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Sample records for oldest-old differentiates cognitively

  1. Multilingualism and cognitive state in the oldest old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavé, Gitit; Eyal, Nitza; Shorek, Aviva; Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska

    2008-03-01

    In this study, the authors examined whether the number of languages a person speaks predicts performance on 2 cognitive-screening tests. Data were drawn from a representative sample of the oldest Israeli Jewish population (N = 814, M age = 83.0 years; SD = 5.4) that was interviewed first in 1989 and then twice more within the following 12 years. Cognitive state differed significantly among groups of self-reported bilingual, trilingual, and multilingual individuals at each of the 3 interview waves. Regression analyses showed that the number of languages spoken contributed to the prediction of cognitive test scores beyond the effect of other demographic variables, such as age, gender, place of birth, age at immigration, or education. Multilingualism was also found to be a significant predictor of cognitive state in a group of individuals who acquired no formal education at all. Those who reported being most fluent in a language other than their mother tongue scored higher on average than did those whose mother tongue was their best language, but the effect of number of languages on cognitive state was significant in both groups, with no significant interaction. Results are discussed in the context of theories of cognitive reserve. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Cognitive function in the oldest old: women perform better than men

    OpenAIRE

    van Exel, E; Gussekloo, J; de Craen, A J M; d Bootsma-van,; Houx, P; Knook, D; Westendorp, R

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Limited formal education is associated with poor cognitive function. This could explain sex differences in cognitive function in the oldest old. Whether limited formal education explains differences in cognitive function between elderly women and men was explored.
METHODS—The Leiden 85-plus Study is a population based study investigating all 85 year old inhabitants of Leiden with an overall response rate of 87%. A sample of 599 participants were visited at their...

  3. Effects of the APOE ε2 Allele on Mortality and Cognitive Function in the Oldest Old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Tan, Qihua; Mengel-From, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Some studies indicate that the APOE ε2 allele may have a protective effect on mortality and mental health among the elderly adults. We investigated the effect of the APOE ε2 allele on cognitive function and mortality in 1651 members of the virtually extinct Danish 1905 birth cohort. We found...... no protective effect of the APOE ε2 allele on mortality compared with the APOE ε3 allele. The point estimates indicated an increased protection against cognitive decline over time for persons with the APOE ε2 allele. Cognitive score did not significantly modify the mortality risk of the various APOE genotypes....... We did not find a protective effect of the APOE ε2 allele on mortality among the oldest old, but in agreement with our previous findings, we found a 22% increased mortality risk for APOE ε4 carriers. The APOE ε2 allele may be protective on cognitive decline among the oldest old....

  4. Cognitive function in the oldest old: women perform better than men.

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    van Exel, E; Gussekloo, J; de Craen, A J; Bootsma-van der Wiel, A; Houx, P; Knook, D L; Westendorp, R G

    2001-07-01

    Limited formal education is associated with poor cognitive function. This could explain sex differences in cognitive function in the oldest old. Whether limited formal education explains differences in cognitive function between elderly women and men was explored. The Leiden 85-plus Study is a population based study investigating all 85 year old inhabitants of Leiden with an overall response rate of 87%. A sample of 599 participants were visited at their place of residence. The mini mental state examination was completed by all participants. Cognitive speed and memory were determined with four neuropsychological tests in participants with a mini mental state examination score higher than 18 points. The proportion of women with limited formal education was significantly higher than that of men (70% v 53%, p=0.001), but women had better scores for cognitive speed and memory than men (pwomen to have a higher cognitive speed than men was 1.7 (95% CI; 1.0 to 2.6), and for them to have a better memory the odds ratio was 1.8 (95%CI; 1.2 to 2.7). Women have a better cognitive function than men, despite their lower level of formal education. Limited formal education alone, therefore, cannot explain the differences in cognitive function in women and men. These findings support the alternative hypothesis that biological differences, such as atherosclerosis, between women and men account for the sex differences in cognitive decline.

  5. Relationships between socio-clinico-demographic factors and global cognitive function in the oldest old living in the Tokyo Metropolitan area: Reanalysis of the Tokyo Oldest Old Survey on Total Health (TOOTH).

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    Eguchi, Yoko; Tasato, Kumiko; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Noda, Yoshihiro; Tsugawa, Sakiko; Shinagawa, Shunichiro; Niimura, Hidehito; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Arai, Yasumichi; Mimura, Masaru

    2018-03-07

    Despite a steady increase in life expectancy, a few studies have investigated cross-sectional correlates and longitudinal predictors of cognitive function, a core domain of the successful aging, among socio-clinico-demographic factors in the oldest-old exclusively. The aims of this study were to examine socio-clinico-demographic characteristics associated with global cognition and its changes in the oldest-old. We reanalyzed a dataset of cognitively preserved community-dwelling subjects aged 85 years and older in the Tokyo Oldest Old Survey on Total Health, a 6-year longitudinal observational study. This study consisted of (1) baseline cross-sectional analyses examining correlates of global cognition (n = 248) among socio-clinico-demographic factors and (2) longitudinal analyses examining baseline predictors for changes of global cognition in 3-year follow-up (n = 195). The Mini-Mental State Examination was used as a screening test to assess global cognition. At baseline, higher weights were related to higher cognitive function in the oldest-old. The baseline predictors of global cognitive decline in 3-year follow-up were higher global cognition, shorter education period, and lower sociocultural activities and lower instrumental activity of daily living, in this order. The present study suggests that it is crucial to attain higher education during early life and avoid leanness or obesity, participate in sociocultural cognitive activities during late life, and maintain instrumental activity of daily living to preserve optimal cognitive function in the oldest-old, which will facilitate developing prevention strategies for cognitive decline and promoting successful aging in this increasing population. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Survival, disabilities in activities of daily living, and physical and cognitive functioning among the oldest-old in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; Feng, Qiushi; Hesketh, Therese

    2017-01-01

    age at the time of the assessment in the 1998 and 2008 surveys. Four health outcomes were investigated: annual death rate, Activities of Daily Living (ADL), physical performance in three tests and cognitive function measured by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). We used different tests......BACKGROUND: The oldest-old (those aged ≥80 years) are the most rapidly growing age group globally, and are most in need of health care and assistance. We aimed to assess changes in mortality, disability in activities of daily living, and physical and cognitive functioning among oldest......, and that disability according to activities of daily living had significantly reduced annually between 0·8% and 2·8%. However, cognitive impairment in the later cohorts increased annually between 0·7% and 2·2% and objective physical performance capacity (standing up from a chair, picking up a book from the floor...

  7. Temporal relationship between cognitive and physical performance in middle-aged to oldest old people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stijntjes, Marjon; Aartsen, Marja J.; Taekema, Diana G.; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Huisman, Martijn; Meskers, Carel G.M.; De Craen, Anton J.M.; Maier, Andrea B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cognitive and physical impairment frequently co-occur in older people. The aim of this study was to assess the temporal order of these age-related changes in cognitive and physical performance and to assess whether a relationship was different across specific cognitive and physical

  8. Genetic Variants in KLOTHO Associate With Cognitive Function in the Oldest Old Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengel-From, Jonas; Sørensen, Mette; Nygaard, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    , for example, growth factor signaling. In the present study, 19 tagging gene variants in KL were studied in relation to 2 measures of cognitive function, a 5-item cognitive composite score and the Mini Mental State Examination, in 1,480 Danes 92-100 years of age. We found that heterozygotes for the previously......Decline in cognitive abilities is a major concern in aging individuals. A potential important factor for functioning of the central nervous system in late-life stages is the KLOTHO (KL) gene. KL is expressed in various organs including the brain and is involved in multiple biological processes...... reported KL-VS had poorer cognitive function than noncarriers. Two other variants positioned in the 5' end of the gene, rs398655 and rs562020, were associated with better cognitive function independently of KL-VS, and the common haplotype AG was associated with poorer cognition, consistently across two...

  9. CLU Genetic Variants and Cognitive Decline among Elderly and Oldest Old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengel-From, Jonas; Thinggaard, Mikael; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune

    2013-01-01

    birth cohort (effect on intercept: 0.50 95% CI [0.12; 0.91]) and carriers of a rare TCC haplotype (1%) performed worse on the cognitive composite score (effect on intercept: -1.51 95% CI [-2.92; -0.06]). The association between the TTC haplotype and better cognitive composite score was higher among...

  10. Associations between cognitive abilities and life satisfaction in the oldest-old. Results from the longitudinal population study Good Aging in Skåne

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    Enkvist Å

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Åsa Enkvist, Henrik Ekström, Sölve Elmståhl Department of Health Sciences, Division of Geriatric Medicine, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden Introduction: Studies on the associations between cognitive abilities and life satisfaction (LS in the oldest-old are few. The aim of this study was to explore whether abilities in six different cognitive domains could predict LS in the oldest-old 3 years later. Methods: The study population consisted of 681 individuals aged 78–98 years, drawn from the longitudinal population study “Good Aging in Skåne,” which is part of a national survey (The Swedish National Study on Aging and Care. Scores on 13 cognitive tests were related to scores on Neugartens’ LS index A (LSI-A 3 years later. The cognitive tests were added into six different cognitive domains. A multiple regression analysis was constructed for each cognitive domain separately, with scores on the LSI-A as the dependent variable. The model was adjusted stepwise for sex, age, education, functional capacity, and depressive mood. Results: Significant correlations were found between digit cancellation, word recall, verbal fluency (VF A, VF animals, VF occupations, and mental rotations at baseline, as well as LSI-A at follow-up. The domains of spatial abilities (B = 0.453, P = 0.014 and processing speed (B = 0.118, P = 0.020 remained significantly associated with LSI-A 3 years later after adjustment. Conclusion: The cognitive domains of spatial abilities and processing speed predicted LS 3 years later in the oldest-old. Clinical implications are discussed. Keywords: oldest-old, life satisfaction, longitudinal, crystallized and fluid intelligence, cognition

  11. Survival, disabilities in activities of daily living, and physical and cognitive functioning among the oldest-old in China: a cohort study.

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    Zeng, Yi; Feng, Qiushi; Hesketh, Therese; Christensen, Kaare; Vaupel, James W

    2017-04-22

    The oldest-old (those aged ≥80 years) are the most rapidly growing age group globally, and are most in need of health care and assistance. We aimed to assess changes in mortality, disability in activities of daily living, and physical and cognitive functioning among oldest-old individuals between 1998 and 2008. We used data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Study. Three pairs of cohorts aged 80-89 years, 90-99 years, and 100-105 years (in total, 19 528 oldest-old participants) were examined; the two cohorts in each pair were born 10 years apart, with the same age at the time of the assessment in the 1998 and 2008 surveys. Four health outcomes were investigated: annual death rate, Activities of Daily Living (ADL), physical performance in three tests and cognitive function measured by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). We used different tests and multivariate regression analyses to examine the cohort differences. Controlling for various confounding factors, we noted that annual mortality among oldest-old individuals was substantially reduced between 0·2% and 1·3% in 1998-2008 compared with individuals of the same age born 10 years previously, and that disability according to activities of daily living had significantly reduced annually between 0·8% and 2·8%. However, cognitive impairment in the later cohorts increased annually between 0·7% and 2·2% and objective physical performance capacity (standing up from a chair, picking up a book from the floor, and turning around 360°) decreased anually between 0·4% and 3·8%. We also noted that female mortality was substantially lower than male mortality among the oldest-old, but that women's functional capacities in activities of daily living, cognition, and physical performance were worse than their male counterparts. Advances in medications, lifestyle, and socioeconomics might compress activities of daily living disability, that is, benefits of success, but lifespan extension might expand

  12. Genetic variations in the CLU and PICALM genes are associated with cognitive function in the oldest old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengel-From, Jonas; Christensen, Kaare; McGue, Matt

    2011-01-01

    measures of Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and a cognitive composite score. We found a significant association between the highly frequent CLU rs11136000 T allele (38%) and better performance on the cognitive composite score (p = 0.016) explaining 0.5% of the mean variation in cognitive composite...

  13. Predicting survival in oldest old people

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    Taekema, Diana G.; Gussekloo, J.; Westendorp, Rudi G J; De Craen, Anton J M; Maier, Andrea B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Measures of physical performance are regarded as useful objective clinical tools to estimate survival in elderly people. However, oldest old people, aged 85 years or more, are underrepresented in earlier studies and frequently unable to perform functional tests. We studied the association

  14. Relationship between Serum and Brain Carotenoids, α-Tocopherol, and Retinol Concentrations and Cognitive Performance in the Oldest Old from the Georgia Centenarian Study

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    Elizabeth J. Johnson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is involved in age-related cognitive decline. The dietary antioxidants, carotenoids, tocopherols, and vitamin A may play a role in the prevention or delay in cognitive decline. In this study, sera were obtained from 78 octogenarians and 220 centenarians from the Georgia Centenarian Study. Brain tissues were obtained from 47 centenarian decedents. Samples were analyzed for carotenoids, α-tocopherol, and retinol using HPLC. Analyte concentrations were compared with cognitive tests designed to evaluate global cognition, dementia, depression and cognitive domains (memory, processing speed, attention, and executive functioning. Serum lutein, zeaxanthin, and β-carotene concentrations were most consistently related to better cognition (P<0.05 in the whole population and in the centenarians. Only serum lutein was significantly related to better cognition in the octogenarians. In brain, lutein and β-carotene were related to cognition with lutein being consistently associated with a range of measures. There were fewer significant relationships for α-tocopherol and a negative relationship between brain retinol concentrations and delayed recognition. These findings suggest that the status of certain carotenoids in the old may reflect their cognitive function. The protective effect may not be related to an antioxidant effect given that α-tocopherol was less related to cognition than these carotenoids.

  15. Relationship between serum and brain carotenoids, a-tocopherol and retinol concentrations and cognitive performance in the oldest old from the Georgia Centenarian Study

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    Oxidative stress is involved in age-related cognitive decline. The dietary antioxidants, carotenoids, tocopherols and vitamin A may play a role in the prevention or delay in cognitive decline. In this study sera were obtained from 78 octogenarians and 220 centenarians from the Georgia Centenarian St...

  16. Pictorial Superiority Effects in Oldest-Old People

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    Cherry, Katie E.; Hawley, Karri S.; Jackson, Erin M.; Volaufova, Julia; Su, L. Joseph; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we examined memory for pictures and words in middle-age (45-59 years), young-old (60-74 years), old-old (75-89 years) and the oldest-old adults (90-97 years) in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study. Stimulus items were presented and retention was tested in a blocked order where half of the participants studied 16 simple line drawings and the other half studied matching words during acquisition. Free recall and recognition followed. In the next acquisition/test block, a new set of items was used where the stimulus format was changed relative to the first block. Results yielded pictorial superiority effects in both retention measures for all age groups. Follow-up analyses of clustering in free recall revealed a greater number of categories were accessed (which reflects participants' retrieval plan) and more items were recalled per category (which reflects participants' encoding strategy) when pictures served as stimuli compared to words. Cognitive status and working memory span were correlated with picture and word recall. Regression analyses confirmed that these individual difference variables accounted for significant age-related variance in recall. These data strongly suggest that the oldest-old can utilize nonverbal memory codes to support long-term retention as effectively as do younger adults. PMID:18651263

  17. Differences in Suicide Between the Old and the Oldest Old

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    Erlangsen, Annette; Bille-Brahe, Unni; Jeune, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    . Marriage ceases to have a preventive effect among the oldest old. The oldest old tend to use more determined suicide methods. DISCUSSION: Distinct differences in suicide mortality between the old and the oldest old were found. The suicide trend of the oldest old does not reflect the recent improvements......OBJECTIVES: The purpose of our study is to examine suicide trends among the old (65-79 years) and oldest old (80+ years). METHODS: All persons aged 50 or older who committed suicide in Denmark during 1972-1998 are included in the analysis. Suicide trends are analyzed by sex, age, civil status......, and methods. Age, period, and cohort effects are examined graphically. RESULTS: In all, 17,729 persons (10,479 men and 7,250 women) committed suicide. During the study period, the suicide trends among the middle-aged and the old adults decreased. The trend among the oldest old, by contrast, remained stable...

  18. Concept of successful ageing among the community-dwelling oldest old in Japan.

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    Sato-Komata, Michiko; Hoshino, Akiko; Usui, Kanae; Katsura, Toshiki

    2015-12-01

    In Japan, increasing human longevity has forced society to rethink the notion of what constitutes 'successful ageing'. This study attempts to advocate a new concept of successful ageing that involves complete acceptance of the ageing process. Research was based on semi-structured interviews with 15 community dwelling oldest-old (aged 85 years and above) participants. The analysis was completed using a grounded theory approach. Successful ageing for the oldest old was grouped into six categories. Within these categories, we discovered the structure of successful ageing, which synthesises ideas from the adaptation process with those of physical and cognitive decreased function as well as spirituality. The oldest old in Japan work to arrive at a conclusion with their lives, all the while coping with the drawbacks of ageing, such as declining physical and cognitive functions. This resilient and flexible way of life makes their form of ageing an equally 'successful' one.

  19. Muscle strength in the oldest old and associated factors

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    Andréa Ferreira Cardoso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this cross-sectional household-based study was to investigate the factors associated with muscle strength in the oldest old (≥ 80 years living in a rural area, of southern Brazil. We interviewed a total of 56 men (85.0 ± 4.4 y and 78 women (84.5 ± 4.8 y. Prevalence of poor performance in the handgrip test (isometric strength was 39.2% and was associated with illiteracy, underweight, and cognitive deficit. Poor performance in the "chair stand" test (lower body strength/physical function was observed in 48.5% of the elderly and was more prevalent in men and among those who consumed more alcoholic drink/week. The results may be useful as indicators to public health surveillance, and to the development of prevention and intervention actions.

  20. Loss of partner and suicide risks among oldest old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Jeune, Bernard; Bille-Brahe, Unni

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: while mortality among the oldest old has improved over recent decades, these improvements are not reflected in the suicide mortality of this age group. We do not know the reasons why the suicide mortality is still very high among the oldest old. OBJECTIVE: the aim is to analyse...... the impact that loss of a partner has on the suicide risks of the oldest old (80+) compared to younger age groups. SUBJECTS: the entire Danish population aged 50 during 1994-1998 (n = 1,978,527). METHODS: we applied survival analysis to calculate the changes in relative risk of suicide after a loss by using...... individual-level data. RESULTS: the majority of older persons who commit suicide are widowed, although only a relatively small proportion of the oldest old who commit suicide have experienced a recent loss of partner (men: 18%, women: 6%). In absolute terms, the oldest old men experience the highest increase...

  1. [The contributing risk factors, prevention and treatment of functional dependence among the oldest-old and elderly subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dianrong; Tan, Jiping; Guo, Yuhe; Ye, Guanghua; Zhu, Linqi; Zhang, Jun; Li, Yinghao; Deng, Yucheng; Wang, Guichen; Wang, Luning

    2014-10-01

    To compare the risk factors on the functional dependence between the oldest-old and elderly veterans. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among veterans ( ≥ 60 years of age) lived in 44 veterans' communities in Beijing. The socio-demographic information and history of non-communicable chronic diseases were collected via face-to-face interviews, and the functional status was assessed by the 20-item version of the Activities of Daily Living Scale. The risk factors associated with increased hazard of the functional dependence in the oldest-old ( ≥ 80 years old) were cognitive impairment, extrapyramidal diseases, cerebral infarction, transient ischemic attack, sleep disorders, hypnotics, osteoarthrosis, hypertension and fall with the odds ratio (OR) of 1.241-2.962 (all P fall, cardiovascular diseases, osteoarthrosis and hearing loss were the risk factors for that in the elderly subjects (aged 60-79 years). The OR was 1.232-5.790 (all P risk of functional dependence in both the oldest-old and elderly people. Neuropsychiatric disorders are the leading causes contributed to the functional dependence among oldest-old and elderly population. Neurodegenerative diseases in the oldest-old, stroke and depression in elderly people should be the priorities in ameliorating disability. Healthy lifestyle and avocational activities could improve the functional status of the oldest-old and elderly population.

  2. What matters for life satisfaction among the oldest-old? Evidence from China.

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    Ng, Sor Tho; Tey, Nai Peng; Asadullah, M Niaz

    2017-01-01

    The world population is aging rapidly and the well-being of older people is of great interest. Therefore, this study investigates the determinants of life satisfaction among the oldest-old (i.e. individuals aged 80 or over) in China. We use the 2011/2012 Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey data (n = 6530) for this paper. Logistic regression is used to analyse the effects of socio-demographic, economic, health, instrumental activities of daily living, family and community factors on life satisfaction and depression among the oldest-old in China. Our analysis confirms the significance of many factors affecting life satisfaction among the oldest-old in China. Factors that are correlated with life satisfaction include respondent's sex, education, place of residence, self-rated health status, cognitive ability (using mini mental state examination), regular physical examination, perceived relative economic status, access to social security provisions, commercialized insurances, living arrangements, and number of social services available in the community (p<0.05 for all these variables). Although life satisfaction is negatively associated with instrumental activities of daily living (β = -0.068, 95%CI = -.093-.043), and depression (β = -0.463, 95%CI = -.644-.282), the overall effect of self-rated health status is positive (p<0.001). This confirms the primacy of health as the determinant of well-being among the oldest-old. Majority of the oldest-old in China rated their life satisfaction as good or very good. Our findings show that health and economic status are by far the most significant predictors of life satisfaction. Our finding on the primacy of health and relative income as determinants of well-being among the oldest-old, and the greater influence of self-rated health status over objective health measures is consistent with the findings of many past studies. Our results suggest that efforts should be directed at enhancing family support as well as

  3. Social Capital and Health in the Oldest Old: The Umeå 85+ Study

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    Gustafson, Yngve

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to measure social capital in the oldest old, and its association with different dimensions of health. The Umeå 85+ study is a cross-sectional study of 253 people, aged 85 years, 90 years and 95 years or older. A principal component factor analysis was performed to assess classes of information measuring the structural and the cognitive components of social capital on an individual level. In the final model, one factor consisting of attachment, social integration and social network emerged which accounted for 55 per cent of the total variance. We ana-lysed the association between structural social capital and various dimensions of health such as depressive symptoms, functional ability and self-rated health. This study suggests that structural social capital may partially explain depressive symptoms but not functional ability or self-rated health. We conclude that social capital is a relevant resource for the oldest old, but we suggest a different approach when measuring social capital in this age group, such as conducting a longitudinal study or including retrospective questions in the study. The oldest old may have had a high level of social capital, but our study could not identify this statistically.

  4. Engaging the oldest old in research: lessons from the Newcastle 85+ study

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    Davies Karen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Those aged 85 and over, the oldest old, are now the fastest growing sector of the population. Information on their health is essential to inform future planning; however, there is a paucity of up-to-date information on the oldest old, who are often excluded from research. The aim of the Newcastle 85+ Study is to investigate the health of a cohort of 85-year-olds from a biological, medical and psychosocial perspective. This paper describes the methods employed for the successful recruitment, retention and evaluation of this cohort. Methods Participants were all individuals born in 1921 and registered with a participating general practice in Newcastle and North Tyneside, UK. Involvement comprised detailed health assessments, by a nurse, in their usual place of residence and/or review of their general practice medical records. Results Of the 1453 individuals eligible to participate, 72% (n = 1042 were recruited; 59% (n = 851 consented to both health assessment and review of general practice records. Key factors for successful involvement included protected time to engage with family and other key gatekeepers, minimising participant burden, through for example home based assessment, and flexibility of approach. Cognitive impairment is a significant issue; due consideration should be given to the ethical and legal issues of capacity and consent. Interim withdrawal rates at phase 2 (18 month post baseline, show 88 out of 854 participants (10% had withdrawn with approval for continued use of data and materials and a further 2 participants (0.2% had withdrawn and requested that all data be destroyed. Attrition due to death of participants within this same time frame was 135 (16%. Conclusion Our recruitment rates were good and compared favourably with other similar UK and international longitudinal studies of the oldest old. The challenges of and successful strategies for involving, recruiting and retaining the oldest old in research

  5. Motivators and barriers for physical activity in the oldest old: a systematic review.

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    Baert, Veerle; Gorus, Ellen; Mets, Tony; Geerts, Christel; Bautmans, Ivan

    2011-09-01

    Worldwide, people engage insufficiently in physical activity, particularly subjects aged 80 years and over. For optimal life-style campaigns, knowledge of motivators and barriers for physical activity is mandatory. Given their specific needs, it is conceivable that these would be different for the oldest old compared to younger subjects. Pubmed, Web of Science and Psychinfo were systematically screened for articles reporting motivators and barriers for physical activity. Papers were excluded if data regarding elderly aged >79 years were absent. Forty-four relevant articles were included, involving a total of 28,583 subjects. Sixty one motivators and 59 barriers for physical activity in the elderly were identified, including those who are relevant for persons aged 80 years and over. Based on the results of our literature review, we recommend that when promoting physical activity in the oldest old, special attention is paid to the health benefits of physical activity, to the subject's fears, individual preferences and social support, and to constraints related to the physical environment. However, no studies were found exclusively describing people aged 80 years and over, and future research is necessary to differentiate the barriers or motivators that are specific for the oldest old from those of younger elderly. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Multifactorial assessment and targeted intervention to reduce falls among the oldest-old: a randomized controlled trial

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    Ferrer, A.; Formiga, F.; Sanz, H.; de Vries, O.J.; Badia, T.; Pujol, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a multifactorial intervention to reduce falls among the oldest-old people, including individuals with cognitive impairment or comorbidities. Methods: A randomized, single-blind, parallel-group clinical trial was conducted from

  7. Pictorial Superiority Effects in Oldest-Old People

    OpenAIRE

    Cherry, Katie E.; Hawley, Karri S.; Jackson, Erin M.; Volaufova, Julia; Su, L. Joseph; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we examined memory for pictures and words in middle-age (45-59 years), young-old (60-74 years), old-old (75-89 years) and the oldest-old adults (90-97 years) in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study. Stimulus items were presented and retention was tested in a blocked order where half of the participants studied 16 simple line drawings and the other half studied matching words during acquisition. Free recall and recognition followed. In the next acquisition/test block, a new set o...

  8. Economic Stress, Quality of Life, and Mortality for the Oldest-Old in China

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    Yeung, W. Jean; Xu, Zhenhua

    2012-01-01

    China's oldest old population is estimated to quadruple by 2050. Yet, poverty rate for the oldest old has been the highest among all age groups in China. This paper investigates the relationship between economic stress, quality of life, and mortality among the oldest-old in China. Both objective economic hardships and perceived economic strain are…

  9. Contributory factors for the functional independence of oldest old

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    Dâmarys Kohlbeck de Melo Neu Ribeiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To investigate the socioeconomic and clinical factors that contribute to the functional independence of the oldest old of a community. METHOD Cross-sectional quantitative study whose sample consisted of 214 elderly people registered in Basic Health Units. Data were collected through structured interviews and application of the Functional Independence Measure. We used descriptive statistics, and for association of the variables we used the Student t-test, ANOVA and Tukey's test for multiple comparisons. RESULTS The significant variables that contributed to the functional independence were remaining economically active, practicing physical and leisure activities, having a social life, eating fruits, vegetables and meat. The orientation to conduct these practices reduces the demand for care and help needed in everyday activities. CONCLUSION Maintaining independence is primordial to delay disability and presents itself as an excellent field of work for nursing.

  10. Pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis in the oldest old

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    Vandenbroucke A

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A Vandenbroucke,1 FP Luyten,2,3 J Flamaing,4 E Gielen3,4 1Clinical Department of Internal Medicine, UZ Leuven, 2Skeletal Biology and Engineering, Department of Development and Regeneration, KU Leuven, 3Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, UZ Leuven, 4Gerontology and Geriatrics, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium Abstract: The incidence of osteoporotic fractures increases with age. Consequently, the global prevalence of osteoporotic fractures will increase with the aging of the population. In old age, osteoporosis is associated with a substantial burden in terms of morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, osteoporosis in old age continues to be underdiagnosed and undertreated. This may, at least partly, be explained by the fact that evidence of the antifracture efficacy of osteoporosis treatments comes mainly from randomized controlled trials in postmenopausal women with a mean age of 70–75 years. However, in the last years, subgroup analyses of these landmark trials have been published investigating the efficacy and safety of osteoporosis treatment in the very elderly. Based on this evidence, this narrative review discusses the pharmacological management of osteoporosis in the oldest old (≥80 years. Because of the high prevalence of calcium and/or vitamin D deficiency in old age, these supplements are essential in the management of osteoporosis in the elderly people. Adding antiresorptive or anabolic treatments or combinations, thereof, reduces the risk of vertebral fractures even more, at least in the elderly with documented osteoporosis. The reduction of hip fracture risk by antiresorptive treatments is less convincing, which may be explained by insufficient statistical power in some subanalyses and/or a higher impact of nonskeletal risk factors in the occurrence of hip fractures. Compared with younger individuals, a larger absolute risk reduction is observed in the elderly because of the higher

  11. Burden among Family Caregivers of Dementia in the Oldest-Old: An Exploratory Study

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    Khin Khin Win

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWith >85 years, the fastest growing age segment in developed countries, dementia in the oldest-old is projected to increase exponentially. Being older, caregivers of dementia in oldest-old (CDOO may experience unique challenges compared with younger-age groups. Thus, we aim to explore demographic characteristics and burden pattern among CDOO.MethodsWe studied 458 family caregiver-patient dyads attending an outpatient memory clinic. We classified patients into three age-groups: <75, 75–84, and ≥85 years. We measured caregiver burden using the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI 4-factor structure described by Cheah et al. (1. We compared care recipient characteristics, caregiver demographics, and ZBI total/factors scores between the three age-groups, and performed 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA to ascertain the effect of age-group by disease severity interaction.ResultsOldest-old care recipients were more impaired in cognitive function and instrumental ADL; there was no difference in behavior and basic ADL. Compared with the other two age-groups, CDOO were older (mean age: 50.4 vs 55.5 vs 56.8 years, P < 0.01, and overwhelmingly adult children (85.9% as opposed to spouses (5.3%. CDOO also had higher ZBI total score, role strain, and personal strain (all P < 0.05. However, there was no difference in worry about performance scores. 2-way ANOVA did not reveal significant age-group by disease severity interaction for ZBI total and factor scores, although distinctive differences were seen between role/personal strain with worry about performance in mild cognitive impairment and very mild dementia.ConclusionOur study highlighted that CDOO were mainly older adult children who experienced significant role and personal strain independent of disease severity while caring for their family member with more impaired cognitive and physical function. These results pave the way for targeted interventions to address the unique burden faced

  12. Association study of FOXO3A SNPs and aging phenotypes in Danish oldest-old individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, Mette; Nygaard, Marianne; Dato, Serena

    2015-01-01

    -old Danes (age 92-93) with 4 phenotypes known to predict their survival: cognitive function, hand grip strength, activity of daily living (ADL), and self-rated health. Based on previous studies in humans and foxo animal models, we also explore self-reported diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease......FOXO3A variation has repeatedly been reported to associate with human longevity, yet only few studies have investigated whether FOXO3A variation also associates with aging-related traits. Here, we investigate the association of 15 FOXO3A tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 1088 oldest...... borderline significance (P = 0.054), while ADL did not (P = 0.396). Although the single-SNP associations did not formally replicate in another study population of oldest-old Danes (n = 1279, age 94-100), the estimates were of similar direction of effect as observed in the Discovery sample. A pooled analysis...

  13. Cardiac structure and function and dependency in the oldest old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, David; Jacobs, Jeremy M; Stessman-Lande, Irit; Cohen, Aharon; Gilon, Dan; Ein-Mor, Eliana; Stessman, Jochanan

    2011-08-01

    To examine the association between cardiac function and activities of daily living (ADLs) in an age-homogenous, community-dwelling population born in 1920 and 1921. Cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort study. Community-dwelling elderly population. Participants were recruited from the Jerusalem Longitudinal Cohort Study, which has followed an age-homogenous cohort of Jerusalem residents born in 1920 and 1921. Four hundred eighty-nine of the participants (228 male, 261 female) from the most recent set of data collection in 2005 and 2006 underwent echocardiography at their place of residence in addition to structured interviews and physical examination. A home-based comprehensive assessment was performed to assess health and functional status, including performance of ADLs. Dependence was defined as needing assistance with one or more basic ADLs. Standard echocardiographic assessment of cardiac structure and function, including ejection fraction (EF) and diastolic function as assessed using early diastolic mitral annular tissue velocity measurements obtained using tissue Doppler, was performed. Of the participants with limitation in at least one ADL, significantly more had low EF (dependence in ADL had higher left ventricular mass index (LVMI) (129.3 vs 119.7 g/m²) and left atrial volume index (LAVI) (41.3 vs 36.7 mL/m²). There were no differences between the groups in percentage of participants with impaired diastolic function or average ratio of early diastolic transmitral flow velocity to early diastolic mitral annular tissue velocity (11.5 vs 11.8; P=.64). In this age-homogenous cohort of the oldest old, high LVMI and LAVI and indices of systolic but not diastolic function as assessed according to Doppler were associated with limitations in ADLs. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  14. Educational differences in life expectancy over five decades among the oldest old in Norway.

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    Kinge, Jonas Minet; Steingrímsdóttir, Ólöf Anna; Moe, Joakim Oliu; Skirbekk, Vegard; Næss, Øyvind; Strand, Bjørn Heine

    2015-11-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in life expectancy have been shown among the middle aged and the youngest of the old individuals, but the situation in the oldest old is less clear. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in life expectancy at ages 85, 90 and 95 years by education in Norway in the period 1961-2009. This was a register-based population study including all residents in Norway aged 85 and over. Individual-level data were provided by the Central Population Register and the National Education Database. For each decade during 1961-2009, death rates by 1-year age groups were calculated separately for each sex and three educational categories. Annual life tables were used to calculate life expectancy at ages 85 (e85), 90 (e90) and 95 (e95). Educational differentials in life expectancy at each age were non-significant in the early decades, but became significant over time. For example, for the decade 2000-9, a man aged 90 years with primary education had a life expectancy of 3.4 years, while a man with tertiary education could expect to live for 3.8 years. Similar numbers in women were 4.1 and 4.5 years, respectively. Even among 95-year-old men, statistically significant differences in life expectancy were found by education in the two last decades. Education matters regarding remaining life expectancy also for the oldest old in Norway. Life expectancy at these ages is low, so a growth of 0.5 years in the life expectancy differential is sizeable. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Modeling the Oldest Old: Personas to Design Technology-Based Solutions for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Blaine; Zaslavksy, Oleg; Wilamowska, Katarzyna M.; Demiris, George; Thompson, Hilaire J

    2011-01-01

    There is a recognized need to develop information technology for the delivery of care services to older adults. However, little attention has been paid to the design of information technology for the oldest old demographic. We made novel use of data from observations, focus groups and cluster analysis of oldest old participant characteristics from a pilot study in a community setting to iteratively construct personas for the design of information technology for the oldest old. The resulting two personas, “Hazel” and “Rose”, capture different abilities of members of the oldest old demographic group. In addition, we provide a list of eleven design recommendations to guide the design of technology that supports the abilities of people like Hazel and Rose. The resulting personas, design recommendations and persona construction method can be useful tools for informaticians and designers of new systems for the oldest old. PMID:22195177

  16. Lung Cancer in the Oldest Old: A Nation-Wide Study in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulkes, Karlijn J G; Pouw, Carin A M; Driessen, Elisabeth J M; van Elden, Leontine J R; van den Bos, Frederiek; Janssen-Heijnen, Maryska L G; Lammers, Jan-Willem J; Hamaker, Marije E

    2017-10-01

    An important step in improving research and care for the oldest patients with lung cancer is analyzing current data regarding diagnostic work-up, treatment choices, and survival. We analyzed data on lung cancer from the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR-IKNL) regarding diagnostic work-up, treatment, and survival in different age categories; the oldest old (≥85 years of age) versus those aged 71-84 (elderly) and those aged ≤70 years (younger patients). 47,951 patients were included in the 2010-2014 NCR database. 2196 (5%) patients were aged ≥85 years. Histological diagnosis was obtained significantly less often in the oldest old (38%, p < 0.001), and less standard treatment regimen was given (8%, p < 0.001) compared to elderly and younger patients. 67% of the oldest old received best supportive care only versus 38% of the elderly and 20% of the younger patients (p < 0.001). For the oldest old receiving standard treatment, survival rates were similar in comparison with the elderly patients. In the oldest old, no survival differences were found when comparing standard or adjusted regimens for stage I and IV NSCLC; for stage III, oldest old receiving standard treatment had longer survival. No oldest old patients with stage II received standard treatment. Clinicians make limited use of diagnostics and invasive treatment in the oldest old; however, selected oldest old patients experienced similar survival rates as the elderly when receiving some form of anticancer therapy (standard or adjusted). More research is needed to further develop individualized treatment algorithms.

  17. “Struggling for independence”: The meaning of being an oldest old man in a rural area. Interpretation of oldest old men's narrations

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    Tove M. Ness

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The amount of older people receiving home nursing care is increasing; in rural areas, they are at additional risk because of the distance between people and health care facilities. No specific studies have been found about oldest old men living alone and receiving home nursing care and the meaning of living alone in one's own home. The aim of this study was therefore to illuminate the meaning of being an oldest old man living alone in a rural area and receiving home nursing care. A sample of 12 oldest old men living in rural areas in the middle of Norway was chosen for this study. Narrative interviews were conducted, and data were analyzed using the phenomenological hermeneutical method. After a naïve reading and a structural analysis of the text, we identified three themes: feelings of insufficiency in everyday life, finding hope in life, and feeling reconciliation with life. The comprehensive understanding suggested that being an oldest old man living alone in a rural area means a struggle between a dependent existence and a desire to be independent. Living in the tension between independence and dependency is a complex emotional situation where one is trying to accept the consequences of life and loss—reconciling the wish to live with the fact that life will come to an end.

  18. Age group differences in positive and negative affect among oldest-old adults: findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study.

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    Cho, Jinmyoung; Martin, Peter; Poon, Leonard W; MacDonald, M; Jazwinski, S M; Green, R C; Gearing, M; Johnson, M A; Markesbery, W R; Woodard, J L; Tenover, J S; Siegler, L C; Rott, C; Rodgers, W L; Hausman, D; Arnold, J; Davey, A

    2013-01-01

    The developmental adaptation model (Martin & Martin, 2002) provides insights into how current experiences and resources (proximal variables) and past experiences (distal variables) are correlated with outcomes (e.g., well-being) in later life. Applying this model, the current study examined proximal and distal variables associated with positive and negative affect in oldest-old adults, investigating age differences. Data from 306 octogenarians and centenarians who participated in Phase III of the Georgia Centenarian Study were used. Proximal variables included physical functioning, cognitive functioning, self-rated health, number of chronic conditions, social resources, and perceived economic status; distal variables included education, social productive activities, management of personal assets, and other learning experiences. Analysis of variance and block-wise regression analyses were conducted. Octogenarians showed significantly higher levels of positive emotion than centenarians. Cognitive functioning was significantly associated with positive affect, and number of health problems was significantly associated with negative affect after controlling for gender, ethnicity, residence, and marital status. Furthermore, four significant interaction effects suggested that positive affect significantly depended on the levels of cognitive and physical functioning among centenarians, whereas positive affect was dependent on the levels of physical health problems and learning experiences among octogenarians. Findings of this study addressed the importance of current and past experiences and resources in subjective well-being among oldest-old adults as a life-long process. Mechanisms connecting aging processes at the end of a long life to subjective well-being should be explored in future studies.

  19. No Association between Variation in Longevity Candidate Genes and Aging-related Phenotypes in Oldest-old Danes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soerensen, Mette; Nygaard, Marianne; Debrabant, Birgit; Mengel-From, Jonas; Dato, Serena; Thinggaard, Mikael; Christensen, Kaare; Christiansen, Lene

    2016-06-01

    In this study we explored the association between aging-related phenotypes previously reported to predict survival in old age and variation in 77 genes from the DNA repair pathway, 32 genes from the growth hormone 1/ insulin-like growth factor 1/insulin (GH/IGF-1/INS) signalling pathway and 16 additional genes repeatedly considered as candidates for human longevity: APOE, APOA4, APOC3, ACE, CETP, HFE, IL6, IL6R, MTHFR, TGFB1, SIRTs 1, 3, 6; and HSPAs 1A, 1L, 14. Altogether, 1,049 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 1,088 oldest-old (age 92-93 years) Danes and analysed with phenotype data on physical functioning (hand grip strength), cognitive functioning (mini mental state examination and a cognitive composite score), activity of daily living and self-rated health. Five SNPs showed association to one of the phenotypes; however, none of these SNPs were associated with a change in the relevant phenotype over time (7 years of follow-up) and none of the SNPs could be confirmed in a replication sample of 1,281 oldest-old Danes (age 94-100). Hence, our study does not support association between common variation in the investigated longevity candidate genes and aging-related phenotypes consistently shown to predict survival. It is possible that larger sample sizes are needed to robustly reveal associations with small effect sizes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Semantic Encoding Enhances the Pictorial Superiority Effect in the Oldest-Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Katie E.; Brown, Jennifer Silva; Walker, Erin Jackson; Smitherman, Emily A.; Boudreaux, Emily O.; Volaufova, Julia; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effect of a semantic orienting task during encoding on free recall and recognition of simple line drawings and matching words in middle-aged (44 to 59 years), older (60 to 89 years), and oldest-old (90 + years) adults. Participants studied line drawings and matching words presented in blocked order. Half of the participants were given a semantic orienting task and the other half received standard intentional learning instructions. Results confirmed that the pictorial superiority effect was greater in magnitude following semantic encoding compared to the control condition. Analyses of clustering in free recall revealed that oldest-old adults’ encoding and retrieval strategies were generally similar to the two younger groups. Self-reported strategy use was less frequent among the oldest-old adults. These data strongly suggest that semantic elaboration is an effective compensatory mechanism underlying preserved episodic memory performance that persists well into the ninth decade of life. PMID:22053814

  1. Impact of Vitamin D Receptor VDR rs2228570 Polymorphism in Oldest Old

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    Melanie Glocke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcitriol, a key player in the regulation of mineral metabolism, influences, directly or by increasing plasma Ca2+ and phosphate levels, a multitude of physiological functions, such as bone mineralization, cell proliferation, immune response, carbohydrate metabolism, blood pressure, platelet reactivity, gastric acid secretion, cognitive function and mood. Calcitriol is mainly effective by stimulation of the Vitamin D receptor VDR. The responsiveness of VDR may be affected by gene variants, such as the FokI polymorphism (rs2228570. The GG gene variant is expected to be more active than the GA or AA gene variant. The present study explored the impact of VDR rs2228570 on survival and health of oldest old individuals (> 90 years. Methods: 101 individuals > 90 years were examined and genotyped. As a result, the prevalence of GG, GA & AA was 36 (10 ♂, 26♀, 52 (24 ♂, 28♀ and 13 (4 ♂, 9♀, respectively, a prevalence not significantly different from the frequency in public available dbSNP and a population (n = 208 of young volunteers (average age 49 years. Results: As compared to carriers of GG, carriers of AA and/or GA displayed significantly (p lower diastolic blood pressure (significant only in ♂, higher instrumental activity of daily life (IADL score and more frequent hospital visits (significant only in ♂, significantly lower prevalence of depression (significant in ♀+♂, renal disease (significant only in ♀, allergy, peptic ulcer and urolithiasis (significant only in ♂, as well as significantly higher prevalence of transitoric ischemic attacks. In a younger population a German version of the NEO-FFI, allowing reliable and valid assessment of personality, revealed decreased neuroticism (significant only in ♂ and increased extraversion in AA carriers. Conclusion: The Vitamin D receptor gene variant VDR rs2228570 has only little impact on life span but may affect a variety of pathophysiologically relevant functions

  2. Predictive factors of urinary tract infections among the oldest old in the general population. a population-based prospective follow-up study

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    Cools Herman JM

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary tract infections (UTI are common among the oldest old and may lead to a few days of illness, delirium or even to death. We studied the incidence and predictive factors of UTI among the oldest old in the general population. Methods The Leiden 85-plus Study is a population-based prospective follow-up study of 86-year-old subjects in Leiden, The Netherlands. Information on the diagnosis of UTI was obtained annually during four years of follow-up from the medical records and interviews of treating physicians. A total of 157 men and 322 women aged 86 years participated in the study. Possible predictive factors were collected at baseline, including history of UTI between the age of 85 and 86 years, aspects of functioning (cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE 4, disability in activities of daily living (ADL, and co-morbidities. Results The incidence of UTI from age 86 through 90 years was 11.2 (95% confidence interval (CI 9.4, 13.1 per 100 person-years at risk. Multivariate analysis showed that history of UTI between the age of 85 and 86 years (hazard ratio (HR 3.4 (95% CI 2.4, 5.0, impaired cognitive function (HR 1.9 (95% CI 1.3, 2.9, disability in daily living (HR 1.7 (95% CI 1.1, 2.5 and urine incontinence (HR 1.5 (95% CI 1.0, 2.1 were independent predictors of an increased incidence of UTI from age 86 onwards. Conclusions Within the oldest old, a history of UTI between the age of 85 and 86 years, cognitive impairment, ADL disability and urine incontinence are independent predictors of developing UTI. These predictive factors could be used to target preventive measures to the oldest old at high risk of UTI.

