars and decreased during fruit development and maturation, with some compounds showing specificity for certain cultivars. Thirty-five olive transcripts homologous to genes involved in the pathways of the main secondary metabolites were identified from the massive sequencing data of the olive fruit transcriptome or from cDNA-AFLP analysis. Their mRNA levels were determined using RT-qPCR analysis on fruits of high- and low-phenolic varieties (Coratina and Dolce d’Andria, respectively during three different fruit developmental stages. A strong correlation was observed between phenolic compound concentrations and transcripts putatively involved in their biosynthesis, suggesting a transcriptional regulation of the corresponding pathways. OeDXS, OeGES, OeGE10H and OeADH, encoding putative 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-P synthase, geraniol synthase, geraniol 10-hydroxylase and arogenate dehydrogenase, respectively, were almost exclusively present at 45 days after flowering (DAF, suggesting that these compounds might play a key role in regulating secoiridoid accumulation during fruit development. Conclusions Metabolic and transcriptional profiling led to the identification of some major players putatively involved in biosynthesis of secondary compounds in the

  18. Revised irradiation doses to control melon fly, Mediterranean fruit fly, and oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and a generic dose for tephritid fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A; Armstrong, John W

    2004-08-01

    Currently approved irradiation quarantine treatment doses for Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet), melon fly; Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Mediterranean fruit fly; and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), oriental fruit fly, infesting fruits and vegetables for export from Hawaii to the continental United States are 210, 225, and 250 Gy, respectively. Irradiation studies were initiated to determine whether these doses could be reduced to lower treatment costs, minimize any adverse effects on quality, and support a proposed generic irradiation dose of 150 Gy for fruit flies. Dose-response tests were conducted with late third instars of wild and laboratory strains of the three fruit fly species, both in diet and in fruit. After x-ray irradiation treatment, data were taken on adult emergence, and adult female fecundity and fertility. Melon fly was the most tolerant of the three species to irradiation, and oriental fruit fly was more tolerant than Mediterranean fruit fly. Laboratory and wild strains of each species were equally tolerant of irradiation, and larvae were more tolerant when irradiated in fruit compared with artificial diet. An irradiation dose of 150 Gy applied to 93,666 melon fly late third instars in papayas resulted in no survival to the adult stage, indicating that this dose is sufficient to provide quarantine security. Irradiation doses of 100 and 125 Gy applied to 31,920 Mediterranean fruit fly and 55,743 oriental fruit fly late third instars, respectively, also resulted in no survival to the adult stage. Results support a proposed generic irradiation quarantine treatment dose of 150 Gy for all tephritid fruit flies.

  19. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to oriental fruit fly, mediterranean fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forced infestation studies were conducted to determine if fruits of southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. hybrids) are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies. Fruits of 17 blueberry cultivars were exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental frui...

  20. 'Candidatus Erwinia dacicola', a coevolved symbiotic bacterium of the olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuzzo, Caterina; Firrao, Giuseppe; Mazzon, Luca; Squartini, Andrea; Girolami, Vincenzo

    2005-07-01

    The taxonomic identity of the hereditary prokaryotic symbiont of the olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) was investigated. In order to avoid superficial microbial contaminants and loosely associated saprophytic biota, flies were surface-sterilized at the larval stage and reared under aseptic conditions until adult emergence. B. oleae flies originating from different geographical locations and collected at different times of the year were tested. Bacterial isolation was undertaken from the cephalic oesophageal bulb, which is known to be a specific site of accumulation for the hosted microsymbionts in the adult insect. Despite evidence of multiplication cycles taking place within the insect, attempts at cultivation of the isolated bacteria ex situ were not productive at any stage, leading to the choice of unculturable status definition. PCR amplification and nucleotide sequencing of the entire 16S rRNA gene consistently yielded a single sequence that displayed marked similarity with enterobacterial lineages, with closest matches (97%) to Erwinia persicina and Erwinia rhapontici. The novel taxon differs from common intestinal bacterial species of fruit flies and from instances of culturable bacteria previously described in B. oleae raised without sterility precautions, which we also observed as minority occupants or occasional contaminants. The symbiont's identity is also distinct from Pseudomonas savastanoi. In all observations, the numerically dominant inhabitant of the olive fly oesophageal organ was the same unculturable organism, whose presence at later stages was also regularly observed in the midgut. A novel species is proposed, by virtue of its unique properties, under the designation 'Candidatus Erwinia dacicola'.

  1. Wolbachia in Anastrepha fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscrato, Virginia E; Braz, Antônio S K; P Perondini, André L; Selivon, Denise; Marino, Celso L

    2009-09-01

    Endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are widespread among arthropods and cause a variety of reproductive abnormalities, such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, thelytokous parthenogenesis, male-killing, and host feminization. In this study, we used three sets of Wolbachia-specific primers (16S rDNA, ftsZ, and wsp) in conjunction with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and sequencing to study the infection of fruit flies (Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata) by Wolbachia. The flies were collected at several localities in Brazil and at Guayaquil, Ecuador. All of the fruit flies studied were infected with Wolbachia supergroup A, in agreement with the high prevalence of this group in South America. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the wsp gene was the most sensitive gene for studying the relationships among Wolbachia strains. The Wolbachia sequences detected in these fruit flies were similar to those such as wMel reported for other fruit flies. These results show that the infection of Anastrepha fruit flies by Wolbachia is much more widespread than previously thought.

  2. Olive Fruit Phenols Transfer, Transformation, and Partition Trail during Laboratory-Scale Olive Oil Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerman Klen, Tina; Golc Wondra, Alenka; Vrhovšek, Urška; Sivilotti, Paolo; Vodopivec, Branka Mozetič

    2015-05-13

    This work is the most comprehensive study on the quantitative behavior of olive fruit phenols during olive oil processing, providing insight into their transfer, transformation, and partition trail. In total, 69 phenols were quantified in 6 olive matrices from a three-phase extraction line employing ultra high pressure liquid chromatography-diode array detection analysis. Crushing had a larger effect than malaxation in terms of phenolic degradation and transformation, resulting in several new evolutions of respective derivatives. The peel and pulp together confined 95% of total fruit phenols, while stone only 5%. However, only 0.53% of all ended-up in olive oil, nearly 6% in wastewater, and 48% in pomace. Secoiridoids were the predominant class in all matrices, though represented by different individuals. Their partition behavior was rather similar to other phenolic classes, where with few minor exceptions only aglycones were partitioned to the oil, while other glycosides were lost with the wastes.

  3. Social attraction mediated by fruit flies' microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venu, Isvarya; Durisko, Zachary; Xu, Jianping; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-04-15

    Larval and adult fruit flies are attracted to volatiles emanating from food substrates that have been occupied by larvae. We tested whether such volatiles are emitted by the larval gut bacteria by conducting tests under bacteria-free (axenic) conditions. We also tested attraction to two bacteria species, Lactobacillus brevis, which we cultured from larvae in our lab, and L. plantarum, a common constituent of fruit flies' microbiome in other laboratory populations and in wild fruit flies. Neither larvae nor adults showed attraction to axenic food that had been occupied by axenic larvae, but both showed the previously reported attraction to standard food that had been occupied by larvae with an intact microbiome. Larvae also showed significant attraction to volatiles from axenic food and larvae to which we added only either L. brevis or L. plantarum, and volatiles from L. brevis reared on its optimal growth medium. Controlled learning experiments indicated that larvae experienced with both standard and axenic used food do not perceive either as superior, while focal larvae experienced with simulated used food, which contains burrows, perceive it as superior to unused food. Our results suggest that flies rely on microbiome-derived volatiles for long-distance attraction to suitable food patches. Under natural settings, fruits often contain harmful fungi and bacteria, and both L. brevis and L. plantarum produce compounds that suppress the growth of some antagonistic fungi and bacteria. The larval microbiome volatiles may therefore lead prospective fruit flies towards substrates with a hospitable microbial environment.

  4. Roll Control in Fruit Flies

    CERN Document Server

    Beatus, Tsevi; Cohen, Itai

    2014-01-01

    Due to aerodynamic instabilities, stabilizing flapping flight requires ever-present fast corrective actions. Here we investigate how flies control body roll angle, their most susceptible degree of freedom. We glue a magnet to each fly, apply a short magnetic pulse that rolls it in mid-air, and film the corrective maneuver. Flies correct perturbations of up to $100^{\\circ}$ within $30\\pm7\\mathrm{ms}$ by applying a stroke-amplitude asymmetry that is well described by a linear PI controller. The response latency is $\\sim5\\mathrm{ms}$, making the roll correction reflex one of the fastest in the animal kingdom.

  5. Monitoring endogenous enzymes during olive fruit ripening and storage: correlation with virgin olive oil phenolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachicha Hbaieb, Rim; Kotti, Faten; García-Rodríguez, Rosa; Gargouri, Mohamed; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G

    2015-05-01

    The ability of olive endogenous enzymes β-glucosidase, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX), to determine the phenolic profile of virgin olive oil was investigated. Olives used for oil production were stored for one month at 20 °C and 4 °C and their phenolic content and enzymatic activities were compared to those of ripening olive fruits. Phenolic and volatile profiles of the corresponding oils were also analysed. Oils obtained from fruits stored at 4 °C show similar characteristics to that of freshly harvested fruits. However, the oils obtained from fruits stored at 20 °C presented the lowest phenolic content. Concerning the enzymatic activities, results show that the β-glucosidase enzyme is the key enzyme responsible for the determination of virgin olive oil phenolic profile as the decrease in this enzyme activity after 3 weeks of storage at 20 °C was parallel to a dramatic decrease in the phenolic content of the oils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Computational annotation of genes differentially expressed along olive fruit development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinelli Federico

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olea europaea L. is a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean basin with a worldwide economical high impact. Differently from other fruit tree species, little is known about the physiological and molecular basis of the olive fruit development and a few sequences of genes and gene products are available for olive in public databases. This study deals with the identification of large sets of differentially expressed genes in developing olive fruits and the subsequent computational annotation by means of different software. Results mRNA from fruits of the cv. Leccino sampled at three different stages [i.e., initial fruit set (stage 1, completed pit hardening (stage 2 and veraison (stage 3] was used for the identification of differentially expressed genes putatively involved in main processes along fruit development. Four subtractive hybridization libraries were constructed: forward and reverse between stage 1 and 2 (libraries A and B, and 2 and 3 (libraries C and D. All sequenced clones (1,132 in total were analyzed through BlastX against non-redundant NCBI databases and about 60% of them showed similarity to known proteins. A total of 89 out of 642 differentially expressed unique sequences was further investigated by Real-Time PCR, showing a validation of the SSH results as high as 69%. Library-specific cDNA repertories were annotated according to the three main vocabularies of the gene ontology (GO: cellular component, biological process and molecular function. BlastX analysis, GO terms mapping and annotation analysis were performed using the Blast2GO software, a research tool designed with the main purpose of enabling GO based data mining on sequence sets for which no GO annotation is yet available. Bioinformatic analysis pointed out a significantly different distribution of the annotated sequences for each GO category, when comparing the three fruit developmental stages. The olive fruit-specific transcriptome dataset was

  7. Role of α-copaene in the susceptibility of olive fruits to Bactrocera oleae (Rossi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alfonso, Ignacio; Vacas, Sandra; Primo, Jaime

    2014-12-10

    The influence of α-copaene as a fruit volatile in the susceptibility of Olea europaea L. to the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) has been investigated. By studies on the relative area of volatile components from different cultivars, a positive correlation was found between the abundance of α-copaene in the samples and the corresponding degree of fruit infestation. SPME-GC-MS analysis of volatiles from uninfested fruits of O. europaea L. cv. Serrana were performed over two years to determine the variation of α-copaene throughout the different phenological stages. The results suggested that this sesquiterpene has a significant effect on cultivar susceptibility and may act as an oviposition promoter. Further analysis by chiral GC showed that olive fruits release both α-copaene enantiomers. Bioassays on each enantiomer revealed that fruits with increased amounts of (+)-α-copaene favor oviposition of B. oleae females, whereas the increase of (-)-α-copaene affords no statistically significant differences in host preference.

  8. The fruit flies (Tephritidae) of Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirteen species of Tephritidae are newly recorded from Ontario, and alternative format keys are provided to the 31 genera and 72 species of fruit fly now known from, or likely to occur, in the province. Standard dichotomous keys to genera, and simplified field keys to genera and species are provide...

  9. Olive fly transcriptomics analysis implicates energy metabolism genes in spinosad resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Sagri, Efthimia; Reczko, Martin; Gregoriou, Maria-Eleni; Tsoumani, Konstantina T; Zygouridis, Nikolaos E; Klelia D Salpea; Zalom, Frank G.; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Mathiopoulos, Kostas D

    2014-01-01

    Background The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most devastating pest of cultivated olives. Its control has been traditionally based on insecticides, mainly organophosphates and pyrethroids. In recent years, the naturalyte spinosad is used against the olive fly. As with other insecticides, spinosad is subject to selection pressures that have led to resistance development. Mutations in the α6 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) have been implicated in spinosad resistance...

  10. The olive fly endosymbiont, "Candidatus Erwinia dacicola," switches from an intracellular existence to an extracellular existence during host insect development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Anne M; Hearn, David J; Bronstein, Judith L; Pierson, Elizabeth A

    2009-11-01

    As polyphagous, holometabolous insects, tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) provide a unique habitat for endosymbiotic bacteria, especially those microbes associated with the digestive system. Here we examine the endosymbiont of the olive fly [Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae)], a tephritid of great economic importance. "Candidatus Erwinia dacicola" was found in the digestive systems of all life stages of wild olive flies from the southwestern United States. PCR and microscopy demonstrated that "Ca. Erwinia dacicola" resided intracellularly in the gastric ceca of the larval midgut but extracellularly in the lumen of the foregut and ovipositor diverticulum of adult flies. "Ca. Erwinia dacicola" is one of the few nonpathogenic endosymbionts that transitions between intracellular and extracellular lifestyles during specific stages of the host's life cycle. Another unique feature of the olive fly endosymbiont is that unlike obligate endosymbionts of monophagous insects, "Ca. Erwinia dacicola" has a G+C nucleotide composition similar to those of closely related plant-pathogenic and free-living bacteria. These two characteristics of "Ca. Erwinia dacicola," the ability to transition between intracellular and extracellular lifestyles and a G+C nucleotide composition similar to those of free-living relatives, may facilitate survival in a changing environment during the development of a polyphagous, holometabolous host. We propose that insect-bacterial symbioses should be classified based on the environment that the host provides to the endosymbiont (the endosymbiont environment).

  11. Oleuropein-Specific-β-Glucosidase Activity Marks the Early Response of Olive Fruits (Olea europaea) to Mimed Insect Attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antonia Spadework; Silvia Mazzuca; Francesca Fiorella Chiappetta; Attilio Parise; Enzo Perri; Anna Maria Innocenti

    2008-01-01

    Olive fruits are seriously deteriorated by pre and postharvest damage due to the attack of insects, such as Bactrocera olaea, which strongly alters the quality of olives. Defence response in olive fruits injured both by pathogens and by mechanical damages has been associated with the enzyme β-glucosidase, which specifically hydrolyses oleuropein, producing highly reactive aldehyde molecules. In situ detection of β-glucosidase activity in olive fruit tissues following injury, which simulates Bactrocera oleae punctures, is reported. The assay was performed in two cultivars showing different degrees of susceptibilities to fly infestation. In both cultivars, the histochemical assay for β-glucosidase showed that within 20 min after the injury, a strong β-glucosidase activity could be observed in the damaged tissues. Thereafter a progressive enzyme inactivation occurred starting from tissues around the boundary of the injury with decrease of the enzyme activity and stopped after 3h. Whereas the mass of active celsreached a distance of (300±50)μm from the edge of the injury. Biochemical analyses showed that in extracts of the injured fruit, β-glucosidase activity rapidly increased within 20 min from injury, thereafter decreasing and reaching values comparable with those in intact fruits. Following puncture, the oleuropein contents did not change significantly in the high susceptibility cultivar, whereas it rapidly decreased in the cultivar showing low susceptibility. The results strongly suggest that olive fruits susceptible towards fly infestation could be related to the ability of the oleuropein-degrading-β-glucosidase to produce the highly reactive molecules in the damaged tissues. As a consequence of puncture, high level of peroxidase activity was detected. This feature also suggested that this enzyme could play a key role in the defence response against insect injuries.

  12. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhaoui, Nassima; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; León, Lorenzo; De la Rosa, Raúl; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-03-04

    Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%-65.63% of total transfer rate) and for flavonoids (0.18%-0.67% of total transfer rate). 'Picual' was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas 'Changlot Real' was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils.

  13. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassima Talhaoui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO. The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%–65.63% of total transfer rate and for flavonoids (0.18%–0.67% of total transfer rate. ‘Picual’ was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas ‘Changlot Real’ was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils.

  14. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhaoui, Nassima; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; León, Lorenzo; De la Rosa, Raúl; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%–65.63% of total transfer rate) and for flavonoids (0.18%–0.67% of total transfer rate). ‘Picual’ was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas ‘Changlot Real’ was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils. PMID:26959010

  15. Application of compost of two-phase olive mill waste on olive grove: effects on soil, olive fruit and olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Hernández, Antonia; Roig, Asunción; Serramiá, Nuria; Civantos, Concepción García-Ortiz; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel A

    2014-07-01

    Composting is a method for preparing organic fertilizers that represents a suitable management option for the recycling of two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) in agriculture. Four different composts were prepared by mixing TPOMW with different agro-industrial by-products (olive pruning, sheep manure and horse manure), which were used either as bulking agents or as N sources. The mature composts were added during six consecutive years to a typical "Picual" olive tree grove in the Jaén province (Spain). The effects of compost addition on soil characteristics, crop yield and nutritional status and also the quality of the olive oil were evaluated at the end of the experiment and compared to a control treated only with mineral fertilization. The most important effects on soil characteristics included a significant increase in the availability of N, P, K and an increase of soil organic matter content. The application of TPOMW compost produced a significant increase in olive oil content in the fruit. The compost amended plots had a 15% higher olive oil content than those treatment with inorganic fertilization. These organics amendments maintained the composition and quality of the olive oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. VOCs-Mediated Location of Olive Fly Larvae by the Braconid Parasitoid Psyttalia concolor: A Multivariate Comparison among VOC Bouquets from Three Olive Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunti, Giulia; Benelli, Giovanni; Conte, Giuseppe; Mele, Marcello; Caruso, Giovanni; Gucci, Riccardo; Flamini, Guido; Canale, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Herbivorous activity induces plant indirect defenses, as the emission of herbivorous-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs), which could be used by parasitoids for host location. Psyttalia concolor is a larval pupal endoparasitoid, attacking a number of tephritid flies including B. oleae. In this research, we investigated the olfactory cues routing host location behavior of P. concolor towards B. oleae larvae infesting three different olive cultivars. VOCs from infested and healthy fruits were identified using GC-MS analyses. In two-choice behavioral assays, P. concolor females preferred infested olive cues, which also evoked ovipositional probing by female wasps. GC-MS analysis showed qualitative and quantitative differences among volatiles emitted by infested and healthy olives. Volatile emissions were peculiar for each cultivar analyzed. Two putative HIPVs were detected in infested fruits, regardless of the cultivar, the monoterpene (E)-β-ocimene, and the sesquiterpene (E-E)-α-farnesene. Our study adds basic knowledge to the behavioral ecology of P. concolor. From an applied point of view, the field application of the above-mentioned VOCs may help to enhance effectiveness of biological control programs and parasitoid mass-rearing techniques.

  17. VOCs-Mediated Location of Olive Fly Larvae by the Braconid Parasitoid Psyttalia concolor: A Multivariate Comparison among VOC Bouquets from Three Olive Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Giunti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbivorous activity induces plant indirect defenses, as the emission of herbivorous-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs, which could be used by parasitoids for host location. Psyttalia concolor is a larval pupal endoparasitoid, attacking a number of tephritid flies including B. oleae. In this research, we investigated the olfactory cues routing host location behavior of P. concolor towards B. oleae larvae infesting three different olive cultivars. VOCs from infested and healthy fruits were identified using GC-MS analyses. In two-choice behavioral assays, P. concolor females preferred infested olive cues, which also evoked ovipositional probing by female wasps. GC-MS analysis showed qualitative and quantitative differences among volatiles emitted by infested and healthy olives. Volatile emissions were peculiar for each cultivar analyzed. Two putative HIPVs were detected in infested fruits, regardless of the cultivar, the monoterpene (E-β-ocimene, and the sesquiterpene (E-E-α-farnesene. Our study adds basic knowledge to the behavioral ecology of P. concolor. From an applied point of view, the field application of the above-mentioned VOCs may help to enhance effectiveness of biological control programs and parasitoid mass-rearing techniques.

  18. Structural characteristics of polysaccharides from olive fruit cell walls in relation to ripening and processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vierhuis, E.

    2002-01-01

    Key words: Olive fruit; olive oil; pectic polysaccharides; xyloglucans; xylans; enzyme preparations; phenolic compounds; processing; ripening Technical enzyme preparations can be used as processing aids in the olive oil industry to obtain a higher yield and a better quality of the oil. These technic

  19. Neofusicoccum luteum associated with leaf necrosis and fruit rot of olives in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sergeeva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Neofusicoccum luteum is reported for the first time from olives (Olea europaea, causing fruit rot and leaf necrosis. Affected fruits initially became brown with pycnidia developing on the surface, later drying out and becoming mummified. The fungus was shown to be pathogenic on both fruits and leaves. The association of Botryosphaeriaceae with rotting olive fruits in Mediterranean regions and in New South Wales, Australia indicates that these fungi play a significant role in fruit rots of olives and deserve greater attention.

  20. QTL mapping of flowering and fruiting traits in olive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inès Ben Sadok

    Full Text Available One of the challenge fruit growers are facing is to balance between tree production and vegetative growth from year to year. To investigate the existence of genetic determinism for reproductive behaviour in olive tree, we studied an olive segregating population derived from a cross between 'Olivière' and 'Arbequina' cultivars. Our strategy was based on (i an annual assessment of individual trees yield, and (ii a decomposition of adult growth units at the crown periphery into quantitative variables related to both flowering and fruiting process in relation to their growth and branching. Genetic models, including the year, genotype effects and their interactions, were built with variance function and correlation structure of residuals when necessary. Among the progeny, trees were either 'ON' or 'OFF' for a given year and patterns of regular vs. irregular bearing were revealed. Genotype effect was significant on yield but not for flowering traits at growth unit (GU scale, whereas the interaction between genotype and year was significant for both traits. A strong genetic effect was found for all fruiting traits without interaction with the year. Based on the new constructed genetic map, QTLs with small effects were detected, revealing multigenic control of the studied traits. Many were associated to alleles from 'Arbequina'. Genetic correlations were found between Yield and Fruit set at GU scale suggesting a common genetic control, even though QTL co-localisations were in spe`cific years only. Most QTL were associated to flowering traits in specific years, even though reproductive traits at GU scale did not capture the bearing status of the trees in a given year. Results were also interpreted with respect to ontogenetic changes of growth and branching, and an alternative sampling strategy was proposed for capturing tree fruiting behaviour. Regular bearing progenies were identified and could constitute innovative material for selection programs.

  1. Fruit Fly Liquid Larval Diet Technology Transfer and Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since October 2006, USDA-ARS has been implementing a fruit fly liquid larval diet technology transfer, which has proceeded according to the following steps: (1) Recruitment of interested groups through request; (2) Establishment of the Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) with ARS; (3) Fruit fly liquid...

  2. The effect of different processing stages of olive fruit on the extracted olive oil polyphenol content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koutsaftakis, A.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the distribution of olive fruit polyphenolic fraction through the phases of olive oil extraction by a classical and a centrifugal system has been investigated. Olives of two Cretan origin varieties were used. Consequently, samples from different stages of oil extraction with and without their polyphenols were stored for a month under 64 ºC by periodical testing their peroxide value. In olive oils extracted by the centrifugal factory a large reduction of polyphenols content was noticed during their elaboration that reached to the half amount compared with that of classical type. During oven test the control sample of olive oil obtained from the separation phase of centrifugal system was oxidized easier than that of classic one. The variation of polyphenol content as well as of the main olive oil quality characteristics with the temperature and the mixing time was also studied for a period of time.En el presente estudio se ha investigado la distribución de la fracción fenólica de aceitunas a través de las fases de extracción del aceite de oliva mediante los sistemas clásico y por centrifugación. Se han utilizado dos variedades de aceitunas cuya procedencia es la isla de Creta. Por otra parte, se han estudiado los aceites obtenidos en las diferentes etapas con y sin sus polifenoles, conservadolos durante un mes a 64 ºC y evaluándoles durante este tiempo el índice de peróxidos. En los aceites de oliva extraídos mediante centrífuga se ha observado una gran reducción en el contenido de polifenoles, reducción que alcanzó el 50 % comparado con el sistema clásico. Durante las pruebas en horno los aceites obtenidos mediante el sistema de centrifugación se oxidaron mas fácilmente que los obtenidos mediante el sistema clásico. La variación en el contenido de polifenoles así como los principales parámetros de calidad han sido estudiados en función de la temperatura y del tiempo.

  3. Trends in olive fruit handling previous to its industrial transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson, Louise

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Until the 1940s, when production economics and labor shortages became pressing, olives around the world were hand harvested. Despite 60 years of research, mechanical. There are two major reasons for this. First, trees over 20 years old are too tall and poorly structured for mechanical harvesting. Second, mechanical harvesting research for table olive production has not been sufficiently focused on the final goal, processed fruit quality. For oil olives, which are physiologically mature at harvest and require less removal force, advances in both trunk shaking and picker head technology are advancing rapidly. Also, as olive oil is enjoying a renaissance around the world new orchards are being planted in the hedgerows that facilitate mechanical harvesting. For table olives however, mechanical harvesting is still in the developmental stage. The research being done now, unlike earlier work, focuses on the parallel goals of efficient fruit removal and final processed product quality. Within 10 years most olive oil orchards of suitable tree size and shape will be mechanically harvested. When table olives will be routinely harvested mechanically cannot be predicted.Las aceitunas se recogieron a mano hasta los años cuarenta, cuando la necesidad de reducir costes de producción y la escasez de mano de obra comenzaron ya a hacer inviable tal sistema. A pesar de la investigación realizada durante los últimos 60 años, la recolección mecánica no es todavía una práctica común. Hay dos razones principales para ello. La primera es que los árboles de más de 20 años de antigüedad son demasiado altos y no están adecuadamente estructurados para aplicar dichas técnicas. La segunda es que la investigación sobre la recolección mecánica para las aceitunas de mesa no se ha enfocado adecuadamente dándole el peso suficiente al objetivo final de obtener frutos elaborados de calidad. Para el caso de las aceitunas destinadas a la obtención de aceite, cuyos

  4. An area wide control of fruit flies in Mauritius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sookar, P.; Permalloo, S.; Gungah, B.; Alleck, M.; Seewooruthun, S.I.; Soonnoo, A.R., E-mail: ento@intnet.m, E-mail: moa-entomology@mail.gov.m [Ministry of Agro Industry and Fisheries Reduit, Republic of Mauritius (Mauritius)

    2006-07-01

    An area-wide National Fruit Fly Control Programme (NFFCP) was initiated in 1994, funded by the European Union until 1999 and now fully financed by the Government of Mauritius. The NFFCP targets some 75,000 backyard fruit trees owners mainly. The bait application and male annihilation techniques (BAT e MAT) are currently being applied against the fruit flies attacking fleshy fruits and are targeting selected major fruit growing areas in the north, north-east, central and western parts of the island. Successful control has been achieved using these two techniques as demonstrated by trap catches and fruit samplings. The level of fruit fly damage to fruits has been reduced. Presently, the bait-insecticide mixture is being supplied free of charge to the public. The current status of the area-wide suppression programme is such that continuous use of BAT/MAT is a never ending process and as such is not viable. In this context, a TC project on Feasibility studies for integrated use of sterile insect technique for area wide tephritid fruit fly control.Studies are also being carried out on mass rearing of the peach fruit fly for small scale trials on SIT so as to eventually integrate this control method in our area-wide control programme. (author)

  5. Use of olive biomass fly ash in the preparation of environmentally friendly mortars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Yusta, Manuel; Mármol, Isabel; Morales, Julián; Sánchez, Luis

    2011-08-15

    The incorporation of fly ash from olive biomass (FAOB) combustion in cogeneration plants into cement based mortars was explored by analyzing the chemical composition, mineralogical phases, particle size, morphology, and IR spectra of the resulting material. Pozzolanic activity was detected and found to be related with the presence of calcium aluminum silicates phases. The preparation of new olive biomass fly ash content mortars is effective by replacing either CaCO(3) filler or cement with FAOB. In fact, up to 10% of cement can be replaced without detracting from the mechanical properties of a mortar. This can provide an alternative way to manage the olive biomass fly ash as waste produced in thermal plants and reduce cement consumption in the building industry, and hence an economically and environmentally attractive choice.

  6. Influence of the fruit's ripeness on virgin olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Ma Nieves; Sánchez, Jacinto; De Miguel, Concepción; Martínez, Manuel; Martín-Vertedor, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Virgin Olive Oil (VOO) is a product much demanded by consumers looking for the highest quality and certain traits considered to be typical of the Mediterranean area. The olive fruit's properties and the industry-regulated physicochemical and sensory parameters of seven cultivars were evaluated during the ripening process. In general, the oil percentage in both the wet and dry material increased for all the cultivars from the green to the spotted stages of maturation, and they stayed constant statistically until the ripe stage with just a few exceptions. The lowest oil content was observed in the Manzanilla Cacereña cultivar in all stages of maturation. The cultivars that presented the lowest oil yields in the Abencor system were Manzanilla Cacereña and Carrasqueña, and the highest Corniche. In general, all the cultivars except one presented good behaviour during the mixing process, the exception being Manzanilla Cacereña which presented the lowest values of the extractability percentage. The moisture content of the olives presented a common pattern, increasing from the green to the spotted stage, with the differences being significant in the Corniche, Picual, and Verdial de Badajoz cultivars. All the oils analysed were classified into the "extra virgin" category according to the results for the regulated parameters. The fruity, bitter, and pungent attributes decreased during ripening in all the cultivars studied. In the green stage of maturation, Arbequina had the least intensity of bitterness and pungency, but there were no significant differences among cultivars in the fruity attribute.

  7. Chlorophyll catabolism in olive fruits (var. Arbequina and Hojiblanca) during maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Domínguez, Honorio; Ríos, José Julían; Gandul-Rojas, Beatriz; Roca, María

    2016-12-01

    The central reaction of chlorophyll (chl) breakdown pathway occurring during olive fruits maturation is the cleavage of the macrocycle pheophorbide a to a primary fluorescent chl catabolite (pFCC) and it is catalyzed by two enzymes: pheophorbide a oxygenase (PaO) and red chl catabolite reductase (RCCR). In subsequent steps, pFCC is converted to different fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (FCCs) and nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs). This work demonstrated that RCCR activity of olive fruits is type II. During the study of evolution of PaO and RCCR activities through the olive fruits maturation in two varieties: Hojiblanca and Arbequina, a significant increase in PaO and RCCR activity was found in ripening stage. In addition, the profile and structure of NCCs present in epicarp of this fruit was studied using HPLC/ESI-TOF-MS. Five different NCCs were defined and for the first time the enzymatic reactions implied in chlorophyll degradations in olive fruits elucidated.

  8. Multiple Biological Effects of Olive Oil By-products such as Leaves, Stems, Flowers, Olive Milled Waste, Fruit Pulp, and Seeds of the Olive Plant on Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishikawa, Asuka; Ashour, Ahmed; Zhu, Qinchang; Yasuda, Midori; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-06-01

    As olive oil production increases, so does the amount of olive oil by-products, which can cause environmental problems. Thus, new ways to utilize the by-products are needed. In the present study, five bioactive characteristics of olive oil by-products were assessed, namely their antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-melanogenesis, anti-allergic, and collagen-production-promoting activities. First, the extracts of leaves (May and October), stems (May and October), flowers, olive milled waste, fruit pulp and seeds were prepared using two safe solvents, ethanol and water. According to HPLC and LC/MS analysis and Folin-Ciocalteu assay, the ethanol extracts of the leaves (May and October), stems (May and October) and flowers contained oleuropein, and the ethanol extract of the stems showed the highest total phenol content. Oleuropein may contribute to the antioxidant and anti-melanogenesis activities of the leaves, stems, and flowers. However, other active compounds or synergistic effects present in the ethanol extracts are also likely to contribute to the anti-bacterial activity of the leaves and flowers, the anti-melanogenesis activity of some parts, the anti-allergic activity of olive milled waste, and the collagen-production-promoting activity of the leaves, stems, olive milled waste and fruit pulp. This study provides evidence that the by-products of olive oil have the potential to be further developed and used in the skin care industry. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Near-infrared spectroscopy for detection of hailstorm damage on olive fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid, robust, unbiased and inexpensive discriminant method capable of classifying olive fruit (Olea europaea L.) on the basis of the presence of hailstorm damage is economically important to the olive oil milling industry. Thus, in the present study, the feasibility of Near-Infrared (NIR) spectro...

  10. Global establishment risk of economically important fruit fly species (Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yujia; Paini, Dean R; Wang, Cong; Fang, Yan; Li, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    The global invasion of Tephritidae (fruit flies) attracts a great deal of attention in the field of plant quarantine and invasion biology because of their economic importance. Predicting which one in hundreds of potential invasive fruit fly species is most likely to establish in a region presents a significant challenge, but can be facilitated using a self organising map (SOM), which is able to analyse species associations to rank large numbers of species simultaneously with an index of establishment. A global presence/absence dataset including 180 economically significant fruit fly species in 118 countries was analysed using a SOM. We compare and contrast ranked lists from six countries selected from each continent, and also show that those countries geographically close were clustered together by the SOM analysis because they have similar fruit fly assemblages. These closely clustered countries therefore represent greater threats to each other as sources of invasive fruit fly species. Finally, we indicate how this SOM method could be utilized as an initial screen to support prioritizing fruit fly species for further research into their potential to invade a region.

  11. Oil accumulation kinetic along ripening in four olive cultivars varying for fruit size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breton Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether oil accumulation pattern is parallel to drupe olive (Olea europaea L growth and if common climatic parameters may influence oil content we conducted an experiment in rainfed orchards with four olive cultivars, Amygdalolia, Arbequina, Lucques, and Olivière, differing by fruit size at maturity. Fruits were harvested weekly from July to November. They were counted and weighted before being crushed. Fat content was determined on dry matter using a Minispec RMN. Common climatic parameters were recorded. Variance analyses showed stage effects highly significant. Results showed three different patterns for fruit growth. Dry matter accumulated broadly similarly and the weekly rates were positively correlated with fruit size. Oil accumulation is mostly independent of climatic variation and probably depends on genetic programmes for each cultivar. We defined the main steps and events for olive fruit ripening according to recent knowledge on fruit development.

  12. A Novel Method for Tracking Individuals of Fruit Fly Swarms Flying in a Laboratory Flight Arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xi En; Qian, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Shuo Hong; Jiang, Nan; Guo, Aike; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in studying social behaviours of swarming fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has heightened the need for developing tools that provide quantitative motion data. To achieve such a goal, multi-camera three-dimensional tracking technology is the key experimental gateway. We have developed a novel tracking system for tracking hundreds of fruit flies flying in a confined cubic flight arena. In addition to the proposed tracking algorithm, this work offers additional contributions in three aspects: body detection, orientation estimation, and data validation. To demonstrate the opportunities that the proposed system offers for generating high-throughput quantitative motion data, we conducted experiments on five experimental configurations. We also performed quantitative analysis on the kinematics and the spatial structure and the motion patterns of fruit fly swarms. We found that there exists an asymptotic distance between fruit flies in swarms as the population density increases. Further, we discovered the evidence for repulsive response when the distance between fruit flies approached the asymptotic distance. Overall, the proposed tracking system presents a powerful method for studying flight behaviours of fruit flies in a three-dimensional environment.

  13. A Novel Method for Tracking Individuals of Fruit Fly Swarms Flying in a Laboratory Flight Arena.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi En Cheng

    Full Text Available The growing interest in studying social behaviours of swarming fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has heightened the need for developing tools that provide quantitative motion data. To achieve such a goal, multi-camera three-dimensional tracking technology is the key experimental gateway. We have developed a novel tracking system for tracking hundreds of fruit flies flying in a confined cubic flight arena. In addition to the proposed tracking algorithm, this work offers additional contributions in three aspects: body detection, orientation estimation, and data validation. To demonstrate the opportunities that the proposed system offers for generating high-throughput quantitative motion data, we conducted experiments on five experimental configurations. We also performed quantitative analysis on the kinematics and the spatial structure and the motion patterns of fruit fly swarms. We found that there exists an asymptotic distance between fruit flies in swarms as the population density increases. Further, we discovered the evidence for repulsive response when the distance between fruit flies approached the asymptotic distance. Overall, the proposed tracking system presents a powerful method for studying flight behaviours of fruit flies in a three-dimensional environment.

  14. USDA compendium of fruit fly host information (CoFFHI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Tephritid fruit flies are serious agricultural pests. Knowledge of the host status of different fruits and vegetables is needed in support of the development of systems approaches to permit crop exports as well as to readily permit quarantine regulatory officials to check on the risk of...

  15. Volatile host fruit odors as attractants for the oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, M L; Duan, J J; Messing, R H

    2000-02-01

    We examined the responses of oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, to the odors of different stages and types of fruit presented on potted trees in a field cage. Females were most attracted to odors of soft, ripe fruit. Odors of common guava were more attractive to females than papaya and starfruit, and equally as attractive as strawberry guava, orange, and mango. In field tests, McPhail traps baited with mango, common guava, and orange captured equal numbers of females. Traps baited with mango were compared with 2 commercially available fruit fly traps. McPhail traps baited with mango captured more females than visual fruit-mimicking sticky traps (Ladd traps) and equal numbers of females as McPhail traps baited with protein odors. Results from this study indicate that host fruit volatiles could be used as lures for capturing oriental fruit flies in orchards.

  16. Classical olfactory conditioning in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia Li; Chen, Xiao Yan; Zeng, Xin Nian

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a serious pest of fruits and vegetables. Methyl eugenol (ME), a male attractant, is used to against this fly by mass trapping. Control effect may be influenced by learning, which could modify the olfactory response of the fly to this attractant. To collect the behavioral evidence, studies on the capability of this fly for olfactory learning are necessary. We investigated olfactory learning in male flies with a classical olfactory conditioning procedure using restrained individuals under laboratory conditions. The acquisition of the proboscis extension reflex was used as the criterion for conditioning. A high conditioned response level was found in oriental fruit flies when an odor was presented in paired association with a sucrose reward but not when the odor and sucrose were presented unpaired. We also found that the conditioning performance was influenced by the odor concentration, intertrial interval, and starvation time. A slight sensitization elicited by imbibing sucrose was observed. These results indicate that oriental fruit flies have a high capacity to form an olfactory memory as a result of classical conditioning.

  17. Evaluation of Olive Fruit Lipoxygenase Extraction Protocols on 9- and 13-Z,E-HPODE Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Soldo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In plant tissues, enzymes implicated in the lipoxygenase (LOX pathway are responsible for the hydroperoxydation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, ultimately leading to the production of small chemical species involved in several physiological processes. During industrial olive oil production, these enzymes are activated upon crushing and grinding of olive fruit tissue, subsequently leading to the synthesis of volatile compounds responsible for the positive aroma and flavor of the oil. An investigation of LOX activity during olive fruit ripening and malaxation could assist in the production of oils with favorable aroma and taste. Therefore, a reliable method for olive LOX purification is crucial. Here we report a critical review of six LOX extraction protocols, two of which have shown minimum enzyme activity, possibly leading to misconceptions in the interpretation of experimental data. Future research concerning olive LOX should employ extraction methods that preserve enzyme activity.

  18. Evaluation of Olive Fruit Lipoxygenase Extraction Protocols on 9- and 13-Z,E-HPODE Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldo, Barbara; Šprung, Matilda; Mušac, Gloria; Pavela-Vrančić, Maja; Ljubenkov, Ivica

    2016-04-20

    In plant tissues, enzymes implicated in the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway are responsible for the hydroperoxydation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, ultimately leading to the production of small chemical species involved in several physiological processes. During industrial olive oil production, these enzymes are activated upon crushing and grinding of olive fruit tissue, subsequently leading to the synthesis of volatile compounds responsible for the positive aroma and flavor of the oil. An investigation of LOX activity during olive fruit ripening and malaxation could assist in the production of oils with favorable aroma and taste. Therefore, a reliable method for olive LOX purification is crucial. Here we report a critical review of six LOX extraction protocols, two of which have shown minimum enzyme activity, possibly leading to misconceptions in the interpretation of experimental data. Future research concerning olive LOX should employ extraction methods that preserve enzyme activity.

  19. Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) among host and nonhost fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) (Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R. indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult.

  20. Isolation of table olive damage causes and bruise time evolution during fruit detachment with trunk shaker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Jimenez, F.; Castro-Garcia, S.; Blanco-Roldan, G. L.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, E. J.; Gil-Ribes, J. A.

    2013-05-01

    The high sensitivity of table olives to mechanical damage limits mechanical harvesting with trunk shakers. The objective of this study was the identification, evaluation and temporal evolution assessment of the sources of damage caused to the fruits. To do this, digital image analysis was used for the objective determination of damage produced to table olives. Harvesting tests were performed in an intensive olive orchard with trees of the Manzanilla variety in Seville, Spain. Mechanical harvesting with trunk shakers and subsequent detachment of the fruits to the ground produced a level of bruise 12 times greater than the levels obtained from manual harvesting. Fruit-fruit and fruit branch impacts and friction from the movement of the fruit in the tree canopy during vibration and detachment were the main causes of damage to the fruits. These causes represented a mean value of 60% of the damage produced to the fruits from mechanical harvesting. In addition, most bruising from mechanical damage occurred in the first hour after harvesting and followed an exponential tendency. The information obtained about table olive damage causes and bruise time evolution during fruit detachment with trunk shaker can be used by the producers to determine how to reduce and prevent bruising during harvesting operations. (Author) 34 refs.

  1. Oral and Topical Toxicity of Fipronil to Melon Fly and Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop basic oral and topical toxicity data for Fipronil in Solulys protein bait to wild melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). RESULTS: For the oral study, both females and males were ...

  2. Infrared machine vision system for the automatic detection of olive fruit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Elena; Baeten, Vincent; Pierna, Juan Antonio Fernández; García-Mesa, José A

    2013-11-15

    External quality is an important factor in the extraction of olive oil and the marketing of olive fruits. The appearance and presence of external damage are factors that influence the quality of the oil extracted and the perception of consumers, determining the level of acceptance prior to purchase in the case of table olives. The aim of this paper is to report on artificial vision techniques developed for the online estimation of olive quality and to assess the effectiveness of these techniques in evaluating quality based on detecting external defects. This method of classifying olives according to the presence of defects is based on an infrared (IR) vision system. Images of defects were acquired using a digital monochrome camera with band-pass filters on near-infrared (NIR). The original images were processed using segmentation algorithms, edge detection and pixel value intensity to classify the whole fruit. The detection of the defect involved a pixel classification procedure based on nonparametric models of the healthy and defective areas of olives. Classification tests were performed on olives to assess the effectiveness of the proposed method. This research showed that the IR vision system is a useful technology for the automatic assessment of olives that has the potential for use in offline inspection and for online sorting for defects and the presence of surface damage, easily distinguishing those that do not meet minimum quality requirements. Crown Copyright © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bombykol receptors in the silkworm moth and the fruit fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Zainulabeuddin; Kopp, Artyom; Kimbrell, Deborah A; Leal, Walter S

    2010-05-18

    Male moths are endowed with odorant receptors (ORs) to detect species-specific sex pheromones with remarkable sensitivity and selectivity. We serendipitously discovered that an endogenous OR in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is highly sensitive to the sex pheromone of the silkworm moth, bombykol. Intriguingly, the fruit fly detectors are more sensitive than the receptors of the silkworm moth, although its ecological significance is unknown. By expression in the "empty neuron" system, we identified the fruit fly bombykol-sensitive OR as DmelOR7a (= DmOR7a). The profiles of this receptor in response to bombykol in the native sensilla (ab4) or expressed in the empty neuron system (ab3 sensilla) are indistinguishable. Both WT and transgenic flies responded with high sensitivity, in a dose-dependent manner, and with rapid signal termination. In contrast, the same empty neuron expressing the moth bombykol receptor, BmorOR1, demonstrated low sensitivity and slow signal inactivation. When expressed in the trichoid sensilla T1 of the fruit fly, the neuron housing BmorOR1 responded with sensitivity comparable to that of the native trichoid sensilla in the silkworm moth. By challenging the native bombykol receptor in the fruit fly with high doses of another odorant to which the receptor responds with the highest sensitivity, we demonstrate that slow signal termination is induced by overdose of a stimulus. As opposed to the empty neuron system in the basiconic sensilla, the structural, biochemical, and/or biophysical features of the sensilla make the T1 trichoid system of the fly a better surrogate for the moth receptor.

  4. Lifespan of a Ceratitis fruit fly increases with higher altitude

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Variation in lifespan may be linked to geographic factors. While latitudinal variation in lifespan has been studied for a number of species, altitude variation has received much less attention, particularly in insects. We measured the lifespan of different populations of the Natal fruit fly Ceratitis rosa along an altitudinal cline. For the different populations we first measured the residual longevity of wild flies by captive cohort approach and compared F1 generation from the same populatio...

  5. Biological meaning of the methyl eugenol to fruit flies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachi, S.; Subahar, S

    1998-12-16

    The objective of this research is to test a hypothesis whether methyl eugenol has a benefit in sexual selection of fruit flies and to find at what age the male flies respond to methyl eugenol. This test was conducted using carambola fruit fly (Bractocera carambolae) at Inter University Center for Life Science of ITB. The results of the tests are summarized as follows ; 1. Males started to respond to methyl eugenol at the age of 11 days old and the maximum number of males were recorded on 14 and 15 days old. 2. Most of the carambola fruit fly start to respond to methyl eugenol before they become sexually mature. 3. A very small percentage of newly emerged males (less than 1%) survive to mate with females during treatment with methyl eugenol. Methyl eugenol has benefit in sexual selection of carabola fruit fly, i.e., males responded to methyl eugenol before they engage in sexual activities, while females responded to methyl eugenol only when males started their mating activities. (author)

  6. Predicting fruit fly's sensing rate with insect flight simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Song; Wang, Z Jane

    2014-08-01

    Without sensory feedback, flies cannot fly. Exactly how various feedback controls work in insects is a complex puzzle to solve. What do insects measure to stabilize their flight? How often and how fast must insects adjust their wings to remain stable? To gain insights into algorithms used by insects to control their dynamic instability, we develop a simulation tool to study free flight. To stabilize flight, we construct a control algorithm that modulates wing motion based on discrete measurements of the body-pitch orientation. Our simulations give theoretical bounds on both the sensing rate and the delay time between sensing and actuation. Interpreting our findings together with experimental results on fruit flies' reaction time and sensory motor reflexes, we conjecture that fruit flies sense their kinematic states every wing beat to stabilize their flight. We further propose a candidate for such a control involving the fly's haltere and first basalar motor neuron. Although we focus on fruit flies as a case study, the framework for our simulation and discrete control algorithms is applicable to studies of both natural and man-made fliers.

  7. Identification and characterization of the iridoid synthase involved in oleuropein biosynthesis in olive (Olea europaea) fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alagna, Fiammetta; Geu-Flores, Fernando; Kries, Hajo

    2016-01-01

    The secoiridoids are the main class of specialized metabolites present in olive (Olea europaea L.) fruit. In particular, the secoiridoid oleuropein strongly influences olive oil quality because of its bitterness, which is a desirable trait. In addition, oleuropein possesses a wide range...... of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. In accordance, obtaining high oleuropein varieties is a main goal of molecular breeding programs. Here we use a transcriptomic approach to identify candidate genes belonging to the secoiridoid pathway in olive. From...... these candidates, we have functionally characterized the olive homologue of iridoid synthase (OeISY), an unusual terpene cyclase that couples an NAD (P)H-dependent 1,4-reduction step with a subsequent cyclization, and we provide evidence that OeISY likely generates the monoterpene scaffold of oleuropein in olive...

  8. TrackFly: virtual reality for a behavioral system analysis in free-flying fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Steven N; Rohrseitz, Nicola; Straw, Andrew D; Dickinson, Michael H

    2008-06-15

    Modern neuroscience and the interest in biomimetic control design demand increasingly sophisticated experimental techniques that can be applied in freely moving animals under realistic behavioral conditions. To explore sensorimotor flight control mechanisms in free-flying fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), we equipped a wind tunnel with a Virtual Reality (VR) display system based on standard digital hardware and a 3D path tracking system. We demonstrate the experimental power of this approach by example of a 'one-parameter open loop' testing paradigm. It provided (1) a straightforward measure of transient responses in presence of open loop visual stimulation; (2) high data throughput and standardized measurement conditions from process automation; and (3) simplified data analysis due to well-defined testing conditions. Being based on standard hardware and software techniques, our methods provide an affordable, easy to replicate and general solution for a broad range of behavioral applications in freely moving animals. Particular relevance for advanced behavioral research tools originates from the need to perform detailed behavioral analyses in genetically modified organisms and animal models for disease research.

  9. The olfactory circuit of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The olfactory circuit of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has emerged in recent years as an excellent paradigm for studying the principles and mechanisms of information processing in neuronal circuits. We discuss here the organizational principles of the olfactory circuit that make it an attractive model for experimental manipulations, the lessons that have been learned, and future challenges.

  10. Biodiversity and Bionomics for Fruit Flies ( Diptera: Tephritidae ) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... for formulating an ecologically based Integrated Pest Management (IPM). ... sites and neighboring areas representing the three agro-ecological zones of Morogoro ... Two key fruit fly pests were determined based on abundance, host range and ... An IPM program based on the ecology of the key pests B. invadens and C.

  11. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using a hyperspectral reflectance/transmittance imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled cucumber products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, whic...

  12. Transcriptome of the egg parasitoid Fopius arisanus, an important biocontrol tool for Tephritid fruit fly suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background The Braconoid wasp Fopius arisanus (Sonan) has been utilized for biological control of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), and the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis), both phytophagous fruit flies pest of economic importance in Hawaii. We have sequenced and assembled t...

  13. In situ evaluation of the fruit and oil characteristics of the main Lebanese olive germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehade, Ali; Bitar, Ahmad El; Kadri, Aline; Choueiri, Elia; Nabbout, Rania; Youssef, Hiyam; Smeha, Maha; Awada, Ali; Chami, Ziad Al; Dubla, Eustachio; Trani, Antonio; Mondelli, Donato; Famiani, Franco

    2016-05-01

    Very little information is available on the characteristics of the Lebanese olive germplasm. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the fruit and oil characteristics of the main Lebanese olive varieties (Aayrouni, Abou chawkeh, Baladi, Del and Soury) from two successive crop seasons (2010-2011). All of the genotypes had medium-high oil content in the fruit, indicating their suitability for oil production; Aayrouni had particularly high values. The variety Abou chawkeh also had a high pulp/pit ratio, which is a very desirable trait in table olives. For all the varieties the values of free fatty acids, peroxide values, absorbances in ultraviolet, fatty acid composition, sterol content and composition and erythrodiol + uvaol content of the oils were within the requirements of the International Olive Council's Trade Standard for extra virgin olive oil. The only exception was for the values of Δ-7-stigmastenol in 2011 in Soury and, especially, in Baladi, which were higher than 0.5%. In some cases, stearic and arachidic acids fluctuated around the maximum values allowed. The findings of this study provide a first picture of the main characteristics of olives and oils currently produced in Lebanon. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Predicting Fruit Fly's Sensing Rate From Insect Flight Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jane; Chang, Song

    2013-11-01

    Without sensory feedbacks, flies cannot fly. Exactly how sensory feedback controls work in flying insects is a complex puzzle to solve. What do insects measure in order to stabilize their flight? What kinds of neural computations and muscle activities are involved in order to correct their flight course or to turn? How often and how fast do animals adjust their wings to remain stable? To understand the algorithms used by insects to control their dynamic instability, we have developed a simulation tool to study flapping flight, where motions of the insect body and wings are coupled instantaneously. To stabilize the flight in the simulation, we construct a control algorithm that modulates wing motion based on discrete measurements of the body-pitch orientation. Our simulations give theoretical bounds both on the sensing rate and the delay time between sensing and actuation. Interpreting these findings together with experimental results on fruit flies' reaction time and sensory motor reflexes, we give a sharper bound on the sensing rate and further reason that fruit flies sense their kinematic states every wing-beat in order to stabilize their flight.

  15. Taste and pheromone perception in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbs, Michelle L; Amrein, Hubert

    2007-08-01

    Taste is an essential sense for detection of nutrient-rich food and avoidance of toxic substances. The Drosophila melanogaster gustatory system provides an excellent model to study taste perception and taste-elicited behaviors. "The fly" is unique in the animal kingdom with regard to available experimental tools, which include a wide repertoire of molecular-genetic analyses (i.e., efficient production of transgenics and gene knockouts), elegant behavioral assays, and the possibility to conduct electrophysiological investigations. In addition, fruit flies, like humans, recognize sugars as a food source, but avoid bitter tasting substances that are often toxic to insects and mammals alike. This paper will present recent research progress in the field of taste and contact pheromone perception in the fruit fly. First, we shall describe the anatomical properties of the Drosophila gustatory system and survey the family of taste receptors to provide an appropriate background. We shall then review taste and pheromone perception mainly from a molecular genetic perspective that includes behavioral, electrophysiological and imaging analyses of wild type flies and flies with genetically manipulated taste cells. Finally, we shall provide an outlook of taste research in this elegant model system for the next few years.

  16. Cultivation and bioactivity assessment of Grifola frondosa fruiting bodies on olive oil press cakes substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, Andrej; Svagelj, Mirjan; Berovic, Marin; Liu, Yanfang; Zhang, Jingsong; Pohleven, Franc; Klinar, Dusan

    2009-11-30

    Grifola frondosa, a medicinal and edible mushroom, was cultivated on substrates composed of olive oil press cakes with different supplements. Crude extracts were prepared from mature fruiting bodies and tested for their capacity to stimulate splenocyte proliferation. Two wild-growing fruiting bodies were extracted for comparison. Olive oil press cakes reduced the mushroom yield, and the best biological efficiency was obtained on substrates supplemented with wheat bran and without olive oil press cakes. All extracts were capable of inducing splenocyte proliferation and were half as effective as the positive control (6.0 microg/mL phytohaemagglutinin). No correlation between substrate composition and bioactivity could be established. Extracts from wild-growing G. frondosa were superior to cultivated ones in respect to biological activity.

  17. Effect of harvesting system and fruit cold storage on virgin olive oil chemical composition and quality of superintensive cultivated 'Arbequina' olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousfi, Khaled; Weiland, Carlos M; García, José M

    2012-05-01

    Storage at 3 and 18 °C of 'Arbequina' olives (Olea europaea L.) cultivated in hedgerows and harvested manually or mechanically (wine grape harvester) was tested. Fruit characteristics and oil quality were monitored. Mechanical harvesting caused internal fruit damage that induced its rapid softening and decay, but also facilitated obtaining higher amounts of oil, which suffered a rapid deterioration during fruit storage. This oil presented lower tocopherol and phenol contents and lower oxidative stability than the oil extracted from manually harvested olives, but showed similar fatty acid composition. Cold storage (3 °C) delayed all of these deterioration processes. It allowed maintaining the best commercial level of quality ("extra") in the oil from mechanically harvested olives for 10 days. This cold storage could be considered as an alternative to the increase in machinery for processing the growing olive production, due to both hedgerow cultivation and mechanized harvesting.