  3. The Old and the Oldest-old: Do They Have Different Perspectives on Adjustment to Aging?

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    Sofia von Humboldt

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The outcomes presented in this paper stressed the varied perspectives concerning AtA, contoured in two different models, and the need of considering these when designing and implementing programs in health care for the old and the oldest-old.

  4. Ageing, Health and Life Satisfaction of the Oldest Old: An Analysis for Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    This analysis uses data from the German Socio-Economic Panel and the Survey on Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe to assess the effect of ageing and health on the life satisfaction of the oldest old (defined as 75 and older). We observe a U-shaped relationship between age and levels of life satisfaction for individuals aged between 16 and 65.…

  5. [The social construction of the "oldest old" in a young-old society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrhein, L

    2013-01-01

    In gerontology and public discourse, old age is often described as a double reality--the potentials and resources of older people contrast with the deficits and burdens of the oldest old. The polarisation into a desired higher age and a feared old age mirrors society's treatment of age and ageing: everybody wants to get old, but nobody wants to be old. Very old age in a young-old society is defined as the "other" that deviates from the ideals of activity, productivity and youthfulness and thus acts as a cultural anti-model. Whereas higher age is conceived as the fulfilment of middle age, "real" age begins with high age. Based on a multilevel model of the social construction of age categories, this article depicts the institutional, cultural, interactive and individual production of the "oldest old".

  6. The heritability of telomere length among the elderly and oldest-old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Claus; Graakjaer, Jesper; Petersen, Hans Christian

    2005-01-01

    . Structural equation models revealed that a model including additive genetic effects and non-shared environment was the best fitting model and that telomere length was moderately heritable, with an estimate that was sensitive to the telomere length standardization procedure. Sex-specific analyses showed lower...... heritability in males, although not statistically significant, which is in line with our earlier finding of a sex difference in telomere dynamics among the elderly and oldest-old....

  7. Increased alcohol use over the past 20 years among the oldest old in Sweden

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    Kelfve Susanne

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS - Increased alcohol consumption among old people, reported in many countries, will likely present a major challenge to public health and policy in the future. In Sweden, current knowledge about old people’s alcohol consumption is incomplete because of limited historical data and a dearth of nationally representative studies. We describe the frequency of alcohol consumption among the oldest old in Sweden over a 20-year period by sex, age, education, living situation, mobility and Activities of Daily Living. METHODS - We used repeated cross-sectional survey data from the Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old (SWEOLD, conducted in 1992, 2002 and 2011. The samples were nationally representative of the Swedish population aged 77+, with response rates of 95.4%, 84.4% and 86.2% (total n=2007. Self-reported consumption frequency was measured with the question “How often do you drink alcoholic beverages, such as wine, beer or spirits?” RESULTS - Frequency of alcohol consumption increased among the oldest old from 1992 to 2011. The proportion reporting no or less-than-monthly alcohol consumption decreased, whereas the proportion reporting weekly consumption increased. This was true for men, women and most age and educational groups. The period change in consumption frequency was not explained by changes in demographic factors, living situation or functional capacity during the study period. CONCLUSIONS - Alcohol use increased among the oldest old in Sweden during the 20-year study period. More liberal attitudes toward alcohol could contribute to the increased use. The increase in weekly alcohol consumers suggests an increase in the number of older risk consumers.

  8. Much more medicine for the oldest old: trends in UK electronic clinical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, David; Tavakoly, Behrooz; Winder, Rachel E; Masoli, Jane A H; Henley, William E; Ble, Alessandro; Richards, Suzanne H

    2015-01-01

    the oldest old (85+) pose complex medical challenges. Both underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis are claimed in this group. to estimate diagnosis, prescribing and hospital admission prevalence from 2003/4 to 2011/12, to monitor trends in medicalisation. observational study of Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) electronic medical records from general practice populations (eligible; n = 27,109) with oversampling of the oldest old. we identified 18 common diseases and five geriatric syndromes (dizziness, incontinence, skin ulcers, falls and fractures) from Read codes. We counted medications prescribed ≥1 time in all quarters of studied years. there were major increases in recorded prevalence of most conditions in the 85+ group, especially chronic kidney disease (stages 3-5: prevalence trends were less marked. In the 85+ age group the proportion receiving no chronically prescribed medications fell from 29.6 to 13.6%, while the proportion on ≥3 rose from 44.6 to 66.2%. The proportion of 85+ year olds with ≥1 hospital admissions per year rose from 27.6 to 35.4%. there has been a dramatic increase in the medicalisation of the oldest old, evident in increased diagnosis (likely partly due to better record keeping) but also increased prescribing and hospitalisation. Diagnostic trends especially for chronic kidney disease may raise concerns about overdiagnosis. These findings provide new urgency to questions about the appropriateness of multiple diagnostic labelling. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  9. A Population-Based Study of Cholesterol Measurements in the Oldest Old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gils, Charlotte; Christensen, Kaare; Nybo, Mads

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effect of lipid-lowering treatment in the oldest old is a matter of debate as there is no unequivocal evidence of statins being beneficial among the oldest. The need for cholesterol measurements is therefore also questionable, but the frequency of cholesterol measurements in the oldest......+ living on the Island of Funen. The development in trends for cholesterol measurements was analysed in age groups of 5-years interval using linear regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 30,424 persons with a cholesterol measurement entered the study. The total number of cholesterol measurements...... increased by 246% during the observation period. The percentage of people having a cholesterol measurement increased significantly (p

  10. Periodontal disease in the oldest-old living in Kungsholmen, Sweden: findings from the KEOHS project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Russell, Stefanie Luise; Avlund, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: The Kungsholmen Elders Oral Health Study evaluated the oral health status of generally healthy, community-dwelling persons aged 80 years and over living in Stockholm, Sweden. This paper reports periodontal disease findings and evaluates the distribution by sociodemographic factors. METHODS......-analysis of the differences in proportion of participants with SP revealed that the difference by sex also increased by age. CONCLUSIONS: These findings document the substantial and ongoing impact of periodontal disease in a sample of generally healthy, community dwelling older adults and underscore the importance...... of continued periodontal disease prevention and treatment in the oldest-old....

  11. Trends in chronic diseases among the oldest-old in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Jane K. L.; Tey, Nai Peng

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the prevalence of several chronic diseases among the oldest-old in China. Data came from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) of 4 waves collected in 2002, 2005, 2008 and 2011, filtered to include individuals aged 80 and above. Bivariate and logistic regression methods were used in analyses. There were significant differences in the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, chronic heart diseases, stroke/cardiovascular diseases, cancer and dementia, which generally saw an increase across the 4 waves. By contrast, prevalence of Parkinson was not significantly different over the 4 waves. Logistic regression results revealed that since 2002, hypertension had been significantly higher in subsequent waves in 2005, 2008 and 2011. Stroke had also shown significant increase in the 2008 and 2011 waves. Other chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, cancer, Parkinson and dementia were only found to be significantly higher in the recent 2011 wave compared to the initial wave in 2002. Arthritis, which initially increased in earlier waves, had dropped significantly in the recent 2011 wave. However, respiratory conditions had been significantly lower since the initial wave in 2002. Generally, findings confirmed the increasing trend of chronic morbidity in recent years among the oldest-old in China. Long life expectancy coupled with chronic morbidity in very late age will duly have societal and economic implications.

  12. Thrombolytic treatment in the oldest-old patient with acute ischemic stroke: an update on current evidence

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    Fabiola Maioli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of ischemic stroke rises exponentially with age, with a steep increase in the age interval between 75 and 85 years. Thrombolytic therapy restores cerebral blood flow in patients with acute ischemic stroke of any etiology by using drugs that dissolve blood clots. Infusion for 1 h of alteplase at the dose of 0.9 mg/kg within 3 h of the start of the symptoms is associated to a 30% increase in the likelihood of gaining a favorable outcome with respect to placebo. There is strong evidence that selected patients with ischemic stroke may benefit from intravenous thrombolysis when treated within 3 h. The aim of the study was to evaluate available evidence for the efficacy and safety of thrombolytic therapy in patients with ischemic stroke aged 80 years and over. Compared to younger stroke patients treated with thrombolytic therapy, those aged 80 years and over have higher acute mortality due to symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. However, functional outcome at six months is significantly better for over-80-year-olds than younger patients. There is a need for screening tools that take into account pre-stroke functional and cognitive status that are able to identify those over-80-year-old patients with ischemic stroke who can most benefit from thrombolytic treatment. Available evidence supports further recruitment of oldest-old patients into ongoing trials of thrombolysis.

  13. Genetic and environmental influences on self-reported reduced hearing in the old and oldest old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; Frederiksen, H; Hoffman, H J

    2001-01-01

    effects. Structural-equation analyses revealed a substantial heritability for self-reported reduced hearing of 40% (95% CI = 19-53%). The remaining variation could be attributed to individuals' nonfamilial environments. CONCLUSION: We found that genetic factors play an important role in self......-reported reduced hearing in both men and women age 70 and older. Because self-reports of reduced hearing involve misclassification, this estimate of the genetic influence on hearing disabilities is probably conservative. Hence, genetic and environmental factors play a substantial role in reduced hearing among......OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present twin study was to estimate the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors in variation in self-reported reduced hearing among the old and the oldest old. DESIGN: Self-reported hearing abilities of older twins assessed at intake interview...

  14. Super DNAging-New insights into DNA integrity, genome stability and telomeres in the oldest old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzke, Bernhard; Neubauer, Oliver; Wagner, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Reductions in DNA integrity, genome stability, and telomere length are strongly associated with the aging process, age-related diseases as well as the age-related loss of muscle mass. However, in people reaching an age far beyond their statistical life expectancy the prevalence of diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes or dementia, is much lower compared to "averagely" aged humans. These inverse observations in nonagenarians (90-99 years), centenarians (100-109 years) and super-centenarians (110 years and older) require a closer look into dynamics underlying DNA damage within the oldest old of our society. Available data indicate improved DNA repair and antioxidant defense mechanisms in "super old" humans, which are comparable with much younger cohorts. Partly as a result of these enhanced endogenous repair and protective mechanisms, the oldest old humans appear to cope better with risk factors for DNA damage over their lifetime compared to subjects whose lifespan coincides with the statistical life expectancy. This model is supported by study results demonstrating superior chromosomal stability, telomere dynamics and DNA integrity in "successful agers". There is also compelling evidence suggesting that life-style related factors including regular physical activity, a well-balanced diet and minimized psycho-social stress can reduce DNA damage and improve chromosomal stability. The most conclusive picture that emerges from reviewing the literature is that reaching "super old" age appears to be primarily determined by hereditary/genetic factors, while a healthy lifestyle additionally contributes to achieving the individual maximum lifespan in humans. More research is required in this rapidly growing population of super old people. In particular, there is need for more comprehensive investigations including short- and long-term lifestyle interventions as well as investigations focusing on the mechanisms causing DNA damage, mutations, and telomere

  15. Presbyequilibrium in the oldest old, a combination of vestibular, oculomotor and postural deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuunainen, Eeva; Poe, Dennis; Jäntti, Pirkko; Varpa, Kirsi; Rasku, Jyrki; Toppila, Esko; Pyykkö, Ilmari

    2011-01-01

    Dizziness, impaired balance and fear of falling are common complaints in the elderly. We evaluated the association of vestibular symptoms with vestibular findings in the elderly by posturography and video-oculography (VOG). We studied 38 oldest old subjects (≥ 85 yrs, mean age 89) living in a residential home. Vestibular symptoms were taken with a structured questionnaire, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) was scored and any falls were recorded over a period of 12 months. Posturography was measured with a force platform and eye movements were measured by video-oculography. In the majority of the elderly, vestibular abnormalities were found, such as reduced vestibulo-ocular reflex gain 6/38, spontaneous nystagmus 5/38, gaze deviation nystagmus 5/38, head shaking nystagmus 9/38, pathologic head thrust test 10/38, and positional nystagmus 17/38. Posturography demonstrated two major findings: the body support area was limited and the use of vision for postural control was reduced. In principal component analysis of the vertigo, four major factors described elements of failure in the vestibular and other systems important to maintenance of balance: episodic vertigo, postural instability, multisystem failure (frail) and presyncopal imbalance. These four factors were associated in different degrees to vestibular abnormalities and falls. During the follow-up period, in 19 elderly (19/38), one or more falls were recorded. Progressive loss of balance in the aged, or "presbyequilibrium," is a complex and incompletely understood process involving vestibular, oculomotor, visual acuity, proprioception, motor, organ system and metabolic weaknesses and disorders. These factors provide a potential basis for streamlining diagnostic evaluations and aiding in planning for effective therapy. In oldest old, these problems are magnified, increasing the need for additional expertise in their care, which may be met by training specialized healthcare staff.

  16. Lipid and Alzheimer's disease genes associated with healthy aging and longevity in healthy oldest-old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindale, Lauren C; Leach, Stephen; Spinelli, John J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R

    2017-03-28

    Several studies have found that long-lived individuals do not appear to carry lower numbers of common disease-associated variants than ordinary people; it has been hypothesized that they may instead carry protective variants. An intriguing type of protective variant is buffering variants that protect against variants that have deleterious effects. We genotyped 18 variants in 15 genes related to longevity or healthy aging that had been previously reported as having a gene-gene interaction or buffering effect. We compared a group of 446 healthy oldest-old 'Super-Seniors' (individuals 85 or older who have never been diagnosed with cancer, cardiovascular disease, dementia, diabetes or major pulmonary disease) to 421 random population-based midlife controls. Cases and controls were of European ancestry. Association tests of individual SNPs showed that Super-Seniors were less likely than controls to carry an APOEε4 allele or a haptoglobin HP2 allele. Interactions between APOE/FOXO3, APOE/CRYL1, and LPA/CRYL1 did not remain significant after multiple testing correction. In a network analysis of the candidate genes, lipid and cholesterol metabolism was a common theme. APOE, HP, and CRYL1 have all been associated with Alzheimer's Disease, the pathology of which involves lipid and cholesterol pathways. Age-related changes in lipid and cholesterol maintenance, particularly in the brain, may be central to healthy aging and longevity.

  17. Suicide in older adults: differences between the young-old, middle-old, and oldest old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Yu Wen; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2017-08-01

    In the limited research into suicides in older adults, they have been treated as a homogenous group without distinguishing between different age groups. This study aimed to compare differences in sociodemographic variables, recent life events, and mental and physical illnesses between three age groups within older adults who died by suicide: young-old (65-74 years), middle-old (75-84 years), and oldest old (85 years and over) in Queensland, Australia, during the years 2000-2012 (N = 978). The Queensland Suicide Register was utilized for the analysis. Annual suicide rates were calculated. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals and χ 2 tests for trend were calculated to examine differences between the three groups. Suicide rates were increasing with age for males, but not for females. Hanging and firearms were the predominant methods of suicides. However, suffocation by plastic bag and drowning as suicide methods increased with age, in contrast firearms and explosives decreased with age. Overall, psychiatric problems, suicidal behavior, legal and financial stressors, and relationship problems decreased significantly with age, meanwhile physical conditions and bereavement increased with age. Suicide across older adulthood is not a homogenous phenomenon. Our findings showed significant differences in the prevalence of potential risk factors within the three different age groups considered. To prevent suicide in older adults would require targeting specific factors for each subgroup while using holistic and comprehensive approaches.

  18. Multifactorial assessment and targeted intervention to reduce falls among the oldest-old: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrer A

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Assumpta Ferrer,1 Francesc Formiga,2,3 Héctor Sanz,4 Oscar J de Vries,5 Teresa Badia,6 Ramón Pujol2,3 On behalf of the OCTABAIX Study Group 1Primary Healthcare Centre "El Plà" CAP-I, Sant Feliu de Llobregat, 2Geriatric Unit, Internal Medicine Service, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, 3Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute, IDIBELL, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, 4Support Research Unit, Primary Health Department Costa Ponent, IDIAP Jordi Gol, Barcelona, Spain; 5Department of Internal Medicine, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 6Primary Healthcare Centre Martorell, Barcelona, Spain Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a multifactorial intervention to reduce falls among the oldest-old people, including individuals with cognitive impairment or comorbidities. Methods: A randomized, single-blind, parallel-group clinical trial was conducted from January 2009 to December 2010 in seven primary health care centers in Baix Llobregat (Barcelona. Of 696 referred people who were born in 1924, 328 were randomized to an intervention group or a control group. The intervention model used an algorithm and was multifaceted for both patients and their primary care providers. Primary outcomes were risk of falling and time until falls. Data analyses were by intention-to-treat. Results: Sixty-five (39.6% subjects in the intervention group and 48 (29.3% in the control group fell during follow-up. The difference in the risk of falls was not significant (relative risk 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.94–1.75. Cox regression models with time from randomization to the first fall were not significant. Cox models for recurrent falls showed that intervention had a negative effect (hazard ratio [HR] 1.46, 95% CI 1.03–2.09 and that functional impairment (HR 1.42, 95% CI 0.97–2.12, previous falls (HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.74–1.60, and cognitive impairment (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.72–1.60 had no effect on the

  19. Preditores cardiovasculares da mortalidade em idosos longevos Cardiovascular mortality predictors in the oldest old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Pedro Marafon

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é investigar a associação entre fatores de risco e morbidade cardiovascular com mortalidade em idosos longevos. Noventa e um por cento da população com idade ³ 80 anos (n = 193 de Veranópolis, Rio Grande do Sul, no ano de 1996, foram avaliados para a detecção de fatores de risco e morbidade cardiovascular. Acompanhou-se esta população durante 3 anos e registraram-se os casos de óbitos. Os dados foram analisados por análise univariada e multivariada por regressão logística. Ocorreram 41 (21% óbitos (20 homens e 21 mulheres. As mortes foram distribuídas ao longo do período estudado como se segue: 3 (7,3% no primeiro ano, 8 (19,5% no segundo ano e 30 (73,2% no terceiro ano. Observou-se associação significativa de óbito com as seguintes características: pressão arterial diastólica (PAD, colesterol total (CT, LDL-C, ApoA-I, acidente vascular encefálico prévio (AVC, bloqueio do ramo direito (BRD e hipertrofia ventricular esquerda (HVE ao ECG. Os sobreviventes apresentaram níveis mais elevados de PAD, CT, LDL-C e ApoA-I. AVC, BRD e HVE. A análise multivariada mostrou que as variáveis eram fatores de risco independentes. Os fatores de risco cardiovascular parecem atuar de forma diferenciada em longevos.This article investigates the association between cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the oldest old. In 1996, 91% of the population ³ 80 years of age from Veranópolis, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, were evaluated to detect cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity. The sample was followed up for three years, with the assessment of deaths. The analysis was done using univariate statistics and multivariate logistic regression analysis. There were 41 deaths (21%: 20 men and 21 women. Deaths were distributed by year as follow: 03 (7.3% in the first year, 08 (19.5% in the second, and 30 (73.2% in the third. There was a significant and independent association

  20. Cardiac structure and function predicts functional decline in the oldest old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, David; Jacobs, Jeremy M; Lande-Stessman, Irit; Gilon, Dan; Stessman, Jochanan

    2018-02-01

    Background This study examined the association between cardiac structure and function and the deterioration in activities of daily living (ADLs) in an age-homogenous, community-dwelling population of patients born in 1920-1921 over a five-year follow-up period. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Methods Patients were recruited from the Jerusalem Longitudinal Cohort Study, which has followed an age-homogenous cohort of Jerusalem residents born in 1920-1921. Patients underwent home echocardiography and were followed up for five years. Dependence was defined as needing assistance with one or more basic ADL. Standard echocardiographic assessment of cardiac structure and function, including systolic and diastolic function, was performed. Reassessment of ADLs was performed at the five-year follow-up. Results A total of 459 patients were included in the study. Of these, 362 (79%) showed a deterioration in at least one ADL at follow-up. Patients with functional deterioration had a significantly higher left ventricular mass index and left atrial volume with a lower ejection fraction. There was no significant difference between the diastolic parameters the groups in examined. When the data were examined categorically, a significantly larger percentage of patients with functional decline had an abnormal left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular hypertrophy. The association between left ventricular mass index and functional decline remained significant in all multivariate models. Conclusions In this cohort of the oldest old, an elevated left ventricular mass index, higher left atrial volumes and systolic, but not diastolic dysfunction, were predictive of functional disability.

  1. Burden of cardiovascular disease across 29 countries and GPs' decision to treat hypertension in oldest-old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Sven; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Burman, Robert A; Collins, Claire; Kitanovska, Biljana Gerasimovska; Gintere, Sandra; Gómez Bravo, Raquel; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Iftode, Claudia; Johansen, Kasper L; Kerse, Ngaire; Koskela, Tuomas H; Peštić, Sanda Kreitmayer; Kurpas, Donata; Mallen, Christian D; Maisonneuve, Hubert; Merlo, Christoph; Mueller, Yolanda; Muth, Christiane; Ornelas, Rafael H; Šter, Marija Petek; Petrazzuoli, Ferdinando; Rosemann, Thomas; Sattler, Martin; Švadlenková, Zuzana; Tatsioni, Athina; Thulesius, Hans; Tkachenko, Victoria; Torzsa, Peter; Tsopra, Rosy; Tuz, Canan; Verschoor, Marjolein; Viegas, Rita P A; Vinker, Shlomo; de Waal, Margot W M; Zeller, Andreas; Rodondi, Nicolas; Poortvliet, Rosalinde K E

    2018-03-01

    We previously found large variations in general practitioner (GP) hypertension treatment probability in oldest-old (>80 years) between countries. We wanted to explore whether differences in country-specific cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden and life expectancy could explain the differences. This is a survey study using case-vignettes of oldest-old patients with different comorbidities and blood pressure levels. An ecological multilevel model analysis was performed. GP respondents from European General Practice Research Network (EGPRN) countries, Brazil and New Zeeland. This study included 2543 GPs from 29 countries. GP treatment probability to start or not start antihypertensive treatment based on responses to case-vignettes; either low (GPs (76%) responding to all vignettes, 787 (40%) scored high treatment probability and 1160 (60%) scored low. GPs in high CVD burden countries had higher odds of treatment probability (OR 3.70; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.00-4.57); in countries with low life expectancy at 60, CVD was associated with high treatment probability (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.12-4.25); but not in countries with high life expectancy (OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.56-1.98). GPs' choice to treat/not treat hypertension in oldest-old was explained by differences in country-specific health characteristics. GPs in countries with high CVD burden and low life expectancy at age 60 were most likely to treat hypertension in oldest-old. Key Points  • General practitioners (GPs) are in a clinical dilemma when deciding whether (or not) to treat hypertension in the oldest-old (>80 years of age).  • In this study including 1947 GPs from 29 countries, we found that a high country-specific cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden (i.e. myocardial infarction and/or stroke) was associated with a higher GP treatment probability in patients aged >80 years.  • However, the association was modified by country-specific life expectancy at age 60. While there was a positive

  2. Burden of cardiovascular disease across 29 countries and GPs’ decision to treat hypertension in oldest-old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Sven; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Burman, Robert A.; Collins, Claire; Kitanovska, Biljana Gerasimovska; Gintere, Sandra; Gómez Bravo, Raquel; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Iftode, Claudia; Johansen, Kasper L.; Kerse, Ngaire; Koskela, Tuomas H.; Peštić, Sanda Kreitmayer; Kurpas, Donata; Mallen, Christian D.; Maisonneuve, Hubert; Merlo, Christoph; Mueller, Yolanda; Muth, Christiane; Ornelas, Rafael H.; Šter, Marija Petek; Petrazzuoli, Ferdinando; Rosemann, Thomas; Sattler, Martin; Švadlenková, Zuzana; Tatsioni, Athina; Thulesius, Hans; Tkachenko, Victoria; Torzsa, Peter; Tsopra, Rosy; Tuz, Canan; Verschoor, Marjolein; Viegas, Rita P. A.; Vinker, Shlomo; de Waal, Margot W. M.; Zeller, Andreas; Rodondi, Nicolas; Poortvliet, Rosalinde K. E.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives We previously found large variations in general practitioner (GP) hypertension treatment probability in oldest-old (>80 years) between countries. We wanted to explore whether differences in country-specific cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden and life expectancy could explain the differences. Design This is a survey study using case-vignettes of oldest-old patients with different comorbidities and blood pressure levels. An ecological multilevel model analysis was performed. Setting GP respondents from European General Practice Research Network (EGPRN) countries, Brazil and New Zeeland. Subjects This study included 2543 GPs from 29 countries. Main outcome measures GP treatment probability to start or not start antihypertensive treatment based on responses to case-vignettes; either low (80 years of age).  • In this study including 1947 GPs from 29 countries, we found that a high country-specific cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden (i.e. myocardial infarction and/or stroke) was associated with a higher GP treatment probability in patients aged >80 years.  • However, the association was modified by country-specific life expectancy at age 60. While there was a positive association for GPs in countries with a low life expectancy at age 60, there was no association in countries with a high life expectancy at age 60.  • These findings help explaining some of the large variation seen in the decision as to whether or not to treat hypertension in the oldest-old. PMID:29366388

  3. Food Habits, Lifestyle Factors and Mortality among Oldest Old Chinese: The Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zumin; Zhang, Tuohong; Byles, Julie; Martin, Sean; Avery, Jodie C; Taylor, Anne W

    2015-09-09

    There are few studies reporting the association between lifestyle and mortality among the oldest old in developing countries. We examined the association between food habits, lifestyle factors and all-cause mortality in the oldest old (≥80 years) using data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). In 1998/99, 8959 participants aged 80 years and older took part in the baseline survey. Follow-up surveys were conducted every two to three years until 2011. Food habits were assessed using an in-person interview. Deaths were ascertained from family members during follow-up. Cox and Laplace regression were used to assess the association between food habits, lifestyle factors and mortality risk. There were 6626 deaths during 31,926 person-years of follow-up. Type of staple food (rice or wheat) was not associated with mortality. Daily fruit and vegetable intake was inversely associated with a higher mortality risk (hazard ratios (HRs): 0.85 (95% CI (confidence interval) 0.77-0.92), and 0.74 (0.66-0.83) for daily intake of fruit and vegetables, respectively). There was a positive association between intake of salt-preserved vegetables and mortality risk (consumers had about 10% increase of HR for mortality). Fruit and vegetable consumption were inversely, while intake of salt-preserved vegetables positively, associated with mortality risk among the oldest old. Undertaking physical activity is beneficial for the prevention of premature death.

  4. Food Habits, Lifestyle Factors and Mortality among Oldest Old Chinese: The Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zumin Shi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies reporting the association between lifestyle and mortality among the oldest old in developing countries. We examined the association between food habits, lifestyle factors and all-cause mortality in the oldest old (≥80 years using data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS. In 1998/99, 8959 participants aged 80 years and older took part in the baseline survey. Follow-up surveys were conducted every two to three years until 2011. Food habits were assessed using an in-person interview. Deaths were ascertained from family members during follow-up. Cox and Laplace regression were used to assess the association between food habits, lifestyle factors and mortality risk. There were 6626 deaths during 31,926 person-years of follow-up. Type of staple food (rice or wheat was not associated with mortality. Daily fruit and vegetable intake was inversely associated with a higher mortality risk (hazard ratios (HRs: 0.85 (95% CI (confidence interval 0.77–0.92, and 0.74 (0.66–0.83 for daily intake of fruit and vegetables, respectively. There was a positive association between intake of salt-preserved vegetables and mortality risk (consumers had about 10% increase of HR for mortality. Fruit and vegetable consumption were inversely, while intake of salt-preserved vegetables positively, associated with mortality risk among the oldest old. Undertaking physical activity is beneficial for the prevention of premature death.

  5. Delirium is a strong risk factor for dementia in the oldest-old: a population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz Terrera, Graciela; Keage, Hannah; Rahkonen, Terhi; Oinas, Minna; Matthews, Fiona E.; Cunningham, Colm; Polvikoski, Tuomo; Sulkava, Raimo; MacLullich, Alasdair M. J.; Brayne, Carol

    2012-01-01

    .1–3.5, P = 0.02), but in those with a history of delirium, there was no significant relationship (odds ratio 1.2, 95% confidence interval 0.2–6.7, P = 0.85). This trend for odds ratios to be closer to unity in the delirium and dementia group was observed for neuritic amyloid, apolipoprotein ε status, presence of infarcts, α-synucleinopathy and neuronal loss in substantia nigra. These findings are the first to demonstrate in a true population study that delirium is a strong risk factor for incident dementia and cognitive decline in the oldest-old. However, in this study, the relationship did not appear to be mediated by classical neuropathologies associated with dementia. PMID:22879644

  6. Revisiting the association of blood pressure with mortality in oldest old people in China: community based, longitudinal prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yue-Bin; Gao, Xiang; Yin, Zhao-Xue; Chen, Hua-Shuai; Luo, Jie-Si; Brasher, Melanie Sereny; Kraus, Virginia Byers; Li, Tian-Tian; Zeng, Yi

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the associations of blood pressure with all cause mortality and cause specific mortality at three years among oldest old people in China. Design Community based, longitudinal prospective study. Setting 2011 and 2014 waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey, conducted in 22 Chinese provinces. Participants 4658 oldest old individuals (mean age 92.1 years). Main outcome measures All cause mortality and cause specific mortality assessed at three year follow-up. Results 1997 deaths were recorded at three year follow-up. U shaped associations of mortality with systolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure were identified; values of 143.5 mm Hg, 101 mm Hg, and 66 mm Hg conferred the minimum mortality risk, respectively. After adjustment for covariates, the U shaped association remained only for systolic blood pressure (minimum mortality risk at 129 mm Hg). Compared with a systolic blood pressure value of 129 mm Hg, risk of all cause mortality decreased for values lower than 107 mm Hg (from 1.47 (95% confidence interval 1.01 to 2.17) to 1.08 (1.01 to 1.17)), and increased for values greater than 154 mm Hg (from 1.08 (1.01 to 1.17) to 1.27 (1.02 to 1.58)). In the cause specific analysis, compared with a middle range of systolic blood pressure (107-154 mm Hg), higher values (>154 mm Hg) were associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.12 to 2.02)); lower values (blood pressure and all cause mortality at three years among oldest old people in China. This association could be explained by the finding that higher systolic blood pressure predicted a higher risk of death from cardiovascular disease, and that lower systolic blood pressure predicted a higher risk of death from non-cardiovascular causes. These results emphasise the importance of revisiting blood pressure management or establishing specific guidelines for management among oldest

  7. Information and Communication Technology Use Is Related to Higher Well-Being Among the Oldest-Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Tamara; Reed, Andrew E; Carr, Dawn C

    2017-09-01

    Older adults often prioritize socially meaningful goals over informational goals. Thus, we predicted that using information and communication technology (ICT) in service of socially meaningful versus informational goals relates to higher well-being among the oldest-old. We surveyed 445 adults aged 80+ (mean = 84, range = 80-93; 64% female; 26% non-White) online or via telephone. Participants reported motivations for ICT use (connect with others, learn new information) and rated their psychological and physical well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, loneliness, goal attainment, subjective health, functional limitations). We conducted regression and mediation analyses to test our hypothesis. Participants used ICT more to connect with friends/family (M = 3.66, SD = 1.28) than to learn information (M = 2.61, SD = 1.44), p relationships between ICT use and psychological well-being, whereas informational motivations mediated the relationships between ICT use and physical well-being. Older adults aged 80+ use ICT less than other generations, but may have much to gain. Using social versus informational technologies may enhance multiple aspects of well-being in different ways during very late life. Highlighting such benefits may increase ICT adoption among the oldest-old. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. No Association between Variation in Longevity Candidate Genes and Aging-related Phenotypes in Oldest-old Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Nygaard, Marianne; Debrabant, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    additional genes repeatedly considered as candidates for human longevity: APOE, APOA4, APOC3, ACE, CETP, HFE, IL6, IL6R, MTHFR, TGFB1, SIRTs 1, 3, 6; and HSPAs 1A, 1L, 14. Altogether, 1,049 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 1,088 oldest-old (age 92-93 years) Danes and analysed......In this study we explored the association between aging-related phenotypes previously reported to predict survival in old age and variation in 77 genes from the DNA repair pathway, 32 genes from the growth hormone 1/ insulin-like growth factor 1/insulin (GH/IGF-1/INS) signalling pathway and 16...... in the relevant phenotype over time (7 years of follow-up) and none of the SNPs could be confirmed in a replication sample of 1,281 oldest-old Danes (age 94-100). Hence, our study does not support association between common variation in the investigated longevity candidate genes and aging-related phenotypes...

  9. Lifetime according to health status among the oldest olds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Petersen, Inge; Jeune, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    ,258 participants (63% of all survivors) in the 1905 Danish cohort survey were interviewed in 1998 and re-assessed in 2000, 2003 and 2005. Lifetime according to self-rated health status, physical independence and being cognitively intact was estimated. Physical independence was defined as the ability to get up from...... a chair or bed, walk around the house and go to the toilet, and being cognitively intact was defined as having a Mini-Mental State Examination score >22. RESULTS: the average lifetime between ages 92 and 100 was 2.7 years for men and 3.3 years for women, of which almost half was in self-rated good health....... The lifetime in physical independence was 2.0 years for men and 2.4 years for women, and both men and women spent an average of 1.1 years in a state of physical independence without cognitive impairment. CONCLUSION: even at ages 92-93, a substantial proportion of the remaining lifetime is spent in reasonably...

  10. How to classify the oldest old according to their health status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cevenini, Elisa; Cotichini, Rodolfo; Stazi, Maria Antonietta

    2013-01-01

    ; Evert et al., 2003; Gondo et al., 2006; Andersen-Ranberg et al., 2001) in 1160 phenotypically fully characterized Italian siblings of 90 years of age and older (90+, mean age: 93 years; age range: 90-106 years) belonging to 552 sib-ships, recruited in Northern, Central and Southern Italy within the EU...... of two basic domains (cognitive, SMMSE; physical, ADL), called "Simple Model of Functional Status" (SMFS), as the most effective proxy to distinguish healthy from not-healthy subjects. This model showed that health status was correlated within sib-ships, suggesting a familial/genetic component....

  11. The effect of hospitalization with medical illnesses on the suicide risk in the oldest old: a population-based register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Vach, Werner; Jeune, Bernhard

    2005-01-01

    -level register data. SETTING: Population-based record linkage. PARTICIPANTS: All persons aged 52 and older living in Denmark during 1996 to 1998 (N=1,684,205). MEASUREMENTS: The studied event is completed suicide. The following time-varying variables are included in the analysis: current age, hospitalization...... been hospitalized during the previous 2 years: 113 per 100,000 versus 80 per 100,000 in the general population of men aged 80 and older. Also, the oldest-old women with a history of hospitalization had a higher suicide rate than their peer group. Nevertheless, the oldest old experienced a lower...... with no hospitalization, although they experience a lower increase in risk after hospitalization than the middle-aged. The increased prevalence of medical illnesses explains a part of the greater suicide risk with age, especially for the oldest old women. Considering that hospitalization with medical illness often...

  12. Functional neuroimaging indicators of successful executive control in the oldest old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosano, C; Aizenstein, H; Cochran, J; Saxton, J; De Kosky, S; Newman, A B; Kuller, L H; Lopez, O L; Carter, C S

    2005-12-01

    Attentional control, motor planning abilities, and executive cognitive functions (ECF) rapidly decline with age. In particular, older adults experience difficulty in manipulating selected motor responses in the presence of conflicting or distracting information. To examine age-related changes in the neural substrates of the attentional and motor planning components of ECF, we assessed the patterns of brain activation in 8 cognitively normal older adults (mean age 81.5) and 20 young individuals (mean age 23.0) while they responded to low and high loads of attentional demands of the Preparing to Overcome Prepotency (POP) task. In the POP task, the selection of one out of two possible motor responses in the presence of increasing attentional task loads determines the accuracy of the performance. Older individuals were slower than young adults (P Brodmann areas 7 and 40), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dLPFC: Brodmann areas 9, 45, and 46) bilaterally. Compared to young individuals, older adults had lower activation in dLPFC (Brodmann areas 9, 45, and 46: P = 0.007, P = 0.043, and P = 0.040) and Brodmann area 7, P = 0.002. Activation in Brodmann areas 40 and ACC was similar in the two groups (P > 0.05). Among older adults, the most successful performers were those who responded to increasing task loads with greater activation in PPC (Brodmann area 40), despite lower dLPFC activation. Older adults who are able to perform executive control tasks as well as young adults, also seem to implement speed-accuracy trade-off strategies which may rely on increased parietal activation.

  13. Six-Month Lower Limb Aerobic Exercise Improves Physical Function in Young-Old, Old-Old, and Oldest-Old Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chaeyoon; Han, Changwan; Sung, Misun; Lee, Chaewon; Kim, Minji; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2017-08-01

    The effect of aerobic exercise on physical function and mental health in various adult age groups (young-old, 65-74; old-old, 75-84; oldest-old, ≥ 85 years) is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the Kohzuki Exercise Program (KEP) on physical function and mental health in these age groups. The KEP consisted of 40-min supervised sessions 3 times per week for 6 months as follows: 5 min of warm-up, 30 min of lower limb aerobic exercise, and 5 min of cool-down. A total of 50 participants (22 young-old, 20 old-old, and 8 oldest-old) who participated in the KEP completed at least 88% of the sessions. In statistical analysis, 3 (group: oldest-old, old-old, young-old) × 2 (time: baseline and after 6 months) analyses of variance were used to determine if there were significant main and interaction effects. Significant interactions were probed using the post-hoc paired t test. The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) score showed significant group × time interactions after 6 months (p = 0.031). In the post-hoc test, oldest-old (p health measures showed group × time interactions at 6-month. Our results suggest that a 6-month KEP led to improved physical function in oldest-old, old-old, and young-old adults. The KEP was effective for oldest-old adults in particular. The KEP exhibits good adherence, making it suitable for a wide age range in society.

  14. Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Statistics of Oldest Old People (>80 Years Living in Ikaria Island: The Ikaria Study

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    Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are places around the world where people live longer and they are active past the age of 100 years, sharing common behavioral characteristics; these places (i.e., Sardinia in Italy, Okinawa in Japan, Loma Linda in California and Nicoya Peninsula in Costa Rica have been named the “Blue Zones”. Recently it was reported that people in Ikaria Island, Greece, have also one of the highest life expectancies in the world, and joined the “Blue Zones”. The aim of this work work was to evaluate various demographic, lifestyle and psychological characteristics of very old (>80 years people participated in Ikaria Study. Methods. During 2009, 1420 people (aged 30+ men and women from Ikaria Island, Greece, were voluntarily enrolled in the study. For this work, 89 males and 98 females over the age of 80 yrs were studied (13% of the sample. Socio-demographic, clinical, psychological and lifestyle characteristics were assessed using standard questionnaires and procedures. Results. A large proportion of the Ikaria Study's sample was over the age of 80; moreover, the percent of people over 90 were much higher than the European population average. The majority of the oldest old participants reported daily physical activities, healthy eating habits, avoidance of smoking, frequent socializing, mid-day naps and extremely low rates of depression. Conclusion. Modifiable risk factors, such as physical activity, diet, smoking cessation and mid-day naps, might depict the “secrets” of the long-livers; these findings suggest that the interaction of environmental, behavioral together with clinical characteristics may determine longevity. This concept must be further explored in order to understand how these factors relate and which are the most important in shaping prolonged life.