  18. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, and their cross-species amplification in the Tephritidae family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinos, Antonios A; Stratikopoulos, Elias E; Drosopoulou, Eleni; Kakani, Evdoxia G; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Mathiopoulos, Kostas D

    2008-01-01

    Background The Tephritidae family of insects includes the most important agricultural pests of fruits and vegetables, belonging mainly to four genera (Bactrocera, Ceratitis, Anastrepha and Rhagoletis). The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major pest of the olive fruit. Currently, its control is based on chemical insecticides. Environmentally friendlier methods have been attempted in the past (Sterile Insect Technique), albeit with limited success. This was mainly attributed to the lack of knowledge on the insect's behaviour, ecology and genetic structure of natural populations. The development of molecular markers could facilitate the access in the genome and contribute to the solution of the aforementioned problems. We chose to focus on microsatellite markers due to their abundance in the genome, high degree of polymorphism and easiness of isolation. Results Fifty-eight microsatellite-containing clones were isolated from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, bearing a total of sixty-two discrete microsatellite motifs. Forty-two primer pairs were designed on the unique sequences flanking the microsatellite motif and thirty-one of them amplified a PCR product of the expected size. The level of polymorphism was evaluated against wild and laboratory flies and the majority of the markers (93.5%) proved highly polymorphic. Thirteen of them presented a unique position on the olive fly polytene chromosomes by in situ hybridization, which can serve as anchors to correlate future genetic and cytological maps of the species, as well as entry points to the genome. Cross-species amplification of these markers to eleven Tephritidae species and sequencing of thirty-one of the amplified products revealed a varying degree of conservation that declines outside the Bactrocera genus. Conclusion Microsatellite markers are very powerful tools for genetic and population analyses, particularly in species deprived of any other means of genetic analysis. The presented set of

  19. Recent advances in the use of non-destructive near infrared spectroscopy on intact olive fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this review is to illustrate the state of the art in the use of non-destructive near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for quality evaluation of intact fruit in the olive industry. First, the most recent studies regarding the application of non-destructive NIR spectroscopy methods to asse...

  20. Indigenous weaver ants and fruit fly control in Tanzanian smallholder mango production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Nina; Offenberg, Hans Joachim; Msogoya, T. J.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of weaver ant colonies can reduce fruit fly oviposition in mango production and can be effective as a fruit fly control strategy. Patrolling ants may disturb landing flies and may also deposit repellent compounds on to the fruits. This control strategy is being applied to export......, and enter the local market chain. The growers, and local traders, reported an overall 10-25% infestation of fruit fly larvae in their fruits, with significant variation possible for an individual grower or season. Infestation is higher, to a limited degree, in fruits in the market place than in those...... temperatures to lethal levels for fruit fly eggs and larvae. Direct observations showed a small, but significant reduction in fly landings on fruits previously patrolled by ants, supporting the proposed role for persistent repellents. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy did not identify any compounds uniquely...

  1. The South African fruit fly action plan: area-wide suppression and exotic species surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Brian N., E-mail: barnesb@arc.agric.z [ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij Institute for Fruit, Vine and Wine, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Venter, Jan-Hendrik, E-mail: janhendrikv@nda.agric.z [Directorate Plant Health, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2006-07-01

    Two species of tephritid fruit flies of economic importance, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata [Wiedemann]) and Natal fruit fly (C. rosa Karsch) cause economic losses in the South African deciduous fruit industry of approximately US$3 million per annum. A third species, marula fruit fly, C. cosyra (Walker), causes damage to citrus and sub-tropical fruits in the north-eastern part of the country. In 1999 a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme against Medfly was initiated over 10,000 ha of table grapes with a goal of cost-effective, ecologically compatible suppression of Medfly. The SIT programme was extended to two other fruit production areas in 2004. Although results in all three SIT areas have been mixed, populations of wild Medflies, as well as associated pesticide usage and control costs, have been reduced since the start of sterile fly releases. Reasons for the partial degree of success and the relatively slow expansion of Medfly SIT to other areas include economic, operational and cultural factors, as well as certain fruit production practices. Before fruit fly-free areas can be created, deficiencies in the ability to mass-rear Natal fruit fly need to be overcome so that an SIT programme against this species can be initiated. Any fruit fly suppression or eradication campaign will be severely compromised by any introductions into South Africa of exotic fruit fly species. The risk of such introductions is increasing as trade with and travel to the country increases. A Plant Health Early Warning Systems Division has been initiated to formulate fruit fly detection and action plans. Melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae [Coquillett]), Asian fruit fly (B. invadens Drew, Tsurutu and White) and peach fruit fly (B. zonata [Saunders]), which are all well established in parts of Africa and/or Indian Ocean islands, have been identified as presenting the highest risk for entering and becoming established in South Africa. An exotic fruit fly surveillance

  2. NIR prediction of fruit moisture, free acidity and oil content in intact olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the prediction of olive fruit and virgin olive oil quality parameters through the direct measuring of the fruit using near infrared spectrometry (NIRS has been investigated and the effectiveness of a portable spectrometer has been assessed. Models and calibration tests were developed using both the hexane-isopropanol extraction of individual olive fruits, and the Soxhlet extraction of olive paste. The parameters analyzed were the free acidity in olive oil, oil yield from physical extraction, oil content referring to fresh weight, oil content referring to dry matter and fruit moisture. The results indicate a good predictive potential with both methodologies and serve to encourage improvement in the obtained models through the enlargement of the calibrations. Fruit moisture prediction models showed high accuracy.

    En este trabajo se ha investigado la predicción de parámetros de calidad de aceitunas y de aceite de oliva virgen mediante medidas directas en el fruto de espectrometría de infrarrojo cercano (NIRS, evaluándose la utilidad de un espectrómetro portátil. Se han desarrollado respectivamente modelos predictivos y calibraciones utilizando como análisis de referencia tanto la extracción de aceitunas individualmente con hexano-isopropanol, como la extracción de pasta de aceituna mediante Soxhlet. Los parámetros analizados fueron: acidez libre del aceite, rendimiento de la extracción física de aceite, contenido de aceite referido a peso fresco, contenido de aceite referido a materia seca y humedad del fruto. Los resultados indican un buen potencial de predicción mediante ambos métodos y alientan al perfeccionamiento de los modelos obtenidos mediante la ampliación de las calibraciones. Los modelos predictivos de la humedad del fruto mostraron una alta precisión.

  3. Passive cellular microrheology in developing fruit fly embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, Sarah; Ma, Xiaoyan; Lawrence, Stacey; Hutson, M. Shane

    2012-02-01

    The development of fruit fly (Drosophila) embryos involves spatial and temporal regulation of cellular mechanical properties. These properties can be probed in vivo using laser hole drilling experiments; however, this technique only infers relative forces. Conversion to absolute forces requires measurement of cellular viscoelastic properties. Here, we use passive microrheology of fluorescently labeled cell membranes to measure the viscoelastic properties of amnioserosa cells. These dynamic epithelial cells play an important mechanical role during two developmental stages: germ band retraction and dorsal closure. Passive microrheology in this system is confounded by active contractions in the cytoskeleton. Thus, the fruit fly embryos are transiently anesthetized with CO2, halting active cellular movements, leaving only passive Brownian motion. The power spectra of these fluctuations are well fit by a Lorentzian -- as expected for Brownian motion -- and allow us to extract cellular viscoelastic parameters at different developmental stages. These measured parameters inform previous hole-drilling experiments and provide inputs for quantitative computational models of fruit fly embryonic development.

  4. Identification and Characterization of the Iridoid Synthase Involved in Oleuropein Biosynthesis in Olive (Olea europaea) Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagna, Fiammetta; Geu-Flores, Fernando; Kries, Hajo; Panara, Francesco; Baldoni, Luciana; O'Connor, Sarah E; Osbourn, Anne

    2016-03-11

    The secoiridoids are the main class of specialized metabolites present in olive (Olea europaea L.) fruit. In particular, the secoiridoid oleuropein strongly influences olive oil quality because of its bitterness, which is a desirable trait. In addition, oleuropein possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. In accordance, obtaining high oleuropein varieties is a main goal of molecular breeding programs. Here we use a transcriptomic approach to identify candidate genes belonging to the secoiridoid pathway in olive. From these candidates, we have functionally characterized the olive homologue of iridoid synthase (OeISY), an unusual terpene cyclase that couples an NAD (P)H-dependent 1,4-reduction step with a subsequent cyclization, and we provide evidence that OeISY likely generates the monoterpene scaffold of oleuropein in olive fruits. OeISY, the first pathway gene characterized for this type of secoiridoid, is a potential target for breeding programs in a high value secoiridoid-accumulating species.

  5. Sesamin extends the mean lifespan of fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yuanyuan; Peng, Cheng; Liang, Yintong; Ma, Ka Ying; Chan, Ho Yin Edwin; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2013-04-01

    The present study investigated the anti-ageing activity of sesamin and its effect on gene expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), methuselah (Mth) and Rpn11 in Drosophila melanogaster. Results demonstrated that 0.2 % sesamin in diet prolonged the mean lifespan of OR wild fruit flies by 12 %, accompanied by up-regulation of SOD1, SOD2, CAT and Rpn11. Sesamin at 0.2 % in diet also attenuated paraquat-induced neurodegeneration with up-regulation of SOD1, SOD2 and Rpn11 in OR wild fruit flies. Supplementation of 0.2 % sesamin in diet increased the survival time of OR wild type flies and Alzheimer flies Aβ42 33769 when they were challenged with paraquat. Furthermore, sesamin-induced increase in the activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes also suggests that the longevity promoting activity of sesamin are possibly due to its action as a hormetin by inducing oxidative stress response-mediated hormesis. It was concluded that sesamin extended the mean lifespan and alleviated the neurodegeneration in Drosophila melanogaster at least mediated by its interaction with genes SOD1, SOD2, CAT, and Rpn11, but not with gene Mth.

  6. How functional genomics will impact fruit fly pest control: the example of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik M; Gabrieli, Paolo; Manni, Mosè; Savini, Grazia; Gasperi, Giuliano; Malacrida, Anna R

    2014-01-01

    The highly invasive agricultural insect pest Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the most thoroughly studied tephritid fruit fly at the genetic and molecular levels. It has become a model for the analysis of fruit fly invasions and for the development of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes based on the environmentally-friendly Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Extensive transcriptome resources and the recently released genome sequence are making it possible to unravel several aspects of the medfly reproductive biology and behaviour, opening new opportunities for comparative genomics and barcoding for species identification. New genes, promotors and regulatory sequences are becoming available for the development/improvement of highly competitive sexing strains, for the monitoring of sterile males released in the field and for determining the mating status of wild females. The tools developed in this species have been transferred to other tephritids that are also the subject of SIT programmes.

  7. Characterisation of olive fruit for the milling process by using visible/near infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Beghi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing consumption of olive oil and table olives has recently determined an expansion of olive tree cultivation in the world. This trend is supported by the documented nutritional value of the Mediterranean diet. The aim of this work was to test a portable visible/ near infrared (vis/NIR system (400-1000 nm for the analysis of physical-chemical parameters, such as olive soluble solid content (SSC and texture before the olive oil extraction process. The final goal is to provide the sector with post-harvest methods and sorting systems for a quick evaluation of important properties of olive fruit. In the present study, a total of 109 olives for oil production were analysed. Olive spectra registered with the optical device and values obtained with destructive analysis in the laboratory were analysed. Specific statistical models were elaborated to study correlations between optical and laboratory analysis, and to evaluate predictions of reference parameters obtained through the analysis of the visible-near infrared range. Statistical models were processed using chemometric techniques to extract maximum data information. Principal component analysis (PCA was performed on vis/NIR spectra to examine sample groupings and identify outliers, while partial least square (PLS regression algorithm was used to correlate samples spectra and physical- chemical properties. Results are encouraging. PCA showed a significant sample grouping among different ranges of SSC and texture. PLS models gave fairly good predictive capabilities in validation for SSC (R2=0.67 and RMSECV%=7.5% and texture (R2=0.68 and RMSECV%=8.2%.

  8. Fruit Morphological Changes during Pit Hardening in Autochthonous Istrian Olive (Olea europaea L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Krapac

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Endocarp lignification is important fruit growth phenophase since after its completion fruit starts with oil accumulation. The information about duration of endocarp lignification is important for timing of management practices, irrigation and pest control in oil cultivars, and fruit thinning in table cultivars to obtain uniform fruit weight and size. In this study, fruit length, width and weight of four Istrian autochthonous olive cultivars (‘Buža’, ‘Puntoža’, ‘Rošinjola’ and ‘Istarska bjelica’ were measured. Samples were taken from olive collection orchard of the Institute of Agriculture and Tourism in Poreč in equal growing conditions. The aim of the research was to define an olive fruit growth dynamics during pit hardening. Fruit weight in all cultivars was increasing during endocarp lignification (from 7th to 28th July. The highest percentage in the weight growth in the first week had cultivars ‘Buža’ (48.5% and ‘Rošinjola’ (44.6% while in the second week maximum was reached by cultivars ‘Puntoža’ (44.2% and ‘Istarska bjelica’ (42%. The highest increase in total fruit mass was detected in ‘Puntoža’ (1.30 g and the least at ‘Rošinjola’ (0.56 g. Maximum increase in length (L and width (W had ‘Puntoža’ (L: 7.13 mm; W: 4.23 mm and the least ‘Istarska bjelica’ (L: 2.48 mm; W: 2.70 mm.

  9. Male Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tau (Diptera; Tephritidae) attractants from Elsholtzia pubescens Bth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasyim, A.; Muryati,; Mizu Istianto,; Kogel, de W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Studies on the ability of different plant extracts to attract male fruit flies indicated that an extract of Elsholtzia pubescens attracted male Bactrocera tau fruit flies in Passion fruit orchards in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Analyses of the plant extract showed that the major compound present was Ca

  10. Irrigation and fruit canopy position modify oil quality of olive trees (cv. Frantoio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Giovanni; Gucci, Riccardo; Sifola, Maria Isabella; Selvaggini, Roberto; Urbani, Stefania; Esposto, Sonia; Taticchi, Agnese; Servili, Maurizio

    2017-08-01

    Fruit development and oil quality in Olea europaea L. are strongly influenced by both light and water availability. In the present study, the simultaneous effects of light environment and irrigation on fruit characteristics and oil quality were studied in a high-density orchard over two consecutive years. Olive fruits were harvested from three canopy positions (intercepting approximately 64%, 42% and 30% of above canopy radiation) of fully-productive trees subjected to full, deficit or complementary irrigation. Fruits receiving 61-67% of above canopy radiation showed the highest fruit weight, mesocarp oil content and maturation index, whereas those intercepting only 27-33% showed the lowest values. Palmitoleic and linoleic acids increased in oils obtained from fruits exposed to high light levels, whereas oleic acid and the oleic-linoleic acid ratio decreased. Neither canopy position, nor irrigation affected K232 , K270 , ΔK and the concentration of lignan in virgin olive oils (VOOs). Total phenols, 3,4-DHPEA-EDA [2-(3,4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl (3S,4E)-4-formyl-3-(2-oxoethyl)hex-4-enoate] and p-HPEA-EDA (decarboxymethyl ligstroside-aglycone) increased in VOOs produced from fruits harvested from the top of the canopy, whereas full irrigation decreased total phenols and 3,4-DHPEA-EDA concentrations with respect to the complementary irrigation treatment. Light and water availability are crucial not only for tree productivity, but also they clearly affect olive oil quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Toxicity of fruit fly baits to beneficial insects in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Michaud

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Two fruit fly baits, Nu-Lure®/malathion and GF-120 (Spinosad® were evaluated in the laboratory for non-target impacts on beneficial insects. Nu-Lure/malathion proved attractive and toxic to adults and larvae of the coccinellid species, Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Cycloneda sanguinea L. and Harmonia axyridis Pallas, a lacewing species, Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister. The coccinellids Olla v-nigrum Mulsant, Scymnus sp. and nymphs of the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say did not succumb to Nu-Lure baits, even in no-choice situations. Nu-Lure was also attractive and lethal to adults of two aphidophagous flies; Leucopis sp. and the syrphid fly Pseudodorus clavatus (F.. Both Nu-Lure and GF-120 caused significant mortality to the parasitoid wasps, Aphytis melinus De Bach and Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson, within 24 h of exposure. However, GF-120 caused no significant mortality to any coccinellid in either choice or no-choice situations, despite considerable consumption of baits. Adults of P. clavatus tended to avoid GF-120, although mortality was significant in no-choice tests. Although larvae and adults of the lacewing C. rufilabris consumed GF-120, mortality was delayed; adults died 48 -96 h post-exposure and those exposed as larvae died two weeks later in the pupal stage. The Nu-Lure bait did not appear palatable to any of the insects, but the high concentration of malathion (195,000 ppm caused rapid mortality to susceptible insects. Nu-Lure bait without malathion also caused significant mortality to flies and lacewings in cage trials. Although GF-120 bait appeared more benign overall, further research efforts are warranted to increase its selectivity for target fly species and reduce its attractiveness to parasitoids and lacewings. I conclude that the Florida "fly free zone" protocol in its current form is not compatible with an IPM approach to commercial citrus production.

  12. Diets based on soybean protein for Mediterranean fruit fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobrinho, Raimundo Braga [Embrapa Agroindustria Tropical, Rua Dra. Sara Mesquita, 2270, CEP 60511-110 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)]. E-mail: braga@cnpat.embrapa.br; Caceres, Carlos; Islam, Amirul; Wornoayporn, Vivat [Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)]. E-mail: C.Caceres@iaea.org; Enkerlin, Walter [Insect Pest Control Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: W.Enkerlin@iaea.org

    2006-04-15

    The objective of this work was to develop suitable and economic diets for mass rearing Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Diets containing sugar beet bagasse, wheat bran, brewer yeast, and others with wheat bran and palletized soybean protein from Brazil were tested. Diets based on soybean protein have shown promising results regarding pupal recovery, pupal weight and adult emergence. Soybean bagasse in the form of pellets with 60% of protein can be a very important substitute for other expensive sources of protein. (author)

  13. Seasonal occurrence of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in southern Syria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohammed Mansour; Fater Mohamad

    2016-01-01

      Population fluctuations of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), [Ceratitis capitata], were investigated between 1999 and 2001 at several locations representing fruit production areas in the southern part of Syria...

  14. Olive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In manufacturing, olive oil is used to make soaps, commercial plasters and liniments; and to delay setting ... Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on ... Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient ...

  15. Fatty acid composition of oil obtained from irradiated and non-irradiated whole fruit and fruit flesh of olives (Olea europaea L. 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfouz  Al-BACHIR

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the fatty acid profile of olive oil extracted from whole fruit and fruit flesh of "Kaissy cultivar" olives, irradiated with 0, 2 and 3 kGy doses of gamma irradiation, and stored for 0, 6 and 12 months. Results on the fatty acid profile showed that the studied oils contained mostly oleic acid (68.1570.80% followed by palmitic acid (14.38-15.89% and linoleic acid (10.3412.51%. Generally, there are slight differences in the fatty acid profile between the oil extracted from whole olives and fruit flesh, but sometime significant (p<0.05. Also, the storage time influenced to a limited extent the fatty acid profile of both type of oils. Immediately after treatment, irradiation caused a significant (p<0.01 gradual decrease in the unsaturated fatty acid content and a significant (p<0.01 saturated fatty acid content increased in virgin olive oils.

  16. Population and Species of Fruit Fly (Bactrocera spp.) In Atractant Sticky Yellow Trap Formulation (ASYTA) From Natural Plant Product

    OpenAIRE

    Sjam, Sylvia; Zulfitriany; Sulaeha

    2011-01-01

    ASYTA is formulated as sticky attractant from natural plant product Andropogon nardus where use for attract fruit fly in the field The experiment was aimed to know the ability of ASYTA to attract fruit fly (Batrocera spp.) .The experiment was conducted in the laboratory and field at mango, matermelon and chili . The results indicated that ASYTA had potency to attract of fruit fly population not only attract male fruit fly but also female. ASYTA was able to attract 1.241 fruit ...

  17. Long Term Amendment with Fresh and Composted Solid Olive Mill Waste on Olive Grove Affects Carbon Sequestration by Prunings, Fruits, and Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regni, Luca; Nasini, Luigi; Ilarioni, Luana; Brunori, Antonio; Massaccesi, Luisa; Agnelli, Alberto; Proietti, Primo

    2017-01-01

    The soil amendment with organic wastes represents a way to increase the soil fertility and the organic carbon (C) stored in the agro-ecosystems. Among the organic waste materials produced by agricultural and industrial activities, olive mill wastes derived from the olive oil extraction process may represent a suitable soil amendment. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of fresh (SOMW) or composted mixture of SOMW and shredded olive tree prunings (C-SOMW+P) on the vegetative and productive activities of olive trees, on the C stored in the tree non-permanent structures (prunings and fruits) and in the soil. The plots treated with SOMW or C-SOMW+P showed higher vegetative and productive activities than the untreated plots, and this was attributed to the higher total N and availability of P and K supplied by the amendments. Consequently, treatments increased the C sequestered in the tree non-permanent structures than in the control trees. However, no significant different effect between SOMW and C-SOMW+P treatments was found for the C stored in prunings and fruits, whereas it was evident a stronger influence of C-SOMW+P than SOMW on soil C sequestration. Indeed, about 50% the C supplied by the treatment with C-SOMW+P was sequestered in the olive grove system, with more than 90% of the sequestered C stored into the soil. The low amount of C sequestered in the soil following the addition of SOMW was attributed to its richness of moisture and easily degradable compounds that triggered the mineralization processes controlled by the soil microbial community. Although the 8 years of amendment produced a higher fruit yields than the control, no difference occurred between the characteristics and the oil content of the olive fruits. Only the total phenol content for the oil obtained from the SOMW-treated plots was significantly higher. The other considered fruit characteristics did not show significant differences. PMID:28119719

  18. Polyphenol oxidase and its relationship with oleuropein concentration in fruits and leaves of olive (Olea europaea) cv. 'Picual' trees during fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-García, Francisca; Blanco, Santos; Peinado, M Angeles; Peragón, Juan

    2008-01-01

    Oleuropein, the main phenolic compound of olive fruit, has important antioxidant properties that are responsible for some of the nutritional properties of fruits and the defence mechanism of leaves. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity changes during fruit ripening in many plants. We studied the kinetics and molecular properties of PPO in fruits and leaves of olive (Olea europaea L.) cv. 'Picual' trees and the relationship between PPO and oleuropein concentration during fruit ripening. Polyphenol oxidase showed hyperbolic kinetics in fruits and leaves. Significant increases in PPO specific activity, V(max), K(m )and catalytic efficiency occurred during fruit ripening. Based on SDS-PAGE under partially denaturing conditions and in-gel staining with DL-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, PPO activity was found in one major protein of 55 and 50 kDA in fruits and leaves, respectively. During the last stages of fruit maturation, a second 36 kDa protein was observed in fruits but not in leaves, indicating that this protein could serve as a marker of the final phase of fruit maturation. Under fully denaturing conditions, only one 27.7 kDa immunoreactive band was detected in fruits. Both the amount of PPO activity and the amount of PPO protein increased significantly during fruit maturation. Immunohistochemical studies indicated that PPO is located in the epidermis, parenchyma and companion vascular cells of leaves as well as in the epidermis of fruit. During fruit maturation, oleuropein concentration measured by HPLC significantly decreased in fruits and increased in leaves.

  19. Assessment of attractiveness of plants as roosting sites for the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuate, Grant T; Vargas, Roger I

    2007-01-01

    The use of toxic protein bait sprays to suppress melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations typically involves application to vegetation bordering agricultural host areas where the adults seek shelter ("roost"). Although bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), populations have traditionally been applied to the host crop, rather than to crop borders, roosting by oriental fruit flies in borders of some crop species, such as papaya, Carica papaya L. (Brassicales: Caricaceae), suggests that bait spray applications to crop borders could also help in suppression of B. dorsalis populations. In order to develop improved recommendations for application of bait sprays to border plants for suppression of melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations, the relative attractiveness of a range of plant species, in a vegetative (non-flowering) stage, was tested to wild melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations established in a papaya orchard in Hawaii. A total of 20 plant species were evaluated, divided into four categories: 1) border plants, including corn, Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae), windbreaks and broad-leaved ornamentals, 7 species; 2) weed plants commonly found in agricultural fields in Hawaii, 6 species; 3) host crop plants, 1 species- zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L. (Violales: Curcurbitaceae), and 4) locally grown fruit trees, 6 species. Plants were established in pots and placed in an open field, in clusters encircling protein bait traps, 20 m away from the papaya orchard. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), panax, Polyscias guilfoylei (Bull) Bailey (Apiales: Araliaceae), tiger's claw, Erythnna variegata L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) were identified as preferred roosting hosts for the melon fly, and tiger's claw, panax, castor bean, Canada cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), Brazilian

  20. Effect of addition of olive leaves before fruits extraction process to some monovarietal Tunisian extra-virgin olive oils using chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonda, Ammar; Akram, Zribi; Boutheina, Gargouri; Guido, Flamini; Mohamed, Bouaziz

    2014-01-08

    The analysis of the effect of cultivar and olive leaves addition before the extraction on the different analytical values revealed significant differences (p olive leaves. Twenty-three compounds were characterized, representing 86.1-99.2% of the total volatiles. Chétoui cultivar has the highest amount of (E)-2-hexenal, followed by Chemlali cultivar, whereas (E)-2-hexen-1-ol was the major constituent of Zalmati and crossbreeding Chemlali by Zalmati cultivars. Sensory analysis showed that Chemlali and Chétoui Zarzis possessed a high fruity, bitter, and pungent taste, whereas the Zalmati and crossbreeding Chemlali by Zalmati had a 'green' taste among its attributes. Indeed, the taste panel found an improvement of the oil quality when an amount of olive leaves (3%) added to the olives fruits.

  1. An Inquiry-Based Investigation of Modes of Inheritance Using "Flightless" Fruit Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnici, Joseph P.; Farland, Andrew M.

    2005-01-01

    The various strains of flightless fruit flies that were developed at the Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) and an exercise that helps students in determining the inheritance pattern in the fruit fly mutant trait are described. The study and the resulting exercise helped the students in scientifically determining the two important aspects of…

  2. Laboratory evaluation for a potential birth control diet for fruit fly sterilization insect technique (SIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A potential fruit fly steilizing diet was evaluated on fertility, mating, survival, and protein anaylsis for fruit fly species in Hawaii. Insects were continuously fed an agar diet with lufenuron(LFN) for an initial 7d after emergence and then switched to a control diet to simulate the actual field ...

  3. Efficacy of the Suterra biolure individual female fruit fly attractant packages vs. the Unipak version

    Science.gov (United States)

    The combination of putrescine with ammonium acetate into one unit had no significant effect on the attractance of Caribbean fruit fly to trap(s) when compared with the individual BioLure dispseners. Additionally, there were no significant differences in attractancy to the Mediterranean fruit fly wh...

  4. Non-destructive assessment of olive fruit ripening by portable near infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracia, A.; Leon, L.

    2011-07-01

    The feasibility of portable near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) technology for the determination of oil and moisture contents in intact olive fruits was studied. A total of 144 and 112 samples were collected throughout the ripening period in two different olive cultivar trials. Spectral data were recorded in the wavelength region from 1100 to 2300 nm at 1 nm intervals under two different experimental conditions: on-tree in the field in Trial 1 and under laboratory room conditions in Trial 2. Calibration models were developed and evaluated using partial least squares (PLS) regression separately for each trial set and for the combined group of samples. Although slightly better results were obtained under laboratory room conditions, the results obtained on-tree in the field were also accurate enough to determine the optimal harvest date of each cultivar. The combined model showed predictive statistics within the range of the individual models (r0.89 and RMSECV 1.99 for oil content and r0.88 and RMSECV2.06 for moisture content), which could be considered acceptable as an increase in the model robustness could be expected. These results encourage the use of portable NIR spectroscopy to monitor olive fruit ripening and to decide the optimal harvesting date on the basis of oil and moisture content. (Author) 27 refs.

  5. Thermal death kinetics of Mediterranean, Malaysian, melon, and oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) eggs and third instars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, John W; Tang, Juming; Wang, Shaojin

    2009-04-01

    The late-aged egg and third-instar life stages of laboratory-reared Malaysian fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel); Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); melon fly, B. cucurbitae Coquillett; and oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel), (Diptera: Tephritidae); and the third instars of wild Mediterranean fruit fly were exposed to thermal treatments. A heating block system was used to determine the thermal death kinetics of the four fruit fly species. Treatments consisted of heating the fruit fly life stages to 44, 46, 48, and 50 degrees C and holding for different times ranging from 0 to 120 min depending on the thermal mortality response and time required to obtain 100% mortality for each species and life stage. The 0.5-order kinetic model had the best fit to the survival ratio for all the treatment temperatures and was used to predict lethal times. The thermal death time (TDT) curves showed a tolerance order of Mediterranean fruit fly eggs fruit fly third instar thermotolerance from Hawaii and Israel showed that Israel Mediterranean fruit fly was more thermotolerant. A comparison of minimum treatment times at a given temperature required to obtain 100% mortality of laboratory-reared Malaysian, Mediterranean (Hawaii and Israel strains), melon, Mexican, and oriental fruit fly eggs or third instars and wild Mediterranean fruit fly (Hawaii strain) eggs or third instars showed that oriental fruit fly was the most thermotolerant among the third instars, and the difference in heat tolerance between third instars and eggs was negligible at 50 degrees C.

  6. Preparation and Use of an Easily Constructed, Inexpensive Chamber for Viewing Courtship Behaviors of Fruit Flies, Drosophila sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Timothy J.; Labov, Jay B.

    1997-01-01

    Details the construction of a viewing chamber for fruit flies that connects to a dissecting microscope and features a design that enables students to easily move fruit flies in and out of the chamber. (DDR)

  7. LOX Gene Transcript Accumulation in Olive (Olea europaea L. Fruits at Different Stages of Maturation: Relationship between Volatile Compounds, Environmental Factors, and Technological Treatments for Oil Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocenzo Muzzalupo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of olive oil is influenced by genetic and environmental factors and by the maturation state of drupes, but it is equally affected by technological treatments of the process. This work investigates the possible correlation between olive LOX gene transcript accumulation, evaluated in fruits collected at different stages of maturation, and chemical biomarkers of its activity. During olive fruit ripening, the same genotype harvested from two different farms shows a positive linear trend between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive oil aroma. Interestingly, a negative linear trend was observed between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive pastes obtained from olive fruits with and without malaxation. The changes in the olive LOX transcript accumulation reveal its environmental regulation and suggest differential physiological functions for the LOXs.

  8. LOX Gene transcript accumulation in olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits at different stages of maturation: relationship between volatile compounds, environmental factors, and technological treatments for oil extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzzalupo, Innocenzo; Macchione, Barbara; Bucci, Cristina; Stefanizzi, Francesca; Perri, Enzo; Chiappetta, Adriana; Tagarelli, Antonio; Sindona, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    The quality of olive oil is influenced by genetic and environmental factors and by the maturation state of drupes, but it is equally affected by technological treatments of the process. This work investigates the possible correlation between olive LOX gene transcript accumulation, evaluated in fruits collected at different stages of maturation, and chemical biomarkers of its activity. During olive fruit ripening, the same genotype harvested from two different farms shows a positive linear trend between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive oil aroma. Interestingly, a negative linear trend was observed between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive pastes obtained from olive fruits with and without malaxation. The changes in the olive LOX transcript accumulation reveal its environmental regulation and suggest differential physiological functions for the LOXs.

  9. A normative theory of forgetting: lessons from the fruit fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brea, Johanni; Urbanczik, Robert; Senn, Walter

    2014-06-01

    Recent experiments revealed that the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has a dedicated mechanism for forgetting: blocking the G-protein Rac leads to slower and activating Rac to faster forgetting. This active form of forgetting lacks a satisfactory functional explanation. We investigated optimal decision making for an agent adapting to a stochastic environment where a stimulus may switch between being indicative of reward or punishment. Like Drosophila, an optimal agent shows forgetting with a rate that is linked to the time scale of changes in the environment. Moreover, to reduce the odds of missing future reward, an optimal agent may trade the risk of immediate pain for information gain and thus forget faster after aversive conditioning. A simple neuronal network reproduces these features. Our theory shows that forgetting in Drosophila appears as an optimal adaptive behavior in a changing environment. This is in line with the view that forgetting is adaptive rather than a consequence of limitations of the memory system.

  10. Biological Effects on Fruit Fly by N+ ion Beam Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Mutation induced by low energy ion beam implantation has beenapplied widely both in plants and microbes. However, due to the vacuum limitation, such ion implantation into animals was never studied except for silkworm. In this study, Pupae of fruit fly were irradiated with different dosage N+ ions at energy 20 KeV to study the biological effect of ion beam on animal. The results showed a saddle-like curve exists between incubate rate and dosage. Damage of pupae by ion beam implantation was observed using scanning electron microscope. Some individuals with incomplete wing were obtained after implantation but no similar character was observed in their offspring. Furthermore, about 5.47% mutants with wide variation appeared in M1 generation. Therefore, ion beam implantation could be widely used for mutation breeding.

  11. Mate choice in fruit flies is rational and adaptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuthnott, Devin; Fedina, Tatyana Y; Pletcher, Scott D; Promislow, Daniel E L

    2017-01-17

    According to rational choice theory, beneficial preferences should lead individuals to sort available options into linear, transitive hierarchies, although the extent to which non-human animals behave rationally is unclear. Here we demonstrate that mate choice in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster results in the linear sorting of a set of diverse isogenic female lines, unambiguously demonstrating the hallmark of rational behaviour, transitivity. These rational choices are associated with direct benefits, enabling males to maximize offspring production. Furthermore, we demonstrate that female behaviours and cues act redundantly in mate detection and assessment, as rational mate choice largely persists when visual or chemical sensory modalities are impaired, but not when both are impaired. Transitivity in mate choice demonstrates that the quality of potential mates varies significantly among genotypes, and that males and females behave in such a way as to facilitate adaptive mate choice.

  12. Three promising fungal strains pathogenic to fruit flies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiji, T.; Praveena, R.; Babu, Kavitha; Naseema, A.; Anitha, N. [College of Agriculture, Kerala (India)

    2006-07-01

    Pathogenicity of the fungi Paecilomyces lilacinus, isolated from Bactrocera cucurbitae, and Aspergillus candidus, isolated from B. dorsalis, was tested. Cross infectivity of P. lilacinus on B. dorsalis and A. candidus on B. cucurbitae and cross infectivity of a local isolate of B. bassiana from bhindi leaf roller (Sylepta derogata) on fruit flies (B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis ) were also studied. These fungi were new records in these hosts. P. lilacinus at 109 spores / ml caused 96.67% and 100 % cumulative mortality in fruit flies on the second and on the third days. LC50 values of P. lilacinus on B. cucurbitae were 5.0 x 106, 8.0 x 105, 7.0 x 105 spores/ ml on second, third and fourth day, respectively. The fungus was found to cross infect B. dorsalis. LC50 values of A. candidus on B. cucurbitae were 1.29 x 108, 1.22 x 107, 2.27 x 106 spores / ml on third, fourth and fifth day, respectively. The fungus was found to be cross infective to B. cucurbitae. B. bassiana at 109 spores/ ml on B. dorsalis was found to cause 70%, 80% and 90% mortality on fourth, fifth and sixth day. LC50 values of B. bassiana on B. dorsalis were 7.0 x 108, 2.0 x 107, 5.0 x 106 spores/ ml on third, fourth and fifth day ,respectively . Formulation of P. lilacinus as wettable powder and granules and B. bassiana as wettable powder, were also prepared and their efficacy was tested on hosts. (author)

  13. 75 FR 12961 - Regulation of the Interstate Movement of Lemons from Areas Quarantined for Mediterranean Fruit Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... Mediterranean Fruit Fly AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are amending the list of regulated articles in our domestic fruit fly quarantine regulations. The... commercial packinghouses are not regulated articles for Mediterranean fruit fly. We are amending...

  14. Whole genome sequencing of the Braconid parasitoid wasp Fopius arisanus, an important biocontrol agent of pest Tepritid fruit flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The braconid wasp Fopius arisanus (Sonan) is an important biological control agent of tropical and subtropical pest fruit flies including two important global pests, the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), and the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis}). The goal of this study was to dev...

  15. Area-wide suppression of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, and the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Kamuela, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Piñero, Jaime C; Mau, Ronald F L; Jang, Eric B; Klungness, Lester M; McInnis, Donald O; Harris, Ernest B; McQuate, Grant T; Bautista, Renato C; Wong, Lyle

    2010-01-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service initiated an area-wide fruit fly management program in Hawaii in 2000. The first demonstration site was established in Kamuela, Hawaii, USA. This paper documents suppression of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in a 40 km2 area containing urban, rural and agricultural zones during a 6 year period. The suppression techniques included sanitation, GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait sprays, male annihilation, Biolure traps, and parasitoids against C. capitata and B. dorsalis. In addition, small numbers of sterile males were released against B. dorsalis. Substantial reductions in fruit infestation levels were achieved for both species (90.7 and 60.7% for C. capitata and B. dorsalis, respectively) throughout the treatment period. Fruit fly captures in the 40 km2 treatment area were significantly lower during the 6 year period than those recorded in three non-treated areas. The strategy of combining suppression techniques in an area-wide approach is discussed.

  16. Indigenous weaver ants and fruit fly control in Tanzanian smallholder mango production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Nina; Offenberg, Joachim; Msogoya, Theodosy

    2016-01-01

    mango growers in Tanzania, where typical practice is to harvestmature, but not ripe, fruits for local sale. Initial interviews with growers provide an estimate of 10-25% crop losses due to fruit fly infestation and no strong perception of any significant impact of weaver ant colonisation on these losses....... However, direct observation shows a reduction in fruit fly landings on fruits in the presence of ants, confirming earlier observations, but analysis of volatile emissions from fruits using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy has not identified compounds that consistently reflect the presence of weaver...

  17. Effect of plant chemicals on the behavior of the Mediterranean fruit fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulos, N.T., E-mail: nikopap@uth.g [University of Thessaly (Greece). Dept. of Crop Production and Rural Environment. Lab. of Entomology and Agricultural Zoology; Kouloussis, N.A.; Katsoyannos, B.I. [University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece). School of Agriculture

    2006-07-01

    A review of current information on the relation between plant chemicals and the Mediterranean fruit fly is presented. The influence of age and adult physiology on the response of med flies to plant chemicals is studied. The effect of plant chemicals on med fly behavior during host finding, mating and oviposition is analysed. The possible influence of plant chemicals on the dispersion patterns and spatial distribution of the fly is also addressed. (MAC)

  18. Population dynamics, distribution, and species diversity of fruit flies on cucurbits in Kashmir Valley, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganie, S A; Khan, Z H; Ahangar, R A; Bhat, H A; Hussain, Barkat

    2013-01-01

    Given the economic importance of cucurbits and the losses incurred by fruit fly infestation, the population dynamics of fruit flies in cucurbit crops and the influence of abiotic parameters, such as temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, and total sunshine hours per day on the fruit fly population were studied. The study was carried out at six locations; in district Srinagar the locations were Batmaloo, Shalimar, and Dal, while in district Budgam the locations were Chadoora, Narkara, and Bugam (Jammu and Kashmir, India). Various cucurbit crops, such as cucumber, bottle gourd, ridge gourd and bitter gourd, were selected for the study. With regard to locations, mean fruit fly population was highest (6.09, 4.55, 3.87, and 3.60 flies/trap/week) at Batamaloo and Chadoora (4.73, 3.93, 2.73, and 2.73 flies/trap/week) on cucumber, bottle gourd, ridge gourd, and bitter gourd, respectively. The population of fruit flies was significantly correlated with the minimum and maximum temperature. The maximum species diversity of fruit flies was 0.511, recorded in Chadoora. Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was the most predominant species in both Srinagar and Budgam, followed by B. dorsalis (Hendel) and B. tau (Walker), while B. scutellaris (Bezzi) was found only in Chadoora. Results of the present investigation may be utilized in developing a sustainable pest management strategy in the agroecological system.

  19. Marked Genetic Differentiation between Western Iberian and Italic Populations of the Olive Fly: Southern France as an Intermediate Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asch, Barbara; Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Rei, Fernando Trindade; da Costa, Luís Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most important pest affecting the olive industry, to which it is estimated to cause average annual losses in excess of one billion dollars. As with other insects with a wide distribution, it is generally accepted that the understanding of B. oleae population structure and dynamics is fundamental for the design and implementation of effective monitoring and control strategies. However, and despite important advances in the past decade, a clear picture of B. oleae's population structure is still lacking. In the Mediterranean basin, where more than 95% of olive production is concentrated, evidence from several studies suggests the existence of three distinct sub-populations, but the geographical limits of their distributions, and the level of interpenetration and gene flow among them remain ill-characterized. Here we use mitochondrial haplotype analysis to show that one of the Mediterranean mitochondrial lineages displays geographically correlated substructure and demonstrate that Italic populations, though markedly distinct from their Iberian and Levantine counterparts are more diverse than previously described. Finally, we show that this distinction does not result from extant hypothetical geographic limits imposed by the Alps or the Pyrenees nor, more generally, does it result from any sharp boundary, as intermixing is observed in a broad area, albeit at variable levels. Instead, Bayesian phylogeographic analysis suggests the interplay between isolation-mediated differentiation during glacial periods and bi-directional dispersal and population intermixing in the interglacials has played a major role in shaping current olive fly population structure.

  20. Marked Genetic Differentiation between Western Iberian and Italic Populations of the Olive Fly: Southern France as an Intermediate Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara van Asch

    Full Text Available The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most important pest affecting the olive industry, to which it is estimated to cause average annual losses in excess of one billion dollars. As with other insects with a wide distribution, it is generally accepted that the understanding of B. oleae population structure and dynamics is fundamental for the design and implementation of effective monitoring and control strategies. However, and despite important advances in the past decade, a clear picture of B. oleae's population structure is still lacking. In the Mediterranean basin, where more than 95% of olive production is concentrated, evidence from several studies suggests the existence of three distinct sub-populations, but the geographical limits of their distributions, and the level of interpenetration and gene flow among them remain ill-characterized. Here we use mitochondrial haplotype analysis to show that one of the Mediterranean mitochondrial lineages displays geographically correlated substructure and demonstrate that Italic populations, though markedly distinct from their Iberian and Levantine counterparts are more diverse than previously described. Finally, we show that this distinction does not result from extant hypothetical geographic limits imposed by the Alps or the Pyrenees nor, more generally, does it result from any sharp boundary, as intermixing is observed in a broad area, albeit at variable levels. Instead, Bayesian phylogeographic analysis suggests the interplay between isolation-mediated differentiation during glacial periods and bi-directional dispersal and population intermixing in the interglacials has played a major role in shaping current olive fly population structure.

  1. Marked Genetic Differentiation between Western Iberian and Italic Populations of the Olive Fly: Southern France as an Intermediate Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asch, Barbara; Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Rei, Fernando Trindade; da Costa, Luís Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most important pest affecting the olive industry, to which it is estimated to cause average annual losses in excess of one billion dollars. As with other insects with a wide distribution, it is generally accepted that the understanding of B. oleae population structure and dynamics is fundamental for the design and implementation of effective monitoring and control strategies. However, and despite important advances in the past decade, a clear picture of B. oleae's population structure is still lacking. In the Mediterranean basin, where more than 95% of olive production is concentrated, evidence from several studies suggests the existence of three distinct sub-populations, but the geographical limits of their distributions, and the level of interpenetration and gene flow among them remain ill-characterized. Here we use mitochondrial haplotype analysis to show that one of the Mediterranean mitochondrial lineages displays geographically correlated substructure and demonstrate that Italic populations, though markedly distinct from their Iberian and Levantine counterparts are more diverse than previously described. Finally, we show that this distinction does not result from extant hypothetical geographic limits imposed by the Alps or the Pyrenees nor, more generally, does it result from any sharp boundary, as intermixing is observed in a broad area, albeit at variable levels. Instead, Bayesian phylogeographic analysis suggests the interplay between isolation-mediated differentiation during glacial periods and bi-directional dispersal and population intermixing in the interglacials has played a major role in shaping current olive fly population structure. PMID:25951107

  2. Effects of harvest date, irrigation level, cultivar type and fruit water content on olive mill wastewater generated by a laboratory scale 'Abencor' milling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviani, I; Raviv, M; Hadar, Y; Saadi, I; Dag, A; Ben-Gal, A; Yermiyahu, U; Zipori, I; Laor, Y

    2012-03-01

    Olive mill wastewaters (OMW) were obtained at laboratory scale by milling olives from four cultivars grown at different irrigation levels and harvested at different times. Samples were compared based on wastewater quantity, pH, suspended matter, salinity, organic load, total phenols, NPK, and phytotoxicity. Principal component analysis discriminated between harvest times, regardless of olive cultivar, indicating substantial influence of fruit ripeness on OMW characteristics. OMW properties were affected both by the composition and the extraction efficiency of fruit water. As the fruit water content increased, the concentrations of solutes in the fruit water decreased, but the original fruit water composed a larger portion of the total wastewater volume. These contradicting effects resulted in lack of correlation between fruit water content and OMW properties. The significant effects shown for fruit ripeness, irrigation and cultivar on OMW characteristics indicate that olive horticultural conditions should be considered in future OMW management.

  3. Evaluatingthe ChangesinSome Physical and Chemical Properties of Olive Fruit during Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    roohallah montaghemi rad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The maintenance of the quality of fresh produce is still a major challenge for the consumers. The most important qualitative attributes contributing to the marketability of fresh fruit a reappearance, color, texture, flavor, nutritional value and microbial safety. Storage conditions of product after harvest and storage duration are important factors with specific effect on products qualitativeproperties such as acidity, soluble solids materials, phenolic compounds and density. The amount of soluble solids materials is an important qualitative factor that is directly related to fruit quality and ripening.The existence of phenolic compounds, phenol absorption and changes phenol in product has caused changes in color. Shape, size, arithmetic mean diameter, geometric mean diameter, mass, volume, density, and sphericity coefficient are some of the physical properties of products that are crucial to analyze the behavior of matter in the handling.Furthermore, adequate knowledge about the physical properties of the products is of high importance in machines design, transportation and processing of product. Materials and Methods: In this study, two types of olives, which were bitter and sweeten with 1.5%NaOHbefore the storage, were collected and their physical properties (length, width, thickness, arithmetic and geometric mean diameter, sphericity coefficient, mass, volume, density and primary moisture were evaluated. Then, tostudy the effect of storage duration,the sweetened olives were stored at two temperatures (25℃ and 4℃temperature of the refrigerator for 3 months,and during this period, sampling was performed at 10-dayintervals and the amount of total acidity (TA was determined by diluting each 1 ml aliquot of strawberry juice in 10 ml distilled water and then titrated to pH 8.1 using 0.1 N NaOH, total soluble solids materials (TSS was determined by a handheld refractometer device and expressed as ° Brix, phenolic compounds and

  4. Comparative 454 pyrosequencing of transcripts from two olive genotypes during fruit development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiusano Maria

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite its primary economic importance, genomic information on olive tree is still lacking. 454 pyrosequencing was used to enrich the very few sequence data currently available for the Olea europaea species and to identify genes involved in expression of fruit quality traits. Results Fruits of Coratina, a widely cultivated variety characterized by a very high phenolic content, and Tendellone, an oleuropein-lacking natural variant, were used as starting material for monitoring the transcriptome. Four different cDNA libraries were sequenced, respectively at the beginning and at the end of drupe development. A total of 261,485 reads were obtained, for an output of about 58 Mb. Raw sequence data were processed using a four step pipeline procedure and data were stored in a relational database with a web interface. Conclusion Massively parallel sequencing of different fruit cDNA collections has provided large scale information about the structure and putative function of gene transcripts accumulated during fruit development. Comparative transcript profiling allowed the identification of differentially expressed genes with potential relevance in regulating the fruit metabolism and phenolic content during ripening.

  5. Ecotoxicology of pesticides on natural enemies of olive groves. Potential of ecdysone agonists for controlling Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Pesticide applications are still one of the most common control methods against the main olive grove pests and diseases: the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), the olive moth, Prays oleae (Bernard), the black scale, Saissetia oleae (Olivier), and the olive leaf spot, caused by the fungus Spilocaea oleagina Fries. However, and because the new pesticide legislation is aimed at an integrated pest and disease management, it is still important to evaluate and to know the ecotoxicology of p...

  6. Influence of habitat pattern on orientation during host fruit location in the tomato fruit fly, Neoceratitis cyanescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brévault, T; Quilici, S

    2007-12-01

    Fruit flies have evolved mechanisms using olfactory and visual signals to find and recognize suitable host plants. The objective of the present study was to determine how habitat patterns may assist fruit flies in locating host plants and fruit. The tomato fruit fly, Neoceratitis cyanescens (Bezzi), was chosen as an example of a specialized fruit fly, attacking plants of the Solanaceae family. A series of experiments was conducted in an outdoor field cage wherein flies were released and captured on sticky orange and yellow spheres displayed in pairs within or above potted host or non-host plants. Bright orange spheres mimicking host fruit were significantly more attractive than yellow spheres only when placed within the canopy of host plants and not when either within non-host plants or above both types of plants. Additional experiments combining sets of host and non-host plants in the same cage, or spraying leaf extract of host plant (bug weed) on non-host plants showed that volatile cues emitted by the foliage of host plants may influence the visual response of flies in attracting mature females engaged in a searching behaviour for a laying site and in assisting them to find the host fruit. Moreover, the response was specific to mature females with a high oviposition drive because starved mature females, immature females and males showed no significant preference for orange spheres. Olfactory signals emitted by the host foliage could be an indicator of an appropriate habitat, leading flies to engage in searching for a visual image.

  7. Interaction between visual and olfactory cues during host finding in the tomato fruit fly Neoceratitis cyanescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brévault, Thierry; Quilici, Serge

    2010-03-01

    Herbivorous insects searching for a host plant need to integrate a sequence of multimodal sensory inputs. We conducted a series of no-choice experiments in a laboratory wind tunnel to examine the behavioral response of the specialist fruit fly, Neoceratitis cyanescens (Diptera: Tephritidae), to host visual and olfactory stimuli presented singly or in combination (e.g., colored fruit model with or without host fruit odor). We also studied the influence of wind flow, age, and sex on the response of flies. In two-choice experiments, we evaluated the ability of mature females to discriminate between two fruit models emitting host vs. non-host fruit odor or clean air. Neoceratitis cyanescens mature females can use independently or interactively olfactory and visual stimuli to locate their host, whereas immature females and males respond primarily to host fruit odor. In the absence of wind, mature females mainly use visual information to locate the host fruit. In wind, host fruit odor significantly increases the probability and speed of locating the host fruit. In a two-choice situation between two bright orange spheres, flies accurately detected the sphere emitting host fruit odor vs. non-host fruit odor or odorless air. Nevertheless, they preferred to land on the bright orange sphere when the sphere emitting host fruit odor was blue. Furthermore, when odor source and fruit model were spatially decoupled (90 or 180 degrees ), >50% flies that landed on the fruit model initially performed an oriented flight toward the odor source, then turned back to the fruit model while in flight or after one landing, thus suggesting visual information to be the ultimate indicator of host fruit.

  8. Grapefruit as a host for the West Indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena Tarshis; Robacker, David

    2011-02-01

    The most common hosts for the West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are fruit in the family Anacardiaceae (mango [Mangifera L.] and mombin [Spondias L.] species). However, similar to many of the tropical fruit flies of major economic importance, this species attacks several other families of crop fruit, including Annonaceae (cherimoya, Annona cherimola Mill.), Myrtaceae (guava, Psidium L.), Oxalidaceae (carambola, Averrhoa carambola L.), Passifloraceae (granadilla, Passiflora quadrangularis Mill.), and Sapotaceae [mamey sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Steam]. In the family Rutaceae the economically important genus Citrus has been reported and until recently considered a host for this fruit fly. In this study, we reviewed the taxonomy of A. obliqua, tested specific chemicals that may inhibit oviposition, compared egg-to-adult survival of A. obliqua on preferred hosts and on grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.), and measured fruit tissue-specific developmental rates of A. obliqua and the known citrus breeding Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), from egg to pupae. Our literature review shows much confusion concerning the taxonomy of this and related Anastrepha species, including synonymies and confusion with other species. The deterrent effect of the highest concentration of flavonoids for oviposition, although significant, was not absolute. Experiments carried out under laboratory conditions showed 15-40 times greater survival of A. ludens (whose preferred hosts include Rutaceae) on grapefruit compared with A. obliqua for both tree attached and harvested fruit. Experiments of survival of developing stages over time showed that the two species oviposit into different tissues in the fruit, and mortality is much higher for the West Indian fruit fly in the flavedo and albedo of the fruit compared with the Mexican fruit fly.

  9. Multiplex PCR in determination of Opiinae parasitoids of fruit flies, Bactrocera sp., infesting star fruit and guava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, S; Ibrahim, N J; Md-Zain, B M; Idris, A B; Suhana, Y; Roff, M N; Yaakop, S

    2014-01-23

    Malaysia is a tropical country that produces commercial fruits, including star fruits, Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidales: Oxalidaceae), and guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae). There is a high demand for these fruits, and they are planted for both local consumption and export purposes. Unfortunately, there has been a gradual reduction of these fruits, which has been shown to be related to fruit fly infestation, especially from the Bactrocera species. Most parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) are known as parasitoids of fruit fly larvae. In this study, star fruits and guavas infested by fruit fry larvae were collected from the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute. The parasitized larvae were reared under laboratory conditions until the emergence of adult parasitoids. Multiplex PCR was performed to determine the braconid species using two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b. Two benefits of using multiplex PCR are the targeted bands can be amplified simultaneously using the same reaction and the identification process of the braconid species can be done accurately and rapidly. The species of fruit flies were confirmed using the COI marker. The results obtained from our study show that Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Fopius arisanus (Sonan), and Pysttalia incisi (Silvestri) were parasitoids associated with Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infested star fruits. Fopius arisanus was also the parasitoid associated with Bactrocera papayae (Drew and Hancock) infested guavas. Maximum parsimony was been constructed in Opiinae species to compare tree resolution between these two genes in differentiating among closely related species. The confirmation of the relationship between braconids and fruit fly species is very important, recognized as preliminary data, and highly necessary in biological control programs. This is an

  10. Transcriptome analysis of the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Mao Shen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel, is one of the most economically important pests in the world, causing serious damage to fruit production. However, lack of genetic information on this organism is an obstacle to understanding the mechanisms behind its development and its ability to resist insecticides. Analysis of the B. dorsalis transcriptome and its expression profile data is essential to extending the genetic information resources on this species, providing a shortcut that will support studies on B. dorsalis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed de novo assembly of a transcriptome using short read sequencing technology (Illumina. The results generated 484,628 contigs, 70,640 scaffolds, and 49,804 unigenes. Of those unigenes, 27,455 (55.13% matched known proteins in the NCBI database, as determined by BLAST search. Clusters of orthologous groups (COG, gene orthology (GO, and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG annotations were performed to better understand the functions of these unigenes. Genes related to insecticide resistance were analyzed in additional detail. Digital gene expression (DGE libraries showed differences in gene expression profiles at different developmental stages (eggs, third-instar larvae, pupae, and adults. To confirm the DGE results, the expression profiles of six randomly selected genes were analyzed. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This transcriptome greatly improves our genetic understanding of B. dorsalis and makes a huge number of gene sequences available for further study, including both genes of known importance and genes of unknown function. The DGE data provide comprehensive insight into gene expression profiles at different developmental stages. This facilitates the study of the role of each gene in the developmental process and in insecticide resistance.