  15. Longitudinal Changes in Thyroid Function in the Oldest Old and Survival: The Cardiovascular Health Study All-Stars Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Avantika C.; Arnold, Alice M.; Newman, Anne B.; Bùžková, Petra; Hirsch, Calvin

    2012-01-01

    Context: Data on thyroid function in the oldest old are sparse, and existing studies show conflicting evidence on the relationship between thyroid function and mortality in this age group. Objective: We describe longitudinal changes in thyroid function in a cohort of elderly individuals and determine the relationship between thyroid function and mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: Eight hundred forty-three participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study All Stars Study who were not taking thyroid medications and had thyroid function testing in 2005–2006 (mean age 85 yr). Main Outcome Measure: Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free T4 (FT4), total T3, and thyroid peroxidase antibody status were measured in 1992–1993 and 2005–2006. Deaths were ascertained through February 2011. Results: There was a statistically significant 13% increase in TSH, 1.7% increase in FT4, and 13% decrease in total T3 over the 13-yr period. Two hundred eighty-seven deaths occurred over a median follow-up of 5.1 yr. There was no association between subclinical hypothyroidism[hazard ratio (HR) 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66–1.43], TSH level (HR per milliunits per liter 0.94, 95% CI 0.88–1.01), or persistent thyroid peroxidase antibody positivity (HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.62–1.92), and death. However, FT4 was positively associated with death (HR per nanograms per deciliter 2.57, 95% CI 1.32–5.02). Conclusions: TSH increased over time in these older individuals. This elevation was not associated with increased or decreased mortality, although higher FT4 levels were associated with death. These findings raise concern for treatment of mild elevations of TSH in advanced age. Further studies are needed to determine the potential benefit of treating age-related changes in thyroid function. PMID:22879629

  16. Associations between functional ability and life satisfaction in the oldest old: results from the longitudinal population study Good Aging in Skåne

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    Enkvist Å

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Åsa Enkvist, Henrik Ekström, Sölve ElmståhlDepartment of Health Sciences, Lund University, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö, SwedenObjectives: To describe change in functional ability in the oldest-old population during 3 years and examine its relation to life satisfaction (LS. A total of 681 individuals aged 78 and older from the population-based study Good Aging in Skåne took part.Methods: Functional ability was assessed using Sonn and Åsberg's Activities of Daily Living (ADL scale and related to LS assessed by Neugarten et al's Life Satisfaction Index A (LSI-A.Results: Fifty-one percent of 87–93-year-olds reported ADL decline during 3 years. Individuals reporting impaired ADL had a mean LSI-A value of 23.0 compared to 26.4 in those unchanged. ADL decline had a stronger negative effect on LS in the younger group (78–84 years, r = 0.207, P < 0.001. In a multiple regression model, one score's decline in ADL capacity corresponded to 1.5 scores lower LS (P < 0.001.Discussion: Effort put into keeping the oldest old on a high level of functional ability has the potential to maintain the LS of this population.Keywords: life satisfaction, functional ability, longitudinal, oldest old

  17. Resilience, sense of coherence, purpose in life and self-transcendence in relation to perceived physical and mental health among the oldest old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, B; Aléx, L; Jonsén, E; Gustafson, Y; Norberg, A; Lundman, B

    2005-07-01

    Different concepts have been presented which denote driving forces and strengths that contribute to a person's ability to meet and handle adversities, and keep or regain health. The aim of this study, which is a part of The Umeå 85+ study, was to describe resilience, sense of coherence, purpose in life and self-transcendence in relation to perceived physical and mental health in a sample of the oldest old. The study sample consisted of 125 participants 85 years of age or older, who ranked themselves on the Resilience Scale, Sense of Coherence Scale, Purpose in Life Scale and Self-Transcendence Scale and answered the SF-36 Health Survey questionnaire. The findings showed significant correlations between scores on the Resilience Scale, the Sense of Coherence Scale, the Purpose in Life Test, and the Self-Transcendence Scale. Significant correlations were also found between these scales and the SF-36 Mental Health Summary among women but not among men. There was no significant correlation between perceived physical and mental health. The mean values of the different scales showed that the oldest old have the same or higher scores than younger age groups. Regression analyses also revealed sex differences regarding mental health. The conclusions are that, the correlation between scores on the different scales suggests that the scales measure some dimension of inner strength and that the oldest old have this strength at least in the same extent as younger adults. Another conclusion is that the dimensions that constitute mental health differ between women and men.

  18. Looking for the Silver Lining: Benefit Finding after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in Middle-Aged, Older, and Oldest-Old Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Stanko, Katie E.; Cherry, Katie E.; Ryker, Kyle S.; Mughal, Farra; Marks, Loren D.; Brown, Jennifer Silva; Gendusa, Patricia F.; Sullivan, Marisa C.; Bruner, John; Welsh, David A.; Su, L. Joseph; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2015-01-01

    Looking for potentially positive outcomes is one way that people cope with stressful events. In two studies, we examined perceived “silver linings” after the 2005 Hurricanes Katrina and Rita among indirectly affected adults. In Study 1, middle-aged (ages 47–64 years), older (ages 65–89 years), and oldest-old (ages 90–95 years) adults in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS) responded to an open-ended question on perceived silver linings in a longitudinal assessment carried out during the i...

  19. Atheroprotective Properties of Serum IGF-1 in the Carotid and Coronary Territories and Beneficial Role on the Physical Fitness of the Oldest Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova, Claudio; Boullosa, Daniel A; Custódio, Misael R M; Quaglia, Luiz A; Santos, Simone N; Freitas, Wladimir M; Sposito, Andrei C; Nóbrega, Otávio T

    2016-10-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether physiological levels of soluble insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) associate with coronary and carotid atherosclerotic burden and physical fitness in the oldest old by means of a cross-sectional study including 100 community-dwelling individuals with no previous cardiovascular events. Linear correlation was found between IGF-1 and intima-media thickness, number of carotid plaques, and walking speed. Individuals in the upper IGF-1 tertile had smaller right and left intima-media thickness compared with the intermediate and lower tertiles, along with reduced atherosclerotic plaques. Also, walking speed was greater in the upper IGF-1 tertile. On the other hand, a nonlinear correlation was observed between IGF-1 and coronary calcification scores, with the intermediate IGF-1 tertile associated to the lowest scores of calcification and participants with lower circulating levels of IGF-1 showing higher frequency of high-risk morphology plaques. All in all, our report supports a territory-dependent, atherorefractory phenotype in the oldest old carrying middle and/or higher serum levels of IGF-1. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Psychological well-being and metacognition in the fourth age: an explorative study in an Italian oldest old sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastame, Maria Chiara; Penna, Maria Pietronilla

    2014-07-01

    The research largely aimed at exploring the impact of marital status, cognitive efficiency, gender, physical health and sociocultural context on self-rated emotional competence, depression, memory and cognitive measures. Ninety-four healthy adults aged 75-99 were recruited in the Sardinian province of Ogliastra, where a collectivistic culture prevails, and in northern Italy, which in turn is characterized by the prevalence of individualistic cultural traits. Participants were administered self-referent metacognitive efficiency, subjective wellness and depression measures. Sardinian elders self-rated lower levels of depression and cognitive failures and had greater levels of emotional competence. Perceived psychological well-being, metacognitive efficiency and depression seem to be affected by sociocultural context.

  1. The Tokyo Oldest Old Survey on Total Health (TOOTH: A longitudinal cohort study of multidimensional components of health and well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gondo Yasuyuki

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the rapid worldwide increase in the oldest old population, considerable concern has arisen about the social and economic burden of diseases and disability in this age group. Understanding of multidimensional structure of health and its life-course trajectory is an essential prerequisite for effective health care delivery. Therefore, we organized an interdisciplinary research team consisting of geriatricians, dentists, psychologists, sociologists, and epidemiologists to conduct a longitudinal observational study. Methods/Design For the Tokyo Oldest Old Survey on Total Health (TOOTH study, a random sample of inhabitants of the city of Tokyo, aged 85 years or older, was drawn from the basic city registry. The baseline comprehensive assessment consists of an in-home interview, a self-administered questionnaire, and a medical/dental examination. To perform a wide variety of biomedical measurements, including carotid ultrasonography and a detailed dental examination, participants were invited to our study center at Keio University Hospital. For those who were not able to visit the study center, we provided the option of a home-based examination, in which participants were simultaneously visited by a geriatrician and a dentist. Of 2875 eligible individuals, a total of 1152 people were recruited, of which 542 completed both the in-home interview and the medical/dental examination, with 442 completed the in-home interview only, and another 168 completed self or proxy-administered data collection only. Carotid ultrasonography was completed in 458 subjects, which was 99.6% of the clinic visitors (n = 460. Masticatory assessment using a colour-changeable chewing gum was completed in 421 subjects, a 91.5% of the clinic visitors. Discussion Our results demonstrated the feasibility of a new comprehensive study that incorporated non-invasive measurements of subclinical diseases and a detailed dental examination aiming at community

  2. Patient Characteristics Associated With a Successful Response to Nurse-Led Care Programs Targeting the Oldest-Old: A Comparison of Two RCTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleijenberg, Nienke; Imhof, Lorenz; Mahrer-Imhof, Romy; Wallhagen, Margaret I; de Wit, Niek J; Schuurmans, Marieke J

    2017-06-01

    To improve the effectiveness of community-based care programs, especially those targeting the oldest-old population (80+), data are needed that elucidate those factors associated with a successful response to the intervention. Two comparable nurse-led care programs have been evaluated in two large randomized controlled trials (RCTs), one in Switzerland and one in the Netherlands. To identify common patient characteristics that are related to a successful response to proactive nurse-led care, we explored if and to what extent, identical factors were present in both study populations. A secondary data analysis using trial data from the intervention group of both RCTs was conducted. The study sample consisted 461 older adults, 230 from the U-PROFIT trial (the Netherlands) and 231 from the HPC trial (Switzerland). The mean age of the total sample was 85.1 years (SD 3.7). The UPROFIT intervention, delivered by registered nurses, included a frailty assessment and a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) at home followed by an individualized evidence-based care plan, care coordination, and follow-up. The HCP intervention was delivered by advanced practice nurses consisting of four home visits and three phone calls, and was guided by the principles of health promotion, empowerment, partnership, and family-centeredness. A successful response was defined as "stable" or "no decline" in daily functioning at follow-up. Daily functioning was measured with 13 items of activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living. Multivariate logistic regression models were applied to calculate the association between individual characteristics and a successful response. Almost half of the participants in the U-PROFIT trial (50.9%), and two-thirds (65.7%) of the participants in the HCP trial had a successful response at follow-up. Fewer comorbidities and a better self-rated health had the strongest predictive value for benefiting from the intervention (OR = 0.83 [95

  3. Differential diagnosis for cognitive decline in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive decline has a spectrum of presentations, which manifest from normality as part of senility to the established form of various neurodegenerative illnesses causing dementia. Understanding these various differential diagnoses is of great clinical significance as they have different management and interventional strategies. The neuropsychological deficits which are identified should follow known neuropathological disease patterns that helps in distinguishing different types of cognitive impairment to established dementia. It is important to look at different cognitive impairment in elderly with core diagnostic sense to define severity, type of cognitive impairments, identifying patients need for accommodation or adaptation, associated risks, effectiveness of therapies and predict mortality. This would help clinicians to identify and plan management based on individual needs in cases with variable cognitive impairment.

  4. Brain Signal Variability Differentially Affects Cognitive Flexibility and Cognitive Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster-Genç, Diana J N; Ueltzhöffer, Kai; Fiebach, Christian J

    2016-04-06

    Recent research yielded the intriguing conclusion that, in healthy adults, higher levels of variability in neuronal processes are beneficial for cognitive functioning. Beneficial effects of variability in neuronal processing can also be inferred from neurocomputational theories of working memory, albeit this holds only for tasks requiring cognitive flexibility. However, cognitive stability, i.e., the ability to maintain a task goal in the face of irrelevant distractors, should suffer under high levels of brain signal variability. To directly test this prediction, we studied both behavioral and brain signal variability during cognitive flexibility (i.e., task switching) and cognitive stability (i.e., distractor inhibition) in a sample of healthy human subjects and developed an efficient and easy-to-implement analysis approach to assess BOLD-signal variability in event-related fMRI task paradigms. Results show a general positive effect of neural variability on task performance as assessed by accuracy measures. However, higher levels of BOLD-signal variability in the left inferior frontal junction area result in reduced error rate costs during task switching and thus facilitate cognitive flexibility. In contrast, variability in the same area has a detrimental effect on cognitive stability, as shown in a negative effect of variability on response time costs during distractor inhibition. This pattern was mirrored at the behavioral level, with higher behavioral variability predicting better task switching but worse distractor inhibition performance. Our data extend previous results on brain signal variability by showing a differential effect of brain signal variability that depends on task context, in line with predictions from computational theories. Recent neuroscientific research showed that the human brain signal is intrinsically variable and suggested that this variability improves performance. Computational models of prefrontal neural networks predict differential

  5. Comparison of procalcitonin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein for the diagnosis of sepsis and septic shock in the oldest old patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmin; Wang, Xiaoting; Zhang, Qing; Xia, Ying; Liu, Dawei

    2017-08-01

    Although the role of serum procalcitonin (PCT) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in the diagnosis of sepsis and septic shock is well studied, it has not been investigated among oldest old patients. The aim of our study is to determine the role of PCT and hs-CRP in the assessment of sepsis and septic shock in this specific group of patients in the ICU. This is a prospective observational study. Patients >85 years of age admitted to the ICU from May 1st, 2016 to February 1st, 2017 were evaluated. Patients were divided into a sepsis and septic shock group(sepsis/SS) and a non-sepsis group. Serum levels of PCT, hs-CRP and the WBC were measured within 12 h of admission. A total of 70 patients aged 85 years and older were enrolled in this study. Fifty patients were labelled as sepsis/SS and the other 20 were labelled non-sepsis. A ROC analysis showed that the area under the curves (AUC) of hs-CRP and PCT for the discrimination of sepsis/SS patients were 0.825 (95% confidence interval[CI]: 0.73-0.92; P sepsis/SS group, 27 patients had sepsis, while the other 23 patients had septic shock. The ROC analysis showed that the AUCs of hs-CRP and PCT for the discrimination of septic shock patients from sepsis patients were 0.751 (95% CI: 0.62-0.88; P = 0.002) and 0.719 (95% CI:0.57-0.86; p = 0.007), respectively. For the oldest old patients, hs-CRP is not inferior to PCT in the diagnosis of sepsis and septic shock.

  6. Gender effect on well-being of the oldest old: a survey of nonagenarians living in Tuscany: the Mugello study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padua, Luca; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Coraci, Daniele; Imbimbo, Isabella; Giordani, Alessandro; Loreti, Claudia; Marra, Camillo; Molino-Lova, Raffaello; Pasquini, Guido; Simonelli, Ilaria; Vannetti, Federica; Macchi, Claudio

    2018-03-01

    The population of industrialized nations is progressively aging, with Italy having one of the most elderly populations in the world. Natural aging may be associated with physical and cognitive impairments, often straining public resources. The present study aims to investigate the influence of gender on wellness of the nonagenarians. We evaluated quality of life among nonagenarians living in the Mugello area, an Italian location with a large population of individuals > 90 years, using the Health Survey Scoring SF-12. The 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale and Basic and Instrumental Activity of Daily Living scales were also assessed. The Mini-Mental State Examination was used to evaluate the cognitive status. In the current survey, women outnumbered men 2.7:1 confirming their higher longevity. However, on the basis of SF-12 scores, nonagenarian women felt worse than men, both physically (mean: women = 41.8 vs men = 44.4, p = 0.004) and mentally (mean: women = 46.7 vs men =48.5, p = 0.034), and their depression rates were higher: considering a General Depression Scale score ≥ 5 as a possible depression status; 37.5% of men reported depression vs. 48.5% of women (p = 0.021). Significant differences were observed also in daily activities, both basic (median: woman = 3 vs men = 5, p women perform better than men in aging, our study confirms data reported in most national and European surveys: women live longer than men, but with poorer quality of life. The current study confirms the phenomenon known as the "male-female health-survival paradox."

  7. General practitioners' views on (long-term) prescription and use of problematic and potentially inappropriate medication for oldest-old patients-A qualitative interview study with GPs (CIM-TRIAD study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohontsch, Nadine Janis; Heser, Kathrin; Löffler, Antje; Haenisch, Britta; Parker, Debora; Luck, Tobias; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Maier, Wolfgang; Jessen, Frank; Scherer, Martin

    2017-02-17

    Potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) is defined as medication with uncertain therapeutic effects and/or potential adverse drug reactions outweighing the clinical benefits. The prescription rate of PIM for oldest-old patients is high despite the existence of lists of PIM (e.g. the PRISCUS list) and efforts to raise awareness. This study aims at identifying general practitioners' views on PIM and aspects affecting the (long-term) use of PIM. As part of the CIM-TRIAD study, we conducted semi-structured, qualitative interviews with 47 general practitioners, discussing 25 patients with and 22 without PIM (according to the PRISCUS list). The interview guideline included generic and patient-specific questions. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. We content analyzed the interviews using deductive and inductive category development. The majority of the general practitioners were not aware of the PRISCUS list. Agents deemed potentially inappropriate from the general practitioners' point of view and the PRISCUS list are not completely superimposable. General practitioners named their criteria to identify appropriate medication for elderly patients (e.g. renal function, cognitive state) and emphasized the importance of monitoring. We identified prescription- (e.g. benzodiazepines on alternative private prescription), medication- (e.g. subjective perception that PIM has no alternative), general practitioner- (e.g. general practitioner relies on specialists), patient- (e.g. "demanding high-user", positive subjective benefit-risk-ratio) and system-related aspects (e.g. specialists lacking holistic view, interface problems) related to the (long term) use of PIM. While the PRISCUS list does not seem to play a decisive role in general practice, general practitioners are well aware of risks associated with PIM. Our study identifies some starting points for a safer handling of PIM, e.g. stronger dissemination of the PRISCUS list, better compensation of

  8. Looking for the Silver Lining: Benefit Finding after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in Middle-Aged, Older, and Oldest-Old Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanko, Katie E; Cherry, Katie E; Ryker, Kyle S; Mughal, Farra; Marks, Loren D; Brown, Jennifer Silva; Gendusa, Patricia F; Sullivan, Marisa C; Bruner, John; Welsh, David A; Su, L Joseph; Jazwinski, S Michal

    2015-09-01

    Looking for potentially positive outcomes is one way that people cope with stressful events. In two studies, we examined perceived "silver linings" after the 2005 Hurricanes Katrina and Rita among indirectly affected adults. In Study 1, middle-aged (ages 47-64 years), older (ages 65-89 years), and oldest-old (ages 90-95 years) adults in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS) responded to an open-ended question on perceived silver linings in a longitudinal assessment carried out during the immediate impact (1 to 4 months after landfall) and post-disaster recovery phase (6 to 14 months post-storm). Qualitative grounded theory methods were employed to analyze these narrative data. Team-based coding yielded three core themes: (1) learning experience and better preparedness for future disasters, (2) having improved cities (Baton Rouge and New Orleans), and (3) an increase in "Good Samaritan" acts such as strangers helping one another. Responses were similar across age groups, although older adults were the least likely to report positive outcomes. Study 2 was a conceptual replication using a different sample of adults (ages 31 to 82 years) tested at least five years after the storms. A learning experience and preparedness core theme replicated Study 1's findings while improved social cohesion amongst family and friends emerged as a new core theme in Study 2. These data indicate that identifying lessons learned and potentially positive outcomes are psychological reactions that may facilitate post-disaster coping and foster resilience for indirectly affected adults in the years after disaster.

  9. [The world of the oldest old: is the effectiveness of an intervention measurable? Geriatric occupational therapy program created by a group of nurses as described by Paola D'Ovidio and Francesca Perego].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A group of women who assumed the role of providing an integration of the routine care of a nursing home through the activation of various laboratories (from writing, to painting, to manual activities, to music), report on the criteria and the methodologies of their intervention, as well as the results obtained, over a period of three years, by giving a central place to the testimony of the "oldest old" population. The narrative of this experience is proposed not only as a strategy which can be reproduced but also as a methodology of evaluation for a setting which could be hardly assessed with standardized instruments based on quantitative rules and scores.

  10. Brain signal variability differentially affects cognitive flexibility and cognitive stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armbruster-Genç, D.J.N.; Ültzhöffer, K.; Fiebach, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research yielded the intriguing conclusion that, in healthy adults, higher levels of variability in neuronal processes are beneficial for cognitive functioning. Beneficial effects of variability in neuronal processing can also be inferred from neurocomputational theories of working memory,

  11. An experimental-differential investigation of cognitive complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive complexity as defined by differential and experimental traditions was explored to investigate the theoretical advantage and utility of relational complexity (RC theory as a common framework for studying fluid cognitive functions. RC theory provides a domain general account of processing demand as a function of task complexity. In total, 142 participants completed two tasks in which RC was manipulated, and two tasks entailing manipulations of complexity derived from the differential psychology literature. A series of analyses indicated that, as expected, task manipulations influenced item difficulty. However, comparable changes in a psychometric index of complexity were not consistently observed. Active maintenance of information across multiple steps of the problem solving process, which entails strategic coordination of storage and processing that cannot be modelled under the RC framework was found to be an important component of cognitive complexity.

  12. Lower digit symbol substitution score in the oldest old is related to magnetization transfer and diffusion tensor imaging of the white matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay eVenkatraman

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Slowing information processing is common among community-dwelling elderly and it predicts greater mortality and disability risk. Slowing information processing is related to brain macro-structural abnormalities. Specifically, greater global atrophy and greater small vessel disease of the white matter have been associated to slower processing speed. However, community-dwelling elderly with such macro-structural abnormalities can maintain processing speed. The roles of brain micro-structure for slow processing in very old adults living in the community is uncertain, as epidemiological studies relating these brain markers to cognition and in the context of other health characteristics are sparse. Hypothesis: Information processing is cross-sectionally associated with white matter micro-structure independent of overt macro-structural abnormalities and also independent of health related characteristics. Methods: Imaging indices of micro-structure (diffusion tensor imaging, DTI, and magnetization transfer imaging, MTI, macro-structure (white matter hyperintensities, gray matter volume, Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST and health characteristics were measured in 272 elderly (mean age 83 years old, 43% men, 40% Black living in the community. Results: The DTI- and MTI-indices of micro-structure from the normal appearing white matter and not from the normal appearing gray matter were associated with DSST score independent of white matter hyperintensities and gray matter volumes. Associations were also independent of age, race, gender, mini-mental score, systolic blood pressure, prevalent myocardial infarction. Interpretation: DTI and MTI indices of normal appearing white matter are indicators of information processing speed in this cohort of very old adults living in the community. Since processing slowing is a potent index of mortality and disability, these indices may serve as biomarkers in prevention or treatment trials of disability.

  13. Talking about living and dying with the oldest old: public involvement in a study on end of life care in care homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodman Claire

    2011-11-01

    The contribution of the PIRg supported a successful recruitment process that exceeded response rates of other studies in care homes. It safeguarded residents during the conduct of research on a sensitive topic and helped in validating the interview data gathered by the researchers through the discussion groups facilitated by the PIRg. There were power differentials that persisted and affected PIRg participation. The study has showed the value of developing job descriptions and a more formal means of setting out respective expectations. Future research may wish to elicit the views of focal participants in such studies about the mediation of research by public involvement in research.

  14. Oldest Old, Life Satisfaction, and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Several definitions already exist for the “oldest old” or “fourth age,” which comprises the most elderly of the older generation. One populationbased possibility is to define the transition between the third and fourth age as the chronological age at which 50 %of the birth cohort is no longer ali...

  15. Cognitive capacity limitations and Need for Cognition differentially predict reward-induced cognitive effort expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra, Dasha A; Otto, A Ross

    2018-03-01

    While psychological, economic, and neuroscientific accounts of behavior broadly maintain that people minimize expenditure of cognitive effort, empirical work reveals how reward incentives can mobilize increased cognitive effort expenditure. Recent theories posit that the decision to expend effort is governed, in part, by a cost-benefit tradeoff whereby the potential benefits of mental effort can offset the perceived costs of effort exertion. Taking an individual differences approach, the present study examined whether one's executive function capacity, as measured by Stroop interference, predicts the extent to which reward incentives reduce switch costs in a task-switching paradigm, which indexes additional expenditure of cognitive effort. In accordance with the predictions of a cost-benefit account of effort, we found that a low executive function capacity-and, relatedly, a low intrinsic motivation to expend effort (measured by Need for Cognition)-predicted larger increase in cognitive effort expenditure in response to monetary reward incentives, while individuals with greater executive function capacity-and greater intrinsic motivation to expend effort-were less responsive to reward incentives. These findings suggest that an individual's cost-benefit tradeoff is constrained by the perceived costs of exerting cognitive effort. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Unmet care needs of the oldest old with late-life depression: A comparison of patient, caring relative and general practitioner perceptions - Results of the AgeMooDe study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Janine; Pabst, Alexander; Weyerer, Siegfried; Werle, Jochen; Maier, Wolfgang; Miebach, Lisa; Scherer, Martin; Stark, Anne; Kaduszkiewicz, Hanna; Wiese, Birgitt; Moor, Lilia; Bock, Jens-Oliver; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2016-11-15

    Research showed that the perception of unmet needs may differ between patients, caregivers and professionals. Lacking agreement with regard to unmet needs between raters involved may have a negative impact on treatment of late-life depression. As part of the multicenter German study "Late-life depression in primary care: needs, health care utilization and costs" (AgeMooDe), n=1188 primary care patients aged 75-98 with and without depression, relatives (n=366) and general practitioners (GPs, n=1152) were assessed using the German version of the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE) in order to identify patients' unmet needs from different perspectives. Kappa coefficients were computed to determine level of agreement between perspectives. Penalized likelihood logistic regression models were run in order to assess the association between depression severity and disagreement between perspectives with regard to unmet needs. The prevalence of unmet needs was higher in depressive patients. Kappa coefficients were on average higher for depressive patients ranging from poor to substantial. Severity of depression was significantly associated with disagreement regarding unmet needs between perspectives. The cross-sectional design of the study limits the results. Only a part of caring relatives was able to participate. Perceptions of unmet needs in the oldest old primary care patients suffering from depression strongly differ between raters. Severity of depression seems to exacerbate the discrepancy between involved perspectives. The negative impact that depression severity may have on the perception and assessment of unmet needs requires greater attention by GPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Differential effects of white noise in cognitive and perceptual tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Alicia Herweg

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of noise on higher cognition have recently attracted attention. Hypothesizing an involvement of the mesolimbic dopamine system and its functional interactions with cortical areas, the current study aimed to demonstrate a facilitation of dopamine-dependent attentional and mnemonic functions by externally applying white noise in five behavioral experiments including a total sample of 167 healthy human subjects. During working memory, acoustic white noise impaired accuracy when presented during the maintenance period (experiment 1-3. In a reward based long-term memory task, white noise accelerated perceptual judgments for scene images during encoding but left subsequent recognition memory unaffected (experiment 4. In a modified Posner task (experiment 5, the benefit due to white noise in attentional orienting correlated weakly with reward dependence, a personality trait that has been associated with the dopaminergic system. These results suggest that white noise has no general effect on cognitive functions. Instead, they indicate differential effects on perception and cognition depending on a variety of factors such as task demands and timing of white noise presentation.

  18. Differential effects of white noise in cognitive and perceptual tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herweg, Nora A; Bunzeck, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial effects of noise on higher cognition have recently attracted attention. Hypothesizing an involvement of the mesolimbic dopamine system and its functional interactions with cortical areas, the current study aimed to demonstrate a facilitation of dopamine-dependent attentional and mnemonic functions by externally applying white noise in five behavioral experiments including a total sample of 167 healthy human subjects. During working memory, acoustic white noise impaired accuracy when presented during the maintenance period (Experiments 1-3). In a reward based long-term memory task, white noise accelerated perceptual judgments for scene images during encoding but left subsequent recognition memory unaffected (Experiment 4). In a modified Posner task (Experiment 5), the benefit due to white noise in attentional orienting correlated weakly with reward dependence, a personality trait that has been associated with the dopaminergic system. These results suggest that white noise has no general effect on cognitive functions. Instead, they indicate differential effects on perception and cognition depending on a variety of factors such as task demands and timing of white noise presentation.

  19. Social cognition in the differential diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders and personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijkers, J.C.L.M.; Vissers, C.Th.W.M.; Verbeeck, W.; Arntz, A.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Average intelligent patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and patients with personality disorders (PD) are expected to show different problems in social cognition. Consequently, measuring social cognition may contribute to a better understanding and differentiation of ASD and PD. Therefore,

  20. Integrating the Differentiated: A Review of the Personal Construct Approach to Cognitive Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Kovářová, M. (Marie); Filip, M. (Miroslav)

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews personal construct psychology (PCP) research on cognitive complexity. It examines conceptual foundations, measures of cognitive complexity, and a large body of empirical findings. It identifies several ambiguities in the conceptualization of the two components of cognitive complexity: differentiation and integration. These ambiguities lead to inconsistent interpretations of indexes proposed for their measurement and consequently to an inconsistent interpretation of em...

  1. Differentiating Animality from Agency. Towards a Foundation for Cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    The notion of cognition has been difficult to pin down. Embodied and situated approaches to cognition now suggests that agency, construed in terms of perceptionaction coupling, might provide a clear foundation for cognition. Yet, this attempt has problems of its own. First, a demarcation problem:

  2. Prevalência de obesidade em idosos longevos e sua associação com fatores de risco e morbidades cardiovasculares Obesity prevalence among oldest-old and its association with risk factors and cardiovascular morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Beatrice Mânica Da Cruz

    2004-04-01

    risk factors and cardiovascular morbidity in the oldest old (>80 years old residing at the municipality of Veranópolis - RS, Brazil. METHODOS: 196 elderly participated in the study (69 male and 127 female, 91% of the population aged >80 until June, 1996. For obesity evaluation and classification, we used the body mass index (BMI and the World Health Organization (WHO and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III criteria. The cardiovascular risk factors investigated were sex, age, systemic hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, diabetes mellitus (DM and smoking. For cardiovascular morbidities, we considered acute myocardial infarction, intermittent claudication and stroke. Waist-hip ratio (W/H, regular consumption of alcoholic beverages and physical activity were investigated too. Results: the obesity prevalence was 23.3% according to WHO (without difference between sex, p=0.124 and 45.6% according to NHANES III criteria (significantly higher in female, p=0.05. Obesity associations with risk factors were sex-dependent (the obese females presented higher levels of systolic blood pressure and glucose, lower levels of HDL-c, and higher systemic hypertension and DM frequencies; while the obese males presented higher levels of diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-c and higher hypercholesterolemia frequency. W/H and triglycerides, as well as hypertriglyceridemia frequency, were higher in obese people. CONCLUSIONS: the obesity prevalence was high among the long-living elderly, and its association with cardiovascular risk factors was sex-dependent. As regards morbidities, we did not observe differences between obese and non-obese people.

  3. Testosterone and Dihydrotestosterone Differentially Improve Cognition in Aged Female Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benice, Ted S.; Raber, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Compared with age-matched male mice, female mice experience a more severe age-related cognitive decline (ACD). Since androgens are less abundant in aged female mice compared with aged male mice, androgen supplementation may enhance cognition in aged female mice. To test this, we assessed behavioral performance on a variety of tasks in 22- to…

  4. Differential effects of cognitive inhibition and intelligence on creativity

    OpenAIRE

    Benedek, Mathias; Franz, Fabiola; Heene, Moritz; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.

    2012-01-01

    There are different conceptions about how cognitive inhibition is related to creativity. Creativity has either been associated with effective inhibition, or with disinhibition, or with an adaptive engagement of inhibition. In this study, we examined the relationship of cognitive inhibition, assessed by means of the random motor generation task, with different measures of creativity. We also analyzed whether this relation is mediated by intelligence. We generally found a positive correlation o...

  5. Differential effects of MDMA and methylphenidate on social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Yasmin; Hysek, Cédric M; Simmler, Linda D; Crockett, Molly J; Quednow, Boris B; Liechti, Matthias E

    2014-09-01

    Social cognition is important in everyday-life social interactions. The social cognitive effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') and methylphenidate (both used for neuroenhancement and as party drugs) are largely unknown. We investigated the acute effects of MDMA (75 mg), methylphenidate (40 mg) and placebo using the Facial Emotion Recognition Task, Multifaceted Empathy Test, Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition, Social Value Orientation Test and the Moral Judgment Task in a cross-over study in 30 healthy subjects. Additionally, subjective, autonomic, pharmacokinetic, endocrine and adverse drug effects were measured. MDMA enhanced emotional empathy for positive emotionally charged situations in the MET and tended to reduce the recognition of sad faces in the Facial Emotion Recognition Task. MDMA had no effects on cognitive empathy in the Multifaceted Empathy Test or social cognitive inferences in the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition. MDMA produced subjective 'empathogenic' effects, such as drug liking, closeness to others, openness and trust. In contrast, methylphenidate lacked such subjective effects and did not alter emotional processing, empathy or mental perspective-taking. MDMA but not methylphenidate increased the plasma levels of oxytocin and prolactin. None of the drugs influenced moral judgment. Effects on emotion recognition and emotional empathy were evident at a low dose of MDMA and likely contribute to the popularity of the drug. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Thinking versus feeling: differentiating between cognitive and affective components of perceived cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Eva; van Osch, Liesbeth; Lechner, Lilian; Candel, Math; de Vries, Hein

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increased recognition of affect in guiding probability estimates, perceived risk has been mainly operationalised in a cognitive way and the differentiation between rational and intuitive judgements is largely unexplored. This study investigated the validity of a measurement instrument differentiating cognitive and affective probability beliefs and examined whether behavioural decision making is mainly guided by cognition or affect. Data were obtained from four surveys focusing on smoking (N=268), fruit consumption (N=989), sunbed use (N=251) and sun protection (N=858). Correlational analyses showed that affective likelihood was more strongly correlated with worry compared to cognitive likelihood and confirmatory factor analysis provided support for a two-factor model of perceived likelihood instead of a one-factor model (i.e. cognition and affect combined). Furthermore, affective likelihood was significantly associated with the various outcome variables, whereas the association for cognitive likelihood was absent in three studies. The findings provide support for the construct validity of the measures used to assess cognitive and affective likelihood. Since affective likelihood might be a better predictor of health behaviour than the commonly used cognitive operationalisation, both dimensions should be considered in future research.

  7. Differential effects of white noise in cognitive and perceptual tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Herweg, Nora A.; Bunzeck, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial effects of noise on higher cognition have recently attracted attention. Hypothesizing an involvement of the mesolimbic dopamine system and its functional interactions with cortical areas, the current study aimed to demonstrate a facilitation of dopamine-dependent attentional and mnemonic functions by externally applying white noise in five behavioral experiments including a total sample of 167 healthy human subjects. During working memory, acoustic white noise impaired accuracy whe...

  8. Differentiation and Integration: Guiding Principles for Analyzing Cognitive Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.; Chen, Zhe

    2008-01-01

    Differentiation and integration played large roles within classic developmental theories but have been relegated to obscurity within contemporary theories. However, they may have a useful role to play in modern theories as well, if conceptualized as guiding principles for analyzing change rather than as real-time mechanisms. In the present study,…

  9. Calculus for cognitive scientists partial differential equation models

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, James K

    2016-01-01

    This book shows cognitive scientists in training how mathematics, computer science and science can be usefully and seamlessly intertwined. It is a follow-up to the first two volumes on mathematics for cognitive scientists, and includes the mathematics and computational tools needed to understand how to compute the terms in the Fourier series expansions that solve the cable equation. The latter is derived from first principles by going back to cellular biology and the relevant biophysics.  A detailed discussion of ion movement through cellular membranes, and an explanation of how the equations that govern such ion movement leading to the standard transient cable equation are included. There are also solutions for the cable model using separation of variables, as well an explanation of why Fourier series converge and a description of the implementation of MatLab tools to compute the solutions. Finally, the standard Hodgkin - Huxley model is developed for an excitable neuron and is solved using MatLab.

  10. Children with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome: Can We Differentiate Their Cognitive Profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planche, Pascale; Lemonnier, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's syndrome (AS) can be differentiated from each other and from typically developing children on their cognitive profiles. The present study included a total of 45 participants: children with autism (high-functioning autism or Asperger's…

  11. GxE Interactions Between FOXO Genotypes and Tea Drinking Significantly Affect Cognitive Disability at Advanced Ages in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; Chen, Huashuai; Ni, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Logistic regression analysis based on data from 822 Han Chinese oldest old aged 92+ demonstrated that interactions between carrying FOXO1A-266 or FOXO3-310 or FOXO3-292 and tea drinking at around age 60 or at present time were significantly associated with lower risk of cognitive disability...... at advanced ages. Associations between tea drinking and reduced cognitive disability were much stronger among carriers of the genotypes of FOXO1A-266 or FOXO3-310 or FOXO3-292 compared with noncarriers, and it was reconfirmed by analysis of three-way interactions across FOXO genotypes, tea drinking at around...... age 60, and at present time. Based on prior findings from animal and human cell models, we postulate that intake of tea compounds may activate FOXO gene expression, which in turn may positively affect cognitive function in the oldest old population. Our empirical findings imply that the health...

  12. Language experience differentiates prefrontal and subcortical activation of the cognitive control network in novel word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Kailyn A L; King, Kelly E; Hernandez, Arturo E

    2013-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cognitive control mechanisms in adult English speaking monolinguals compared to early sequential Spanish-English bilinguals during the initial stages of novel word learning. Functional magnetic resonance imaging during a lexico-semantic task after only 2h of exposure to novel German vocabulary flashcards showed that monolinguals activated a broader set of cortical control regions associated with higher-level cognitive processes, including the supplementary motor area (SMA), anterior cingulate (ACC), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), as well as the caudate, implicated in cognitive control of language. However, bilinguals recruited a more localized subcortical network that included the putamen, associated more with motor control of language. These results suggest that experience managing multiple languages may differentiate the learning strategy and subsequent neural mechanisms of cognitive control used by bilinguals compared to monolinguals in the early stages of novel word learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Predicting recovery of cognitive function soon after stroke: differential modeling of logarithmic and linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Makoto; Sugimura, Yuko; Yamada, Sumio; Omori, Yoshitsugu; Miyamoto, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Jun-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive disorders in the acute stage of stroke are common and are important independent predictors of adverse outcome in the long term. Despite the impact of cognitive disorders on both patients and their families, it is still difficult to predict the extent or duration of cognitive impairments. The objective of the present study was, therefore, to provide data on predicting the recovery of cognitive function soon after stroke by differential modeling with logarithmic and linear regression. This study included two rounds of data collection comprising 57 stroke patients enrolled in the first round for the purpose of identifying the time course of cognitive recovery in the early-phase group data, and 43 stroke patients in the second round for the purpose of ensuring that the correlation of the early-phase group data applied to the prediction of each individual's degree of cognitive recovery. In the first round, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores were assessed 3 times during hospitalization, and the scores were regressed on the logarithm and linear of time. In the second round, calculations of MMSE scores were made for the first two scoring times after admission to tailor the structures of logarithmic and linear regression formulae to fit an individual's degree of functional recovery. The time course of early-phase recovery for cognitive functions resembled both logarithmic and linear functions. However, MMSE scores sampled at two baseline points based on logarithmic regression modeling could estimate prediction of cognitive recovery more accurately than could linear regression modeling (logarithmic modeling, R(2) = 0.676, PLogarithmic modeling based on MMSE scores could accurately predict the recovery of cognitive function soon after the occurrence of stroke. This logarithmic modeling with mathematical procedures is simple enough to be adopted in daily clinical practice.

  14. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677C>T and methionine synthase 2756A>G mutations: no impact on survival, cognitive functioning, or cognitive decline in nonagenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bathum, Lise; von Bornemann Hjelmborg, Jacob; Christiansen, Lene

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several reports have shown an association between homocysteine, cognitive functioning, and survival among the oldest-old. Two common polymorphisms in the genes coding for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677C>T) and methionine synthase (MTR 2756A>G) have an impact on plasma...... homocysteine level. METHODS: We examined the effect of the MTHFR 677C>T and MTR 2756A>G genotypes on baseline cognitive functioning, cognitive decline over 5 years measured in three assessments, and survival in a population-based cohort of 1581 nonagenarians. Cognitive functioning was assessed by using...

  15. Differential MR/GR Activation in Mice Results in Emotional States Beneficial or Impairing for Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Brinks

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroids regulate stress response and influence emotion, learning, and memory via two receptors in the brain, the high‐affinity mineralocorticoid (MR and low‐affinity glucocorticoid receptor (GR. We test the hypothesis that MR- and GR-mediated effects interact in emotion and cognition when a novel situation is encountered that is relevant for a learning process. By adrenalectomy and additional constant corticosterone supplement we obtained four groups of male C57BL/6J mice with differential chronic MR and GR activations. Using a hole board task, we found that mice with continuous predominant MR and moderate GR activations were fast learners that displayed low anxiety and arousal together with high directed explorative behavior. Progressive corticosterone concentrations with predominant action via GR induced strong emotional arousal at the expense of cognitive performance. These findings underline the importance of a balanced MR/GR system for emotional and cognitive functioning that is critical for mental health.

  16. Cognitive-style characteristics as criteria for differential diagnosis of delirium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Kuznetsov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a psychological study of the relationship of cognitive styles with the development of delusional formations, overvalued ideas and simulative products in order to develop criteria of delirium differential diagnosis. We examined 118 men, ordered at forensic psychological and psychiatric examination, among them delusional symptoms were found in 68 people, and overvalued ideas in 26 people, 24 people simulated delirium. As a method of research, we used pathopsychological experiment and projective techniques and methods that identify particular cognitive style (TAT, Rorschach, Torrance. We found that delusional patients, unlike those simulating a mental disorder, show field independence cognitive style combined with the rigidity that is characteristic also for patients with endogenous overvalued ideas. In personality disorders, we found combination of field independence with the flexibility or with rigidity.

  17. Connectivity Neurofeedback Training Can Differentially Change Functional Connectivity and Cognitive Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Ayumu; Hayasaka, Shunsuke; Kawato, Mitsuo; Imamizu, Hiroshi

    2017-10-01

    Advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging have made it possible to provide real-time feedback on brain activity. Neurofeedback has been applied to therapeutic interventions for psychiatric disorders. Since many studies have shown that most psychiatric disorders exhibit abnormal brain networks, a novel experimental paradigm named connectivity neurofeedback, which can directly modulate a brain network, has emerged as a promising approach to treat psychiatric disorders. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that connectivity neurofeedback can induce the aimed direction of change in functional connectivity, and the differential change in cognitive performance according to the direction of change in connectivity. We selected the connectivity between the left primary motor cortex and the left lateral parietal cortex as the target. Subjects were divided into 2 groups, in which only the direction of change (an increase or a decrease in correlation) in the experimentally manipulated connectivity differed between the groups. As a result, subjects successfully induced the expected connectivity changes in either of the 2 directions. Furthermore, cognitive performance significantly and differentially changed from preneurofeedback to postneurofeedback training between the 2 groups. These findings indicate that connectivity neurofeedback can induce the aimed direction of change in connectivity and also a differential change in cognitive performance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Differential impairment of social cognition factors in bipolar disorder with and without psychotic features and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Nicholas S; Allen, Daniel N; Sutton, Griffin P; Vertinski, Mary; Ringdahl, Erik N

    2013-12-01

    While it is well-established that patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder exhibit deficits in social cognition, few studies have separately examined bipolar disorder with and without psychotic features. The current study addressed this gap by comparing patients with bipolar disorder with (BD+) and without (BD-) psychotic features, patients with schizophrenia (SZ), and healthy controls (NC) across social cognitive measures. Principal factor analysis on five social cognition tasks extracted a two-factor structure comprised of social/emotional processing and theory of mind. Factor scores were compared among the four groups. Results identified differential patterns of impairment between the BD+ and BD- group on the social/emotional processing factor while all clinical groups performed poorer than controls on the theory of mind factor. This provides evidence that a history of psychosis should be taken into account while evaluating social cognition in patients with bipolar disorder and also raises hypotheses about the relationship between social cognition and psychosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Musculoskeletal pain and physical functioning in the oldest old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, Minna Regina; Thinggaard, M; Christensen, K

    2013-01-01

    of the nationwide Danish 1905 cohort study. Musculoskeletal pain was assessed as reported pain in back, hips or knees when moving or resting. Physical performance measures included maximum grip strength and habitual walking speed. Disability in performing activities of daily living was defined as the need...... for assistive device or personal help in transferring, dressing, washing, using toilet and/or walking indoors. Results: At baseline, the number of painful sites was significantly associated with measured grip strength and walking speed as well as self-reported disability in a stepwise manner; the more sites...