  11. Transcriptome Analysis of the Oriental Fruit Fly (Bactrocera dorsalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong-Bo; Yang, Wen-Jia; Jia, Fu-Xian; Hu, Fei; Cong, Lin; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2011-01-01

    Background The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is one of the most economically important pests in the world, causing serious damage to fruit production. However, lack of genetic information on this organism is an obstacle to understanding the mechanisms behind its development and its ability to resist insecticides. Analysis of the B. dorsalis transcriptome and its expression profile data is essential to extending the genetic information resources on this species, providing a shortcut that will support studies on B. dorsalis. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed de novo assembly of a transcriptome using short read sequencing technology (Illumina). The results generated 484,628 contigs, 70,640 scaffolds, and 49,804 unigenes. Of those unigenes, 27,455 (55.13%) matched known proteins in the NCBI database, as determined by BLAST search. Clusters of orthologous groups (COG), gene orthology (GO), and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) annotations were performed to better understand the functions of these unigenes. Genes related to insecticide resistance were analyzed in additional detail. Digital gene expression (DGE) libraries showed differences in gene expression profiles at different developmental stages (eggs, third-instar larvae, pupae, and adults). To confirm the DGE results, the expression profiles of six randomly selected genes were analyzed. Conclusion/Significance This transcriptome greatly improves our genetic understanding of B. dorsalis and makes a huge number of gene sequences available for further study, including both genes of known importance and genes of unknown function. The DGE data provide comprehensive insight into gene expression profiles at different developmental stages. This facilitates the study of the role of each gene in the developmental process and in insecticide resistance. PMID:22195006

  12. A Plain English Map of the Chromosomes of the Fruit Fly Drosophila Melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Susan

    1996-01-01

    Presents a plain English map of the chromosomes of the fruit fly that contains genes from very different kinds of studies. Represents the work of nearly a century by thousands of researchers using a tremendous variety of techniques. (JRH)

  13. Studies Shed Light on Cross-modal Memory Facilitation of Fruit Flies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ As a result of their threeyear studies in Drosophilae (fruit flies),CAS scientists reveal that the memory and learning in the insect could be enhanced by stimuli combining olfactory (or smell) and visual signals.

  14. Wrinkled Peas and White-Eyed Fruit Flies: The Molecular Basis of Two Classical Genetic Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoile, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on bridging the gap between classical and molecular genetics for two traits: wrinkled seeds in garden peas and white eye color in fruit flies. Discusses the molecular details of the underlying basis of these traits. Contains 15 references. (JRH)

  15. Fruit fly infestation in mango: A threat to the Horticultural sector in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    conducted in the major mango producing areas of the country. Four fruit fly ... recognised worldwide as the most ... the developed countries has been severely ..... Solanacea spp. Yes. Yes. Banana. Yes. No. Cherimoya. Annona cherimola.

  16. A normative theory of forgetting: lessons from the fruit fly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanni Brea

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent experiments revealed that the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has a dedicated mechanism for forgetting: blocking the G-protein Rac leads to slower and activating Rac to faster forgetting. This active form of forgetting lacks a satisfactory functional explanation. We investigated optimal decision making for an agent adapting to a stochastic environment where a stimulus may switch between being indicative of reward or punishment. Like Drosophila, an optimal agent shows forgetting with a rate that is linked to the time scale of changes in the environment. Moreover, to reduce the odds of missing future reward, an optimal agent may trade the risk of immediate pain for information gain and thus forget faster after aversive conditioning. A simple neuronal network reproduces these features. Our theory shows that forgetting in Drosophila appears as an optimal adaptive behavior in a changing environment. This is in line with the view that forgetting is adaptive rather than a consequence of limitations of the memory system.

  17. Actin Genes in the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis Capitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymer, D. S.; Anleitner, J. E.; He, M.; Thanaphum, S.; Saul, S. H.; Ivy, J.; Houtchens, K.; Arcangeli, L.

    1990-01-01

    We have undertaken the study of actin gene organization and expression in the genome of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata. Actin genes have been extensively characterized previously in a wide range of eukaryotic organisms, and they have valuable properties for comparative studies. These genes are typically highly conserved in coding regions, represented in multiple copies per genome and regulated in expression during development. We have isolated a gene in the medfly using the cloned Drosophila melanogaster 5C actin gene as a probe. This medfly gene detects abundant messages present during late larval and late pupal development as well as in thoracic and leg tissue preparations from newly emerged adults. This pattern of expression is consistent with what has been seen for actin genes in other organisms. Using either the D. melanogaster 5C actin gene or the medfly gene as a probe identifies five common cross reacting Eco RI fragments in genomic DNA, but only under less than fully stringent hybridization conditions. PMID:1692797

  18. Mummified fruit as a source of inoculum and disease dynamics of olive anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Juan; Trapero, Antonio

    2012-10-01

    Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum spp., is a destructive disease of olive fruit worldwide. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of agronomical and weather factors on inoculum production using detached olive fruit and on the development of epidemics in the field. The pathogen produced very large numbers of conidia on rotted (>1.87 × 10(8) conidia/fruit) or mummified (>2.16 × 10(4) conidia/fruit) fruit under optimal conditions. On mummified fruit, conidial production was highest on mummies incubated at 20 to 25°C and 96 h of wetness. Repeated washings of mummies reduced conidial production until it was very low after five washings. When mummies were placed in the tree canopy, conidial production was not reduced after 6 months (May to October); but, when they were held on the soil or buried in the soil, conidial production comparatively decreased up to 10,000 times. Anthracnose epidemics on susceptible 'Hojiblanca' and 'Picudo' during three seasons (2005-08) were influenced by rainfall, temperature, and fruit ripening, and had three main phases: the latent period (May to October); the onset of the epidemic, which coincided with the beginning of fruit ripening (early November); and disease development, which was predicted by the Weibull model (November to March). No epidemics developed on the susceptible cultivars during the driest season (2007-08) or on the resistant 'Picual' olive during any of the three seasons. These results provide the basis for a forecasting system of olive anthracnose which could greatly improve the management of this disease.

  19. Habitat-specific flight period in the cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cingulata (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Luís A F; Isaacs, Rufus; Gut, Larry J

    2007-12-01

    Flight periods of the cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cingulata (Loew), were compared in the major sweet and tart cherry-growing regions of Michigan, among neglected orchards, managed orchards, and natural areas containing the ancestral host, black cherry. Traps were deployed from early June to late September 2005 and 2006. Captures indicated that cherry fruit fly has an early flight (June-July) in neglected orchards, a mid-season flight peaking immediately after harvest (June-August) in managed orchards, and an extended flight covering most of the season (June-September) in natural areas. We found that the period of fruit infestation mirrored the flight period in neglected and managed orchards. In natural areas, we found infestation late in the season only. The relative emergence periods for adults reared from pupae collected from the three habitats and maintained under the same conditions coincided with adult flight periods for each habitat. We also studied factors related to fruit availability that may have a role in shaping the flight periods. Fruit abundance decreased rapidly early in the season in neglected orchards, whereas in managed orchards, fruit left after harvest remained on the trees until late August. Measurements of fruit size and skin firmness revealed that fly activity in neglected and managed orchards began immediately after fruit increased in size and skin firmness decreased, whereas in natural areas, the flight began before fruit matured. In managed orchards, fruit harvest and insecticide sprays likely maintain the late flight period of resident fly populations by preventing the use of fruit earlier in the season. However, a significant proportion of these resident flies may still emerge before harvest and increase the risk of costly fruit infestation.

  20. Control of Cherry Leaf Spot and Cherry Fruit Fly at Sour Cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria BOROVINOVA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were made in the experimental sour cherry orchard from the Institute of Agriculture, Kyustendil, Bulgaria, during the period 2010-2014, in order to compare conventional and integrated sour cherry protection against cherry leaf spot and cherry fruit fly. Two variants were investigated, with two different treatment approaches for the control of cherry leaf spot and cherry fruit fly. Variant 1 – cherry leaf spot was controlled by protective treatments with dodin and tebuconazole + trifloxystrobin and cherry fruit fly was controlled by treatments with deltametrin and thiacloprid, independently of density. Variant 2 - cherry leaf spot was controlled by post-infection (curative treatments with tebuconazole + trifloxystrobin and cherry fruit fly was controlled by treatments based on biological threshold: 10-11 cherry fruit fly females caught in traps up to the moment for chemical treatment. It was established that Blumeriella japii can be successfully controlled by post-infection treatments and by this the number of insecticide treatments was reduced. The treatments against cherry fruit fly can be avoided or reduced when the attack control is based on the biological threshold established in the studied area.

  1. Raspberry Ketone Trifluoroacetate, a new attractant for the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt))

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni, Q-fly) is a major agricultural pest in eastern Australia. The deployment of male lures comprises an important component of several control and detection strategies for this pest. A novel fluorinated analog of raspberry ketone, raspberry ketone trifluoroac...

  2. Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Studies on Ceratitis capitata, a world fruit pest, can aid the implementation of control programs by determining the plants with higher vulnerability to attacks and plants able to sustain their population in areas of fly distribution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of eight tropical fruits on the following biological and behavioral parameters of C. capitata: emergence percentage, life cycle duration, adult size, egg production, longevity, fecundity, egg viability, and oviposition acceptance. The fruits tested were: acerola (Malpighia glabra L., cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L., guava (Psidium guajava L., soursop (Annona muricata L., yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L., Malay apple (Syzygium malaccense L., and umbu (Spondias tuberosa L.. The biological parameters were obtained by rearing the recently hatched larvae on each of the fruit kinds. Acceptance of fruits for oviposition experiment was assessed using no-choice tests, as couples were exposed to two pieces of the same fruit. The best performances were obtained with guava, soursop, and star fruit. Larvae reared on cashew and acerola fruits had regular performances. No adults emerged from yellow mombin, Malay apple, or umbu. Fruit species did not affect adult longevity, female fecundity, or egg viability. Guava, soursop, and acerola were preferred for oviposition, followed by star fruit, Malay apple, cashew, and yellow mombin. Oviposition did not occur on umbu. In general, fruits with better larval development were also more accepted for oviposition.

  3. A Systems Approach to Mitigate Oriental Fruit Fly Risk in ‘Sharwil’ Avocados Exported From Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avocados, Persea americana Miller, grown in Hawaii cannot be exported to the United States mainland without quarantine treatment for melon fly, oriental fruit fly, and Mediterranean fruit fly. The most widely grown cultivar of avocado in Hawaii is ‘Sharwil’. ‘Sharwil’, like other avocado varieties, ...

  4. Reproductive maturity of cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in managed and natural habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Luís A F; Gut, Larry J; Isaacs, Rufus; Alston, Diane G

    2009-08-01

    We studied the timing of reproductive maturity of cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cingulata (Loew), a key pest of sweet and tart cherries in the eastern United States. To determine when cherry fruit fly females become reproductively mature in managed and natural habitats, we deployed traps in sweet and tart cherry orchards and nearby stands of the ancestral host tree, black cherry. Flies were removed from the traps and females were dissected to determine the presence of fully developed eggs. We found that capture of reproductively mature female flies occurred earlier in orchards that are not sprayed with insecticides than in sprayed orchards or in black cherry tree sites. In addition, the gap between the flights of immature and mature females in unmanaged sweet or tart cherry orchards was shorter than in managed orchards or black cherry tree sites. We also determined fruit color, size, and skin hardness to characterize the progression of fruit maturity. We found that fruit became mature earlier in sweet and tart cherry orchards than in black cherry tree sites. This study indicates that the timing of female reproductive maturity is plastic and varies among cherry fruit fly populations present in distinct habitats. Variation in the timing of reproductive maturity is related to the fruit maturity period of distinct host plant species and to orchard management.

  5. Integrated Management of European Cherry Fruit Fly Rhagoletis cerasi (L.): Situation in Switzerland and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Claudia; Grunder, Jürg

    2012-10-16

    The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a highly destructive pest. The low tolerance for damaged fruit requires preventive insecticide treatments for a marketable crop. The phase-out of old insecticides threatens cherry production throughout the European Union (EU). Consequently, new management techniques and tools are needed. With the increasing number of dwarf tree orchards covered against rain to avoid fruit splitting, crop netting has become a viable, cost-effective method of cherry fruit fly control. Recently, a biocontrol method using the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has been developed for organic agriculture. However, for most situations, there is still a lack of efficient and environmentally sound insecticides to control this pest. This review summarizes the literature from over one hundred years of research on R. cerasi with focus on the biology and history of cherry fruit fly control as well as on antagonists and potential biocontrol organisms. We will present the situation of cherry fruit fly regulation in different European countries, give recommendations for cherry fruit fly control, show gaps in knowledge and identify future research opportunities.

  6. Integrated Management of European Cherry Fruit Fly Rhagoletis cerasi (L.: Situation in Switzerland and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürg Grunder

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L. (Diptera: Tephritidae, is a highly destructive pest. The low tolerance for damaged fruit requires preventive insecticide treatments for a marketable crop. The phase-out of old insecticides threatens cherry production throughout the European Union (EU. Consequently, new management techniques and tools are needed. With the increasing number of dwarf tree orchards covered against rain to avoid fruit splitting, crop netting has become a viable, cost-effective method of cherry fruit fly control. Recently, a biocontrol method using the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has been developed for organic agriculture. However, for most situations, there is still a lack of efficient and environmentally sound insecticides to control this pest. This review summarizes the literature from over one hundred years of research on R. cerasi with focus on the biology and history of cherry fruit fly control as well as on antagonists and potential biocontrol organisms. We will present the situation of cherry fruit fly regulation in different European countries, give recommendations for cherry fruit fly control, show gaps in knowledge and identify future research opportunities.

  7. Seasonal occurrence of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 (Diptera: Tephritidae in southern Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Mohammed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Population fluctuations of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratitis capitata, were investigated between 1999 and 2001 at several locations representing fruit production areas in the southern part of Syria (Damascus Ghota, Zabadani, Sargaiah, Rankus, Orneh and Ain Al-Arab. Medfly adults were monitored weekly all year around using Jackson traps baited with trimedlure dispensers. Larvae were also sampled in Damascus Ghota by collecting fruits from ripe or ripening fruit trees and recording the number of larvae emerged from these fruits. In addition, suspected overwintering refuges were sampled at weekly intervals during the three coldest months of the year (December – February and the number of collected larvae was recorded. The results of trap catches and fruit sampling studies showed a similar pattern of occurrence of medfly populations in the study areas, particularly in Damascus Ghota, during the three years of the study. In Damascus Ghota, flies were caught continuously from early June to late December with some variability between years. Two distinct periods of high fly activity were observed: the first one occurred in August and the second in November with a much higher amplitude. In general, seasonal fluctuations in the pattern of occurrence were influenced by differences in temperature and abundance of preferred host fruits. Traps on fig Ficus carica and oriental persimmon Diospyros kaki trees caught the highest numbers of flies, and fruits collected from these trees showed the highest level of infestation, reaching 100% for fig fruit late in the season. Sampling fruits (in Damascus Ghota from trees during the three coldest months of the year showed that a small population of medfly larvae was able to survive winter conditions in prickly pear Opuntia vulgaris fruit left on the trees. In the other areas of the study (Zabadani, Sargaiah, Rankus, Orneh and Ain Al-Arab, only a few flies were caught.

  8. Oil accumulation in intact olive fruits measured by near infrared spectroscopy-acousto-optically tunable filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellincontro, Andrea; Caruso, Giovanni; Mencarelli, Fabio; Gucci, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    A field experiment was conducted to test the reliability of the near infrared spectroscopy (NIR)-acousto-optically tunable filter (AOTF) method to measure mesocarp oil content in vivo against nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) determinations using three different olive cultivars at different stages of ripening. In the partial least squares model carried out for the cultivar 'Arbequina', the coefficient of determination in calibration (R(2)c) was 0.991, while the coefficient of determination in cross-validation (R(2)cv) was 0.979. For the cultivar 'Frantoio' the indexes were 0.982 and 0.971, respectively; while for the cultivar 'Leccino' R(2)c was 0.977 and R(2)cv was 0.965. Finally, for the combined model (sum of the three varieties) these indexes were 0.921 and 0.903, respectively. The residual predictive deviation (RPD) ratio was insufficient for the predictive model of cultivar 'Leccino' only (1.98), whereas in the other cases the RPD ratios were completely sufficient, within the estimation range over 2.5-3 (2.61 in the global model, and 4.23 in the cultivar 'Frantoio'), or in describing a large capacity with values greater than 5, as in the cultivar 'Arbequina' (9.58). NIR-AOTF spectroscopy proved to be a novel, rapid and reliable method to monitor the oil accumulation process in intact olive fruits in the field. The innovative approach of coupling NIR and NMR technologies opens up new scenarios for determining the optimal time for harvesting olive trees to obtain maximum oil production. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Population fluctuation of fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae in peach and passion fruit orchards in Iraceminha, Santa Catarina

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    Sheila Alberti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was learn more about the population fluctuation of fruit flies in peach and passion fruit orchards in the municipality of Iraceminha, Santa Catarina. In order to carry out the survey, McPhail traps were set up with 10% inverted glucose from April 2006 to March 2007. Captured flies were identified at the Laboratório de Entomologia at UNOCHAPECÓ. The collected females belonged to twelve species and four genera. The adults of Anastrepha fraterculus were trapped during all seasons, with a population peak in October 2006 in the peach orchards. The population levels of Anastrepha grandis remained higher during the first five months in the passion fruit orchard. There were low infestation rates by flies of the genera Ceratitis, Blepharoneura and Tomoplagia when compared to flies of the genus Anastrepha. The results showed that the presence of flies in the orchards was associated with the availability of host fruit and not with climatic conditions.

  10. Compendium of fruit fly host information (CoFFHI), version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Compendium of Fruit Fly Host Information (CoFFHI), developed through collaborative efforts of scientists in USDA-APHIS, USDA-ARS and the Center for Integrated Pest Management (CIPM) provides centralized, comprehensive documentation of what is known worldwide about the status of fruits and vegeta...

  11. Determination of antioxidant properties of aromatic herbs, olives and fresh fruit using an enzymatic sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, L; Bonanni, A; Favero, G; Tomassetti, M

    2003-04-01

    The aim was to experimentally evaluate the antioxidant capacity of different fresh aromatic herbs (field balm, marjoram, parsley, rosemary, sage, sweet basil), several varieties of olives from Central Italy ('Carboncello', 'Rosciolo', 'Olivastro', 'Coratello', 'Leccino', 'Frantoio') and several types of fresh fruit (apple, apricot, banana, cherry, fig, grape, medlar, melon, peach, pear, pineapple, plum, water melon, yellow plum) using a superoxide dismutase (SOD) biosensor developed by the present authors. Measurements were carried out by comparing the biosensor response to the concentration of superoxide radical produced in solution using a xanthine/xanthine oxidase system in the presence and absence of the antioxidant sample considered. Tests carried out on different samples of fruit and aromatic herbs showed that the homogenised samples had better antioxidant properties than the centrifuged ones (obtained by centrifuging the homogenate), which sometimes gave extremely low antioxidant capacity values. The reliability of the proposed method was checked by comparing the trend of some experimental results found using the SOD biosensor with those reported in the literature obtained using the classic (ORAC) method. The precision of this method of analysis was found to be good for samples of aromatic herbs (RSD% fruit samples (RSD%

  12. Evidence for potential of managing some African fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) using the mango fruit fly host-marking pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachigamba, Donald L; Ekesi, Sunday; Ndungu, Mary W; Gitonga, Linus M; Teal, Peter E A; Torto, Baldwyn

    2012-12-01

    We investigated conspecific and heterospecific oviposition host discrimination among four economically important fruit fly pests of mango in Africa (Ceratitis capitata, Wiedemann; C. fasciventris, Bezzi; C. rosa, Karsch, and C. cosyra, Walker) with regard to host-marking behavior and fecal matter aqueous solutions. The objective of the study was to get insight into the potential of managing these pests using the host-marking technique. Observations were done on mango slices marked by the flies and treated with aqueous solutions of fecal matter of the flies, respectively. In both host-marking and fecal matter experiments, C. cosyra, which is the most destructive species of the four on mango, was exceptional. It only discriminated against hosts treated with its fecal matter but with lower sensitivity while C. capitata and C.fasciventris discriminated against hosts marked by it or treated with its fecal matter and with higher sensitivity. Our results provide evidence for potential of managing some of the major fruit fly species infesting mango in Africa using the host-marking pheromone of the mango fruit fly, C. cosyra.

  13. Evidence for potential of managing some african fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) using the mango fruit fly host-marking pheromone

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated conspecific and heterospecific oviposition host discrimination among four economically important fruit fly pests of mango in Africa (Ceratitis capitata, Wiedemann; C. fasciventris, Bezzi; C. rosa, Karsch, and C. cosyra, Walker) with regard to host-marking behavior and fecal matter aq...

  14. Physico-chemical characteristics of olive fruits of Turkish varieties from the province of Hatay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslan, D.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The olive fruits of four different Turkish varieties (Kargaburun, Erkence, Halhalı and Saurani from the province of Hatay which were harvested on three different occasions have been analyzed in order to determine the effects of both the nature of the cultivar and the time of harvest. Analyses of some physical properties were carried out such as fruit and pit weight, size, moisture and oil contents and instrumental color index along with some chemical properties such as individual phenolic compounds, total phenolics, DPPH radical scavenging activity and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and fatty acid composition. For all the varieties studied, oleuropein was the most abundant phenolic substance ranging from 41.39-159.73 mg/kg, for which the Saurani variety had the highest level. Saurani and Kargaburun varieties were found to possess characteristic phenolic profiles: Saurani for its high amount of oleuropein and Kargaburun for its high level of H-tyrosol. These two varieties had higher Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacities as well. Citric and succinic acids were the main organic acids determined in the olive fruits. The level of total phenolics in the olive fruits declined rapidly with a later harvest date. A general decreasing trend was also observed in the saturated fatty acid (palmitic and stearic acids concentrations of the olive oils with later harvest dates in the four varieties studied.

    Aceitunas de cuatro variedades diferentes de la provincia de Hatay en Turquía (Kargaburun, Erkence, Halhalı y Saurani fueron recogidas en tres periodos diferentes y analizadas con el fin de determinar los efectos tanto de la naturaleza de la variedad como del tiempo de la cosecha. Se llevaron a cabo las determinaciones analíticas de algunos parámetros físicos (número y peso de frutos, dimensiones, humedad, contenido de aceite e índice instrumental de color de los frutos y químicos (compuestos fenólicos individuales, fenoles totales

  15. Raspberry Ketone Trifluoroacetate, a New Attractant for the Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera Tryoni (Froggatt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siderhurst, Matthew S; Park, Soo J; Buller, Caitlyn N; Jamie, Ian M; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Jang, Eric B; Taylor, Phillip W

    2016-02-01

    Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Q-fly), is a major pest of horticultural crops in eastern Australia. Lures that attract male Q-fly are important for detection of incursions and outbreaks, monitoring of populations, and control by mass trapping and male annihilation. Cuelure, an analog of naturally occurring raspberry ketone, is the standard Q-fly lure, but it has limited efficacy compared with lures that are available for some other fruit flies such as methyl eugenol for B. dorsalis. Melolure is a more recently developed raspberry ketone analog that has shown better attraction than cuelure in some field studies but not in others. A novel fluorinated analog of raspberry ketone, raspberry ketone trifluoroacetate (RKTA), has been developed as a potential improvement on cuelure and melolure. RKTA placed on laboratory cages containing 2-week-old Q-flies elicited strong behavioral responses from males. Quantification of Q-fly responses in these cages, using digital images to estimate numbers of flies aggregated near different lures, showed RKTA attracted and arrested significantly more flies than did cuelure or melolure. RKTA shows good potential as a new lure for improved surveillance and control of Q-fly.

  16. Alcohol consumption as self-medication against blood-borne parasites in the fruit fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Neil F; Kacsoh, Balint Z; Schlenke, Todd A

    2012-03-20

    Plants and fungi often produce toxic secondary metabolites that limit their consumption, but herbivores and fungivores that evolve resistance gain access to these resources and can also gain protection against nonresistant predators and parasites. Given that Drosophila melanogaster fruit fly larvae consume yeasts growing on rotting fruit and have evolved resistance to fermentation products, we decided to test whether alcohol protects flies from one of their common natural parasites, endoparasitoid wasps. Here, we show that exposure to ethanol reduces wasp oviposition into fruit fly larvae. Furthermore, if infected, ethanol consumption by fruit fly larvae causes increased death of wasp larvae growing in the hemocoel and increased fly survival without need of the stereotypical antiwasp immune response. This multifaceted protection afforded to fly larvae by ethanol is significantly more effective against a generalist wasp than a wasp that specializes on D. melanogaster. Finally, fly larvae seek out ethanol-containing food when infected, indicating that they use alcohol as an antiwasp medicine. Although the high resistance of D. melanogaster may make it uniquely suited to exploit curative properties of alcohol, it is possible that alcohol consumption may have similar protective effects in other organisms.

  17. Augmentative Biological Control Using Parasitoids for Fruit Fly Management in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Flávio R M; Ricalde, Marcelo P

    2012-12-21

    The history of classical biological control of fruit flies in Brazil includes two reported attempts in the past 70 years. The first occurred in 1937 when an African species of parasitoid larvae (Tetrastichus giffardianus) was introduced to control the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata and other tephritids. The second occurred in September 1994 when the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, originally from Gainesville, Florida, was introduced by a Brazilian agricultural corporation (EMBRAPA) to evaluate the parasitoid's potential for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata. Although there are numerous native Brazilian fruit fly parasitoids, mass rearing of these native species is difficult. Thus, D. longicaudata was chosen due to its specificity for the family Tephritidae and its ease of laboratory rearing. In this paper we review the literature on Brazilian fruit fly biological control and suggest that those tactics can be used on a large scale, together creating a biological barrier to the introduction of new fruit fly populations, reducing the source of outbreaks and the risk of species spread, while decreasing the use of insecticides on fruit destined for domestic and foreign markets.

  18. Fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) host status determination: critical conceptual, methodological, and regulatory considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluja, Martín; Mangan, Robert L

    2008-01-01

    Although fruit fly host status determination/designation lies at the heart of strategic decisions on national and international trade of fruit and vegetables, all attempts thus far to define host plant status have been contentious and as a result long-standing disputes between commercial partners throughout the world have lingered over decades. Part of the problem is that too little effort has been devoted to understanding the underlying mechanisms involved in host plant use by fruit flies and that instead economic and political interests usually prevail. Here we review the most important evolutionary, biological, ecological, physiological, and behavioral aspects that drive host use by fruit flies, and then construct a flow diagram rooted in these fundamentals that outlines a series of steps and definitions to determine if a particular fruit or vegetable (and cultivars thereof) is a natural host, or a conditional (potential, artificial) host, or a nonhost. Along the way, we incorporate risk analysis considerations and propose that the underlying complexity determining host plant utilization by fruit flies requires a flexible systems approach capable of realistically dealing with fly/host/environment/geographic variability on a case-by-case basis.

  19. Augmentative Biological Control Using Parasitoids for Fruit Fly Management in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio R. M. Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of classical biological control of fruit flies in Brazil includes two reported attempts in the past 70 years. The first occurred in 1937 when an African species of parasitoid larvae (Tetrastichus giffardianus was introduced to control the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata and other tephritids. The second occurred in September 1994 when the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, originally from Gainesville, Florida, was introduced by a Brazilian agricultural corporation (EMBRAPA to evaluate the parasitoid’s potential for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata. Although there are numerous native Brazilian fruit fly parasitoids, mass rearing of these native species is difficult. Thus, D. longicaudata was chosen due to its specificity for the family Tephritidae and its ease of laboratory rearing. In this paper we review the literature on Brazilian fruit fly biological control and suggest that those tactics can be used on a large scale, together creating a biological barrier to the introduction of new fruit fly populations, reducing the source of outbreaks and the risk of species spread, while decreasing the use of insecticides on fruit destined for domestic and foreign markets.

  20. The Effects of an Olive Fruit Polyphenol-Enriched Yogurt on Body Composition, Blood Redox Status, Physiological and Metabolic Parameters and Yogurt Microflora

    OpenAIRE

    Kalliopi Georgakouli; Anastasios Mpesios; Demetrios Kouretas; Konstantinos Petrotos; Chrysanthi Mitsagga; Ioannis Giavasis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the effects of an olive polyphenol-enriched yogurt on yogurt microflora, as well as hematological, physiological and metabolic parameters, blood redox status and body composition. In a randomized double-blind, crossover design, 16 (6 men, 10 women) nonsmoking volunteers with non-declared pathology consumed either 400 g of olive fruit polyphenol-enriched yogurt with 50 mg of encapsulated olive polyphenols (experimental condition—EC) or 400 g of plain yogurt...

  1. Host susceptibility of citrus cultivars to Queensland fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, A C; Hamacek, E L; Smith, D; Kopittke, R A; Gu, H

    2013-04-01

    Citrus crops are considered to be relatively poor hosts for Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), as for other tephritid species. Australian citrus growers and crop consultants have reported observable differences in susceptibility of different citrus cultivars under commercial growing conditions. In this study we conducted laboratory tests and field surveys to determine susceptibility to B. tryoni of six citrus cultivars [(Eureka lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck); Navel and Valencia oranges (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck); and Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco). The host susceptibility of these citrus cultivars was quantified by a Host Susceptibility Index, which is defined as the number of adult flies produced per gram of fruit infested at a calculated rate of one egg per gram of fruit. The HSI was ranked as Murcott (0.083) > Imperial (0.052) > Navel (0.026) - Ellendale (0.020) > Valencia (0.008) > Eureka (yellow) (0.002) > Eureka (green) (0). Results of the laboratory study were in agreement with the level of field infestation in the four citrus cultivars (Eureka lemon, Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins) that were surveyed from commercial orchards under baiting treatments against fruit flies in the Central Burnett district of Queensland. Field surveys of citrus hosts from the habitats not subject to fruit fly management showed that the numbers of fruit flies produced per gram of fruit were much lower, compared with the more susceptible noncitrus hosts, such as guava (Psidium guajava L.), cherry guava (P. littorale Raddi), mulberry (Morus nigra L.), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.), and pear (Pyrus communis L.). Therefore, the major citrus crops commercially cultivated in Australia have a relatively low susceptibility to B. tryoni, with Eureka lemons being a particularly poor host for this tephritid fruit fly.

  2. Identification of host blends that attract the African invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasazin, Tibebe Dejene; Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Hillbur, Ylva; Seyoum, Emiru; Dekker, Teun

    2014-09-01

    Bactrocera invadens, an invasive fruit fly species in the Afro-tropical region belonging to the Bactrocera dorsalis complex, causes considerable damage to fruit production and productivity. We sought to find attractants from hosts of B. invadens that could serve as baits in traps for monitoring and management of this pest. The attractiveness of volatiles from four different fruit species (mango, guava, banana and orange) at two stages of ripeness (ripe or unripe) was tested in an olfactometer assay. All fruits were attractive against a clean air control. Using hexane extracts of volatile collections of fruits, we demonstrated that male flies preferred the volatiles of ripe guava and orange over unripe fruit extracts. There was a slight difference in preference between females and males; females preferred orange to guava and mango, whereas males preferred mango and guava to orange. Gas chromatography/electroantennographic detection (GC/EAD) and GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were used to identify compounds to which B. invadens antennae were sensitive. GC/EAD recordings from distal and medio-central parts of the fly antenna showed responses to a number of compounds from each fruit species, with esters dominating the responses. Synthetic blends were made for each fruit species using the shared antennally active compounds in ratios found in the extracts. In the olfactometer, B. invadens was most attracted to the banana and orange blends, followed by the mango and guava blends. The synthetic banana blend was as attractive as the volatile collection of banana, although both were less attractive than the fruit. The results demonstrate that composing attractive blends from GC/EAD-active constituents shared by host fruits can be effective for formulating attractive synthetic host mimics for generalist fruit fly species, such as B. invadens.

  3. A new bionic MAV's flapping motion based on fruit fly hovering at low Reynolds number

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Bai; Erjie Cui; Feng Li; Weijiang Zhou; Bingyan Chen

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the studies on the high unsteadyaerody namic mechanisms of the fruit fly hovering the aerodynamic advantages and disadvantages of the fruit fly flapping motion were analyzed. A new bionic flapping motion was proposed to weaken the disadvantages and maintain the advantages, it may be used in the designing and manufacturing of the micro air vehicles (MAV's). The translation of the new bionic flapping motion is the same as that of fruit fly flapping motion. However, the rotation of the new bionic flapping motion is different. It is not a pitching-up rotation as the fruit fly flapping motion, but a pitching-down rotation at the beginning and the end of a stroke. The numerical method of 3rd-order Roe scheme developed by Rogers was used to study these questions. The correctness of the numerical method and the computational program was justified by comparing the present CFD results of the fruit fly flapping motion in three modes, i.e., the advanced mode, the symmetrical mode and the delayed mode, with Dickinson's experimental results. They agreed with each other very well.Subsequently, the aerodynamic characteristics of the new bionic flapping motion in three modes were also numerically simulated, and were compared with those of the fruit fly flapping. The conclusions could be drawn that the high unsteady lift mechanism of the fruit fly hovering is also effectively utilized by this new bionic flapping. Compared with the fruit fly flapping, the unsteady drag of the new flapping decreases very much and the ratio of lift to drag increases greatly. And the great discrepancies among the mean lifts of three flapping modes of the fruit fly hovering are effectively smoothed inthe new flapping. On the other hand, this new bionic flapping motion should be realized more easily. Finally, it must bepointed out that the above conclusions were just drawn forthe hovering flapping motion. And the aerodynamic characteristics of the new bionic flapping motion in forward

  4. Estimation of populations and sterility induction in Anastrepha luden (Diptera: Tephritidae) fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo; Toledo, Jorge; Enkerlin, Walther; Liedo, Pablo

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between different release densities of sterile flies and fly trap captures, expressed as flies per trap per day, in the monitoring of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) populations was evaluated in mango orchards. The induction of sterility in fertile females was evaluated using different ratios of sterile: fertile males under field cage conditions. A direct relationship between recaptured flies and densities of release sterile flies was found. However, trap efficiency, expressed as percentage of recaptured flies, decreased as the density of released flies increased. Sterility induction was positively correlated to the ratio of sterile: fertile flies. A significant difference in egg fertility among treatments was observed. The trajectory of sterility induction slowed down after a sterile: wild ratio of 30:1, which suggests that this ratio could be appropriate in an sterile insect technique program with A. ludens. Sterility induction was greater when only sterile males were released than when releasing both sterile males and females, but the differences were not significant. Our findings contribute to a better interpretation of fly captures obtained from the field trapping networks, and to an improvement in the efficiency of sterile insect technique against A. ludens fruit flies, through the implementation of more rational sterile fly release densities.

  5. Neuronal encoding of sound, gravity, and wind in the fruit fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Eriko; Kamikouchi, Azusa

    2013-04-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster responds behaviorally to sound, gravity, and wind. Exposure to male courtship songs results in reduced locomotion in females, whereas males begin to chase each other. When agitated, fruit flies tend to move against gravity. When faced with air currents, they 'freeze' in place. Based on recent studies, Johnston's hearing organ, the antennal ear of the fruit fly, serves as a sensor for all of these mechanosensory stimuli. Compartmentalization of sense cells in Johnston's organ into vibration-sensitive and deflection-sensitive neural groups allows this single organ to mediate such varied functions. Sound and gravity/wind signals sensed by these two neuronal groups travel in parallel from the fly ear to the brain, feeding into neural pathways reminiscent of the auditory and vestibular pathways in the human brain. Studies of the similarities between mammals and flies will lead to a better understanding of the principles of how sound and gravity information is encoded in the brain. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of these principles and discuss the advantages of the fruit fly as a model system to explore the fundamental principles of how neural circuits and their ensembles process and integrate sensory information in the brain.

  6. Monitoring and Varietal Screening Cucurbit Fruit Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae on Cucumber in Bhaktapur and Kathmandu, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranju Maharjan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of cucurbit fruit fly by using four different types of traps was conducted in Sipadole VDC of Bhaktapur district during 2012 to observe the population dynamics. Three different types of fruit flies were recorded, in which the number of B. cucurbitae dominated to other species. Only B. cucurbitae damaged the cucumber, which was trapped 92.68%, 87.05%, 90.61%, and 69.38% in cue-lure, banana pulp bait, sticky traps and fly catcher, respectively. The highest number of fruit flies (167.5 male fruit flies/3traps was recorded in cue-lure trap during the first week of September, which coincided with 85.45% RH and 21.67°C and 25.04°C minimum and maximum temperature, respectively. Positive relation of temperature, relative humidity and fruit fly catches was observed. Thus, cue-lure was the most effective traps for monitoring of fruit fly population. In varietal screening, among the six different varieties of cucumber, i.e. Kathmandu local, Kusle, Kamini, Malini, Kasinda and Mahyco Green Long, they were highly significant difference in yield. Kamini gave the highest marketable fruit 26.66 mt/ha yield and the lowest by Kusle (5.05 mt/ha. All the varieties were affected by cucurbit fruit fly. The highest number of unmarketable fruit set was observed in Kamini (22.29 fruits/plant.

  7. Medhost: An encyclopedic bibliography of the host plants of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), version 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), causes direct damage to fruits and vegetables through oviposition and larval feeding. Rigorous quarantine procedures are currently enforced to prevent domestic and transnational spread of Medfly. Accessible and reliable informatio...

  8. Commensal Bacteria Aid Mate-selection in the Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaram, Kamala Jayanthi Pagadala; Ayyasamy, Arthikirubha; Kempraj, Vivek

    2016-10-01

    Commensal bacteria influence many aspects of an organism's behaviour. However, studies on the influence of commensal bacteria in insect mate-selection are scarce. Here, we present empirical evidence that commensal bacteria mediate mate-selection in the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. Male flies were attracted to female flies, but this attraction was abolished when female flies were fed with antibiotics, suggesting the role of the fly's microbiota in mediating mate-selection. We show that male flies were attracted to and ejaculated more sperm into females harbouring the microbiota. Using culturing and 16S rDNA sequencing, we isolated and identified different commensal bacteria, with Klebsiella oxytoca being the most abundant bacterial species. This preliminary study will enhance our understanding of the influence of commensal bacteria on mate-selection behaviour of B. dorsalis and may find use in devising control operations against this devastating pest.

  9. Quarantine treatment against mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) in mangoes haden variety (Mangifera indica) with gamma irradiation (Co 60)

    OpenAIRE

    Peña C., María E.; Laboratorio de Bromatología Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.; Guillen E., Rafael; Servicio Nacional de Sanidad Agraria - SENASA.; Arias A., Gladys C.; Laboratorio de Bromatología Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.

    2014-01-01

    Tephritidae fruit flies are among the most damaging pests of fruit crops worldwide Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, for instance, can infest more than 250 fruit and vegetable crop species, and constitutes the main phytosanitary restrict for export purposes. The investigation was carried out in a SENASA’s Production Center of Sterile Fruit Flies and PIMU’s laboratory; it was supervised by an OIEA’s irradiation expert. This research comprised two stages: 1) Determine the minimum irradiation dose t...

  10. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Renfu; Ariana, Diwan P.

    2011-06-01

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, which is labor intensive and also prone to error due to human fatigue and the difficulty of visually detecting infestation that is hidden inside the fruit. In this research, a laboratory hyperspectral imaging system was used to detect fruit fly-infested pickling cucumbers. Hyperspectral reflectance (450-740 nm) and transmittance (740-1,000 nm) images were acquired simultaneously for 329 normal (infestation free) and fruit flyinfested pickling cucumbers of three size classes with the mean diameters of 16.8, 22.1, and 27.6 mm, respectively. Mean spectra were extracted from the hyperspectral image of each cucumber, and they were then corrected for the fruit size effect using a diameter correction equation. Partial least squares discriminant analyses for the reflectance, transmittance and their combined data were performed for differentiating normal and infested pickling cucumbers. With reflectance mode, the overall classification accuracies for the three size classes and mixed class were between 82% and 88%, whereas transmittance achieved better classification results with the overall accuracies of 88%-93%. Integration of reflectance and transmittance did not result in noticeable improvements, compared to transmittance mode. Overall, the hyperspectral imaging system performed better than manual inspection, which had an overall accuracy of 75% and decreased significantly for smaller size cucumbers. This research demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging is potentially useful for detecting fruit fly-infested pickling cucumbers.

  11. Salicylic Acid Induces Changes in Mango Fruit that Affect Oviposition Behavior and Development of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagadala Damodaram, Kamala Jayanthi; Aurade, Ravindra Mahadappa; Kempraj, Vivek; Roy, Tapas Kumar; Shivashankara, Kodthalu Seetharamaiah; Verghese, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is an important quarantine pest around the globe. Although measures for its control are implemented worldwide through IPM and male annihilation, there is little effect on their population. Hence, there is a need for new strategies to control this minacious pest. A strategy that has received negligible attention is the induction of 'natural plant defenses' by phytohormones. In this study, we investigated the effect of salicylic acid (SA) treatment of mango fruit (cv. Totapuri) on oviposition and larval development of B. dorsalis. In oviposition choice assays, gravid females laid significantly less eggs in SA treated compared to untreated fruit. Headspace volatiles collected from SA treated fruit were less attractive to gravid females compared to volatiles from untreated fruit. GC-MS analysis of the headspace volatiles from SA treated and untreated fruit showed noticeable changes in their chemical compositions. Cis-ocimene and 3-carene (attractants to B. dorsalis) were reduced in the headspace volatiles of treated fruit. Further, reduced pupae formation and adult emergence was observed in treated fruit compared to control. Increased phenol and flavonoid content was recorded in treated fruit. We also observed differential expression of anti-oxidative enzymes namely catalase (CAT), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). In summary, the results indicate that SA treatment reduced oviposition, larval development and adult emergence of B. dorsalis and suggest a role of SA in enhancing mango tolerance to B. dorsalis.

  12. Effect of unsaponifiable matter extracted from Pistacia khinjuk fruit oil on the oxidative stability of olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Javad; Estakhr, Parviz; Jelyani, Aniseh Zarei

    2017-08-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the improvement of oxidative stability of refined olive oil using various concentrations of unsaponifiable matters extracted from Pistacia khinjuk fruit oil (UFO). For further elucidation of UFO antioxidative power, tertbutylhydroquinone (TBHQ) was used in an olive oil sample, too. Oxidative stability of olive oil samples without and with different levels of UFO (50, 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm) and TBHQ (100 ppm) were studied via evaluation of conjugated diene value, carbonyl value, oil/oxidative stability index, acid value and total tocopherol (TT) contents through 8 h thermal process at 170 °C. Results obtained by oxidative stability assays revealed that the highest antioxidative activity of olive oil was obtained by 100 ppm of UFO, followed using 100, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 ppm of UFO and 100 ppm TBHQ, respectively. Evaluation of the relationship between oxidative stability indexes and TT changes indicated a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.9718) between mean relative resistance to oxidation and relative resistance to TT reduction during thermal process. By promotion of relative resistance to TT reduction, olive oil samples' relative resistance to oxidation was enhanced exponentially; implying importance of TT in promotion of oxidative stability of edible oils. The results obtained in this study showed that UFO has higher antioxidative activity compared to TBHQ; thus UFO can be considered as a natural antioxidant with ideal antioxidative activity.

  13. Subcritical water extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds from XiLan olive fruit dreg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xue-Mei; Zhu, Ping; Zhong, Qiu-Ping; Li, Meng-Ying; Ma, Han-Ruo

    2015-08-01

    Olive fruit dreg (OFD), waste from olive softdrink processing, has caused disposal problems. Nevertheless, OFD is a good source of functional ingredients, such as phenolic compounds. This study investigated the extraction conditions of phenolic compounds from OFD by using subcritical water (SCW) extraction method, antioxidant activity of SCW extracts, and components of phenolic compounds by LC-MS. SCW extraction experiments were performed in a batch stainless steel reactor at temperatures ranging from 100 to 180 °C at residence time of 5 to 60 min, and at solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:20 to 1:60. Higher recoveries of phenolic compounds [37.52 ± 0.87 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g, dry weight (DW)] were obtained at 160 °C, solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:50, and extract time of 30 min than at 2 h extraction with methanol (1.21 ± 0.16 mg GAE/g DW), ethanol (0.24 ± 0.07 mg GAE/g DW), and acetone (0.34 ± 0.01 mg GAE/g DW). The antioxidant activities of the SCW extracts were significantly stronger than those in methanol extracts at the same concentration of total phenolic contents. LC-MS analysis results indicated that SCW extracts contained higher amounts of phenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic acid, homovanillic acid, gallic acid, hydroxytyrosol, quercetin, and syringic acid. SCW at 160 °C, 30 min, and solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:50 may be a good substitute of organic solvents, such as methanol, ethanol, and acetone to recover phenolic compounds from OFD.

  14. Pitch Perfect: How Fruit Flies Control their Body Pitch Angle

    CERN Document Server

    Whitehead, Samuel C; Canale, Luca; Cohen, Itai

    2015-01-01

    Flapping insect flight is a complex and beautiful phenomenon that relies on fast, active control mechanisms to counter aerodynamic instability. To directly investigate how freely-flying D. melanogaster control their body pitch angle against such instability, we perturb them using impulsive mechanical torques and film their corrective maneuvers with high-speed video. Combining experimental observations and numerical simulation, we find that flies correct for pitch deflections of up to 40 degrees in 29 +/- 8 ms by bilaterally modulating their wings' front-most stroke angle in a manner well-described by a linear proportional-integral (PI) controller. Flies initiate this corrective process after only 10 +/- 2 ms, indicating that pitch stabilization involves a fast reflex response. Remarkably, flies can also correct for very large-amplitude pitch perturbations--greater than 150 degrees--providing a regime in which to probe the limits of the linear-response framework. Together with previous studies regarding yaw an...

  15. Use of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae for fruit fly control: a novel approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, Jorge; Liedo, Pablo, E-mail: jtoledo@ecosur.m [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Chiapas (Mexico). Dept. de Entomologia Tropical; Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo [Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (SAGARPA), Chiapas (Mexico). Subdireccion de Desarrollo de Metodos; Campos, Sergio E.; Villasenor, Antonio [Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (SAGARPA), Chiapas (Mexico). Programa Moscamed. Direccion de Operaciones de Campo

    2006-07-01

    The potential of two species of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Met.) Sorokin, as practical fruit fly biocontrol agents is studied. These natural inhabitants of soil are found infecting a wide range of insect species that spend at least one stage of their life cycle in the soil. Sterile flies are used as vectors of the infection. A summary of results from different laboratory and field cage experiments is presented. (MAC)

  16. Host Plant Record for the Fruit Flies, Anastrepha fumipennis and A. nascimentoi (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uramoto, Keiko; Martins, David S.; Lima, Rita C. A.; Zucchi, Roberto A.

    2008-01-01

    The first host plant record for Anastrepha fumipennis Lima (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Geissospermum laeve (Vell.) Baill (Apocynaceae) and for A. nascimentoi Zucchi found in Cathedra bahiensis Sleumer (Olacaceae) was determined in a host plant survey of fruit flies undertaken at the “Reserva Natural da Companhia Vale do Rio Doce”. This reserve is located in an Atlantic Rain Forest remnant area, in Linhares county, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The phylogenetic relationships of Anastrepha species and their hosts are discussed. The occurrence of these fruit fly species in relation to the distribution range of their host plants is also discussed. PMID:20302458

  17. The measurement respiration selected mutants at a fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Bachelor´s thesis is concentrated in an experimental way. The main target was to compare the respiration and to find out the differences in the quantity of the produced carbon dioxide at the chosen lines of a fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster (class insect, order dipterous). Two concrete checking lines CantonS (a wild type) and White eyed (a white-eyed line) were compared with a mutant line AdoR- (a fruit fly with the mutation in adenosine receptor). It was supposed the control lines wil...

  18. Modified Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm for Analysis of Large Antenna Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattaset Mhudtongon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper deals with the optimization of a large antenna array for maximum directivity using a modified fruit fly optimization algorithm (MFOA with random search of two groups of swarm and adaptive fruit fly swarm population size. The MFOA is utilized to determine three nonlinear mathematical test functions, analysis of the optimal number of elements and optimal element spacing of the large antenna array, and analysis of nonuniform amplitude of antenna array. The numerical results demonstrate that the MFOA is effective in solving all test function and electromagnetic problems. The advantages of the proposed algorithm are ease of implementation, large search range, less processing time, and reduced memory requirement.

  19. Carotenoid levels during the period of growth and ripening in fruits of different olive varieties (Hojiblanca, Picual and Arbequina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, María; Mínguez-Mosquera, María Isabel

    2003-05-01

    During fruit growth and development, carotenoid accumulation follows the same qualitative pattern in three olive varieties (Olea europaea L.). In the stage of ripening, the Arbequina variety is differentiated from Hojiblanca and Picual by its possession of esterified xanthophylls. The Chl a/b ratio is higher in Arbequina than in Hojiblanca and Picual throughout the life cycle of the fruit, while the percentage of lutein is always lower, and that of beta-carotene higher. Independent of the high (Hojiblanca and Picual) or low (Arbequina) pigment content, the chlorophyll/carotenoid ratio (a + b)/(x + c) is similar for the three varieties. There is evident carotenoid breakdown at the onset of ripening in the fruits of the Hojiblanca and Picual varieties, while in Arbequina there is a new period of carotenoid accumulation. As ripening proceeds in Arbequina fruits, a slow carotenoid-breakdown process is initiated.

  20. Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: tephritidae) and the phenology of its native host plant, Yellow Chapote (Rutaceae) in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    In northeastern Mexico, the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), breeds on its native host, yellow chapote, Casimiroa greggii (Wats.), which typically produces fruit in the spring. Peak populations of the fly occur in late spring or early summer when adults emerge from the generation of lar...

  1. Mango resistance to fruit flies. II - resistance of the alfa cultivar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossetto, C.J.; Bortoletto, N., E-mail: rossetto@iac.sp.gov.b [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Votuporanga, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional do Noroeste Paulista; Walder, J.M.M.; Mastrangelo, T. de A., E-mail: jmwalder@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, C.R.L.; Castro, J.V. de, E-mail: climonta@iac.sp.gov.b, E-mail: josalba@iac.sp.gov.b [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Pinto, A.C. de Q. [EMBRAPA, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Cortelazzo, A.L., E-mail: angelo@unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    2006-07-01

    The percentage of infested mango fruits of five selected mango varieties was evaluated during three years under field conditions. Three varieties with field resistance to fruit flies had less then 10% of fruits infested. Tommy Atkins, the susceptible commercial check, had 42,9% and the susceptible check had 98.9 % of infested fruits. The three field resistant varieties plus the susceptible commercial check, Tommy Atkins, were further tested in laboratory, under caged conditions, with artificial infestation of Anastrepha obliqua. The attempts of oviposition and the number of pupae developed from each fruit were evaluated. Under caged conditions, the cultivar Alfa maintained its field resistance and Espada Stahl and IAC 111 lost the field resistance and were as susceptible as Tommy Atkins. The attempts of oviposition were positively and highly correlated with the number of pupae developed in the fruits. Non preference for oviposition was confirmed as the main mechanism of resistance of mango fruits to fruit flies. In the absence of a more susceptible variety (no choice test) the cultivar Alfa has kept the resistance (author)

  2. Development of improved attractants and their integration into fruit fly management programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sookar, P.; Permalloo, S.; Alleck, M.; Seewooruthun, S.I., E-mail: ento@intnet.m, E-mail: moa-entomology@mail.gov.m [Ministry of Agro Industry and Fisheries, Reduit (Mauritius)

    2006-07-01

    Fruit flies are major constraint to fruit production in Mauritius. The peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), the natal fly, Ceratitis rosa (Karsch), the medfly, C. capitata (Wiedmann) are the main pests of fleshy fruits. Fruit fly trapping trials were conducted in backyards to find the most effective combination of attractant and lures for females. There were two separate trapping trials, carried out in two different localities during the period November 2004 to March 2005. In the first trial, the attractants in different combinations were tested in International Pheromone McPhail Trap (IPMT). The attractants were as follows: three patches containing Ammonium Acetate (AA) + Trimethylamine (TMA) + Putrescine (PT); Two patches of AA ; two patches of AA + one patch of PT ; two patches of AA + one patch of TMA; one patch of solbait; torula tablets; protein hydrolysate and GF120. Water and Triton B were used as retention device in traps baited with the patches. In the first trial, all treatments were equally effective in the capture of either female B. zonata or female C. capitata with the exception of protein hydrolysate and GF120 which trapped fewer numbers of flies. In the second trapping trial, additional trap types and lure combinations were assessed. The three component lure (AA + PT + TMA with water/Triton as retention device in IPMT) and the trap baited with Waste Brewer's Yeast captured significantly more female flies followed by IPMT with AA + PT + TMA / Sticky insert and the Easy trap. In all trials, females accounted for more than 75% of the catches. (author)

  3. Population fluctuation of adult males of the fruit fly, Bactrocera tau Walker (Diptera: Tephritidae) in passion fruit orchards in relation to abiotic factors and sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasyim, A.; Muryati, M.; Kogel, de W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Fruit fly (Bactrocera tau) is the most destructive pest on some fruits in Indonesia. Monitoring of the pest population is essential as one of the procedures in the IPM concept. The study aimed to investigate the seasonal fluctuation of adult males of B. tau and their damage on passion fruits in rela

  4. Non-destructive assessment of olive fruit ripening by portable near infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracia, A.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of portable near infrared spectroscopy (NIR technology for the determination of oil and moisture contents in intact olive fruits was studied. A total of 144 and 112 samples were collected throughout the ripening period in two different olive cultivar trials. Spectral data were recorded in the wavelength region from 1100 to 2300 nm at 1 nm intervals under two different experimental conditions: on-tree in the field in Trial 1 and under laboratory room conditions in Trial 2. Calibration models were developed and evaluated using partial least squares (PLS regression separately for each trial set and for the combined group of samples. Although slightly better results were obtained under laboratory room conditions, the results obtained on-tree in the field were also accurate enough to determine the optimal harvest date of each cultivar. The combined model showed predictive statistics within the range of the individual models (r=0.89 and RMSECV= 1.99 for oil content and r=0.88 and RMSECV=2.06 for moisture content, which could be considered acceptable as an increase in the model robustness could be expected. These results encourage the use of portable NIR spectroscopy to monitor olive fruit ripening and to decide the optimal harvesting date on the basis of oil and moisture content.

    En este trabajo se estudia la posible aplicación de la tecnología en el infrarrojo cercano (NIR portátil para la determinación de la humedad y el rendimiento graso en aceitunas intactas. Se han utilizado un total de 144 y 112 muestras recolectadas a lo largo del periodo de maduración en dos ensayos de variedades. Los datos espectroscópicos en la región de 1100 a 2300 nm a intervalos de 1 nm se recogieron bajo dos condiciones experimentales: directamente en el árbol en el ensayo 1 y en condiciones de laboratorio en el ensayo 2. Los modelos de calibración se desarrollaron y evaluaron mediante regresión por mínimos cuadrados parciales (PLS por

  5. Oviposition in Sweet Cherry by Reproductively Mature Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Tephritidae:Diptera) Fed Spinosad and Neonicotinoid Insecticide Baits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a major pest of cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. Spinosad bait is applied weekly to kill flies before they develop eggs, but its effects on oviposition by flies that are reproductively mature are unknown. ...

  6. Host status of blueberry to invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A; Armstrong, John W; Zee, Francis T

    2009-10-01

    Forced infestation studies were conducted to determine whether northern or southern highbush blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum L., are hosts for the invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. Fruit were exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (oriental fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), or Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly) in screen cages outdoors for 6 h and then held on sand in the laboratory for 2 wk for pupal and adult emergence. The number of puparia, number of puparia per gram, and percentage of adult emergence on 'Bluecrop' blueberry were significantly higher for B. dorsalis and C. capitata than B. cucurbitae; B. dorsalis, C. capitata, and B. cucurbitae produced an average of 1.06, 0.60, and 0.09 pupae per g fruit and had 5.8, 54.1, and 12.7% adult emergence, respectively. 'Berkeley' blueberries produced an average of only 0.06, 0.02, and 0.0 pupae per g fruit for B. dorsalis, C. capitata, and B. cucurbitae, respectively. Similarly, six blueberry cultivars were harvested weekly for 10 wk, exposed to Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) in cages, and held for pupal and adult emergence on either sand or artificial diet. In total, 2,677 blueberries were exposed to 2681 B. latifons and held on sand, and no pupariation or adult emergence was observed. Small numbers of B. latifrons puparia and adults emerged from the artificial diet treatment in all cultivars. Results from rearing on sand and diet indicate that blueberry is an acceptable oviposition host for B. latifrons but not an adequate developmental host. These data suggest blueberry is potentially a good host for B. dorsalis and C. capitata, and an adequate host for Bactrocera cucurbitae, but that there may be significant variation in resistance among cultivars. Blueberry seems to be a nonhost for B. latifrons.

  7. Effect of Irrigation with Reclaimed Water on Fruit Characteristics and Photosynthesis of Olive Trees under Two Irrigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ashrafi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Olive (Olea europaea L. trees are mainly cultivated in the Mediterranean area and are grown for their oil or processed as table olives. Despite the fact that olive is known to be resistant to drought conditions due to its anatomical, physiological, and biochemical adaptations to drought stress, reports indicate that the olive can be adversely affected by drought stress, which has a negative effect on the growth of olive trees. In the absence of adequate supplies of water, the demand for water can be met by using improved irrigation methods or by using reclaimed water (RW. Reports have shown that recycled water has been used successfully for irrigating olive orchards with no negative effects on plant growth.Attention has been paid to reclaimed water as one of the most significant available water resources used in agriculture around large cities in arid and semi-arid regions. On the other hand, irrigation efficiency is low and does not meet the demands of farmers.In order to investigate the possibility of irrigating olive orchards with subsurface leakage irrigation (SLI in application of reclaimed water, an experiment was carried out with the aim of investigating the effect of reclaimed water on photosynthetic indices and morphological properties of olive fruit. Materials and Methods: Research was conducted using a split-plot experimental design with two factors (irrigation system and water quality on the campus of Isfahan University of Technology in Isfahan, Iran, on a sandy-clay soil with a pH of 7.5 and electrical conductivity (EC of 2.48 dSm-1.PVC leaky tubes were used for the SLI system. The SLI system was installed 40 cm from the crown of each tree at a depth of 30 - 40 cm.At the end of the experiment fruit yield, weight per fruit, volume, length and firmness were calculated. A portable gas exchange system (Li-6400., LICOR, Lincoln, NE, USA was used to measure the net rate photosynthesis (A, the internal partial pressure CO2

  8. Gut bacterial community structure of two Australian tropical fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narit Thaochan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The community structure of the alimentary tract bacteria of two Australian fruit fly species, Bactrocera cacuminata (Hering and Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt, was studied using a molecular cloning method based on the 16S rRNA gene. Differences in the bacterial community structure were shown between the crops and midguts of the two species and sexes of each species. Proteobacteria was the dominant bacterial phylum in the flies, especially bacteria in the order Gammaproteobacteria which was prominent in all clones. The total bacterial community consisted of Proteobacteria (more than 75% of clones, except in the crop of B. cacuminata where more than 50% of clones belonged to Firmicutes. Firmicutes gave the number of the secondary community structure in the fly’s gut. Four orders, Alpha-, Beta-, Delta- and Gammaproteobacteria and the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were found in both fruit fly species, while the order Epsilonproteobacteria and the phylum Bacteroidetes were found only in B. tryoni. Two phyla, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes, were rare and less frequent in the flies. There was a greater diversity of bacteria in the crop of the two fruit fly species than in the midgut. The midgut of B. tryoni females and the midgut of B. cacuminata males had the lowest bacterial diversity.

  9. Inquiry-Based Environmental Science Investigations with the Fantastic Fruit Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Ashlie M.; Krall, Rebecca M.

    2010-01-01

    The use of inquiry in life science can be particularly daunting because of the additional management and care living systems require. However, there are some low-maintenance organisms that work well in the classroom. One of these is the common fruit fly, "Drosophila melanogaster." Its small size, low cost, easy availability and maintenance, and…

  10. Resolution of inter and intra-species relationships of the West Indian fruit fly Anastrepha obliqua

    Science.gov (United States)

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an economically important pest that inhabits areas of South and Central America, Mexico and the Caribbean with occasional infestations in the southern United States. We examine intra-specific variation within Anastre...

  11. Wolbachia in guilds of Anastrepha fruit flies (Tephritidae) and parasitoid wasps (Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Rodrigo O; Prezotto, Leandro F; Perondini, André Luiz P; Marino, Celso Luiz; Selivon, Denise

    2016-01-01

    The endosymbiont Wolbachia is efficiently transmitted from females to their progenies, but horizontal transmission between different taxa is also known to occur. Aiming to determine if horizontal transmission might have occurred between Anastrepha fruit flies and associated braconid wasps, infection by Wolbachia was screened by amplification of a fragment of the wsp gene. Eight species of the genus Anastrepha were analyzed, from which six species of associated parasitoid wasps were recovered. The endosymbiont was found in seven Anastrepha species and in five species of braconids. The WSP Typing methodology detected eight wsp alleles belonging to Wolbachia supergroup A. Three were already known and five were new ones, among which four were found to be putative recombinant haplotypes. Two samples of Anastrepha obliqua and one sample of Doryctobracon brasiliensis showed multiple infection. Single infection by Wolbachia was found in the majority of samples. The distribution of Wolbachia harboring distinct alleles differed significantly between fruit flies and wasps. However, in nine samples of fruit flies and associated wasps, Wolbachia harbored the same wsp allele. These congruences suggest that horizontal transfer of Wolbachia might have occurred in the communities of fruit flies and their braconid parasitoids.

  12. Y-Linked markers for improved population control of the tephritid fruit fly pest, Anastrepha suspensa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect pest control programs incorporating the sterile insect technique (SIT) rely on the mass production and release of sterilized insects to reduce the wild-type population through infertile matings. Most effective programs release only males to avoid any crop damage caused by female fruit flies o...

  13. Phylogeography of West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua, inferred with mtDNA sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the West Indian fruit fly, is a frugivorous pest that occasionally finds its way to commercial growing areas outside its native distribution. It inhabits areas in Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean, with occasional infestations...

  14. Antennal and behavioral responses to putrescine and ammonium bicarbonate in the Caribbean fruit fly (Diptera: tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A current trapping system for Anastrepha fruit flies uses a 2-component lure that emits ammonia and putrescine, both regarded as protein cues. This study used electroantennography and flight tunnel bioassays to quantify olfactory and behavioral responses of A. suspensa to vapors from ammonium bicar...

  15. Resveratrol modifies tephritid fruit fly response to nutritional and radiation stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resveratrol is a recently discovered compound. Three concentrations (50, 100, 200 µM) of resveratrol were evaluated against Bactrocera dorsalis and B. cucurbitae by incorporating resveratrol into fruit fly liquid larval diet under the following conditions: 1) with or without wheat germ oil (WGO) in ...

  16. Identification of the Ubiquitous Antioxidant Tripeptide Glutathione as a Fruit Fly Semiochemical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheseto, Xavier; Kachigamba, Donald L; Ekesi, Sunday; Ndung'u, Mary; Teal, Peter E A; Beck, John J; Torto, Baldwyn

    2017-10-04

    Many insects mark their oviposition sites with a host marking pheromone (HMP) to deter other females from overexploiting these sites. Previous studies have identified and used HMPs to manage certain fruit fly species; however, few are known for African indigenous fruit flies. The HMP of the African fruit fly, Ceratitis cosyra, was identified as the ubiquitous plant and animal antioxidant tripeptide, glutathione (GSH). GSH was isolated from the aqueous extract of adult female fecal matter and characterized by LC-QTOF-MS. GSH level increased with increasing age of female fecal matter, with highest concentration detected from 2-week-old adult females. Additionally, GSH levels were 5-10-times higher in fecal matter than in the ovipositor or hemolymph extracts of females. In bioassays, synthetic GSH reduced oviposition responses in conspecifics of C. cosyra and the heterospecific species C. rosa, C. fasciventris, C. capitata, and Zeugodacus cucurbitae. These results represent the first report of a ubiquitous antioxidant as a semiochemical in insects and its potential use in fruit fly management.

  17. Compendium of fruit fly host information (CoFFHI), edition 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Compendium of Fruit Fly Host Information (CoFFHI), edition 2.0, developed through collaborative efforts of scientists in USDA-APHIS, USDA-ARS, and the Center for Integrated Pest Management (CIPM) of North Carolina State University (NCSU), provides centralized online documentation of what is know...

  18. Wolbachia in guilds of Anastrepha fruit flies (Tephritidae) and parasitoid wasps (Braconidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Rodrigo O; Prezotto, Leandro F; Perondini, André Luiz P; Marino, Celso Luiz; Selivon, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The endosymbiont Wolbachia is efficiently transmitted from females to their progenies, but horizontal transmission between different taxa is also known to occur. Aiming to determine if horizontal transmission might have occurred between Anastrepha fruit flies and associated braconid wasps, infection by Wolbachia was screened by amplification of a fragment of the wsp gene. Eight species of the genus Anastrepha were analyzed, from which six species of associated parasitoid wasps were recovered. The endosymbiont was found in seven Anastrepha species and in five species of braconids. The WSP Typing methodology detected eight wsp alleles belonging to Wolbachia supergroup A. Three were already known and five were new ones, among which four were found to be putative recombinant haplotypes. Two samples of Anastrepha obliqua and one sample of Doryctobracon brasiliensis showed multiple infection. Single infection by Wolbachia was found in the majority of samples. The distribution of Wolbachia harboring distinct alleles differed significantly between fruit flies and wasps. However, in nine samples of fruit flies and associated wasps, Wolbachia harbored the same wsp allele. These congruences suggest that horizontal transfer of Wolbachia might have occurred in the communities of fruit flies and their braconid parasitoids. PMID:27648768

  19. Exposure to tea tree oil enhances the mating success of male Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aroma of various plant essential oils has been shown to enhance the mating competitiveness of males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Laboratory observations revealed that male medflies show strong short-range attraction to tea tree oil (TTO hereafter) deri...

  20. Livestock manure as an alternative attractant for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae in guava tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenya Michely Cintra Filgueiras

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fruit flies are typically managed using hydrolyzed protein, which is difficult for family farmers to obtain. This study aimed at assessing the efficiency of livestock manure for monitoring and/or controlling this pest in guava tree orchards. The first experiment tested the efficiency of guava juice and manure from cattle, sheep, pig, horse and chicken as attractants for fruit flies. Once the best bait had been established, a second experiment was conducted using guava juice and chicken manure extract at concentrations of 10 %, 30 %, 50 %, 70 % and 100 %. A third assay analyzed guava juice and chicken manure extract (10 % at three attractant aging periods (3, 7 and 14 days after trap installation. The cost-effectiveness ratio between guava juice and extract was also analyzed. It was concluded that fruit flies prefer the chicken manure extract (10 %, with greater capture observed three days after trap installation, which can replace the guava juice in the agroecological management of fruit flies in guava trees in family farms, since it is low cost and efficient.

  1. Wolbachia in guilds of Anastrepha fruit flies (Tephritidae and parasitoid wasps (Braconidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo O Mascarenhas

    Full Text Available Abstract The endosymbiont Wolbachia is efficiently transmitted from females to their progenies, but horizontal transmission between different taxa is also known to occur. Aiming to determine if horizontal transmission might have occurred between Anastrepha fruit flies and associated braconid wasps, infection by Wolbachia was screened by amplification of a fragment of the wsp gene. Eight species of the genus Anastrepha were analyzed, from which six species of associated parasitoid wasps were recovered. The endosymbiont was found in seven Anastrepha species and in five species of braconids. The WSP Typing methodology detected eight wsp alleles belonging to Wolbachia supergroup A. Three were already known and five were new ones, among which four were found to be putative recombinant haplotypes. Two samples of Anastrepha obliqua and one sample of Doryctobracon brasiliensis showed multiple infection. Single infection by Wolbachia was found in the majority of samples. The distribution of Wolbachia harboring distinct alleles differed significantly between fruit flies and wasps. However, in nine samples of fruit flies and associated wasps, Wolbachia harbored the same wsp allele. These congruences suggest that horizontal transfer of Wolbachia might have occurred in the communities of fruit flies and their braconid parasitoids.

  2. Molecular genetics of the Wolbachia endosymbionts that infect the parasitoids of tephritid fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited information exists on the molecular genetics of the Wolbachia endosymbionts that infect the parasitoids of tephritid fruit flies. A better understanding of the bacteria could allow sex ratio manipulations that would improve the mass-rearing of natural enemies. Scientists at the Center for Me...

  3. Give us the tools and we will do the job: symbiotic bacteria affect olive fly fitness in a diet-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Aharon, Yael; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Yuval, Boaz

    2010-05-22

    Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are intimately associated with bacteria throughout their life cycle, and both larvae and adults are morphologically adapted for housing bacteria in the digestive tract. We tested the hypothesis that these bacteria contribute to the adult fly's fitness in a diet-dependent fashion. We predicted that when dietary protein is superabundant, bacterial contribution will be minimal. Conversely, in the absence of protein, or when only non-essential amino acids are present (as in the fly's natural diet), we predicted that bacterial contribution to fitness will be significant. Accordingly, we manipulated diet and the presence of bacteria in female olive flies, and monitored fecundity--an indirect measure of fitness. Bacteria did not affect fecundity when females were fed a nutritionally poor diet of sucrose, or a protein-rich, nutritionally complete diet. However, when females were fed a diet containing non-essential amino acids as the sole source of amino nitrogen, egg production was significantly enhanced in the presence of bacteria. These results suggest that bacteria were able to compensate for the skewed amino acid composition of the diet and may be indispensable for wild adult olive flies that subsist mainly on nitrogen-poor resources such as honeydew.

  4. Sleep Homeostasis and General Anesthesia: Are Fruit Flies Well-Rested After Emergence From Propofol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Benjamin; Strus, Ewa; Meng, Qing Cheng; Coradetti, Thomas; Naidoo, Nirinjini N.; Kelz, Max B.; Williams, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Shared neurophysiologic features between sleep and anesthetic-induced hypnosis indicate a potential overlap in neuronal circuitry underlying both states. Previous studies in rodents indicate that pre-existing sleep debt discharges under propofol anesthesia. We explored the hypothesis that propofol anesthesia also dispels sleep pressure in the fruit fly. To our knowledge, this constitutes the first time propofol has been tested in the genetically tractable model, Drosophila melanogaster. Methods Daily sleep was measured in Drosophila using a standard locomotor activity assay. Propofol was administered by transferring flies onto food containing various doses of propofol or equivalent concentrations of vehicle. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to measure tissue concentrations of ingested propofol. To determine if propofol anesthesia substitutes for natural sleep, we subjected flies to 10 hours (h) sleep deprivation (SD), followed by 6h propofol exposure, and monitored subsequent sleep. Results Oral propofol treatment causes anesthesia in flies as indicated by a dose-dependent reduction in locomotor activity (n=11–41 flies from each group) and increased arousal threshold (n=79–137). Recovery sleep in flies fed propofol after SD was delayed until after flies had emerged from anesthesia (n=30–48). SD was also associated with a significant increase in mortality in propofol-fed flies (n=44–46). Conclusions Together, these data indicate that fruit flies are effectively anesthetized by ingestion of propofol, and suggest that homologous molecular and neuronal targets of propofol are conserved in Drosophila. However, behavioral measurements indicate that propofol anesthesia does not satisfy the homeostatic need for sleep, and may compromise the restorative properties of sleep. PMID:26556728

  5. INFLUENCE OF AMYLOSE STARCH ON DEVELOPMENT AND LIFESPAN OF FRUIT FLY DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

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    Oleksandra Abrat

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Last years, the concept of resistant starch (RS has evoked a new interest in researchers in the context of bioavailability of starch and its use as a source of dietary fiber. Based on clinical and animal research, RS has been proposed to be the most potentially beneficial starch fraction for human health. In this study, the effects of amylose starch as a fraction of RS on development and lifespan of fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster were investigated. In both Canton S and w1118 strains, the diet with 20% amylose RS delayed fly development, increased triacylglyceride level in the body of adult insects and reduced their lifespan compared to the diet with 4% amylose starch. Thus, our data clearly demonstrate that amylose starch at high concentrations may negatively affect fruit fly.

  6. More than apples and oranges - Detecting cancer with a fruit fly's antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, Martin; Lüdke, Alja; Münch, Daniel; Laudes, Thomas; Galizia, C. Giovanni; Martinelli, Eugenio; Lavra, Luca; Paolesse, Roberto; Ulivieri, Alessandra; Catini, Alexandro; Capuano, Rosamaria; di Natale, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells and non-cancer cells differ in their metabolism and they emit distinct volatile compound profiles, allowing to recognise cancer cells by their scent. Insect odorant receptors are excellent chemosensors with high sensitivity and a broad receptive range unmatched by current gas sensors. We thus investigated the potential of utilising the fruit fly's olfactory system to detect cancer cells. Using in vivo calcium imaging, we recorded an array of olfactory receptor neurons on the fruit fly's antenna. We performed multidimensional analysis of antenna responses, finding that cell volatiles from different cell types lead to characteristic response vectors. The distances between these response vectors are conserved across flies and can be used to discriminate healthy mammary epithelial cells from different types of breast cancer cells. This may expand the repertoire of clinical diagnostics, and it is the first step towards electronic noses equipped with biological sensors, integrating artificial and biological olfaction.

  7. Fruit fly scale robots can hover longer with flapping wings than with spinning wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Elliot W; Lentink, David

    2016-10-01

    Hovering flies generate exceptionally high lift, because their wings generate a stable leading edge vortex. Micro flying robots with a similar wing design can generate similar high lift by either flapping or spinning their wings. While it requires less power to spin a wing, the overall efficiency depends also on the actuator system driving the wing. Here, we present the first holistic analysis to calculate how long a fly-inspired micro robot can hover with flapping versus spinning wings across scales. We integrate aerodynamic data with data-driven scaling laws for actuator, electronics and mechanism performance from fruit fly to hummingbird scales. Our analysis finds that spinning wings driven by rotary actuators are superior for robots with wingspans similar to hummingbirds, yet flapping wings driven by oscillatory actuators are superior at fruit fly scale. This crossover is driven by the reduction in performance of rotary compared with oscillatory actuators at smaller scale. Our calculations emphasize that a systems-level analysis is essential for trading-off flapping versus spinning wings for micro flying robots.

  8. Wing attachment position of fruit fly minimizes flight cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noest, Robert; Wang, Jane

    Flight is energetically costly which means insects need to find ways to reduce their energy expenditure during sustained flight. Previous work has shown that insect muscles can recover some of the energy used for producing flapping motion. Moreover the form of flapping motions are efficient for generating the required force to balance the weight. In this talk, we show that one of the morphological parameters, the wing attachment point on a fly, is suitably located to further reduce the cost for flight, while allowing the fly to be close to stable. We investigate why this is the case and attempt to find a general rule for the optimal location of the wing hinge. Our analysis is based on computations of flapping free flight together with the Floquet stability analysis of periodic flight for descending, hovering and ascending cases.

  9. Analysis of fruit and oil quantity and quality distribution in high-density olive trees in order to improve the mechanical harvesting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo-Ruiz, F. J.; Jiménez-Jiménez, F.; Blanco-Roldán, G.L.; Sola-Guirado, R. R.; Agüera-Vega, J.; Castro-Garcia, S.

    2015-07-01

    Olive fruit production and oil quality distribution with respect to canopy distribution are important criteria for selection and improvement of mechanical harvesting methods. Tests were performed in a high-density olive orchard (Olea europea L., cv. Arbequina) in southern Spain. Fruit distribution, fruit properties and oil parameters were measured by taken separate samples for each canopy location and tree. Results showed a high percentage of fruits and oil located in the middle-outer and upper canopy, representing more than 60% of total production. The position of these fruits along with their higher weight per fruit, maturity index and polyphenol content make them the target for all mechanical harvesting systems. The fruits from the lower canopy represented close to 30% of fruit and oil production, however, the mechanical harvesting of these fruits is inefficient for mechanical harvesting systems. Whether these fruits cannot be properly harvested, enhance tree training to raise their position is recommended. Fruits located inside the canopy are not a target location for mechanical harvesting systems as they were a small percentage of the total fruit (<10%). Significant differences were found for polyphenol content with respect to canopy height, although this was not the case with acidity. In addition, the ripening index did not influence polyphenol content and acidity values within the canopy. Fruit production, properties and oil quality varied depending on fruit canopy position. Thus harvesting systems may be targeted at maximize harvesting efficiency including an adequate tree training system adapted to the harvesting system. (Author)

  10. Natural Field Infestation of Mangifera casturi and Mangifera lalijiwa by Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuate, Grant T; Sylva, Charmaine D; Liquido, Nicanor J

    2017-01-01

    Mango, Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae), is a crop cultivated pantropically. There are, however, many other Mangifera spp ("mango relatives") which have much more restricted distributions and are poorly known but have potential to produce mango-like fruits in areas where mangoes do not grow well or could be tapped in mango breeding programs. Because of the restricted distribution of many of the Mangifera spp, there has also been limited data collected on susceptibility of their fruits to infestation by tephritid fruit flies which is important to know for concerns both for quality of production and for quarantine security of fruit exports. Here, we report on natural field infestation by the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), of two mango relatives native to Indonesia: Mangifera casturi and Mangifera lalijiwa. Rates of infestation of fruits of these two Mangifera spp by tephritid fruit flies have not previously been reported.

  11. Pheromones, male lures and trapping of tephritid fruit flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dipteran family of Tephritidae consists of many genera, of which several namely, Anastrepha, Bactrocera, Ceratitis, Dacus, Rhagoletis and Toxotrypana possess species of high economic importance as major pests of fruits and vegetables. Hitherto, pheromones isolated and identified for possible use...

  12. Cardiovascular Effects of Olive, a Qur’anic Fruit: a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Heidari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Today, much attention is being paid to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. In some parts of the world, the rate of cardiovascular disease is low due to a Mediterranean diet containing olive oil. This systematic review examined the verses and traditions in order to express opinions on olive and compare it with the findings of modern medicine. Methods: This is a qualitative systematic review of studies  in which data  were collected from Qur'an, traditions, and related articles on the internet, limited to English and Persian and without time limitation by using the keywords olive, heart disease and Mediterranean diet. Results: This systematic review demonstrated that olive in the Quran is a clear sign to scientists. Moreover, its use is recommended in the authentic traditions. Conclusion: Based on the results, olive has been found to be effective in reducing mortality and preventing cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Sublethal effect of neem extract on mediterranean fruit fly adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Alves Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The sublethal effect of extracts of Azadirachta indica on Ceratitis capitata was evaluated. Two pairs of flies were treated in plastic tubes with cotton placed in plastic cages. An artificial diet (hydrolyzed protein + sugar was provided ad libitum. The extracts affected significantly the longevity of C. capitata. The pre-oviposition period were not significantly affected by the extracts. The A. indica branches extracted with dichloromethane (888 ppm affected significantly the fecundity and fertility, reducing the number of eggs laid to approximately 80 % and the egg hatching by 30 % at the 8th day. Therefore, the neem branches extracted with dichloromethane affected the reproduction of C. capitata.

  14. Fruit and oil quality of mature olive trees under partial rootzone drying

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    Serraj, R.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative effects of partial rootzone drying (PRD irrigation on olive trees and their fruit and oil quality. Olive trees of the Moroccan Picholine variety were grown under arid conditions in Marrakech, and exposed to four irrigation treatments: Control (irrigated with 100 % of the crop evapotranspiration, on the two sides of the root system, PRD1 (irrigated with 50 % of the control, on one side of the root system, switching every two weeks, PRD2 (irrigated with 50 % of the control, on one side of the root system, switching every four weeks and PRD3 (irrigated with the same amount of water as the control applied on one side of the root system, switching every two weeks. The individual fruit weight, dimensions and oil contents were generally greater under PRD than the control. Whereas, the fruit water content was lower under PRD1 and PRD2 than the control and PRD3. Oil acidity was not affected by irrigation, while the total polyphenol content, which affects the oxidative stability and sensory characteristics of the oil, increased in response to the PRD irrigation, especially under PRD1 (246.0 ppm and PRD2 (278.5 ppm treatments, against 148.4 ppm and 101.8 ppm for PRD3 and the control respectively. This increase could explain the oil bitterness observed under PRD1 and PRD2. The fatty acid composition was not affected by PRD1 and PRD2. The oil quality based on UV absorption coefficients (K232 and K270 decreased significantly under PRD2. Chlorophyll content and maturity index were antagonistic, and olive ripeness was found to be precocious under PRD irrigation treatments compared to the control.Este estudio fue realizado para evaluar los efectos cuantitativos y cualitativos de la irrigación de olivos por secado parcial de la zona radical (PRD sobre la calidad de su fruto y de su aceite. Los olivos de la variedad marroquí Picholine fueron cultivados en condiciones áridas en Marrakech, y

  15. Tests with VHR images for the identification of olive trees and other fruit trees in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Josiane; Soille, Pierre; Mueller, Rick

    2004-10-01

    In the context of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) there is a strong interest of the European Commission for counting and individually locating fruit trees. An automatic counting algorithm developed by the JRC (OLICOUNT) was used in the past for olive trees only, on 1m black and white orthophotos but with limits in case of young trees or irregular groves. This study investigates the improvement of fruit tree identification using VHR images on a large set of data in three test sites, one in Creta (Greece; one in the south-east of France with a majority of olive trees and associated fruit trees, and the last one in Florida on citrus trees. OLICOUNT was compared with two other automatic tree counting, applications, one using the CRISP software on citrus trees and the other completely automatic based on regional minima (morphological image analysis). Additional investigation was undertaken to refine the methods. This paper describes the automatic methods and presents the results derived from the tests.

  16. Light sheet-based imaging and analysis of early embryogenesis in the fruit fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Khaled; Lemon, William C; Amat, Fernando; Keller, Philipp J

    2015-01-01

    The fruit fly is an excellent model system for investigating the sequence of epithelial tissue invaginations constituting the process of gastrulation. By combining recent advancements in light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) and image processing, the three-dimensional fly embryo morphology and relevant gene expression patterns can be accurately recorded throughout the entire process of embryogenesis. LSFM provides exceptionally high imaging speed, high signal-to-noise ratio, low level of photoinduced damage, and good optical penetration depth. This powerful combination of capabilities makes LSFM particularly suitable for live imaging of the fly embryo.The resulting high-information-content image data are subsequently processed to obtain the outlines of cells and cell nuclei, as well as the geometry of the whole embryo tissue by image segmentation. Furthermore, morphodynamics information is extracted by computationally tracking objects in the image. Towards that goal we describe the successful implementation of a fast fitting strategy of Gaussian mixture models.The data obtained by image processing is well-suited for hypothesis testing of the detailed biomechanics of the gastrulating embryo. Typically this involves constructing computational mechanics models that consist of an objective function providing an estimate of strain energy for a given morphological configuration of the tissue, and a numerical minimization mechanism of this energy, achieved by varying morphological parameters.In this chapter, we provide an overview of in vivo imaging of fruit fly embryos using LSFM, computational tools suitable for processing the resulting images, and examples of computational biomechanical simulations of fly embryo gastrulation.

  17. Fruit flies modulate passive wing pitching to generate in-flight turns

    CERN Document Server

    Bergou, Attila J; Guckenheimer, John; Cohen, Itai; Wang, Z Jane

    2009-01-01

    Flying insects execute aerial maneuvers through subtle manipulations of their wing motions. Here, we measure the free flight kinematics of fruit flies and determine how they modulate their wing pitching to induce sharp turns. By analyzing the torques these insects exert to pitch their wings, we infer that the wing hinge acts as a torsional spring that passively resists the wing's tendency to flip in response to aerodynamic and inertial forces. To turn, the insects asymmetrically change the spring rest angles to generate rowing motions of their wings. Thus, insects can generate these maneuvers using only a slight active actuation that biases their wing motion.

  18. Horizontal Transmission of Metarhizium anisopliae in Fruit Flies and Effect of Fungal Infection on Egg Laying and Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguya K. Maniania

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fly-to-fly transmission of conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae and the effect of fungal infection on the reproductive potential of females surviving infection were investigated in three fruit fly species, Ceratitis cosyra, C. fasciventris, and C. capitata. The number of conidia picked up by a single fruit fly was determined in C. cosyra. The initial uptake (Day 0 of conidia by a single fly was approx. 1.1 × 106 conidia after exposure to the treated substrate. However, the number of conidia dropped from 7.2 × 105 to 4.1 × 105 conidia after 2 and 8 h post-exposure, respectively. The number of conidia picked up by a single fungus-treated fly (“donor” varied between 3.8 × 105 and 1.0 × 106 in the three fruit fly species, resulting in 100% mortality 5–6 days post-exposure. When fungus-free flies of both sexes (“recipient” flies were allowed to mate with “donor” flies, the number of conidia picked up by a single fly varied between 1.0 × 105 and 2.5 × 105, resulting in a mortality of 83–100% in C. capitata, 72–85% in C. cosyra and 71–93% in C. fasciventris 10–15 days post-inoculation. There was an effect of fungal infection on female egg laying in the three species of fruit flies as control flies laid more eggs than fungus-treated females. The percentage reduction in fecundity in flies infected with M. anisopliae was 82, 73 and 37% in C. capitata, C. fasciventris and C. cosyra, respectively. The results are discussed with regard to application in autodissemination techniques.

  19. Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Studies on Ceratitis capitata, a world fruit pest, can aid the implementation of control programs by determining the plants with higher vulnerability to attacks and plants able to sustain their population in areas of fly distribution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of eight tropical fruits on the following biological and behavioral parameters of C. capitata: emergence percentage, life cycle duration, adult size, egg production, longevity, fecundity, egg viability, and oviposition acceptance. The fruits tested were: acerola (Malpighia glabra L., cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L., guava (Psidium guajava L., soursop (Annona muricata L., yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L., Malay apple (Syzygium malaccense L., and umbu (Spondias tuberosa L.. The biological parameters were obtained by rearing the recently hatched larvae on each of the fruit kinds. Acceptance of fruits for oviposition experiment was assessed using no-choice tests, as couples were exposed to two pieces of the same fruit. The best performances were obtained with guava, soursop, and star fruit. Larvae reared on cashew and acerola fruits had regular performances. No adults emerged from yellow mombin, Malay apple, or umbu. Fruit species did not affect adult longevity, female fecundity, or egg viability. Guava, soursop, and acerola were preferred for oviposition, followed by star fruit, Malay apple, cashew, and yellow mombin. Oviposition did not occur on umbu. In general, fruits with better larval development were also more accepted for oviposition.Influência de diferentes frutos tropicais em aspectos biológicos e comportamentais da mosca-das-frutas Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Estudos em Ceratitis capitata, uma praga agrícola, pode auxiliar

  20. Susceptibility of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) and the Natal fruit fly (Ceratitis rosa) to entomopathogenic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Antoinette P; Manrakhan, Aruna

    2009-01-01

    The potential of entomopathogenic nematodes, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Heterorhabditis zealandica and Steinernema khoisanae, to infect pupariating larvae, pupae and adults of Ceratitis capitata and Ceratitis rosa was investigated in laboratory bioassays. Pupariating larvae and adult flies were susceptible to nematode infection, with no infection recorded for the pupae. Pupariating larvae of C. capitata were generally more susceptible to infection than those of C. rosa. Significantly more larvae of C. capitata were infected by H. bacteriophora. For C. rosa, highest infectivity of larvae was obtained with H. zealandica. In contrast, adults of both species were highly infected by S. khoisanae.

  1. Hole diameters in pet bottles used for fruit fly capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurico Paulo Batistella Pasini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted during the period from 31 January to 6 March 2012 in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil to determine the efficiency of different hole diameters in PET trap bottles on pests in guava and persimmon orchards. In a randomised block design in a factorial scheme, we assessed the average number adults of Anastrepha fraterculus, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephitidae and Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae infruits thatemerged in two situations (in the plant and on the soil; we also assessed the number of captured adults in trap bottlesunder two conditions, different hole diameters and different days after placement of the attractive solution. Smaller diameter sizescaptured more A. fraterculus, C. capitata and Z. indianusadults. The 1.0 cm diameter was the most efficient hole size in reducing the adult emergence of Tephritidae to Z. indianus, whereas the smallest diameter hole sizes, 0.6 and 0.8 cm, showed the highest efficiencies in controlling adult emergence in persimmon fruit and guava fruit.

  2. Cold storage enhances the efficacy and margin of security in postharvest irradiation treatments against fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A; Snook, Kirsten

    2013-10-01

    Cold storage is used to preserve fruit quality after harvest during transportation in marketing channels. Low temperature can be a stressor for insects that reduces survivorship, and cold storage may contribute to the efficacy of postharvest quarantine treatments such as irradiation against quarantine insect pests. The combined effect of irradiation and cold storage was examined in a radiation-tolerant fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly), and a radiation-intolerant fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Third instars on diet or in papaya were treated with a sublethal radiation dose of 30 Gy and stored at 4 or 11 degrees C for 3-13 d and held for adult emergence. For both fruit fly species, survival of third instars to the adult stage generally decreased with increasing cold storage duration at 4 or 11 degrees C in diet or papaya. Survivorship differences were highly significant for the effects of substrate (diet > papaya), temperature (11 > 4 degrees C),and irradiation (0 > 30 Gy). Few Mediterranean fruit flies survived in any cold storage treatment after receiving a radiation dose of 30 Gy. No melon fly larvae survived to the adult stage after irradiation and 11 d cold storage at 4 or 11 degrees C in papayas. Cold storage enhances the efficacy and widens the margin of security in postharvest irradiation treatments. Potentially irradiation and cold storage can be used in combination to reduce the irradiation exposure requirements of quarantine treatments.

  3. Evaluation of the efficacy of the methyl bromide fumigation schedule against Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J; Thomas, Donald B

    2011-02-01

    Methyl bromide fumigation is widely used as a phytosanitary treatment. Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of several fruit, including citrus (Citrus spp.), exported from Texas, Mexico, and Central America. Recently, live larvae have been found with supposedly correctly fumigated citrus fruit. This research investigates the efficacy of the previously approved U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service treatment schedule: 40 g/m3 methyl bromide at 21-29.4 degrees C for 2 h. Tolerance ofA. ludens to methyl bromide in descending order when fumigated in grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.) is third instar > second instar > first instar > egg. Two infestation techniques were compared: insertion into fruit of third instars reared in diet and oviposition by adult A. ludens into fruit and development to the third instar. Inserted larvae were statistically more likely to survive fumigation than oviposited larvae. When fruit were held at ambient temperature, 0.23 +/- 0.12% of larvae were still observed to be moving 4 d postfumigation. Temperatures between 21.9 and 27.2 degrees C were positively related to efficacy measured as larvae moving 24 h after fumigation, pupariation, and adult emergence. Coating grapefruit with Pearl Lustr 2-3 h before fumigation did not significantly affect the proportion of third instars moving 24 h after fumigation, pupariating, or emerging as adults. In conclusion, fumigation with 40 g/m3 methyl bromide for 2 h at fruit temperatures >26.7 degrees C is not found to be inefficacious for A. ludens. Although a few larvae may be found moving >24 h postfumigation, they do not pupariate.

  4. Evaluation of the Host Status of Mature Green Papayas 'Maradol' for the Mexican Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, José; Ruiz, Lia; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco

    2014-10-01

    The suitability of mature green 'Maradol' papaya as a host of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) was studied under field and laboratory conditions. Field tests were conducted on commercial-ripened and spot-ripened fruit in two orchards and during two seasons in the state of Chiapas. Fruits at exportation ripeness are in "commercial ripeness", while fruits that are harvested immediately preceding exportation ripeness are in "spot ripeness." The field tests consisted of forced infestation experiments that evaluated papayas at two ripeness stages: the commercial- or exportation-ripened fruit (green fruits with one or two yellow stripes) and fruit before exportation ripeness called "spot ripeness." These tests were conducted in two orchards and during two seasons in the state of Chiapas, Mexico. Laboratory trials were performed with commercial-ripened fruit only. Fruit from four different postharvest periods (3, 24, 48, and 72 h) were exposed to groups of gravid flies. No larvae emerged from the fruit that was collected in the field experiments. However, some larvae and several fertile flies were obtained from the commercial-ripened fruit 72 h postharvest but not 3, 24, and 48 h postharvest in the laboratory. The results of this study indicate that the commercially ripe fruits of papaya Maradol were resistant to or free from infestation of A. ludens flies under field conditions, though these fruits must be considered nonnatural, conditional host because they became infested in the laboratory.

  5. First Record of Calliephialtes sittenfeldae Associated with the Tephritid Fruit Fly Anastrepha spatulata in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ortega, Maurilio; Khalaim, Andrey I.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports for the first time an ichneumonid parasitoid Calliephialtes sittenfeldae Gauld Ugalde-Gómez et Hanson (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) associated with a dipteran host Anastrepha spatulata Stone (Diptera: Tephritidae), recovered from fruit of Schoepfia schreberi (Santalales: Olacaceae) in central Veracruz, Mexico. Large numbers of this parasitoid were collected and reared from its fruit fly host in three localities of Veracruz, Mexico. Some observations of its biology are also reported. This is a first record of C. sittenfeldae from Mexico, and the first record of this parasitoid species, its insect host, and the host plant. The male of this species is described and illustrated for the first time. PMID:22970708

  6. A Novel Discrete Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm for Intelligent Parallel Test sheets Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Fengrui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parallel test sheet generation (PTSG is a NP-hard combinational optimization problem, in which test sheet generation algorithm with high quality and efficiency is the core technology. Basic fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA has the defects of easily relapsing into local optimal and low convergence precision when solving PTSG problem. In this paper, a novel discrete fruit fly optimization algorithm is proposed to solve the PTSG problem, in which a discrete osphesis searching operator based on the problem-specific knowledge is designed to help the FOA escaping from being trapped in local minima. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, the simulation experiments were conducted using a series of item banks with different scales. The superiority of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated by comparing it with the particle swarm optimization algorithm and differential evolution algorithm.

  7. Sperm from the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, cannot be dispersed by conventional methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, S.; Ledezma, M.G.; Gledhill, B.L.

    1978-06-08

    Several physical and chemical methods were used in attempts to disperse sperm from the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster into a single-cell suspension. We are developing flow cytometric techniques to determine DNA variability in mammalian sperm from animals exposed to physical and chemical mutagens, carcinogens, and teratogens. Because many genetic variants of fruit flies are available, the sperm from these variants could be a critical test object for our method of measuring relative DNA content in sperm. Dispersal procedures included coating the cells with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to reduce stickiness, sonicating sperm suspensions, applying dithiothreitol (DTT) and SDS or cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) to dissolve the tails, and digesting with tryspin. All these methods were ineffective. When sperm were placed in a crude extract of spermatheca and seminal receptacles from the female, the cells became less sticky. Although many of the sperm masses were loosened, the yield of free sperm was low.

  8. Adult fruit fly attraction to larvae biases experience and mediates social learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durisko, Zachary; Anderson, Blake; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-04-01

    We investigated whether adult fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) use cues of larvae as social information in their food patch choice decisions. Adult male and female fruit flies showed attraction to odours emanating from foraging larvae, and females preferred to lay eggs on food patches occupied by larvae over similar unoccupied patches. Females learned and subsequently preferred to lay eggs at patches with novel flavours previously associated with feeding larvae over patches with novel flavours previously associated with no larvae. However, when we controlled for the duration of exposure to each flavoured patch, females no longer preferred the flavour previously associated with feeding larvae. This suggests that social learning in this context is indirect, as a result of strong social attraction biasing experience.

  9. Molecular Techniques for the Detection and Differentiation of Host and Parasitoid Species and the Implications for Fruit Fly Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Cheryl; Chapman, Toni A; Micallef, Jessica L; Reynolds, Olivia L

    2012-08-14

    Parasitoid detection and identification is a necessary step in the development and implementation of fruit fly biological control strategies employing parasitoid augmentive release. In recent years, DNA-based methods have been used to identify natural enemies of pest species where morphological differentiation is problematic. Molecular techniques also offer a considerable advantage over traditional morphological methods of fruit fly and parasitoid discrimination as well as within-host parasitoid identification, which currently relies on dissection of immature parasitoids from the host, or lengthy and labour-intensive rearing methods. Here we review recent research focusing on the use of molecular strategies for fruit fly and parasitoid detection and differentiation and discuss the implications of these studies on fruit fly management.

  10. Effects of parental age on the fecundity, fertility and longevity of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied.

    OpenAIRE

    Muñiz, M.

    1986-01-01

    Investigations with single pair mating have been conducted in order to study the influence of parental age on the adult progeny's longevity and reproductive parameters of t he Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied.

  11. Spontaneous decisions and operant conditioning in fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brembs, Björn

    2011-05-01

    Already in the 1930s Skinner, Konorski and colleagues debated the commonalities, differences and interactions among the processes underlying what was then known as "conditioned reflexes type I and II", but which is today more well-known as classical (Pavlovian) and operant (instrumental) conditioning. Subsequent decades of research have confirmed that the interactions between the various learning systems engaged during operant conditioning are complex and difficult to disentangle. Today, modern neurobiological tools allow us to dissect the biological processes underlying operant conditioning and study their interactions. These processes include initiating spontaneous behavioral variability, world-learning and self-learning. The data suggest that behavioral variability is generated actively by the brain, rather than as a by-product of a complex, noisy input-output system. The function of this variability, in part, is to detect how the environment responds to such actions. World-learning denotes the biological process by which value is assigned to environmental stimuli. Self-learning is the biological process which assigns value to a specific action or movement. In an operant learning situation using visual stimuli for flies, world-learning inhibits self-learning via a prominent neuropil region, the mushroom-bodies. Only extended training can overcome this inhibition and lead to habit formation by engaging the self-learning mechanism. Self-learning transforms spontaneous, flexible actions into stereotyped, habitual responses.

  12. Replication and characterization of the compound eye of a fruit fly for imaging purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hefu [State Key Laboratory of Applied Optics, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 3888, Dongnanhu Road, Changchun, Jilin (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10039 (China); Gong, Xianwei; Ni, Qiliang; Zhao, Jingli; Zhang, Hongsheng; Wang, Taisheng [State Key Laboratory of Applied Optics, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 3888, Dongnanhu Road, Changchun, Jilin (China); Yu, Weixing, E-mail: yuwx@szu.edu.cn [Insititue of Micro and Nano Optics, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2014-10-06

    In this work, we report the replication and characterization of the compound eye of a fruit fly for imaging purpose. In the replication, soft lithography method was employed to replicate the compound eye of a fruit fly into a UV-curable polymer. The method was demonstrated to be effective and the compound eye is replicated into the polymer (NOA78) where each ommatidium has a diameter of about 30 μm and a sag height of about 7 μm. To characterize its optical property, the point spread function of the compound eye was tested and a NA of 0.386 has been obtained for the replicated polymeric ommatidium. Comparing with the NA of a real fruit fly ommatidium which was measured to be about 0.212, the replicated polymeric ommatidium has a much larger NA due to the refractive index of NOA78 is much higher than that of the material used to form the real fruit fly ommatidium. Furthermore, the replicated compound eye was used to image a photomask patterned with grating structures to test its imaging property. It is shown that the grating with a line width of 20 μm can be clearly imaged. The image of the grating formed by the replicated compound eye was shrunk by about 10 times and therefore a line width of about 2.2 μm in the image plane has been obtained, which is close to the diffraction limited resolution calculated through the measured NA. In summary, the replication method demonstrated is effective and the replicated compound eye has the great potential in optical imaging.

  13. Replication and characterization of the compound eye of a fruit fly for imaging purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hefu; Gong, Xianwei; Ni, Qiliang; Zhao, Jingli; Zhang, Hongsheng; Wang, Taisheng; Yu, Weixing

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we report the replication and characterization of the compound eye of a fruit fly for imaging purpose. In the replication, soft lithography method was employed to replicate the compound eye of a fruit fly into a UV-curable polymer. The method was demonstrated to be effective and the compound eye is replicated into the polymer (NOA78) where each ommatidium has a diameter of about 30 μm and a sag height of about 7 μm. To characterize its optical property, the point spread function of the compound eye was tested and a NA of 0.386 has been obtained for the replicated polymeric ommatidium. Comparing with the NA of a real fruit fly ommatidium which was measured to be about 0.212, the replicated polymeric ommatidium has a much larger NA due to the refractive index of NOA78 is much higher than that of the material used to form the real fruit fly ommatidium. Furthermore, the replicated compound eye was used to image a photomask patterned with grating structures to test its imaging property. It is shown that the grating with a line width of 20 μm can be clearly imaged. The image of the grating formed by the replicated compound eye was shrunk by about 10 times and therefore a line width of about 2.2 μm in the image plane has been obtained, which is close to the diffraction limited resolution calculated through the measured NA. In summary, the replication method demonstrated is effective and the replicated compound eye has the great potential in optical imaging.

  14. Neurokernel: An Open Source Platform for Emulating the Fruit Fly Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev E Givon

    Full Text Available We have developed an open software platform called Neurokernel for collaborative development of comprehensive models of the brain of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and their execution and testing on multiple Graphics Processing Units (GPUs. Neurokernel provides a programming model that capitalizes upon the structural organization of the fly brain into a fixed number of functional modules to distinguish between these modules' local information processing capabilities and the connectivity patterns that link them. By defining mandatory communication interfaces that specify how data is transmitted between models of each of these modules regardless of their internal design, Neurokernel explicitly enables multiple researchers to collaboratively model the fruit fly's entire brain by integration of their independently developed models of its constituent processing units. We demonstrate the power of Neurokernel's model integration by combining independently developed models of the retina and lamina neuropils in the fly's visual system and by demonstrating their neuroinformation processing capability. We also illustrate Neurokernel's ability to take advantage of direct GPU-to-GPU data transfers with benchmarks that demonstrate scaling of Neurokernel's communication performance both over the number of interface ports exposed by an emulation's constituent modules and the total number of modules comprised by an emulation.

  15. Mass-rearing of Mediterranean fruit fly using low-cost yeast products produced in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Moreira da Silva Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ceratitis capitata is one of the most important pests of fruits for exportation, and Sterile Insect Technique (SIT has been the most efficient and environmental friendly technique used to control fruit fly populations around the world. A key goal in achieving a successful SIT program is a mass rearing system producing high quality insects at low cost. Providing adults with an artificial diet containing hydrolysed protein has been the major obstacle for bio-production facilities in Brazil, because it is expensive and has to be imported. Two other commercial products, autolysed yeast (AY and yeast extract (YE, of domestic origin and low cost, were tested as substitutes of the imported hydrolyzed protein. To compare their efficiency we observed the female fecundity, adult survival and egg viability of flies raised on diets containing one of each of the different protein products. Flies reared on the domestic yeast products had equivalent or superior performance to the flies reared on imported protein. Both AY and YE can be a possible substitute for imported hydrolyzed protein for C. capitata mass-rearing, as they are cheaper and are readily available in the national market.

  16. The temporal pattern of mating behavior of the fruit fly, Anastrepha zenildae in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Lucia M de; Araújo, Arrilton; Mendes, Norma H D; Souza, João M G A de; Menezes, Alexandre A L

    2011-01-01

    The state of Rio Grande do Norte is an important fruit-producing and exporting area in northeastern Brazil. The success of this industry depends on fruit fly population control, especially in fly-free exporting zones. However, many fruits are not exported because of quarantine restrictions imposed by importing countries. A survey in the state has detected a considerable increase of the fruit fly, Anastrepha zenildae Zucchi (Diptera: Tephritidae), probably a result of the introduction of irrigated guava orchards that make fruit available all year. Knowledge of the sexual behavior of Tephritidae has great importance to pest control programs, particularly those that employ the Sterile Insect Technique. In order to characterize the reproductive behavior of A. zenildae, 32 individuals (16 males; 16 females) in each of six generations were submitted to an artificial 12:12 L:D cycle (750: < 1 lux, lights on 07:00-19:00) and observed over their lifetimes. The courtship and copulation occurred in leks and the episodes varied with the time of day, courtship being most frequent between Zeitgeber time (ZT) 3 and ZT 7, peaking at ZT 5-6. Copulations occurred between ZT 2 and ZT 8, with a higher frequency between ZT 5-7 and a peak at ZT 6. Mean duration was 0.28 ± 0.03 min/male (range: 5-163 min). Males in the leks attempted to copulate mainly between ZT 3 and ZT 7 with a peak at ZT 6, and males outside leks peaked at ZT 7. The different timing of sexual behaviors among related sympatric species, including A. zenildae, may contribute to species isolation.

  17. The Temporal Pattern of Mating Behavior of the Fruit Fly, Anastrepha zenildae in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Lucia M.; Araújo, Arrilton; Mendes, Norma H.D.; de Souza, João M.G.A.; Menezes, Alexandre A.L.

    2011-01-01

    The state of Rio Grande do Norte is an important fruit-producing and exporting area in northeastern Brazil. The success of this industry depends on fruit fly population control, especially in fly-free exporting zones. However, many fruits are not exported because of quarantine restrictions imposed by importing countries. A survey in the state has detected a considerable increase of the fruit fly, Anastrepha zenildae Zucchi (Diptera: Tephritidae), probably a result of the introduction of irrigated guava orchards that make fruit available all year. Knowledge of the sexual behavior of Tephritidae has great importance to pest control programs, particularly those that employ the Sterile Insect Technique. In order to characterize the reproductive behavior of A. zenildae, 32 individuals (16 males; 16 females) in each of six generations were submitted to an artificial 12:12 L:D cycle (750: < 1 lux, lights on 07:00–19:00) and observed over their lifetimes. The courtship and copulation occurred in leks and the episodes varied with the time of day, courtship being most frequent between Zeitgeber time (ZT) 3 and ZT 7, peaking at ZT 5–6. Copulations occurred between ZT 2 and ZT 8, with a higher frequency between ZT 5–7 and a peak at ZT 6. Mean duration was 0.28 ± 0.03 min/male (range: 5–163 min). Males in the leks attempted to copulate mainly between ZT 3 and ZT 7 with a peak at ZT 6, and males outside leks peaked at ZT 7. The different timing of sexual behaviors among related sympatric species, including A. zenildae, may contribute to species isolation. PMID:22236152

  18. Water deficit-induced changes in mesocarp cellular processes and the relationship between mesocarp and endocarp during olive fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucci, Riccardo; Lodolini, Enrico M; Rapoport, Hava F

    2009-12-01

    A field experiment was conducted during two consecutive growing seasons to determine and quantify the growth response of the olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Leccino) fruit and of its component tissues to tree water status. Pre-dawn leaf water potential (Psi(w)) and fruit volume were measured at about weekly intervals, and fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) of the fruit tissues at 15, 20 and 21 weeks after full bloom (AFB). Fruit anatomical sections were prepared at 8, 15 and 21 weeks AFB for area determinations and cell counts. Fruit volume of the well-watered trees (average Psi(w) = -0.97 MPa) increased rapidly and reached the greatest final size, that from the most stressed (average Psi(w) = -2.81 MPa) grew most slowly and were smallest. In general, equatorial transverse areas of the mesocarp increased with increasing Psi(w), and this response was more evident at 21 than at 15 weeks AFB. By 21 weeks AFB, the mesocarp of the well-watered trees reached values more than three times higher than those measured at 8 weeks AFB. The endocarp FW and DW did not increase between 15 and 21 weeks AFB. Within each sampling date the endocarp area, FW and DW responded weakly to Psi(w). The mesocarp-to-endocarp ratio (FW and DW) increased from 15 to 21 weeks AFB regardless of water status, mainly due to the mesocarp growth. In both years at 20 and 21 weeks AFB, low values of the mesocarp-to-endocarp ratio were found with Psi(w) below -2.5 MPa. Within the mesocarp, cell size was more responsive to water deficit than to cell number. At 8 weeks AFB, the number of cells in the mesocarp was unaffected by tree water deficit, whereas cell size decreased, although slightly, in fruits sampled from trees in which Psi(w) was < -3.0 MPa. At 21 weeks AFB, cell size showed a linear decrease with increasing level of water deficit, whereas the number of cells at 21 weeks AFB decreased as the Psi(w) decreased below -2.5 MPa and seemed unaffected above that range. Overall, the results clarify the

  19. Dynamics of pH modification of an acidic protein bait used for tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traps baited with synthetic food-based lures that include blends of ammonia, either as ammonium acetate or ammonium bicarbonate, and putrescine capture a number of Anastrepha and Bactrocera species fruit flies. However, for many of these species, more flies are captured in traps baited with the pro...

  20. Soil moisture and relative humidity effects during post-diapause on emergence of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in western North America that is found in relatively moist and dry habitats. In this study, fly pupae from Kennewick and Roslyn in Washington state, U.S.A., were used to test the hypotheses tha...

  1. Behavioral responses, rate of mortality, and oviposition of western cherry fruit fly exposed to Malathion, Zeta-cypermethrin, and Spinetoram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of sweet and tart cherry, Prunus avium L. (L.) and P. cerasus L., respectively, in western North America. This fly is commonly controlled with spinosad bait sprays, but these sprays are ineffective against sp...

  2. Pupal Mortality and Adult Emergence of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Exposed to the Fungus Muscodor albus (Xylariales: Xylariaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a major pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., that is conventionally controlled using insecticides. One alternative to the use of insecticides for fly control could be fumigation of the fly’s overwintering habitat using the fungus Mus...

  3. Evaluation of different mechanical fruit harvesting systems and oil quality in very large size olive trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Famiani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 and 2009, trials were carried out in the Apulia region in Southern Italy to evalu-ate the possibility of mechanizing olive harvesting in groves of old and very large trees. The trees belonged to the cultivars ‘Cellina di Nardò’ and ‘Ogliarola Salentina’. They were 60-100 years old and 7-9 m tall with a canopy volume of 140-360 m3. In the first half of November 2006, with a mechanical beater mounted on a tractor plus hand-held pneumatic combs, the harvesting yield was close to 90% of the total olives present in the canopy, and the harvesting working productivity was around 60 kg of harvested olives h-1 worker-1. With a self-propelled shaker attached to the main branches the harvesting yield was about 73% in ‘Cellina di Nardò’, and 40% in ‘Ogliarola Salentina’, while the harvesting working productivities were around 103 and 85 kg of harvested olives h-1 worker-1, respectively. In the second half of No-vember 2009, in ‘Cellina di Nardò’, with a mechanical beater mounted on a tractor plus nets on the ground or a catching frame (reversed umbrella mounted on another tractor, the harvesting yield was about 97%. The working productivity was about 98 kg of harvested olives h-1 worker-1 with the mechanical beater plus nets and around 133 kg of harvested olives h-1 worker-1 when the mechanical beater was combined with a reversed umbrella. The oil obtained from the mechanically harvested olives was always of high quality. A basic economic evaluation of the harvesting costs is also reported.