  20. Clinical Utility of Short Social Cognitive Tests in Early Differentiation of Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia from Alzheimer’s Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Christian; Stokholm, Jette; Gade, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Traditional cognitive tests used in clinical practice may not be sensitive enough for the early differentiation of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) from Alzheimer's disease (AD). A growing body of literature has shown that deficits in various aspects of social cognition can be f...

  1. Cortical Thickness, Surface Area and Subcortical Volume Differentially Contribute to Cognitive Heterogeneity in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrits, Niels J H M; van Loenhoud, Anita C; van den Berg, Stan F; Berendse, Henk W; Foncke, Elisabeth M J; Klein, Martin; Stoffers, Diederick; van der Werf, Ysbrand D; van den Heuvel, Odile A

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is often associated with cognitive deficits, although their severity varies considerably between patients. Recently, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to show that individual differences in gray matter (GM) volume relate to cognitive heterogeneity in PD. VBM does, however, not differentiate between cortical thickness (CTh) and surface area (SA), which might be independently affected in PD. We therefore re-analyzed our cohort using the surface-based method FreeSurfer, and investigated (i) CTh, SA, and (sub)cortical GM volume differences between 93 PD patients and 45 matched controls, and (ii) the relation between these structural measures and cognitive performance on six neuropsychological tasks within the PD group. We found cortical thinning in PD patients in the left pericalcarine gyrus, extending to cuneus, precuneus and lingual areas and left inferior parietal cortex, bilateral rostral middle frontal cortex, and right cuneus, and increased cortical surface area in the left pars triangularis. Within the PD group, we found negative correlations between (i) CTh of occipital areas and performance on a verbal memory task, (ii) SA and volume of the frontal cortex and visuospatial memory performance, and, (iii) volume of the right thalamus and scores on two verbal fluency tasks. Our primary findings illustrate that i) CTh and SA are differentially affected in PD, and ii) VBM and FreeSurfer yield non-overlapping results in an identical dataset. We argue that this discrepancy is due to technical differences and the subtlety of the PD-related structural changes.

  2. Differential cognitive profiles of intimate partner violence perpetrators based on alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitoria-Estruch, Sara; Romero-Martínez, Angel; Lila, Marisol; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2018-08-01

    Despite extensive evidence of heterogeneity in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrator profiles, there has been little research into neuropsychological deficits that might help us understand differences within this violent population. Moreover, studies on this topic have not paid much attention to the role of alcohol abuse in neuropsychological domains of IPV perpetrators. Hence, the current study was designed to examine neuropsychological differences among individuals who have committed domestic violence with high (n = 28, HA) and low (n = 35, LA) levels of alcohol consumption, and non-violent individuals (n = 37) to establish differential neuropsychological profiles. An exhaustive neuropsychological assessment battery was employed which combined the computer-based Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery with pencil-and-paper measures. Compared to controls, HA IPV perpetrators had slower processing speed and significantly more impairments in attentional set-shifting or switch attention, working and long-term memory, cognitive flexibility, planning, decision-making, emotion decoding skills, and perspective taking. Furthermore, there were differences between IPV perpetrator subgroups in attentional set-shifting or switch attention and cognitive empathy, with HA IPV perpetrators displaying more severe impairments in both cognitive domains than LA IPV perpetrators. Finally, the LA IPV perpetrators had significantly more impairments in working and long-term memory, executive functioning, and emotion decoding skills than controls, but they did not differ in processing speed, attentional set-shifting or switch attention, decision making, or perspective taking. Thus, the current findings suggest that IPV perpetrators with neuropsychological difficulties, especially those who are heavy drinkers, may have the greatest need for cognitive interventions. These cognitive deficits could be employed as targets for developing specific cognitive rehabilitation

  3. A prospective cohort study of long-term cognitive changes in older Medicare beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinsky, Fredric D; Bentler, Suzanne E; Hockenberry, Jason; Jones, Michael P; Weigel, Paula A; Kaskie, Brian; Wallace, Robert B

    2011-09-20

    Promoting cognitive health and preventing its decline are longstanding public health goals, but long-term changes in cognitive function are not well-documented. Therefore, we first examined long-term changes in cognitive function among older Medicare beneficiaries in the Survey on Assets and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old (AHEAD), and then we identified the risk factors associated with those changes in cognitive function. We conducted a secondary analysis of a prospective, population-based cohort using baseline (1993-1994) interview data linked to 1993-2007 Medicare claims to examine cognitive function at the final follow-up interview which occurred between 1995-1996 and 2006-2007. Besides traditional risk factors (i.e., aging, age, race, and education) and adjustment for baseline cognitive function, we considered the reason for censoring (entrance into managed care or death), and post-baseline continuity of care and major health shocks (hospital episodes). Residual change score multiple linear regression analysis was used to predict cognitive function at the final follow-up using data from telephone interviews among 3,021 to 4,251 (sample size varied by cognitive outcome) baseline community-dwelling self-respondents that were ≥ 70 years old, not in managed Medicare, and had at least one follow-up interview as self-respondents. Cognitive function was assessed using the 7-item Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-7; general mental status), and the 10-item immediate and delayed (episodic memory) word recall tests. Mean changes in the number of correct responses on the TICS-7, and 10-item immediate and delayed word recall tests were -0.33, -0.75, and -0.78, with 43.6%, 54.9%, and 52.3% declining and 25.4%, 20.8%, and 22.9% unchanged. The main and most consistent risks for declining cognitive function were the baseline values of cognitive function (reflecting substantial regression to the mean), aging (a strong linear pattern of increased decline

  4. Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larner, A J

    2007-07-01

    The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) is reported to be a highly sensitive and specific "bedside" test for the diagnosis of dementia, but large pragmatic studies of its use in day-to-day clinical practice are lacking. This study measured diagnostic accuracy of ACE in a large cohort of consecutive patients referred to a dedicated Cognitive Function Clinic. Consecutive new referrals over a 3.5-year period were administered the ACE (n=285). ACE scores and subscores (VLOM ratio) were compared to clinical diagnoses of dementia and dementia subtype, established on the basis of widely accepted diagnostic criteria and at least 12-month follow-up. ACE had good sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value for the diagnosis of dementia, with excellent diagnostic accuracy as measured by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. However, a lower cutoff than that used in the index paper was required for optimum test sensitivity and specificity. ACE VLOM ratio subscore for the differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia proved less accurate. This study suggests that ACE is useful for the diagnosis of dementia in routine clinical practice but that other instruments may be required for the differential diagnosis of the dementia syndrome.

  5. Autobiographical memory for the differential diagnosis of cognitive pathology in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez, Juan C; Redondo, Rita; Torres, Marta; Mayordomo, Teresa; Sales, Alicia

    2016-11-01

    The present study distinguishes three memory stages across the lifespan, and aims to compare episodic and semantic autobiographical memory in healthy older adults, with amnesic mild cognitive impairment, and with Alzheimer's disease. This information can offer evidence about the way semantic and episodic autobiographical memory work, and how the disease affects them. The sample was composed of 56 people, all aged over 60 years; 15 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, 12 with Alzheimer's disease and 29 healthy older people. Participants were evaluated with the Autobiographical Memory Interview. A mixed anova showed significant main effects of memory and time-period, and significant interactions of memory × group, time-period × group and memory × time × group. Assessment of autobiographical memory provides information to differentiate amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients from Alzheimer's disease patients. Although the decline in episodic memory starts with the onset of the disease, semantic memory is maintained until moderate stages of dementia. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16:1220-1225. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  6. Differential impairments underlying decision making in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: a cognitive modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Trista Wai Sze; Ahn, Woo-Young; Bates, John E; Busemeyer, Jerome R; Guillaume, Sebastien; Redgrave, Graham W; Danner, Unna N; Courtet, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the underlying processes of decision-making impairments in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). We deconstructed their performance on the widely used decision task, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) into cognitive, motivational, and response processes using cognitive modeling analysis. We hypothesized that IGT performance would be characterized by impaired memory functions and heightened punishment sensitivity in AN, and by elevated sensitivity to reward as opposed to punishment in BN. We analyzed trial-by-trial data of IGT obtained from 224 individuals: 94 individuals with AN, 63 with BN, and 67 healthy comparison individuals (HC). The prospect valence learning model was used to assess cognitive, motivational, and response processes underlying IGT performance. Individuals with AN showed marginally impaired IGT performance compared to HC. Their performance was characterized by impairments in memory functions. Individuals with BN showed significantly impaired IGT performance compared to HC. They showed greater relative sensitivity to gains as opposed to losses than HC. Memory functions in AN were positively correlated with body mass index. This study identified differential impairments underlying IGT performance in AN and BN. Findings suggest that impaired decision making in AN might involve impaired memory functions. Impaired decision making in BN might involve altered reward and punishment sensitivity. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination for the differential diagnosis and longitudinal assessment of patients with parkinsonian disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittman, Timothy; Ghosh, Boyd C; McColgan, Peter; Breen, David P; Evans, Jonathan; Williams-Gray, Caroline H; Barker, Roger A; Rowe, James B

    2013-05-01

    Differentiating idiopathic Parkinson's disease from atypical parkinsonian syndromes is challenging, especially in the early stages. We assessed whether the Revised Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R) could differentiate between parkinsonian syndromes and reflect longitudinal changes in cognition in these disorders. The ACE-R was administered at baseline and after approximately 18 months to 135 patients with parkinsonian disorders: 86 with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), 30 with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), 19 with corticobasal degeneration (CBD). We assessed differences between groups for ACE-R, ACE-R subscores and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores at baseline (analyses of variance, receiver operating characteristics curves), and the interaction between diagnosis and change in ACE-R scores between visits (analyses of variance). The ACE-R verbal fluency subscore distinguished between PSP and PD with a high sensitivity (0.92) and specificity (0.87); total ACE-R score and the visuospatial subscore were less specific (0.87 and 0.84 respectively) and sensitive (0.70 and 0.73). Significant group level differences were found between PD and PSP for MMSE and ACE-R (total score and subscores for attention and concentration, fluency, language, and visuospatial function), and between PD and CBD for the ACE-R visuospatial subscore. Performance worsened between visits for ACE-R score in PD (p=0.001) and CBD (p=0.001); visuospatial subscore in PD (p=0.003), PSP (p=0.022) and CBD (p=0.0002); and MMSE in CBD (p=0.004). We propose the ACE-R, particularly the verbal fluency subscore, as a valuable contributor to the differential diagnosis of parkinsonian syndromes in the correct clinical context. The ACE-R may reflect disease progression in PD and CBD.

  8. Differentiation between mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease and depression by means of cued recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierckx, E; Engelborghs, S; De Raedt, R; De Deyn, P P; Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, I

    2007-05-01

    Discriminating Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from depression is a challenge in psychogeriatric medicine. A study was set up to ascertain whether cued recall could be useful in differentiating early AD and MCI from depression among elderly individuals. The Visual Association Test (VAT) and the Memory Impairment Screen-plus (MIS-plus) were administered together with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) to 40 MCI patients, 35 mild AD patients, 46 depressed patients and 52 healthy control subjects. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by post-hoc Scheffé tests showed that AD patients had significantly lower cued recall scores (i.e. combined VAT and MIS-plus scores) than MCI patients, who in turn had lower scores than depressed patients. The scores of depressed patients and controls were not significantly different. Discriminant analysis revealed that 94% of the AD patients and 96% of the depressed patients could be classified correctly by means of the GDS and the cued recall sores. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves identified an optimal cut-off score of 8 (maximum score 12) for differentiating AD and MCI patients from depressed elderly patients and controls. Applying this cut-off, a sensitivity of 83% (58%) and a specificity of 85% (85%) was obtained when differentiating AD (MCI) from depression. Cued recall, operationalized by the combined scores of VAT and MIS-plus, is a useful method for differentiating AD patients from depressed individuals and healthy controls. Probably because of the great heterogeneity among MCI patients, the diagnostic power of cued recall decreases when applied to differentiate MCI from depression.

  9. 18F-FDG PET in Parkinsonism: Differential Diagnosis and Evaluation of Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Philipp T; Frings, Lars; Rücker, Gerta; Hellwig, Sabine

    2017-12-01

    Accurate differential diagnosis of parkinsonism is of paramount therapeutic and prognostic importance. In addition, with the development of invasive therapies and novel disease-specific therapies, strategies for patient enrichment in trial populations are of growing importance. Imaging disease-specific patterns of regional glucose metabolism with PET and 18 F-FDG allows for a highly accurate distinction between Parkinson disease (PD) and atypical parkinsonian syndromes, including multiple-system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, and corticobasal degeneration. On the basis of a preliminary metaanalysis of currently available studies with inclusion of multiple disease groups, we estimated that the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for visual PET readings supported by voxel-based statistical analyses for diagnosis of atypical parkinsonian syndromes are 91.4% and 90.6%, respectively. The diagnostic specificity of 18 F-FDG PET for diagnosing multiple-system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, and corticobasal degeneration was consistently shown to be high (>90%), whereas sensitivity was more variable (>75%). It is increasingly acknowledged that cognitive impairment represents a major challenge in PD, with mild cognitive impairment being a prodromal stage of PD with dementia (PDD). In line with clinical and neuropsychologic studies, recent PET studies demonstrated that posterior cortical dysfunction in nondemented PD patients precedes cognitive decline and the development of PDD by several years. Taken together, the current literature underscores the utility of 18 F-FDG PET for diagnostic evaluation of parkinsonism and the promising role of 18 F-FDG PET for assessment and risk stratification of cognitive impairment in PD. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  10. A score based on screening tests to differentiate mild cognitive impairment from subjective memory complaints

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    Fábio Henrique de Gobbi Porto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is not easy to differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI from subjective memory complainers (SMC. Assessments with screening cognitive tools are essential, particularly in primary care where most patients are seen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of screening cognitive tests and to propose a score derived from screening tests. Elderly subjects with memory complaints were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB. We added two delayed recalls in the MMSE (a delayed recall and a late-delayed recall, LDR, and also a phonemic fluency test of letter P fluency (LPF. A score was created based on these tests. The diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical consensus and neuropsychological testing. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine area under the curve (AUC, the sensitivity and specificity for each test separately and for the final proposed score. MMSE, LDR, LPF and delayed recall of BCB scores reach statistically significant differences between groups (P=0.000, 0.03, 0.001 and 0.01, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and AUC were MMSE: 64%, 79% and 0.75 (cut off <29; LDR: 56%, 62% and 0.62 (cut off <3; LPF: 71%, 71% and 0.71 (cut off <14; delayed recall of BCB: 56%, 82% and 0.68 (cut off <9. The proposed score reached a sensitivity of 88% and 76% and specificity of 62% and 75% for cut off over 1 and over 2, respectively. AUC were 0.81. In conclusion, a score created from screening tests is capable of discriminating MCI from SMC with moderate to good accurancy.

  11. Differential influences of unilateral tDCS over the intraparietal cortex on numerical cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina eArtemenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuro-imaging research identified the bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS to be a key area associated with number processing. However, causal structure-function relationships are hard to evaluate from neuro-imaging techniques such as fMRI. Nevertheless, brain stimulation methods like transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS allow for investigating the functional relevance of the IPS for number processing. Following up on a study using bilateral bi-cephalic tDCS over the IPS, the current study aimed at evaluating the differential lateralized functional contributions of the left and right IPS to number processing using unilateral bi-cephalic tDCS over either the left or right IPS. Results indicated a right lateralization for the processing of the place-value structure of the Arabic number system. Importantly, the processing of number magnitude information was not affected by unilateral IPS corroborating the assumption that number magnitude is processed in the bilateral IPS. Taken together, these data suggest that even though number magnitude is represented bilaterally, the left and right IPS seem to contribute differentially to numerical cognition with respect to the processing of specific other aspects of numerical information.

  12. Differential effects of physical activity and sleep duration on cognitive function in young adults

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    Kazuko Kato

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Although exercise and sleep duration habits are associated with cognitive function, their beneficial effects on cognitive function remain unclear. We aimed to examine the effect of sleep duration and daily physical activity on cognitive function, elucidating the neural mechanisms using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Methods: A total of 23 healthy young adults (age 22.0 ± 2.2 years participated in this study. Exercise amount was assessed using a uniaxial accelerometer. We evaluated total sleep time (TST and sleep efficiency by actigraphy. Cognitive function was tested using the N-back task, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST, and the Continuous Performance Test–Identical Pairs (CPT-IP, and the cortical oxygenated hemoglobin levels during a word fluency task were measured with NIRS. Results: Exercise amount was significantly correlated with reaction time on 0- and 1-back tasks (r = −0.602, p = 0.002; r = −0.446, p = 0.033, respectively, whereas TST was significantly correlated with % corrects on the 2-back task (r = 0.486, p = 0.019. Multiple regression analysis, including exercise amount, TST, and sleep efficiency, revealed that exercise amount was the most significant factor for reaction time on 0- and 1-back tasks (β = −0.634, p = 0.002; β = −0.454, p = 0.031, respectively, and TST was the most significant factor for % corrects on the 2-back task (β = 0.542, p = 0.014. The parameter measured by WCST and CPT-IP was not significantly correlated with TST or exercise amount. Exercise amount, but not TST, was significantly correlated with the mean area under the NIRS curve in the prefrontal area (r = 0.492, p = 0.017. Conclusion: Exercise amount and TST had differential effects on working memory and cortical activation in the prefrontal area. Daily physical activity and appropriate sleep duration may play an important role in working memory. Keywords: Cortical

  13. Do cognitive measures of response inhibition differentiate between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and borderline personality disorder?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, F.E. van; Schellekens, A.F.A.; Broek, P.J.A. van den; Kan, C.C.; Verkes, R.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether cognitive measures of response inhibition derived from the AX-CPT are able to differentiate between adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), borderline personality disorder (BPD), and healthy controls (HC). Current DSM-IV-TR symptoms of ADHD and BPD were

  14. The clinical utility of naturalistic action test in differentiating mild cognitive impairment from early dementia in memory clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Irene; Ntlholang, Ontefetse; Crosby, Lisa; Cunningham, Conal; Lawlor, Brian

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the validity of the Naturalistic Action Test in differentiating Mild Cognitive Impairment from early dementia compared to clinical diagnosis and ascertain Naturalistic Action Test cut-off points. This was a cross-sectional study of 70 consecutive patients diagnosed with Mild Cognitive Impairment attending the memory clinic in St James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. Patients with a diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment who attended for routine annual assessment were asked to participate in the study. The Naturalistic Action Test was carried out after the patient had completed their routine assessment in the clinic. The Area under the Curve, AUC ± SE was 0.808 ± 0.058, p Cognitive Impairment in our study (PPV 50%, NPV 91%, sensitivity 78%, specificity 73% and accuracy of 74%). There was discrepancy in 18 patients using the new cut-off point (≥11 for Mild Cognitive Impairment vs ≤10 for dementia). The Naturalistic Action Test is a useful tool that can increase diagnostic accuracy in differentiating Mild Cognitive Impairment from early dementia. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to differentiate between healthy aging subjects, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer′s patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Oghabian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alzheimer′s disease is the most common form of dementia which is still difficult to be differentiated from other types of brain disorders. Moreover, Mild Cognitive Impairment refers to the presence of cognitive impairments that is not severe enough to meet the criteria of Alzheimer′s, and its diagnosis in early stages is so critical. There is currently no distinct method available for diagnosing Alzheimer′s or Mild Cognitive Impairment, and their diagnosis needs a combination of different methods and assessments. Methods: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI in differentiating between Alzheimer′s, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI and healthy aging. To prove fMRI′s ability, resting-state brain activation patterns between these three groups of subjects were compared using Independent Component Analysis (ICA algorithm. Forty age- and sex-matched subjects, 15 elderly, 11 MCI and 14 Alzheimer′s subjects were examined. Results: The results showed that during a certain resting-state session, healthy aging brain benefits from larger area and greater intensity of activation (compared with MCI and Alzheimer′s group in Posterior Cingulate Cortex (PCC region of the brain, as part of Default Mode Network. Conclusions: This difference in activation pattern can be used as a diagnostic criterion in using fMRI for differentiating between Alzheimer′s Disease (AD, MCI and healthy aging.

  16. Differentiation of semantic dementia and Alzheimer's disease using the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, R Rhys; Dawson, Kate; Mioshi, Eneida; Erzinçlioğlu, Sharon; Hodges, John R

    2008-04-01

    The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) is a simple diagnostic tool bridging the gap between the very brief Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE) and much longer test batteries used by neuropsychologists which has proven extremely popular internationally. We aimed to assess the ability of the ACE to differentiate semantic dementia (SD) from Alzheimer's disease (AD). The ACE was administered to three groups: SD patients (n = 40) and two separate groups of AD patients (n = 40 in each), matched for overall ACE or MMSE score. Significant differences were found between SD and both AD groups for the ACE sub-scores of naming, reading and orientation in time. Discriminant analysis (SD versus AD) led to the formulation of a 'semantic index' (naming plus reading minus scores for serial-7s, orientation in time and drawing). Application of the semantic index to the patient data found values of less than zero to be predictive of SD rather than AD with 88% sensitivity and 90% specificity. Validation analysis in an independent sample of 24 SD and AD patients proved even more favourable. The overall ACE score is known to be a sensitive, and specific, indicator of early neurodegenerative dementia; this study shows that the ACE can also be used to detect SD through application of the semantic index.

  17. Loss of Gnas imprinting differentially affects REM/NREM sleep and cognition in mice.

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    Glenda Lassi

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that imprinted genes are important in the regulation of sleep. However, the fundamental question of whether genomic imprinting has a role in sleep has remained elusive up to now. In this work we show that REM and NREM sleep states are differentially modulated by the maternally expressed imprinted gene Gnas. In particular, in mice with loss of imprinting of Gnas, NREM and complex cognitive processes are enhanced while REM and REM-linked behaviors are inhibited. This is the first demonstration that a specific overexpression of an imprinted gene affects sleep states and related complex behavioral traits. Furthermore, in parallel to the Gnas overexpression, we have observed an overexpression of Ucp1 in interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT and a significant increase in thermoregulation that may account for the REM/NREM sleep phenotypes. We conclude that there must be significant evolutionary advantages in the monoallelic expression of Gnas for REM sleep and for the consolidation of REM-dependent memories. Conversely, biallelic expression of Gnas reinforces slow wave activity in NREM sleep, and this results in a reduction of uncertainty in temporal decision-making processes.

  18. Differential effects of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder symptoms on cognitive and fear processing in female offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Marja E; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Vitale, Jennifer E; Curtin, John J; Newman, Joseph P

    2012-12-01

    Psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (APD) have long been considered important risk factors for criminal behavior and incarceration. However, little is known about the psychobiological underpinnings that give rise to the disinhibited behavior of female offenders. Using an instructed fear-conditioning paradigm and a sample of incarcerated female offenders, we manipulated attentional focus and cognitive load to characterize and differentiate between the dysfunctional cognitive and affective processes associated with these syndromes. We used fear-potentiated startle (FPS) and event-related potentials as measures of affective and cognitive processing, respectively. After controlling for APD symptoms, psychopathic women displayed greater FPS while attending directly to threat-relevant stimuli and displayed less FPS while performing a demanding task that directed attention to threat-irrelevant information. Conversely, controlling for psychopathy, women with high APD symptoms displayed less overall FPS, especially when instructed to focus on threat-relevant stimuli. However, as the demands on cognitive resources increased, they displayed greater FPS. For both psychopathy and APD, analysis of the event-related potentials qualified these findings and further specified the abnormal cognitive processes associated with these two syndromes. Overall, simultaneous analysis of psychopathy and APD revealed distinct patterns of cognitive processing and fear reactivity.

  19. Differential effects of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder symptoms on cognitive and fear processing in female offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Marja E.; Vitale, Jennifer E.; Curtin, John J.; Newman, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    Psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (APD) have long been considered important risk factors for criminal behavior and incarceration. However, little is known about the psychobiological underpinnings that give rise to the disinhibited behavior of female offenders. Using an instructed fear-conditioning paradigm and a sample of incarcerated female offenders, we manipulated attentional focus and cognitive load to characterize and differentiate between the dysfunctional cognitive and affective processes associated with these syndromes. We used fear-potentiated startle (FPS) and event-related potentials as measures of affective and cognitive processing, respectively. After controlling for APD symptoms, psychopathic women displayed greater FPS while attending directly to threat-relevant stimuli and displayed less FPS while performing a demanding task that directed attention to threat-irrelevant information. Conversely, controlling for psychopathy, women with high APD symptoms displayed less overall FPS, especially when instructed to focus on threat-relevant stimuli. However, as the demands on cognitive resources increased, they displayed greater FPS. For both psychopathy and APD, analysis of the event-related potentials qualified these findings and further specified the abnormal cognitive processes associated with these two syndromes. Overall, simultaneous analysis of psychopathy and APD revealed distinct patterns of cognitive processing and fear reactivity. PMID:22886692

  20. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to differentiate between Healthy Aging subjects, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer’s Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Oghabian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Back ground: Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia which is still difficult to be differentiated from other types of brain disorders. Moreover, Mild Cognitive Impairment refers to the presence of cognitive impairments that is not severe enough to meet the criteria of dementia, and its diagnosis in early stages is so critical. There is currently no distinct method available for diagnosing Alzheimer's or Mild Cognitive Impairment, and their diagnosis needs a combination of different methods and assessments.

    Methods: Our goal in this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of fMRI imaging in differentiating between Alzheimer's, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI and Healthy Aging. To prove fMRI's ability, we compared resting-state brain activation patterns between these three groups of subjects using Independent Component Algorithm (ICA. We examined 40 age- and sex-matched subjects, 15 elderly, 11 MCI and 14 Alzheimer's subjects.

    Results: The results show that during a certain resting-state session, healthy aging brain benefits from larger area and greater intensity of activation (compared with MCI and Alzheimer's group in Posterior Cingulate Cortex (PCC region of the brain, as part of Default Mode Network.

    Conclusion: This difference in activation pattern can be used as a diagnostic criterion in using fMRI for differentiating between Alzheimer's disease (AD, MCI and Healthy Aging.


    Keywords: fMRI, Default Mode Network, Alzheimer's, Mild Cognitive Impairment, Resting-State

  1. Modeling Differentiation of Cognitive Abilities within the Higher-Order Factor Model Using Moderated Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Dylan; Dolan, Conor V.; Wicherts, Jelte M.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2010-01-01

    The general differentiation hypothesis states that the strength of the correlations among a set of IQ subtests varies with a given variable. Instances of the general differentiation hypothesis that have been considered in the literature include age and ability differentiation. Traditionally, the differentiation effect is attributed to the varying…

  2. Differentiating SCT and inattentive symptoms in ADHD using fMRI measures of cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbender, Catherine; Krafft, Cynthia E; Schweitzer, Julie B

    2015-01-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with different impairment profiles in the symptom domains of hyperactivity/impulsivity and/or inattention. An additional symptom domain of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) has also been proposed. Although there is a degree of correlation between the SCT symptom domain and inattention, it has been proposed as a distinct disorder independent of ADHD. The objective of this study was to examine the neural substrates of cue-related preparatory processes associated with SCT symptoms versus inattentive symptoms in a group of adolescents with ADHD. We also compared cue-related effects in the entire ADHD group compared with a group of typically developing (TD) peers. A modified cued flanker paradigm and fMRI examined brain activity associated with attention preparation and motor response preparation. Between group contrasts between the ADHD and TD group revealed significant hypoactivity in the ADHD group during general attention preparation in the supplementary motor area (SMA) and in the right superior parietal lobe (SPL) during response preparation. In the ADHD group, greater numbers of SCT symptoms were associated with hypoactivity in the left SPL to cues in general whereas greater numbers of inattentive symptoms were associated with greater activity in the SMA to cues that provided no information and less activity in the thalamus during response preparation. Hypoactivity in the SPL with increasing SCT symptoms may be associated with impaired reorienting or shifting of attention. Altered activity in the SMA and thalamus with increasing inattention may be associated with a general problem with response preparation, which may also reflect inefficient processing of the response preparation cue. Our results support a degree of differentiation between SCT and inattentive symptom profiles within adolescents with ADHD.

  3. Ambient Persuasive Technology Needs Little Cognitive Effort: The Differential Effects of Cognitive Load on Lighting Feedback versus Factual Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Jaap; Midden, Cees

    Persuasive technology can influence behavior or attitudes by for example providing interactive factual feedback about energy conservation. However, people often lack motivation or cognitive capacity to consciously process such relative complex information (e.g., numerical consumption feedback). Extending recent research that indicates that ambient persuasive technology can persuade the user without receiving the user's conscious attention, we argue here that Ambient Persuasive Technology can be effective while needing only little cognitive resources, and in general can be more influential than more focal forms of persuasive technology. In an experimental study, some participants received energy consumption feedback by means of a light changing color (more green=lower energy consumption, vs. more red=higher energy consumption) and others by means of numbers indicating kWh consumption. Results indicated that ambient feedback led to more conservation than factual feedback. Also, as expected, only for participants processing factual feedback, additional cognitive load lead to slower processing of that feedback. This research sheds light on fundamental characteristics of Ambient Persuasive Technology and Persuasive Lighting, and suggests that it can have important advantages over more focal persuasive technologies without losing its persuasive potential.

  4. The "weakest link" as an indicator of cognitive vulnerability differentially predicts symptom dimensions of anxiety in adolescents in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junyi; Wang, Danyang; Cui, Lixia; McWhinnie, Chad M; Wang, Li; Xiao, Jing

    2017-08-01

    This multiwave longitudinal study examined the cognitive vulnerability-stress component of hopelessness theory to differentially predict symptom dimensions of anxiety using a "weakest link" approach in a sample of adolescents from Hunan Province, China. Baseline and 6-month follow-up data were obtained from 553 middle-school students. During an initial assessment, participants completed measures of assessing their weakest links, anxious symptoms, and the occurrence of stress. Participants subsequently completed measures assessing stress, and anxious symptoms one a month for six months. Higher weakest link scores were associated with greater increases in the harm avoidance and separation anxiety/panic dimensions, but not the physical or social anxiety dimension, of anxious symptoms following stress in Chinese adolescents. These results support the applicability of the "weakest link" approach, derived from hopelessness theory, in Chinese adolescents. Weakest link scores as cognitive vulnerability factors may play a role in the development of anxious symptoms, especially in the cognitive dimensions (e.g., harm avoidance and separation anxiety/panic). Our findings also have potential value in explaining the effectiveness of cognitive relevant therapy in treating the cognitive dimensions of anxious symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cortical Thickness, Surface Area and Subcortical Volume Differentially Contribute to Cognitive Heterogeneity in Parkinson's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, Niels J H M; van Loenhoud, Anita C; van den Berg, Stan F; Berendse, Henk W; Foncke, Elisabeth M J; Klein, Martin; Stoffers, Diederick; van der Werf, Ysbrand D; van den Heuvel, Odile A

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is often associated with cognitive deficits, although their severity varies considerably between patients. Recently, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to show that individual differences in gray matter (GM) volume relate to cognitive heterogeneity in PD. VBM does,

  6. Differentiating Processes of Control and Understanding in the Early Development of Emotion and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart; Calkins, Susan D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined the hypothesis that preschoolers' performance on emotion and cognitive tasks is organized into discrete processes of control and understanding within the domains of emotion and cognition. Additionally, we examined the relations among component processes using mother report, behavioral observation, and physiological…

  7. Differential psychophysiological effects of operant and cognitive behavioural treatments in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, K; Turk, D C; Gracely, R H; Flor, H

    2016-10-01

    Determination of psychophysiological effects of operant behavioural (OBT) and cognitive behavioural treatment (CBT) for fibromyalgia patients. One hundred and fifteen female patients randomized to OBT (N = 43), CBT (N = 42), or whole-body infrared heat (IH) (N = 30) were compared before and after group treatment as well as at 6- and 12-month follow-ups using intent-to-treat analysis (12 drop-outs). Thirty matched pain-free controls (CON) served as reference group for the initial psychophysiological analysis. Surface electromyogram (EMG), blood pressure, heart rate (HR) and skin conductance levels (SCL) were continuously recorded during adaptation, baseline, social conflict, mental arithmetic and relaxation tasks. At baseline, fibromyalgia patients showed higher SCL and HR, lower diastolic blood pressure and EMG in comparison to controls. OBT and CBT compared to IH significantly reduced pain intensity [OBT: effect size (ES) = 1.21 CI: 0.71-1.71, CBT: ES = 1.23, CI: 0.72-1.74]. OBT increased diastolic blood pressure [ES = 1.13, CI: 0.63-1.63 and CBT reduced SCL (ES) = -0.66, CI: -1.14-0.18] 12 months after treatment. Both CBT and OBT significantly increased EMG levels (OBT: ES = 0.97, CI: 0.48-1.46, CBT: ES = 1.17, CI: 0.67-1.68). In contrast, the IH group did not show any significant changes in the psychophysiological parameters. Increased diastolic blood pressure and decreased pain after OBT suggest a reactivation of baroreflex-mechanisms in fibromyalgia and a normalization of the blood pressure and pain functional relationship. Reduced SCL following CBT may indicate reduced general arousal levels. Increased muscle tension after CBT and OBT suggest a normalization of physical parameters. The reduction in pain seems to be mediated by different psychophysiological processes, providing support for mechanism-based treatments might be indicated for CBT and OBT. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?: Differential physiological stress responses followed different

  8. Differential neural substrates of working memory and cognitive skill learning in healthy young volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2005-01-01

    It is known that different neural circuits are involved in working memory and cognitive skill learning that represent explicit and implicit memory functions, respectively. In the present study, we investigated the metabolic correlates of working memory and cognitive skill learning with correlation analysis of FDG PET images. Fourteen right-handed healthy subjects (age, 24 ± 2 yr; 5 males and 9 females) underwent brain FDG PET and neuropsychological testing. Two-back task and weather prediction task were used for the evaluation of working memory and cognitive skill learning, respectively, Correlation between regional glucose metabolism and cognitive task performance was examined using SPM99. A significant positive correlation between 2-back task performance and regional glucose metabolism was found in the prefrontal regions and superior temporal gyri bilaterally. In the first term of weather prediction task the task performance correlated positively with glucose metabolism in the bilateral prefrontal areas, left middle temporal and posterior cingulate gyri, and left thalamus. In the second and third terms of the task, the correlation found in the prefrontal areas, superior temporal and anterior cingulate gyri bilaterally, right insula, left parahippocampal gyrus, and right caudate nucleus. We identified the neural substrates that are related with performance of working memory and cognitive skill learning. These results indicate that brain regions associated with the explicit memory system are recruited in early periods of cognitive skill learning, but additional brain regions including caudate nucleus are involved in late periods of cognitive skill learning

  9. Residual Negative Symptoms Differentiate Cognitive Performance in Clinically Stable Patients with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Krishnadas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits in various domains have been shown in patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The purpose of the present study was to examine if residual psychopathology explained the difference in cognitive function between clinically stable patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We compared the performance on tests of attention, visual and verbal memory, and executive function of 25 patients with schizophrenia in remission and 25 euthymic bipolar disorder patients with that of 25 healthy controls. Mediation analysis was used to see if residual psychopathology could explain the difference in cognitive function between the patient groups. Both patient groups performed significantly worse than healthy controls on most cognitive tests. Patients with bipolar disorder displayed cognitive deficits that were milder but qualitatively similar to those of patients with schizophrenia. Residual negative symptoms mediated the difference in performance on cognitive tests between the two groups. Neither residual general psychotic symptoms nor greater antipsychotic doses explained this relationship. The shared variance explained by the residual negative and cognitive deficits that the difference between patient groups may be explained by greater frontal cortical neurophysiological deficits in patients with schizophrenia, compared to bipolar disorder. Further longitudinal work may provide insight into pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie these deficits.

  10. Differential neural substrates of working memory and cognitive skill learning in healthy young volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    It is known that different neural circuits are involved in working memory and cognitive skill learning that represent explicit and implicit memory functions, respectively. In the present study, we investigated the metabolic correlates of working memory and cognitive skill learning with correlation analysis of FDG PET images. Fourteen right-handed healthy subjects (age, 24 {+-} 2 yr; 5 males and 9 females) underwent brain FDG PET and neuropsychological testing. Two-back task and weather prediction task were used for the evaluation of working memory and cognitive skill learning, respectively, Correlation between regional glucose metabolism and cognitive task performance was examined using SPM99. A significant positive correlation between 2-back task performance and regional glucose metabolism was found in the prefrontal regions and superior temporal gyri bilaterally. In the first term of weather prediction task the task performance correlated positively with glucose metabolism in the bilateral prefrontal areas, left middle temporal and posterior cingulate gyri, and left thalamus. In the second and third terms of the task, the correlation found in the prefrontal areas, superior temporal and anterior cingulate gyri bilaterally, right insula, left parahippocampal gyrus, and right caudate nucleus. We identified the neural substrates that are related with performance of working memory and cognitive skill learning. These results indicate that brain regions associated with the explicit memory system are recruited in early periods of cognitive skill learning, but additional brain regions including caudate nucleus are involved in late periods of cognitive skill learning.

  11. Differential Prescribing of Antimuscarinic Agents in Older Adults with Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouri, Scott Martin; Schootman, Mario; Strope, Seth A; Birge, Stanley J; Olsen, Margaret A

    2018-04-01

    Oral oxybutynin has been associated with the development of cognitive impairment. The objective of this study was to describe the use of oral oxybutynin versus other antimuscarinics (e.g., tolterodine, darifenacin, solifenacin, trospium, fesoterodine, transdermal oxybutynin) in older adults with documented cognitive impairment. This is a population-based retrospective analysis of antimuscarinic new users aged ≥ 66 years from January 2008 to December 2011 (n = 42,886) using a 5% random sample of Medicare claims linked with Part D data. Cognitive impairment was defined as a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment, dementia, use of antidementia medication, and memory loss/drug-induced cognitive conditions in the year prior to the initial antimuscarinic claim. We used multivariable generalized linear models to assess indicators of cognitive impairment associated with initiation of oral oxybutynin versus other antimuscarinics after adjusting for comorbid conditions. In total, 33% received oral oxybutynin as initial therapy. Cognitive impairment was documented in 10,259 (23.9%) patients prior to antimuscarinic therapy. Patients with cognitive impairment were 5% more likely to initiate another antimuscarinic versus oral oxybutynin (relative risk [RR] 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.06). The proportion of patients with cognitive impairment initiated on oral oxybutynin increased from 24.1% in 2008 to 41.1% in 2011. The total cost of oral oxybutynin, in $US, year 2011 values, decreased by 10.5%, whereas the total cost of other antimuscarinics increased by 50.3% from 2008 to 2011. Our findings suggest opportunities for quality improvement of antimuscarinic prescribing in older adults, but this may be hampered by cost and formulary restrictions.

  12. [Differentiating early dementia from major depression with the Spanish version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, M; Torralva, T; López, P; Marengo, J; Cetkovich, M; Manes, F

    In clinical practice it is often difficult to establish whether cognitive impairment is secondary to an affective disorder or a dementing process. To describe the cognitive performance on the Spanish version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) of patients with early dementia and depression. 77 patients with early dementia (53 Alzheimer disease; 24 frontotemporal dementia), 17 patients with major depression and 54 healthy volunteers were tested with the Spanish version of the ACE. Alzheimer disease and frontotemporal dementia groups were significantly lower than the control group and the major depression group. When the major depression group was compared with the control group no significant differences were found. The cognitive performance in the ACE is different in patients with early dementia and patient with depression.

  13. Differential effects of water-based exercise on the cognitive function in independent elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daisuke; Seko, Chihiro; Hashitomi, Tatsuya; Sengoku, Yasuo; Nomura, Takeo

    2015-04-01

    Physical exercise has been reported to be the most effective method to improve cognitive function and brain health, but there is as yet no research on the effect of water-based exercise. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of water-based exercise with and without cognitive stimuli on cognitive and physical functions. The design is a single-blind randomized controlled study. Twenty-one participants were randomly assigned to a normal water-based exercise (Nor-WE) group or a cognitive water-based exercise (Cog-WE) group. The exercise sessions were divided into two exercise series: a 10-min series of land-based warm-up, consisting of flexibility exercises, and a 50-min series of exercises in water. The Nor-WE consisted of 10 min of walking, 30 min of strength and stepping exercise, including stride over, and 10 min of stretching and relaxation in water. The Cog-WE consisted of 10 min of walking, 30 min of water-cognitive exercises, and 10 min of stretching and relaxation in water. Cognitive function, physical function, and ADL were measured before the exercise intervention (pre-intervention) and 10 weeks after the intervention (post-intervention). Participation in the Cog-WE performed significantly better on the pegboard test and the choice stepping reaction test and showed a significantly improved attention, memory, and learning, and in the general cognitive function (measured as the total score in the 5-Cog test). Participation in the Nor-WE dramatically improved walking ability and lower limb muscle strength. Our results reveal that the benefits elderly adults may obtain from water-based exercise depend on the characteristics of each specific exercise program. These findings highlight the importance of prescription for personalized water-based exercises to elderly adults to improve cognitive function.