  4. Pre and post harvest IPM for the mango fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verghese, Abraham; Sreedevi, K.; Nagaraju, D.K., E-mail: avergis@iihr.ernet.i [Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore, Karnataka (India)

    2006-07-01

    The fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is a major pest of mango in India. So, investigations were carried out to standardize an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for fruit fly-free and residue-free mango fruits. The study required orchard and laboratory studies, which were conducted on the commercial variety Banganapalli, at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake P.O., Bangalore, India, during 2004 and 2005. Results showed that a pre harvest IPM combination of male annihilation technique (MAT) (using methyl eugenol as a lure) + sanitation brought down B. dorsalis infestation to 5.00% from an infestation ranging from 17 to 66% in control in both years. An additional cover spray of Decamethrin 2.8EC 0.5ml/l (which is half the recommended dose) + Azadirachtin (0.03 %) 2ml/l (neem based botanical) gave 100% control in both the years. Post harvest treatments with hot water at 48 degree C for 60 and 75 min resulted in 100% control at both the time regimes in 2004 and 2005. The untreated fruits, which were also exposed to gravid females (but not treated in hot water) showed 30% and 5.5% infestations, respectively, in 2004 and 2005. (author)

  5. Phenolics profiles of olive fruits (Olea europaea L.) and oils from Ayvalık, Domat and Gemlik varieties at different ripening stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dağdelen, Ayhan; Tümen, Gülendam; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Dündar, Ekrem

    2013-01-01

    Phenolic compounds in olive fruit and oils obtained from Ayvalık, Domat and Gemlik olive varieties collected at different ripening periods were evaluated by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Gallic acid and p-cumaric acid were identified for Ayvalık and Domat at each period of ripening, respectively. In addition, gallic acid, p-cumaric acid, sinapinic and apigenin acids were detected in Gemlik olive fruit. Hydroxytyrosol, rutin, oleoropein, luteolin, tyrosol, vanilic acid and gallic acid in Ayvalık olive fruit in all ripening periods were determined. The tyrasol contents varied between 0.18 to 1.57mg/kg. Luteolin contents of olive oils ranged at the levels between 0.12 to 2.28mg/kg. In contrast, oils had the lowest syringic, p-cumaric, chlorogenic and ferulic acids. Vanillic acid contents of oils ranged between 0.08 to 2.38mg/kg. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fine-scale ecological and economic assessment of climate change on olive in the Mediterranean Basin reveals winners and losers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Luigi; Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; Ruti, Paolo Michele; Dell'Aquila, Alessandro

    2014-04-15

    The Mediterranean Basin is a climate and biodiversity hot spot, and climate change threatens agro-ecosystems such as olive, an ancient drought-tolerant crop of considerable ecological and socioeconomic importance. Climate change will impact the interactions of olive and the obligate olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae), and alter the economics of olive culture across the Basin. We estimate the effects of climate change on the dynamics and interaction of olive and the fly using physiologically based demographic models in a geographic information system context as driven by daily climate change scenario weather. A regional climate model that includes fine-scale representation of the effects of topography and the influence of the Mediterranean Sea on regional climate was used to scale the global climate data. The system model for olive/olive fly was used as the production function in our economic analysis, replacing the commonly used production-damage control function. Climate warming will affect olive yield and fly infestation levels across the Basin, resulting in economic winners and losers at the local and regional scales. At the local scale, profitability of small olive farms in many marginal areas of Europe and elsewhere in the Basin will decrease, leading to increased abandonment. These marginal farms are critical to conserving soil, maintaining biodiversity, and reducing fire risk in these areas. Our fine-scale bioeconomic approach provides a realistic prototype for assessing climate change impacts in other Mediterranean agro-ecosystems facing extant and new invasive pests.

  7. Vision-mediated exploitation of a novel host plant by a tephritid fruit fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, Jaime C; Souder, Steven K; Vargas, Roger I

    2017-01-01

    Shortly after its introduction into the Hawaiian Islands around 1895, the polyphagous, invasive fruit fly Bactrocera (Zeugodacus) cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was provided the opportunity to expand its host range to include a novel host, papaya (Carica papaya). It has been documented that female B. cucurbitae rely strongly on vision to locate host fruit. Given that the papaya fruit is visually conspicuous in the papaya agro-ecosystem, we hypothesized that female B. cucurbitae used vision as the main sensory modality to find and exploit the novel host fruit. Using a comparative approach that involved a series of studies under natural and semi-natural conditions in Hawaii, we assessed the ability of female B. cucurbitae to locate and oviposit in papaya fruit using the sensory modalities of olfaction and vision alone and also in combination. The results of these studies demonstrate that, under a variety of conditions, volatiles emitted by the novel host do not positively stimulate the behavior of the herbivore. Rather, vision seems to be the main mechanism driving the exploitation of the novel host. Volatiles emitted by the novel host papaya fruit did not contribute in any way to the visual response of females. Our findings highlight the remarkable role of vision in the host-location process of B. cucurbitae and provide empirical evidence for this sensory modality as a potential mechanism involved in host range expansion.

  8. Differences in antennal sensillae of male and female peach fruit flies in relation to hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Azza A; Mohamed, Hend O; Ali, Nashat A

    2015-01-01

    Antennal sensillae of male and female peach fruit flies, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae), obtained from three different host fruit species (guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae); peach, Prunus persica (L.) Stokes (Rosales: Rosaceae); and orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Sapindales: Rutaceae)), were studied with scanning electron microscopy. This study was carried out to describe the different types of sensillae present on the three antennal segments (scape, pedicel, and flagellum or funiculus) of both sexes of B. zonata on different host fruit. The antennal segments of females tended to be larger than those of males feeding on peach and guava fruit. On orange, both sexes were similar (no significant differences were found). The first two antennal segments, scape and pedicel, are reinforced by some bristles and have different types of sensillae, including trichoid I, II, S; basiconic II; and sensilla chaetica in different numbers on different host fruit species. Numerous microtrichia, as well as trichoid (I, II), basiconic (I), clavate, and coeloconic (I, II) sensillae were observed on the funiculus with a great variation in number and length. As a result of feeding on different hosts, differences were found between sexes and some plasticity in size, number, distribution, and position of some sensillae, including trichoid, basiconic, chaetica, and clavate on the antennae of the female B. zonata. These sensillae were significantly larger in females. Also, some morphological and morphemetric differences have been found according to their feeding on different host fruit.

  9. Diet Shapes Mortality Response to Trauma in Old Tephritid Fruit Flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Carey

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of trauma in healthspan and lifespan in humans as well as in non-human species, with one important exception the literature in both gerontology and ecology contains virtually no experimental demographic studies concerned with trauma in any species. We used dietary manipulation [full diet (F versus sugar-only (S] to produce four levels of frailty in 55-day old tephritid fruit flies (Anastrepha ludens that were then subject to the trauma of cage transfer stress (n = 900/sex in each of the 4 treatments. The key results included the following: (1 there is a trauma effect caused by the transfer that depends on previous diet before transfer, new diet after transfer and gender of the fly; (2 males are more vulnerable than females; (3 if initial diet was F, flies are relatively immune against the trauma, and the subsequent diet (F or S does not matter; (4 however if initial diet was S, then the effect of the trauma depends largely on the diet after the transfer; (5 flies transferred from S to F diets do very well in terms of remaining longevity (i.e. greatest remaining longevity, while flies transferred from S to S diet do poorly (i.e. shortest remaining longevity. We discuss both the strengths and weaknesses of this study and implications of the results.

  10. Effect of agronomical practices on carpology, fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties, in olive (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Adolfo; Cafiero, Caterina; Paoletti, Andrea; Alfei, Barbara; Caporali, Silvia; Casciani, Lorena; Valentini, Massimiliano

    2014-09-15

    We examined whether some agronomical practices (i.e. organic vs. conventional) affect olive fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties. Fruit characteristics (i.e. fresh and dry weight of pulp and pit, oil content on a fresh and dry weight basis) did not differ. Oil chemical traits did not differ except for increased content of polyphenols in the organic treatments, and some changes in the acidic composition. Sensory analysis revealed increased bitterness (both cultivars) and pungency (Frantoio) and decreased sweetness (Frantoio) in the organic treatment. Fruit metabolomic analysis with HRMAS-NMR indicated significant changes in some compounds including glycocholate, fatty acids, NADPH, NADP+, some amino acids, thymidine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid, 5,6-dihydrouracil, hesanal, cis-olefin, β-D-glucose, propanal and some unassigned species. The results suggest that agronomical practices may have effects on fruit composition that may be difficult to detect unless a broad-spectrum analysis is used. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The mating system of the true fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni and its sister species, Bactrocera neohumeralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanayake, Wasala M T D; Jayasundara, Mudalige S H; Peek, Thelma; Clarke, Anthony R; Schutze, Mark K

    2017-06-01

    The frugivorous "true" fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Queensland fruit fly), is presumed to have a nonresourced-based lek mating system. This is largely untested, and contrary data exists to suggest Bactrocera tryoni may have a resource-based mating system focused on fruiting host plants. We tested the mating system of Bactrocera tryoni, and its close sibling Bactrocera neohumeralis, in large field cages using laboratory reared flies. We used observational experiments that allowed us to determine if: (i) mating pairs were aggregated or nonaggregated; (ii) mating system was resource or nonresource based; (iii) flies utilized possible landmarks (tall trees over short) as mate-rendezvous sites; and (iv) males called females from male-dominated leks. We recorded nearly 250 Bactrocera tryoni mating pairs across all experiments, revealing that: (i) mating pairs were aggregated; (ii) mating nearly always occurred in tall trees over short; (iii) mating was nonresource based; and (iv) that males and females arrived at the mate-rendezvous site together with no evidence that males preceded females. Bactrocera neohumeralis copulations were much more infrequent (only 30 mating pairs in total), but for those pairs there was a similar preference for tall trees and no evidence of a resource-based mating system. Some aspects of Bactrocera tryoni mating behavior align with theoretical expectations of a lekking system, but others do not. Until evidence for unequivocal female choice can be provided (as predicted under a true lek), the mating system of Bactrocera tryoni is best described as a nonresource based, aggregation system for which we also have evidence that land-marking may be involved. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. Establishment of the west indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoid Doryctobracon areolatus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), infests numerous fruit species, particularly Anacardiaceae and most importantly mango (Mangifera indica L.). Widespread in the Neotropics, it was first reported in Hispaniola nearly 70 years ago. Continental populations are attacked by the op...

  13. Beyond vegetative propagation of indigenous fruit trees: case of Dacryodes edulis (G. Don H. J. Lam and Allanblackia floribunda Oliv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaah, Ebenezar K.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous fruits/nuts of Africa’s humid tropics are increasingly being recognized for their contribution to food security, health (nutrition/medicine, income generation, employment and environmental benefits. However, cultivation of the trees yielding these fruits/nuts is constrained by lack of improved planting materials that are true-to-type and have a short enough juvenile phase to fruit production. In addition, information on both above and belowground growth attributes of these species is scarce. This paper presents an overview of the results of a doctoral research focused on two African indigenous fruit tree species, i.e. Dacryodes edulis (G. Don H. J. Lam (Burseraceae and Allanblackia floribunda Oliv. (Clusiaceae, which are currently under domestication. For D. edulis, the objective was to assess and compare the structural and fine rooting systems together with the above ground growth attributes of fruiting trees propagated either sexually or vegetatively. The research aim for A. floribunda was to shorten the long juvenile phase before first fruiting through grafting techniques. In summary, the results from the studies on D. edulis suggest that vegetative propagation of the species, reduces the long juvenile phase to fruiting and maintains trueness in the transfer of desirable traits over generations, it also results in trees that are apparently less competitive for below ground resources, have more stable root system, and are bigger in stature and higher in carbon sinks compared to trees of seed origin. In parallel, A. floribunda was shown to be amenable to grafting both under nursery and field (in situ conditions. Furthermore, a grafted A. floribunda tree transplanted in the field in 2007, flowered and carried a single fruit to maturity after 4 years, thereby reducing the long juvenile period to first fruit production from about 10-12 years reported in literature to less than 5 years. The findings of this doctoral research are

  14. Testing candidate genes for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in fruit flies using a high throughput assay for complex behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Palle Duun; Madsen, Lisbeth Strøm; Arvidson, Sandra Marie Neumann

    2016-01-01

    Fruit flies are important model organisms for functional testing of candidate genes in multiple disciplines, including the study of human diseases. Here we use a high-throughput locomotor activity assay to test the response on activity behavior of gene disruption in Drosophila melanogaster. The aim...... was to investigate the impact of disruption of 14 candidate genes for human attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on fly behavior. By obtaining a range of correlated measures describing the space of variables for behavioral activity we show, that some mutants display similar phenotypic responses...... in fruit flies. Results provide additional support for the investigated genes being risk candidate genes for ADHD in humans....

  15. Effects of polygamy on the activity/rest rhythm of male fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, Vivek Rohidas; Varma, Vishwanath; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Although polygamy is common in insects, its extent varies enormously among natural populations. Mating systems influence the evolution of reproductive traits and the difference in extent of polygamy between males and females may be a key factor in determining traits which come under the influence of sexual selection. Fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster are promiscuous as both males and females mate with multiple partners. Mating has severe consequences on the physiology and behaviour of flies, and it affects their activity/rest rhythm in a sex-specific manner. In this study, we attempted to discern the effects of mating with multiple partners as opposed to a single partner, or of remaining unmated, on the activity/rest rhythm of flies under cyclic semi-natural (SN) and constant dark (DD) conditions. The results revealed that while evening activity of mated flies was significantly reduced compared to virgins, polygamous males showed a more severe reduction compared to monogamous males. In contrast, though mated females showed reduction in evening activity compared to virgins, activity levels were not different between polygamous and monogamous females. Although there was no detectable effect of mating on clock period, power of the activity/rest rhythm was significantly reduced in mated females with no difference seen between polygamous and monogamous individuals. These results suggest that courtship motivation, represented by evening activity, is successively reduced in males due to mating with one or more partners, while in females, it does not depend on the number of mating partners. Based on these results we conclude that polygamy affects the activity/rest rhythm of fruit flies D. melanogaster in a sex-dependent manner.

  16. Effects of polygamy on the activity/rest rhythm of male fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, Vivek Rohidas; Varma, Vishwanath; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Although polygamy is common in insects, its extent varies enormously among natural populations. Mating systems influence the evolution of reproductive traits and the difference in extent of polygamy between males and females may be a key factor in determining traits which come under the influence of sexual selection. Fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster are promiscuous as both males and females mate with multiple partners. Mating has severe consequences on the physiology and behaviour of flies, and it affects their activity/rest rhythm in a sex-specific manner. In this study, we attempted to discern the effects of mating with multiple partners as opposed to a single partner, or of remaining unmated, on the activity/rest rhythm of flies under cyclic semi-natural (SN) and constant dark (DD) conditions. The results revealed that while evening activity of mated flies was significantly reduced compared to virgins, polygamous males showed a more severe reduction compared to monogamous males. In contrast, though mated females showed reduction in evening activity compared to virgins, activity levels were not different between polygamous and monogamous females. Although there was no detectable effect of mating on clock period, power of the activity/rest rhythm was significantly reduced in mated females with no difference seen between polygamous and monogamous individuals. These results suggest that courtship motivation, represented by evening activity, is successively reduced in males due to mating with one or more partners, while in females, it does not depend on the number of mating partners. Based on these results we conclude that polygamy affects the activity/rest rhythm of fruit flies D. melanogaster in a sex-dependent manner.

  17. Chilled packing systems for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the sterile insect technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Emilio; Escobar, Arseny; Bravo, Bigail; Montoya, Pablo [Instituto Interamericano de Cooperacion para la Agricultura (IICA), Chiapas (Mexico); Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (SAGARPA), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico). Programa Moscafrut

    2010-07-15

    We evaluated three packing systems (PARC boxes, 'GT' screen towers and 'MX' screen towers) for the emergence and sexual maturation of sterile fruit flies, at three adult fl y densities (1, 1.2 and 1.3 fly/cm 2) and three food types. At the lowest density, results showed no significant differences in the longevity and flight ability of adult Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua Macquart among the three packing systems. Higher densities resulted in a decrease in these parameters. In the evaluation of the three food types, no significant differences were found either on longevity or flight ability of A. ludens. However, the greatest longevity for both sexes A. obliqua was obtained with commercial powdered Mb and the mix of sugar, protein and corn starch on paper (SPCP) food types. The highest value for flight ability in A. obliqua males was obtained with powdered Mb and SPCP food types, and for females with Mb powdered food. Our data indicated that GT and MX screen tower packing systems are an alternative to the PARC boxes, since they were suitable for adult fl y sexual maturation without any harm to their longevity or flight ability. The tested foods were equivalent in both fruit fl y species, with the exception of the agar type for A. obliqua, which yielded the lowest biological parameters evaluated. Our results contribute to the application of new methods for the packing and release of sterile flies in large-scale programs. (author)

  18. Temporal regulation of proteome profile in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Perumal; Jayapalan, Jaime J; Abdul-Rahman, Puteri S; Arumugam, Manjula; Hashim, Onn H

    2016-01-01

    Background. Diurnal rhythms of protein synthesis controlled by the biological clock underlie the rhythmic physiology in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. In this study, we conducted a proteome-wide investigation of rhythmic protein accumulation in D. melanogaster. Materials and Methods. Total protein collected from fly samples harvested at 4 h intervals over the 24 h period were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, trypsin digestion and MS/MS analysis. Protein spots/clusters were identified with MASCOT search engine and Swiss-Prot database. Expression of proteins was documented as percentage of volume contribution using the Image Master 2D Platinum software. Results. A total of 124 protein spots/clusters were identified using MS/MS analysis. Significant variation in the expression of 88 proteins over the 24-h period was observed. A relatively higher number of proteins was upregulated during the night compared to the daytime. The complexity of temporal regulation of the D. melanogaster proteome was further reflected from functional annotations of the differently expressed proteins, with those that were upregulated at night being restricted to the heat shock proteins and proteins involved in metabolism, muscle activity, protein synthesis/folding/degradation and apoptosis, whilst those that were overexpressed in the daytime were apparently involved in metabolism, muscle activity, ion-channel/cellular transport, protein synthesis/folding/degradation, redox homeostasis, development and transcription. Conclusion. Our data suggests that a wide range of proteins synthesized by the fruit fly, D. melanogaster, is under the regulation of the biological clock.

  19. Adaptive Wavelet Threshold Denoising Method for Machinery Sound Based on Improved Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As the sound signal of a machine contains abundant information and is easy to measure, acoustic-based monitoring or diagnosis systems exhibit obvious superiority, especially in some extreme conditions. However, the sound directly collected from industrial field is always polluted. In order to eliminate noise components from machinery sound, a wavelet threshold denoising method optimized by an improved fruit fly optimization algorithm (WTD-IFOA is proposed in this paper. The sound is firstly decomposed by wavelet transform (WT to obtain coefficients of each level. As the wavelet threshold functions proposed by Donoho were discontinuous, many modified functions with continuous first and second order derivative were presented to realize adaptively denoising. However, the function-based denoising process is time-consuming and it is difficult to find optimal thresholds. To overcome these problems, fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA was introduced to the process. Moreover, to avoid falling into local extremes, an improved fly distance range obeying normal distribution was proposed on the basis of original FOA. Then, sound signal of a motor was recorded in a soundproof laboratory, and Gauss white noise was added into the signal. The simulation results illustrated the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed approach by a comprehensive comparison among five typical methods. Finally, an industrial application on a shearer in coal mining working face was performed to demonstrate the practical effect.

  20. Discovery of Chemosensory Genes in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhongzhen; Zhang, He; Wang, Zhengbing; Bin, Shuying; He, Hualiang; Lin, Jintian

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a devastating fruit fly pest in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Like other insects, this fly uses its chemosensory system to efficiently interact with its environment. However, our understanding of the molecular components comprising B. dorsalis chemosensory system is limited. Using next generation sequencing technologies, we sequenced the transcriptome of four B. dorsalis developmental stages: egg, larva, pupa and adult chemosensory tissues. A total of 31 candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 4 candidate chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 23 candidate odorant receptors (ORs), 11 candidate ionotropic receptors (IRs), 6 candidate gustatory receptors (GRs) and 3 candidate sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) were identified. The tissue distributions of the OBP and CSP transcripts were determined by RT-PCR and a subset of nine genes were further characterized. The predicted proteins from these genes shared high sequence similarity to Drosophila melanogaster pheromone binding protein related proteins (PBPRPs). Interestingly, one OBP (BdorOBP19c) was exclusively expressed in the sex pheromone glands of mature females. RT-PCR was also used to compare the expression of the candidate genes in the antennae of male and female B. dorsalis adults. These antennae-enriched OBPs, CSPs, ORs, IRs and SNMPs could play a role in the detection of pheromones and general odorants and thus could be useful target genes for the integrated pest management of B. dorsalis and other agricultural pests.

  1. Epicuticular Wax in Developing Olives (Olea europaea) Is Highly Dependent upon Cultivar and Fruit Ripeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichi, Stefania; Cortés-Francisco, Nuria; Caixach, Josep; Barrios, Gonçal; Mateu, Jordi; Ninot, Antonia; Romero, Agustí

    2016-08-01

    The epicuticular wax (EW) layer is located on the surface of most plant organs. It provides the cuticle with most of its properties and is the primary barrier against biotic and abiotic stress. Despite the importance of Olea europaea cultivation, few studies have characterized the EW covering leaves and olives, which could be involved in resistance to both infection and environmental conditions. In the present study, wide-ranging screening was carried out using direct-injection electrospray ionization coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry to analyze EW in developing olives of nine varieties. The proportions of EW fractions [wax esters (WEs), diacylglycerols, triacylglycerols (TAGs), triterpenic acids, and aldehydes] strongly depended upon the olive cultivar and, in only a few cases, were influenced by the sampling date. The specific compositions of the major fractions, WEs and TAGs, were strictly related to the cultivar, while the degree of unsaturation and chain length of the WEs evolved throughout the 4 weeks prior to the olive turning color.

  2. THERMAL TREATMENT WITH HOT AIR IN THE CONTROL OF FRUIT FLY IN SAPOTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Vilian de Moraes Lima Marinus

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the main postharvest problems of the sapota (Achras sapota L. is caused by the fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, affecting its quality and commercialization. With this experiment, the objective was to evaluate the effect of hot air as thermal treatment in the control of immature phases of Ceratitis capitata and the fruit quality. The research was carried out at Entomology Laboratory – Centro de Ciências Agrárias, UFPB, Areia-PB. It was made the damaging of fruits with eggs inoculation of Ceratitis capitata and after three days the fruits were treated in hot air at temperatures of 46±1°C and 50±1°C, during 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 minutes. Hot air was injected in the chamber using an equipment of the Skill mark. It was used a randomized design, in factorial scheme of 2x5+1 (two temperatures, five times of exhibition and one control, with four replications. The treatment with hot air was efficient to control the immature phases of C. capitata during 75 and 90 minutes of exposure and didn't affect the physical and chemical qualities of the sapota fruits.

  3. The Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata in Iran: genetic diversity and comparison with other countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rajabiyan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann is an economically important pest on fruits all over the world. The origin of this fly is thought to be from Africa, but it has recently expanded its distribution in many geographic regions including Iran. Due to the wide spread of this pest in Iran and its serious damage to fruit on trees, including citrus orchards of northern Iran, the present study was conducted firstly to investigate genetic diversity within populations of C. capitata based on the sequences of three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA genes including cytochrome C oxidase I (COI, NAHD dehydrogenase subunits 4 and 5 (ND4 and ND5 and secondly to compare the Iranian haplotypes with those found in other countries. Results of this study indicated low levels of genetic diversity (four, four and three haplotypes among different populations of this pest, respectively for the COI, ND4 and ND5 genes in northern Iranian populations. The genetic similarity and very low levels of genetic diversity of northern Iranian populations suggest that the pest colonisation occurred relatively recently. In addition, haplotypes of Mazandaran province are similar to haplotypes of those countries that have recently been infected by this pest.

  4. Morphological cladistic analysis of eight popular Olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars grown in Saudi Arabia using Numerical Taxonomic System for personal computer to detect phyletic relationship and their proximate fruit composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ruqaie, I; Al-Khalifah, N S; Shanavaskhan, A E

    2016-01-01

    Varietal identification of olives is an intrinsic and empirical exercise owing to the large number of synonyms and homonyms, intensive exchange of genotypes, presence of varietal clones and lack of proper certification in nurseries. A comparative study of morphological characters of eight olive cultivars grown in Saudi Arabia was carried out and analyzed using NTSYSpc (Numerical Taxonomy System for personal computer) system segregated smaller fruits in one clade and the rest in two clades. Koroneiki, a Greek cultivar with a small sized fruit shared arm with Spanish variety Arbosana. Morphologic analysis using NTSYSpc revealed that biometrics of leaves, fruits and seeds are reliable morphologic characters to distinguish between varieties, except for a few morphologically very similar olive cultivars. The proximate analysis showed significant variations in the protein, fiber, crude fat, ash and moisture content of different cultivars. The study also showed that neither the size of fruit nor the fruit pulp thickness is a limiting factor determining crude fat content of olives.

  5. Mercury in fruiting bodies of Fly Agaric Amanita muscaria (L.: Fr.) Pers. collected from Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, J.; Lipka, K.

    2003-05-01

    Total mercury concentrations were determined in the fruiting bodies of Fly Agaric Amanita muscaria (L.: FL) Pers. and underlying soil substrate collected from several sites in Poland in 1993-2000 to evaluate mercury status as contaminant and bioindicating features of this species. The samples were collected from the spatially distant sites such as: Zaborski Landscape Park, Mierzeja Wiślana Landscape Park, Wdzydzki Landscape Park, Borecka Forest, Tucholskie Forest, Wieluńska Upland, the communities of Gubin, Manowo, Lubiana and Morag. Total mercury content of caps and stalks of Fly agaric varied widely depending on the sites examined. The range of the mean mercury concentrations for all 17 sites was between 96±10 and 1900±1400 ng/g dry wt for the caps and between 6l±32 and 920±760 ng/g dry wt for the stalks, while between 4.4±3.1 and 150±20 ng/g were noted for soil substrate samples from 9 sites examined. Fly agaric independently of the site examined showed relatively good capacity to accumulate total mercury and BCF values varied between 16±10 and 74±15 for the caps and between 11±8 and 42±10 for the stalks. Nevertheless, relatively high bioconcentration potential of mercury by Fly agaric seems to be specific for that species and under soil mercury concentrations noted no bioindication properties of this mushroom could be observed.

  6. Gut symbiont enhances insecticide resistance in a significant pest, the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Daifeng; Guo, Zijun; Riegler, Markus; Xi, Zhiyong; Liang, Guangwen; Xu, Yijuan

    2017-02-01

    Symbiotic bacteria affect insect physiology and ecology. They may also mediate insecticide resistance within their hosts and thereby impact pest and vector control practices. Here, we document a novel mechanism of insecticide resistance in which a gut symbiont of the tephritid pest fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis enhances resistance to the organophosphate insecticide trichlorphon. We demonstrated that the gut symbiont Citrobacter sp. (CF-BD) plays a key role in the degradation of trichlorphon. Based on a comparative genomics analysis with other Citrobacter species, phosphatase hydrolase genes were identified in CF-BD. These CF-BD genes had higher expression when trichlorphon was present. Bactrocera dorsalis inoculated with isolated CF-BD obtained higher trichlorphon resistance, while antibiotic-treated flies were less resistant confirming the key role of CF-BD in insecticide resistance. Our findings suggest that symbiont-mediated insecticide resistance can readily develop in B. dorsalis and may represent a more widely relevant insecticide resistance mechanism than previously recognized.

  7. Temporal Overlap and Co-Occurrence in a Guild of Sub-Tropical Tephritid Fruit Flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleidyane N Lopes

    Full Text Available Studies of community assembly have emphasized snapshot comparisons of spatially replicated samples from "natural" assemblages. Agro-ecosystems are characterized by relatively little habitat heterogeneity and no dispersal barriers for actively flying insects. Therefore, dynamic patterns of species segregation and aggregation are more likely to reflect the direct or indirect effects of species interactions. We studied the temporal organization of a guild of 21 congeneric species of Anastrepha that colonized fruit orchards in Monte Alegre do Sul, São Paulo, Brazil. This assemblage also included the introduced Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata. One hundred six consecutive weekly censuses (11 Jan 2002-16 Jan 2004 of flies in guava, loquat, and peach orchards revealed a pattern of minimum abundance during the coldest months of each year (June and July and a maximum abundance during periods of flowering and fruit ripening. Overall, phenological overlap was greater than expected by chance. However, conditioned on the pattern of seasonal abundances, temporal occurrence and abundance matrices exhibited patterns of significant species segregation and anti-nestedness. In each year, the 3 orchards contained a small number of species pairs that exhibited statistically significant temporal segregation or aggregation. Most aggregated and segregated pairs reflected seasonal shifts in species presences that were not related to variation in air temperature. Most of the significant pairwise associations involved C. capitata: 8 of the 11 segregated pairs and 2 of the 7 aggregated pairs. These results suggest that species interactions between introduced and native species can be an important determinant of species associations in agro-ecosystems.

  8. Vegetative growth and fruit set of olive (Olea europaea L. cv. ‘Zard’ in response to some soil and plant factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid NOORI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to explore the reasons of difference between ‘Zard’ olive orchard with the poor vegetative growth rate and fruit set and orchard with suitable vegetative growth rate and fruit set in relation to some soil and plant factors during two seasons. Note that assumptions were based on the overall canopy greenness of the olive trees, so experimental orchards in which the planted trees showed optimum leaf greenness were considered good situations for optimum vegetative growth and productivity. Remote sensing technologies based on normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI were employed on olive orchards, and two orchards meeting the criteria of highest amount of greenness and lowest amount of greenness were selected. Length of current-year shoot (LCYS and fruit set were considered indicators of tree vegetative growth and productivity, respectively. Results clearly indicated a significant difference between the two selected orchards in terms of canopy volume (CV, leaf nitrogen content (N, leaf potassium content (K, silt, sand, Sodium adsorption rate (SAR, available phosphorous (Pavi, total neutralizing value (TNV, electrical conductivity (EC, chloride (Cl, and Fe variables. A stepwise regression method was used to evaluate the effects of soil and plant variables on fruit set and LCYS. According to the obtained results, the main reasons for differences between two orchards in fruit set and vegetative growth was N and K deficiencies, soil salinity, and a high percentage of silt in the soil.

  9. Nutritional and technological characteristics of olive (Olea europea L.) fruit and oil: two varieties growing in two different locations of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Cevat; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Gümüş, Tuncay

    2009-08-01

    Olea europea L. fruits were evaluated for weight, moisture, ash, crude protein, crude oil, energy, crude fibre, roundness, resistance against extra force and product density. The relative density, refractive index, free fatty acids, peroxide value, iodine value and unsaponifiables were determined in the olive oils. The main fatty acids identified by gas chromatography were palmitic acid (16:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1), stearic acid (18:0), oleic acid (18:1) and linoleic acid (18:2). Of the identified fatty acids, lauric acid (12:0), linolenic acid (18:3), arachidic acid (20:0), eicosenoic acid (20:1), behenic acid (22:0) and lignoseric acid (24:0) were found in trace amounts. As expected, the oleic acid content was the major fatty acid of olive oil. Oleic acid was represented in much higher concentrations than the other acids. The product roundness, resistance against extra force, product density and weight of 100 fruit were established as technological characteristics in olive fruit. The damage energy and the unit of volume deformation energy of the Memecik and Tavşanyüreği varieties were 1.36×10(-3) J and 3.59×10(-4) J/mm(3) and 1.89×10(-3) J and 5.10×10(-4) J/mm(3), respectively. The fruits showed a similar composition, and both fruit and oil contained unsaturated fatty acids.

  10. LGMS-FOA: An Improved Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm for Solving Optimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Shan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a new fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA is proposed to solve optimization problems. In this paper, we empirically study the performance of FOA. Six different nonlinear functions are selected as testing functions. The experimental results illustrate that FOA cannot solve complex optimization problems effectively. In order to enhance the performance of FOA, an improved FOA (named LGMS-FOA is proposed. Simulation results and comparisons of LGMS-FOA with FOA and other metaheuristics show that LGMS-FOA can greatly enhance the searching efficiency and greatly improve the searching quality.

  11. [Description of aging dogs and fruit flies based on the kinetic theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viktorov, A A; Gladkikh, V D; Morozova, E E

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the adequacy of model representations, accepted in the kinetic theory of aging of living systems, the analysis of the experimental data obtained on dogs and fruit flies. The work is illustrated by applying the need to develop a mathematical model of the kinetic theory of aging to describe the probability density of death, probability of death, the average duration of life of the considered biological systems in the natural conditions of existence, as well as for dogs with limited time and chronic RA-diciannove impact, and for Drosophila - high external temperature. Op-defined kinetic equation of aging and their parameters.

  12. Chemosterilant bait stations coupled with sterile insect technique: an integrated strategy to control the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Llopis, V; Vacas, S; Sanchis, J; Primo, J; Alfaro, C

    2011-10-01

    During 2008 and 2009, the efficacy of the combination of two Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), control techniques, sterile insect technique (SIT) and a chemosterilant bait station system (Adress), was tested in three crops: citrus (Citrus spp.), stone fruit (Prunus spp.), and persimmon (Diospyros spp.). Two thousand sterile males were released per ha each week in the whole trial area (50,000 ha, SIT area). For 3,600 ha, within the whole trial area, 24 Adress traps per ha were hung (SIT + Adress area). Ten SIT + Adress plots and 10 SIT plots in each of three different fruit crops were arranged to assess Mediterranean fruit fly population densities and fruit damage throughout the trial period. To evaluate the efficacy of each treatment, the male and female populations were each monitored from August 2008 to November 2009, and injured fruit was assessed before harvest. Results showed a significant reduction in the C. capitata population in plots treated with both techniques versus plots treated only with the SIT. Likewise, a corresponding reduction in the percentage of injured fruit was observed. These data indicate the compatibility of these techniques and suggest the possibility of using Adress coupled with SIT to reduce C. capitata populations in locations with high population densities, where SIT alone is not sufficiently effective to suppress fruit fly populations to below damaging levels.

  13. Risk of introducing exotic fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata, Ceratitis cosyra, and Ceratitis rosa (Diptera: Tephritidae), into southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baini; Ma, Jun; Hu, Xuenan; Liu, Haijun; Wu, Jiajiao; Chen, Hongjun; Zhang, Runjie

    2010-08-01

    Exotic fruit flies (Ceratitis spp.) are often serious agricultural pests. Here, we used, pathway analysis and Monte Carlo simulations to assess the risk of introduction of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Ceratitis cosyra (Walker), and Ceratitis rosa Karsch, into southern China with fruit consignments and incoming travelers. Historical data, expert opinions, relevant literature, and archives were used to set appropriate parameters in the pathway analysis. Based on the ongoing quarantine/ inspection strategies of China, as well as the interception records, we estimated the annual number of each fruit fly species entering Guangdong province undetected with commercially imported fruit, and the associated risk. We also estimated the gross number of pests arriving at Guangdong ports with incoming travelers and the associated risk. Sensitivity analysis also was performed to test the impact of parameter changes and to assess how the risk could be reduced. Results showed that the risk of introduction of the three fruit fly species into southern China with fruit consignments, which are mostly transported by ship, exists but is relatively low. In contrast, the risk of introduction with incoming travelers is high and hence deserves intensive attention. Sensitivity analysis indicated that either ensuring all shipments meet current phytosanitary requirements or increasing the proportion of fruit imports sampled for inspection could substantially reduce the risk associated with commercial imports. Sensitivity analysis also provided justification for banning importation of fresh fruit by international travelers. Thus, inspection and quarantine in conjunction with intensive detection were important mitigation measures to reduce the risk of Ceratitis spp. introduced into China.

  14. An Improved Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm Inspired from Cell Communication Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuncai Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA invented recently is a new swarm intelligence method based on fruit fly’s foraging behaviors and has been shown to be competitive with existing evolutionary algorithms, such as particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. However, there are still some disadvantages in the FOA, such as low convergence precision, easily trapped in a local optimum value at the later evolution stage. This paper presents an improved FOA based on the cell communication mechanism (CFOA, by considering the information of the global worst, mean, and best solutions into the search strategy to improve the exploitation. The results from a set of numerical benchmark functions show that the CFOA outperforms the FOA and the PSO in most of the experiments. Further, the CFOA is applied to optimize the controller for preoxidation furnaces in carbon fibers production. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the CFOA.

  15. Identification and Expression Profile Analysis of Odorant Binding Proteins in the Oriental Fruit Fly Bactrocera dorsalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Olfaction is crucial in many insects for critical behaviors, including those regulating survival and reproduction. Insect odorant-binding proteins (OBPs function in the first step of the olfactory system and play an essential role in the perception of odorants, such as pheromones and host chemicals. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a destructive fruit-eating pest, due to its wide host range of up to 250 different types of fruits and vegetables, and this fly causes severe economic damage to the fruit and vegetable industry. However, OBP genes have not been largely identified in B. dorsalis. Based on our previously constructed B. dorsalis cDNA library, ten OBP genes were identified in B. dorsalis for the first time. A phylogenetic tree was generated to show the relationships among the 10 OBPs of B. dorsalis to OBP sequences of two other Dipteran species, including Drosophila melanogaster and the mosquito Anopheles gambiae. The expression profiles of the ten OBPs in different tissues (heads, thoraxes, abdomens, legs, wings, male antennae and female antenna of the mated adults were analyzed by real-time PCR. The results showed that nine of them are highly expressed in the antenna of both sexes, except BdorOBP7. Four OBPs (BdorOBP1, BdorOBP4, BdorOBP8, and BdorOBP10 are also enriched in the abdomen, and BdorOBP7 is specifically expressed in leg, indicating that it may function in other biological processes. This work will provide insight into the roles of OBPs in chemoreception and help develop new pest-control strategies.

  16. Identification and expression profile analysis of odorant binding proteins in the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weiwei; Peng, Wei; Zhu, Chipan; Zhang, Qun; Saccone, Giuseppe; Zhang, Hongyu

    2013-07-17

    Olfaction is crucial in many insects for critical behaviors, including those regulating survival and reproduction. Insect odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) function in the first step of the olfactory system and play an essential role in the perception of odorants, such as pheromones and host chemicals. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a destructive fruit-eating pest, due to its wide host range of up to 250 different types of fruits and vegetables, and this fly causes severe economic damage to the fruit and vegetable industry. However, OBP genes have not been largely identified in B. dorsalis. Based on our previously constructed B. dorsalis cDNA library, ten OBP genes were identified in B. dorsalis for the first time. A phylogenetic tree was generated to show the relationships among the 10 OBPs of B. dorsalis to OBP sequences of two other Dipteran species, including Drosophila melanogaster and the mosquito Anopheles gambiae. The expression profiles of the ten OBPs in different tissues (heads, thoraxes, abdomens, legs, wings, male antennae and female antenna) of the mated adults were analyzed by real-time PCR. The results showed that nine of them are highly expressed in the antenna of both sexes, except BdorOBP7. Four OBPs (BdorOBP1, BdorOBP4, BdorOBP8, and BdorOBP10) are also enriched in the abdomen, and BdorOBP7 is specifically expressed in leg, indicating that it may function in other biological processes. This work will provide insight into the roles of OBPs in chemoreception and help develop new pest-control strategies.

  17. Dispersal capacity of fruit fly parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae in irrigated coffee plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gisely Camargos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Diachasmimorpha longicaudata is an Old World parasitoid of tephritid fruit flies that was widely introduced in the Americas to control pest species such as the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata. Augmentative releases in irrigated coffee plantations in semiarid regions of Brazil are under consideration and dispersal capacity of D. longicaudata in this habitat are important to develop release strategies. Approximately 2,000 individuals of D. longicaudata (5 to 7 days old were released in the center of a fruiting coffee plantation every two weeks from Dec. 2009 to Apr. 2010. Dispersal from the central release point was monitored to the north, south, east, west, northeast, northwest, southeast and southwest at 11 distances, beginning at 4.6 m and ending at 90 m from the release point. At each point, a parasitism unit (approximately 120 larvae of C. capitata in the 3rd instar wrapped in voile fabric and 10 coffee beans were collected. The average dispersion distance and dispersion area were estimated by the model proposed by Dobzhansky and Wright (1943. The average dispersion distances were 27.06 m (as estimated by fruit collection and 33.11 m (as estimated by oviposition traps. The average dispersion areas were 1,315.25 m2 and 1,752.45 m2 originating from the collection of beans and parasitism units, respectively. Cohorts of 2,000 adult D. longicaudata released at six points ha−1 are estimated to result in sufficient colonization to exert significant control of Ceratitis capitata.

  18. Phenolic and volatile compounds of extra virgin olive oil (Olea europaea L. Cv. Cornicabra) with regard to fruit ripening and irrigation management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rico, Aurora; Salvador, M Desamparados; La Greca, Marta; Fregapane, Giuseppe

    2006-09-20

    This study investigated the effect of both the degree of ripening of the olive fruit and irrigation management-rain-fed, two different regulated deficit irrigations (RDI), the method proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (known as FAO), and 125 FAO (125% FAO)-on the phenolic and volatile composition of Cornicabra virgin olive oils obtained during two crop seasons. Secoiridoid phenolic derivatives greatly decreased upon increase of both irrigation and ripening, for example, the 3,4-DHPEA-EDA content decreased from 770 to 450 mg/kg through fruit ripening under rain-fed conditions and from 676 to 388 mg/kg from rain-fed conditions to FAO irrigation treatment (at a ripeness index of approximately 4). Moreover, secoiridoid derivatives of hydroxytyrosol decreased more than those of tyrosol. The levels of major volatile components decreased in the course of ripening but were higher in irrigated olive oils: for example, the E-2-hexenal content ranged between 4.2 and 2.6 mg/kg (expressed as 4-methyl-2-pentanol) over fruit maturation under rain-fed conditions and between 8.0 and 3.5 mg/kg under FAO scheduling. It is important to note that where water was applied only from the beginning of August (RDI-2), when oil begins to accumulate in the fruit, the resulting virgin olive oil presented a phenol and volatile profile similar to those of the FAO and 125 FAO methods, but with a considerable reduction in the amount of water supplied to the olive orchard.

  19. Cold Tolerance of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly in Date and Mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazit, Yoav; Akiva, Ruti; Gavriel, Sagi

    2014-10-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is an endemic pest in Israel and there can be low levels of infestation of dates (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Because C. capitata is considered a quarantine pest by several major importing countries, the export of fresh dates requires the elimination of this pest. For mandarin, cold storage at 1.11°C for 15 d is considered to be an effective treatment for the elimination of C. capitata. In this study, we compared the cold tolerance of C. capitata in "Barhi" dates to that of C. capitata in mandarins (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch, "Satsuma"). In Barhi dates, we found the third instars to be the most cold-tolerant as compared with other life stages. Ceratitis capitata in date fruits were significantly less cold-tolerant than C. capitata in Satsuma mandarins. The last viable larvae in dates and mandarins were found after 8 and 13 d of treatment, respectively, and the calculated mortality curves in the two crops were significantly different. These results demonstrate that C. capitata is more sensitive to cold treatment when in date fruits than in mandarins. Therefore, the quarantine cold treatments used to eliminate C. capitata from mandarins should be sufficiently effective if applied to fresh date fruits.

  20. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of olive fruits of the Turkish variety “Sarıulak” from different locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslan, D.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The phenolic compounds, radical scavenging effect and antioxidant capacity of olive fruits from the “Sarıulak” variety were studied from four different locations: Alanya, Ceyhan, Silifke and Karaman in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. They were collected on three different harvest dates (HDs and in two consecutive crop years. The levels of most of the phenolic compounds in the fruits of the Alanya location were remarkably high among the values (mg/kg obtained for all location samples mainly on the first HDs, for instance hydroxytyrosol rose to 3596.4, luteolin rose to 269.5, vanillic acid rose to 159.8 and caffeic acid rose to 62.1. The olive fruits from Alanya, which had the highest average rainfall compared to the other locations, showed the highest phenolic content. The olive fruits from Silifke, which had a dramatic decrease in rainfall between the two crop years, showed a reduction in total phenolic content in the following crop year. The highest oleuropein contents (mg/kg were detected for the fruit samples grown in Silifke (963.5-2981.8 and for Karaman (835.2-655.6. All of the locations showed similar changes in antioxidant activity pointing to an increase with later HDs. The effect of HD on the phenolic compounds such as 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid and hidroxytyrosol, luteolin, chlorogenic acid and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid were more dependent on the location factor.

    Se han estudiado los compuestos fenólicos, el efecto captador de radicales y la capacidad antioxidante de aceitunas de la variedad “Sarıulak” procedentes de cuatro localidades diferentes, Alanya, Ceyhan, Silifke y Karaman de la región mediterránea de Turquía, que fueron recogidas en tres diferentes fechas de cosecha (HDs y en dos años consecutivos de cultivos. Los niveles de la mayoría de estos compuestos fenólicos, expresados en mg/kg , de los frutos procedentes de Alanya fueron los mas altos entre los valores

  1. Effect of Metarhizium anisopliae on the fertility and fecundity of two species of fruit flies and horizontal transmission of mycotic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookar, P; Bhagwant, S; Allymamod, M N

    2014-01-01

    In Mauritius, the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata Saunders (Diptera: Tephritidae), and the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), are the major pest of fruits and vegetables, respectively. Fruit growers make use of broad-spectrum insecticides to protect their crops from fruit fly attack. This method of fruit fly control is hazardous to the environment and is a threat to beneficial insects. The entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), which was isolated from the soils of Mauritius, was used to investigate whether fungus-treated adult fruit flies could transfer conidia to non-treated flies during mating, and whether fungal infection could have an effect on mating behavior, fecundity, and fertility of the two female fruit fly species. When treated male flies were maintained together with non-treated female flies, they were able to transmit infection to untreated females, resulting in high mortalities. Similarly, fungus-infected female flies mixed with untreated males also transmitted infections to males, also resulting in high mortalities. Infection by M. anisopliae also resulted in the reduction of the number of eggs produced by females of B. cucurbitae. The results suggest that M. anisopliae may have potential for use in integrated control programs of B. zonata and B. cucurbitae using the sterile insect technique in Mauritius.

  2. Effects of dietary folic acid level and symbiotic folate production on fitness and development in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatch, Sydella A; Meyer, Kyle W; Harrison, Jon F

    2010-01-01

    Folic acid is a vitamin for probably all animals. When converted to folate forms, it is used in DNA synthesis and amino acid metabolism. Literature suggests insects must consume folates, folates do not affect others, is a toxin for some, and that a few insects synthesize it. It has been reported that Drosophila melanogaster does not consistently need dietary folate because it can synthesize it. This seems unlikely since animals generally lack this ability. More likely, folates thought to have been made by the fly came from microbial symbionts. We aimed to clarify how dietary folic acid affects fitness and development in fruit flies and whether flies may receive folates from microbial symbionts. We found larvae were more viable and developed faster with increasing dietary folic acid, with the surprising exception that larvae fed nearly-zero folic acid developed faster. Their body folate levels did not significantly differ from those that consumed up to 600 times more folic acid. However, these flies fed little folate only achieved normal body folate levels and development times when antibiotics were excluded from the diet. When flies consumed near-zero folates with antibiotics, their body folate levels decreased and development was prolonged. An assay for the endosymbiont Wolbachia in flies used to generate the experimental flies did not show presence of these bacteria. Our data suggest D. melanogaster can harbor unknown bacterial symbiont(s) that provide essential folates to their host when it is scarce in the diet, allowing the fruit fly to maintain growth and development.

  3. Polyamine-induced modulation of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling pathways and nitric oxide production during olive mature fruit abscission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Lobato, Maria C; Gomez-Jimenez, Maria C

    2011-08-01

    After fruit ripening, many fruit-tree species undergo massive natural fruit abscission. Olive (Olea europaea L.) is a stone-fruit with cultivars such as Picual (PIC) and Arbequina (ARB) which differ in mature fruit abscission potential. Ethylene (ET) is associated with abscission, but its role during mature fruit abscission remains largely uncharacterized. The present study investigates the possible roles of ET and polyamine (PA) during mature fruit abscission by modulating genes involved in the ET signalling and biosynthesis pathways in the abscission zone (AZ) of both cultivars. Five ET-related genes (OeACS2, OeACO2, OeCTR1, OeERS1, and OeEIL2) were isolated in the AZ and adjacent cells (AZ-AC), and their expression in various olive organs and during mature fruit abscission, in relation to interactions between ET and PA and the expression induction of these genes, was determined. OeACS2, OeACO2, and OeEIL2 were found to be the only genes that were up-regulated in association with mature fruit abscission. Using the inhibition of ET and PA biosynthesis, it is demonstrated that OeACS2 and OeEIL2 expression are under the negative control of PA while ET induces their expression in AZ-AC. Furthermore, mature fruit abscission depressed nitric oxide (NO) production present mainly in the epidermal cells and xylem of the AZ. Also, NO production was differentially responsive to ET, PA, and different inhibitors. Taken together, the results indicate that PA-dependent ET signalling and biosynthesis pathways participate, at least partially, during mature fruit abscission, and that endogenous NO and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid maintain an inverse correlation, suggesting an antagonistic action of NO and ET in abscission signalling. © 2011 The Author(s).

  4. Parameters Tuning Approach for Proportion Integration Differentiation Controller of Magnetorheological Fluids Brake Based on Improved Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the response performance of a proportion integration differentiation (PID controller for magnetorheological fluids (MRF brake and to reduce the braking fluctuation rate, an improved fruit fly optimization algorithm for PID controller parameters tuning of MRF brake is proposed. A data acquisition system for MRF brake is designed and the transfer function of MRF brake is identified. Moreover, an improved fruit fly optimization algorithm (IFOA through integration of PID control strategy and cloud model algorithm is proposed to design a PID controller for MRF brake. Finally, the simulation and experiment are carried out. The results show that IFOA, with a faster response output and no overshoot, is superior to the conventional PID and fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA PID controller.

  5. A Discrete Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm for the Traveling Salesman Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zi-bin; Yang, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    The fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA) is a newly developed bio-inspired algorithm. The continuous variant version of FOA has been proven to be a powerful evolutionary approach to determining the optima of a numerical function on a continuous definition domain. In this study, a discrete FOA (DFOA) is developed and applied to the traveling salesman problem (TSP), a common combinatorial problem. In the DFOA, the TSP tour is represented by an ordering of city indices, and the bio-inspired meta-heuristic search processes are executed with two elaborately designed main procedures: the smelling and tasting processes. In the smelling process, an effective crossover operator is used by the fruit fly group to search for the neighbors of the best-known swarm location. During the tasting process, an edge intersection elimination (EXE) operator is designed to improve the neighbors of the non-optimum food location in order to enhance the exploration performance of the DFOA. In addition, benchmark instances from the TSPLIB are classified in order to test the searching ability of the proposed algorithm. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the proposed DFOA is compared to that of other meta-heuristic algorithms. The results indicate that the proposed DFOA can be effectively used to solve TSPs, especially large-scale problems. PMID:27812175

  6. Neem derivatives are not effective as toxic bait for tephritid fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M A; Bezerra-Silva, G C D; Vendramim, J D; Mastrangelo, T; Forim, M R

    2013-08-01

    Neem derivatives have been widely touted as replacements for pesticides. A feasible replacement of synthetic insecticides in the management of fruit flies could be to use neem products in baits. This study evaluated the bioactivity of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) derivatives in bait for adults of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The estimated LCs50 values for A. fraterculus and C. capitata were 7,522 ppm (18.40 ppm of azadirachtin) and 1,368 ppm (3.35 ppm of azadirachtin), respectively, using an aqueous extract of neem seeds in bait after 10 d of experimentation. No significant differences in the mortality of A. fraterculus and C. capitata adults exposed to baits made from different extracts and neem oil were observed after 3 h or 2 or 6 d; differences among the treatments were observed only on the 10th day of the evaluation. We conclude that neem derivatives applied as a bait spray over citrus plants did not demonstrate a toxic effect on A. fraterculus and C. capitata. The reasons for the low efficacy of the neem bait on Tephritid fruit flies are discussed.

  7. IMPROVING MASS REARING TECHNOLOGY FOR SOUTH AMERICAN FRUIT FLY (DIPTERA:TEPHRITIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Braga Sobrinho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on availability of suitable and economic diets for adults and larvae of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 were carried out at the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratories in Seibersdorf, Austria with the aim to find the best diets to fit in a large scale mass rearing production. The best diet for adult was the combination of Hydrolysate Corn Protein + Yeast Hydrolysate Enzymatic + Sugar (3:1:3. This diet resulted in the highest numbers of egg/female/day, spermatozoid in the spermathecae, percentages of egg hatch, the lowest mortality rate of adults and the highest average mating duration compared with the standard adult diet based on Yeast Hydrolysate Enzymatic + Sugar (1:3. Among eleven larval diets tested, diets based on sugarcane and sugarbeet bagases plus 7% brewer yeast, 8% sugar, 0.2% sodium benzoate, 0.8% of hydrochloric acid and 60% water (adjusted, yielded the highest percentages of egg hatching, pupal recovery, pupal weight and adult emergence. There was no statistical difference with the standard larval diet based on wheat germ 3%, corncob 15%, corn flower 8%, brewer yeast 6%, sugar 8%, sodium benzoate 0.23%, hydrochloric acid 0.63%, nipagin 0.14% and water 59% (adjusted. The significant performance of these adult and larval diets open discussion for future researches on improvement of rearing techniques required for the establishment of sterile insect technique (SIT program focused on the South American fruit fly.

  8. Food selection in larval fruit flies: dynamics and effects on larval development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Sebastian; Durisko, Zachary; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-01-01

    Selecting food items and attaining a nutritionally balanced diet is an important challenge for all animals including humans. We aimed to establish fruit fly larvae ( Drosophila melanogaster) as a simple yet powerful model system for examining the mechanisms of specific hunger and diet selection. In two lab experiments with artificial diets, we found that larvae deprived of either sucrose or protein later selectively fed on a diet providing the missing nutrient. When allowed to freely move between two adjacent food patches, larvae surprisingly preferred to settle on one patch containing yeast and ignored the patch providing sucrose. Moreover, when allowed to move freely between three patches, which provided either yeast only, sucrose only or a balanced mixture of yeast and sucrose, the majority of larvae settled on the yeast-plus-sucrose patch and about one third chose to feed on the yeast only food. While protein (yeast) is essential for development, we also quantified larval success on diets with or without sucrose and show that larvae develop faster on diets containing sucrose. Our data suggest that fruit fly larvae can quickly assess major nutrients in food and seek a diet providing a missing nutrient. The larvae, however, probably prefer to quickly dig into a single food substrate for enhanced protection over achieving an optimal diet.

  9. Using modified fruit fly optimisation algorithm to perform the function test and case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wen-Tsao

    2013-06-01

    Evolutionary computation is a computing mode established by practically simulating natural evolutionary processes based on the concept of Darwinian Theory, and it is a common research method. The main contribution of this paper was to reinforce the function of searching for the optimised solution using the fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA), in order to avoid the acquisition of local extremum solutions. The evolutionary computation has grown to include the concepts of animal foraging behaviour and group behaviour. This study discussed three common evolutionary computation methods and compared them with the modified fruit fly optimization algorithm (MFOA). It further investigated the ability of the three mathematical functions in computing extreme values, as well as the algorithm execution speed and the forecast ability of the forecasting model built using the optimised general regression neural network (GRNN) parameters. The findings indicated that there was no obvious difference between particle swarm optimization and the MFOA in regards to the ability to compute extreme values; however, they were both better than the artificial fish swarm algorithm and FOA. In addition, the MFOA performed better than the particle swarm optimization in regards to the algorithm execution speed, and the forecast ability of the forecasting model built using the MFOA's GRNN parameters was better than that of the other three forecasting models.

  10. Computational Aerodynamic Analysis of a Micro-CT Based Bio-Realistic Fruit Fly Wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Joshua; Doig, Graham; Tsafnat, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    The aerodynamic features of a bio-realistic 3D fruit fly wing in steady state (snapshot) flight conditions were analyzed numerically. The wing geometry was created from high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) of the fruit fly Drosophila virilis. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses of the wing were conducted at ultra-low Reynolds numbers ranging from 71 to 200, and at angles of attack ranging from -10° to +30°. It was found that in the 3D bio-realistic model, the corrugations of the wing created localized circulation regions in the flow field, most notably at higher angles of attack near the wing tip. Analyses of a simplified flat wing geometry showed higher lift to drag performance values for any given angle of attack at these Reynolds numbers, though very similar performance is noted at -10°. Results have indicated that the simplified flat wing can successfully be used to approximate high-level properties such as aerodynamic coefficients and overall performance trends as well as large flow-field structures. However, local pressure peaks and near-wing flow features induced by the corrugations are unable to be replicated by the simple wing. We therefore recommend that accurate 3D bio-realistic geometries be used when modelling insect wings where such information is useful.

  11. Influence of irradiation on development of Caribbean fruit fly (diptera: tephritidae) larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nation, J.L.; Milne, K.; Dykstra, T.M. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    Larvae of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were irradiated at hatching with 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 75, 100 and 150 Gy doses from a Cesium-137 source and dissected for measurements of the supraesophageal ganglion (brain) and proventriculus (B/Prv) as mature third instars. Cross-sectional area of a plane through the brain and proventriculus, and simple dorsal width measurements of the two organs were evaluated as indicators of radiation exposure. Brain area, brain width, and brain/proventriculus (B/Prv) ratios were significantly different from controls in insects treated with a dose {ge}20 Gy. Detailed dissections of hatching larvae exposed to 50 Gy revealed reductions in brain growth, small and misshapen compound eye and leg imaginal disks, and a ventral nerve cord that was elongated and sinuous. Larvae irradiated on the 1st d of each of the three instars had smaller brains, with the percentage of reduction in brain size being greater the younger the larvae were at the time of exposure. Brain and proventriculus measurements and calculated B/Prv values are indicative of irradiation in Caribbean fruit fly larvae, but the procedure may not be adaptable for routine use by quarantine inspectors. 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Molecular cloning and expression of nanos in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogaugwu, Christian E; Wimmer, Ernst A

    2013-01-01

    The gene nanos (nos) is a maternal-effect gene that plays an important role in posterior patterning and germ cell development in early stage embryos. nos is known from several diverse insect species, but has so far not been described for any Tephritid fruit fly. Here, we report the molecular cloning and expression pattern of the nos orthologous gene, Ccnos, in the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata, which is a destructive pest of high agricultural importance. CcNOS contains 398 amino acids and has a C-terminal region with two conserved CCHC zinc-binding motifs known to be essential for NOS function. Transcripts of Ccnos were confirmed by in situ hybridization to be maternally-derived and localized to the posterior pole of early stage embryos. Regulatory regions of nos have been employed in genetic engineering in some dipterans such as Drosophila and mosquitoes. Given the similarity in spatial and temporal expression between Ccnos and nos orthologs from other dipterans, its regulatory regions will be valuable to generate additional genetic tools that can be applied for engineering purposes to improve the fight against this devastating pest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Learning Sparse Representations for Fruit-Fly Gene Expression Pattern Image Annotation and Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Lei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fruit fly embryogenesis is one of the best understood animal development systems, and the spatiotemporal gene expression dynamics in this process are captured by digital images. Analysis of these high-throughput images will provide novel insights into the functions, interactions, and networks of animal genes governing development. To facilitate comparative analysis, web-based interfaces have been developed to conduct image retrieval based on body part keywords and images. Currently, the keyword annotation of spatiotemporal gene expression patterns is conducted manually. However, this manual practice does not scale with the continuously expanding collection of images. In addition, existing image retrieval systems based on the expression patterns may be made more accurate using keywords. Results In this article, we adapt advanced data mining and computer vision techniques to address the key challenges in annotating and retrieving fruit fly gene expression pattern images. To boost the performance of image annotation and retrieval, we propose representations integrating spatial information and sparse features, overcoming the limitations of prior schemes. Conclusions We perform systematic experimental studies to evaluate the proposed schemes in comparison with current methods. Experimental results indicate that the integration of spatial information and sparse features lead to consistent performance improvement in image annotation, while for the task of retrieval, sparse features alone yields better results.

  14. Aerodynamic performance of two-dimensional, chordwise flexible flapping wings at fruit fly scale in hover flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Madhu; Kang, Chang-kwon

    2015-05-06

    Fruit flies have flexible wings that deform during flight. To explore the fluid-structure interaction of flexible flapping wings at fruit fly scale, we use a well-validated Navier-Stokes equation solver, fully-coupled with a structural dynamics solver. Effects of chordwise flexibility on a two dimensional hovering wing is studied. Resulting wing rotation is purely passive, due to the dynamic balance between aerodynamic loading, elastic restoring force, and inertial force of the wing. Hover flight is considered at a Reynolds number of Re = 100, equivalent to that of fruit flies. The thickness and density of the wing also corresponds to a fruit fly wing. The wing stiffness and motion amplitude are varied to assess their influences on the resulting aerodynamic performance and structural response. Highest lift coefficient of 3.3 was obtained at the lowest-amplitude, highest-frequency motion (reduced frequency of 3.0) at the lowest stiffness (frequency ratio of 0.7) wing within the range of the current study, although the corresponding power required was also the highest. Optimal efficiency was achieved for a lower reduced frequency of 0.3 and frequency ratio 0.35. Compared to the water tunnel scale with water as the surrounding fluid instead of air, the resulting vortex dynamics and aerodynamic performance remained similar for the optimal efficiency motion, while the structural response varied significantly. Despite these differences, the time-averaged lift scaled with the dimensionless shape deformation parameter γ. Moreover, the wing kinematics that resulted in the optimal efficiency motion was closely aligned to the fruit fly measurements, suggesting that fruit fly flight aims to conserve energy, rather than to generate large forces.

  15. Cordyceps sinensis oral liquid prolongs the lifespan of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, by inhibiting oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yingxin; Liu, Yuxiang; Ruan, Minghua; Feng, Xu; Wang, Jiachun; Chu, Zhiyong; Zhang, Zesheng

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of Cordyceps sinensis oral liquid (CSOL) on the lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly). Following the lifelong treatment of fruit flies with CSOL, lifespan was examined. The activity of copper-zinc-containing superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), manganese-containing superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and catalase (CAT), as well as the lipofuscin (LF) content were determined. The mRNA levels of SOD1, SOD2 and CAT were quantified by qPCR. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and paraquat were used to mimic the effects of damage caused by acute oxidative stress. D-galactose was used to mimic chronic pathological aging. CSOL significantly prolonged the lifespan of the fruit flies under physiological conditions. The activity of SOD1 and CAT was upregulated, and LF accumulation was inhibited by CSOL. CSOL had no effect on the transcriptional levels (mRNA) of these enzymes. The survival time of the fruit flies which were negatively affected by exposure to H2O2 or paraquat was significantly prolonged by CSOL. In fruit flies pathologically aged by epxosure to D-galactose, CSOL also significantly prolonged their lifespan, upregulated the activity of SOD1 and CAT, and inhibited LF accumulation. The findings of our study indicate that CSOL prolongs the lifespan of fruit flies through an anti-oxidative stress pathway involving the upregulation of SOD1 and CAT activity and the inhibition of LF accumulation. CSOL may thus be explored as a novel agent for slowing the human aging process.

  16. Anatomic and Physiologic Heterogeneity of Subgroup-A Auditory Sensory Neurons in Fruit Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Yuki; Okamoto, Natsuki; Nakamura, Mizuki; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kamikouchi, Azusa

    2017-01-01

    The antennal ear of the fruit fly detects acoustic signals in intraspecific communication, such as the courtship song and agonistic sounds. Among the five subgroups of mechanosensory neurons in the fly ear, subgroup-A neurons respond maximally to vibrations over a wide frequency range between 100 and 1,200 Hz. The functional organization of the neural circuit comprised of subgroup-A neurons, however, remains largely unknown. In the present study, we used 11 GAL4 strains that selectively label subgroup-A neurons and explored the diversity of subgroup-A neurons by combining single-cell anatomic analysis and Ca2+ imaging. Our findings indicate that the subgroup-A neurons that project into various combinations of subareas in the brain are more anatomically diverse than previously described. Subgroup-A neurons were also physiologically diverse, and some types were tuned to a narrow frequency range, suggesting that the response of subgroup-A neurons to sounds of a wide frequency range is due to the existence of several types of subgroup-A neurons. Further, we found that an auditory behavioral response to the courtship song of flies was attenuated when most subgroup-A neurons were silenced. Together, these findings characterize the heterogeneous functional organization of subgroup-A neurons, which might facilitate species-specific acoustic signal detection. PMID:28701929

  17. Strategy changes in subsequent fights as consequences of winning and losing in fruit fly fights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trannoy, Séverine; Kravitz, Edward A

    2016-11-11

    In competition for food, territory and mates, male fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) engage in agonistic encounters with conspecifics. The fighting strategies used to obtain these resources are influenced by previous and present experience, environmental cues, and the internal state of the animal including hormonal and genetic influences. Animals that experience prior defeats show submissive behavior and are more likely to lose 2(nd) contests, while animals that win 1(st) fights are more aggressive and have a higher probability of winning 2(nd) contests. In a recent report, we examined these loser and winner effects in greater detail and demonstrated that both winners and losers show short-term memory of the results of previous bouts while only losers demonstrate a longer-term memory that requires protein synthesis. The recent findings also suggested that an individual recognition mechanism likely exists that can serve important roles in evaluating the fighting ability of opponents and influencing future fighting strategy. In this article, we follow up on these results by asking how previous defeated and victorious flies change their fighting strategies in the presence of 2(nd) losing and winning flies, by searching for evidence of territory marking, and discussing the existing literature in light of our findings.

  18. Comparison of inter- and intraspecies variation in humans and fruit flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliann Shih

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Variation is essential to species survival and adaptation during evolution. This variation is conferred by the imperfection of biochemical processes, such as mutations and alterations in DNA sequences, and can also be seen within genomes through processes such as the generation of antibodies. Recent sequencing projects have produced multiple versions of the genomes of humans and fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster. These give us a chance to study how individual gene sequences vary within and between species. Here we arranged human and fly genes in orthologous pairs and compared such within-species variability with their degree of conservation between flies and humans. We observed that a significant number of proteins associated with mRNA translation are highly conserved between species and yet are highly variable within each species. The fact that we observe this in two species whose lineages separated more than 700 million years ago suggests that this is the result of a very ancient process. We hypothesize that this effect might be attributed to a positive selection for variability of virus-interacting proteins that confers a general resistance to viral hijacking of the mRNA translation machinery within populations. Our analysis points to this and to other processes resulting in positive selection for gene variation.

  19. Potential geographical distributions of the fruit flies Ceratitis capitata, Ceratitis cosyra, and Ceratitis rosa in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baini; Ma, Jun; Hu, Xuenan; Liu, Haijun; Zhang, Runjie

    2009-10-01

    There have been relatively few attempts to model the distributions of the fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Ceratitis cosyra (Walker), and Ceratitis rosa Karsch in China, but the geographic distributions of these species are of considerable concern in terms of biosecurity. In this study, two different modeling methods (genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction [GARP] and maximum entropy species distribution modeling [Maxent]) were used to predict the potential distributions of these three fly species in China, by using distribution records and a set of environmental predictor variables. The results showed that Maxent performed well, compared with modeling by GARP, at each test threshold. For all three species, the results predicted by Maxent agreed with the observed distributions in Africa and in other parts of the world. In China, C. capitata seems to have the highest number of favorable habitat areas, relative to C. cosyra and C. rosa, i.e., Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, Guangdong, Hainan, Fujian, Sichuan and Chongqing, whereas C. cosyra has the smallest range of suitable areas, i.e., Yunnan, some parts of Hainan and Sichuan. The suitable areas for C. rosa are mainly restricted to Yunnan, Hainan, southern Guangdong, and a few areas of Sichuan. The indications are that on the whole, Southwest and South China are the areas with the highest risk for establishment from these three fly species. Jackknife tests reveal that environmental variables associated with temperature have the strongest influence on the potential distributions of all three species relative to other variables.

  20. Effects of GF-120 fruit fly bait concentrations on attraction, feeding, mortality, and control of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L; Chapman, Peter S

    2005-10-01

    Effects of different concentrations of GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait on attraction and feeding responses, mortality, and control of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, were determined. In the laboratory, flies that had been exposed to sugar and yeast extract and then deprived of all food for 16-20 h were attracted to 40.0% GF-120, but not to 0.6 and 4.8% GF-120 (vol:vol). Nonstarved flies were not attracted to any concentration. Flies in the field were not attracted to 55.6% GF-120 on cherry leaves, and few flies fed on the bait. In the laboratory, males fed for shorter durations on and ingested lower amounts of 0.6% than 4.8 or 40.0% GF-120, but females fed equally on all concentrations. Spinosad in GF-120 was highly toxic to flies. Lethal concentrations50 (LC50 values) of spinosad for starved flies at 1-4 d were 1.5-0.7 ppm. When gravid flies were exposed to cherries treated with 0.6, 4.8, and 40.0% GF-120, mortality was greater at each higher concentration, but none prevented oviposition. Field spray tests comparing 0.6, 4.8, and 40.0% GF-120 in 225 ml of spray per cherry tree resulted in 79-94% lower larval infestations than in controls, but no differences were seen among the concentrations. Evidence from this study indicates that fresh 40.0% GF-120 was attractive in the laboratory but that flies were not attracted to fresh GF-120 from far distances within trees, suggesting that suppression of populations is caused in large part by flies finding the bait through normal movement over large areas.

  1. Temporal regulation of proteome profile in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Subramanian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diurnal rhythms of protein synthesis controlled by the biological clock underlie the rhythmic physiology in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. In this study, we conducted a proteome-wide investigation of rhythmic protein accumulation in D. melanogaster. Materials and Methods. Total protein collected from fly samples harvested at 4 h intervals over the 24 h period were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, trypsin digestion and MS/MS analysis. Protein spots/clusters were identified with MASCOT search engine and Swiss-Prot database. Expression of proteins was documented as percentage of volume contribution using the Image Master 2D Platinum software. Results. A total of 124 protein spots/clusters were identified using MS/MS analysis. Significant variation in the expression of 88 proteins over the 24-h period was observed. A relatively higher number of proteins was upregulated during the night compared to the daytime. The complexity of temporal regulation of the D. melanogaster proteome was further reflected from functional annotations of the differently expressed proteins, with those that were upregulated at night being restricted to the heat shock proteins and proteins involved in metabolism, muscle activity, protein synthesis/folding/degradation and apoptosis, whilst those that were overexpressed in the daytime were apparently involved in metabolism, muscle activity, ion-channel/cellular transport, protein synthesis/folding/degradation, redox homeostasis, development and transcription. Conclusion. Our data suggests that a wide range of proteins synthesized by the fruit fly, D. melanogaster, is under the regulation of the biological clock.

  2. Flowers and olive fruits (Olea Europaea l. growth under tropic conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco García Molano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It was relatively easy the olive adaptation in tropical area for its evergreen and rustic condition where there were found trees with a very good development and production according to different studies that show the existence of some varieties of ancient trees located in villa de Leyva, Sáchica and Sutamarchán; however these varieties did not prosper as farming and they were abandoned. In the last ten years the olive farming has taken interest again and now there has been planted new crops through the existent material in the region, the production started three years later, for that reason it was taken the cultural, environmental, economic and scientific interest. This study aimed to know the performance of the development and trees growth planted take into account some edaphoclimatic conditions of the ‘Alto Ricaurte’. There were chosen thirty nine trees which the treatment one corresponded to olives of thirty years in production and the treatment two corresponded to three years plants which they had started their production. This plant material had been identified genetically by means of molecular analysis with a classification from one to ten considering that it did not correspond to the denomination that these varieties had in this region. The study shows that genotype four has trees at both ages, which the analysis of results was made take into account the age of this one, observing different behavior in flowering that it seems to be influenced because of climate conditions meanwhile that the planted development and growth did not show any difference in genotypes neither ages.

  3. Simultaneous determination of the lipoxygenase and hydroperxide lyase specificity in olive fruit pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas, Joaquín J.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive pulp lipoxygenase regiospecificity and hydroperoxide lyase substrate specificity are important parameters in order to justify the volatile composition of olive oil. A new radiolabelling method to determine simultaneously these properties using only thin layer chromatography steps is described in the present work. The method involves incubation of an enzyme preparation from olive pulp with radiolabelled linoleate, followed by the fractionation of the resulting lipid products, previously treated with 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine, on thin layer chromatography plates coated with polyethylenglycol 400. The results obtained are in agreement with previous studies carried out by other methods.La regioespecificidad de la lipoxigenasa y la especificidad del sustrato hidroperóxido liasa de pulpa de aceituna son parámetros importantes en la justificación de la composición en volátiles del aceite de oliva. En este trabajo se describe un nuevo método de marcaje radioactivo para determinar simultáneamente estas propiedades, usando solo etapas de cromatografía en capa fina. El método implica la incubación de una preparación enzimática de pulpa de aceituna con linoleato marcado, seguido del fraccionamiento de los productos lipídicos resultantes, previamente tratados con 2,4-dinitrofenil hidrazina, sobre placas de cromatografía en capa fina soportadas con polietilenglicol 400. Los resultados obtenidos están de acuerdo con estudios previos llevados a cabo con otros métodos.

  4. Population dynamics of oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis(Diptera:Tephritidae)in Xishuangbanna,Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Hui; LIU Jianhong

    2007-01-01

    Annual monitoring of the population dynamics of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis(Hendel)(Diptera:Tephritidae)in Xishuangbanna,southern Yunnan,was conducted by using methyl eugenol-baited traps in 1997,2000,and 2003,and factors including temperature,rainfall,and host species with respect to the population fluctuation were analyzed systematically.The results showed that the fruit fly was present all year round in Xishuangbanna.Its population remained at a lower level from November to February,and increased from March until it reached a peak in June or July,depending on the rainfall that year.Afterward,the fly population declined remarkably until October.Temperature,rainfall,and host fruits were major factors comprehensively influencing the population fluctuation.The monthly mean temperature was in a range of temperatures suitable for development and reproduction of the fly.But the monthly mean minimum temperature from December to February was lower than the suitable temperature range,which was suggested a possible reason for the lower populations in winter months.Rainfall was another essential factor influencing the population fluctuations.The population was depressed when the monthly rainfall amount was lower than 50 mm,but increased when rainfall ranged from 100 mm to 200 mm.When the monthly rainfall amount was higher than 250 mm,the fruit fly population was reduced remarkably.The heavy rain in July and August explained the decreasing population.Mango,orange,pear,longan,and peach were found to be the main host species of the fly in Xishuangbanna.Among them,mango and longan were most preferred by the fly.Therefore,the planted areas,fruiting period,and production exerted essential effects on the fly population fluctuations,which were regarded as another major factor influencing the fly population in that area.Briefly,temperature,monthly rainfall,and the host species,through the way of their functions,the influence strength,as well as the period that they

  5. Therapeutics role of olive fruits/oil in the prevention of diseases via modulation of anti-oxidant, anti-tumour and genetic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Arshad H; Albutti, Aqel S; Aly, Salah M

    2014-01-01

    The current mode of treatment for various diseases is based on synthetic drugs are effective but they show adverse effect and also alter the genetic and metabolic activity. Moreover, some drugs prepared from plants and their constituents show potentiality with more efficacy than synthetic agents used in clinical therapy. Earlier report has shown that regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is strongly related with reduced risk of developing various diseases. Several epidemiological studies has shown that, the incidence heart disease and cancers is lowest in the Mediterranean basin as compared to the part of the world because of their diet rich in olives and olive products. Olives are commonly consumed in Mediterranean and Arabian Peninsula and also have been documented in Holy Quran and modern scientific literatures. Earlier studies have shown that, the constituents from olive such as oleuropein, squalene and hydroxytyrosol modulate the genes functions and other activities. In this review, the medicinal value of olives and their constituents are summarized in terms of therapeutic approach in the diseases management through regulation of various activities.

  6. Independently controlled wing stroke patterns in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma Chakraborty

    Full Text Available Flies achieve supreme flight maneuverability through a small set of miniscule steering muscles attached to the wing base. The fast flight maneuvers arise from precisely timed activation of the steering muscles and the resulting subtle modulation of the wing stroke. In addition, slower modulation of wing kinematics arises from changes in the activity of indirect flight muscles in the thorax. We investigated if these modulations can be described as a superposition of a limited number of elementary deformations of the wing stroke that are under independent physiological control. Using a high-speed computer vision system, we recorded the wing motion of tethered flying fruit flies for up to 12,000 consecutive wing strokes at a sampling rate of 6250 Hz. We then decomposed the joint motion pattern of both wings into components that had the minimal mutual information (a measure of statistical dependence. In 100 flight segments measured from 10 individual flies, we identified 7 distinct types of frequently occurring least-dependent components, each defining a kinematic pattern (a specific deformation of the wing stroke and the sequence of its activation from cycle to cycle. Two of these stroke deformations can be associated with the control of yaw torque and total flight force, respectively. A third deformation involves a change in the downstroke-to-upstroke duration ratio, which is expected to alter the pitch torque. A fourth kinematic pattern consists in the alteration of stroke amplitude with a period of 2 wingbeat cycles, extending for dozens of cycles. Our analysis indicates that these four elementary kinematic patterns can be activated mutually independently, and occur both in isolation and in linear superposition. The results strengthen the available evidence for independent control of yaw torque, pitch torque, and total flight force. Our computational method facilitates systematic identification of novel patterns in large kinematic datasets.

  7. Analysis of Seasonal Risk for Importation of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), via Air Passenger Traffic Arriving in Florida and California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyniszewska, A M; Leppla, N C; Huang, Z; Tatem, A J

    2016-09-04

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is one of the most economically damaging pests in the world and has repeatedly invaded two major agricultural states in the United States, Florida and California, each time requiring costly eradication. The Mediterranean fruit fly gains entry primarily in infested fruit carried by airline passengers and, since Florida and California each receive about 13 million international passengers annually, the risk of Mediterranean fruit fly entering the United States is potentially very high. The risk of passengers bringing the pest into Florida or California from Mediterranean fruit fly-infested countries was determined with two novel models, one estimated seasonal variation in airline passenger number and the other defined the seasonal and spatial variability in Mediterranean fruit fly abundance. These models elucidated relationships among the risk factors for Mediterranean fruit fly introduction, such as amount of passenger traffic, routes traveled, season of travel, abundance of Mediterranean fruit fly in countries where flights departed, and risk of the pest arriving at destination airports. The risk of Mediterranean fruit fly being introduced into Florida was greatest from Colombia, Brazil, Panama, Venezuela, Argentina, and Ecuador during January-August, whereas primarily the risk to California was from Brazil, Panama, Colombia, and Italy in May-August. About three times more Mediterranean fruit flies were intercepted in passenger baggage at airports in Florida than California, although the data were compromised by a lack of systematic sampling and other limitations. Nevertheless, this study achieved the goal of analyzing available data on seasonal passenger flow and Mediterranean fruit fly population levels to determine when surveillance should be intensified at key airports in Florida and California.

  8. Field evaluation of melolure, a formate analogue of cuelure and reassessment of fruit fly species trapped in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit fly surveillance programmes rely on the use of chemical lures to monitor and control Tephritid fruit flies incursions. Significant economic advantages could be achieved by increasing the effectiveness of these chemical lures. In Australia, tephritids are usually attracted to either cuelure (CL...

  9. Biological control potential of entomopathogenic nematodes for management of Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa Loew (Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heve, William K; El-Borai, Fahiem E; Carrillo, Daniel; Duncan, Larry W

    2017-06-01

    Caribbean fruit fly (Caribfly) is a serious economic insect pest because of development of larvae that hatch from eggs oviposited into fruits by female adults. This study assessed the virulence of twelve entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) isolates to Caribfly in laboratory bioassays as a starting point toward evaluation of management strategies for the fruit-to-soil-dwelling stages of A. suspensa in fields infested by Caribfly. Inoculation of A. suspensa with 1 mL of ca 200 IJs larva(-1) killed Caribfly at either larval or pupal stage. Pupae were more resistant to EPN infections than larvae. Adult emergence from inoculated pupae in soil microcosms was significantly lower than that observed in filter paper assays. Longest or largest steinernematids suppressed emergence of more adult Caribfly from pupae in soils, whereas shorter heterorhabditids were more infectious to Caribfly larvae. The highest mortalities of A. suspensa were caused by exotic nematodes Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, followed by the native Heterorhabditis indica and the exotic Steinernema carpocapsae. Entomopathogenic nematodes reduced the development of Caribfly larvae and pupae to adult in our bioassays, suggesting that EPNs have potential for biological control of A. suspensa. Future work will assess management strategies, using the virulent EPNs, in orchards infested by A. suspensa. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. A review of plant protection against the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae (Rossi, 1790 Gmelin and molecular methods to monitor the insecticide resistance alleles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Hladnik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae (Rossi, 1790 Gmelin is one of the most important olive pests worldwide. Most plant protection measures are based on insecticides, especially organophosphates, pyrethroids, and recently a spinosad. Insecticides are used as cover sprays or in more environmentally friendly methods in which insecticides are used in combination with attractants and pheromones as bait sprays or for mass trapping. However, due to negative impacts of insecticides to environment, new plant protection methods are constantly developing with the aim to lower the consumption of insecticides or even to eliminate them by biological control with entomopathogenic organisms, sterile insect technique (SIT, or transgenic method RIDL (release of insects carrying a dominant lethal. However, these methods need to be improved in order to guarantee adequate protection. Alternative methods than those traditionally used are required due to long term usage causing the development of resistance to the insecticides, ultimately lowering their effectiveness. Molecular methods for monitoring the frequencies of resistant alleles and the current status of resistance alleles in olive growing countries are reviewed here.

  11. On-field monitoring of fruit ripening evolution and quality parameters in olive mutants using a portable NIR-AOTF device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirilli, Marco; Bellincontro, Andrea; Urbani, Stefania; Servili, Maurizio; Esposto, Sonia; Mencarelli, Fabio; Muleo, Rosario

    2016-05-15

    This study optimizes the application of portable Near Infrared-Acousto Optically Tunable Filter (NIR) device to meet the increasing demand for cost-effective, non-invasive and easy-to-use methods for measuring physical and chemical properties during olive fruit development. Fruits from different phenotypically cultivars were sampled for firmness, total and specific phenols detection by HPLC, total anthocyanins, chlorophyll and carotenoids detection by spectrophotometry. On the same fruits, a portable NIR device in diffuse reflectance mode was employed for spectral detections. Predictive models for firmness, chlorophyll, anthocyanins, carotenoids and rutin were developed by Partial Least Square analysis. Oleuropein, verbascoside, 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, and total phenols were used to develop a validation model. Internal cross-validation was applied for calibration and predictive models. The standard errors for calibration, cross-validation, prediction, and RPD ratios (SD/SECV) were calculated as references for the model effectiveness. The determination of the optimal harvesting time facilitates the production of high quality extra virgin olive oil and table olives.

  12. Evaluation of RNA extraction methods and identification of putative reference genes for real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction expression studies on olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonis, Alberto; Vezzaro, Alice; Ruperti, Benedetto

    2012-07-11

    Genome wide transcriptomic surveys together with targeted molecular studies are uncovering an ever increasing number of differentially expressed genes in relation to agriculturally relevant processes in olive (Olea europaea L). These data need to be supported by quantitative approaches enabling the precise estimation of transcript abundance. qPCR being the most widely adopted technique for mRNA quantification, preliminary work needs to be done to set up robust methods for extraction of fully functional RNA and for the identification of the best reference genes to obtain reliable quantification of transcripts. In this work, we have assessed different methods for their suitability for RNA extraction from olive fruits and leaves and we have evaluated thirteen potential candidate reference genes on 21 RNA samples belonging to fruit developmental/ripening series and to leaves subjected to wounding. By using two different algorithms, GAPDH2 and PP2A1 were identified as the best reference genes for olive fruit development and ripening, and their effectiveness for normalization of expression of two ripening marker genes was demonstrated.

  13. Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae and their parasitoids on cultivated and wild hosts in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Ledesma Taira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae and their parasitoids on cultivated and wild hosts in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Information on frugivorous flies in cultivated or wild host plants and their parasitoids in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul is presented and discussed. Fruit fly samples were collected weekly in specific fruit trees, and McPhail® traps were installed in the same trees for a period of two years. The fruit flies infested ripe and unripe fruits of Averrhoa carambola L., Schoepfia sp., Psidium guajava L. and Pouteria torta (Mart. Radlk and mature fruits of Anacardium occidentale L. and Inga laurina (Sw. Willd. Nineteen fruit fly species were obtained with the combination of sampling methods (collecting fruits and trapping, nine of them obtained with both methods, five found only in fruits and five only in traps. This is the first record of Anastrepha striata Schiner in a species of Sapotaceae, as well as for A. castanea Norrbom and A. daciformes Bezzi in Schoepfia sp. (Olacaceae, and for A. distincta Greene in fruits of P. guajava in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. Fruit collections simultaneously associated with capture of fruit flies by McPhail traps in the same host plants are essential to understand the diversity of fruit flies and their relationship with hosts and parasitoids. Species of Braconidae and Pteromalidae were recovered, where Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti was the most abundant parasitoid in larvae of tephritids infesting both cultivated and wild host fruits.

  14. Grower Perception of the Significance of Weaver Ants as a Fruit Fly Deterrent in Tanzanian Smallholder Mango Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Nina; Msogoya, Theodosy; Offenberg, Hans Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Managed populations of weaver ants in mango trees have been used successfully in Australia, SE Asia and parts of Western Africa to deter fruit flies from ovipositing in ripening fruits. The presence of indigenous weaver ants in mango trees of smallholder growers in Tanzania offers the possibility...... of exploiting them as an affordable, environmentally -friendly method to improve marketable fruit yield and quality. In a preliminary interview study in a mango-growing region of rural Tanzania, the farmers were not convinced of any beneficial, deterrent effect attributable to the indigenous weaver ants...

  15. Self-Adaptive Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm%自适应果蝇优化算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任新涛; 魏五洲; 杨宁国

    2016-01-01

    A Self-Adaptive Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm(SAFOA) is proposed in order to further improve the performance of Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm(FOA). A fruit fly search group pattern is designed, and then a self-adaptive variable-step search algorithm is put forward. Simulation results indicate that SAFOA features fast rate of convergence, strong global search and local optimization performance, and high convergence precision in comparison with FOA and Diminishing Step Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm(DS-FOA).%为了进一步提高果蝇优化算法(FOA)的性能,提出了一种自适应果蝇优化算法(SAFOA),设计了果蝇搜索群体模型,给出了一种自适应搜索步长搜索算法。仿真结果表明,相比FOA算法和递减步长果蝇优化算法(DS-FOA),SAFOA收敛速度较快,全局搜索与局部寻优能力强,并能到达高的收敛精确度。

  16. Larval x-ray irradiation influences protein expression in pupae of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera Dorsalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Third instar larvae were exposed to X-ray treatment of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. Irradiated pupae were collected daily. Biological performance parameters of pupae and adults of larvae treated with X-ray irradiation were evaluated. Standard proteomics procedures such as densitometr...

  17. MicroRNAs in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis: extending Drosophilid miRNA clusters to the Tephritidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is an important pest species in the family Tephritidae. It is a phytophagous species with broad host range, and while not established in the mainland United States, is a species of great concern for introduction. Despite of the vast amount of informatio...

  18. A safe and effective propylene glycol based capture liquid for fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) traps baited with synthetic lures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antifreeze is often used as the capture liquid in insect traps for its preservation and evaporation attributes. In tests reported herein, fruit fly traps using non-toxic household propylene glycol based antifreeze captured significantly more Anastrepha ludens than did traps with the automotive anti...

  19. Attraction and Electroantennography responses of the male Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata, to natural essential oils and synthetic blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field experiments and long range bioassays were used to understand the difference in attractiveness among various natural essential oils for the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata. Using electroantennography, we have selected various antennally active chemicals and tested their role in the ...

  20. Captures of bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and nontarget insects in biolure and torula yeast traps in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    BioLure, a synthetic food attractant for Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) that uses a combination of three chemical components (ammonium acetate, trimethylamine hydrochloride and putrescine), was deployed in MultiLure traps in predominantly native forests, non-native forests,...

  1. Antennal responses of West Indian and Caribbean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) to ammonium bicarbonate and putrescine lures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efforts to monitor and detect tephritid fruit flies in the genus Anastrepha currently involve MultiLure traps baited with two food-based synthetic attractants; ammonium acetate and putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane). These baits are used in Central America, Florida, Texas, and the Caribbean, each region...

  2. Grower Perception of the Significance of Weaver Ants as a Fruit Fly Deterrent in Tanzanian Smallholder Mango Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Nina; Msogoya, Theodosy; Offenberg, Hans Joachim

    2017-01-01

    in their trees and were sceptical of any likely value as a biological control technique. Additionally, fruit fly infestation was not seen as a priority problem and subsequent enquiry and investigation showed that, fortuitously, traditional, local practices for storage and enhancing ripening prevented...

  3. Attraction and Mortality of Oriental Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) to SPLAT-MAT- Methyl Eugenol with Spinosad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted in Hawaii to quantify attraction and feeding responses resulting in mortality of male oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to SPLAT-MAT-methyl eugenol (ME) with spinosad in comparison with Min-U-Gel-ME with naled (Dibrom). Our approach invol...

  4. Ring-fluorinated analog of methyl eugenol: Attractiveness to and metabolism in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), males are highly attractive to the natural phenylpropanoid methyl eugenol (ME). They compulsively feed on ME and metabolize it to ring and side-chain hydroxylated compounds which have both pheromonal and allomonal functions. Side-chain metabolic act...

  5. Temperature-mediated kill and oviposition of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the presence of Spinosad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) that is managed using insecticides, including spinosad, an organic compound that can be applied in low spray volumes. Identifying factors that can increase the...

  6. Impact of prolonged absence of low temperature on adult eclosion patterns of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens (Curran) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious pest of cherries (Prunus spp.) in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S.A. Previous research suggests that R. indifferens is unlikely to establish in commercial cherry production areas in California and in ...

  7. A qPCR-based method for detecting parasitism of Fopius arisanus (Sonan) in oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Parasitism rate detection and parasitoid species identification are necessary in fruit fly biological control. Currently release of mass-reared Fopius arisanus is occurring world-wide, as this species is effective in controlling Bactrocera dorsalis and Ceratitis capitata. While release i...

  8. Notes on the frugivorous fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae fauna of western Africa, with description of a new Dacus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim F.M. Goodger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The species richness of the frugivorous fruit fly fauna of western African (in particular of Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin and Nigeria is discussed. The diversity is compared at a national level and between the ecoregions within the national boundaries of the study area. A new species, Dacus goergeni sp. nov. is described and additional taxonomic notes are presented.

  9. The effect of irradiation and mass rearing on the anti-predator behaviour of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, D; Aguilar-Argüello, S; Montoya, P; Díaz-Fleischer, F

    2014-04-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are major pests worldwide. The sterile insect technique, where millions of flies are reared, sterilized by irradiation and then released, is one of the most successful and ecologically friendly methods of controlling populations of these pests. The mating behaviour of irradiated and non-irradiated flies has been compared in earlier studies, but there has been little attention paid to the anti-predator behaviour of mass-reared flies, especially with respect to wild flies. Tephritid flies perform a supination display to their jumping spider predators in order to deter attacks. In this study, we evaluated the possibility of using this display to determine the anti-predator capabilities of mass-reared irradiated, non-irradiated flies, and wild flies. We used an arena setup and observed bouts between jumping spiders (Phidippus audax Hentz) and male Mexican fruit flies (Anastrepha ludens Loew). We show that although all flies performed a supination display to their predator, wild flies were more likely to perform a display and were significantly more successful in avoiding attack than mass-reared flies. We suggest that this interaction can be used to develop a rapid realistic method of quality control in evaluating anti-predator abilities of mass-reared fruit flies.

  10. Moving distance measurement for hydraulic support based on fruit fly optimization algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiabiao; Wang, Zhongbin; Xu, Jing; Tan, Chao; Si, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Due to the inaccurate and unreliable moving distance measurement of the hydraulic support in mines, a method based on the random circle detection (RCD) algorithm and the fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA) is proposed. According to the changing center and radium of the circle on the support, the relative position of adjacent supports is acquired by the camera. The noise of the collected image is moved, and the edge feature is protected using a bilateral filter. A local adaptive threshold algorithm is used for binary processing of the image. Then, RCD is used to detect the contour, which is similar to the circle. A method to detect the circle based on FOA is used to accurately detect the circle. Subsequently, the relative distance is calculated according to the change of the circle. Finally, the accuracy and reliability of the proposed method are verified though the experiment.

  11. When not to copy: female fruit flies use sophisticated public information to avoid mated males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyau, Adeline; Blanchet, Simon; van Laere, Pauline; Clobert, Jean; Danchin, Etienne

    2012-10-01

    Semen limitation (lack of semen to fertilize all of a female's eggs) imposes high fitness costs to female partners. Females should therefore avoid mating with semen-limited males. This can be achieved by using public information extracted from watching individual males' previous copulating activities. This adaptive preference should be flexible given that semen limitation is temporary. We first demonstrate that the number of offspring produced by males Drosophila melanogaster gradually decreases over successive copulations. We then show that females avoid mating with males they just watched copulating and that visual public cues are sufficient to elicit this response. Finally, after males were given the time to replenish their sperm reserves, females did not avoid the males they previously saw copulating anymore. These results suggest that female fruit flies may have evolved sophisticated behavioural processes of resistance to semen-limited males, and demonstrate unsuspected adaptive context-dependent mate choice in an invertebrate.

  12. Spatial dynamics of two oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoids, Fopius arisanus and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), in a Guava orchard in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Stark, John D; Banks, John; Leblanc, Luc; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Peck, Steven

    2013-10-01

    We examined spatial patterns of both sexes of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and its two most abundant parasitoids, Fopius arisanus (Sonan) and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) in a commercial guava (Psidium guajava L.) orchard. Oriental fruit fly spatial patterns were initially random, but became highly aggregated with host fruit ripening and the subsequent colonization of, first, F. arisanus (egg-pupal parasitoid) and, second, D. longicaudata (larval-pupal parasitoid). There was a significant positive relationship between populations of oriental fruit fly and F. arisanus during each of the F. arisanus increases, a pattern not exhibited between oriental fruit fly and D. longicaudata. Generally, highest total numbers of males and females (oriental fruit fly, F. arisanus, and D. longicaudata) occurred on or about the same date. There was a significant positive correlation between male and female populations of all three species; we measured a lag of 2-4 wk between increases of female F. arisanus and conspecific males. There was a similar trend in one of the two years for the second most abundant species, D. longicaudata, but no sign of a time lag between the sexes for oriental fruit fly. Spatially, we found a significant positive relationship between numbers of F. arisanus in blocks and the average number in adjoining blocks. We did not find the same effect for oriental fruit fly and D. longicaudata, possibly a result of lower overall numbers of the latter two species or less movement of F. arisanus within the field.

  13. Tapachula-7, a new genetic sexing strain of the Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae): sexual compatibility and competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Dina; Meza, J Salvador; Zepeda, Silvia; Solís, Eduardo; Quintero-Fong, J Luis

    2013-04-01

    A new genetic sexing strain of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), was evaluated in tests of sexual behavior to determine its possible application using the sterile insect technique. Tests in field cages measuring time to sexual maturity, compatibility with wild flies, and competitiveness were compared between the genetic sexing strain, Tapachula-7, and the mass-reared standard bisexual strain. The results indicated that the onset of sexual maturity was similar for both laboratory strains. Males from the Tapachula-7 strain do not differ from the standard bisexual strain in compatibility and competitiveness with wild insects. The results indicate that the release of Tapachula-7 males in the field would be viable in programs that use the sterile insect technique for the control of the Mexican fruit fly.

  14. Sexual harassment induces a temporary fitness cost but does not constrain the acquisition of environmental information in fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teseo, Serafino; Veerus, Liisa; Moreno, Céline; Mery, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Across animals, sexual harassment induces fitness costs for females and males. However, little is known about the cognitive costs involved, i.e. whether it constrains learning processes, which could ultimately affect an individual's fitness. Here we evaluate the acquisition of environmental information in groups of fruit flies challenged with various levels of male sexual harassment. We show that, although high sexual harassment induces a temporary fitness cost for females, all fly groups of both sexes exhibit similar levels of learning. This suggests that, in fruit flies, the fitness benefits of acquiring environmental information are not affected by the fitness costs of sexual harassment, and that selection may favour cognition even in unfavourable social contexts. Our study provides novel insights into the relationship between sexual conflicts and cognition and the evolution of female counterstrategies against male sexual harassment.

  15. Evaluating the quality of the Mexican fruit-fly, Anastrepha ludens, as host for the parasitoid Melittobia digitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. González

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the presence of Melittobia digitata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae and its associations with its natural hosts in Veracruz, Mexico. The parasitoid was confirmed to be present and found to attack prepupae of Trypoxylon and Sceliphron (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae and Sphecidae, respectively mud daubers as well as pupae of the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae. Since A. ludens is a very important pest of citrus and mango in Mexico and Central America, we evaluated, in laboratory experiments, the quality of A. ludens as host of M. digitata comparing the development of the parasitoid in another unrelated fly species (Sarcophaga [Neobellieria] bullata (Diptera: Sarcophagidae and in mud dauber wasps (Trypoxylon sp. and Sceliphron sp.. The Mexican fruit fly appears to be a good-quality host for M. digitata, and the results are discussed in the context of their possible interest as a natural enemy of A. ludens.

  16. Advances and perspectives in the mass rearing of fruit fly parasitoids in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancino, Jorge; Montoya, Pablo [Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (DGSV/SENASICA/SAGARPA), Chiapas (Mexico). Servicio Nacional de Sanidad, Inocuidad y Calidad Agroalimentaria. Programa Moscamed-Moscafrut

    2006-07-01

    Biological control by augmentation is applied in Mexico as part of an integrated pest management program against native fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner. The exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata has been the most important species used within this context. A program for the mass rearing of 50 million parasitized pupa per week has been established in southeast Mexico, and these are released into the field according to a yearly national plan based on industry requirements. In order to reduce costs and optimize procedures, important advances have been made in the technology for mass production, including an increase in the weight of host larvae (24 mg), changes in the management of host exposition, improvements in the management of environmental conditions, suitability in time and motions are the main areas addressed. Furthermore, a quality control program is routinely applied, and the key parameters under constant evaluation are: 1) weight and volume of host larvae, 2) host mortality after exposure, 3) weight and volume of pupae, and 4) percent parasitoid viability and percent emergence. Good performance in these parameters produces adults with adequate longevity and fecundity, high flight ability and good searching behavior. The introduced egg parasitoid Fopius arisanus and the native pupal parasitoid Coptera hawardi are being evaluated for use in the future as a complement to releases into the field of D. longicaudata. Manipulating host size and exposition time, the use of starting diet and suppressing host development by irradiation, have permitted the effective use of Anastrepha eggs as hosts for the rearing of F. arisanus. Further achievements in the mass rearing of C. haywardi (e.g., the suppression of unparasitized hosts after irradiation), could give us the opportunity to employ new options to reinforce the augmentative biological control of Anastrepha fruit flies in Mexico. (author)

  17. Cryopreservation of Embryos of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata Vienna 8 Genetic Sexing Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinos, Antonios A; Rajamohan, Arun; Kyritsis, Georgios A; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Haq, Ihsan Ul; Targovska, Asya; Caceres, Carlos; Bourtzis, Kostas; Abd-Alla, Adly M M

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the most serious pests of fruit crops world-wide. During the last decades, area-wide pest management (AW-IPM) approaches with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component have been used to control populations of this pest in an effective and environment-friendly manner. The development of genetic sexing strains (GSS), such as the Vienna 8 strain, has been played a major role in increasing the efficacy and reducing the cost of SIT programs. However, mass rearing, extensive inbreeding, possible bottleneck phenomena and hitch-hiking effects might pose major risks for deterioration and loss of important genetic characteristics of domesticated insect. In the present study, we present a modified procedure to cryopreserve the embryos of the medfly Vienna 8 GSS based on vitrification and used this strain as insect model to assess the impact of the cryopreservation process on the genetic structure of the cryopreserved insects. Forty-eight hours old embryos, incubated at 24°C, were found to be the most suitable developmental stage for cryopreservation treatment for high production of acceptable hatch rate (38%). Our data suggest the absence of any negative impact of the cryopreservation process on egg hatch rate, pupation rates, adult emergence rates and stability of the temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) character on two established cryopreserved lines (flies emerged from cryopreserved embryos), named V8-118 and V8-228. Taken together, our study provides an optimized procedure to cryopreserve the medfly Vienna 8 GSS and documents the absence of any negative impact on the genetic structure and quality of the strain. Benefits and sceneries for utilization of this technology to support operational SIT projects are discussed in this paper.

  18. Cryopreservation of Embryos of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata Vienna 8 Genetic Sexing Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinos, Antonios A.; Rajamohan, Arun; Kyritsis, Georgios A.; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Haq, Ihsan ul; Targovska, Asya; Caceres, Carlos; Bourtzis, Kostas; Abd-Alla, Adly M. M.

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the most serious pests of fruit crops world-wide. During the last decades, area-wide pest management (AW-IPM) approaches with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component have been used to control populations of this pest in an effective and environment-friendly manner. The development of genetic sexing strains (GSS), such as the Vienna 8 strain, has been played a major role in increasing the efficacy and reducing the cost of SIT programs. However, mass rearing, extensive inbreeding, possible bottleneck phenomena and hitch-hiking effects might pose major risks for deterioration and loss of important genetic characteristics of domesticated insect. In the present study, we present a modified procedure to cryopreserve the embryos of the medfly Vienna 8 GSS based on vitrification and used this strain as insect model to assess the impact of the cryopreservation process on the genetic structure of the cryopreserved insects. Forty-eight hours old embryos, incubated at 24°C, were found to be the most suitable developmental stage for cryopreservation treatment for high production of acceptable hatch rate (38%). Our data suggest the absence of any negative impact of the cryopreservation process on egg hatch rate, pupation rates, adult emergence rates and stability of the temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) character on two established cryopreserved lines (flies emerged from cryopreserved embryos), named V8-118 and V8-228. Taken together, our study provides an optimized procedure to cryopreserve the medfly Vienna 8 GSS and documents the absence of any negative impact on the genetic structure and quality of the strain. Benefits and sceneries for utilization of this technology to support operational SIT projects are discussed in this paper. PMID:27537351

  19. Differential Contribution of Endoplasmic Reticulum and Chloroplast ω-3 Fatty Acid Desaturase Genes to the Linolenic Acid Content of Olive (Olea europaea) Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, M Luisa; Sicardo, M Dolores; Martínez-Rivas, José M

    2016-01-01

    Linolenic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid present in plant lipids, which plays key roles in plant metabolism as a structural component of storage and membrane lipids, and as a precursor of signaling molecules. The synthesis of linolenic acid is catalyzed by two different ω-3 fatty acid desaturases, which correspond to microsomal- (FAD3) and chloroplast- (FAD7 and FAD8) localized enzymes. We have investigated the specific contribution of each enzyme to the linolenic acid content in olive fruit. With that aim, we isolated two different cDNA clones encoding two ω-3 fatty acid desaturases from olive (Olea europaea cv. Picual). Sequence analysis indicates that they code for microsomal (OepFAD3B) and chloroplast (OepFAD7-2) ω-3 fatty acid desaturase enzymes, different from the previously characterized OekFAD3A and OekFAD7-1 genes. Functional expression in yeast of the corresponding OepFAD3A and OepFAD3B cDNAs confirmed that they encode microsomal ω-3 fatty acid desaturases. The linolenic acid content and transcript levels of olive FAD3 and FAD7 genes were measured in different tissues of Picual and Arbequina cultivars, including mesocarp and seed during development and ripening of olive fruit. Gene expression and lipid analysis indicate that FAD3A is the gene mainly responsible for the linolenic acid present in the seed, while FAD7-1 and FAD7-2 contribute mostly to the linolenic acid present in the mesocarp and, therefore, in the olive oil. These results also indicate the relevance of lipid trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum and chloroplast in determining the linolenic acid content of membrane and storage lipids in oil-accumulating photosynthetic tissues.

  20. De novo assembly and transcriptome analysis of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata early embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Salvemini

    Full Text Available The agricultural pest Ceratitis capitata, also known as the Mediterranean fruit fly or Medfly, belongs to the Tephritidae family, which includes a large number of other damaging pest species. The Medfly has been the first non-drosophilid fly species which has been genetically transformed paving the way for designing genetic-based pest control strategies. Furthermore, it is an experimentally tractable model, in which transient and transgene-mediated RNAi have been successfully used. We applied Illumina sequencing to total RNA preparations of 8-10 hours old embryos of C. capitata, This developmental window corresponds to the blastoderm cellularization stage. In summary, we assembled 42,614 transcripts which cluster in 26,319 unique transcripts of which 11,045 correspond to protein coding genes; we identified several hundreds of long ncRNAs; we found an enrichment of transcripts encoding RNA binding proteins among the highly expressed transcripts, such as CcTRA-2, known to be necessary to establish and, most likely, to maintain female sex of C. capitata. Our study is the first de novo assembly performed for Ceratitis capitata based on Illumina NGS technology during embryogenesis and it adds novel data to the previously published C. capitata EST databases. We expect that it will be useful for a variety of applications such as gene cloning and phylogenetic analyses, as well as to advance genetic research and biotechnological applications in the Medfly and other related Tephritidae.

  1. De novo assembly and transcriptome analysis of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata early embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvemini, Marco; Arunkumar, Kallare P; Nagaraju, Javaregowda; Sanges, Remo; Petrella, Valeria; Tomar, Archana; Zhang, Hongyu; Zheng, Weiwei; Saccone, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The agricultural pest Ceratitis capitata, also known as the Mediterranean fruit fly or Medfly, belongs to the Tephritidae family, which includes a large number of other damaging pest species. The Medfly has been the first non-drosophilid fly species which has been genetically transformed paving the way for designing genetic-based pest control strategies. Furthermore, it is an experimentally tractable model, in which transient and transgene-mediated RNAi have been successfully used. We applied Illumina sequencing to total RNA preparations of 8-10 hours old embryos of C. capitata, This developmental window corresponds to the blastoderm cellularization stage. In summary, we assembled 42,614 transcripts which cluster in 26,319 unique transcripts of which 11,045 correspond to protein coding genes; we identified several hundreds of long ncRNAs; we found an enrichment of transcripts encoding RNA binding proteins among the highly expressed transcripts, such as CcTRA-2, known to be necessary to establish and, most likely, to maintain female sex of C. capitata. Our study is the first de novo assembly performed for Ceratitis capitata based on Illumina NGS technology during embryogenesis and it adds novel data to the previously published C. capitata EST databases. We expect that it will be useful for a variety of applications such as gene cloning and phylogenetic analyses, as well as to advance genetic research and biotechnological applications in the Medfly and other related Tephritidae.

  2. Thermotolerance and HSP70 expression in the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalosaka, Katerina; Soumaka, Elisavet; Politis, Nikos; Mintzas, Anastassios C

    2009-06-01

    The relationship between Hsp70 expression and thermotolerance has been well documented in Drosophila melanogaster. However, there is limited information on this relationship in other insect species. In this report we describe the Hsp70-thermotolerance relationship in one of the major fruit fly pests, Ceratitis capitata (medfly). Hsp70 expression and thermotolerance were assayed at a range of temperatures in several stages of medfly development. The most thermotolerant stage was found to be the late larval stage (100% survival at 41 degrees C) followed by adult flies and late embryos (100% survival at 39 degrees C). These three stages showed a positive relationship between Hsp70 expression and thermotolerance. Mid-larval and mid-embryonic stages were found less thermotolerant and the Hsp70-thermotolerance relationship was not evident. Early embryos did not express Hsp70 at any temperature and exhibited the lowest thermotolerance. The relationship between Hsp70 and inducible thermotolerance was also studied in late larvae. A pretreatment at 37-39 degrees C increased thermotolerance at higher temperatures by approximately 1 degrees C. In parallel, the pretreatment increased Hsp70 expression suggesting a close link between Hsp70 expression and inducible thermotolerance. The increased Hsp70 levels after pretreatment were found to be due to the increased levels of the hsp70 RNA.

  3. Controlled-release panel traps for the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, B A; Cunningham, R T; Chambers, D L; Avery, J W; Harte, E M

    1994-10-01

    Solid, controlled-release dispensers containing 2 g of the synthetic attractant trimedlure now are used in Jackson traps to detect the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Panel traps consisting of trimedlure mixed in a sticky substance and spread on the surfaces of a plastic panel are used to delineate the limits of discovered insect infestations in California. We describe the development of controlled-release, polymeric panels that prolong release of trimedlure and a highly attractive analog, ceralure. Attractants were incorporated in a polyethylene matrix to form panels and in a polymer coating on cardboard panels that then were evaluated by biological and chemical assay. In addition, commercial polymer matrix panels were evaluated. Field bioassay tests conducted in Hilo, HI, using released flies and in Guatemala in a natural population showed that the polyethylene matrix panel became brittle and cracked during field exposure and that release rates of the attractants were relatively low. The coated cardboard panels were stable under field conditions and yielded high fly captures for up to 6 wk. Farma Tech commercial panels containing 12.3 and 23.4 g of trimedlure remained highly attractive throughout a 134-d test in Hawaii and appear to be a long-lasting alternative to panels coated with trimedlure in Stikem. The cost of the relatively high dose of trimedlure is offset by the prolonged active life of the panel. Commercial panels from AgriSense (10 g trimedlure and 10 g ceralure) released the attractants at a slower rate and were less attractive.

  4. An improved culturing method for opiine fruit fly parasitoids and its application to parasitoid monitoring in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masry, Ayad; Furlong, Michael J; Clarke, Anthony R; Cunningham, John Paul

    2016-09-21

    Good culturing methods play an important role in the study of insect behavior and its application to pest management. Here, we describe and validate a new method for rearing the parasitoid wasp, Diachasmimorpha kraussii, which attacks some of the world's worst fruit fly pests and is an internationally used biological control agent. Our method differs from standard culturing approaches by presenting adult wasps with host-infested artificial media within a "culturing bag," which mimics a natural (fruit) oviposition substrate. In laboratory trials using wild collected D. kraussii, the culturing bag method was compared to the use of host-infested nectarines, and a commonly used laboratory method of presenting host-infested artificial media within Petri dishes. The culturing bag method proved to be a significant improvement on both methods, combining the advantages of high host survival in artificial media with parasitism levels that were the equivalent to those recorded using host-infested fruits. In our field study, culturing bags infested with the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, and hung in a mixed peach and nectarine orchard proved to be effective "artificial fruits" attracting wild D. kraussii for oviposition. Significantly more adult wasps were reared from the culturing bags compared to field collected fruits. This was shown to be due to higher fruit fly larval density in the bags, as similar percentage parasitism rates were found between the culturing bags and ripe fruits. We discuss how this cheap, time-efficient method could be applied to collecting and monitoring wild D. kraussii populations in orchards, and assist in maintaining genetic variability in parasitoid laboratory cultures.

  5. Effectiveness of spinosad bait sprays (GF-120) in controlling mango-infesting fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayssieres, Jean-François; Sinzogan, Antonio; Korie, Sam; Ouagoussounon, Issa; Thomas-Odjo, Agnès

    2009-04-01

    Effectiveness of GF-120 (Dow Chemical) Fruit Fly Bait containing the insecticide spinosad in controlling mango-infesting fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) was assessed by comparing treated orchards with untreated orchards. Twelve mango, Mangifera indica L., plantations located in six villages (two similar orchards per village: one orchard treated and orchard untreated) scattered in the Borgou department (northern Benin) were monitored weekly with fly traps, and the fruit was sampled twice for larval infestation at the beginning and in the middle of May in both 2006 and 2007. The two main mango fruit fly pests are Ceratitis cosyra (Walker) and Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White, an invasive species that recently spread throughout West Africa. In both the 2006 and 2007 seasons, C. cosyra had the earliest peak of abundance, and the difference between treated and untreated orchards, in terms of mean number of flies trapped per week and per trap, was significant only in 2007. B. invadens populations quickly increased with the onset of the rains, from mid-May onward, with no significant difference between treated and untreated orchards. In 2006 and 2007, the larval infestation by B. invadens was significantly lower in plots treated with GF-120 than in untreated control plots. GF-120 provided an 81% reduction in the number of pupae per kilogram of fruit after weekly applications for 7 wk in 2006 and an 89% reduction after 10 wk of weekly applications in 2007. The possibility of integrating GF120 bait sprays in an integrated pest management package is discussed in relation to market requirements.

  6. Biology of Fopius arisanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Two Species of Fruit Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, M. Z.; Loeck, A. E.; Nörnberg, S. D.; Bernardi, D.; Nava, D. E.