  14. Effective connectivity within the frontoparietal control network differentiates cognitive control and working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Ian H; Yücel, Murat; Harrison, Ben J; Pantelis, Christos; Breakspear, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Cognitive control and working memory rely upon a common fronto-parietal network that includes the inferior frontal junction (IFJ), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), pre-supplementary motor area/dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (pSMA/dACC), and intraparietal sulcus (IPS). This network is able to flexibly adapt its function in response to changing behavioral goals, mediating a wide range of cognitive demands. Here we apply dynamic causal modeling to functional magnetic resonance imaging data to characterize task-related alterations in the strength of network interactions across distinct cognitive processes. Evidence in favor of task-related connectivity dynamics was accrued across a very large space of possible network structures. Cognitive control and working memory demands were manipulated using a factorial combination of the multi-source interference task and a verbal 2-back working memory task, respectively. Both were found to alter the sensitivity of the IFJ to perceptual information, and to increase IFJ-to-pSMA/dACC connectivity. In contrast, increased connectivity from the pSMA/dACC to the IPS, as well as from the dlPFC to the IFJ, was uniquely driven by cognitive control demands; a task-induced negative influence of the dlPFC on the pSMA/dACC was specific to working memory demands. These results reflect a system of both shared and unique context-dependent dynamics within the fronto-parietal network. Mechanisms supporting cognitive engagement, response selection, and action evaluation may be shared across cognitive domains, while dynamic updating of task and context representations within this network are potentially specific to changing demands on cognitive control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Structural plasticity of the social brain: Differential change after socio-affective and cognitive mental training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valk, Sofie L; Bernhardt, Boris C; Trautwein, Fynn-Mathis; Böckler, Anne; Kanske, Philipp; Guizard, Nicolas; Collins, D Louis; Singer, Tania

    2017-10-01

    Although neuroscientific research has revealed experience-dependent brain changes across the life span in sensory, motor, and cognitive domains, plasticity relating to social capacities remains largely unknown. To investigate whether the targeted mental training of different cognitive and social skills can induce specific changes in brain morphology, we collected longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data throughout a 9-month mental training intervention from a large sample of adults between 20 and 55 years of age. By means of various daily mental exercises and weekly instructed group sessions, training protocols specifically addressed three functional domains: (i) mindfulness-based attention and interoception, (ii) socio-affective skills (compassion, dealing with difficult emotions, and prosocial motivation), and (iii) socio-cognitive skills (cognitive perspective-taking on self and others and metacognition). MRI-based cortical thickness analyses, contrasting the different training modules against each other, indicated spatially diverging changes in cortical morphology. Training of present-moment focused attention mostly led to increases in cortical thickness in prefrontal regions, socio-affective training induced plasticity in frontoinsular regions, and socio-cognitive training included change in inferior frontal and lateral temporal cortices. Module-specific structural brain changes correlated with training-induced behavioral improvements in the same individuals in domain-specific measures of attention, compassion, and cognitive perspective-taking, respectively, and overlapped with task-relevant functional networks. Our longitudinal findings indicate structural plasticity in well-known socio-affective and socio-cognitive brain networks in healthy adults based on targeted short daily mental practices. These findings could promote the development of evidence-based mental training interventions in clinical, educational, and corporate settings aimed at

  16. Insulin is Differentially Related to Cognitive Decline and Atrophy in Alzheimer’s Disease and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jeffrey M.; Honea, Robyn A.; Vidoni, Eric D.; Hutfles, Lewis; Brooks, William M.; Swerdlow, Russell H.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the relationship of insulin resistance with cognitive decline and brain atrophy over two years in early Alzheimer’s disease (AD, n=48) and nondemented controls (n=61). Intravenous glucose tolerance tests were conducted at baseline to determine insulin area-under-the-curve (AUC). A standard battery of cognitive tasks and MRI were conducted at baseline and 2-year follow-up. In nondemented controls, higher baseline insulin AUC was associated with 2-year decline in global cognitive performance (beta=−0.36, p=0.005). In early AD, however, higher insulin AUC was associated with less decline in global cognitive performance (beta=0.26, p=0.06), slower global brain atrophy (beta=0.40, p=0.01) and less regional atrophy in the bilateral hippocampi and cingulate cortices. While insulin resistance is associated with cognitive decline in nondemented aging, higher peripheral insulin may have AD-specific benefits or insulin signaling may be affected by systemic physiologic changes associated with AD. PMID:21745566

  17. Differential effects of cognitive load on emotion: Emotion maintenance versus passive experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFraine, William C

    2016-06-01

    Two separate lines of research have examined the effects of cognitive load on emotional processing with similar tasks but seemingly contradictory results. Some research has shown that the emotions elicited by passive viewing of emotional images are reduced by subsequent cognitive load. Other research has shown that such emotions are not reduced by cognitive load if the emotions are actively maintained. The present study sought to compare and resolve these 2 lines of research. Participants either passively viewed negative emotional images or maintained the emotions elicited by the images, and after a delay rated the intensity of the emotion they were feeling. Half of trials included a math task during the delay to induce cognitive load, and the other half did not. Results showed that cognitive load reduced the intensity of negative emotions during passive-viewing of emotional images but not during emotion maintenance. The present study replicates the findings of both lines of research, and shows that the key factor is whether or not emotions are actively maintained. Also, in the context of previous emotion maintenance research, the present results support the theoretical idea of a separable emotion maintenance process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Socio-Cognitive Phenotypes Differentially Modulate Large-Scale Structural Covariance Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valk, Sofie L; Bernhardt, Boris C; Böckler, Anne; Trautwein, Fynn-Mathis; Kanske, Philipp; Singer, Tania

    2017-02-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have suggested the existence of 2 largely distinct social cognition networks, one for theory of mind (taking others' cognitive perspective) and another for empathy (sharing others' affective states). To address whether these networks can also be dissociated at the level of brain structure, we combined behavioral phenotyping across multiple socio-cognitive tasks with 3-Tesla MRI cortical thickness and structural covariance analysis in 270 healthy adults, recruited across 2 sites. Regional thickness mapping only provided partial support for divergent substrates, highlighting that individual differences in empathy relate to left insular-opercular thickness while no correlation between thickness and mentalizing scores was found. Conversely, structural covariance analysis showed clearly divergent network modulations by socio-cognitive and -affective phenotypes. Specifically, individual differences in theory of mind related to structural integration between temporo-parietal and dorsomedial prefrontal regions while empathy modulated the strength of dorsal anterior insula networks. Findings were robust across both recruitment sites, suggesting generalizability. At the level of structural network embedding, our study provides a double dissociation between empathy and mentalizing. Moreover, our findings suggest that structural substrates of higher-order social cognition are reflected rather in interregional networks than in the the local anatomical markup of specific regions per se. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression Using Mind Over Mood: CBT Skill Use and Differential Symptom Alleviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Lance L; Padesky, Christine A; Hollon, Steven D; Mancuso, Enza; Laposa, Judith M; Brozina, Karen; Segal, Zindel V

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression is highly effective. An essential element of this therapy involves acquiring and utilizing CBT skills; however, it is unclear whether the type of CBT skill used is associated with differential symptom alleviation. Outpatients (N = 356) diagnosed with a primary mood disorder received 14 two-hour group sessions of CBT for depression, using the Mind Over Mood protocol. In each session, patients completed the Beck Depression Inventory and throughout the week they reported on their use of CBT skills: behavioral activation (BA), cognitive restructuring (CR), and core belief (CB) strategies. Bivariate latent difference score (LDS) longitudinal analyses were used to examine patterns of differential skill use and subsequent symptom change, and multigroup LDS analyses were used to determine whether longitudinal associations differed as a function of initial depression severity. Higher levels of BA use were associated with a greater subsequent decrease in depressive symptoms for patients with mild to moderate initial depression symptoms relative to those with severe symptoms. Higher levels of CR use were associated with a greater subsequent decrease in depressive symptoms, whereas higher levels of CB use were followed by a subsequent increase in depressive symptoms, regardless of initial severity. Results indicated that the type of CBT skill used is associated with differential patterns of subsequent symptom change. BA use was associated with differential subsequent change as a function of initial severity (patients with less severe depression symptoms demonstrated greater symptom improvement), whereas CR use was associated with symptom alleviation and CB use with an increase in subsequent symptoms as related to initial severity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Differential effects of enriched environment at work on cognitive decline in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Then, Francisca S; Luck, Tobias; Luppa, Melanie; König, Hans-Helmut; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2015-05-26

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how different mentally demanding work conditions during the professional life-i.e., enriched environments at work-might influence the rate of cognitive decline in old age. Individuals (n = 1,054) of the Leipzig Longitudinal Study of the Aged, a representative population-based cohort study of individuals aged 75 years and older, underwent cognitive testing via the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in up to 6 measurement waves. Type and level of mentally demanding work conditions in the participants' former professional life were classified based on the O*NET job descriptor database. In multivariate mixed-model analyses (controlling for sociodemographic and health-related factors), a high level of mentally demanding work tasks stimulating verbal intelligence was significantly associated with a better cognitive functioning at baseline (on average 5 MMSE points higher) as well as a lower rate of cognitive decline (on average 2 MMSE points less) over the 8-year follow-up period compared with a low level. The rate of cognitive decline in old age was also significantly lower (on average 3 MMSE points less) in individuals who had a high level of mentally demanding work tasks stimulating executive functions than those who had a low level. The results suggest that a professional life enriched with work tasks stimulating verbal intelligence and executive functions may help to sustain a good cognitive functioning in old age (75+ years). The findings thus emphasize that today's challenging work conditions may also promote positive health effects. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  1. Aromas of rosemary and lavender essential oils differentially affect cognition and mood in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Mark; Cook, Jenny; Wesnes, Keith; Duckett, Paul

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the olfactory impact of the essential oils of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and rosemary (Rosmarlnus officinalis) on cognitive performance and mood in healthy volunteers. One hundred and forty-four participants were randomly assigned to one of three independent groups, and subsequently performed the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerized cognitive assessment battery in a cubicle containing either one of the two odors or no odor (control). Visual analogue mood questionnaires were completed prior to exposure to the odor, and subsequently after completion of the test battery. The participants were deceived as to the genuine aim of the study until the completion of testing to prevent expectancy effects from possibly influencing the data. The outcome variables from the nine tasks that constitute the CDR core battery feed into six factors that represent different aspects of cognitive functioning. Analysis of performance revealed that lavender produced a significant decrement in performance of working memory, and impaired reaction times for both memory and attention based tasks compared to controls. In contrast, rosemary produced a significant enhancement of performance for overall quality of memory and secondary memory factors, but also produced an impairment of speed of memory compared to controls. With regard to mood, comparisons of the change in ratings from baseline to post-test revealed that following the completion of the cognitive assessment battery, both the control and lavender groups were significantly less alert than the rosemary condition; however, the control group was significantly less content than both rosemary and lavender conditions. These findings indicate that the olfactory properties of these essential oils can produce objective effects on cognitive performance, as well as subjective effects on mood.

  2. Integrating the Differentiated: A Review of the Personal Construct Approach to Cognitive Complexity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářová, Marie; Filip, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 4 (2015), s. 342-366 ISSN 1072-0537 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/12/2432 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : cognitive complexity * psychology of personal constructs * repertory grid technique Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.333, year: 2015

  3. Cognitive benefit and cost of acute stress is differentially modulated by individual brain state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohn, N.; Hermans, E.J.; Fernandez, G.

    2017-01-01

    Acute stress is associated with beneficial as well as detrimental effects on cognition in different individuals. However, it is not yet known how stress can have such opposing effects. Stroop-like tasks typically show this dissociation: stress diminishes speed, but improves accuracy. We investigated

  4. Development of Planning Abilities in Normal Aging: Differential Effects of Specific Cognitive Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köstering, Lena; Stahl, Christoph; Leonhart, Rainer; Weiller, Cornelius; Kaller, Christoph P.

    2014-01-01

    In line with the frontal hypothesis of aging, the ability to plan ahead undergoes substantial change during normal aging. Although impairments on the Tower of London planning task were reported earlier, associations between age-related declines and specific cognitive demands on planning have not been studied. Here we investigated the impact of…

  5. The differential effects of tangible rewards and praise on intrinsic motivation: A comparison of cognitive evaluation theory and operant theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carton, J S

    1996-01-01

    Substantial research indicates that tangible rewards, such as money, prizes, and tokens, decrease response rates by undermining intrinsic motivation. In contrast, praise appears to increase response rates by enhancing intrinsic motivation. Based on their interpretation of available evidence, many social-cognitive researchers warn not to use tangible rewards in applied settings and to use praise instead. Furthermore, they suggest that the differential effects of the two types of rewards on intrinsic motivation cannot be explained using principles of operant psychology. Cognitive evaluation theory provides one of the most recent and widely cited social-cognitive explanations for the different effects of the two types of rewards on intrinsic motivation (Deci & Ryan, 1985). However, a review of existing research found little support for the explanations based on this theory and revealed three potential confounding effects: (a) temporal contiguity, (b) the number of reward administrations, and (c) discriminative stimuli associated with reward availability. These three confounding factors provide explanations for the effects of tangible rewards and praise on intrinsic motivation that are consistent with principles of operant psychology.

  6. Cohorts based on decade of death: no evidence for secular trends favoring later cohorts in cognitive aging and terminal decline in the AHEAD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülür, Gizem; Infurna, Frank J; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2013-03-01

    Studies of birth-year cohorts examined over the same age range often report secular trends favoring later-born cohorts, who are cognitively fitter and show less steep cognitive declines than earlier-born cohorts. However, there is initial evidence that those advantages of later-born cohorts do not carry into the last years of life, suggesting that pervasive mortality-related processes minimize differences that were apparent earlier in life. Elaborating this work from an alternative perspective on cohort differences, we compared rates of cognitive aging and terminal decline in episodic memory between cohorts based on the year participants had died, earlier (between 1993 and 1999) or later in historical time (between 2000 and 2010). Specifically, we compared trajectories of cognitive decline in 2 death-year cohorts of participants in the Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old study that were matched on age at death and education and controlled for a variety of additional covariates. Results revealed little evidence of secular trends favoring later cohorts. To the contrary, the cohort that died in the 2000s showed a less favorable trajectory of age-related memory decline than the cohort that died in the 1990s. In examinations of change in relation to time to death, the cohort dying in the 2000s experienced even steeper terminal declines than the cohort dying in the 1990s. We suggest that secular increases in "manufacturing" survival may exacerbate age- and mortality-related cognitive declines among the oldest old.

  7. Differential spontaneous recovery across cognitive abilities during detoxification period in alcohol-dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Petit

    Full Text Available There is a lack of consensus regarding the extent to which cognitive dysfunctions may recover upon cessation of alcohol intake by alcohol-dependents (AD, and the divergent findings are most likely due to methodological differences between the various studies. The present study was aimed at conducting a very strict longitudinal study of cognitive recovery in terms of assessment points, the duration of abstinence, control of age and duration of the addiction, and by use of individual analyses in addition to mean group comparisons. Our study further focused on the 2-3 week phase of alcohol detoxification that is already known to positively affect many biological, emotional, motivational, as well as neural variables, followed by longer-term therapies for which good cognitive functioning is needed.41 AD inpatients undergoing a detoxification program, and 41 matched controls, were evaluated twice in terms of five cognitive functions (i.e., short-term memory, working memory, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and verbal fluency within a three-week interval [on the first day (T1 and the 18th day (T2 of abstinence for AD patients]. Emotional (positive and negative affectivity and depression and motivational (craving variables were also measured at both evaluation times.Although verbal fluency, short-term memory, and cognitive flexibility did not appear to be affected, the patients exhibited impaired inhibition and working memory at T1. While no recovery of inhibition was found to occur, the average working memory performance of the patients was comparable to that of the controls at T2. Improvements in emotional and motivational dimensions were also observed, although they did not correlate with the ones in working memory. Individual analysis showed that not all participants were impaired or recover the same functions.While inhibition deficits appear to persist after 18 days of detoxification, deficits in working memory, which is a central component of

  8. Differential diagnosis of depression and Alzheimer's disease with the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotomskis, Augustinas; Margevičiūtė, Ramunė; Germanavičius, Arūnas; Kaubrys, Gintaras; Budrys, Valmantas; Bagdonas, Albinas

    2015-04-17

    One of the usual problems psychologists and clinicians face in clinical practice is differential diagnostics of Alzheimer's disease and depression. It has been reported that the ACE and ACE-R could discriminate the cognitive dysfunctions due to depression from that due to dementia, although this is not uniform in all studies. The current study aimed to evaluate the utility of the ACE-R to differentiate late-life onset depression (with severe episode) from mild-moderate Alzheimer's Disease (AD). This study received approval from the Lithuanian Bioethics Committee. All participants were older than 50 years (mean age = 66.52 (±8.76) years). The study sample consisted of 295 individuals: 117 with severe depression, 85 with mild-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 94 age, gender and education matched participants of control group. The ACE-R had high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (81%) at detecting cognitive impairments related to AD. Patients with late-life onset depression (ACE-R mean 76.82, SD = 7.36) performed worse than controls (ACE-R mean 85.08, SD = 7.2), but better than the AD group (ACE-R mean 54.74, SD = 12.19). Participants with late-life onset depression were differentiated by mild impairment in the ACE-R total score with mild memory (13.79, SD = 6.29) and greater deficits in letter fluency (3.65, SD = 1.21) than in semantic fluency (4.68, SD = 1.23). Participants with AD were differentiated by severely impaired performance on attention and orientation (11.80, SD = 2.93), memory (8.25, SD = 3.47) and language subtests (17.21, SD = 4.04), and moderately impaired performance on verbal fluency (6.07, SD = 2.74). ACE-R has diagnostic accuracy in detecting people with AD and can be used in differential diagnostics of late-life onset depression (severe episode) and AD. Diagnostic accuracy may be improved by analyzing the neuropsychological profiles and using lower cutoffs for different age groups.

  9. Cognitive functioning differentially predicts different dimensions of older drivers' on-road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksan, Nazan; Anderson, Steve W; Dawson, Jeffrey; Uc, Ergun; Rizzo, Matthew

    2015-02-01

    The extent to which deficits in specific cognitive domains contribute to older drivers' safety risk in complex real-world driving tasks is not well understood. We selected 148 drivers older than 70 years of age both with and without neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer disease-AD and Parkinson disease-PD) from an existing driving database of older adults. Participant assessments included on-road driving safety and cognitive functioning in visuospatial construction, speed of processing, memory, and executive functioning. The standardized on-road drive test was designed to examine multiple facets of older driver safety including navigation performance (e.g., following a route, identifying landmarks), safety errors while concurrently performing secondary navigation tasks ("on-task" safety errors), and safety errors in the absence of any secondary navigation tasks ("baseline" safety errors). The inter-correlations of these outcome measures were fair to moderate supporting their distinctiveness. Participants with diseases performed worse than the healthy aging group on all driving measures and differences between those with AD and PD were minimal. In multivariate analyses, different domains of cognitive functioning predicted distinct facets of driver safety on road. Memory and set-shifting predicted performance in navigation-related secondary tasks, speed of processing predicted on-task safety errors, and visuospatial construction predicted baseline safety errors. These findings support broad assessments of cognitive functioning to inform decisions regarding older driver safety on the road and suggest navigation performance may be useful in evaluating older driver fitness and restrictions in licensing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Differential cognitive effects of energy drink ingredients: caffeine, taurine, and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Grace E; Mahoney, Caroline R; Brunyé, Tad T; Gardony, Aaron L; Taylor, Holly A; Kanarek, Robin B

    2012-10-01

    Energy drinks containing caffeine, taurine, and glucose may improve mood and cognitive performance. However, there are no studies assessing the individual and interactive effects of these ingredients. We evaluated the effects of caffeine, taurine, and glucose alone and in combination on cognitive performance and mood in 24-hour caffeine-abstained habitual caffeine consumers. Using a randomized, double-blind, mixed design, 48 habitual caffeine consumers (18 male, 30 female) who were 24-hour caffeine deprived received one of four treatments (200 mg caffeine/0 mg taurine, 0 mg caffeine/2000 mg taurine, 200 mg caffeine/2000 mg taurine, 0 mg caffeine/0 mg taurine), on each of four separate days, separated by a 3-day wash-out period. Between-participants treatment was a glucose drink (50 g glucose, placebo). Salivary cortisol, mood and heart rate were measured. An attention task was administered 30-minutes post-treatment, followed by a working memory and reaction time task 60-minutes post-treatment. Caffeine enhanced executive control and working memory, and reduced simple and choice reaction time. Taurine increased choice reaction time but reduced reaction time in the working memory tasks. Glucose alone slowed choice reaction time. Glucose in combination with caffeine, enhanced object working memory and in combination with taurine, enhanced orienting attention. Limited glucose effects may reflect low task difficulty relative to subjects' cognitive ability. Caffeine reduced feelings of fatigue and increased tension and vigor. Taurine reversed the effects of caffeine on vigor and caffeine-withdrawal symptoms. No effects were found for salivary cortisol or heart rate. Caffeine, not taurine or glucose, is likely responsible for reported changes in cognitive performance following consumption of energy drinks, especially in caffeine-withdrawn habitual caffeine consumers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Korean Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (K-ACER) for differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and subcortical ischemic vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Yong Tae; Yang, Youngsoon; Kim, Gyung Whan

    2010-10-01

    Sensitive, specific neuropsychological screening tests, such as the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R), are essential for dementia diagnosis. We aimed to validate the use of the Korean version of ACE-R (K-ACER) to differentiate Alzheimer's disease (AD) from subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD). Standard tests for dementia screening were applied to 156 subjects (84 controls, 30 AD, 42 SIVD), and total and sub-domain scores on the K-ACER, as well as the sub-domain ratio (VLOM), were compared. The reliability of the K-ACER was very good (α-coefficient 0.84), and cut-off score for dementia was determined (cut-off value 78, sensitivity 0.93, specificity 0.95). The likelihood ratio for dementia was calculated as between 78 and 82. At a cut-off of 78, the likelihood of dementia was 18.6:1. Although a comparison of K-ACER scores between AD and SIVD patients revealed significant differences in verbal fluency, language domain and VLOM ratio, sensitivity and specificity for differential diagnosis between AD and SVID proved less accurate. The K-ACER is a rapid, sensitive and specific dementia screening test. Though sub-domains of items may be useful for differentiating between AD and SIVD, sensitivity and specificity is less accurate than dementia screening itself. © 2010 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  12. QoS Differential Scheduling in Cognitive-Radio-Based Smart Grid Networks: An Adaptive Dynamic Programming Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rong; Zhong, Weifeng; Xie, Shengli; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yun

    2016-02-01

    As the next-generation power grid, smart grid will be integrated with a variety of novel communication technologies to support the explosive data traffic and the diverse requirements of quality of service (QoS). Cognitive radio (CR), which has the favorable ability to improve the spectrum utilization, provides an efficient and reliable solution for smart grid communications networks. In this paper, we study the QoS differential scheduling problem in the CR-based smart grid communications networks. The scheduler is responsible for managing the spectrum resources and arranging the data transmissions of smart grid users (SGUs). To guarantee the differential QoS, the SGUs are assigned to have different priorities according to their roles and their current situations in the smart grid. Based on the QoS-aware priority policy, the scheduler adjusts the channels allocation to minimize the transmission delay of SGUs. The entire transmission scheduling problem is formulated as a semi-Markov decision process and solved by the methodology of adaptive dynamic programming. A heuristic dynamic programming (HDP) architecture is established for the scheduling problem. By the online network training, the HDP can learn from the activities of primary users and SGUs, and adjust the scheduling decision to achieve the purpose of transmission delay minimization. Simulation results illustrate that the proposed priority policy ensures the low transmission delay of high priority SGUs. In addition, the emergency data transmission delay is also reduced to a significantly low level, guaranteeing the differential QoS in smart grid.

  13. Biomarker clusters are differentially associated with longitudinal cognitive decline in late midlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Annie M.; Koscik, Rebecca L.; Berman, Sara E.; Nicholas, Christopher R.; Clark, Lindsay R.; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Rowley, Howard A.; Asthana, Sanjay; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Gleason, Carey E.; Carlsson, Cynthia M.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to detect preclinical Alzheimer’s disease is of great importance, as this stage of the Alzheimer’s continuum is believed to provide a key window for intervention and prevention. As Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by multiple pathological changes, a biomarker panel reflecting co-occurring pathology will likely be most useful for early detection. Towards this end, 175 late middle-aged participants (mean age 55.9 ± 5.7 years at first cognitive assessment, 70% female) were recruited from two longitudinally followed cohorts to undergo magnetic resonance imaging and lumbar puncture. Cluster analysis was used to group individuals based on biomarkers of amyloid pathology (cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β42/amyloid-β40 assay levels), magnetic resonance imaging-derived measures of neurodegeneration/atrophy (cerebrospinal fluid-to-brain volume ratio, and hippocampal volume), neurofibrillary tangles (cerebrospinal fluid phosphorylated tau181 assay levels), and a brain-based marker of vascular risk (total white matter hyperintensity lesion volume). Four biomarker clusters emerged consistent with preclinical features of (i) Alzheimer’s disease; (ii) mixed Alzheimer’s disease and vascular aetiology; (iii) suspected non-Alzheimer’s disease aetiology; and (iv) healthy ageing. Cognitive decline was then analysed between clusters using longitudinal assessments of episodic memory, semantic memory, executive function, and global cognitive function with linear mixed effects modelling. Cluster 1 exhibited a higher intercept and greater rates of decline on tests of episodic memory. Cluster 2 had a lower intercept on a test of semantic memory and both Cluster 2 and Cluster 3 had steeper rates of decline on a test of global cognition. Additional analyses on Cluster 3, which had the smallest hippocampal volume, suggest that its biomarker profile is more likely due to hippocampal vulnerability and not to detectable specific volume loss exceeding the rate of normal

  14. [From acute victimization at chronic victimization: socio-cognitive approach of differential tolerance threshold].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, M; Przygodzki-Lionet, N; Masclet, G

    2006-01-01

    own resources. These modulators would correspond to the social evaluation of the stressor and the adjustment strategies adopted by the victims. We then postulate the fact that these interfering variables would determine a connection between the type of victimization and the series of signs and symptoms generated. In other words, the aversive modes would refer to a process of significance via these interpolated socio-cognitive factors, thus forming a trace of the traumatic event according to the tolerance threshold expressed. More precisely, our assumption consists in postulating that the insidious and latent aspect of harassment which is supposed to support a dispositional attribution of the harasser's intrigues as well as the preferential adoption of coping strategies centred on emotional control, would lower the victims' tolerance threshold further, than a visible and instantaneous hold-up which is supposed to condition an essentially situational perception and the adoption of strategies mainly directed towards the problem. Since this study is the subject of a comparative research strategy, its required the constitution of three independent samples: ten harassment victims; seven armed attack victims; ten witnesses, all salaried employees; they had not been subjected to either type of attack but were questioned about a working life event seen as stressful. The three groups, set up according to sex and age considerations, agreed to be subjected to a semi-directive interview. Considering the exploratory nature of this present research, the process proved to be most suitable since, through the filter of the people's subjectivity, it clearly determined the meaning granted by the victim to the aversive situation. In order to comply with a standardization preoccupation, each interview was identically structured using a preset question grid and similar operating conditions. The data collected were then subjected to four levels of analysis. An analysis of contents, centred

  15. Gender differentiations of cognitive-motor functioning in prepubertal and pubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katić, Ratko; Bala, Gustav; Barović, Zdenka

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine cognitive and motor status factors in female and male children aged 10-14, as well as developmental and/or integration functions according to gender. The study included 162 girls and 134 boys aged 10-14, divided into four groups: 84 girls aged 10-12 (mean age 11.26, SD 0.68), 84 boys aged 10-12 (mean age 11.41, SD 0.50), 78 girls aged 13-14 (mean age 13.52, SD 0.63) and 50 boys aged 13-14 (mean age 13.21, SD 0.53). The significance of quantitative differences between boys and girls in the overall system of variables was defined based on the results of canonic discriminant analysis of variance, and within each variable based on the results on univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA). In the younger age group (10-12 years), girls were superior to boys in a test assessing flexibility (Seated straddle stretch), whereas, compared to girls, boys had greater strength of the trunk (Crossed-arm sit-ups), greater explosive strength ofjump and sprint type (Standing broad jump and 20 m dash), and coordination (Obstacle course backwards and Steps laterally). In the older age group (13-14 years) differences in flexibility were even more prominent in favor of girls, whereas the differences in explosive strength increased in favor of boys, especially of the throwing type with better agility (Steps laterally), balance (Board balance) and greater static strength of arms and shoulders (Bent-arm hang). In order to determine qualitative differences between pubertal and prepubertal girls and boys, the matrix of variable inter-correlations was factorized by the procedure of principal components procedure, that were then transformed to promax solution. The results showed that cognitive functioning had a significant role in the motor efficacy of girls and boys aged 10 to 14. In the age group of 10-12 years, in females, cognitive functioning is related to the motor system which integrates the regulation of muscle tone with agility/coordination, whereas

  16. Differential effects of acute and regular physical exercise on cognition and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, M E; Davis, F C; Vantieghem, M R; Whalen, P J; Bucci, D J

    2012-07-26

    The effects of regular exercise versus a single bout of exercise on cognition, anxiety, and mood were systematically examined in healthy, sedentary young adults who were genotyped to determine brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) allelic status (i.e., Val-Val or Val66Met polymorphism). Participants were evaluated on novel object recognition (NOR) memory and a battery of mental health surveys before and after engaging in either (a) a 4-week exercise program, with exercise on the final test day, (b) a 4-week exercise program, without exercise on the final test day, (c) a single bout of exercise on the final test day, or (d) remaining sedentary between test days. Exercise enhanced object recognition memory and produced a beneficial decrease in perceived stress, but only in participants who exercised for 4 weeks including the final day of testing. In contrast, a single bout of exercise did not affect recognition memory and resulted in increased perceived stress levels. An additional novel finding was that the improvements on the NOR task were observed exclusively in participants who were homozygous for the BDNF Val allele, indicating that altered activity-dependent release of BDNF in Met allele carriers may attenuate the cognitive benefits of exercise. Importantly, exercise-induced changes in cognition were not correlated with changes in mood/anxiety, suggesting that separate neural systems mediate these effects. These data in humans mirror recent data from our group in rodents. Taken together, these current findings provide new insights into the behavioral and neural mechanisms that mediate the effects of physical exercise on memory and mental health in humans. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Differential Effects of Acute and Regular Physical Exercise on Cognition and Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Michael E.; Davis, F. Caroline; VanTieghem, Michelle R.; Whalen, Paul J.; Bucci, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of regular exercise versus a single bout of exercise on cognition, anxiety, and mood were systematically examined in healthy, sedentary young adults who were genotyped to determine brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) allelic status (i.e., Val-Val or Val66Met polymorphism). Participants were evaluated on novel object recognition (NOR) memory and a battery of mental health surveys before and after engaging in either a) a four-week exercise program, with exercise on the final test day, b) a four-week exercise program, without exercise on the final test day, c) a single bout of exercise on the final test day, or d) remaining sedentary between test days. Exercise enhanced object recognition memory and produced a beneficial decrease in perceived stress, but only in participants who exercised for four weeks including the final day of testing. In contrast, a single bout of exercise did not affect recognition memory and resulted in increased perceived stress levels. An additional novel finding was that the improvements on the NOR task were observed exclusively in participants who were homozygous for the BDNF Val allele, indicating that altered activity-dependent release of BDNF in Met allele carriers may attenuate the cognitive benefits of exercise. Importantly, exercise-induced changes in cognition were not correlated with changes in mood/anxiety, suggesting that separate neural systems mediate these effects. These data in humans mirror recent data from our group in rodents. Taken together, these current findings provide new insights into the behavioral and neural mechanisms that mediate the effects of physical exercise on memory and mental health in humans. PMID:22554780

  18. Intelligence, creativity, and cognitive control: The common and differential involvement of executive functions in intelligence and creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Mathias; Jauk, Emanuel; Sommer, Markus; Arendasy, Martin; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.

    2014-01-01

    Intelligence and creativity are known to be correlated constructs suggesting that they share a common cognitive basis. The present study assessed three specific executive abilities – updating, shifting, and inhibition – and examined their common and differential relations to fluid intelligence and creativity (i.e., divergent thinking ability) within a latent variable model approach. Additionally, it was tested whether the correlation of fluid intelligence and creativity can be explained by a common executive involvement. As expected, fluid intelligence was strongly predicted by updating, but not by shifting or inhibition. Creativity was predicted by updating and inhibition, but not by shifting. Moreover, updating (and the personality factor openness) was found to explain a relevant part of the shared variance between intelligence and creativity. The findings provide direct support for the executive involvement in creative thought and shed further light on the functional relationship between intelligence and creativity. PMID:25278640

  19. Personality and Differential Treatment Response in Major Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy and Pharmacotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagby, R Michael; Quilty, Lena C; Segal, Zindel V; McBride, Carolina C; Kennedy, Sidney H; Costa, Paul T

    2008-01-01

    Objective Effective treatments for major depressive disorder exist, yet some patients fail to respond, or achieve only partial response. One approach to optimizing treatment success is to identify which patients are more likely to respond best to which treatments. The objective of this investigation was to determine if patient personality characteristics are predictive of response to either cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) or pharmacotherapy (PHT). Method Depressed patients completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, which measures the higher-order domain and lower-order facet traits of the Five-Factor Model of Personality, and were randomized to receive either CBT or PHT. Result Four personality traits—the higher-order domain neuroticism and 3 lower-order facet traits: trust, straightforwardness, and tendermindedness—were able to distinguish a differential response rate to CBT, compared with PHT. Conclusion The assessment of patient dimensional personality traits can assist in the selection and optimization of treatment response for depressed patients. PMID:18616856

  20. Emotional and cognitive stimuli differentially engage the default network during inductive reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Eldaief, Mark C.; Deckersbach, Thilo; Carlson, Lindsay E.; Beucke, Jan C.; Dougherty, Darin D.

    2011-01-01

    The brain’s default network (DN) is comprised of several cortical regions demonstrating robust intrinsic connectivity at rest. The authors sought to examine the differential effects of emotional reasoning and reasoning under certainty upon the DN through the employment of an event-related fMRI design in healthy participants. Participants were presented with syllogistic arguments which were organized into a 2 × 2 factorial design in which the first factor was emotional salience and the second ...

  1. Effort testing in children: can cognitive and symptom validity measures differentiate malingered performances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambo, Philip L; Callahan, Jennifer L; Hogan, Lindsey R; Hullmann, Stephanie; Wrape, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Recent efforts have contributed to significant advances in the detection of malingered performances in adults during cognitive assessment. However, children's ability to purposefully underperform has received relatively little attention. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine children's performances on common intellectual measures, as well as two symptom validity measures: the Test of Memory Malingering and the Dot-Counting Test. This was accomplished through the administration of measures to children ages 6 to 12 years old in randomly assigned full-effort (control) and poor-effort (treatment) conditions. Prior to randomization, children's general intellectual functioning (i.e., IQ) was estimated via administration of the Kaufman Brief Intellectual Battery-Second Edition (KBIT-2). Multivariate analyses revealed that the conditions significantly differed on some but not all administered measures. Specifically, children's estimated IQ in the treatment condition significantly differed from the full-effort IQ initially obtained from the same children on the KBIT-2, as well as from the IQs obtained in the full-effort control condition. These findings suggest that children are fully capable of willfully underperforming during cognitive testing; however, consistent with prior investigations, some measures evidence greater sensitivity than others in evaluating effort.

  2. Heterogeneity in Red Wine Polyphenolic Contents Differentially Influences Alzheimer's Disease-type Neuropathology and Cognitive Deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lap; Chen, Ling Hong; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Wei; Talcott, Stephen T.; Ono, Kenjiro; Teplow, David; Humala, Nelson; Cheng, Alice; Percival, Susan S.; Ferruzzi, Mario; Janle, Elsa; Dickstein, Dara L.; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria

    2009-01-01

    We recently found that moderate consumption of two unrelated red wines generate from different grape species, a Cabernet Sauvignon and a muscadine wine that are characterized by distinct component composition of polyphenolic compounds, significantly attenuated the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-type brain pathology and memory deterioration in a transgenic AD mouse model. Interestingly, our evidence suggests that the two red wines attenuated AD phenotypes through independent mechanisms. In particular, we previously found that treatment with Cabernet Sauvignon reduced the generation of AD-type amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. In contrast, evidence from our present study suggests that muscadine treatment attenuates Aβ neuropathology and Aβ-related cognitive deterioration in Tg2576 mice by interfering with the oligomerization of Aβ molecules to soluble high-molecular-weight Aβ oligomer species that are responsible for initiating a cascade of cellular events resulting in cognitive decline. Collectively, our observations suggest that distinct polyphenolic compounds from red wines may be bioavailable at the organism level and beneficially modulate AD phenotypes through multiple Aβ-related mechanisms. Results from these studies suggest the possibility of developing a “combination” of dietary polyphenolic compounds for AD prevention and/or therapy by modulating multiple Aβ-related mechanisms. PMID:19158422

  3. Cognitive benefit and cost of acute stress is differentially modulated by individual brain state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Nils; Hermans, Erno J; Fernández, Guillén

    2017-07-01

    Acute stress is associated with beneficial as well as detrimental effects on cognition in different individuals. However, it is not yet known how stress can have such opposing effects. Stroop-like tasks typically show this dissociation: stress diminishes speed, but improves accuracy. We investigated accuracy and speed during a stroop-like task of 120 healthy male subjects after an experimental stress induction or control condition in a randomized, counter-balanced cross-over design; we assessed brain-behavior associations and determined the influence of individual brain connectivity patterns on these associations, which may moderate the effect and help identify stress resilience factors. In the mean, stress was associated to increase in accuracy, but decrease in speed. Accuracy was associated to brain activation in a distributed set of brain regions overlapping with the executive control network (ECN) and speed to temporo-parietal activation. In line with a stress-related large-scale network reconfiguration, individuals showing an upregulation of the salience and down-regulation of the executive-control network under stress displayed increased speed, but decreased performance. In contrast, individuals who upregulate their ECN under stress show improved performance. Our results indicate that the individual large-scale brain network balance under acute stress moderates cognitive consequences of threat. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Cognitive benefit and cost of acute stress is differentially modulated by individual brain state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Erno J.; Fernández, Guillén

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Acute stress is associated with beneficial as well as detrimental effects on cognition in different individuals. However, it is not yet known how stress can have such opposing effects. Stroop-like tasks typically show this dissociation: stress diminishes speed, but improves accuracy. We investigated accuracy and speed during a stroop-like task of 120 healthy male subjects after an experimental stress induction or control condition in a randomized, counter-balanced cross-over design; we assessed brain–behavior associations and determined the influence of individual brain connectivity patterns on these associations, which may moderate the effect and help identify stress resilience factors. In the mean, stress was associated to increase in accuracy, but decrease in speed. Accuracy was associated to brain activation in a distributed set of brain regions overlapping with the executive control network (ECN) and speed to temporo-parietal activation. In line with a stress-related large-scale network reconfiguration, individuals showing an upregulation of the salience and down-regulation of the executive-control network under stress displayed increased speed, but decreased performance. In contrast, individuals who upregulate their ECN under stress show improved performance. Our results indicate that the individual large-scale brain network balance under acute stress moderates cognitive consequences of threat. PMID:28402480

  5. Differentially Severe Cognitive Effects of Compromised Cerebral Blood Flow in Aged Mice: Association with Myelin Degradation and Microglia Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilly Wolf

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS models the effects of compromised cerebral blood flow on brain structure and function in mice. We compared the effects of BCAS in aged (21 month and young adult (3 month female mice, anticipating a differentially more severe effect in the older mice. Four weeks after surgery there was a significant age by time by treatment interaction on the radial-arm water maze (RAWM; p = 0.014: on the first day of the test, latencies of old mice were longer compared to the latencies of young adult mice, independent of BCAS. However, on the second day of the test, latencies of old BCAS mice were significantly longer than old control mice (p = 0.049, while latencies of old controls were similar to those of the young adult mice, indicating more severe impairment of hippocampal dependent learning and working memory by BCAS in the older mice. Fluorescence staining of myelin basic protein (MBP showed that old age and BCAS both induced a significant decrease in fluorescence intensity. Evaluation of the number oligodendrocyte precursor cells demonstrated augmented myelin replacement in old BCAS mice (p < 0.05 compared with young adult BCAS and old control mice. While microglia morphology was assessed as normal in young adult control and young adult BCAS mice, microglia of old BCAS mice exhibited striking activation in the area of degraded myelin compared to young adult BCAS (p < 0.01 and old control mice (p < 0.05. These findings show a differentially more severe effect of cerebral hypoperfusion on cognitive function, myelin integrity and inflammatory processes in aged mice. Hypoperfusion may exacerbate degradation initiated by aging, which may induce more severe neuronal and cognitive phenotypes.

  6. The differential item functioning and structural equivalence of a nonverbal cognitive ability test for five language groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Schaap

    2011-10-01

    Research purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the differential item functioning (DIF and structural equivalence of a nonverbal cognitive ability test (the PiB/SpEEx Observance test [401] for five South African language groups. Motivation for study: Cultural and language group sensitive tests can lead to unfair discrimination and is a contentious workplace issue in South Africa today. Misconceptions about psychometric testing in industry can cause tests to lose credibility if industries do not use a scientifically sound test-by-test evaluation approach. Research design, approach and method: The researcher used a quasi-experimental design and factor analytic and logistic regression techniques to meet the research aims. The study used a convenience sample drawn from industry and an educational institution. Main findings: The main findings of the study show structural equivalence of the test at a holistic level and nonsignificant DIF effect sizes for most of the comparisons that the researcher made. Practical/managerial implications: This research shows that the PIB/SpEEx Observance Test (401 is not completely language insensitive. One should see it rather as a language-reduced test when people from different language groups need testing. Contribution/value-add: The findings provide supporting evidence that nonverbal cognitive tests are plausible alternatives to verbal tests when one compares people from different language groups.

  7. Switching from reaching to navigation: differential cognitive strategies for spatial memory in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonti, Vittorio; Cioni, Giovanni; Berthoz, Alain

    2015-07-01

    Navigational and reaching spaces are known to involve different cognitive strategies and brain networks, whose development in humans is still debated. In fact, high-level spatial processing, including allocentric location encoding, is already available to very young children, but navigational strategies are not mature until late childhood. The Magic Carpet (MC) is a new electronic device translating the traditional Corsi Block-tapping Test (CBT) to navigational space. In this study, the MC and the CBT were used to assess spatial memory for navigation and for reaching, respectively. Our hypothesis was that school-age children would not treat MC stimuli as navigational paths, assimilating them to reaching sequences. Ninety-one healthy children aged 6 to 11 years and 18 adults were enrolled. Overall short-term memory performance (span) on both tests, effects of sequence geometry, and error patterns according to a new classification were studied. Span increased with age on both tests, but relatively more in navigational than in reaching space, particularly in males. Sequence geometry specifically influenced navigation, not reaching. The number of body rotations along the path affected MC performance in children more than in adults, and in women more than in men. Error patterns indicated that navigational sequences were increasingly retained as global paths across development, in contrast to separately stored reaching locations. A sequence of spatial locations can be coded as a navigational path only if a cognitive switch from a reaching mode to a navigation mode occurs. This implies the integration of egocentric and allocentric reference frames, of visual and idiothetic cues, and access to long-term memory. This switch is not yet fulfilled at school age due to immature executive functions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Apraxia for differentiating Alzheimer’s disease from subcortical vascular dementia and mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozkan S

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Serhat Ozkan,1 Demet Ozbabalik Adapinar,1 Nese Tuncer Elmaci,2 Didem Arslantas31Department of Neurology, Eskisehir Osmangazi University Medical Faculty, Eskisehir, Turkey; 2Department of Neurology, Marmara University Medical Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Department of Public Health, Eskisehir Osmangazi University Medical Faculty, Eskisehir, TurkeyAbstract: Although ideomotor limb apraxia is considered to be a typical sign of cortical pathologies such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD, it has been also reported in subcortical neurodegenerative diseases and vascular lesions. We aimed to investigate the difference between AD, subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI patients by means of ideomotor limb apraxia frequency and severity. Ninety-six AD, 72 SVaD, and 84 MCI patients were assessed with the mini-mental status examination (MMSE, clinical dementia rating (CDR and the apraxia screening test of TULIA (AST. Apraxia was significantly more frequent in the AD patients (32.3% than in both of the SVaD (16.7% and MCI (4.8% patients. The frequency of apraxia was also significantly higher in SVaD patients than in MCI patients. AD patients had significantly lower apraxia scores than both SVaD and MCI patients. In addition, a significant difference was found between SVaD and MCI patients in terms of apraxia scores. These results suggest that the widespread belief of the association between apraxia and cortical dementias is not exactly correct. The significant difference between both of the dementia groups and the MCI patients suggests that the absence of apraxia can be an indicator for MCI diagnosis.Keywords: apraxia, Alzheimer’s disease, subcortical vascular dementia, mild cognitive impairment

  9. Cognitive neuropsychological analysis of differential reading and spelling disorder mechanisms in a patient with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Kosei; Uno, Akira

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if differential reading and spelling mechanisms were involved in a Japanese patient with aphasia. In our case, the patient scored low on all of the administered reading tasks, suggesting that both the reading lexical and non-lexical routes were impaired. In contrast, his writing-to-dictation score for Kana nonwords was high, suggesting that the spelling non-lexical route was intact. However, the patient scored low on a writing-to-dictation task comprised of high-familiarity Kanji words. The spelling lexical route was thought to be impaired. Therefore, the mechanism(s) involved in reading and spelling may differ in this case.