    2016-01-01

    Fopius arisanus (Sonan, 1932) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an egg–larval parasitoid used in control programs of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). In Brazil, C. capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) are considered the main tephritid pests of exotic and indigenous fruits. The objective of this study was to study the biology of F. arisanus in C. capitata and A. fraterculus. Eggs of the two fruit fly species were used to determine the parasitism rate, number of offspring, emergence rate, sex ratio, adult weight and longevity of male and female F. arisanus. These biological parameters were used to develop a fertility life table. We observed higher parasitism and emergence rates of adults, a shorter duration of the egg–adult period and a sex ratio biased to females when F. arisanus was reared in eggs of C. capitata than in those of A. fraterculus. However, adults of F. arisanus from eggs of A. fraterculus were heavier and had greater longevity than those obtained from C. capitata eggs. The fertility life table showed better biological and reproductive performance for F. arisanus reared in eggs of C. capitata, although eggs of A. fraterculus also provided positive values for population increase. PMID:27638954

  7. Threshold Concentration of Limonoids (Azamax) for Preventing Infestation by Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M A; Bezerra-Silva, G C D; Vendramim, J D; Forim, M R; Sá, I C G

    2015-04-01

    This study identified the threshold concentration of limonoids for the complete inhibition of oviposition of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in grapes 'Itália.' Choice and no-choice experiments with the insect were performed. The three no-choice bioassays were conducted following a completely randomized design with 18 treatments (three densities of insects [one, two, or three females]×five concentrations of limonoids and control) and 20 replicates. In a free choice bioassay, two fruits per cage (a treatment grape and a control) were provided for ovipositing. Three densities of insects (one, two, or three females) were used, with 15 replicates. Bioassays were conducted at 25±2°C, 60±10% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. The inhibition of oviposition of C. capitata was concentration dependent, with infestation occurring at lower concentrations of azadirachtin (+3-tigloylazadirachtol) and complete inhibition occurring at concentrations at or exceeding 100 ppm azadirachtin (+28.5 ppm of 3-tigloylazadirachtol), maintaining protective effects even at the most densely populated treatment (three females per fruit). When the pest had a free choice of host grapes (treatment vs. control), severe inhibition was observed at concentrations≥50 ppm azadirachtin (+14.3 ppm of 3-tigloylazadirachtol). We conclude that a threshold concentration of 100 ppm azadirachtin (+28.5 ppm of 3-tigloylazadirachtol) is capable of preventing grape infestation. This concentration is likely to provide a reliable level of protection, as the experimental population density of three females per fruit usually does not occur in the field and wild flies usually have more host options.

  8. Effect of temperature on the development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae, reared on guava diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danjuma, Solomon; Thaochan, Narit; Permkam, Surakrai; Satasook, Chutamas

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) complex constitute well-recognized destructive pests of fruits in peninsular Thailand. The development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, were compared at six constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 27, 30, and 35°C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D). The objectives were to determine the effect of temperature on the developmental stages for optimizing rearing and to understand the geographical pattern of occurrence of these fruit fly species. A strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of immature stages of B. carambolae. Similarly, a strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of B. papayae. A temperature summation model was used to estimate the lower threshold temperature and the thermal constant. Bactrocera papayae was significantly faster in development and higher in survival and appeared to be better adapted to low temperatures than B. carambolae, as it exhibited the lowest threshold temperatures at all immature stages. The observed differences in response to various temperatures revealed to some extent the impact of temperature on these species' distribution in peninsular Thailand and other parts of the world.

  9. The Effects of an Olive Fruit Polyphenol-Enriched Yogurt on Body Composition, Blood Redox Status, Physiological and Metabolic Parameters and Yogurt Microflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalliopi Georgakouli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigated the effects of an olive polyphenol-enriched yogurt on yogurt microflora, as well as hematological, physiological and metabolic parameters, blood redox status and body composition. In a randomized double-blind, crossover design, 16 (6 men, 10 women nonsmoking volunteers with non-declared pathology consumed either 400 g of olive fruit polyphenol-enriched yogurt with 50 mg of encapsulated olive polyphenols (experimental condition—EC or 400 g of plain yogurt (control condition—CC every day for two weeks. Physiological measurements and blood collection were performed before and after two weeks of each condition. The results showed that body weight, body mass index, hip circumference and systolic blood pressure decreased significantly (p < 0.05 following the two-week consumption of yogurt regardless of condition. A tendency towards significance for decreased levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol (p = 0.06 and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (p < 0.05 following two weeks of polyphenol-enriched yogurt consumption was observed. The population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB and production of lactate in yogurt were significantly enhanced after addition of olive polyphenols, contrary to the population of yeasts and molds. The results indicate that consumption of the polyphenol-enriched yogurt may help individuals with non-declared pathology reduce body weight, blood pressure, LDL cholesterol levels and lipid peroxidation, and promote growth of beneficial LAB.

  10. The Effects of an Olive Fruit Polyphenol-Enriched Yogurt on Body Composition, Blood Redox Status, Physiological and Metabolic Parameters and Yogurt Microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Mpesios, Anastasios; Kouretas, Demetrios; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Mitsagga, Chrysanthi; Giavasis, Ioannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z

    2016-06-03

    In the present study we investigated the effects of an olive polyphenol-enriched yogurt on yogurt microflora, as well as hematological, physiological and metabolic parameters, blood redox status and body composition. In a randomized double-blind, crossover design, 16 (6 men, 10 women) nonsmoking volunteers with non-declared pathology consumed either 400 g of olive fruit polyphenol-enriched yogurt with 50 mg of encapsulated olive polyphenols (experimental condition-EC) or 400 g of plain yogurt (control condition-CC) every day for two weeks. Physiological measurements and blood collection were performed before and after two weeks of each condition. The results showed that body weight, body mass index, hip circumference and systolic blood pressure decreased significantly (p yogurt regardless of condition. A tendency towards significance for decreased levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (p = 0.06) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (p yogurt consumption was observed. The population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and production of lactate in yogurt were significantly enhanced after addition of olive polyphenols, contrary to the population of yeasts and molds. The results indicate that consumption of the polyphenol-enriched yogurt may help individuals with non-declared pathology reduce body weight, blood pressure, LDL cholesterol levels and lipid peroxidation, and promote growth of beneficial LAB.

  11. [Terahertz radiation influence on number and development dynamics of offspring F1 of fruit fly females under stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, A I; Weĭsman, N Ia; Nemova, E F; Mamrashev, A A; Nikolaev, N A

    2013-01-01

    Virgin fruit fly females were stressed by placement into a confined space without food for 2.5 hours. Some flies were subjected to terahertz radiation (0.1-2.2 THz) for the last 30 min. Then females were copulated with males. Offspring F1 from oocytes which were mature or immature at exposure (oviposition in 1-2 or 9-10 days after irradiation) was studied. Stress induces a rejection of the offspring maturation dynamics to imago from external control (offspring of flies which was maintained in standard conditions). In offsping from mature oocytes of irradiated flies the dynamics of male maturation to imago was different from internal control (offspring of stressed unirradiated flies). The number of imago males decreased. The dynamics of female maturation to imago coincides with laboratory control. In offsping from immature oocytes of irradiated flies the dynamics of female and male maturation and the number of flies were not significantly different from the internal control. It was concluded that only mature oocytes are sensitive to THz radiation influence.

  12. Mass trapping is as effective as ground bait sprays for the control of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) fruit flies in mango orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Jorge; Flores, Salvador; Liedo, Pablo; Malo, Edi A

    2017-10-01

    Anastrepha fruit flies are considered one of the main phytosanitary problems for the fresh fruit industry in the USA, Caribbean islands and Latin America. Since 1994, the Mexican government has implemented the National Fruit Fly Program using an area-wide integrated pest management approach. In this paper, we evaluate the effectiveness of mass trapping and compare it with ground GF-120 spraying against Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha ludens populations in mango cv. Ataulfo orchards. Multilure® traps baited with Ceratrap® or Biolure® captured significantly more fruit flies than Captor 300 in field cage tests. Mass trapping and ground GF-120 spray significantly suppressed fruit fly populations compared with untreated plots. In Multilure traps placed in untreated plots, we captured significantly more fruit flies than in treated plots with mass trapping or GF-120 sprays. Plots treated with either mass trapping or GF-120 sprays reduced the percentage of infested fruit significantly compared with untreated plots. There was no difference between mass trapping and GF-120 ground bait spraying. Our results demonstrate that mass trapping was as effective as GF-120 ground spraying for the control of fruit flies in mango cv. Ataulfo orchards. The suppression effect of mass trapping was similar to GF-120 ground bait spraying. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Limits to the host range of the highly polyphagous tephritid fruit fly Anastrepha ludens in its natural habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birke, A; Acosta, E; Aluja, M

    2015-12-01

    Anastepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a highly polyphagous fruit fly that is able to develop in a wide range of hosts. Understanding the limits of this pest's host range could provide valuable information for pest management and plant breeding for pest resistance. Previous studies have shown that guavas (Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) L.), are not attacked under natural conditions by A. ludens. To understand this phenomenon, guavas were exposed to natural infestation by A. ludens and to other fruit fly species that infest guavas in nature (Anastrepha striata Schiner, Anastepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), Anastepha obliqua (Macquart)). Once the susceptible phenological stage of guavas was determined, fruit infestation levels were compared between A. ludens and A. striata. Choice and non-choice tests were performed under field-cage conditions. Under field conditions, guavas were susceptible to A. striata and A. fraterculus attack all the way from when fruit was undeveloped to when fruit began to ripen. No infestation by A. ludens was recorded under natural conditions. Similar results were obtained when forced exposures were performed, indicating that unripe guavas were preferred by A. striata over ripe fruit, and that infestation rates were higher at early fruit maturity stages. Under forced oviposition conditions, A. ludens larvae were unable to develop in unripe guavas but did so in fully ripe fruit. However, A. ludens fitness parameters were dramatically affected, exhibiting reduced survival and reduced pupal weight compared to conspecifics that developed in a natural host, grapefruit. We confirm that P. guajava should not be treated as a natural host of this pestiferous species, and suggest that both behavioral aspects and the fact that larvae are unable to adequately develop in this fruit, indeed represent clear limits to A. ludens's broad host range.

  14. Dispersal of Rhagoletis cerasi in Commercial Cherry Orchards: Efficacy of Soil Covering Nets for Cherry Fruit Fly Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Claudia; Baker, Brian

    2013-03-12

    Demand for organic cherries offers producers a premium price to improve their commercial viability. Organic standards require that producers find alternatives to pesticides. Soil treatments to control the European cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephrididae) appear to be an attractive option. However, soil treatments can only be effective if the migration of flies is low, because mature flies may migrate from near-by trees for oviposition. To examine the general potential of soil treatments and to understand the dispersal and flight behaviour of R. cerasi within orchards, experiments using netting to cover the soil were conducted in two orchards with different pest pressure during two years. The netting reduced flight activity by 77% and fruit infestation by 91%. The data showed that the flies have a dispersal of less than 5 m within orchards, which is very low. The low thresholds for tolerance for infested fruit in the fresh market creates a strong economic incentive for control, therefore, soil covering is a promising strategy for controlling R. cerasi in commercial orchards.

  15. Technology for production of mixed fruit vinegar using olive and Phyllanthus emblica%橄榄余甘果复合果醋生产工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄春秋; 梁珠民; 庞琳; 林君

    2011-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to develop a healthy mixed fruit vinegar using olive and Phyllanthus emblica with properties of sweet and sour taste, unique flavor and nutritiveness. [Method]The juice was extracted from fresh olive and Phyllanthus emblica fruits, mixed in different ratios and allowed to alcohol and acetic acid fermentation. The best ratio of olive and Phyllanthus emblica juice and fermentation conditions were optimized to get the desired quality of mixed fruit vinegar. [ Result ]The optimum conditions of developing mixed fruit vinegar were recorded as follows: 1:2 ratio of olive and Phyllanthus emblica juice, 14% initial wine degrees, 4% of acetic acid bacteria, 32t of fermentation temperature, 5 days of fermentation time. [Conclusion]Olive and Phyllanthus emblica juice may be fermented together to obtain nutritive, clear and fragrant vinegar with sweet and sour taste and unique flavor.%[目的]研制酸甜适口、风味独特、营养保健的橄榄余甘果复合果醋.[方法]以新鲜橄榄、余甘果为原料,经取汁、调配后,采用液态发酵法进行酒精发酵和醋酸发酵,然后对橄榄余甘果汁配比、醋酸发酵等主要工艺进行探讨.[结果]酿制橄榄余甘果复合果醋最佳条件为:橄榄余甘果汁混合比例1∶2,醋酸发酵初始酒度14%vol,醋酸菌接种量4%,发酵温度32℃,发酵时间5d.[结论]橄榄余甘果汁可混合发酵得出澄清透彻、醋味清香、酸甜可口、风味独特、营养丰富的新型橄榄余甘果复合果醋,为进一步研发诸如橄榄、余甘果等营养丰富、不宜鲜食水果的深加工产品奠定了基础.

  16. Yield and Water Productivity Responses to Irrigation Cut-off Strategies after Fruit Set Using Stem Water Potential Thresholds in a Super-High Density Olive Orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada-Orellana, Luis E; Ortega-Farías, Samuel; Searles, Peter S; Retamales, Jorge B

    2017-01-01

    An increase in the land area dedicated to super-high density olive orchards has occurred in Chile in recent years. Such modern orchards have high irrigation requirements, and optimizing water use is a priority. Moreover, this region presents low water availability, which makes necessary to establish irrigation strategies to improve water productivity. An experiment was conducted during four consecutive growing seasons (2010-2011 to 2013-2014) to evaluate the responses of yield and water productivity to irrigation cut-off strategies. These strategies were applied after fruit set using midday stem water potential (Ψstem) thresholds in a super-high density olive orchard (cv. Arbequina), located in the Pencahue Valley, Maule Region, Chile. The experimental design was completely randomized with four irrigation cut-off treatments based on the Ψstem thresholds and four replicate plots per treatment (five trees per plot). Similar to commercial growing conditions in our region, the Ψstem in the T1 treatment was maintained between -1.4 and -2.2 MPa (100% of actual evapotranspiration), while T2, T3 and T4 treatments did not receive irrigation from fruit set until they reached a Ψstem threshold of approximately -3.5, -5.0, and -6.0 MPa, respectively. Once the specific thresholds were reached, irrigation was restored and maintained as T1 in all treatments until fruits were harvested. Yield and its components were not significantly different between T1 and T2, but fruit yield and total oil yield, fruit weight, and fruit diameter were decreased by the T3 and T4 treatments. Moreover, yield showed a linear response with water stress integral (SΨ), which was strongly influenced by fruit load. Total oil content (%) and pulp/stone ratio were not affected by the different irrigation strategies. Also, fruit and oil water productivities were significantly greater in T1 and T2 than in the T3 and T4. Moreover, the T2, T3, and T4 treatments averaged 37, 51, and 72 days without

  17. Comparison of aggregation and feeding responses by normal and irradiated fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galun, R.; Gothilf, S.; Blondheim, S.; Sharp, J.L.; Mazor, M.; Lachman, A.

    1985-12-01

    Olfactory, aggregatory, and feeding responses of normal (untreated) laboratory stocks of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and of Caribbean fruit fly (caribfly), Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were compared to those of flies irradiated (10 krad in air) 2 days before eclosion. Females of both species consumed greater quantities of protein hydrolysate solutions, entered protein hydrolysate-baited olfactory traps, and aggregated on agar plates containing protein hydrolysate in greater numbers than males of the same age and condition. However, male medflies consumed more sucrose than did females of the same age and condition. In the medfly, irradiation resulted in reduced olfactory response, reduced total food intake by flies of both sexes, and a significant reduction in aggregation on and intake of protein hydrolysate by females and of sugar consumption by males. In the irradiated caribfly, there was a significant reduction in olfactory response of females to yeast hydrolysate. In both sexes, aggregation on and consumption of yeast hydrolysate were reduced. Effects of irradiation on feeding behavior are discussed in relation to the biology of the flies and their control by the sterile insect release method.

  18. Natural Parasitism in Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Populations in Disturbed Areas Adjacent to Commercial Mango Orchards in Chiapas and Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Pablo; Ayala, Amanda; López, Patricia; Cancino, Jorge; Cabrera, Héctor; Cruz, Jassmin; Martinez, Ana Mabel; Figueroa, Isaac; Liedo, Pablo

    2016-04-01

    To determine the natural parasitism in fruit fly populations in disturbed areas adjacent to commercial mango orchards in the states of Chiapas and Veracruz, Mexico, we recorded over one year the fruit fly-host associations, fly infestation, and parasitism rates in backyard orchards and patches of native vegetation. We also investigated the relationship between fruit size, level of larval infestation, and percent of parasitism, and attempted to determine the presence of superparasitism. The most recurrent species in trap catches was Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), followed by Anastrepha ludens (Loew), in both study zones. The fruit infestation rates were higher in Chiapas than in Veracruz, with A. obliqua again being the most conspicuous species emerging from collected fruits. The diversity of parasitoids species attacking fruit fly larvae was greater in Chiapas, with a predominance of Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) in both sites, although the exotic Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) was well established in Chiapas. Fruit size was positively correlated with the number of larvae per fruit, but this relationship was not observed in the level of parasitism. The number of oviposition scars was not related to the number of immature parasitoids inside the pupa of D. areolatus emerging from plum fruits. Mass releases of Di. longicaudata seem not to affect the presence or prevalence of the native species. Our findings open new research scenarios on the role and impact of native parasitoid species attacking Anastrepha flies that can contribute to the development of sound strategies for using these species in projects for augmentative biological control.

  19. Identification of Male- and Female-Specific Olfaction Genes in Antennae of the Oriental Fruit Fly (Bactrocera dorsalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Smagghe, Guy; Lei, Zhongren; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) is a species of tephritid fruit fly, endemic to Southeast Asia but also introduced to many regions of the US, and it is one of the major pest species with a broad host range of cultivated and wild fruits. Although males of B. dorsalis respond strongly to methyl eugenol and this is used for monitoring and estimating populations, the molecular mechanism of the oriental fruit fly olfaction has not been elucidated yet. Therefore, in this project, using next generation sequencing technologies, we sequenced the transcriptome of the antennae of male and female adults of B. dorsalis. We identified a total of 20 candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 5 candidate chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 35 candidate odorant receptors (ORs), 12 candidate ionotropic receptors (IRs) and 4 candidate sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs). The sex-specific expression of these genes was determined and a subset of 9 OR genes was further characterized by qPCR with male and female antenna, head, thorax, abdomen, leg and wing samples. In the male antennae, 595 genes showed a higher expression, while 128 genes demonstrated a higher expression in the female antennae. Interestingly, 2 ORs (BdorOR13 and BdorOR14) were highly and specifically expressed in the antennae of males, and 4 ORs (BdorOR13, BdorOR16, BdorOR18 and BdorOR35) clustered with DmOR677, suggesting pheromone reception. We believe this study with these antennae-enriched OBPs, CSPs, ORs, IRs and SNMPs can play an important role in the detection of pheromones and general odorants, and so in turn our data improve our current understanding of insect olfaction at the molecular level and provide important information for disrupting the behavior of the oriental fruit fly using chemical communication methods.

  20. Pupal X-ray irradiation influences protein expression in adults of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chiou Ling; Villalun, MaryAnn; Geib, Scott M; Goodman, Cynthia L; Ringbauer, Joseph; Stanley, David

    2015-05-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a pest of fruit in the Asia-Pacific region and also, due to quarantine restrictions, a threat to California fruit production. Area-wide suppression of B. dorsalis integrated several approaches including the sterile insect technique (SIT). SIT involves exposing juveniles to gamma radiation and releasing sterile males in substantial numbers, where they successfully compete for wild females. The resulting infertile eggs lead to reduction of the pest populations. Although these protocols are well documented, arising issues about the international transport and distribution of radioactive products is creating difficulties in use of radioactive sources for sterilizing radiation. This led to a shift toward use of X-ray irradiation, which also sterilizes male and female insects. However, use of X-ray technologies is in its infancy and there is virtually no information on the effects of irradiation, other than sterilization, at the physiological and molecular levels of fruit fly biology. We posed the hypothesis that sterilizing male oriental fruit flies via radiation treatment also influences protein expression in the flies. We found that exposing pupae to X-ray irradiation impacted expression of 26 proteins in adult females and 31 proteins in adult males. Seven proteins (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, larval cuticle protein 2, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein alpha-B and A chains, general odorant-binding protein 99b, polyubiquitin, and protein disulfide-isomerase) were impacted in both sexes. Some of the proteins act in central energy-generating and in pheromone-signal processing pathways; we infer that males sterilized by X-ray irradiation may be enfeebled in their ability to compete with wild males for females in nature.

  1. Stability of adult emergence and activity/rest rhythms in fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster under semi-natural condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha N Kannan

    Full Text Available Here we report the results of a study aimed at examining stability of adult emergence and activity/rest rhythms under semi-natural conditions (henceforth SN, in four large outbred fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster populations, selected for emergence in a narrow window of time under laboratory (henceforth LAB light/dark (LD cycles. When assessed under LAB, selected flies display enhanced stability in terms of higher amplitude, synchrony and accuracy in emergence and activity rhythms compared to controls. The present study was conducted to assess whether such differences in stability between selected and control populations, persist under SN where several gradually changing time-cues are present in their strongest form. The study revealed that under SN, emergence waveform of selected flies was modified, with even more enhanced peak and narrower gate-width compared to those observed in the LAB and compared to control populations in SN. Furthermore, flies from selected populations continued to exhibit enhanced synchrony and accuracy in their emergence and activity rhythms under SN compared to controls. Further analysis of zeitgeber effects revealed that enhanced stability in the rhythmicity of selected flies under SN was primarily due to increased sensitivity to light because emergence and activity rhythms of selected flies were as stable as controls under temperature cycles. These results thus suggest that stability of circadian rhythms in fruit flies D. melanogaster, which evolved as a consequence of selection for emergence in a narrow window of time under weak zeitgeber condition of LAB, persists robustly in the face of day-to-day variations in cycling environmental factors of nature.

  2. Functional Morphology of the Mouthparts of the Adult Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado-Gonzalez, Pablo A.; Vijaysegaran, S.; Robinson, Alan S.

    2008-01-01

    Food-based attractants incorporating an insecticide are an important component of area-wide control programmes for the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). This study was carried out to understand the feeding mechanism of adults of this species. Mouthparts of C. capitata are similar in general structure to those of another Tephritid genus, Bactrocera, and have specific structural modifications that determine what adult flies can ingest. The labellum has a series of fine tube-like structures, called pseudotracheae, on its inner surface. Each pseudotrachea leads from the outer margin of the labellum and ends at the prestomum to the oral opening. The pseudotracheae contain fine micropores about 0.5µm in size. During feeding, the oral opening is never exposed to the feeding substrate but the portions of the opposing labellar lobes proximal to the oral opening are flexed against each other and distal portions of the opposing labellar lobes are opened and pressed flat against the feeding substrate or surface. The prestomal spines at the base of each pseudotrachea interlock to form a barrier across the oral opening. Thus entry of large particles directly into the crop and gut through the oral opening is prevented by flexure of the opposing labellar lobes against each other and the interlocking prestomal spines across the oral opening. Only liquids and suspended particles less than 0.5µm in size are sucked through the micropores into the lumen of the pseudotracheae and then pass into the food canal and into the crop and gut. The pseudotracheae of adult C. capitata, particularly along the middle portion of the labellum, have prominent blade-like projections that Bactrocera do not have. These projections are probably an ancestral condition as they were not observed to use them to abrade the plant or feeding surface as has been reported for species in the Tephritid genus, Blepharoneura.

  3. Life table assay of field-caught Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata, reveals age bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouloussis, Nikos A.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.; Müller, Hans-Georg; Wang, Jane-Ling; Mao, Meng; Katsoyannos, Byron I.; Duyck, Pierre-François; Carey, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Though traps are used widely to sample phytophagous insects for research or management purposes, and recently in aging research, possible bias stemming from differential response of individuals of various ages to traps has never been examined. In this paper, we tested the response of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) males and females of four ages (spanning from 1 to 40 days) to McPhail-type traps baited with a synthetic food attractant in field cages and found that the probability of trapping was significantly influenced by age. The type of food on which flies were maintained before testing (sugar or protein) also had a strong effect and interacted with age. In another experiment, we collected wild C. capitata adults of unknown age using 1–3 methods and then reared them in the laboratory until death. The survival schedules of these flies were subsequently used in a life table assay to infer their age at the time of capture. Results showed that on a single sampling date, males captured in traps baited with a food attractant were younger compared with males aspirated from fruiting host trees, or males captured in traps baited with a sex attractant. Likewise, females captured in food-baited traps were younger compared with aspirated females. In addition to providing the first evidence of age-dependent sampling bias for a phytophagous insect species, this paper also provides a novel approach to estimate the differences in the age composition of samples collected with different techniques. These findings are of utmost importance for several categories of insects, medically important groups notwithstanding. PMID:22844133

  4. Effect of olive mill waste (OMW) supplementation to Oyster mushrooms substrates on the cultivation parameters and fruiting bodies quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Rodriguez, A.; Soler-Rivas, C.; Polonia, I.; Wichers, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Seven Oyster mushroom strains were cultivated in wheat straw (WS) bags supplemented with 0 up to 90% olive mill waste (OMW), a solid residue obtained from a two-phases olive oil production system. All mushroom strains could grow but high OMW concentrations resulted in a significant yield, biological

  5. Seasonal amounts of nutrients in Western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their relation to nutrient availability on cherry plant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L; Chapman, Peter S

    2008-10-01

    Relatively little is known about the nutritional ecology of fruit flies in the genus Rhagoletis. In this study, nutrient amounts in male and female western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, and availability of nitrogen and sugar on surfaces of leaves, fruit, and extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) of sweet cherry trees, were determined from late May to late June 2005 and of sugar from EFNs from mid-May to late June 2007 in Washington state. Protein amounts in male and female flies did not differ over the season. Nitrogen was present on leaves, fruit, and EFNs during the sampling period, but amounts on leaves and fruit were lower in late May than the rest of the season. Sugar amounts in flies did not differ over the season. Sugar was present on leaf, fruit, and EFN surfaces all season, but amounts on all three were lower in late May than later in the season. Fructose and glucose were the predominant sugars on all plant surfaces, but sucrose was also present in nectar from EFNs. In outdoor and field cage experiments in 2004 and 2006, more flies survived when cherry branches with leaves and fruit were present than absent. Results suggest that R. indifferens maintains stable protein and sugar levels throughout the season because sufficient amounts of nutrients are found in cherry trees during this time and that increases in nutrient availability caused by ripening and damaged cherries later in the season do not result in increased amounts of nutrients in flies.

  6. Dominance of an invasive fruit fly species, Bactrocera invadens, along an altitudinal transect in Morogoro, Eastern Central Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, K; Mwatawala, M W; De Meyer, M

    2014-06-01

    Bactrocera invadens, a fruit fly from Asia, is an invasive pest species across Africa. It appears to continue spreading, not only in latitude but also in altitude. To assess its capacity to infest a large variety of hosts and its competition with other fruit fly species, a study along an altitudinal gradient was conducted. At low altitudes, the high abundance in the field and high infestation of B. invadens in different fruit species make it a serious pest. At high altitudes, colonization has started and B. invadens occurs in low numbers by reproducing successfully in high altitude fruits. Overall the abundance and infestation of B. invadens is influenced by its direct competitor Ceratitis rosa and the presence of its preferred host species. C. rosa is still the dominant species in temperate fruits grown at high altitude. Ceratitis cosyra, however, is negatively affected by B. invadens, this species seems to have shifted hosts to avoid competition. The broad host range and competitive potential of B. invadens increase the risk for further spread not only to higher areas, but also to subtropical regions.

  7. Unsaturated Lipids Change in Olive Tree Drupe and Seed during Fruit Development and in Response to Cold-Stress and Acclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone D’Angeli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The olive tree is a plant of economic value for the oil of its drupe. It is a cultigen complex composed of genotypes with differences in cold-hardiness. About 90% of the oil is stored in oil bodies (OBs in the drupe during the oleogenic phase. Phenols and lipids contribute to oil quality, but the unsaturated fatty acid (FA fraction is emerging as the most important for quality, because of the very high content in oleic acid, the presence of ω6-linoleic acid and ω3-linolenic acid, and the very low saturated FA content. Another 10% of oil is produced by the seed. Differences in unsaturated FA-enriched lipids exist among seed coat, endosperm, and embryo. Olive oil quality is also affected by the environmental conditions during fruit growth and genotype peculiarities. Production of linoleic and α-linolenic acids, fruit growth, fruit and leaf responses to low temperatures, including cuticle formation, and cold-acclimation are related processes. The levels of unsaturated FAs are changed by FA-desaturase (FAD activities, involving the functioning of chloroplasts and endoplasmic reticulum. Cold induces lipid changes during drupe and seed development, affecting FADs, but its effect is related to the genotype capability to acclimate to the cold.

  8. Unsaturated Lipids Change in Olive Tree Drupe and Seed during Fruit Development and in Response to Cold-Stress and Acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angeli, Simone; Altamura, Maria Maddalena

    2016-11-12

    The olive tree is a plant of economic value for the oil of its drupe. It is a cultigen complex composed of genotypes with differences in cold-hardiness. About 90% of the oil is stored in oil bodies (OBs) in the drupe during the oleogenic phase. Phenols and lipids contribute to oil quality, but the unsaturated fatty acid (FA) fraction is emerging as the most important for quality, because of the very high content in oleic acid, the presence of ω6-linoleic acid and ω3-linolenic acid, and the very low saturated FA content. Another 10% of oil is produced by the seed. Differences in unsaturated FA-enriched lipids exist among seed coat, endosperm, and embryo. Olive oil quality is also affected by the environmental conditions during fruit growth and genotype peculiarities. Production of linoleic and α-linolenic acids, fruit growth, fruit and leaf responses to low temperatures, including cuticle formation, and cold-acclimation are related processes. The levels of unsaturated FAs are changed by FA-desaturase (FAD) activities, involving the functioning of chloroplasts and endoplasmic reticulum. Cold induces lipid changes during drupe and seed development, affecting FADs, but its effect is related to the genotype capability to acclimate to the cold.

  9. The oviposition of the chili fruit fly (Bactrocera latifrons Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae with reference to reproductive capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anothai Wingsanoi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The chili fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons Hendel, is a serious pest of chili fruit production in Thailand. To determine theeffective control planning of the fly population, the oviposition related to reproductive capacity of the female were observed.The female ovary was daily dissected through the entire life span and the eggs inside the ovary were examined and counted.There were 44.84±19.60 eggs/ovary. The oviposition of female was simultaneously conducted. Eggs inside the ovarypresented on 8th day and the female oviposited on 10th day of the life span. The female laid 4.25±2.28 eggs, which was 12.45±9.56 fold less than the reproductive capacity. The female longevity was 31.1±8.40 days and the oviposition period was 40days.

  10. Fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from some localities of Paraguay: new records, checklist, and illustrated key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Osmar René; Fariña, Nelson Librado; Lopes, Gleidyane Novaes; Uramoto, Keiko; Zucchi, Roberto Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This study deals with fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) collected in McPhail traps in the municipalities of Concepción, Belén, Horqueta, Loreto (state of Concepción) and Santa Rosa (state of Misiones), Paraguay. In total, 17 species were captured, 9 of which are new records for Paraguay. All morphological characters used for species identification are illustrated.

  11. Transcriptome profiling of sexual maturation and mating in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludvik M Gomulski

    Full Text Available Sexual maturation and mating in insects are generally accompanied by major physiological and behavioural changes. Many of these changes are related to the need to locate a mate and subsequently, in the case of females, to switch from mate searching to oviposition behaviour. The prodigious reproductive capacity of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the factors that has led to its success as an invasive pest species. To identify the molecular changes related to maturation and mating status in male and female medfly, a microarray-based gene expression approach was used to compare the head transcriptomes of sexually immature, mature virgin, and mated individuals. Attention was focused on the changes in abundance of transcripts related to reproduction, behaviour, sensory perception of chemical stimulus, and immune system processes. Broad transcriptional changes were recorded during female maturation, while post-mating transcriptional changes in females were, by contrast, modest. In male medfly, transcriptional changes were consistent both during maturation and as a consequence of mating. Of particular note was the lack of the mating-induced immune responses that have been recorded for Drosophila melanogaster, that may be due to the different reproductive strategies of these species. This study, in addition to increasing our understanding of the molecular machinery behind maturation and mating in the medfly, has identified important gene targets that might be useful in the future management of this pest.

  12. Dichromatic vision in a fruit bat with diurnal proclivities: the Samoan flying fox (Pteropus samoensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Amanda D; Danosi, Christina F; McCracken, Gary F; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2014-12-01

    A nocturnal bottleneck during mammalian evolution left a majority of species with two cone opsins, or dichromatic color vision. Primate trichromatic vision arose from the duplication and divergence of an X-linked opsin gene, and is long attributed to tandem shifts from nocturnality to diurnality and from insectivory to frugivory. Opsin gene variation and at least one duplication event exist in the order Chiroptera, suggesting that trichromatic vision could evolve under favorable ecological conditions. The natural history of the Samoan flying fox (Pteropus samoensis) meets these conditions--it is a large bat that consumes nectar and fruit and demonstrates strong diurnal proclivities. It also possesses a visual system that is strikingly similar to that of primates. To explore the potential for opsin gene duplication and divergence in this species, we sequenced the opsin genes of 11 individuals (19 X-chromosomes) from three South Pacific islands. Our results indicate the uniform presence of two opsins with predicted peak sensitivities of ca. 360 and 553 nm. This result fails to support a causal link between diurnal frugivory and trichromatic vision, although it remains plausible that the diurnal activities of P. samoensis have insufficient antiquity to favor opsin gene renovation.

  13. BdorOBP83a-2 Mediates Responses of the Oriental Fruit Fly to Semiochemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhongzhen; Lin, Jintian; Zhang, He; Zeng, Xinnian

    2016-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most destructive pests throughout tropical and subtropical regions in Asia. This insect displays remarkable changes during different developmental phases in olfactory behavior between sexually immature and mated adults. The olfactory behavioral changes provide clues to examine physiological and molecular bases of olfactory perception in this insect. We comparatively analyzed behavioral and neuronal responses of B. dorsalis adults to attractant semiochemicals, and the expression profiles of antenna chemosensory genes. We found that some odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) were upregulated in mated adults in association with their behavioral and neuronal responses. Ligand-binding assays further showed that one of OBP83a orthologs, BdorOBP83a-2, binds with high affinity to attractant semiochemicals. Functional analyses confirmed that the reduction in BdorOBP83a-2 transcript abundance led to a decrease in neuronal and behavioral responses to selected attractants. This study suggests that BdorOBP83a-2 mediates behavioral responses to attractant semiochemicals and could be a potential efficient target for pest control. PMID:27761116

  14. Do female fruit flies (Drosophila serrata) copy the mate choice of others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auld, Heather L; Punzalan, David; Godin, Jean-Guy J; Rundle, Howard D

    2009-09-01

    Female mate-choice copying is a social learning phenomenon whereby a female's observation of a successful sexual interaction between a male and another female increases her likelihood of subsequently preferring that male. Although mate-choice copying has been documented in several vertebrate species, to our knowledge it has not yet been investigated in insects. Here, we investigated whether female mate-choice copying occurs in the fruit fly Drosophila serrata, a model system for the study of mate preferences and the sexual selection they generate. We used two complementary experiments in which focal females were given a choice between two males that differed in either their apparent (as determined visually by the focal female) or actual recent mating success. Mate-choice copying was evaluated by testing whether focal females mated more frequently with the 'preferred' male as opposed to the other male. In both experiments, however, we found no evidence for mate-choice copying. We discuss possible reasons for the apparent absence of mate-choice copying in this species.

  15. Pressure Model of Control Valve Based on LS-SVM with the Fruit Fly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Aiqin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Control valve is a kind of essential terminal control component which is hard to model by traditional methodologies because of its complexity and nonlinearity. This paper proposes a new modeling method for the upstream pressure of control valve using the least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM, which has been successfully used to identify nonlinear system. In order to improve the modeling performance, the fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA is used to optimize two critical parameters of LS-SVM. As an example, a set of actual production data from a controlling system of chlorine in a salt chemistry industry is applied. The validity of LS-SVM modeling method using FOA is verified by comparing the predicted results with the actual data with a value of MSE 2.474 × 10−3. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the initial position of FOA does not affect its optimal ability. By comparison, simulation experiments based on PSO algorithm and the grid search method are also carried out. The results show that LS-SVM based on FOA has equal performance in prediction accuracy. However, from the respect of calculation time, FOA has a significant advantage and is more suitable for the online prediction.

  16. Fruit fly optimization algorithm based high efficiency and low NOx combustion modeling for a boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhenxing∗; SUN Baomin; XIN Jing

    2014-01-01

    In order to control NOx emissions and enhance boiler efficiency in coal-fired boilers,the thermal operating data from an ultra-supercritical 1 000 MW unit boiler were analyzed.On the basis of the support vector regression machine (SVM),the fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA)was applied to optimize the penalty parameter C,ker-nel parameter g and insensitive loss coefficient of the model.Then,the FOA-SVM model was established to predict the NOx emissions and boiler efficiency,and the performance of this model was compared with that of the GA-SVM model optimized by genetic algorithm (GA).The results show the FOA-SVM model has better prediction accuracy and generalization capability,of which the maximum average relative error of testing set lies in the NOx emissions model,which is only 3 .5 9%.The above models can predict the NOx emissions and boiler efficiency accurately,so they are very suitable for on-line modeling prediction,which provides a good model foundation for further optimiza-tion operation of large capacity boilers.

  17. The current and future potential geographic range of West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Liao; Li, Zhi-Hong; Huang, Guan-Sheng; Wu, Xing-Xia; Ni, Wen-Long; Qü, Wei-Wei

    2014-04-01

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), is one of the most important pests throughout the Americas. CLIMEX 3.0 and ArcGIS 9.3 were used to model the current and future potential geographical distribution of this pest. Under current climatic conditions, A. obliqua is predicted to be able to establish throughout much of the tropics and subtropics, including not only North and South America, where it has been reported, but also southern Asia, northeastern Australia and Sub-Saharan Africa. The main factors limiting the pest's range expansion may be cold stress. Climate change expands the potential distribution of A. obliqua poleward as cold stress boundaries recede, but the predicted distribution in northwestern Australia and northern parts of Sub-Saharan Africa will decrease because of heat stress. Considering the widely suitable range for A. obliqua globally and in China, enhanced quarantine and monitoring measures should be implemented in areas that are projected to be suitable for the establishment of the pest under current and future climatic conditions. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. Evaluation of lufenuron as a chemosterilant against fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Pilar; Flores, Salvador; Ayala, Ildefonso; Sanchis, Juan; Montoya, Pablo; Primo, Jaime

    2010-06-01

    Chemosterilisation with lufenuron bait stations is a recently developed technique that is being implemented for Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann control. The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemosterilising effect of lufenuron against four economically important Latin American fruit flies species: Anastrepha ludens (Loew.), A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wiedemann and A. striata Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) in order to design a similar strategy for their control. Sexually mature adults were treated by ingestion with concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 30.0 mg g(-1) of lufenuron in the diet. In addition, conspecific crosses with only one of the sexes being treated (30.0 mg g(-1)) were performed in order to appraise the contribution of each sex to the sterilising effect. In all cases, fecundity was not affected by the treatments, as opposed to fertility where all Anastrepha species studied were significantly affected, although to different extents. The conspecific crosses showed that treated males of A. ludens, A. obliqua and A. serpentina were not able to transmit the sterility to their respective untreated females. Only in the case of A. striata did crossing treated males with untreated females significantly reduced egg hatch. Although further investigations are required, the present results demonstrate that the use of lufenuron for controlling A. striata could be potentially viable.

  19. An EST database of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmala, Xavier; Schetelig, Marc F; Yu, Fahong; Handler, Alfred M

    2013-04-01

    Invasive tephritid fruit flies are a great threat to agriculture worldwide and warrant serious pest control measures. Molecular strategies that promote embryonic lethality in these agricultural pests are limited by the small amount of nucleotide sequence data available for tephritids. To increase the dataset for sequence mining, we generated an EST database by 454 sequencing of the caribfly, Anastrepha suspensa, a model tephritid pest. This database yielded 95,803 assembled sequences with 24% identified as independent transcripts. The percentage of caribfly sequences with hits to the closely related tephritid, Rhagoletis pomonella, transcriptome was higher (28%) than to Drosophila proteins/genes (18%) in NCBI. The database contained genes specifically expressed in embryos, genes involved in the cell death, sex-determination, and RNAi pathways, and transposable elements and microsatellites. This study significantly expands the nucleotide data available for caribflies and will be a valuable resource for gene isolation and genomic studies in tephritid insects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. BdorOBP83a-2 mediates responses of the oriental fruit fly to semiochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongzhen Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae, is one of the most destructive pests throughout tropical and subtropical regions in Asia. This insect displays remarkable changes during different developmental phases in olfactory behavior between sexually immature and mated adults. The olfactory behavioral changes provide clues to examine physiological and molecular bases of olfactory perception in this insect. We comparatively analyzed behavioral and neuronal responses of B. dorsalis adults to attractant semiochemicals, and the expression profiles of antenna chemosensory genes. We found that some odorant-binding proteins (OBPs were upregulated in mated adults in association with their behavioral and neuronal responses. Ligand-binding assays further showed that one of OBP83a orthologues, BdorOBP83a-2, binds with high affinity to attractant semiochemicals. Functional analyses confirmed that the reduction in BdorOBP83a-2 transcript abundance led to a decrease in neuronal and behavioral responses to selected attractants. This study suggests that BdorOBP83a-2 mediates behavioral responses to attractant semiochemicals and could be a potential efficient target for pest control.

  1. Transcriptome profiling of sexual maturation and mating in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomulski, Ludvik M; Dimopoulos, George; Xi, Zhiyong; Scolari, Francesca; Gabrieli, Paolo; Siciliano, Paolo; Clarke, Anthony R; Malacrida, Anna R; Gasperi, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    Sexual maturation and mating in insects are generally accompanied by major physiological and behavioural changes. Many of these changes are related to the need to locate a mate and subsequently, in the case of females, to switch from mate searching to oviposition behaviour. The prodigious reproductive capacity of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the factors that has led to its success as an invasive pest species. To identify the molecular changes related to maturation and mating status in male and female medfly, a microarray-based gene expression approach was used to compare the head transcriptomes of sexually immature, mature virgin, and mated individuals. Attention was focused on the changes in abundance of transcripts related to reproduction, behaviour, sensory perception of chemical stimulus, and immune system processes. Broad transcriptional changes were recorded during female maturation, while post-mating transcriptional changes in females were, by contrast, modest. In male medfly, transcriptional changes were consistent both during maturation and as a consequence of mating. Of particular note was the lack of the mating-induced immune responses that have been recorded for Drosophila melanogaster, that may be due to the different reproductive strategies of these species. This study, in addition to increasing our understanding of the molecular machinery behind maturation and mating in the medfly, has identified important gene targets that might be useful in the future management of this pest.

  2. Sublethal Effects in Pest Management: A Surrogate Species Perspective on Fruit Fly Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Banks

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tephritid fruit flies are economically important orchard pests globally. While much effort has focused on controlling individual species with a combination of pesticides and biological control, less attention has been paid to managing assemblages of species. Although several tephritid species may co-occur in orchards/cultivated areas, especially in mixed-cropping schemes, their responses to pesticides may be highly variable. Furthermore, predictive efforts about toxicant effects are generally based on acute toxicity, with little or no regard to long-term population effects. Using a simple matrix model parameterized with life history data, we quantified the responses of several tephritid species to the sublethal effects of a toxicant acting on fecundity. Using a critical threshold to determine levels of fecundity reduction below which species are driven to local extinction, we determined that threshold levels vary widely for the three tephritid species. In particular, Bactrocera dorsalis was the most robust of the three species, followed by Ceratitis capitata, and then B. cucurbitae, suggesting individual species responses should be taken into account when planning for area-wide pest control. The rank-order of susceptibility contrasts with results from several field/lab studies testing the same species, suggesting that considering a combination of life history traits and individual species susceptibility is necessary for understanding population responses of species assemblages to toxicant exposure.

  3. Global Assessment of Seasonal Potential Distribution of Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyniszewska, Anna M.; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) is one of the world's most economically damaging pests. It displays highly seasonal population dynamics, and the environmental conditions suitable for its abundance are not constant throughout the year in most places. An extensive literature search was performed to obtain the most comprehensive data on the historical and contemporary spatio-temporal occurrence of the pest globally. The database constructed contained 2328 unique geo-located entries on Medfly detection sites from 43 countries and nearly 500 unique localities, as well as information on hosts, life stages and capture method. Of these, 125 localities had information on the month when Medfly was recorded and these data were complemented by additional material found in comprehensive databases available online. Records from 1980 until present were used for medfly environmental niche modeling. Maximum Entropy Algorithm (MaxEnt) and a set of seasonally varying environmental covariates were used to predict the fundamental niche of the Medfly on a global scale. Three seasonal maps were also produced: January-April, May-August and September-December. Models performed significantly better than random achieving high accuracy scores, indicating a good discrimination of suitable versus unsuitable areas for the presence of the species. PMID:25375649

  4. Global assessment of seasonal potential distribution of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Szyniszewska

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly is one of the world's most economically damaging pests. It displays highly seasonal population dynamics, and the environmental conditions suitable for its abundance are not constant throughout the year in most places. An extensive literature search was performed to obtain the most comprehensive data on the historical and contemporary spatio-temporal occurrence of the pest globally. The database constructed contained 2328 unique geo-located entries on Medfly detection sites from 43 countries and nearly 500 unique localities, as well as information on hosts, life stages and capture method. Of these, 125 localities had information on the month when Medfly was recorded and these data were complemented by additional material found in comprehensive databases available online. Records from 1980 until present were used for medfly environmental niche modeling. Maximum Entropy Algorithm (MaxEnt and a set of seasonally varying environmental covariates were used to predict the fundamental niche of the Medfly on a global scale. Three seasonal maps were also produced: January-April, May-August and September-December. Models performed significantly better than random achieving high accuracy scores, indicating a good discrimination of suitable versus unsuitable areas for the presence of the species.

  5. Novel toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis strains against the melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishir, Md Asaduzzaman; Akter, Asma; Bodiuzzaman, Md; Hossain, M Aftab; Alam, Md Musfiqul; Khan, Shakil Ahmed; Khan, Shakila Nargis; Hoq, M Mozammel

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera cucurbitae (melon fruit fly) is one of the most detrimental vegetable-damaging pests in Bangladesh. The toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been reported against a few genera of Bactrocera in addition to numerous other insect species. Bt strains, harbouring cry1A-type genes were, therefore, assayed in vivo against the 3(rd) instar larvae of B. cucurbitae in this study. The biotype-based prevalence of cry1 and cry1A genes was calculated to be 30.8% and 11.16%, respectively, of the test strains (n=224) while their prevalence was greatest in biotype kurstaki. Though three indigenous Bt strains from biotype kurstaki with close genetic relationship exhibited higher toxicity, maximum mortalities were recorded for Btk HD-73 (96%) and the indigenous Bt JSc1 (93%). LC50 and LC99 values were determined to be 6.81 and 8.32 for Bt JSc1, 7.30 and 7.92 for Bt SSc2, and 6.99 and 7.67 for Btk HD-73, respectively. The cause of toxicity and its variation among the strains was found to be correlated with the synergistic toxic effects of cry1, cry2, cry3 and cry9 gene products, i.e. relevant Cry proteins. The novel toxicity of the B. thuringiensis strains against B. cucurbitae revealed in the present study thus will help in developing efficient and eco-friendly control measures such as Bt biopesticides and transgenic Bt cucurbits.

  6. Global assessment of seasonal potential distribution of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyniszewska, Anna M; Tatem, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) is one of the world's most economically damaging pests. It displays highly seasonal population dynamics, and the environmental conditions suitable for its abundance are not constant throughout the year in most places. An extensive literature search was performed to obtain the most comprehensive data on the historical and contemporary spatio-temporal occurrence of the pest globally. The database constructed contained 2328 unique geo-located entries on Medfly detection sites from 43 countries and nearly 500 unique localities, as well as information on hosts, life stages and capture method. Of these, 125 localities had information on the month when Medfly was recorded and these data were complemented by additional material found in comprehensive databases available online. Records from 1980 until present were used for medfly environmental niche modeling. Maximum Entropy Algorithm (MaxEnt) and a set of seasonally varying environmental covariates were used to predict the fundamental niche of the Medfly on a global scale. Three seasonal maps were also produced: January-April, May-August and September-December. Models performed significantly better than random achieving high accuracy scores, indicating a good discrimination of suitable versus unsuitable areas for the presence of the species.

  7. Superparasitism in the Fruit Fly Parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Implications for Mass Rearing and Augmentative Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Pablo; Pérez-Lachaud, Gabriela; Liedo, Pablo

    2012-09-25

    Superparasitism, a strategy in which a female lays eggs in/on a previously parasitized host, was attributed in the past to the inability of females to discriminate between parasitized and non-parasitized hosts. However, superparasitism is now accepted as an adaptive strategy under specific conditions. In fruit fly parasitoids, superparasitism has mainly been studied as concerns the new association between Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), wherein this phenomenon is a common occurrence in both mass rearing and field conditions. Studies of this species have shown that moderate levels of superparasitism result in a female-biased sex ratio and that both massreared and wild females superparasitize their hosts without detrimental effects on offspring demographic parameters, including longevity and fecundity. These studies suggest that superparasitism in this species is advantageous. In this paper, we review superparasitism in D. longicaudata, discuss these findings in the context of mass rearing and field releases and address the possible implications of superparasitism in programs employing augmentative releases of parasitoids for the control of fruit fly pests.

  8. Whole Genome Sequencing of the Braconid Parasitoid Wasp Fopius arisanus, an Important Biocontrol Agent of Pest Tepritid Fruit Flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M. Geib

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The braconid wasp Fopius arisanus (Sonan is an important biological control agent of tropical and subtropical pest fruit flies, including two important global pests, the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, and the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis. The goal of this study was to develop foundational genomic resources for this species to provide tools that can be used to answer questions exploring the multitrophic interactions between the host and parasitoid in this important research system. Here, we present a whole genome assembly of F. arisanus, derived from a pool of haploid offspring from a single unmated female. The genome is ∼154 Mb in size, with a N50 contig and scaffold size of 51,867 bp and 0.98 Mb, respectively. Utilizing existing RNA-Seq data for this species, as well as publicly available peptide sequences from related Hymenoptera, a high quality gene annotation set, which includes 10,991 protein coding genes, was generated. Prior to this assembly submission, no RefSeq proteins were present for this species. Parasitic wasps play an important role in a diverse ecosystem as well as a role in biological control of agricultural pests. This whole genome assembly and annotation data represents the first genome-scale assembly for this species or any closely related Opiine, and are publicly available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information Genome and RefSeq databases, providing a much needed genomic resource for this hymenopteran group.

  9. Chemosensory processing in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster: Generalization of a feeding response reveals overlapping odour representations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sathees B C Chandra; Sandeep Singh

    2005-12-01

    Insects are capable of detecting, and discriminating between, a very large number of odours. The biological relevance of many of those odours, particularly those related to food, must first be learned. Given that the number of sensory receptors and antennal lobe (AL) glomeruli is limited relative to the number of odours that must be detectable, this ability implies that the olfactory system makes use of a combinatorial coding scheme whereby each sensory cell or AL projection neuron can participate in coding for several different odours. An important step in understanding this coding scheme is to behaviourally quantify the degree to which sets of odours are discriminable. Here we evaluate odour discriminability in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, by first conditioning individual flies to not respond to any of several odourants using a nonassociative conditioning protocol (habituation). We show that flies habituate unconditioned leg movement responses to both mechanosensory and olfactory stimulation over 25 unreinforceed trials. Habituation is retained for at least 2 h and is subject to dishabituation. Finally, we test the degree to which the conditioned response generalizes to other odourants based on molecular features of the odourants (e.g. carbon chain length and the presence of a target functional group). These tests reveal predictable generalization gradients across these molecular features. These data substantiate the claim that these features are relevant coding dimensions in the fruit fly olfactory system, as has been shown for other insect and vertebrate species.

  10. Manipulation of the microbiota of mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) improves sterile male sexual performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ami, Eyal; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2010-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a method of biological control whereby millions of factory reared sterile male insects are released into the field. This technique is commonly used to combat the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Diptera: Tephritidae). Sterile medfly males are less competent in attracting and mating with wild females, a property commonly linked to the irradiation process responsible for the sterilization. As bacteria are important partners in the fly's life cycle, we used molecular analytical methods to study the community structure of the gut microbiota in irradiated male medflies. We find that the sterilizing irradiation procedure affects the gut bacterial community structure of the Mediterranean fruit fly. Although the Enterobacteriaceae family remains the dominant bacterial group present in the gut, the levels of Klebsiella species decreases significantly in the days after sterilization. In addition, we detected substantial differences in some bacterial species between the mass rearing strain Vienna 8 and the wild strain. Most notable among these are the increased levels of the potentially pathogenic species Pseudomonas in the industrial strain. Testing the hypothesis that regenerating the original microbiota community could result in enhanced competitiveness of the sterile flies, we found that the addition of the bacterial species Klebsiella oxytoca to the postirradiation diet enables colonization of these bacteria in the gut while resulting in decreased levels of the Pseudomonas sp. Feeding on diets containing bacteria significantly improved sterile male performance in copulatory tests. Further studies will determine the feasibility of bacterial amelioration in SIT operations.

  11. Evaluation of SPLAT with Spinosad and Methyl Eugenol or Cue-Lure for "Attract-and-Kill" of Oriental and Melon Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    SPLAT(TM) ME (methyl eugenol) and C-L (cue-lure) “attract and kill” sprayable formulations containing spinosad were compared to other formulations under Hawaiian weather conditions against Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), oriental fruit fly, and B. cucurbitae (Coquillett), melon fly, respectively. Fie...

  12. Assessment of Ziziphus mauritiana grown on fly ash dumps: Prospects for phytoremediation but concerns with the use of edible fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Vimal Chandra; Mishra, Tripti

    2016-12-12

    A field study was carried out on fly ash dumps of Panki Thermal Power Station to assess the phytoaccumulation of elements in various plant parts of edible fruit tree Ziziphus mauritiana. Out of the twelve analysed elements, the highest concentration was found for Fe followed by Mn > Se > Zn > Mo > Cu > Cr > Pb > Cd >Ni > As > Co in rhizospheric substrate of Z. mauritiana grown on fly ash dumps. Metal accumulation, bioconcentration factor and translocation factor for each metal was calculated in various parts of the edible fruit tree. Significant variations of metal accumulations were observed amongst various plant parts. Accumulation of toxic elements was higher in roots and it gradually declined towards the aerial parts of the plant corresponding to its distance from the ground. The concentration of some elements in fruit tree was found to be above prescribed limits in edible parts. Therefore, the present study suggested that additional care should be undertaken, if edible fruit trees are considered for phytoremediation or afforestation programs of FA dumps.

  13. Ocorrência precoce da mosca das frutas em ameixas Incidence of the southamerican fruit fly on plums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Salles

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar qual o estágio fenológico mais precoce da fruta de ameixeira em que ocorreria o ataque de mosca das frutas Anastrepha fraterculus. Os estudos foram conduzidos em plantas adultas de ameixeira, expondo-se fêmeas grávidas da mosca das frutas, confinadas em gaiolas com frutos protegidos do ataque natural. Cinco cultivares de ameixeira foram estudados (Amarelinha, Pluma 7, Reubennel, Santa Rosa e Wade. Essa praga ataca frutos de qualquer um dos cultivares logo nos primeiros estádios do desenvolvimento, quando os mesmos têm somente cerca de 2 a 3cm de diâmetro.The incidence of the southamerican fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus, on plum cultivars is reported. The objective of this study was to know the earliest fruit phase that fly attack could occur. Fertilized females were confined with fruits in plum trees in an orchard. Five plums cultivars were studied: Amarelinha; Pluma 7; Reubennel; Santa Rosa and Wade. This pest attack fruits during first stages of their development, mainly they have only from 2 to 3 centimeters of diameter.