  10. Cognitive-affective depression and somatic symptoms clusters are differentially associated with maternal parenting and coparenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamela, Diogo; Jongenelen, Inês; Morais, Ana; Figueiredo, Bárbara

    2017-09-01

    Both depressive and somatic symptoms are significant predictors of parenting and coparenting problems. However, despite clear evidence of their co-occurrence, no study to date has examined the association between depressive-somatic symptoms clusters and parenting and coparenting. The current research sought to identify and cross-validate clusters of cognitive-affective depressive symptoms and nonspecific somatic symptoms, as well as to test whether clusters would differ on parenting and coparenting problems across three independent samples of mothers. Participants in Studies 1 and 3 consisted of 409 and 652 community mothers, respectively. Participants in Study 2 consisted of 162 mothers exposed to intimate partner violence. All participants prospectively completed self-report measures of depressive and nonspecific somatic symptoms and parenting (Studies 1 and 2) or coparenting (Study 3). Across studies, three depression-somatic symptoms clusters were identified: no symptoms, high depression and low nonspecific somatic symptoms, and high depression and nonspecific somatic symptoms. The high depression-somatic symptoms cluster was associated with the highest levels of child physical maltreatment risk (Study 1) and overt-conflict coparenting (Study 3). No differences in perceived maternal competence (Study 2) and cooperative and undermining coparenting (Study 3) were found between the high depression and low somatic symptoms cluster and the high depression-somatic symptoms cluster. The results provide novel evidence for the strong associations between clusters of depression and nonspecific somatic symptoms and specific parenting and coparenting problems. Cluster stability across three independent samples suggest that they may be generalizable. The results inform preventive approaches and evidence-based psychotherapeutic treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Emotional and cognitive stimuli differentially engage the default network during inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldaief, Mark C; Deckersbach, Thilo; Carlson, Lindsay E; Beucke, Jan C; Dougherty, Darin D

    2012-04-01

    The brain's default network (DN) is comprised of several cortical regions demonstrating robust intrinsic connectivity at rest. The authors sought to examine the differential effects of emotional reasoning and reasoning under certainty upon the DN through the employment of an event-related fMRI design in healthy participants. Participants were presented with syllogistic arguments which were organized into a 2 × 2 factorial design in which the first factor was emotional salience and the second factor was certainty/uncertainty. We demonstrate that regions of the DN were activated both during reasoning that is emotionally salient and during reasoning which is more certain, suggesting that these processes are neurally instantiated on a network level. In addition, we present evidence that emotional reasoning preferentially activates the dorsomedial (dMPFC) subsystem of the DN, whereas reasoning in the context of certainty activates areas specific to the DN's medial temporal (MTL) subsystem. We postulate that emotional reasoning mobilizes the dMPFC subsystem of the DN because this type of reasoning relies upon the recruitment of introspective and self-relevant data such as personal bias and temperament. In contrast, activation of the MTL subsystem during certainty argues that this form of reasoning involves the recruitment of mnemonic and semantic associations to derive conclusions.

  12. Cognitive Machine-Learning Algorithm for Cardiac Imaging: A Pilot Study for Differentiating Constrictive Pericarditis From Restrictive Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Partho P; Huang, Yen-Min; Bansal, Manish; Ashrafi, Ali; Fisher, Matt; Shameer, Khader; Gall, Walt; Dudley, Joel T

    2016-06-01

    Associating a patient's profile with the memories of prototypical patients built through previous repeat clinical experience is a key process in clinical judgment. We hypothesized that a similar process using a cognitive computing tool would be well suited for learning and recalling multidimensional attributes of speckle tracking echocardiography data sets derived from patients with known constrictive pericarditis and restrictive cardiomyopathy. Clinical and echocardiographic data of 50 patients with constrictive pericarditis and 44 with restrictive cardiomyopathy were used for developing an associative memory classifier-based machine-learning algorithm. The speckle tracking echocardiography data were normalized in reference to 47 controls with no structural heart disease, and the diagnostic area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the associative memory classifier was evaluated for differentiating constrictive pericarditis from restrictive cardiomyopathy. Using only speckle tracking echocardiography variables, associative memory classifier achieved a diagnostic area under the curve of 89.2%, which improved to 96.2% with addition of 4 echocardiographic variables. In comparison, the area under the curve of early diastolic mitral annular velocity and left ventricular longitudinal strain were 82.1% and 63.7%, respectively. Furthermore, the associative memory classifier demonstrated greater accuracy and shorter learning curves than other machine-learning approaches, with accuracy asymptotically approaching 90% after a training fraction of 0.3 and remaining flat at higher training fractions. This study demonstrates feasibility of a cognitive machine-learning approach for learning and recalling patterns observed during echocardiographic evaluations. Incorporation of machine-learning algorithms in cardiac imaging may aid standardized assessments and support the quality of interpretations, particularly for novice readers with limited experience. © 2016

  13. A Cognitive Machine Learning Algorithm for Cardiac Imaging: A Pilot Study for Differentiating Constrictive Pericarditis from Restrictive Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Partho P.; Huang, Yen-Min; Bansal, Manish; Ashrafi, Ali; Fisher, Matt; Shameer, Khader; Gall, Walt; Dudley, Joel T

    2016-01-01

    Background Associating a patient’s profile with the memories of prototypical patients built through previous repeat clinical experience is a key process in clinical judgment. We hypothesized that a similar process using a cognitive computing tool would be well suited for learning and recalling multidimensional attributes of speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) data sets derived from patients with known constrictive pericarditis (CP) and restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM). Methods and Results Clinical and echocardiographic data of 50 patients with CP and 44 with RCM were used for developing an associative memory classifier (AMC) based machine learning algorithm. The STE data was normalized in reference to 47 controls with no structural heart disease, and the diagnostic area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the AMC was evaluated for differentiating CP from RCM. Using only STE variables, AMC achieved a diagnostic AUC of 89·2%, which improved to 96·2% with addition of 4 echocardiographic variables. In comparison, the AUC of early diastolic mitral annular velocity and left ventricular longitudinal strain were 82.1% and 63·7%, respectively. Furthermore, AMC demonstrated greater accuracy and shorter learning curves than other machine learning approaches with accuracy asymptotically approaching 90% after a training fraction of 0·3 and remaining flat at higher training fractions. Conclusions This study demonstrates feasibility of a cognitive machine learning approach for learning and recalling patterns observed during echocardiographic evaluations. Incorporation of machine learning algorithms in cardiac imaging may aid standardized assessments and support the quality of interpretations, particularly for novice readers with limited experience. PMID:27266599

  14. Mode of effective connectivity within a putative neural network differentiates moral cognitions related to care and justice ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceda, Ricardo; James, G Andrew; Ely, Timothy D; Snarey, John; Kilts, Clinton D

    2011-02-25

    Moral sensitivity refers to the interpretive awareness of moral conflict and can be justice or care oriented. Justice ethics is associated primarily with human rights and the application of moral rules, whereas care ethics is related to human needs and a situational approach involving social emotions. Among the core brain regions involved in moral issue processing are: medial prefrontal cortex, anterior (ACC) and posterior (PCC) cingulate cortex, posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), insula and amygdala. This study sought to inform the long standing debate of whether care and justice moral ethics represent one or two different forms of cognition. Model-free and model-based connectivity analysis were used to identify functional neural networks underlying care and justice ethics for a moral sensitivity task. In addition to modest differences in patterns of associated neural activity, distinct modes of functional and effective connectivity were observed for moral sensitivity for care and justice issues that were modulated by individual variation in moral ability. These results support a neurobiological differentiation between care and justice ethics and suggest that human moral behavior reflects the outcome of integrating opposing rule-based, self-other perspectives, and emotional responses.

  15. Mode of Effective Connectivity within a Putative Neural Network Differentiates Moral Cognitions Related to Care and Justice Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceda, Ricardo; James, G. Andrew; Ely, Timothy D.; Snarey, John; Kilts, Clinton D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Moral sensitivity refers to the interpretive awareness of moral conflict and can be justice or care oriented. Justice ethics is associated primarily with human rights and the application of moral rules, whereas care ethics is related to human needs and a situational approach involving social emotions. Among the core brain regions involved in moral issue processing are: medial prefrontal cortex, anterior (ACC) and posterior (PCC) cingulate cortex, posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), insula and amygdala. This study sought to inform the long standing debate of whether care and justice moral ethics represent one or two different forms of cognition. Methodology/Principal Findings Model-free and model-based connectivity analysis were used to identify functional neural networks underlying care and justice ethics for a moral sensitivity task. In addition to modest differences in patterns of associated neural activity, distinct modes of functional and effective connectivity were observed for moral sensitivity for care and justice issues that were modulated by individual variation in moral ability. Conclusions/Significance These results support a neurobiological differentiation between care and justice ethics and suggest that human moral behavior reflects the outcome of integrating opposing rule-based, self-other perspectives, and emotional responses. PMID:21364916

  16. Mode of effective connectivity within a putative neural network differentiates moral cognitions related to care and justice ethics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cáceda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Moral sensitivity refers to the interpretive awareness of moral conflict and can be justice or care oriented. Justice ethics is associated primarily with human rights and the application of moral rules, whereas care ethics is related to human needs and a situational approach involving social emotions. Among the core brain regions involved in moral issue processing are: medial prefrontal cortex, anterior (ACC and posterior (PCC cingulate cortex, posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS, insula and amygdala. This study sought to inform the long standing debate of whether care and justice moral ethics represent one or two different forms of cognition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Model-free and model-based connectivity analysis were used to identify functional neural networks underlying care and justice ethics for a moral sensitivity task. In addition to modest differences in patterns of associated neural activity, distinct modes of functional and effective connectivity were observed for moral sensitivity for care and justice issues that were modulated by individual variation in moral ability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results support a neurobiological differentiation between care and justice ethics and suggest that human moral behavior reflects the outcome of integrating opposing rule-based, self-other perspectives, and emotional responses.

  17. Differential cognitive processing of Kanji and Kana words: do orthographic and semantic codes function in parallel in word matching task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, A; Hatta, T; Kogure, T

    2001-12-01

    Relative engagements of the orthographic and semantic codes in Kanji and Hiragana word recognition were investigated. In Exp. 1, subjects judged whether the pairs of Kanji words (prime and target) presented sequentially were physically identical to each other in the word condition. In the sentence condition, subjects decided whether the target word was valid for the prime sentence presented in advance. The results showed that the response times to the target swords orthographically similar (to the prime) were significantly slower than to semantically related target words in the word condition and that this was also the case in the sentence condition. In Exp. 2, subjects judged whether the target word written in Hiragana was physically identical to the prime word in the word condition. In the sentence condition, subjects decided if the target word was valid for the previously presented prime sentence. Analysis indicated that response times to orthographically similar words were slower than to semantically related words in the word condition but not in the sentence condition wherein the response times to the semantically and orthographically similar words were largely the same. Based on these results, differential contributions of orthographic and semantic codes in cognitive processing of Japanese Kanji and Hiragana words was discussed.

  18. Differential effects of erythropoietin on neural and cognitive measures of executive function 3 and 7 days post-administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla; Inkster, Becky; O'Sullivan, Ursula

    2008-01-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) has neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects and improves cognitive function in animal models of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric illness. In humans, weekly Epo administration over 3 months improves cognitive function in schizophrenia. The neural underpinnings and time...

  19. Cultural Factors Affecting the Differential Performance of Israeli and Palestinian Children on the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josman, Naomi; Abdallah, Taisir M.; Engel-Yeger, Batya

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive performance is essential for children's functioning and may also predict school readiness. The suitability of Western standardized assessments for cognitive performance among children from different cultures needs to be elaborated. This study referred to the existence of differences in cognitive performance between and within children…

  20. Stroke and TIA survivors’ cognitive beliefs and affective responses regarding treatment and future stroke risk differentially predict medication adherence and categorised stroke risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, L. Alison; Diefenbach, Michael A.; Abrams, Jessica; Horowitz, Carol R.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive beliefs and affective responses to illness and treatment are known to independently predict health behaviours. The purpose of the current study is to assess the relative importance of four psychological domains – specifically, affective illness, cognitive illness, affective treatment and cognitive treatment – for predicting stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) survivors’ adherence to stroke prevention medications as well as their objective, categorised stroke risk. We assessed these domains among stroke/TIA survivors (n = 600), and conducted correlation and regression analyses with concurrent and prospective outcomes to determine the relative importance of each cognitive and affective domain for adherence and stroke risk. As hypothesised, patients’ affective treatment responses explained the greatest unique variance in baseline and six-month adherence reports (8 and 5%, respectively, of the variance in adherence, compared to 1–3% explained by other domains). Counter to hypotheses, patients’ cognitive illness beliefs explained the greatest unique variance in baseline and six-month objective categorised stroke risk (3 and 2%, respectively, compared to 0–1% explained by other domains). Results indicate that domain type (i.e. cognitive and affective) and domain referent (illness and treatment) may be differentially important for providers to assess when treating patients for stroke/TIA. More research is required to further distinguish between these domains and their relative importance for stroke prevention. PMID:25220292

  1. Stroke and TIA survivors' cognitive beliefs and affective responses regarding treatment and future stroke risk differentially predict medication adherence and categorised stroke risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, L Alison; Diefenbach, Michael A; Abrams, Jessica; Horowitz, Carol R

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive beliefs and affective responses to illness and treatment are known to independently predict health behaviours. The purpose of the current study is to assess the relative importance of four psychological domains - specifically, affective illness, cognitive illness, affective treatment and cognitive treatment - for predicting stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) survivors' adherence to stroke prevention medications as well as their objective, categorised stroke risk. We assessed these domains among stroke/TIA survivors (n = 600), and conducted correlation and regression analyses with concurrent and prospective outcomes to determine the relative importance of each cognitive and affective domain for adherence and stroke risk. As hypothesised, patients' affective treatment responses explained the greatest unique variance in baseline and six-month adherence reports (8 and 5%, respectively, of the variance in adherence, compared to 1-3% explained by other domains). Counter to hypotheses, patients' cognitive illness beliefs explained the greatest unique variance in baseline and six-month objective categorised stroke risk (3 and 2%, respectively, compared to 0-1% explained by other domains). Results indicate that domain type (i.e. cognitive and affective) and domain referent (illness and treatment) may be differentially important for providers to assess when treating patients for stroke/TIA. More research is required to further distinguish between these domains and their relative importance for stroke prevention.

  2. Differential lexical correlates of social cognition and metacognition in schizophrenia; a study of spontaneously-generated life narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Benjamin; Minor, Kyle S; Lysaker, Paul H

    2015-04-01

    Social cognition and metacognition have been identified as important cognitive domains in schizophrenia, which are separable from general neurocognition and predictive of functional and treatment outcomes. However, one challenge to improved models of schizophrenia has been the conceptual overlap between the two. One tool used in previous research to develop cognitive models of psychopathology is language analysis. In this article we aimed to clarify distinctions between social cognition and metacognition in schizophrenia using computerized language software. Fifty-eight (n=58) individuals with schizophrenia completed the Metacognitive Assessment Scale Abbreviated and measures of social cognition using the Hinting, Eyes, BLERT and Picture Arrangement test. A lexical analysis of participants' speech using Language Inquiry and Word Count software was conducted to examine relative frequencies of word types. Lexical characteristics were examined for their relationships to social cognition and metacognition. We found that lexical characteristics indicative of cognitive complexity were significantly related to level of metacognitive capacity while social cognition was related to second-person pronoun use, articles, and prepositions, and pronoun use overall. The relationships between lexical variables and metacognition persisted after controlling for demographics, verbal intelligence, and overall word count, but the same was not true for social cognition. Our findings provided support for the view that metacognition requires more synthetic and complex verbal and linguistic operations, while social cognition is associated with the representation and clear identification of others. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Predictive capacity of anthropometric indicators for abdominal fat in the oldest old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Ribeiro Santos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are a growing public health problem that affects most people over the age of 65 years and abdominal obesity is one of the risk factors for the development of these diseases. There are several methods that can be used to measure body fat, but their accuracy needs to be evaluated, especially in specific populations such as the elderly. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of anthropometric indicators to estimate the percentage of abdominal fat in subjects aged 80 years or older. A total of 125 subjects ranging in age from 80 to 95 years (83.5 ± 3, including 79 women (82.4 ± 3years and 46 men (83.6 ± 3 years, were studied. The following anthropometric indicators were used: body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-hip ratio (WHR, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR. The percentage of abdominal fat was measured by DEXA. Sensitivity and specificity were analyzed using an ROC curve. The sensitivity, specificity and AUC were 0. 578, 0. 934 and 0. 756 for BMI, respectively; 0.703, 0.820 and 0.761 for WC; 0.938, 0.213 and 0.575 for WHR, and 0.984, 0.344 and 0.664 for WHtR. BMI and WC were the anthropometric indicators with the largest area under the curve and were therefore more adequate to identify the presence or absence of abdominal obesity.

  4. Predictors of Physical Functioning Trajectories among Chinese Oldest Old Adults: Rural and Urban Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei; Park, Nan Sook; Klemmack, David L.; Roff, Lucinda L.; Li, Zhihong

    2009-01-01

    This article examined the differences between rural/urban older adults in their trajectories of activities of daily living (ADL) over a 4-year period. The sample included 2,490 community dwelling older adults who completed three waves (1998, 2000, and 2002) of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. Among them, 63.5% were from rural…

  5. Hypertension management in the oldest old: Findings from a large long-term care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Susan; McKay, Robin; Dinkel, Shirley; Mansfield, Bobbe; Da Cunha, Brooke Faria; Cummins, Savanna; Brunin, Krystal

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this quality improvement project was to evaluate hypertension (HTN) management in patients 80 years of age and older who reside in a large, long-term care (LTC) facility. A retrospective chart audit was conducted on 75 charts of patients 80 years of age and older and who had a diagnosis of HTN. Using the 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association (ACCF/AHA) Expert Consensus Document on Management of Hypertension in the Elderly as a guide, blood pressure readings, significant comorbidities, and antihypertensive medication utilization were analyzed. LTC residents in this sample were often not treated according to expert recommendations. Specifically, analysis revealed overtreatment of uncomplicated HTN and undertreatment of those with comorbid conditions. Additionally, those with diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease were infrequently prescribed ace inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, as recommended. Utilizing evidence-based practice (EBP) guidelines affords the best avenue for providing safe and effective treatment of HTN. While expert recommendations are available, researchers seldom recruit frail elders in LTC facilities into treatment investigations. In the absence of population-specific EBP guidelines, nurse practitioners must rely on expert opinion and diagnostic reasoning to individualize HTN treatment to this unique and vulnerable population. ©2016 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  6. OLDEST OLD IN THE HOUSEHOLD: THE FAMILY AS UNIT OF CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinês Tambara Leite

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O estudo objetivou analisar como a família se organiza enquanto unidade de cuidado a idosos mais velhos no espaço domiciliar, com base no Modelo Calgary de Avaliação Familiar. MÉTODO: Estudo de caráter qualitativo, descritivo. A coleta dos dados ocorreu por meio de entrevistas, avaliando três núcleos familiares. RESULTADOS: Baseados nas categorias que compõe o Modelo e na análise de conteúdo analisaram-se os aspectos da estrutura, desenvolvimento e funcionamento das famílias, abrangendo a dinâmica socioeconômica da organização familiar, o papel do idoso e sua influência na relação familial, a necessidade de cuidado, aspectos emocionais e vínculo afetivo que (reorganizam a estrutura familiar. CONCLUSÃO: A relação familiar e a complexidade dos vínculos que o idoso mantém são fundamentais para a preservação de sua saúde, especialmente nos aspectos relativos à dependência de cuidados. Considera-se importante maior inserção da equipe de enfermagem nesse espaço visando adequar a assistência em saúde à organização familiar.

  7. Adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer in the oldest old: results beyond clinical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Anasooya; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Rothenberger, David A; Kwaan, Mary; Weinberg, Armin D; Parsons, Helen M; Gupta, Pankaj; Al-Refaie, Waddah B

    2013-01-15

    Randomized trials demonstrating the benefits of chemotherapy in patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer stage III colon cancer underrepresent persons aged ≥ 75 years. The generalizability of these studies to a growing elderly population remains unknown. Using the California Cancer Registry for 1994 through 2008, the authors conducted a population-based study of postcolectomy patients aged 50 years to 94 years with stage III (N1M0) colon adenocarcinoma. A 2-sided chi-square test and Cochran-Armitage test for trend were used to compare patient and tumor characteristics associated with receipt of chemotherapy across age groups. Multivariate regression was used to assess the association between older age and receipt of chemotherapy. Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox proportional hazards modeling were used to evaluate the association between chemotherapy and mortality, with propensity score adjustment. Approximately 44% (12,382 patients) of the study cohort was aged ≥ 75 years. Persons aged ≥ 75 years were found to be less likely to have received adjuvant chemotherapy than those aged colon cancer in the elderly. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  8. Emotional based cognition in mice is differentially influenced by dose and lipid origin of dietary docosahexaenoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a major constituent, and primary omega-3 fatty acid, in the brain. Evidence suggests that DHA consumption may promote cognitive functioning and prevent cognitive decline, and these effects may be particularly relevant in the context of fear or stress. However, the pot...

  9. Differential Aging Trajectories of Modulation of Activation to Cognitive Challenge in APOE ε4 Groups: Reduced Modulation Predicts Poorer Cognitive Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Chris M; Kennedy, Kristen M; Rodrigue, Karen M

    2017-07-19

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of a genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), ApolipoproteinE ε4 (APOEε4), on the ability of the brain to modulate activation in response to cognitive challenge in a lifespan sample of healthy human adults. A community-based sample of 181 cognitively intact, healthy adults were recruited from the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex. Thirty-one APOEε4+ individuals (48% women), derived from the parent sample, were matched based on sex, age, and years of education to 31 individuals who were APOEε4-negative (APOEε4-). Ages ranged from 20 to 86 years of age. Blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging was collected during the performance of a visuospatial distance judgment task with three parametric levels of difficulty. Multiple regression was used in a whole-brain analysis with age, APOE group, and their interaction predicting functional brain modulation in response to difficulty. Results revealed an interaction between age and APOE in a large cluster localized primarily to the bilateral precuneus. APOEε4- individuals exhibited age-invariant modulation in response to task difficulty, whereas APOEε4+ individuals showed age-related reduction of modulation in response to increasing task difficulty compared with ε4- individuals. Decreased modulation in response to cognitive challenge was associated with reduced task accuracy as well as poorer name-face associative memory performance. Findings suggest that APOEε4 is associated with a reduction in the ability of the brain to dynamically modulate in response to cognitive challenge. Coupled with a significant genetic risk factor for AD, changes in modulation may provide additional information toward identifying individuals potentially at risk for cognitive decline associated with preclinical AD. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Understanding how risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) affect brain function and cognition in healthy adult samples

  10. The Utility of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in Differential Diagnosis of Cognitive Disorders in Iranian Psychiatric Patients and Healthy Subjects

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    Razieh Hashemi, MA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Wisconsin Test Card Sorting Test (WCST is a neuropsychological test that has been suggested as a more specific test for frontal lobes dysfunctions. This study was designed to determine whether WCST is able to differentiate between Iranian psychiatric patients with cognitive disorders and normal subjects, and whether WCST scores are related to severity of symptoms in depressive and schizophrenic patients.Method: Participants were four groups: schizophrenics with positive symptoms (n=25; schizophrenics with negative symptoms (n=25; major depressives (n=25; and normal subjects (n=25. All subjects were tested individually using WCST. To analyze the data, various descriptive statistics, ANOVA, t-test and multiple regression analysis were used.Results: Regarding the number of categories (P<0.001 and the rate of perseverative errors (P<0.01, according to the results, the normal subjects performed significantly better than patient groups on WCST, although the differences between patient groups were not significant. Our results also showed that greater positive or depressive symptoms were not associated with poorer scores on WCST performance. Only the level of severity of negative symptoms predicted scores on perseverative errors.Conclusion: It is concluded that WCST can differentiate Iranian psychiatric patients with cognitive disorders from normal subjects, but it is not able to clearly differentiate schizophrenic patients with negative symptoms from those with positive symptoms and depressives. Only severity of negative symptoms affects WCST performance

  11. Cognitive Impairment, Depression, and Cooccurrence of Both among the Elderly in Panama: Differential Associations with Multimorbidity and Functional Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcibiades E. Villarreal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment and depression are common mental health problems among the elderly, although few studies have examined their cooccurrence in older adults in Latin America. The purpose of this study was to examine cognitive impairment, depression, and cooccurrence of the two conditions and associated factors in a sample of older adults in Panama. This study included 304 community-dwelling elderly (≥65 years individuals. Participants underwent a clinical interview and assessments of cognitive function by the Minimental State Examination and depressive symptoms by the Geriatric Depression Scale. Limitations in basic (BADL and instrumental (IADL activities in daily living and the presence of chronic illnesses were recorded. Multinomial regression analysis revealed that cooccurrence of cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms was explained by increasing age (OR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.20, 8.30, low education (OR: 3.3, 95% CI: 1.33, 8.38, having four or more chronic conditions (OR: 11.5, 95% CI: 2.84, 46.63, and BADL limitations (OR: 5.0, 95% CI: 1.26, 19.68. Less education and limitations in BADL and IADL increased the odds of cognitive impairment alone, while less education and three or more chronic conditions increased the odds of depression alone. These findings underscore the relevance of assessing cognitive impairment in the elderly as part of a long-term approach to managing depression and vice versa.

  12. When Cognitive Decline and Depression Coexist in the Elderly: CSF Biomarkers Analysis Can Differentiate Alzheimer's Disease from Late-Life Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Claudio; Pierantozzi, Mariangela; Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Sancesario, Giulia M; Mercuri, Nicola B; Franchini, Flaminia; Schillaci, Orazio; Sancesario, Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    Late-life depression (LLD) and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) are the two most frequent neuropsychiatric disorders affecting elderly. LLD and AD may clinically present with depressive and cognitive symptoms. Therefore, when cognitive decline is coupled with depression in the elderly, the differential diagnosis between LLD and AD could be challenging. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in a population of elderly patients affected by depression and dementia the usefulness of CSF AD biomarkers (tau proteins and β-amyloid 42 -Aβ 42 ) and 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (18FFDG-PET) in early differentiating LLD from AD. Two hundred and fifty-six depressed and demented patients, after performing CSF AD biomarkers and 18FFDG-PET, were distributed in two groups on the basis of the current diagnostic guidelines for AD ( n = 201) and LLD ( n = 55). Patients were then observed for 2 years to verify the early diagnosis. After the 2 year follow-up we compared AD and LLD patients' CSF and 18FFDG-PET data obtained at baseline to a group of age- and sex-matched controls. We found CSF Aβ 42 levels significantly higher in LLD compared to AD patients. Remarkably, CSF Aβ 42 levels of LLD patients (range between 550 and 1204 pg/mL) did not overlap with those of AD patients (range between 82 and 528 pg/mL). Moreover, we documented no differences in CSF AD biomarkers (Aβ 42 and tau proteins) when comparing LLD patients to controls. In addition, AD patients showed the significant reduction of 18FFDG-PET uptake in temporo-parietal regions compared to both controls and LLD. Conversely, LLD and control groups did not differ at 18FFDG-PET analysis, although LLD patients showed heterogeneous patterns of glucose hypometabolism involving cortical and subcortical brain areas. It is noteworthy that at the end of the clinical follow-up, patients owing to AD group showed the expected significant decline of cognitive performances, whereas patients assigned to LLD

  13. When Cognitive Decline and Depression Coexist in the Elderly: CSF Biomarkers Analysis Can Differentiate Alzheimer's Disease from Late-Life Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Liguori

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Late-life depression (LLD and Alzheimer's Disease (AD are the two most frequent neuropsychiatric disorders affecting elderly. LLD and AD may clinically present with depressive and cognitive symptoms. Therefore, when cognitive decline is coupled with depression in the elderly, the differential diagnosis between LLD and AD could be challenging. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in a population of elderly patients affected by depression and dementia the usefulness of CSF AD biomarkers (tau proteins and β-amyloid42–Aβ42 and 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (18FFDG-PET in early differentiating LLD from AD. Two hundred and fifty-six depressed and demented patients, after performing CSF AD biomarkers and 18FFDG-PET, were distributed in two groups on the basis of the current diagnostic guidelines for AD (n = 201 and LLD (n = 55. Patients were then observed for 2 years to verify the early diagnosis. After the 2 year follow-up we compared AD and LLD patients' CSF and 18FFDG-PET data obtained at baseline to a group of age- and sex-matched controls. We found CSF Aβ42 levels significantly higher in LLD compared to AD patients. Remarkably, CSF Aβ42 levels of LLD patients (range between 550 and 1204 pg/mL did not overlap with those of AD patients (range between 82 and 528 pg/mL. Moreover, we documented no differences in CSF AD biomarkers (Aβ42 and tau proteins when comparing LLD patients to controls. In addition, AD patients showed the significant reduction of 18FFDG-PET uptake in temporo-parietal regions compared to both controls and LLD. Conversely, LLD and control groups did not differ at 18FFDG-PET analysis, although LLD patients showed heterogeneous patterns of glucose hypometabolism involving cortical and subcortical brain areas. It is noteworthy that at the end of the clinical follow-up, patients owing to AD group showed the expected significant decline of cognitive performances, whereas patients assigned to

  14. Cognitive Outcomes of Cardiovascular Surgical Procedures in the Old: An Important but Neglected Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keage, Hannah A D; Smith, Ashleigh; Loetscher, Tobias; Psaltis, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Older individuals can now undergo invasive cardiovascular procedures without serious concern about mortality, and the numbers and proportions of the over 65s and 85s doing so in Australia has been increasing over the last 20 years. There is overwhelming evidence linking cardiovascular conditions to late-life (65 years and over) cognitive impairment and dementia including Alzheimer's Disease, primarily due to impaired cerebrovascularisation and cascading neuropathological processes. Somewhat paradoxically, these cardiovascular interventions, carried out with the primary aim of revascularisation, are not usually associated with short- or long-term improvements in cognitive function in older adults. We discuss factors associated with cognitive outcomes post-cardiovascular surgeries in patients over 65 years of age. There are many opportunities for future research: we know almost nothing about cognitive outcomes following invasive cardiac procedures in the oldest old (85 years and over) nor how to predict the cognitive/delirium outcome using pre-surgical data, and lastly, intervention opportunities exist both pre and postoperatively that have not been tested. As our population ages with increased cardiovascular burden and rates of cardiovascular interventions and surgeries, it is critical that we understand the cognitive consequences of these procedures, who is at greatest risk, and ways to optimise cognition. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Differential Effects of Awake Glioma Surgery in “Critical” Language Areas on Cognition: 4 Case Studies

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    Djaina Satoer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Awake surgery with electrocorticosubcortical stimulation is the golden standard treatment for gliomas in eloquent areas. Preoperatively, mostly mild cognitive disturbances are observed with postoperative deterioration. We describe pre- and postoperative profiles of 4 patients (P1–P4 with gliomas in “critical” language areas (“Broca,” “Wernicke,” and the arcuate fasciculus undergoing awake surgery to get insight into the underlying mechanism of neuroplasticity. Neuropsychological examination was carried out preoperatively (at T1 and postoperatively (at T2, T3. At T1, cognition of P1 was intact and remained stable. P2 had impairments in all cognitive domains at T1 with further deterioration at T2 and T3. At T1, P3 had impairments in memory and executive functions followed by stable recovery. P4 was intact at T1, followed by a decline in a language test at T2 and recovery at T3. Intraoperatively, in all patients language positive sites were identified. Patients with gliomas in “critical” language areas do not necessarily present cognitive disturbances. Surgery can either improve or deteriorate (existing cognitive impairments. Several factors may underlie the plastic potential of the brain, for example, corticosubcortical networks and tumor histopathology. Our findings illustrate the complexity of the underlying mechanism of neural plasticity and provide further support for a “hodotopical” viewpoint.

  16. Detection and Differentiation of Frontotemporal Dementia and Related Disorders From Alzheimer Disease Using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Kristy K L; Coleman, Brenda L; MacKinley, Julia D; Pasternak, Stephen H; Finger, Elizabeth C

    2016-01-01

    The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a cognitive screening tool used by practitioners worldwide. The efficacy of the MoCA for screening frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and related disorders is unknown. The objectives were: (1) to determine whether the MoCA detects cognitive impairment (CI) in FTD subjects; (2) to determine whether Alzheimer disease (AD) and FTD subtypes and related disorders can be parsed using the MoCA; and (3) describe longitudinal MoCA performance by subtype. We extracted demographic and testing data from a database of patients referred to a cognitive neurology clinic who met criteria for probable AD or FTD (N=192). Logistic regression was used to determine whether dementia subtypes were associated with overall scores, subscores, or combinations of subscores on the MoCA. Initial MoCA results demonstrated CI in the majority of FTD subjects (87%). FTD subjects (N=94) performed better than AD subjects (N=98) on the MoCA (mean scores: 18.1 vs. 16.3; P=0.02). Subscores parsed many, but not all subtypes. FTD subjects had a larger decline on the MoCA within 13 to 36 months than AD subjects (P=0.02). The results indicate that the MoCA is a useful tool to identify and track progression of CI in FTD. Further, the data informs future research on scoring models for the MoCA to enhance cognitive screening and detection of FTD patients.

  17. Cultural factors affecting the differential performance of Israeli and Palestinian children on the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josman, Naomi; Abdallah, Taisir M; Engel-Yeger, Batya

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive performance is essential for children's functioning and may also predict school readiness. The suitability of Western standardized assessments for cognitive performance among children from different cultures needs to be elaborated. This study referred to the existence of differences in cognitive performance between and within children from the middle-east-Israeli and Palestinian on the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA), by elucidating cultural effects on the construct validity of the LOTCA using factor analysis. Participants included 101 Israeli and 125 Palestinian children from kindergarten, first and second grade who underwent the LOTCA. Factor analysis revealed four factors underlying items on the LOTCA, explaining the differences found between Israeli and Palestinian children in most of LOTCA subtests. Culture may affect the construct validity of the LOTCA and may explain the difference in performance between both cultural groups. LOTCA's validity as well as the validity of other instruments on which norms and decisions regarding the child's development and performance are made should be further evaluated among children from different cultural backgrounds. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Framework to Categorize Students as Learners Based on their Cognitive Practices while Learning Differential Equations and Related Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raychaudhuri, Debasree

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous theories that offer cognitive processes of students of mathematics, all documenting various ways to describe knowledge acquisition leading to successful transitions from one stage to another, be it characterized by Dubinsky's encapsulation, Sfard's reification or Piaget's equilibration. We however are interested in the following…

  19. Estrogen agonist genistein differentially influences the cognitive and motor disorders in an ovariectomized animal model of Parkinsonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Arbabi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Parkinson's disease (PD is a progressive neurological disorder associated with motor disabilities and cognitive dysfunction as well. Evidence indicates that PD occurs less frequently in women than men, confirming a role for steroid hormones in protection of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons. It is reported that soy genistein, an estrogen agonist phytoestrogen, display neuroprotective effects against neuronal death. In this study we evaluated the effect of genistein in animal models of Parkinsonism (P and Parkinsonism + ovariectomized (OP. Materials and Methods: The experiments were carried out on the control, P and OP animals. Learning and memory abilities were evaluated using Morris water maze. The latency and speed of locating the platform were measured as cognitive indices. Motor behaviors were assessed by testing the animals in rota rod and the latency to fall from the rod was scored. Results: We found that Parkinsonism leads to the cognitive and motor disabilities; ovariectomy intensified these disorders. Whereas genistein treatment improved the maze performances in both P and OP animals it failed to influence the kinetic problems. Genistein displayed a neuroprotective effect on dopaminergic neurons. Conclusion: Positive impact of genistein on the spatial learning and memory may reflect its effects on the nigrostriatal pathway and striatum. Nevertheless, ineffectiveness of genistein on the motor disorders, despite its neuroprotective impacts, led us to conclude that the cognitive improvement by genistein may also contribute to its effects in other areas of brain.

  20. Differentiating Motivational from Affective Influence of Performance-contingent Reward on Cognitive Control: The Wanting Component Enhances Both Proactive and Reactive Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillou, Anne-Clémence; Giersch, Anne; Hoonakker, Marc; Capa, Rémi L; Bonnefond, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Positive affect strongly modulates goal-directed behaviors and cognitive control mechanisms. It often results from the presence of a pleasant stimulus in the environment, whether that stimulus appears unpredictably or as a consequence of a particular behavior. The influence of positive affect linked to a random pleasant stimulus differs from the influence of positive affect resulting from performance-contingent pleasant stimuli. However, the mechanisms by which the performance contingency of pleasant stimuli modulates the influence of positive affect on cognitive control mechanisms have not been elucidated. Here, we tested the hypothesis that these differentiated effects are the consequence of the activation of the motivational "wanting" component specifically under performance contingency conditions. To that end, we directly compared the effects on cognitive control of pleasant stimuli (a monetary reward) attributed in a performance contingent manner, and of random pleasant stimuli (positive picture) not related to performance, during an AX-CPT task. Both proactive and reactive modes of control were increased specifically by performance contingency, as reflected by faster reaction times and larger amplitude of the CNV and P3a components. Our findings advance our understanding of the respective effects of affect and motivation, which is of special interest regarding alterations of emotion-motivation interaction found in several psychopathological disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. How art changes your brain: differential effects of visual art production and cognitive art evaluation on functional brain connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolwerk, Anne; Mack-Andrick, Jessica; Lang, Frieder R; Dörfler, Arnd; Maihöfner, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Visual art represents a powerful resource for mental and physical well-being. However, little is known about the underlying effects at a neural level. A critical question is whether visual art production and cognitive art evaluation may have different effects on the functional interplay of the brain's default mode network (DMN). We used fMRI to investigate the DMN of a non-clinical sample of 28 post-retirement adults (63.71 years ±3.52 SD) before (T0) and after (T1) weekly participation in two different 10-week-long art interventions. Participants were randomly assigned to groups stratified by gender and age. In the visual art production group 14 participants actively produced art in an art class. In the cognitive art evaluation group 14 participants cognitively evaluated artwork at a museum. The DMN of both groups was identified by using a seed voxel correlation analysis (SCA) in the posterior cingulated cortex (PCC/preCUN). An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was employed to relate fMRI data to psychological resilience which was measured with the brief German counterpart of the Resilience Scale (RS-11). We observed that the visual art production group showed greater spatial improvement in functional connectivity of PCC/preCUN to the frontal and parietal cortices from T0 to T1 than the cognitive art evaluation group. Moreover, the functional connectivity in the visual art production group was related to psychological resilience (i.e., stress resistance) at T1. Our findings are the first to demonstrate the neural effects of visual art production on psychological resilience in adulthood.

  2. How Art Changes Your Brain: Differential Effects of Visual Art Production and Cognitive Art Evaluation on Functional Brain Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolwerk, Anne; Mack-Andrick, Jessica; Lang, Frieder R.; Dörfler, Arnd; Maihöfner, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Visual art represents a powerful resource for mental and physical well-being. However, little is known about the underlying effects at a neural level. A critical question is whether visual art production and cognitive art evaluation may have different effects on the functional interplay of the brain's default mode network (DMN). We used fMRI to investigate the DMN of a non-clinical sample of 28 post-retirement adults (63.71 years ±3.52 SD) before (T0) and after (T1) weekly participation in two different 10-week-long art interventions. Participants were randomly assigned to groups stratified by gender and age. In the visual art production group 14 participants actively produced art in an art class. In the cognitive art evaluation group 14 participants cognitively evaluated artwork at a museum. The DMN of both groups was identified by using a seed voxel correlation analysis (SCA) in the posterior cingulated cortex (PCC/preCUN). An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was employed to relate fMRI data to psychological resilience which was measured with the brief German counterpart of the Resilience Scale (RS-11). We observed that the visual art production group showed greater spatial improvement in functional connectivity of PCC/preCUN to the frontal and parietal cortices from T0 to T1 than the cognitive art evaluation group. Moreover, the functional connectivity in the visual art production group was related to psychological resilience (i.e., stress resistance) at T1. Our findings are the first to demonstrate the neural effects of visual art production on psychological resilience in adulthood. PMID:24983951

  3. Complex Information Coordination Performance: Differential Changes in Working Memory Contributions Following Training. Cognitive Components of Information Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-30

    UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY EDUCATION BUILDING TALLAHASSEE FL 32306 W LAFAYETTE IN 47907 DR NEIL DORANS DR RODNEY COCKING EDUCATIONAL TESTING SERVICE...DR LORRAINE D EYDE PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT US OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MGMT IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY OFFICE OF PERSONNEL RESEARCH AMES IA 50010 AND DEVELOP...judgments were performed under the added cognitive load of the coordination task. Method Subjects A total of eighty subjects were tested , with one

  4. Comparison of the quick mild cognitive impairment (Qmci) screen and the SMMSE in screening for mild cognitive impairment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Caoimh, Rónán

    2012-09-01

    differentiating mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from normal cognition (NC) is difficult. The AB Cognitive Screen (ABCS) 135, sensitive in differentiating MCI from dementia, was modified to improve sensitivity and specificity, producing the quick mild cognitive impairment (Qmci) screen.

  5. Differential effect of exposure-based therapy and cognitive therapy on post-traumatic stress disorder symptom clusters: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horesh, Danny; Qian, Meng; Freedman, Sara; Shalev, Arieh

    2017-06-01

    A question remains regarding differential effects of exposure-based versus non-exposure-based therapies on specific post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom clusters. Traumatized emergency room patients were randomized to receive prolonged exposure (PE) or cognitive therapy (CT) without exposure. PE/CT had no differential effect on individual symptom clusters, and change in total PTSD score remained significant even after controlling for the reductions in all three symptom clusters. In addition, baseline levels of PTSD avoidance/intrusion/hyperarousal did not moderate the effects of PE and CT on total PTSD symptom scores. Taken together, these findings challenge the notion that PE and CT are specifically, and differentially, useful in treating one particular PTSD symptom cluster. Despite their different theoretical backgrounds and techniques, the notion that PE and CT (without exposure) target different PTSD symptoms was not confirmed in this study. Thus, both interventions may in fact be equally effective for treating intrusion, avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms. Baseline levels of avoidance, intrusion and hyperarousal may not be good a priori indicators for PTSD treatment selection. The effect of PE and CT on PTSD as a whole does not seem to depend on a reduction in any specific symptom cluster. These findings indicate that exposure and non-exposure interventions may lead to similar results in terms of reductions in specific PTSD symptoms. It is quite possible that individual PTSD clusters may respond to therapy in an inter-related fashion, with one cluster affecting the other. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Differential effects of emotionally versus neutrally cued autobiographical memories on performance of a subsequent cognitive task: Effects of task difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kymberly eYoung

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Attention is a limited resource, and in order to improve processing of the attended information, competing processes must be suppressed. Although it is well established that an experimentally induced change in mood state comprises one type of competing process that can impair performance on a subsequent task, no study has investigated whether an emotionally valenced autobiographical memory (AM also can alter performance on a subsequent task. We therefore examined the effects of AM recall on cognitive performance. Healthy participants (n=20 per experiment recalled AMs in response to positive, negative, and neutral cue words. Following each AM participants completed a simple perceptual task (Experiment 1 or solved moderately difficult subtraction problems (Experiment 2. In Experiment 1 participants performed less accurately following exposure to positive or negative versus neutral cue words (ps<0.001, and also were less accurate following negative versus positive cue words (p<0.001. In Experiment 2, in contrast, no difference in accuracy or response times reached statistical significance. Performance accuracy even trended towards being higher following exposure to negative versus neutral cue words (p=0.08. The results of Experiment 1 suggested that recalling emotionally salient AMs reduces the attention directed toward a simple continuous performance task administered immediately following the AM task, conceivably due to persistent contemplation of the AM. The negative results of Experiment 2 suggested that the effect of AMs on attention was attenuated, however, by increasing the difficulty of the subsequent task. Our results have implications for patients with MDD, as performing cognitively demanding tasks may allow them to attenuate the impairing effects of negative rumination on cognition.

  7. A randomised placebo-controlled trial to differentiate the acute cognitive and mood effects of chlorogenic acid from decaffeinated coffee.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Camfield

    Full Text Available In the current study, sixty healthy older adults aged 50 years or older, and who were light to moderate coffee drinkers, were administered 6g of a decaffeinated green coffee blend (NESCAFÉ Green Blend coffee; GB or 540mg pure chlorogenic acids (CGA or placebo in a double-blind acute cross-over design, with cognitive and mood assessments pre-dose, 40-mins and 120-mins post-dose. The primary outcome measure was accuracy in Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP. Secondary cognitive outcome measures included RVIP reaction time as well as Inspection time (IT, Jensen Box decision/reaction times, serial subtraction and N-Back working memory. Secondary mood measures included Bond-Lader and caffeine Research visual analogue scales (VAS. No significant treatment effects were found for the primary outcome measure, although significant effects were found amongst secondary measures. Overall, CGA in isolation was not found to significantly improve cognitive function relative to placebo whereas the GB was found to improve sustained attention as measured by the N-Back task in comparison to placebo overall (t=2.45,p=.05, as well as decision time on a 2-choice reaction time task (Jensen box in comparison to placebo at 40 minutes post-dose (t=2.45,p=.05. Similarly, GB was found to improve alertness on both the Bond-Lader at 120 minutes relative to CGA (t=2.86, p=0.02 and the caffeine Research VAS relative to CGA (t=3.09, p=0.009 and placebo (t=2.75,p=0.02 at 120 minutes post-dose. Both the GB and CGA were also found to significantly improve symptoms of headache at 120 minutes relative to placebo (t=2.51,p=0.03 and t=2.43,p=.04 respectively, whilst there was a trend towards a reduction in jitteriness with GB and CGA in comparison to placebo at 40 minutes post-dose (t=2.24,p=0.06 and t=2.20,p=0.06 respectively. These findings suggest that the improvements in mood observed with GB, but not the improvements in cognitive function, are likely to some extent to be

  8. Semi-quantitative analysis of perfusion of Brodmann areas in the differential diagnosis of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease, fronto-temporal dementia and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranfaglia, Cristina; Palumbo, Barbara; Siepi, Donatella; Sinzinger, Helmut; Parnetti, Lucilla

    2009-01-01

    Different perfusion defects reflect neurological damage characteristics of different kinds of dementia. Our aim was to investigate the role of brain single photon emission tomography (SPET) with semiquantitative analysis of Brodmann areas in dementia, by technetium-99m - hexamethyl-propylenamine- oxime ((99m)Tc-HMPAO) brain SPET with semiquantitative analysis of Brodmann areas in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We studied 75 patients, 25 with AD (NiNCDS ADRDA criteria), 25 with FTD (Lund and Manchester criteria), 25 with MCI (EADC criteria). After i.v. injection of 740MBq of (99m)Tc-HMPAO, each patient underwent brain SPET. A software application was used able to map the SPET brain image to a stereotaxic atlas (Talairach), providing an affine co-registration by blocks of data defined in the Talairach space. A normal database calculating voxel by voxel the mean and the standard deviation of the measured values was built. Functional SPET data of 3D regions of interest (ROI) of predefined Brodmann's area templates were compared with those of a database of healthy subjects of the same age and gender. Mean values obtained in the Brodmann area ROI in the different groups of patients studied were evaluated. Our results showed that different Brodmann areas were significantly impaired in the different categories of dementia subjects. Both areas 37 (temporal gyrus) and 39 (angular gyrus) of AD patients (mean+/-SD: 37L= -1.6+/-1.0; 37R= -1.5+/-1.1; 39L= -2.3+/-1.3; 39R= -1.9+/-1.2) showed significant hypoperfusion (Pareas 40 (supramarginal gyrus) (40L= -2.6+/-1.0; 40R= -2.3+/-1.1) with respect to MCI patients (40L= -1.8+/-0.9; 40R= -1.7+/-1.2). Finally, FTD patients showed significant hypoperfusion (Pareas 47 (frontal association cortex) (47L= -1.8+/-0.8; 47R= -1.1+/-0.8) in comparison with MCI subjects (47L= -1.2+/-0.9; 47R= -0.9+/-0.9). In conclusion, our results suggest that semiquantitative

  9. [Validity of the Spanish version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination for the diagnosis of dementia and to differentiate Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarasola, D; de Luján-Calcagno, M; Sabe, L; Crivelli, L; Torralva, T; Roca, M; García-Caballero, A; Manes, F

    The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) is a brief bedside test battery to detect mild dementia and differentiate frontotemporal dementia (FTD) from Alzheimer's disease (AD). To validate the ACE in Spanish. The study evaluated the Spanish version of ACE on 128 subjects consisting in two groups a patient group (n = 76) and a control subjects group (n = 52). The patient group was divided in AD (n = 54) based on the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria and FTD (n = 22) based on the Lund y Manchester criteria. All patients underwent clinical, neuropsychological, radiologic (MRI, CT, and SPECT), and laboratory evaluations. Group's differences were evaluated using ANOVA. The internal consistency of the Spanish version of the ACE was measured using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The discriminative capability of the Spanish version of the ACE was examined by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The cut-off score of 86 showed a sensitivity of 92% (CI 95% = 83.6-97.0) and a specificity of 96.2% (CI 95% = 86.8-99.4). The ROC curve showed higher sensitivity and specificity of the ACE than the Mini-Mental State Examination in discriminating the dementia and control group. The VLOM ratio (verbal fluency + language)/(orientation + memory) of 4.87 discriminated for AD. The Spanish version of ACE is a brief and reliable instrument for early detection of dementia in highly educated people and offers a simple objective index to differentiate AD and FTD. More studies in less educated people are warranted.

  10. Differential diagnosis between dementia and psychiatric disorders: Diagnostic criteria and supplementary exams. Recommendations of the Scientific Department of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottino, Cássio M C; de Pádua, Analuiza Camozzato; Smid, Jerusa; Areza-Fegyveres, Renata; Novaretti, Tânia; Bahia, Valeria S

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, the Scientific Department of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology published recommendations for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease These recommendations were updated following a review of evidence retrieved from national and international studies held on PUBMED, SCIELO and LILACS medical databases. The main aims of this review article are as follows: 1) to present the evidence found on Brazilian (LILACS, SCIELO) and International (MEDLINE) databases from articles published up to May 2011, on the differential diagnosis of these psychiatric disorders and dementia, with special focus on Dementia due to Alzheimer's and vascular dementia, including a review of supplementary exams which may facilitate the diagnostic process; and2) to propose recommendations for use by clinicians and researchers involved in diagnosing patients with dementia. Differential diagnosis between dementia and other neuropsychiatric disorders should always include assessments for depression, delirium , and use of psychoactive substances, as well as investigate the use of benzodiazepines, anti-epileptics and pattern of alcohol consumption.

  11. Evidence for a differential contribution of early perceptual and late cognitive processes during encoding to episodic memory impairment in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Amity E; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Johnston, Patrick J; Nathan, Pradeep J; Kulkarni, Jayashri; Croft, Rodney J

    2017-08-01

    Schizophrenia is characterised by significant episodic memory impairment that is thought to be related to problems with encoding, however the neuro-functional mechanisms underlying these deficits are not well understood. The present study used a subsequent recognition memory paradigm and event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate temporal aspects of episodic memory encoding deficits in schizophrenia. Electroencephalographic data was recorded in 24 patients and 19 healthy controls whilst participants categorised single words as pleasant/unpleasant. ERPs were generated to subsequently recognised versus unrecognised words on the basis of a forced-choice recognition memory task. Subsequent memory effects were examined with the late positive component (LPP). Group differences in N1, P2, N400 and LPP were examined for words correctly recognised. Patients performed more poorly than controls on the recognition task. During encoding patients had significantly reduced N400 and LPP amplitudes than controls. LPP amplitude correlated with task performance however amplitudes did not differ between patients and controls as a function of subsequent memory. No significant differences in N1 or P2 amplitude or latency were observed. The present results indicate that early sensory processes are intact and dysfunctional higher order cognitive processes during encoding are contributing to episodic memory impairments in schizophrenia.

  12. Transcranial direct current stimulation facilitates cognitive multi-task performance differentially depending on anode location and subtask.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa eScheldrup

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to facilitate acquisition of real world cognitive multi-tasks that require long periods of training (e.g., air traffic control, intelligence analysis, medicine. Non-invasive brain stimulation – specifically transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS – has promise as a method to speed multi-task training. We hypothesized that during acquisition of the complex multi-task Space Fortress, subtasks that require focused attention on ship control would benefit from tDCS aimed at the dorsal attention network while subtasks that require redirection of attention would benefit from tDCS aimed at the right hemisphere ventral attention network. We compared effects of 30 min prefrontal and parietal stimulation to right and left hemispheres on subtask performance during the first 45 min of training. The strongest effects both overall and for ship flying (control and velocity subtasks were seen with a right parietal (C4 to left shoulder montage, shown by modeling to induce an electric field that includes nodes in both dorsal and ventral attention networks. This is consistent with the re-orienting hypothesis that the ventral attention network is activated along with the dorsal attention network if a new, task-relevant event occurs while visuospatial attention is focused (Corbetta et al., 2008. No effects were seen with anodes over sites that stimulated only dorsal (C3 or only ventral (F10 attention networks. The speed subtask (update memory for symbols benefited from an F9 anode over left prefrontal cortex. These results argue for development of tDCS as a training aid in real world settings where multi-tasking is critical.

  13. Transcranial direct current stimulation facilitates cognitive multi-task performance differentially depending on anode location and subtask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheldrup, Melissa; Greenwood, Pamela M; McKendrick, Ryan; Strohl, Jon; Bikson, Marom; Alam, Mahtab; McKinley, R Andy; Parasuraman, Raja

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to facilitate acquisition of real world cognitive multi-tasks that require long periods of training (e.g., air traffic control, intelligence analysis, medicine). Non-invasive brain stimulation-specifically transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS)-has promise as a method to speed multi-task training. We hypothesized that during acquisition of the complex multi-task Space Fortress, subtasks that require focused attention on ship control would benefit from tDCS aimed at the dorsal attention network while subtasks that require redirection of attention would benefit from tDCS aimed at the right hemisphere ventral attention network. We compared effects of 30 min prefrontal and parietal stimulation to right and left hemispheres on subtask performance during the first 45 min of training. The strongest effects both overall and for ship flying (control and velocity subtasks) were seen with a right parietal (C4, reference to left shoulder) montage, shown by modeling to induce an electric field that includes nodes in both dorsal and ventral attention networks. This is consistent with the re-orienting hypothesis that the ventral attention network is activated along with the dorsal attention network if a new, task-relevant event occurs while visuospatial attention is focused (Corbetta et al., 2008). No effects were seen with anodes over sites that stimulated only dorsal (C3) or only ventral (F10) attention networks. The speed subtask (update memory for symbols) benefited from an F9 anode over left prefrontal cortex. These results argue for development of tDCS as a training aid in real world settings where multi-tasking is critical.

  14. Increased Amplitude of the P3a ERP Component as a Neurocognitive Marker for Differentiating Amnestic Subtypes of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenia S. Correa-Jaraba

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The event-related potential (ERP technique has been shown to be useful for evaluating changes in brain electrical activity associated with different cognitive processes, particularly in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Longitudinal studies have shown that a high proportion of people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI go on to develop AD. aMCI is divided into two subtypes according to the presence of memory impairment only (single-domain aMCI: sdaMCI or impairment of memory and other cognitive domains (multi-domain aMCI: mdaMCI. The main aim of this study was to examine the effects of sdaMCI and mdaMCI on the P3a ERP component associated with the involuntary orientation of attention toward unattended infrequent novel auditory stimuli. Participants performed an auditory-visual distraction-attention task, in which they were asked to ignore the auditory stimuli (standard, deviant, and novel and to attend to the visual stimuli (responding to some of them: Go stimuli. P3a was identified in the Novel minus Standard difference waveforms, and reaction times (RTs and hits (in response to Go stimuli were also analyzed. Participants were classified into three groups: Control, 20 adults (mean age (M: 65.8 years; sdaMCI, 19 adults (M: 67 years; and mdaMCI, 11 adults (M: 71 years. In all groups, the RTs were significantly longer when Go stimuli were preceded by novel (relative to standard auditory stimuli, suggesting a distraction effect triggered by novel stimuli; mdaMCI participants made significantly fewer hits than control and sdaMCI participants. P3a comprised two consecutive phases in all groups: early-P3a (e-P3a, which may reflect the orienting response toward the irrelevant stimuli, and late-P3a (l-P3a, which may be a correlate of subsequent evaluation of these stimuli. The e-P3a amplitude was significantly larger in mdaMCI than in sdaMCI participants, and the l-P3a amplitude was significantly larger in mdaMCI than in sdaMCI and Control

  15. Vitamin D Levels and the Risk of Cognitive Decline in Chinese Elderly People: the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchar, David B; Chei, Choy-Lye; Yin, Zhao-Xue; Koh, Victoria; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Shi, Xiao-Ming; Zeng, Yi

    2016-10-01

    Vitamin D has a neuroprotective function, potentially important for the prevention of cognitive decline. Prospective studies from Western countries support an association between lower vitamin D level and future cognitive decline in elderly people. No prospective study has examined this association in Asia. This community-based cohort study of elderly people in China follows 1,202 cognitively intact adults aged ≥60 years for a mean duration of 2 years. Plasma vitamin D level was measured at the baseline. Cognitive state of participants was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Cognitive impairment was defined as an MMSE score vitamin D levels with cognitive decline and incidence of cognitive impairment. Participants with low vitamin D level had an increased risk of cognitive decline. Compared with the highest quartile of vitamin D levels, the multivariable odds ratios (ORs; 95% confidence interval) for cognitive decline were 2.1 (1.3-3.4) for the second highest quartile, 2.2 (1.4-3.6) for the third highest quartile, and 2.0 (1.2-3.3) for the lowest quartile. The multivariable ORs of incident cognitive impairment for the second highest, third highest, and lowest versus highest quartiles of vitamin D levels were 1.9 (0.9-4.1), 2.6 (1.2-5.6), and 3.2 (1.5-6.6), respectively. This first follow-up study of elderly people, including the oldest-old, in Asia shows that low vitamin D levels were associated with increased risk of subsequent cognitive decline and impairment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Separating neural and vascular effects of caffeine using simultaneous EEG–FMRI: Differential effects of caffeine on cognitive and sensorimotor brain responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diukova, Ana; Ware, Jennifer; Smith, Jessica E.; Evans, C. John; Murphy, Kevin; Rogers, Peter J.; Wise, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of caffeine are mediated through its non-selective antagonistic effects on adenosine A1 and A2A adenosine receptors resulting in increased neuronal activity but also vasoconstriction in the brain. Caffeine, therefore, can modify BOLD FMRI signal responses through both its neural and its vascular effects depending on receptor distributions in different brain regions. In this study we aim to distinguish neural and vascular influences of a single dose of caffeine in measurements of task-related brain activity using simultaneous EEG–FMRI. We chose to compare low-level visual and motor (paced finger tapping) tasks with a cognitive (auditory oddball) task, with the expectation that caffeine would differentially affect brain responses in relation to these tasks. To avoid the influence of chronic caffeine intake, we examined the effect of 250 mg of oral caffeine on 14 non and infrequent caffeine consumers in a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study. Our results show that the task-related BOLD signal change in visual and primary motor cortex was significantly reduced by caffeine, while the amplitude and latency of visual evoked potentials over occipital cortex remained unaltered. However, during the auditory oddball task (target versus non-target stimuli) caffeine significantly increased the BOLD signal in frontal cortex. Correspondingly, there was also a significant effect of caffeine in reducing the target evoked response potential (P300) latency in the oddball task and this was associated with a positive potential over frontal cortex. Behavioural data showed that caffeine also improved performance in the oddball task with a significantly reduced number of missed responses. Our results are consistent with earlier studies demonstrating altered flow-metabolism coupling after caffeine administration in the context of our observation of a generalised caffeine-induced reduction in cerebral blood flow demonstrated by arterial spin labelling (19

  17. The Effects of a Brief Acceptance-based Behavior Therapy vs. Traditional Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Public Speaking Anxiety: Differential Effects on Performance and Verbal Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Lisa Hayley

    Individuals with public speaking phobia experience fear and avoidance that can cause extreme distress, impaired speaking performance, and associated problems in psychosocial functioning. Most extant interventions for public speaking phobia focus on the reduction of anxiety and avoidance, but neglect performance. Additionally, very little is known about the relationship between verbal working memory and social performance under conditions of high anxiety. The current study compared the efficacy of two cognitive behavioral treatments, traditional Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (tCBT) and acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT), in enhancing public speaking performance via coping with anxiety. Verbal working memory performance, as measured by the backwards digit span (BDS), was measured to explore the relationships between treatment type, anxiety, performance, and verbal working memory. We randomized 30 individuals with high public speaking anxiety to a 90-minute ABBT or tCBT intervention. As this pilot study was underpowered, results are examined in terms of effect sizes as well as statistical significance. Assessments took place at pre and post-intervention and included self-rated and objective anxiety measurements, a behavioral assessment, ABBT and tCBT process measures, and backwards digit span verbal working memory tests. In order to examine verbal working memory during different levels of anxiety and performance pressure, we gave each participant a backwards digit span task three times during each assessment: once under calm conditions, then again while experiencing anticipatory anxiety, and finally under conditions of acute social performance anxiety in front of an audience. Participants were asked to give a video-recorded speech in front of the audience at pre- and post-intervention to examine speech performance. Results indicated that all participants experienced a very large and statistically significant decrease in anxiety (both during the speech and BDS

  18. Stroke and TIA survivors’ cognitive beliefs and affective responses regarding treatment and future stroke risk differentially predict medication adherence and categorised stroke risk

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, L. Alison; Diefenbach, Michael A.; Abrams, Jessica; Horowitz, Carol R.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive beliefs and affective responses to illness and treatment are known to independently predict health behaviours. The purpose of the current study is to assess the relative importance of four psychological domains – specifically, affective illness, cognitive illness, affective treatment and cognitive treatment – for predicting stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) survivors’ adherence to stroke prevention medications as well as their objective, categorised stroke risk. We assessed...

  19. The influences of childlessness on the psychological well-being and social network of the oldest old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikström Josefin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ELSA 85 project is a population-based study with the purpose to learn more about the "elderly elderly". The aim of this part of the ELSA 85 study is to explore the effects of childlessness on the psychological wellbeing, living situation and social support of 85-year old individuals. Methods A postal questionnaire was sent to all (650 85-year old men and women living in Linköping Municipality in 2007. Psychological well-being and social network was measured using a number of questions. Results 496 individuals participated in the study. No differences in psychological wellbeing were found between the 85-year olds who were childless and those who were parents. The childless 85-year olds were less likely to have relatives close by and to receive help than those who were parents. Individuals of both groups were equally likely to end up in institutional care, to have friends close by and to be in contact with neighbours. Conclusions Even though elderly childless individuals have social networks of less support potential than those who are parents there are no differences in certain psychological wellbeing indicators between the two groups. Apparently, childless elderly individuals find ways to cope with whatever negative effects of childlessness they may have experienced.

  20. Circulating levels of IGF1 are associated with muscle strength in middle-aged- and oldest-old women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taekema, Diana G.; Ling, Carolina H Y; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Meskers, Carel G.; Westendorp, Rudi G J; De Craen, Anton J M; Maier, Andrea B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In aging populations, poor handgrip strength has been associated with physical disability and mortality. IGF1 is an important mediator of muscle growth and regeneration affecting muscle function. We studied the relationship between circulating levels of IGF1, its binding protein 3

  1. The tumor necrosis factor alpha - 308G>A polymorphism is associated with dementia in the oldest-old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruunsgaard, Helle; Benfield, Thomas L; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) -308 G>A promoter gene polymorphism is a risk factor in age-related dementia and longevity. DESIGN: A cross-sectional and a longitudinal study. SETTING: A population-based sample of Danish centenarians. PARTICIPANTS: One...... was investigated (Fischer exact test). Furthermore, whether the TNF -308 G>A polymorphism was associated with the prevalence of dementia (logistic regression analysis), the plasma level of TNF-alpha (analysis of variance), and mortality in the following 5 years (Cox regression analysis) within the cohort...... higher plasma levels of TNF-alpha, but the significance was questionable due to a low number of subjects with this genotype. CONCLUSION: It is possible that the TNF -308 A allele is maintained during aging because subjects who are heterozygous for this polymorphism possess the optimal inflammatory...

  2. A Quick Test of Cognitive Speed for Comparing Processing Speed to Differentiate Adult Psychiatric Referrals With and Without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Wiig, Elisabeth Hemmersam; Nielsen, Niels Peter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This retrospective study used A Quick Test of Cognitive Speed (AQT) to compare processing speed and efficiency measures by adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or non-ADHD psychiatric disorders and healthy controls.

  3. A Combined Cognitive Stimulation and Physical Exercise Programme (MINDVital) in Early Dementia: Differential Effects on Single- and Dual-Task Gait Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Laura; Lim, Wee Shiong; Chan, Mark; Ali, Noorhazlina; Chong, Mei Sian

    2016-01-01

    Gait disorders are common in early dementia, with particularly pronounced dual-task deficits, contributing to the increased fall risk and mobility decline associated with cognitive impairment. This study examines the effects of a combined cognitive stimulation and physical exercise programme (MINDVital) on gait performance under single- and dual-task conditions in older adults with mild dementia. Thirty-nine patients with early dementia participated in a multi-disciplinary rehabilitation programme comprising both physical exercise and cognitive stimulation. The programme was conducted in 8-week cycles with participants attending once weekly, and all participants completed 2 successive cycles. Cognitive, functional performance and behavioural symptoms were assessed at baseline and at the end of each 8-week cycle. Gait speed was examined under both single- (Timed Up and Go and 6-metre walk tests) and dual-task (animal category and serial counting) conditions. A random effects model was performed for the independent effect of MINDVital on the primary outcome variable of gait speed under dual-task conditions. The mean age of patients enroled in the rehabilitation programme was 79 ± 6.2 years; 25 (64.1%) had a diagnosis of Alzheimer's dementia, and 26 (66.7%) were receiving a cognitive enhancer therapy. There was a significant improvement in cognitive performance [random effects coefficient (standard error) = 0.90 (0.31), p = 0.003] and gait speed under both dual-task situations [animal category: random effects coefficient = 0.04 (0.02), p = 0.039; serial counting: random effects coefficient = 0.05 (0.02), p = 0.013], with reduced dual-task cost for gait speed [serial counting: random effects coefficient = -4.05 (2.35), p = 0.086] following successive MINDVital cycles. No significant improvement in single-task gait speed was observed. Improved cognitive performance over time was a significant determinant of changes in dual-task gait speed [random effects coefficients

  4. Computational models of Bitemporal, Bifrontal and Right Unilateral ECT predict differential stimulation of brain regions associated with efficacy and cognitive side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, S; Gálvez, V; Dokos, S; Martin, D; Bikson, M; Loo, C

    2017-03-01

    Extensive clinical research has shown that the efficacy and cognitive outcomes of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are determined, in part, by the type of electrode placement used. Bitemporal ECT (BT, stimulating electrodes placed bilaterally in the frontotemporal region) is the form of ECT with relatively potent clinical and cognitive side effects. However, the reasons for this are poorly understood. This study used computational modelling to examine regional differences in brain excitation between BT, Bifrontal (BF) and Right Unilateral (RUL) ECT, currently the most clinically-used ECT placements. Specifically, by comparing similarities and differences in current distribution patterns between BT ECT and the other two placements, the study aimed to create an explanatory model of critical brain sites that mediate antidepressant efficacy and sites associated with cognitive, particularly memory, adverse effects. High resolution finite element human head models were generated from MRI scans of three subjects. The models were used to compare differences in activation between the three ECT placements, using subtraction maps. In this exploratory study on three realistic head models, Bitemporal ECT resulted in greater direct stimulation of deep midline structures and also left temporal and inferior frontal regions. Interpreted in light of existing knowledge on depressive pathophysiology and cognitive neuroanatomy, it is suggested that the former sites are related to efficacy and the latter to cognitive deficits. We hereby propose an approach using binarised subtraction models that can be used to optimise, and even individualise, ECT therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Divergent pathways to influence: Cognition and behavior differentially mediate the effects of optimism on physical and mental quality of life in Chinese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Jonathan E; Yang, Fang; Pang, Joyce S; Lai, Ching-Man; Ho, Roger Cm; Mak, Kwok-Kei

    2015-07-01

    Previous research has indicated that both cognitive and behavioral variables mediate the positive effect of optimism on quality of life; yet few attempts have been made to accommodate these constructs into a single explanatory framework. Adopting Fredrickson's broaden-and-build perspective, we examined the relationships between optimism, self-rated health, resilience, exercise, and quality of life in 365 Chinese university students using path analysis. For physical quality of life, a two-stage model, in which the effects of optimism were sequentially mediated by cognitive and behavioral variables, provided the best fit. A one-stage model, with full mediation by cognitive variables, provided the best fit for mental quality of life. This suggests that optimism influences physical and mental quality of life via different pathways. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Decline in Memory, Visuospatial Ability, and Crystalized Cognitive Abilities in Older Adults: Normative Aging or Terminal Decline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bendayan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore the pattern of change in multiple measures of cognitive abilities in a sample of oldest-old adults, comparing two different time metrics (chronological age and time to death and therefore examining both underlying conceptual assumptions (age-related change and terminal decline. Moreover, the association with individual characteristics as sex, education, and dementia diagnosis was also examined. Measures of cognitive status (Mini-Mental State Examination and the Swedish Clock Test and tests of crystallized (knowledge and synonyms, memory (verbal memory, nonverbal long-term memory, recognition and correspondence, and short-term memory, and visuospatial ability were included. The sample consisted of 671 older Swedish adult participants of the OCTO Twin Study. Linear mixed models with random coefficients were used to analyse change patterns and BIC indexes were used to compare models. Results showed that the time to death model was the best option in analyses of change in all the cognitive measures considered (except for the Information Test. A significant cognitive decline over time was found for all variables. Individuals diagnosed with dementia had lower scores at the study entrance and a faster decline. More educated individuals performed better in all the measures of cognition at study entry than those with poorer education, but no differences were found in the rate of change. Differences were found in age, sex, or time to death at baseline across the different measures. These results support the terminal decline hypothesis when compared to models assuming that cognitive changes are driven by normative aging processes.

  7. Evidence for the triadic model of adolescent brain development: Cognitive load and task-relevance of emotion differentially affect adolescents and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven C. Mueller

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In adults, cognitive control is supported by several brain regions including the limbic system and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC when processing emotional information. However, in adolescents, some theories hypothesize a neurobiological imbalance proposing heightened sensitivity to affective material in the amygdala and striatum within a cognitive control context. Yet, direct neurobiological evidence is scarce. Twenty-four adolescents (12–16 and 28 adults (25–35 completed an emotional n-back working memory task in response to happy, angry, and neutral faces during fMRI. Importantly, participants either paid attention to the emotion (task-relevant condition or judged the gender (task-irrelevant condition. Behaviorally, for both groups, when happy faces were task-relevant, performance improved relative to when they were task-irrelevant, while performance decrements were seen for angry faces. In the dlPFC, angry faces elicited more activation in adults during low relative to high cognitive load (2-back vs. 0-back. By contrast, happy faces elicited more activation in the amygdala in adolescents when they were task-relevant. Happy faces also generally increased nucleus accumbens activity (regardless of relevance in adolescents relative to adults. Together, the findings are consistent with neurobiological models of adolescent brain development and identify neurodevelopmental differences in cognitive control emotion interactions.

  8. Cognitive Demands during Quiet Standing Elicit Truncal Tremor in Two Frequency Bands: Differential Relations to Tissue Integrity of Corticospinal Tracts and Cortical Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith V Sullivan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to stand quietly is disturbed by degradation of cerebellar systems. Given the complexity of sensorimotor integration invoked to maintain upright posture, the integrity of supratentorial brain structures may also contribute to quiet standing and consequently be vulnerable to interference from cognitive challenges. As cerebellar system disruption is a common concomitant of alcoholism, we examined 46 alcoholics and 43 controls with a force platform to derive physiological indices of quiet standing during cognitive (solving simple, mental arithmetic problems and visual (eyes closed challenges. Also tested were relations between tremor velocity and regional gray matter and white matter tissue quality measured with the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI metric of mean diffusivity (MD, indexing disorganized microstructure. Spectral analysis of sway revealed greater tremor in alcoholic men than alcoholic women or controls. Cognitive dual-tasking elicited excessive tremor in two frequency bands, each related to DTI signs of degradation in separate brain systems: tremor velocity at a low power (2-5 Hz/0-2 Hz correlated with higher MD in the cerebellar hemispheres and superior cingulate bundles, whereas tremor velocity at a higher power (5-7 Hz correlated with higher MD in the motor cortex and internal capsule. These brain sites may represent tremorgenic networks that when disturbed by disease and exacerbated by cognitive dual-tasking contribute to postural instability, putting affected individuals at heightened risk for falling.

  9. Omega-3 PUFA supplementation differentially affects behavior and cognition in the young and aged non-human primate Grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pifferi Fabien

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data are divergent about the ability of dietary ω3 fatty acids to prevent age-associated cognitive decline. Most of the clinical trials failed to demonstrate a protective effect of ω3 fatty acids against cognitive decline and methodological issues are still under debate. Conversely to human studies, experiments performed in adult rodents clearly indicate that long chain ω3 fatty acids play a beneficial role in behavioral and cognitive functions. Inconsistent observations between human and rodent studies highlight the importance of the use of non-human primate models. We recently started a series of experiments on Grey mouse lemurs, an emerging non-human primate model of aging in order to assess the impact of ω3 fatty acids dietary supplementation on several brain functions. These experiments started with the determination of the fatty acids composition of target organs (brain, adipose tissue, liver, plasma of animals fed under control diet. We then explored the impact of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA supplementation on cognition and behavior in young and aged grey mouse lemurs. The aim of the present review is to compare the observations made in young and aged grey mouse lemurs and to explore the possibilities of new experiments in order to bridge the gap between rodents and Humans.

  10. Evidence for the triadic model of adolescent brain development: Cognitive load and task-relevance of emotion differentially affect adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sven C; Cromheeke, Sofie; Siugzdaite, Roma; Nicolas Boehler, C

    2017-08-01

    In adults, cognitive control is supported by several brain regions including the limbic system and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) when processing emotional information. However, in adolescents, some theories hypothesize a neurobiological imbalance proposing heightened sensitivity to affective material in the amygdala and striatum within a cognitive control context. Yet, direct neurobiological evidence is scarce. Twenty-four adolescents (12-16) and 28 adults (25-35) completed an emotional n-back working memory task in response to happy, angry, and neutral faces during fMRI. Importantly, participants either paid attention to the emotion (task-relevant condition) or judged the gender (task-irrelevant condition). Behaviorally, for both groups, when happy faces were task-relevant, performance improved relative to when they were task-irrelevant, while performance decrements were seen for angry faces. In the dlPFC, angry faces elicited more activation in adults during low relative to high cognitive load (2-back vs. 0-back). By contrast, happy faces elicited more activation in the amygdala in adolescents when they were task-relevant. Happy faces also generally increased nucleus accumbens activity (regardless of relevance) in adolescents relative to adults. Together, the findings are consistent with neurobiological models of adolescent brain development and identify neurodevelopmental differences in cognitive control emotion interactions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Cognitive correlates of verbal memory and verbal fluency in schizophrenia, and differential effects of various clinical symptoms between male and female patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brébion, Gildas; Villalta-Gil, Victoria; Autonell, Jaume; Cervilla, Jorge; Dolz, Montserrat; Foix, Alexandrina; Haro, Josep Maria; Usall, Judith; Vilaplana, Miriam; Ochoa, Susana

    2013-06-01

    Impairment of higher cognitive functions in patients with schizophrenia might stem from perturbation of more basic functions, such as processing speed. Various clinical symptoms might affect cognitive efficiency as well. Notably, previous research has revealed the role of affective symptoms on memory performance in this population, and suggested sex-specific effects. We conducted a post-hoc analysis of an extensive neuropsychological study of 88 patients with schizophrenia. Regression analyses were conducted on verbal memory and verbal fluency data to investigate the contribution of semantic organisation and processing speed to performance. The role of negative and affective symptoms and of attention disorders in verbal memory and verbal fluency was investigated separately in male and female patients. Semantic clustering contributed to verbal recall, and a measure of reading speed contributed to verbal recall as well as to phonological and semantic fluency. Negative symptoms affected verbal recall and verbal fluency in the male patients, whereas attention disorders affected these abilities in the female patients. Furthermore, depression affected verbal recall in women, whereas anxiety affected it in men. These results confirm the association of processing speed with cognitive efficiency in patients with schizophrenia. They also confirm the previously observed sex-specific associations of depression and anxiety with memory performance in these patients, and suggest that negative symptoms and attention disorders likewise are related to cognitive efficiency differently in men and women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Short-term testosterone manipulations do not affect cognition or motor function but differentially modulate emotions in young and older male rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian; Maguire-Herring, Vanessa; Rose, Christian M; Gore, Heather E; Ferrigno, Stephen; Novak, Melinda A; Lacreuse, Agnès

    2014-11-01

    Human aging is characterized by declines in cognition and fine motor function as well as improved emotional regulation. In men, declining levels of testosterone (T) with age have been implicated in the development of these age-related changes. However, studies examining the effects of T replacement on cognition, emotion and fine motor function in older men have not provided consistent results. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are excellent models for human cognitive aging and may provide novel insights on this issue. We tested 10 aged intact male rhesus monkeys (mean age=19, range 15-25) on a battery of cognitive, motor and emotional tasks at baseline and under low or high T experimental conditions. Their performance was compared to that of 6 young males previously tested in the same paradigm (Lacreuse et al., 2009; Lacreuse et al., 2010). Following a 4-week baseline testing period, monkeys were treated with a gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (Depot Lupron, 200 μg/kg) to suppress endogenous T and were tested on the task battery under a 4-week high T condition (injection of Lupron+T enanthate, 20 mg/kg, n=8) or 4-week low T condition (injection of Lupron+oil vehicle, n=8) before crossing over to the opposite treatment. The cognitive tasks consisted of the Delayed Non-Matching-to-Sample (DNMS), the Delayed Response (DR), and the Delayed Recognition Span Test (spatial-DRST). The emotional tasks included an object Approach-Avoidance task and a task in which monkeys were played videos of unfamiliar conspecifics in different emotional context (Social Playbacks). The fine motor task was the Lifesaver task that required monkeys to remove a Lifesaver candy from rods of different complexity. T manipulations did not significantly affect visual recognition memory, working memory, reference memory or fine motor function at any age. In the Approach-Avoidance task, older monkeys, but not younger monkeys, spent more time in proximity of novel objects in the high T condition

  13. Differential contributions of dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal prefrontal white matter tracts to cognitive control in healthy older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Strenziok

    Full Text Available Prefrontal cortex mediates cognitive control by means of circuitry organized along dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal axes. Along the dorso-ventral axis, ventrolateral PFC controls semantic information, whereas dorsolateral PFC encodes task rules. Along the rostro-caudal axis, anterior prefrontal cortex encodes complex rules and relationships between stimuli, whereas posterior prefrontal cortex encodes simple relationships between stimuli and behavior. Evidence of these gradients of prefrontal cortex organization has been well documented in fMRI studies, but their functional correlates have not been examined with regard to integrity of underlying white matter tracts. We hypothesized that (a the integrity of specific white matter tracts is related to cognitive functioning in a manner consistent with the dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal organization of the prefrontal cortex, and (b this would be particularly evident in healthy older adults. We assessed three cognitive processes that recruit the prefrontal cortex and can distinguish white matter tracts along the dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal dimensions -episodic memory, working memory, and reasoning. Correlations between cognition and fractional anisotropy as well as fiber tractography revealed: (a Episodic memory was related to ventral prefrontal cortex-thalamo-hippocampal fiber integrity; (b Working memory was related to integrity of corpus callosum body fibers subserving dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; and (c Reasoning was related to integrity of corpus callosum body fibers subserving rostral and caudal dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings confirm the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex's role in semantic control and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex's role in rule-based processing, in accordance with the dorso-ventral prefrontal cortex gradient. Reasoning-related rostral and caudal superior frontal white matter may facilitate different levels of task rule complexity. This study is the

  14. Enhancing the value of psychiatric mouse models; differential expression of developmental behavioral and cognitive profiles in four inbred strains of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenhuis, Remco T; de Visser, Leonie; Bruining, Hilgo; Kas, Martien J

    2014-06-01

    The behavioral characterization of animal models of psychiatric disorders is often based upon independent traits measured at adult age. To model the neurodevelopmental aspects of psychiatric pathogenesis, we introduce a novel approach for a developmental behavioral analysis in mice. C57BL/6J (C57) mice were used as a reference strain and compared with 129S1/SvImJ (129Sv), BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) and A/J (AJ) strains as marker strains for aberrant development. Mice were assessed at pre-adolescence (4 weeks), adolescence (6 weeks), early adulthood (8 weeks) and in adulthood (10-12 weeks) on a series of behavioral tasks measuring general health, neurological reflexes, locomotor activity, anxiety, short- and long-term memory and cognitive flexibility. Developmental delays in short-term object memory were associated with either a hypo-reactive profile in 129Sv mice or a hyper-reactive profile in BTBR mice. Furthermore, BTBR mice showed persistent high levels of repetitive grooming behavior during all developmental stages that was associated with the adult expression of cognitive rigidity. In addition, strain differences in development were observed in puberty onset, touch escape, and body position. These data showed that this longitudinal testing battery provides sufficient behavioral and cognitive resolution during different development stages and offers the opportunity to address the behavioral developmental trajectory in genetic mouse models for neurodevelopmental disorders. Furthermore, the data revealed that the assessment of multiple behavioral and cognitive domains at different developmental stages is critical to determine confounding factors (e.g., impaired motor behavior) that may interfere with the behavioral testing performance in mouse models for brain disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  15. Differential contributions of dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal prefrontal white matter tracts to cognitive control in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strenziok, Maren; Greenwood, Pamela M; Santa Cruz, Sophia A; Thompson, James C; Parasuraman, Raja

    2013-01-01

    Prefrontal cortex mediates cognitive control by means of circuitry organized along dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal axes. Along the dorso-ventral axis, ventrolateral PFC controls semantic information, whereas dorsolateral PFC encodes task rules. Along the rostro-caudal axis, anterior prefrontal cortex encodes complex rules and relationships between stimuli, whereas posterior prefrontal cortex encodes simple relationships between stimuli and behavior. Evidence of these gradients of prefrontal cortex organization has been well documented in fMRI studies, but their functional correlates have not been examined with regard to integrity of underlying white matter tracts. We hypothesized that (a) the integrity of specific white matter tracts is related to cognitive functioning in a manner consistent with the dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal organization of the prefrontal cortex, and (b) this would be particularly evident in healthy older adults. We assessed three cognitive processes that recruit the prefrontal cortex and can distinguish white matter tracts along the dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal dimensions -episodic memory, working memory, and reasoning. Correlations between cognition and fractional anisotropy as well as fiber tractography revealed: (a) Episodic memory was related to ventral prefrontal cortex-thalamo-hippocampal fiber integrity; (b) Working memory was related to integrity of corpus callosum body fibers subserving dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; and (c) Reasoning was related to integrity of corpus callosum body fibers subserving rostral and caudal dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings confirm the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex's role in semantic control and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex's role in rule-based processing, in accordance with the dorso-ventral prefrontal cortex gradient. Reasoning-related rostral and caudal superior frontal white matter may facilitate different levels of task rule complexity. This study is the first to

  16. Differential effects of common variants in SCN2A on general cognitive ability, brain physiology, and messenger RNA expression in schizophrenia cases and control individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Dwight; Straub, Richard E; Trampush, Joey W; Gao, Yuan; Feng, Ningping; Xie, Bin; Shin, Joo Heon; Lim, Hun Ki; Ursini, Gianluca; Bigos, Kristin L; Kolachana, Bhaskar; Hashimoto, Ryota; Takeda, Masatoshi; Baum, Graham L; Rujescu, Dan; Callicott, Joseph H; Hyde, Thomas M; Berman, Karen F; Kleinman, Joel E; Weinberger, Daniel R

    2014-06-01

    One approach to understanding the genetic complexity of schizophrenia is to study associated behavioral and biological phenotypes that may be more directly linked to genetic variation. To identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with general cognitive ability (g) in people with schizophrenia and control individuals. Genomewide association study, followed by analyses in unaffected siblings and independent schizophrenia samples, functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of brain physiology in vivo, and RNA sequencing in postmortem brain samples. The discovery cohort and unaffected siblings were participants in the National Institute of Mental Health Clinical Brain Disorders Branch schizophrenia genetics studies. Additional schizophrenia cohorts were from psychiatric treatment settings in the United States, Japan, and Germany. The discovery cohort comprised 339 with schizophrenia and 363 community control participants. Follow-up analyses studied 147 unaffected siblings of the schizophrenia cases and independent schizophrenia samples including a total of an additional 668 participants. Imaging analyses included 87 schizophrenia cases and 397 control individuals. Brain tissue samples were available for 64 cases and 61 control individuals. We studied genomewide association with g, by group, in the discovery cohort. We used selected genotypes to test specific associations in unaffected siblings and independent schizophrenia samples. Imaging analyses focused on activation in the prefrontal cortex during working memory. Brain tissue studies yielded messenger RNA expression levels for RefSeq transcripts. The schizophrenia discovery cohort showed genomewide-significant association of g with polymorphisms in sodium channel gene SCN2A, accounting for 10.4% of g variance (rs10174400, P = 9.27 × 10(-10)). Control individuals showed a trend for g/genotype association with reversed allelic directionality. The genotype-by-group interaction was also genomewide

  17. Analysis of Nonequivalent Assessments across Different Linguistic Groups Using a Mixed Methods Approach: Understanding the Causes of Differential Item Functioning by Cognitive Interviewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, Isabel; Padilla, José-Luis

    2014-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) can undermine the validity of cross-lingual comparisons. While a lot of efficient statistics for detecting DIF are available, few general findings have been found to explain DIF results. The objective of the article was to study DIF sources by using a mixed method design. The design involves a quantitative phase…

  18. Fitting a Mixture Rasch Model to English as a Foreign Language Listening Tests: The Role of Cognitive and Background Variables in Explaining Latent Differential Item Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryadoust, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    The present study uses a mixture Rasch model to examine latent differential item functioning in English as a foreign language listening tests. Participants (n = 250) took a listening and lexico-grammatical test and completed the metacognitive awareness listening questionnaire comprising problem solving (PS), planning and evaluation (PE), mental…

  19. Anxiety, Construct Differentiation, and Message Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Gregory J.; Condra, Mollie B.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the nature of the construct differentiation/anxiety relationship in light of messages produced. Considers recent and complex conceptualizations of social-cognitive development and anxiety. Finds no significant relationship between state anxiety and construct differentiation. (MM)

  20. Visual Cues Contribute Differentially to Audiovisual Perception of Consonants and Vowels in Improving Recognition and Reducing Cognitive Demands in Listeners With Hearing Impairment Using Hearing Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Shahram; Lidestam, Björn; Danielsson, Henrik; Ng, Elaine Hoi Ning; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2017-09-18

    We sought to examine the contribution of visual cues in audiovisual identification of consonants and vowels-in terms of isolation points (the shortest time required for correct identification of a speech stimulus), accuracy, and cognitive demands-in listeners with hearing impairment using hearing aids. The study comprised 199 participants with hearing impairment (mean age = 61.1 years) with bilateral, symmetrical, mild-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss. Gated Swedish consonants and vowels were presented aurally and audiovisually to participants. Linear amplification was adjusted for each participant to assure audibility. The reading span test was used to measure participants' working memory capacity. Audiovisual presentation resulted in shortened isolation points and improved accuracy for consonants and vowels relative to auditory-only presentation. This benefit was more evident for consonants than vowels. In addition, correlations and subsequent analyses revealed that listeners with higher scores on the reading span test identified both consonants and vowels earlier in auditory-only presentation, but only vowels (not consonants) in audiovisual presentation. Consonants and vowels differed in terms of the benefits afforded from their associative visual cues, as indicated by the degree of audiovisual benefit and reduction in cognitive demands linked to the identification of consonants and vowels presented audiovisually.