  14. An improved quarantine method for mangoes against the Mexican fruit fly based on high-pressure processing combined with heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Gonzalo; Candelario, Hugo Ernesto; Ramírez, José A; Montoya, Pablo; Loera-Gallardo, Jesús; Vázquez, Manuel

    2010-05-01

    The Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most important insects infesting mangoes, citrus, and other fruits in Mexico and other Latin-American countries. Quarantine methods approved to destroy this insect decrease the shelf life of commodities. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of high-pressure processing using an initial temperature of 50 degrees C on the survivorship of eggs and larvae of the Mexican fruit fly. Eggs and larvae were pressurized at 25, 50, 75, 100, or 150 MPa for 0, 5, 10, or 20 min. The hatching ability of pressurized eggs of 1, 2, 3, and 4 days old and survivorship of the first, second, and third instars were registered. Further, the ability to pupate was studied in surviving third instars. The results showed that eggs were more resistant than larvae to the high-pressure processing. Treatments at 150 MPa at initial 50 degrees C for 10 min destroyed all eggs and larvae of A. ludens, indicating that this process might be useful as a quarantine method for infested mangoes or other fruits.

  15. Evaluation of Methyl Eugenol and Cue-Lure Traps with Solid Lure and Insecticide Dispensers for Fruit Fly Monitoring and Male Annihilation in the Hawaii Area-Wide Pest Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl eugenol (ME) and cue-lure (C-L) traps with solid lure dispensers were deployed in areas with low and high populations of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett), respectively. In low density areas, standard Jackson traps or Hawaii fruit fly A...

  16. 橄榄果提取物抗氧化活性及在皮肤健康中的作用%Antioxidant Capacity and the Role of Skin Health of Olive Fruit Extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺瑞坤; 罗海吉

    2015-01-01

    本文综述了橄榄果提取物中橄榄多酚、羟基酪醇等主要化学成分的抗氧化作用机制及研究进展,探究了橄榄果提取物对皮肤健康方面的作用。%This paper summarized the antioxidant capacity and the role of skin health of olive fruit extract , such as polyphenols and hydroxytyrosol.To explore the effect of olive fruit extract on skin health.

  17. Mexican Fruit Fly Populations in the Semi-Arid Highlands of the Sierra Madre Oriental in Northeastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanoye-Eligio, V; Mora-Olivo, A; Gaona-García, G; Reyes-Zepeda, F; Rocandio-Rodríguez, M

    2017-01-04

    The Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most important pests of citrus in Mexico. We report the results of an analysis of A. ludens populations that inhabit the semi-arid highlands of the Sierra Madre Oriental in northeastern Mexico. This study aimed to provide information on population fluctuation of A. ludens and how it relates to climate variables, as well as insights into habitat and native parasitoids. Population peaked in the period July-November when ripe fruits of the wild host, Casimiroa pubescens Ramírez, were available. No adults were captured the rest of the year, suggesting that high populations depend on the availability of wild host fruit. No significant relationships between population fluctuation and climatic variables were observed, except for minimum temperature. Fruit samples of citron (Citrus medica L.), pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), and C. pubescens were collected to determine degree of infestation. Infestation levels (pupae/g) ranged between 0.0006 for citron, 0.0047 for pomegranate, and 0.0240 for C. pubescens. A native parasitoid of Tephritidae, Doryctobracon crawfordii (Viereck) (Braconidae), was identified. Parasitism percentage was calculated at 12.5% on C. pubescens fruits. No parasitoids were observed on citron or pomegranate fruit samples. These results contribute to knowledge on behavior of A. ludens native to temperate environments where no commercial hosts are available. Further research on host expansion of this pest in light of scenarios of global climate change is suggested.

  18. Field evaluation of Mediterranean fruit fly mass trapping with Tripack as alternative to malathion bait-spraying in citrus orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mediouni Ben Jemaa, J.; Bachrouch, O.; Allimi, E.; Dhouibi, M. H.

    2010-07-01

    The mass trapping technique based on the use of the female-targeted attractant lure Tri-pack as an alternative to malathion bait-spraying (control treatment) was tested in two citrus orchards in the North of Tunisia against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata during 2006 and 2007. Results of mass trapping trials in 2006 and 2007 indicated that adult males Medfly captures showed reductions respect to control of 37.62% and 40.2% respectively in mandarin orange variety (Citrus reticulata) orchard compared to 36.48% and 47.29% in Washington navel orange variety (Citrus sinensis) field. Fruit damage assessment showed significant differences between the mass trapping with Tripack and malathion bait-spraying techniques in the reduction of the percentage of fruit punctures. The percentage of punctured fruit at harvest was significantly different between the treated and the control field in 2006 and in 2007 in the mandarin orange orchard. Nevertheless, in the Washington navel orange orchard, the percentage of punctured fruit at harvest was significantly different between the treated and the control field only in 2006. Thus, results obtained from this study showed that the mass trapping technique based on the use of the female-targeted lure Tri-pack could be involved as an appropriate strategy for the control of the Medfly and is as effective as malathion bait spraying treatment without leaving pesticide residues on fruit. (Author) 40 refs.

  19. Responses of fruit physiology and virgin oil quality to cold storage of mechanically harvested ‘Arbequina’ olives cultivated in hedgerow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousfi, K.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase in olive fruit production (Olea europaea L. cv. ‘Arbequina’, due to the increasing use of super-intensive cultivation and the need for a rapid fruit processing will force the industry to make a considerable investment in machinery for processing in order to maintain the level of quality of virgin olive oil (VOO. This work aims to study how the storage temperature affects the physiology of the olive and the quality of the oil, in order to use fruit storage as a cheaper and more versatile alternative to the increase in processing capacity. ‘Arbequina’ fruit did not present symptoms of chilling injury during 15 days of cold-storage. Postharvest decay, de-greening, softening, respiration and ethylene production of the olive fruit increased in direct relationship as the storage temperature increased. These facts determined a proportional deterioration of the free acidity and the sensory quality of the VOOs. Furthermore, the contents of tocopherols and of the main phenolic compounds in the VOO exhibited a reduction during fruit storage according to the increase in the temperature used. Storage at 2 °C preserved the integrity of the olive to maintain the best “Extra” level of VOO quality for a period of 12 days.El aumento de la producción de aceituna (Olea europaea L. cv. ‘Arbequina’, debido al uso creciente del cultivo superintensivo y la necesidad de un rápido procesamiento del fruto forzará a la industria a hacer una considerable inversión en maquinaria para el procesado, para mantener el nivel de calidad del aceite de oliva virgen (AOV. Este trabajo pretende estudiar cómo la temperatura de almacenamiento afecta a la fisiología de la aceituna y a la calidad del aceite, en orden de usar la conservación del fruto como una alternativa más barata y versátil al aumento de la capacidad de procesamiento. La aceituna ‘Arbequina’ no presentó síntomas de daños por frío durante 15 días de frigoconservación. La

  20. Raspberry Ketone Analogs: Vapour Pressure Measurements and Attractiveness to Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo J; Morelli, Renata; Hanssen, Benjamin L; Jamie, Joanne F; Jamie, Ian M; Siderhurst, Matthew S; Taylor, Phillip W

    2016-01-01

    The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Q-fly), is a major horticultural pest in Eastern Australia. Effective monitoring, male annihilation technique (MAT) and mass trapping (MT) are all important for control and require strong lures to attract flies to traps or toxicants. Lure strength is thought to be related in part to volatility, but little vapour pressure data are available for most Q-fly lures. Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) and analogs that had esters (acetyl, difluoroacetyl, trifluoroacetyl, formyl, propionyl) and ethers (methyl ether, trimethylsilyl ether) in replacement of the phenolic group, and in one case also had modification of the 2-butanone side chain, were measured for their vapour pressures by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and their attractiveness to Q-fly was assessed in small cage environmentally controlled laboratory bioassays. Maximum response of one category of compounds, containing both 2-butanone side chain and ester group was found to be higher than that of the other group of compounds, of which either of 2-butanone or ester functionality was modified. However, linear relationship between vapour pressure and maximum response was not significant. The results of this study indicate that, while volatility may be a factor in lure effectiveness, molecular structure is the dominating factor for the series of molecules investigated.

  1. Raspberry Ketone Analogs: Vapour Pressure Measurements and Attractiveness to Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt (Diptera: Tephritidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo J Park

    Full Text Available The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt (Q-fly, is a major horticultural pest in Eastern Australia. Effective monitoring, male annihilation technique (MAT and mass trapping (MT are all important for control and require strong lures to attract flies to traps or toxicants. Lure strength is thought to be related in part to volatility, but little vapour pressure data are available for most Q-fly lures. Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl-2-butanone and analogs that had esters (acetyl, difluoroacetyl, trifluoroacetyl, formyl, propionyl and ethers (methyl ether, trimethylsilyl ether in replacement of the phenolic group, and in one case also had modification of the 2-butanone side chain, were measured for their vapour pressures by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and their attractiveness to Q-fly was assessed in small cage environmentally controlled laboratory bioassays. Maximum response of one category of compounds, containing both 2-butanone side chain and ester group was found to be higher than that of the other group of compounds, of which either of 2-butanone or ester functionality was modified. However, linear relationship between vapour pressure and maximum response was not significant. The results of this study indicate that, while volatility may be a factor in lure effectiveness, molecular structure is the dominating factor for the series of molecules investigated.

  2. Toxicity induced by Prasiola crispa to fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea: evidence for bioinsecticide action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemolin, Ana Paula Pegoraro; Cruz, Litiele Cezar; Paula, Mariane Trindade; Pereira, Betina Kappel; Albuquerque, Margelli Pereira; Victoria, Filipe Carvalho; Pereira, Antônio Batista; Posser, Thaís; Franco, Jeferson Luis

    2014-01-01

    The adverse effects of the alga Prasiola crispa extract (PcE) were investigated in a fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) and cockroach (Nauphoeta cinerea) model. In flies, toxicity was assessed as mortality and biochemical alterations including acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and oxidative stress markers. The cardiotoxic action of PcE was also examined in a model of semi-isolated cockroach heart. The administration of PcE (2 mg/ml) to flies for 24 h resulted in a marked increase in mortality rate (7.6-fold rise compared to control). AChE activity, glutathione (GSH) levels, and hydroperoxide formation remained unchanged. Fly glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activity were significantly altered after PcE treatment. Fraction III (ethyl acetate) of PcE was significantly more toxic to flies compared to fractions I (methanol) and II (ethanol). A significant decrease was noted in cockroach semi-isolated heart function. The addition of 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB), an oxidizing agent, concomitant with the extract significantly blocked this effect, suggesting that reduced compounds may be involved in the cardiotoxic action produced by PcE. Our results show for the first time the adverse effects of PcE in two insect models, Drosophila melanogaster and Nauphoetacinerea. The insecticidal properties of PcE may be related to changes in important antioxidant/detoxifying systems, as well as to changes in insect cardiac function.

  3. Identification of novel vibration- and deflection-sensitive neuronal subgroups in Johnston's organ of the fruit fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Eriko; Yamada, Daichi; Ishikawa, Yuki; Asai, Tomonori; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Kamikouchi, Azusa

    2014-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster responds behaviorally to sound, gravity, and wind. Johnston's organ (JO) at the antennal base serves as a sensory organ in the fruit fly to detect these mechanosensory stimuli. Among the five anatomically defined subgroups of sensory neurons in JO, subgroups A and B detect sound vibrations and subgroups C and E respond to static deflections, such as gravity and wind. The functions of subgroup-D JO neurons, however, remain unknown. In this study, we used molecular-genetic methods to explore the physiologic properties of subgroup-D JO neurons. Both vibrations and static deflection of the antennal receiver activated subgroup-D JO neurons. This finding clearly revealed that zone D in the antennal mechanosensory and motor center (AMMC), the projection target of subgroup-D JO neurons, is a primary center for antennal vibrations and deflection in the fly brain. We anatomically identified two types of interneurons downstream of subgroup-D JO neurons, AMMC local neurons (AMMC LNs), and AMMC D1 neurons. AMMC LNs are local neurons whose projections are confined within the AMMC, connecting zones B and D. On the other hand, AMMC D1 neurons have both local dendritic arborizations within the AMMC and descending projections to the thoracic ganglia, suggesting that AMMC D1 neurons are likely to relay information of the antennal movement detected by subgroup-D JO neurons from the AMMC directly to the thorax. Together, these findings provide a neural basis for how JO and its brain targets encode information of complex movements of the fruit fly antenna.

  4. Characterizing the developmental transcriptome of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) through comparative genomic analysis with Drosophila melanogaster utilizing modENCODE datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is an important pest of fruit and vegetable crops throughout Asia, and is considered a high risk pest for establishment in the mainland United States. It is a member of the family Tephritidae, which are the most agriculturally important family ...

  5. Evaluation of the Mating Competitiveness of the Adult Oriental Fruit Fly Reared as Larvae in Liquid vs. Those Raised on Standard Wheat-based Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three strains (standard lab, DTWP pupal color sexing strain and wild strain) of adult oriental fruit flies, which were reared as larvae on a liquid diet, mill feed diet (Tanaka’s diet), or natural host fruit diet, were evaluated for mating competitiveness in both indoor and outdoor Boller’s mating c...

  6. The whole genome sequence of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann), reveals insights into the biology and adaptive evolution of a highly invasive pest species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly is one of the most destructive agricultural pests throughout the world due to its broad host plant range that includes more than 260 different fruits, flowers, vegetables, and nuts. Host preferences vary in different regions of the world, which can be associated with its ...

  7. Chilling and host plant/site associated eclosion times of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) and a host-specific parasitoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is native to bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton, but ~100 years ago established on earlier-fruiting domesticated sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. Here, we determined if eclosion times of ad...

  8. Optimization of olive-fruit paste production using a methodological proposal based on a sensory and objective color analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heredia, F. J.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the optimization of the conditions to formulate paste based on olive fruits. The processing stages included: washing, blending, oil addition and preservation. Pair-comparisons and ranking tests were carried out by both a trained panel and a consumer panel to single out the preferred sample at each stage. The sensory attributes considered were taste, visual texture, texture in the mouth and overall preference. The results of the sensory analyses were processed statistically by means of ANOVA and the Friedman test to select the most appropriate processing conditions: washing for 30 minutes three times, blending at 2000 r.p.m, and the addition of 10 mL of oil. Several pasteurization conditions were assayed (62.5, 75, 85 and 95 °C for 15 minutes. No significant color differences (p Este trabajo presenta la optimización de las condiciones de formulación de una pasta de aceitunas. La elaboración comprendió diferentes fases: lavado, mezcla, adición de aceite y conservación. Un panel entrenado y un panel de consumidores realizaron pruebas de comparación por pareja y test de ordenación para seleccionar la muestra preferida en cada fase. Los atributos sensoriales considerados fueron sabor, textura visual, textura en boca y preferencia total. Los resultados del análisis sensorial se procesaron estadísticamente mediante ANOVA y el test de Friedman para seleccionar las condiciones óptimas de elaboración: lavado 3 veces durante 30 minutos, mezclado a 2000 r.p.m y adición de 10 mL de aceite de cobertura. Se ensayaron diferentes condiciones de pasteurización (62.5, 75, 85 y 95 °C durante 15 minutes. No se encontraron diferencias significativas (p < 0.05 de color (CIELAB entre las pastas sometidas a diferentes condiciones de conservación. En base a los resultados del test de preferencia, las condiciones seleccionadas fueron: calentar a 85 °C durante 15 minutos.

  9. Identification of host fruit volatiles from hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) attractive to hawthorn-origin Rhagoletis pomonella flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojima, Satoshi; Linn, Charles; Morris, Bruce; Zhang, Aijun; Roelofs, Wendell

    2003-02-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography coupled with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) were used to identify volatile compounds from hawthorn fruit (Crataegus spp.) acting as behavioral attractants for hawthorn-infesting Rhagoletis pomonella flies. Consistent EAD activity was obtained for six chemicals: ethyl acetate (94.3%), 3-methylbutan-1-ol (4.0%), isoamyl acetate (1.5%), 4,8-dimethyl-1,3(E),7-nonatriene (0.07%), butyl hexanoate (0.01%), and dihydro-beta-ionone (0.10%). In a flight-tunnel bioassay, there was a dose-related increase in the percentage of flies flying upwind to the six-component mixture. Hawthorn-origin flies also made equivalent levels of upwind flight with the synthetic blend and an adsorbent extract of volatiles collected from whole fruit, each containing the same amount of the 3-methylbutan-1-ol compound. Significantly lower levels of upwind flight occurred to a previously identified volatile blend of ester compounds that attracts R. pomonella flies infesting domestic apples, compared with the hawthorn volatile mix. Selected subtraction assays showed further that the four-component mixture of 3-methylbutan-1-ol, 4,8-dimethyl-1,3(E),7-nonatriene, butyl hexanoate, and dihydro-beta-ionone also elicited levels of upwind flight equivalent to the six-component mix. Removal of 3-methylbutan-1-ol from the four-component blend resulted in complete loss of upwind flight behavior. Removal of dihydro-beta-ionone, 4,8-dimethyl-1,3(E),7-nonatriene, or butyl hexanoate from the four-component mixture resulted in significant decreases in the mean number of upwind flights compared to the four- or six-component mixtures.

  10. Research progress in host selection of fruit fly%实蝇对寄主选择的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉群; 黄树生; 曾东强; 李子玲; 凌炎

    2012-01-01

    Fruit flies spawn inside fruit, and the larve feed on fruit pulp, which caused fruit rot and drop, and had serious influence on the quality and yield of fruits. The paper summarized the oviposition preference of fruit fly pests on host kinds, different cultivars of the same host, fruit color, fruit maturity, different damage methods and host position, resumed the influenced factors on the host choice of fruit fly, described the application of host selection on control of fruit flies. Being host selection of fruit fly causing by multiple-factors role, further research is needed on inhibitory role of plant secondary substances on detoxifying enzymes of fruit fly, and chemical and nutritious components of volatile in fruits to provide references for developing new chemicals and rationally controlling fruit flies.%实蝇类害虫是以雌成虫将卵产于瓜果内,卵孵化后幼虫在其内取食造成烂果、落果,对瓜果的品质和产量造成严重影响.文章综述了实蝇类害虫对不同寄主、同一种寄主不同品种、寄主果实颜色、果实成熟度、寄主不同受害方式和寄主部位的产卵选择,简述了影响实蝇对寄主产卵选择的因素,并阐述了寄主选择在实蝇防治中的应用.指出实蝇对寄主的选择是多种因素共同作用的结果,提出深入研究寄主植物次生物质对实蝇解毒酶的抑制作用及果实内植物挥发性物质化学成分和营养成分,为今后研制新药剂和合理有效治理实蝇提供理论参考.

  11. Sniffing out chemosensory genes from the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Siciliano

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (medfly, is an extremely invasive agricultural pest due to its extremely wide host range and its ability to adapt to a broad range of climatic conditions and habitats. Chemosensory behaviour plays an important role in many crucial stages in the life of this insect, such as the detection of pheromone cues during mate pursuit and odorants during host plant localisation. Thus, the analysis of the chemosensory gene repertoire is an important step for the interpretation of the biology of this species and consequently its invasive potential. Moreover, these genes may represent ideal targets for the development of novel, effective control methods and pest population monitoring systems. Expressed sequence tag libraries from C. capitata adult heads, embryos, male accessory glands and testes were screened for sequences encoding putative odorant binding proteins (OBPs. A total of seventeen putative OBP transcripts were identified, corresponding to 13 Classic, three Minus-C and one Plus-C subfamily OBPs. The tissue distributions of the OBP transcripts were assessed by RT-PCR and a subset of five genes with predicted proteins sharing high sequence similarities and close phylogenetic affinities to Drosophila melanogaster pheromone binding protein related proteins (PBPRPs were characterised in greater detail. Real Time quantitative PCR was used to assess the effects of maturation, mating and time of day on the transcript abundances of the putative PBPRP genes in the principal olfactory organs, the antennae, in males and females. The results of the present study have facilitated the annotation of OBP genes in the recently released medfly genome sequence and represent a significant contribution to the characterisation of the medfly chemosensory repertoire. The identification of these medfly OBPs/PBPRPs permitted evolutionary and functional comparisons with homologous sequences from other tephritids of the genera

  12. Half of the European fruit fly species barcoded (Diptera, Tephritidae; a feasibility test for molecular identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Smit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A feasibility test of molecular identification of European fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae based on COI barcode sequences has been executed. A dataset containing 555 sequences of 135 ingroup species from three subfamilies and 42 genera and one single outgroup species has been analysed. 73.3% of all included species could be identified based on their COI barcode gene, based on similarity and distances. The low success rate is caused by singletons as well as some problematic groups: several species groups within the genus Terellia and especially the genus Urophora. With slightly more than 100 sequences - almost 20% of the total - this genus alone constitutes the larger part of the failure for molecular identification for this dataset. Deleting the singletons and Urophora results in a success-rate of 87.1% of all queries and 93.23% of the not discarded queries as correctly identified. Urophora is of special interest due to its economic importance as beneficial species for weed control, therefore it is desirable to have alternative markers for molecular identification.We demonstrate that the success of DNA barcoding for identification purposes strongly depends on the contents of the database used to blast against. Especially the necessity of including multiple specimens per species of geographically distinct populations and different ecologies for the understanding of the intra- versus interspecific variation is demonstrated. Furthermore thresholds and the distinction between true and false positives and negatives should not only be used to increase the reliability of the success of molecular identification but also to point out problematic groups, which should then be flagged in the reference database suggesting alternative methods for identification.

  13. Assessing the potential for establishment of western cherry fruit fly using ecological niche modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Neven, Lisa G; Yee, Wee L

    2014-06-01

    Sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., grown in the western United States are exported to many countries around the world. Some of these countries have enforced strict quarantine rules and trade restrictions owing to concerns about the potential establishment and subsequent spread of western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), a major quarantine pest of sweet cherry. We used 1) niche models (CLIMEX and MaxEnt) to map the climatic suitability, 2) North Carolina State University-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Plant Pest Forecasting System to examine chilling requirement, and 3) host distribution and availability to assess the potential for establishment of R. indifferens in areas of western North America where it currently does not exist and eight current or potential fresh sweet cherry markets: Colombia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, Venezuela, and Vietnam. Results from niche models conformed well to the current distribution of R. indifferens in western North America. MaxEnt and CLIMEX models had high performance and predicted climatic suitability in some of the countries (e.g., Andean range in Colombia and Venezuela, northern and northeastern India, central Taiwan, and parts of Vietnam). However, our results showed no potential for establishment of R. indifferens in Colombia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, Venezuela, and Vietnam when the optimal chilling requirement to break diapause (minimum temperature < or = 3 degree C for at least 15 wk) was used as the criterion for whether establishment can occur. Furthermore, these countries have no host plant species available for R. indifferens. Our results can be used to make scientifically informed international trade decisions and negotiations by policy makers.

  14. Fruit fly optimization based least square support vector regression for blind image restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiao; Wang, Rui; Li, Junshan; Yang, Yawei

    2014-11-01

    The goal of image restoration is to reconstruct the original scene from a degraded observation. It is a critical and challenging task in image processing. Classical restorations require explicit knowledge of the point spread function and a description of the noise as priors. However, it is not practical for many real image processing. The recovery processing needs to be a blind image restoration scenario. Since blind deconvolution is an ill-posed problem, many blind restoration methods need to make additional assumptions to construct restrictions. Due to the differences of PSF and noise energy, blurring images can be quite different. It is difficult to achieve a good balance between proper assumption and high restoration quality in blind deconvolution. Recently, machine learning techniques have been applied to blind image restoration. The least square support vector regression (LSSVR) has been proven to offer strong potential in estimating and forecasting issues. Therefore, this paper proposes a LSSVR-based image restoration method. However, selecting the optimal parameters for support vector machine is essential to the training result. As a novel meta-heuristic algorithm, the fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA) can be used to handle optimization problems, and has the advantages of fast convergence to the global optimal solution. In the proposed method, the training samples are created from a neighborhood in the degraded image to the central pixel in the original image. The mapping between the degraded image and the original image is learned by training LSSVR. The two parameters of LSSVR are optimized though FOA. The fitness function of FOA is calculated by the restoration error function. With the acquired mapping, the degraded image can be recovered. Experimental results show the proposed method can obtain satisfactory restoration effect. Compared with BP neural network regression, SVR method and Lucy-Richardson algorithm, it speeds up the restoration rate and

  15. Taxonomic identity of the invasive fruit fly pest, Bactrocera invadens: concordance in morphometry and DNA barcoding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathiya M Khamis

    Full Text Available In 2003, a new fruit fly pest species was recorded for the first time in Kenya and has subsequently been found in 28 countries across tropical Africa. The insect was described as Bactrocera invadens, due to its rapid invasion of the African continent. In this study, the morphometry and DNA Barcoding of different populations of B. invadens distributed across the species range of tropical Africa and a sample from the pest's putative aboriginal home of Sri Lanka was investigated. Morphometry using wing veins and tibia length was used to separate B. invadens populations from other closely related Bactrocera species. The Principal component analysis yielded 15 components which correspond to the 15 morphometric measurements. The first two principal axes contributed to 90.7% of the total variance and showed partial separation of these populations. Canonical discriminant analysis indicated that only the first five canonical variates were statistically significant. The first two canonical variates contributed a total of 80.9% of the total variance clustering B. invadens with other members of the B. dorsalis complex while distinctly separating B. correcta, B. cucurbitae, B. oleae and B. zonata. The largest Mahalanobis squared distance (D(2 = 122.9 was found to be between B. cucurbitae and B. zonata, while the lowest was observed between B. invadens populations against B. kandiensis (8.1 and against B. dorsalis s.s (11.4. Evolutionary history inferred by the Neighbor-Joining method clustered the Bactrocera species populations into four clusters. First cluster consisted of the B. dorsalis complex (B. invadens, B. kandiensis and B. dorsalis s. s., branching from the same node while the second group was paraphyletic clades of B. correcta and B. zonata. The last two are monophyletic clades, consisting of B. cucurbitae and B. oleae, respectively. Principal component analysis using the genetic distances confirmed the clustering inferred by the NJ tree.

  16. Sniffing out chemosensory genes from the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Paolo; Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik M; Falchetto, Marco; Manni, Mosè; Gabrieli, Paolo; Field, Linda M; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Gasperi, Giuliano; Malacrida, Anna R

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (medfly), is an extremely invasive agricultural pest due to its extremely wide host range and its ability to adapt to a broad range of climatic conditions and habitats. Chemosensory behaviour plays an important role in many crucial stages in the life of this insect, such as the detection of pheromone cues during mate pursuit and odorants during host plant localisation. Thus, the analysis of the chemosensory gene repertoire is an important step for the interpretation of the biology of this species and consequently its invasive potential. Moreover, these genes may represent ideal targets for the development of novel, effective control methods and pest population monitoring systems. Expressed sequence tag libraries from C. capitata adult heads, embryos, male accessory glands and testes were screened for sequences encoding putative odorant binding proteins (OBPs). A total of seventeen putative OBP transcripts were identified, corresponding to 13 Classic, three Minus-C and one Plus-C subfamily OBPs. The tissue distributions of the OBP transcripts were assessed by RT-PCR and a subset of five genes with predicted proteins sharing high sequence similarities and close phylogenetic affinities to Drosophila melanogaster pheromone binding protein related proteins (PBPRPs) were characterised in greater detail. Real Time quantitative PCR was used to assess the effects of maturation, mating and time of day on the transcript abundances of the putative PBPRP genes in the principal olfactory organs, the antennae, in males and females. The results of the present study have facilitated the annotation of OBP genes in the recently released medfly genome sequence and represent a significant contribution to the characterisation of the medfly chemosensory repertoire. The identification of these medfly OBPs/PBPRPs permitted evolutionary and functional comparisons with homologous sequences from other tephritids of the genera Bactrocera and

  17. Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm for Network-Aware Web Service Composition in the Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar SHEHU

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Service Oriented Computing (SOC provides a framework for the realization of loosely coupled service oriented applications. Web services are central to the concept of SOC. Currently, research into how web services can be composed to yield QoS optimal composite service has gathered significant attention. However, the number and spread of web services across the cloud data centers has increased, thereby increasing the impact of the network on composite service performance experienced by the user. Recently, QoS-based web service composition techniques focus on optimizing web service QoS attributes such as cost, response time, execution time, etc. In doing so, existing approaches do not separate QoS of the network from web service QoS during service composition. In this paper, we propose a network-aware service composition approach which separates QoS of the network from QoS of web services in the Cloud. Consequently, our approach searches for composite services that are not only QoS-optimal but also have optimal QoS of the network. Our approach consists of a network model which estimates the QoS of the network in the form of network latency between services on the cloud. It also consists of a service composition technique based on fruit fly optimization algorithm which leverages the network model to search for low latency compositions without compromising service QoS levels. The approach is discussed and the results of evaluation are presented. The results indicate that the proposed approach is competitive in finding QoS optimal and low latency solutions when compared to recent techniques.

  18. Recurrent modification of a conserved cis-regulatory element underlies fruit fly pigmentation diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A Rogers

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of morphological traits occurs through the collective action of networks of genes connected at the level of gene expression. As any node in a network may be a target of evolutionary change, the recurrent targeting of the same node would indicate that the path of evolution is biased for the relevant trait and network. Although examples of parallel evolution have implicated recurrent modification of the same gene and cis-regulatory element (CRE, little is known about the mutational and molecular paths of parallel CRE evolution. In Drosophila melanogaster fruit flies, the Bric-à-brac (Bab transcription factors control the development of a suite of sexually dimorphic traits on the posterior abdomen. Female-specific Bab expression is regulated by the dimorphic element, a CRE that possesses direct inputs from body plan (ABD-B and sex-determination (DSX transcription factors. Here, we find that the recurrent evolutionary modification of this CRE underlies both intraspecific and interspecific variation in female pigmentation in the melanogaster species group. By reconstructing the sequence and regulatory activity of the ancestral Drosophila melanogaster dimorphic element, we demonstrate that a handful of mutations were sufficient to create independent CRE alleles with differing activities. Moreover, intraspecific and interspecific dimorphic element evolution proceeded with little to no alterations to the known body plan and sex-determination regulatory linkages. Collectively, our findings represent an example where the paths of evolution appear biased to a specific CRE, and drastic changes in function were accompanied by deep conservation of key regulatory linkages.

  19. Toxicity of naturally occurring Bio-fly and chitosan compounds to control the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabea, E I; Nasr, H M; Badawy, M E I; El-Gendy, I R

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of five compounds of a biopolymer chitosan and Bio-fly (Beauveria bassiana fungus) as biopesticide was evaluated on Ceratitis capitata under laboratory conditions. The inhibitory effects on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) as biochemical indicators were also determined in vivo. The results indicated that B. bassiana based Bio-fly exhibited significant toxicity against C. capitata (LC50 = 3008 and 3126 mg/L after 48 h in females and males, respectively) followed by the derivatives of chitosan, N-(4-propylbenzyl)chitosan and N-(2-nitrobenzyl)chitosan. Bio-fly displayed remarkable inhibition of AChE activity (IC50 = 2220 mg/L) while N-(2-chloro,6-flourobenzyl)chitosan, N-(4-propylbenzyl)chitosan and N-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl) chitosan had no significant difference in inhibitory action. In adult males, N-(2-nitrobenzyl)chitosan exhibited the highest inhibitory action (IC50 = 6569 mg/L). In addition, the toxic effects of the tested compounds on the activity of ATPase indicated that highly significant inhibition was found with N-(4-propylbenzyl)chitosan with an IC50 of 8194 and 8035 mg/L, in females and males, respectively.

  20. Effects of Low Temperature Storage on Post-harvest Physiology and Quality of ‘ Changying' Chinese Olive Fruit%低温贮藏对"长营"橄榄果实采后生理和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥佳; 林河通; 陈雅平; 王春辉; 林艺芬; 陈艺晖

    2011-01-01

    The changes of respiration rate, cell membrane permeability and quality of harvested ‘ Changying' Chinese olive( Canarium album (Lour.) Raeusch cv. Changying)fruit stored at (15 ± 1 )。C and (8 ±1 )℃ were investigated in this paper. The results showed as follows: When Chinese olive fruit stored at (15 ±1 ) C, fruit respiration rate was higher and the peak in respiration appeared earlier, fruit cell membrane permeability, fruit weight loss rate and pericarp browning index increased, fruit health rate was lower. While,low temperature storage at ( 8 ± 1 ) ℃ could decrease respiration rate and delay the peak in respiration of Chinese olive fruit, inhibit increases of cell membrane permeability of fruit and browning index of pericarp, reduce fruit weight loss rate, increase health rate of fruit, delay fruit senescence and maintain fruit with higher quality.%研究了"长营"橄榄果实在(15±1)℃和(8±1)℃下贮藏的果实呼吸强度、细胞膜透性和品质的变化.结果表明:在(15±1)℃下贮藏的橄榄果实呼吸强度高,呼吸高峰较旱出现,果实细胞膜透性、失重率和果皮褐变指数增加,果实好果率低.而(8±1)℃低温贮藏可降低橄榄果实呼吸强度,延缓呼吸高峰出现,抑制果实细胞膜透性和果皮褐变指数增加,减少果实失重率,提高果实好果率,延缓果实衰老并保持果实较高的品质.

  1. Biological Control of Tephritid Fruit Flies in Argentina: Historical Review, Current Status, and Future Trends for Developing a Parasitoid Mass-Release Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio M. Ovruski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Argentina there are two tephritid fruit fly species of major economic and quarantine importance: the exotic Ceratitis capitata that originated from Southeast Africa and the native Anastrepha fraterculus. In recent years, the use of fruit fly parasitoids as biocontrol agents has received renewed attention. This increasing interest has recently led to the establishment of a program for the mass rearing of five million Diachasmimorpha longicaudata parasitoids per week in the BioPlanta San Juan facility, San Juan, Argentina. The first augmentative releases of D. longicaudata in Argentina are currently occurring on commercial fig crops in rural areas of San Juan as part of an integrated fruit fly management program on an area-wide basis. In this context, research is ongoing to assess the suitability of indigenous parasitoid species for successful mass rearing on larvae of either C. capitata or A. fraterculus. The purpose of this article is to provide a historical overview of the biological control of the fruit fly in Argentina, report on the strategies currently used in Argentina, present information on native parasitoids as potential biocontrol agents, and discuss the establishment of a long-term fruit fly biological control program, including augmentative and conservation modalities, in Argentina’s various fruit growing regions.

  2. The Wide Potential Trophic Niche of the Asiatic Fruit Fly Drosophila suzukii: The Key of Its Invasion Success in Temperate Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyet, Mathilde; Le Roux, Vincent; Gibert, Patricia; Meirland, Antoine; Prévost, Geneviève; Eslin, Patrice; Chabrerie, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The Asiatic fruit fly Drosophila suzukii has recently invaded Europe and North and South America, causing severe damage to fruit production systems. Although agronomic host plants of that fly are now well documented, little is known about the suitability of wild and ornamental hosts in its exotic area. In order to study the potential trophic niche of D. suzukii with relation to fruit characteristics, fleshy fruits from 67 plant species were sampled in natural and anthropic ecosystems (forests, hedgerows, grasslands, coastal areas, gardens and urban areas) of the north of France and submitted to experimental infestations. A set of fruit traits (structure, colour, shape, skin texture, diameter and weight, phenology) potentially interacting with oviposition choices and development success of D. suzukii was measured. Almost half of the tested plant species belonging to 17 plant families allowed the full development of D. suzukii. This suggests that the extreme polyphagy of the fly and the very large reservoir of hosts producing fruits all year round ensure temporal continuity in resource availability and contribute to the persistence and the exceptional invasion success of D. suzukii in natural habitats and neighbouring cultivated systems. Nevertheless, this very plastic trophic niche is not systematically beneficial to the fly. Some of the tested plants attractive to D. suzukii gravid females stimulate oviposition but do not allow full larval development. Planted near sensitive crops, these "trap plants" may attract and lure D. suzukii, therefore contributing to the control of the invasive fly.

  3. The Wide Potential Trophic Niche of the Asiatic Fruit Fly Drosophila suzukii: The Key of Its Invasion Success in Temperate Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Poyet

    Full Text Available The Asiatic fruit fly Drosophila suzukii has recently invaded Europe and North and South America, causing severe damage to fruit production systems. Although agronomic host plants of that fly are now well documented, little is known about the suitability of wild and ornamental hosts in its exotic area. In order to study the potential trophic niche of D. suzukii with relation to fruit characteristics, fleshy fruits from 67 plant species were sampled in natural and anthropic ecosystems (forests, hedgerows, grasslands, coastal areas, gardens and urban areas of the north of France and submitted to experimental infestations. A set of fruit traits (structure, colour, shape, skin texture, diameter and weight, phenology potentially interacting with oviposition choices and development success of D. suzukii was measured. Almost half of the tested plant species belonging to 17 plant families allowed the full development of D. suzukii. This suggests that the extreme polyphagy of the fly and the very large reservoir of hosts producing fruits all year round ensure temporal continuity in resource availability and contribute to the persistence and the exceptional invasion success of D. suzukii in natural habitats and neighbouring cultivated systems. Nevertheless, this very plastic trophic niche is not systematically beneficial to the fly. Some of the tested plants attractive to D. suzukii gravid females stimulate oviposition but do not allow full larval development. Planted near sensitive crops, these "trap plants" may attract and lure D. suzukii, therefore contributing to the control of the invasive fly.

  4. Diversity and indices of infestation of fruit flies and their parasitoids in six coffee cultivars in the city of Bom Jesus of Itabapoana, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Sobral Silva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses one of the most important pests of world fruit crop: the fruit flies, however, there are few studies concerned with their association with coffee fruit. This study was carried out in the municipality of Bom Jesus do Itabapoana, in the Northwest Region of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, aiming at determining the species which occur in the coffee plantations of this region, their natural infestation indices and the natural parasitism of these species. Mature fruits of six cultivars of Arabic coffee (‘Acauã’ ‘Catuaí Amarelo’, ‘Catuaí Vermelho’, ‘Catuaí 785’, ‘Mundo Novo’e ‘2SL Vermelho’ were collected. All cultivars evaluated were infested by fruit flies, which were associated with only one species of parasitoid in each cultivar. A total of 1,749 puparia were obtained and from which emerged 460 adults, being 441 specimens of fruit flies and 19 parasitoids. Four species of fruit flies were obtained: Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemman, 1830, Anastrepha sororcula (Zucchi, 1979, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824, (Tephritidae and Neosilba pendula Bezzi, 1919 (Lonchaeidae. The mean natural infestation index of the coffee fruits by fruit flies was of 291.5 puparia/kg and 0.4 puparia/fruit. There was a predominance of A. fraterculus over C. capitata, which was more frequent only in ‘Catuaí Vermelho’ and ‘Catuaí 785’. All parasitoids belong to the family Braconidae [Asobara sp., Opius bellus (Gahan, 1930 and Doryctobrachon areolatus (Szépligeti, 1911], which were responsible for a very low level of natural parasitism (1.1%.

  5. Influence of olive oil press cakes on Shiitake culinary-medicinal mushroom, lentinus edodes (Berk.) singer (higher basidiomycetes) fruiting bodies production and effect of their crude polysaccharides on CCRF-CEM cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, Andrej; Kretschmer, Nadine; Wagner, Susanne; Boechzelt, Herbert; Klinar, Dusan; Bauer, Rudolf; Pohleven, Franc

    2012-01-01

    Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Singer fruiting bodies were cultivated on substrates composed of beech sawdust, wheat bran, and calcium sulfate hemihydrate (gypsum), containing different proportions of olive oil press cakes (OOPC). We determined the influence of OOPC on fruiting bodies production and proliferation of CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. A negative influence of OOPC on mycelia growth and maturation was noticed. When growth medium contained 80% OOPC, fruiting bodies ceased forming. To investigate the cytotoxicity on CCRF-CEM cells in vitro, cells were treated with crude polysaccharides extracted from L. edodes fruiting bodies. Also in this case a negative correlation between OOPC content and cytotoxicity was found.

  6. 耿马地区实蝇类害虫监测%Investigation on Fruit Fly in Gengma Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莉; 艾薇

    2011-01-01

    The fruit flys in Gengma were investigated by the means of methleugenol-baited traps during the year of 2007 and 2008. Among the sixteen species of Bactrocera collected from field, Bactrocera scutellaris and Bactrocera tau were considered as the local dominant species of fruit flies. The analysis on population dynamics of this two species indicated that the fruit fly occurred all year round in Gengma; and the population size was low in winter,but increased steadily in summer and reached the peak in July or August.%连续2年采用性诱剂诱捕法对云南省耿马地区实蝇类害虫进行了监测调查,初步查明实蝇种类共有16种,其中优势种为橘小实蝇和南瓜实蝇.对两种实蝇优势种种群动态分析表明,实蝇在耿马全年发生,冬季种群数量较低,夏季种群数量大,高峰期出现在7月或8月.

  7. Chilling and Host Plant/Site-Associated Eclosion Times of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and a Host-Specific Parasitoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L; Goughnour, Robert B; Hood, Glen R; Forbes, Andrew A; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2015-08-01

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an endemic herbivore of bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton, but ∼100 years ago established on earlier-fruiting domesticated sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. Here, we determined if eclosion times of adult R. indifferens from sweet and bitter cherry differ according to the phenology of their respective host plants and if eclosion times of the host-specific parasitoid Diachasma muliebre (Muesebeck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) attacking bitter and sweet cherry flies differ according to the eclosion phenology of their fly hosts. Fly pupae from sweet and bitter cherry fruit were collected from sympatric and allopatric sites in Washington state, and chilled at 5°C. Because timing of eclosion in R. indifferens depends on chill duration, eclosion time in wasps could also vary with chill duration. To account for this, fly pupae were chilled for 1, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, or 8 mo. Both flies and wasps eclosed earlier with longer chill durations. Eclosion times of sweet and bitter cherry flies from a sympatric site in central Washington did not differ. However, at allopatric sites in northwestern and central Washington, bitter cherry flies eclosed later than sweet and bitter cherry flies at the sympatric site. Correspondingly, D. muliebre parasitizing a more isolated bitter cherry fly population eclosed later than D. muliebre parasitizing earlier-emerging sweet and bitter cherry fly populations. These results provide evidence for D. muliebre rapidly responding to changes in host plant shifts by R. indifferens.

  8. Gamma radiation tolerance in different life stages of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paithankar, Jagdish Gopal; Deeksha, K; Patil, Rajashekhar K

    2017-04-01

    Insects are known to have higher levels of radiation tolerance than mammals. The fruit fly Drosophila provides opportunities for genetic analysis of radiation tolerance in insects. A knowledge of stage-specific sensitivity is required to understand the mechanisms and test the existing hypothesis of insect radiation tolerance. Drosophila melanogaster were irradiated using gamma rays at different life stages. Irradiation doses were chosen to start from 100-2200 Gy with increments of 100 Gy, with a dose rate of 12.5 and 25 Gy/min. The threshold of mortality, LD50 and LD100 1 h post-irradiation was recorded for larvae and adults and 24 h post-irradiation for eggs and after 2-3 days for early and late pupae. Total antioxidant capacity for all the life stages was measured using the phosphomolybdenum method. Twenty-four hours post-irradiation, 100% mortality was recorded for eggs at 1000 Gy. One hour post irradiation 100% mortality was recorded at 1300 Gy for first instar larvae, 1700 Gy for second instar larvae, 1900 Gy for feeding third instar larvae and 2200 Gy for non-feeding third instar larvae. Post-irradiation complete failure of emergence (100% mortality) was observed at 130 Gy for early pupae and 1500 Gy for late pupae; 100% mortality was observed at 1500 Gy for adults. The values of LD50 were recorded as 452 Gy for eggs, 1049 Gy for first instar larvae, 1350 Gy for second instar larvae, 1265 Gy for feeding third instar larvae, 1590 Gy for non-feeding third instar larvae, 50 Gy for early pupae, 969 Gy for late pupae, 1228 Gy for adult males and 1250 Gy for adult females. Early pupae were found to be prone to radiation, whereas the non-feeding third instar larvae were most resistant among all stages. The chromosome number being constant and total antioxidant capacity being nearly constant in all stages, we suggest that high rate of cell division during early pupae makes this stage sensitive to radiation.

  9. Structural characteristics of pectic polysaccharides from olive fruit (Olea europaea cv moraiolo) in relation to processing for oil extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vierhuis, E.; Korver, M.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    In the olive oil industry technical enzyme preparations are used as processing aids to improve the extraction yield and product quality. In order to obtain more insight in the mechanisms by which these enzyme preparations lead to a higher yield and a better quality, the effect of these preparations

  10. Isolation and identification of host cues from mango, Mangifera indica, that attract gravid female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, Pagadala D Kamala; Woodcock, Christine M; Caulfield, John; Birkett, Michael A; Bruce, Toby J A

    2012-04-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is an economically damaging, polyphagous pest of fruit crops in South-East Asia and Hawaii, and a quarantine pest in other parts of the world. The objective of our study was to identify new attractants for B. dorsalis from overripe mango fruits. Headspace samples of volatiles were collected from two cultivars of mango, 'Alphonso' and 'Chausa', and a strong positive behavioral response was observed when female B. dorsalis were exposed to these volatiles in olfactometer bioassays. Coupled GC-EAG with female B. dorsalis revealed 7 compounds from 'Alphonso' headspace and 15 compounds from 'Chausa' headspace that elicited an EAG response. The EAG-active compounds, from 'Alphonso', were identified, using GC-MS, as heptane, myrcene, (Z)-ocimene, (E)-ocimene, allo-ocimene, (Z)-myroxide, and γ-octalactone, with the two ocimene isomers being the dominant compounds. The EAG-active compounds from 'Chausa' were 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, 3-methyl-1-butanol, ethyl butanoate, ethyl methacrylate, ethyl crotonate, ethyl tiglate, 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl hexanoate, 3-carene, p-cymene, ethyl sorbate, α-terpinolene, phenyl ethyl alcohol, ethyl octanoate, and benzothiazole. Individual compounds were significantly attractive when a standard dose (1 μg on filter paper) was tested in the olfactometer. Furthermore, synthetic blends with the same concentration and ratio of compounds as in the natural headspace samples were highly attractive (P < 0.001), and in a choice test, fruit flies did not show any preference for the natural samples over the synthetic blends. Results are discussed in relation to developing a lure for female B. dorsalis to bait traps with.

  11. Construction, implementation and testing of an image identification system using computer vision methods for fruit flies with economic importance (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiang-Ning; Chen, Xiao-Lin; Hou, Xin-Wen; Zhou, Li-Bing; Zhu, Chao-Dong; Ji, Li-Qiang

    2017-07-01

    Many species of Tephritidae are damaging to fruit, which might negatively impact international fruit trade. Automatic or semi-automatic identification of fruit flies are greatly needed for diagnosing causes of damage and quarantine protocols for economically relevant insects. A fruit fly image identification system named AFIS1.0 has been developed using 74 species belonging to six genera, which include the majority of pests in the Tephritidae. The system combines automated image identification and manual verification, balancing operability and accuracy. AFIS1.0 integrates image analysis and expert system into a content-based image retrieval framework. In the the automatic identification module, AFIS1.0 gives candidate identification results. Afterwards users can do manual selection based on comparing unidentified images with a subset of images corresponding to the automatic identification result. The system uses Gabor surface features in automated identification and yielded an overall classification success rate of 87% to the species level by Independent Multi-part Image Automatic Identification Test. The system is useful for users with or without specific expertise on Tephritidae in the task of rapid and effective identification of fruit flies. It makes the application of computer vision technology to fruit fly recognition much closer to production level. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Impact of Prolonged Absence of Low Temperature on Adult Eclosion Patterns of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, Lisa G; Yee, Wee L

    2017-03-25

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens (Curran) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious pest of cherries (Prunus spp.) in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Previous research suggests that R. indifferens is unlikely to establish in commercial cherry production areas in California and in tropical export markets because cold temperatures, below 5 °C, in those regions appear insufficient to complete diapause. However, it is unclear how prolonged absence of cold exposure affects diapause termination in R. indifferens. Here, we examined this question by exposing R. indifferens pupae for 40 wk to simulated temperate and tropical conditions of 23 or 26 °C, 40 or 80% RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 or 12:12 (L:D) h. Eclosion patterns among fly groups in the four conditions did not differ. For all groups, fly eclosion from pupae not exposed to cold exhibited a bimodal distribution. The first major peak, comprising 3.2% of the total fly emergence, occurred at 1-10 wk. The second major peak, comprising the remaining 96.8%, occurred at a mode of ∼30 wk. Based on responses to no cold and cold (3 ± 1.5 °C) exposures, there were three distinct pupal diapause groups: the first eclosion group was likely nondiapausing pupae; the second eclosion group was likely diapausing pupae; a third group that remained viable but did not produce adults after 40 wk may represent prolonged dormancy pupae. We suggest that eclosion of adults after prolonged absence of cold exposure needs to be incorporated into models for potential fly establishment in warm climates.

  13. EFFECT OF ACIDITY ON DELTA 7 STIGMASTENOL CONTENT OF PALESTINIAN OLIVE OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihad M. Quasem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil quality is a term influenced by many factors. Δ7 Stigmastenol is a new criteria used to determine olive oil quality especially its purity from adulteration with other types of seeds oil. Δ7 Stigmastenol-acidity correlation were investigated through studying the effect of the literature’s highlighted factors, namely; Olive fly infection, the land topographic and the preservation of olive before pressing. In this study,13 olive samples were collected and analyzed from different areas in Palestine to study the factors that affect Δ7 Stigmastenol in Olive Oil. This study starts on October 2007 and ends on July 2008. The results obtained were very interesting and varied between having positive Δ7 Stigmastenol-acidity correlation as in case of infection mode factors and preservation of olive fruit before pressing negative Δ7 Stigmastenol-acidity correlation for other factors as found to the land topographic factors. Further studies are needed to investigate the correlation between acidity and other factors.

  14. Initial Observations of Fruit Fly;s Flight with its b1 Motor Neuron Altered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. Jane; Melfi, James, Jr.

    2015-11-01

    Recently we have suggested that one of the fly's 17 steering muscles, the first basalar muscle (b1) is responsible for maintaining flight stability. To test this, we compare the flight behavior of normal flies with genetically modified flies whose motor neuron to the b1 muscle is silenced. We report our initial observation of the difference and similarity between these two lines supplied by Janelia Farm. We also discuss the basic question for quantifying flight, what makes a good flier? Partly supported by the Visiting Scientist program at HHMI-Janelia Farm.

  15. 新式综合型实蝇诱捕器的研制%The design of a new type of combined trap for fruit flies (Tephritidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴佳教; 李春苑; 刘海军; 顾渝娟; 林莉; 胡学难

    2013-01-01

    Based on the summary of fruit fly traps used commonly and their characteristics, a new type of combined trap (CBT) of fruit fly was designed and introduced in this paper. The CBT has the advantages of suitable for different types of fruit fly attractants, baiting or re - baiting lures easily, collecting the target pest more convenient, and avoiding the trap polluted by liquid lures during baiting or rebaiting.%本文在总结国际上通用的实蝇诱捕器的类型和特点基础上,重点介绍了一种新式的综合型诱捕器.该诱捕器具有方便诱剂添加、不易受诱剂污染、检查更便捷以及诱剂类型适用性广等特点.

  16. 简述引诱剂在实蝇防治中的作用%Description the role of baits on the control of fruit fly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳; 潘志萍

    2011-01-01

    引诱剂是实蝇类害虫监测、调查和防治中最重要的手段之一,被广泛采用.本文对实蝇引诱剂的种类与诱捕范围进行了总结,并简述了引诱剂在实蝇防治中的监测与防治作用.%One of the major measures in monitoring, investigating and controlling the fruit flies, baits are extensively adopted. In this paper, the type of fruit fly baits and trap ranges were reviewed, and summarized the role of in the monitoring and control of fruit fly.

  17. Espessura da polpa como condicionante do parasitismo de mosca-das-frutas (Diptera:Tephritidae por Hymenoptera: braconidae Fruit pulp thickness conditioning fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae parasitism by Hymenoptera: braconidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rodrigues Hickel

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as estratégias de manejo integrado de mosca-das-frutas está a manutenção de refúgios, vizinhos aos pomares, para proliferação de inimigos naturais. Objetivando verificar quais hospedeiros de mosca-das-frutas seriam mais adequados para incrementar o controle natural, estabeleceu-se uma correlação entre o nível de parasitismo e a espessura da polpa de frutos. Frutos em maturação de café (Coffea arabica, jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora, cajá-mirim (Spondias lutea e laranja (Citrus aurantium foram coletados e mantidos em bandejas plásticas sobre uma camada de areia. As pupas de mosca-das-frutas retiradas da areia foram mantidas em estufa incubadora para emergência dos adultos. O diâmetro dos frutos e das sementes foi medido para se calcular a espessura da polpa. O café, com 1,8mm de polpa, foi o hospedeiro em que ocorreu maior índice de parasitismo de mosca-das-frutas (13,73%. O nível de parasitismo apresentou uma correlação negativa com a espessura da polpa dos frutos, sendo os frutos de polpa fina mais adequados para proliferação de parasitóides de mosca-das-frutas.One of the strategies for fruit fly integrated pest management is the refugee maintenance, near the orchards, for fruit fly natural enemies proliferation. With the aim to check the most suitable fruit fly hosts to increment natural control, a correlation was established between the parasitism level and the fruit pulp thickness. Ripening fruits of coffee (Coffea arabica, jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora, cajá-mirim (Spondias lutea, and orange (Citrus aurantium were collected and maintained in plastic trays over a sand layer. The fruit fly pupae were taken from the sand and put in B.O.D. for adult emergence. The fruit and seed diameter were measure to estimate the fruit pulp thickness. The coffee bean, with 1.8mm of pulp was the fruit fly host with the greatest parasitism level (13.37%. The level of parasitism showed a negative relation with the fruit

  18. Toxic and hormetic-like effects of three components of citrus essential oils on adult Mediterranean fruit flies (Ceratitis capitata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanastasiou, Stella A; Bali, Eleftheria-Maria D; Ioannou, Charalampos S; Papachristos, Dimitrios P; Zarpas, Kostas D; Papadopoulos, Nikos T

    2017-01-01

    Plant essential oils (EOs) and a wide range of their individual components are involved in a variety of biological interactions with insect pests including stimulatory, deterrent, toxic and even hormetic effects. Both the beneficial and toxic properties of citrus EOs on the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) have been experimentally evidenced over the last years. However, no information is available regarding the toxic or beneficial effects of the major components of citrus EOs via contact with the adults of the Mediterranean fruit fly. In the present study, we explored the toxicity of limonene, linalool and α-pinene (3 of the main compounds of citrus EOs) against adult medflies and identified the effects of sub-lethal doses of limonene on fitness traits in a relaxed [full diet (yeast and sugar)] and in a stressful (sugar only) feeding environment. Our results demonstrate that all three compounds inferred high toxicity to adult medflies regardless of the diet, with males being more sensitive than females. Sub-lethal doses of limonene (LD20) enhanced the lifespan of adult medflies when they were deprived of protein. Fecundity was positively affected when females were exposed to limonene sub-lethal doses. Therefore, limonene, a major constituent of citrus EOs, induces high mortality at increased doses and positive effects on life history traits of medfly adults through contact at low sub-lethal doses. A hormetic-like effect of limonene to adult medflies and its possible underlying mechanisms are discussed.

  19. Tropical tephritid fruit fly community with high incidence of shared Wolbachia strains as platform for horizontal transmission of endosymbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, J L; Frommer, M; Shearman, D C A; Riegler, M

    2014-12-01

    Wolbachia are endosymbiotic bacteria that infect 40-65% of arthropod species. They are primarily maternally inherited with occasional horizontal transmission for which limited direct ecological evidence exists. We detected Wolbachia in 8 out of 24 Australian tephritid species. Here, we have used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to further characterize these Wolbachia strains, plus a novel quantitative polymerase chain reaction method for allele assignment in multiple infections. Based on five MLST loci and the Wolbachia surface protein gene (wsp), five Bactrocera and one Dacus species harboured two identical strains as double infections; furthermore, Bactrocera neohumeralis harboured both of these as single or double infections, and sibling species B. try