  1. Relevance of the serial position effect in the differential diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer-type dementia, and normal ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, M E; Sasson, Y; Crivelli, L; Roldán Gerschovich, E; Campos, J A; Calcagno, M L; Leiguarda, R; Sabe, L; Allegri, R F

    2013-05-01

    Serial position effects are observed when a person memorises a series of words exceeding his or her attention span. Cognitively normal individuals recall words at the beginning and end of the list more frequently than those in the middle, which reflects the way that short- and long-term episodic memory works. To study the serial position effect in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) compared to subjects with Alzheimer-type dementia (AD) or normal ageing (NA). 30 AD, 25 MCI and 20 NA subjects underwent neurological and neuropsychological assessment. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) was used to study primacy, middle, and recency effects and delayed recall for each group. The general memory pattern of MCI subjects was very similar to that of AD subjects, and was characterised by reduced learning capacity, rapid forgetfulness and clear recency effect in learning. With regard to delayed recall, however, there were differences in performance; MCI subjects' ability to recall words at the beginning and middle of the list was similar to that of normal subjects, while their memory of words at the end of the list was poor, as in AD subjects. RAVLT is a tool permitting us to distinguish between MCI and NA subjects. The recency index for the delayed recall task is a valid indicator for distinguishing between MCI patients and patients with normal ageing. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential Impact of miR-21 on Pain and Associated Affective and Cognitive Behavior after Spared Nerve Injury in B7-H1 ko Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Karl

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are increasingly recognized as regulators of immune and neuronal gene expression and are potential master switches in neuropathic pain pathophysiology. miR-21 is a promising candidate that may link the immune and the pain system. To investigate the pathophysiological role of miR-21 in neuropathic pain, we assessed mice deficient of B7 homolog 1 (B7-H1, a major inhibitor of inflammatory responses. In previous studies, an upregulation of miR-21 had been shown in mouse lymphocytes. Young (8 weeks, middle-aged (6 months, and old (12 months B7-H1 ko mice and wildtype littermates (WT received a spared nerve injury (SNI. We assessed thermal withdrawal latencies and mechanical withdrawal thresholds. Further, we performed tests for anxiety-like and cognitive behavior. Quantitative real time PCR was used to determine miR-21 relative expression in peripheral nerves, and dorsal root ganglia (DRG at distinct time points after SNI. We found mechanical hyposensitivity with increasing age of naïve B7-H1 ko mice. Young and middle-aged B7-H1 ko mice were more sensitive to mechanical stimuli compared to WT mice (young: p < 0.01, middle-aged: p < 0.05. Both genotypes developed mechanical and heat hypersensitivity (p < 0.05 after SNI, without intergroup differences. No relevant differences were found after SNI in three tests for anxiety like behavior in B7-H1 ko and WT mice. Also, SNI had no effect on cognition. B7-H1 ko and WT mice showed a higher miR-21 expression (p < 0.05 and invasion of macrophages and T cells in the injured nerve 7 days after SNI without intergroup differences. Our study reveals that increased miR-21 expression in peripheral nerves after SNI is associated with reduced mechanical and heat withdrawal thresholds. These results point to a role of miR-21 in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain, while affective behavior and cognition seem to be spared. Contrary to expectations, B7-H1 ko mice did not show higher miR-21

  3. Mindfulness facets as differential mediators of short and long-term effects of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy in diabetes outpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haenen, Sharon; Nyklíček, Ivan; VAN Son, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that mindfulness-based interventions reduce psychological distress in various medical populations. However, it has hardly been studied if these effects are mediated by an increase in mindfulness. The aim of this study was to examine mediating effects...... of various mindfulness facets on effects of a Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) on perceived stress and mood. METHODS: Outpatients with diabetes types 1 and 2 and low levels of emotional wellbeing were randomized into a group receiving MBCT (n=70) or a waiting-list control group (n=69). Primary...... outcomes were mood and perceived stress. Before, after and at follow-up (6months post intervention) relevant questionnaires were completed. RESULTS: Mediation analysis using bootstrap resampling indicated that increases in total mindfulness and the facets observing and nonreactivity mediated the effects...

  4. Cognitive Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here Home › Non-Movement Symptoms › Cognitive Changes Cognitive Changes Some people with Parkinson’s disease (PD) experience mild cognitive impairment. Feelings of distraction or disorganization can accompany ...

  5. Cognitive-Behavioural Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP), a drug, or their combination: differential therapeutics for persistent depressive disorder: a study protocol of an individual participant data network meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Elisabeth; Weitz, Erica S; Salanti, Georgia; Efthimiou, Orestis; Michalak, Johannes; Watanabe, Norio; Keller, Martin B; Kocsis, James H; Klein, Daniel N; Cuijpers, Pim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite important advances in psychological and pharmacological treatments of persistent depressive disorders in the past decades, their responses remain typically slow and poor, and differential responses among different modalities of treatments or their combinations are not well understood. Cognitive-Behavioural Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP) is the only psychotherapy that has been specifically designed for chronic depression and has been examined in an increasing number of trials against medications, alone or in combination. When several treatment alternatives are available for a certain condition, network meta-analysis (NMA) provides a powerful tool to examine their relative efficacy by combining all direct and indirect comparisons. Individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis enables exploration of impacts of individual characteristics that lead to a differentiated approach matching treatments to specific subgroups of patients. Methods and analysis We will search for all randomised controlled trials that compared CBASP, pharmacotherapy or their combination, in the treatment of patients with persistent depressive disorder, in Cochrane CENTRAL, PUBMED, SCOPUS and PsycINFO, supplemented by personal contacts. Individual participant data will be sought from the principal investigators of all the identified trials. Our primary outcomes are depression severity as measured on a continuous observer-rated scale for depression, and dropouts for any reason as a proxy measure of overall treatment acceptability. We will conduct a one-step IPD-NMA to compare CBASP, medications and their combinations, and also carry out a meta-regression to identify their prognostic factors and effect moderators. The model will be fitted in OpenBUGS, using vague priors for all location parameters. For the heterogeneity we will use a half-normal prior on the SD. Ethics and dissemination This study requires no ethical approval. We will publish the findings in a peer

  6. Cognitive Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Cognitive Challenges Approximately 45% to 60% of individuals with TSC develop cognitive challenges (intellectual disabilities), although the degree of intellectual ...

  7. Three Steps Lead to Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowgren, Linda; Sever, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written about the value, need, and complexity of differentiating learning within every classroom based on student readiness, motivation and interest, apparent skills, learning preferences or styles, and identified cognitive needs. Teachers are encouraged to look at differentiation for students not as a formula for teaching, but…

  8. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met genotype in healthy and personality disorder individuals: Preliminary results from an examination of cognitive tests hypothetically differentially sensitive to dopamine functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie W Leung

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Winnie W Leung1, Margaret M McClure1, Larry J Siever1,2, Deanna M Barch3, Philip D Harvey1,21Department of Veterans Affairs, VISN 3 Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center (MIRECC, Bronx, NY, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; 3Departments of Psychology and Psychiatry, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, USAAbstract: A functional polymorphism of the gene coding for Catechol-O-methyltrasferase (COMT, an enzyme responsible for the degradation of the catecholamine dopamine (DA, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, is associated with cognitive deficits. However, previous studies have not examined the effects of COMT on context processing, as measured by the AX-CPT, a task hypothesized to be maximally relevant to DA function. 32 individuals who were either healthy, with schizotypal personality disorder, or non-cluster A, personality disorder (OPD were genotyped at the COMT Val158Met locus. Met/Met (n = 6, Val/Met (n = 10, Val/Val (n = 16 individuals were administered a neuropsychological battery, including the AX-CPT and the N-back working memory test. For the AX-CPT, Met/Met demonstrated more AY errors (reflecting good maintenance of context than the other genotypes, who showed equivalent error rates. Val/Val demonstrated disproportionately greater deterioration with increased task difficulty from 0-back to 1-back working memory demands as compared to Met/Met, while Val/Met did not differ from either genotypes. No differences were found on processing speed or verbal working memory. Both context processing and working memory appear related to COMT genotype and the AX-CPT and N-back may be most sensitive to the effects of COMT variation.Keywords: COMT, dopamine, context processing, working memory, schizotypal personality disorder

  9. Emotional versus cognitive rumination: are they differentially affecting long-term psychological health? The impact of stressors and personality in dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamesch, Ulla; Cropley, Mark; Lang, Jessica

    2014-08-01

    In the process of recovery from work, rumination is considered as an important mediating variable in the relationship between work demands and psychological health outcomes. Past research differentiated affective rumination from problem-solving pondering. The aim of the present study was to test a moderated mediation model for these two distinct ruminative states and to show how personality (i.e. neuroticism and conscientiousness) can alter the mediating effect. The present study is based on 119 surveys from dental students with a time lag of 6 months. Participants filled out questionnaires assessing specific study-relevant performance demands, rumination and personality and a screening measure for psychological health status. Neuroticism was found to moderate the demand-affective rumination association, but conscientiousness did not moderate the demand-problem-solving pondering association. Moderated mediation analysis revealed that affective rumination mediates the impact of demands on psychological health only for individuals low in neuroticism. Findings are discussed regarding potential interventions for dental students to prevent negative psychological health outcomes due to increased work-related demands in the long term. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Assessing normative cut points through differential item functioning analysis: An example from the adaptation of the Middlesex Elderly Assessment of Mental State (MEAMS for use as a cognitive screening test in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutlay Sehim

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Middlesex Elderly Assessment of Mental State (MEAMS was developed as a screening test to detect cognitive impairment in the elderly. It includes 12 subtests, each having a 'pass score'. A series of tasks were undertaken to adapt the measure for use in the adult population in Turkey and to determine the validity of existing cut points for passing subtests, given the wide range of educational level in the Turkish population. This study focuses on identifying and validating the scoring system of the MEAMS for Turkish adult population. Methods After the translation procedure, 350 normal subjects and 158 acquired brain injury patients were assessed by the Turkish version of MEAMS. Initially, appropriate pass scores for the normal population were determined through ANOVA post-hoc tests according to age, gender and education. Rasch analysis was then used to test the internal construct validity of the scale and the validity of the cut points for pass scores on the pooled data by using Differential Item Functioning (DIF analysis within the framework of the Rasch model. Results Data with the initially modified pass scores were analyzed. DIF was found for certain subtests by age and education, but not for gender. Following this, pass scores were further adjusted and data re-fitted to the model. All subtests were found to fit the Rasch model (mean item fit 0.184, SD 0.319; person fit -0.224, SD 0.557 and DIF was then found to be absent. Thus the final pass scores for all subtests were determined. Conclusion The MEAMS offers a valid assessment of cognitive state for the adult Turkish population, and the revised cut points accommodate for age and education. Further studies are required to ascertain the validity in different diagnostic groups.

  11. Assessing normative cut points through differential item functioning analysis: an example from the adaptation of the Middlesex Elderly Assessment of Mental State (MEAMS) for use as a cognitive screening test in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Alan; Küçükdeveci, Ayse A; Kutlay, Sehim; Elhan, Atilla H

    2006-03-23

    The Middlesex Elderly Assessment of Mental State (MEAMS) was developed as a screening test to detect cognitive impairment in the elderly. It includes 12 subtests, each having a 'pass score'. A series of tasks were undertaken to adapt the measure for use in the adult population in Turkey and to determine the validity of existing cut points for passing subtests, given the wide range of educational level in the Turkish population. This study focuses on identifying and validating the scoring system of the MEAMS for Turkish adult population. After the translation procedure, 350 normal subjects and 158 acquired brain injury patients were assessed by the Turkish version of MEAMS. Initially, appropriate pass scores for the normal population were determined through ANOVA post-hoc tests according to age, gender and education. Rasch analysis was then used to test the internal construct validity of the scale and the validity of the cut points for pass scores on the pooled data by using Differential Item Functioning (DIF) analysis within the framework of the Rasch model. Data with the initially modified pass scores were analyzed. DIF was found for certain subtests by age and education, but not for gender. Following this, pass scores were further adjusted and data re-fitted to the model. All subtests were found to fit the Rasch model (mean item fit 0.184, SD 0.319; person fit -0.224, SD 0.557) and DIF was then found to be absent. Thus the final pass scores for all subtests were determined. The MEAMS offers a valid assessment of cognitive state for the adult Turkish population, and the revised cut points accommodate for age and education. Further studies are required to ascertain the validity in different diagnostic groups.

  12. Phenomenological Fingerprints of Four Meditations: Differential State Changes in Affect, Mind-Wandering, Meta-Cognition, and Interoception Before and After Daily Practice Across 9 Months of Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Bethany E; Singer, Tania

    2017-01-01

    Despite increasing interest in the effects of mental training practices such as meditation, there is much ambiguity regarding whether and to what extent the various types of mental practice have differential effects on psychological change. To address this gap, we compare the effects of four common meditation practices on measures of state change in affect, mind-wandering, meta-cognition, and interoception. In the context of a 9-month mental training program called the ReSource Project, 229 mid-life adults (mean age 41) provided daily reports before and after meditation practice. Participants received training in the following three successive modules: the first module (presence) included breathing meditation and body scan, the second (affect) included loving-kindness meditation, and the third (perspective) included observing-thought meditation. Using multilevel modeling, we found that body scan led to the greatest state increase in interoceptive awareness and the greatest decrease in thought content, loving-kindness meditation led to the greatest increase in feelings of warmth and positive thoughts about others, and observing-thought meditation led to the greatest increase in meta-cognitive awareness. All practices, including breathing meditation, increased positivity of affect, energy, and present focus and decreased thought distraction. Complementary network analysis of intervariate relationships revealed distinct phenomenological clusters of psychological change congruent with the content of each practice. These findings together suggest that although different meditation practices may have common beneficial effects, each practice can also be characterized by a distinct short-term psychological fingerprint, the latter having important implications for the use of meditative practices in different intervention contexts and with different populations.

  13. Social cognition is not associated with cognitive reserve in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrencic, Louise M; Kurylowicz, Lisa; Valenzuela, Michael J; Churches, Owen F; Keage, Hannah A D

    2016-01-01

    Social and general cognitive abilities decline in late life. Those with high cognitive reserve display better general cognitive performance in old age; however, it is unknown whether this is also the case for social cognition. A total of 115 healthy older adults, aged 60-85 years (m = 44, f = 71) were assessed using The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT-R; social cognition), the Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire (LEQ; cognitive reserve), and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI-II; general cognitive ability). The LEQ did not predict performance on any TASIT-R subtest: Emotion Evaluation Test (β = -.097, p = .325), Social Inference - Minimal (β = -.004, p = .972), or Social Inference - Enriched (β = -.016, p = .878). Sensitivity analyses using two alternative cognitive reserve measures, years of education and the National Adult Reading Test, supported these effects. Cognitive reserve was strongly related to WASI-II performance. Unlike general cognitive ability, social cognition appears unaffected by cognitive reserve. Findings contribute to the emerging understanding that cognitive reserve differentially affects individual cognitive domains, which has implications for the theoretical understanding of cognitive reserve and its brain correlates. Cognitive measures unbiased by cognitive reserve may serve as best indicators of brain health, free of compensatory mechanisms.

  14. effect of differentiated instructional strategies on students' retention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    show that retention ability was significantly higher in the experimental group ... Differentiated instruction, Lecture , Cognitive Achievement ,Retention ability, Geometry. ... thinking. Based on this knowledge, differentiated instruction applies an ...

  15. Cognitive impairments in patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahgol Tavakoli

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: These findings indicated that WMS-III and WAIS-R can differentiate patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy from normal subjects. However, the obtained cognitive profile could not differentiate between the right and the left TLE.

  16. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book consists of essays covering issues in visual cognition presenting experimental techniques from cognitive psychology, methods of modeling cognitive processes on computers from artificial intelligence, and methods of studying brain organization from neuropsychology. Topics considered include: parts of recognition; visual routines; upward direction; mental rotation, and discrimination of left and right turns in maps; individual differences in mental imagery, computational analysis and the neurological basis of mental imagery: componental analysis.

  17. Cognitive Readiness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, John

    2002-01-01

    Cognitive readiness is described as the mental preparation an individual needs to establish and sustain competent performance in the complex and unpredictable environment of modern military operations...

  18. A 10-Year Follow-Up of Urinary and Fecal Incontinence among the Oldest Old in the Community: The Canadian Study of Health and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostbye,Truls; Seim, Arnfinn; Krause, Katrina M.; Feightner, John; Hachinski, Vladimir; Sykes, Elizabeth; Hunskaar, Steinar

    2004-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is common in the elderly. The epidemiology of fecal and double (urinary and fecal) incontinence is less known. The Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA) is a national study of elderly living in the community at baseline (n = 8,949) and interviewed in 1991-1992, 1996, and 2001. Using data from the CSHA, we report the…

  19. Edith Guilley, Christian J. Lalive d’Epinay (dir., The Closing Chapters of Long Lives. Results from the 10-Year Swilsoo Study on the Oldest Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Varro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Comment lire une telle étude ? De par-deçà ou de par-delà le tombeau ? Certes, le titre a bien l’air de « fermer le chapitre » de ces longues vies, de ces vies des « plus vieux des vieux »… Mais le lecteur peut trouver un certain réconfort dans la prise de conscience qu’objectivement la vieillesse n’arrête pas de reculer : nous en sommes au 4e âge, où « vivre au-delà de 80 ans constitue une nouvelle étape de la vie » (Préface. Et la perspective adoptée par les auteurs est résolument orientée...

  20. Cognitive anthropology is a cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boster, James S

    2012-07-01

    Cognitive anthropology contributes to cognitive science as a complement to cognitive psychology. The chief threat to its survival has not been rejection by other cognitive scientists but by other cultural anthropologists. It will remain a part of cognitive science as long as cognitive anthropologists research, teach, and publish. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. Which part of the Quick mild cognitive impairment screen (Qmci) discriminates between normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment and dementia?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Caoimh, Rónán

    2013-05-01

    the Qmci is a sensitive and specific test to differentiate between normal cognition (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. We compared the sensitivity and specificity of the subtests of the Qmci to determine which best discriminated NC, MCI and dementia.

  2. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This collection of research papers on visual cognition first appeared as a special issue of Cognition: International Journal of Cognitive Science. The study of visual cognition has seen enormous progress in the past decade, bringing important advances in our understanding of shape perception, visual imagery, and mental maps. Many of these discoveries are the result of converging investigations in different areas, such as cognitive and perceptual psychology, artificial intelligence, and neuropsychology. This volume is intended to highlight a sample of work at the cutting edge of this research area for the benefit of students and researchers in a variety of disciplines. The tutorial introduction that begins the volume is designed to help the nonspecialist reader bridge the gap between the contemporary research reported here and earlier textbook introductions or literature reviews.

  3. Cognitive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The tutorial will discuss the definition of cognitive systems as the possibilities to extend the current systems engineering paradigm in order to perceive, learn, reason and interact robustly in open-ended changing environments. I will also address cognitive systems in a historical perspective...... to be modeled within a limited set of predefined specifications. There will inevitably be a need for robust decisions and behaviors in novel situations that include handling of conflicts and ambiguities based on the capability and knowledge of the artificial cognitive system. Further, there is a need...... in cognitive systems include e.g. personalized information systems, sensor network systems, social dynamics system and Web2.0, and cognitive components analysis. I will use example from our own research and link to other research activities....

  4. Cognitive remission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolato, Beatrice; Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Köhler, Cristiano A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction in major depressive disorder (MDD) encompasses several domains, including but not limited to executive function, verbal memory, and attention. Furthermore, cognitive dysfunction is a frequent residual manifestation in depression and may persist during the remitted...... phase. Cognitive deficits may also impede functional recovery, including workforce performance, in patients with MDD. The overarching aims of this opinion article are to critically evaluate the effects of available antidepressants as well as novel therapeutic targets on neurocognitive dysfunction in MDD....... DISCUSSION: Conventional antidepressant drugs mitigate cognitive dysfunction in some people with MDD. However, a significant proportion of MDD patients continue to experience significant cognitive impairment. Two multicenter randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reported that vortioxetine, a multimodal...

  5. Cultural Change, Human Activity, and Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvain, Mary; Munroe, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Differential cognitive performance across cultural contexts has been a standard result in comparative research. Here we discuss how societal changes occurring when a small-scale traditional community incorporates elements from industrialized society may contribute to cognitive development, and we illustrate this with an analysis of the cognitive…

  6. Detecting cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease using a brief cognitive screening tool: Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabel Chade

    Full Text Available Abstract Detecting cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease is crucial for good clinical practice given the new therapeutic possibilities available. When full neuropsychological evaluations are not available, screening tools capable of detecting cognitive difficulties become crucial. Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate whether the Spanish version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE is capable of detecting cognitive difficulties in patients with Parkinson's disease and discriminating their cognitive profile from patients with dementia. Methods: 77 early dementia patients (53 with Alzheimer's Disease and 24 with Frontotemporal Dementia, 22 patients with Parkinson's disease, and 53 healthy controls were evaluated with the ACE. Results: Parkinson's disease patients significantly differed from both healthy controls and dementia patients on ACE total score. Conclusions: This study shows that the Spanish version of the ACE is capable of detecting patients with cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease and is able to differentiate them from patients with dementia based on their general cognitive status.

  7. Detecting cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease with a brief cognitive screening tool: the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chade, Anabel; Roca, María; Torralva, Teresa; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Fabbro, Nicolás; Arévalo, Gonzalo Gómez; Gershanik, Oscar; Manes, Facundo

    2008-01-01

    Detecting cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease is crucial for good clinical practice given the new therapeutic possibilities available. When full neuropsychological evaluations are not available, screening tools capable of detecting cognitive difficulties become crucial. The goal of this study was to investigate whether the Spanish version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) is capable of detecting cognitive difficulties in patients with Parkinson's disease and discriminating their cognitive profile from patients with dementia. 77 early dementia patients (53 with Alzheimer's Disease and 24 with Frontotemporal Dementia), 22 patients with Parkinson's disease, and 53 healthy controls were evaluated with the ACE. Parkinson's disease patients significantly differed from both healthy controls and dementia patients on ACE total score. This study shows that the Spanish version of the ACE is capable of detecting patients with cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease and is able to differentiate them from patients with dementia based on their general cognitive status.

  8. Constraint Differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Basin, David; Viganò, Luca

    2010-01-01

    We introduce constraint differentiation, a powerful technique for reducing search when model-checking security protocols using constraint-based methods. Constraint differentiation works by eliminating certain kinds of redundancies that arise in the search space when using constraints to represent...... results show that constraint differentiation substantially reduces search and considerably improves the performance of OFMC, enabling its application to a wider class of problems....

  9. Differential manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Kosinski, Antoni A

    2007-01-01

    The concepts of differential topology form the center of many mathematical disciplines such as differential geometry and Lie group theory. Differential Manifolds presents to advanced undergraduates and graduate students the systematic study of the topological structure of smooth manifolds. Author Antoni A. Kosinski, Professor Emeritus of Mathematics at Rutgers University, offers an accessible approach to both the h-cobordism theorem and the classification of differential structures on spheres.""How useful it is,"" noted the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, ""to have a single, sho

  10. Embodying cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Kristian Møller Moltke; Aggerholm, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades, research on cognition has undergone a reformation, which is necessary to take into account when evaluating the cognitive and behavioural aspects of therapy. This reformation is due to the research programme called Embodied Cognition (EC). Although EC may have become...... the theoretical authority in current cognitive science, there are only sporadic examples of EC-based therapy, and no established framework. We aim to build such a framework on the aims, methods and techniques of the current third-wave of CBT. There appears to be a possibility for cross-fertilization between EC...... and CBT that could contribute to the development of theory and practice for both of them. We present a case-study of an EC-based model of intervention for working with self-control in cerebral palsy.We centre the results of the study and its discussion on how we should understand and work with self...

  11. Environmental Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W.

    1980-01-01

    Research is reviewed on human spatial cognition in real, everyday settings and is organized into five empirical categories: age, familiarity, gender, class and culture, and physical components of settings. (Author/DB)

  12. Moral Cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleim, Stephan; Clausen, Jens; Levy, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Research on moral cognition is a growing and heavily multidisciplinary field. This section contains chapters addressing foundational psychological, neuroscientific, and philosophical issues of research on moral decision-making. Further- more, beyond summarizing the state of the art of their

  13. Cognitive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because chemicals can adversely affect cognitive function in humans, considerable effort has been made to characterize their effects using animal models. Information from such models will be necessary to: evaluate whether chemicals identified as potentially neurotoxic by screenin...

  14. Cognitive Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alliance Our Story Our Vision Our Team Our Leadership Our Results Our Corporate Policies FAQs Careers Contact Us Media Store Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Cognitive Challenges Approximately 45% to 60% of individuals with TSC ...

  15. Cognitive technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Mello, Alan; Figueiredo, Fabrício; Figueiredo, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the next generation optical networks as well as mobile communication technologies. The reader will find chapters on Cognitive Optical Network, 5G Cognitive Wireless, LTE, Data Analysis and Natural Language Processing. It also presents a comprehensive view of the enhancements and requirements foreseen for Machine Type Communication. Moreover, some data analysis techniques and Brazilian Portuguese natural language processing technologies are also described here. .

  16. Fish cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Bshary, Redouan; Brown, Culum

    2017-01-01

    The central nervous system, and the brain in particular, is one of the most remarkable products of evolution. This system allows an individual to acquire, process, store and act on information gathered from the environment. The resulting flexibility in behavior beyond genetically coded strategies is a prime adaptation in animals. The field of animal cognition examines the underlying processes and mechanisms. Fishes are a particularly interesting group of vertebrates to study cognition for two...

  17. Visual cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-07-01

    Visual cognition, high-level vision, mid-level vision and top-down processing all refer to decision-based scene analyses that combine prior knowledge with retinal input to generate representations. The label "visual cognition" is little used at present, but research and experiments on mid- and high-level, inference-based vision have flourished, becoming in the 21st century a significant, if often understated part, of current vision research. How does visual cognition work? What are its moving parts? This paper reviews the origins and architecture of visual cognition and briefly describes some work in the areas of routines, attention, surfaces, objects, and events (motion, causality, and agency). Most vision scientists avoid being too explicit when presenting concepts about visual cognition, having learned that explicit models invite easy criticism. What we see in the literature is ample evidence for visual cognition, but few or only cautious attempts to detail how it might work. This is the great unfinished business of vision research: at some point we will be done with characterizing how the visual system measures the world and we will have to return to the question of how vision constructs models of objects, surfaces, scenes, and events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Barbu, Viorel

    2016-01-01

    This textbook is a comprehensive treatment of ordinary differential equations, concisely presenting basic and essential results in a rigorous manner. Including various examples from physics, mechanics, natural sciences, engineering and automatic theory, Differential Equations is a bridge between the abstract theory of differential equations and applied systems theory. Particular attention is given to the existence and uniqueness of the Cauchy problem, linear differential systems, stability theory and applications to first-order partial differential equations. Upper undergraduate students and researchers in applied mathematics and systems theory with a background in advanced calculus will find this book particularly useful. Supplementary topics are covered in an appendix enabling the book to be completely self-contained.

  19. Habilidades cognitivas em indivíduos muito idosos: um estudo longitudinal Cognitive abilities in older seniors: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irani I. de Lima Argimon

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudos longitudinais com idosos com mais de oitenta anos são escassos na literatura. A pesquisa foi delineada com o objetivo de analisar as modificações no perfil de algumas habilidades cognitivas em indivíduos muito idosos, em dois momentos, com um intervalo de três anos. Pesquisa do tipo quantitativo, com delineamento longitudinal e prospectivo. A amostra, randômica, foi constituída por 66 indivíduos de 80 a 95 anos de idade na etapa I e, três anos após, na etapa II, por 46 idosos. Os instrumentos usados foram: Escala de Depressão Geriátrica, Questionário de Percepção Subjetiva de Queixas de Memória, Mini-Exame do Estado Mental, Span de Números, Teste de Lembranças Livres e com Pistas de Buschke, Teste de Fluência Verbal - Categoria Animal. Houve uma pequena tendência de decréscimo no desempenho cognitivo em um período de três anos. Maior número de atividades de lazer e mais anos de escolaridade foram fatores preditivos de menor variação no desempenho cognitivo. Apesar da idade avançada, os idosos apresentaram um desempenho de habilidades cognitivas cujo declínio foi de intensidade leve, não sendo suficiente para acarretar mudanças significativas no seu padrão cognitivo.Longitudinal studies of older seniors (over 80 years are rare in the literature. This research was designed to study cognitive abilities in the oldest old at two different moments with a three-year interval. The research was quantitative, with a longitudinal and prospective design. The sample consisted of 66 individuals from 80 to 95 years of age, randomly selected for phase I, with 46 of these individuals tested again three years later, in phase II. The instruments used were: Geriatric Depression Scale, Subjective Perception of Memory Problems, Mini-Mental State Examination, Digit Span, Buschke Test of Free and Cued Recall, and the Verbal Fluency Test - Animal Category. The results indicated that there was a small downward trend in the older

  20. Human cognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    The study of human cognition encompasses the study of all mental phenomena, from the receipt and interpretation of sensory information to the final control of the motor system in the performance of action. The cognitive scientist examines all intermediary processes, including thought, decision making, and memory and including the effects of motivation, states of arousal and stress, the study of language, and the effects of social factors. The field therefore ranges over an enormous territory, covering all that is known or that should be known about human behavior. It is not possible to summarize the current state of knowledge about cognition with any great confidence that we know the correct answer about any aspect of the work. Nontheless, models provide good characterizations of certain aspects of the data and situations. Even if these models should prove to be incorrect, they do provide good approximate descriptions of people's behavior in some situations, and these approximations will still apply even when the underlying theories have changed. A quick description is provided of models within a number of areas of human cognition and skill and some general theoretical frameworks with which to view human cognition. The frameworks are qualitative descriptions that provide a way to view the development of more detailed, quantitative models and, most important, a way of thinking about human performance and skill

  1. Visual cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Visual cognition, high-level vision, mid-level vision and top-down processing all refer to decision-based scene analyses that combine prior knowledge with retinal input to generate representations. The label “visual cognition” is little used at present, but research and experiments on mid- and high-level, inference-based vision have flourished, becoming in the 21st century a significant, if often understated part, of current vision research. How does visual cognition work? What are its moving parts? This paper reviews the origins and architecture of visual cognition and briefly describes some work in the areas of routines, attention, surfaces, objects, and events (motion, causality, and agency). Most vision scientists avoid being too explicit when presenting concepts about visual cognition, having learned that explicit models invite easy criticism. What we see in the literature is ample evidence for visual cognition, but few or only cautious attempts to detail how it might work. This is the great unfinished business of vision research: at some point we will be done with characterizing how the visual system measures the world and we will have to return to the question of how vision constructs models of objects, surfaces, scenes, and events. PMID:21329719

  2. Differential games

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2006-01-01

    This volume lays the mathematical foundations for the theory of differential games, developing a rigorous mathematical framework with existence theorems. It begins with a precise definition of a differential game and advances to considerations of games of fixed duration, games of pursuit and evasion, the computation of saddle points, games of survival, and games with restricted phase coordinates. Final chapters cover selected topics (including capturability and games with delayed information) and N-person games.Geared toward graduate students, Differential Games will be of particular interest

  3. Cognitive load in the multi-player prisoner's dilemma game: Are there brains in games?

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, Sean; Smith, John

    2012-01-01

    We find that differences in the ability to devote cognitive resources to a strategic interaction imply differences in strategic behavior. In our experiment, we manipulate the availability of cognitive resources by applying a differential cognitive load. In cognitive load experiments, subjects are directed to perform a task which occupies cognitive resources, in addition to making a choice in another domain. The greater the cognitive resources required for the task implies that fewer such reso...

  4. Cognitive linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Vyvyan

    2012-03-01

    Cognitive linguistics is one of the fastest growing and influential perspectives on the nature of language, the mind, and their relationship with sociophysical (embodied) experience. It is a broad theoretical and methodological enterprise, rather than a single, closely articulated theory. Its primary commitments are outlined. These are the Cognitive Commitment-a commitment to providing a characterization of language that accords with what is known about the mind and brain from other disciplines-and the Generalization Commitment-which represents a dedication to characterizing general principles that apply to all aspects of human language. The article also outlines the assumptions and worldview which arises from these commitments, as represented in the work of leading cognitive linguists. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:129-141. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1163 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. Entrepreneurial Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zichella, Giulio

    entrepreneurs and nonentrepreneurs differ in their behavioral susceptibility to prior outcomes, increasing degrees of risk, risk perception, and predictive information. The empirical analyses are based on data from a laboratory experiment that I designed and conducted in October 2014. Individuals participating......Research in decision making and cognition has a long tradition in economics and management and represents a substantial stream of research in entrepreneurship. Risk and uncertainty are two characteristics of the decision environment. It has long been believed that entrepreneurs who need to make...... business judgments in such environments are less risk- and uncertainty-averse than non-entrepreneurs. However, this theoretical prediction has not been supported by empirical evidence. Instead, entrepreneurs have been found to be more susceptible to cognitive biases and heuristics. These cognitive...

  6. On the specificity of face cognition compared with general cognitive functioning across adult age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Andrea; Wilhelm, Oliver; Schmiedek, Florian; Herzmann, Grit; Sommer, Werner

    2011-09-01

    Face cognition is considered a specific human ability, clearly differentiable from general cognitive functioning. Its specificity is primarily supported by cognitive-experimental and neuroimaging research, but recently also from an individual differences perspective. However, no comprehensive behavioral data are available, which would allow estimating lifespan changes of the covariance structure of face-cognition abilities and general cognitive functioning as well as age-differences in face cognition after accounting for interindividual variability in general cognition. The present study aimed to fill this gap. In an age-heterogeneous (18-82 years) sample of 448 adults, we found no factorial dedifferentiation between face cognition and general cognition. Age-related differences in face memory were still salient after taking into account changes in general cognitive functioning. Face cognition thus remains a specific human ability compared with general cognition, even until old age. We discuss implications for models of cognitive aging and suggest that it is necessary to include more explicitly special social abilities in those models.

  7. Differential Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Stoker, J J

    2011-01-01

    This classic work is now available in an unabridged paperback edition. Stoker makes this fertile branch of mathematics accessible to the nonspecialist by the use of three different notations: vector algebra and calculus, tensor calculus, and the notation devised by Cartan, which employs invariant differential forms as elements in an algebra due to Grassman, combined with an operation called exterior differentiation. Assumed are a passing acquaintance with linear algebra and the basic elements of analysis.

  8. Cognitive Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Children's thinking is highly variable at every level of analysis, from neural and associative levels to the level of strategies, theories, and other aspects of high-level cognition. This variability exists within people as well as between them; individual children often rely on different strategies or representations on closely related problems…

  9. Cognitive Fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-25

    is another cognitive fingerprint that has been used extensively for authorship . This work has been ex- tended to authentication by relating keyboard...this work is the inference of high-level features such as personality, gender , and dominant hand but those features have not been integrated to date

  10. Cognitive Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocking, Rodney R.; Mestre, Jose P.

    The focus of this paper is on cognitive science as a model for understanding the application of human skills toward effective problem-solving. Sections include: (1) "Introduction" (discussing information processing framework, expert-novice distinctions, schema theory, and learning process); (2) "Application: The Expert-Novice…

  11. Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing YUAN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease cognitive impairment (PD-CI is one of the major non-motor symtoms (NMS of PD, including Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment (PD - MCI and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD. Executive dysfunction is relatively prominent, but other cognitive domains as visuospatial ability, memory and language can also be affected. Main risk factors for PD-CI include male gender, advanced age, low education, severe motor symptoms, low baseline cognitive function and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS. Lewy bodies are main pathological changes, and Alzheimer's disease (AD related pathological changes can also be seen. The application value of decreased α?synuclein (α-Syn and β-amyloid 1-42 (Aβ1-42 levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF as biomarkers remains controversial. There are few related research and no defined pathogenic genes currently. Both dopaminergic pathway and acetylcholinergic pathway are involved in the occurrence of PD - CI as demonstrated in PET studies. Cortical and subcortical atrophy are associated with PD - CI as observed in MRI studies. Olfactory dysfunction may be one of the predictors of cognitive impairment. PDD and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB share common biological characteristics, therefore the differential diagnosis sometimes is difficult. Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs and memantine help to improve clinical symptoms, but treatment decision should be made with individualization. Cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT has potential clinical value and should be investigated by more studies. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.06.004

  12. Neighborhood Influences on Late Life Cognition in the ACTIVE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M. Sisco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low neighborhood-level socioeconomic status has been associated with poorer health, reduced physical activity, increased psychological stress, and less neighborhood-based social support. These outcomes are correlates of late life cognition, but few studies have specifically investigated the neighborhood as a unique source of explanatory variance in cognitive aging. This study supplemented baseline cognitive data from the ACTIVE (Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly study with neighborhood-level data to investigate (1 whether neighborhood socioeconomic position (SEP predicts cognitive level, and if so, whether it differentially predicts performance in general and specific domains of cognition and (2 whether neighborhood SEP predicts differences in response to short-term cognitive intervention for memory, reasoning, or processing speed. Neighborhood SEP positively predicted vocabulary, but did not predict other general or specific measures of cognitive level, and did not predict individual differences in response to cognitive intervention.

  13. Potential of Cognitive Computing and Cognitive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive computing and cognitive technologies are game changers for future engineering systems, as well as for engineering practice and training. They are major drivers for knowledge automation work, and the creation of cognitive products with higher levels of intelligence than current smart products. This paper gives a brief review of cognitive computing and some of the cognitive engineering systems activities. The potential of cognitive technologies is outlined, along with a brief description of future cognitive environments, incorporating cognitive assistants - specialized proactive intelligent software agents designed to follow and interact with humans and other cognitive assistants across the environments. The cognitive assistants engage, individually or collectively, with humans through a combination of adaptive multimodal interfaces, and advanced visualization and navigation techniques. The realization of future cognitive environments requires the development of a cognitive innovation ecosystem for the engineering workforce. The continuously expanding major components of the ecosystem include integrated knowledge discovery and exploitation facilities (incorporating predictive and prescriptive big data analytics); novel cognitive modeling and visual simulation facilities; cognitive multimodal interfaces; and cognitive mobile and wearable devices. The ecosystem will provide timely, engaging, personalized / collaborative, learning and effective decision making. It will stimulate creativity and innovation, and prepare the participants to work in future cognitive enterprises and develop new cognitive products of increasing complexity. http://www.aee.odu.edu/cognitivecomp

  14. 高齢期における心理的適応に関する諸理論

    OpenAIRE

    中川, 威; ナカガワ, タケシ

    2010-01-01

    Recently, it was revealed that most oldest-old individuals experience physical and cognitive decline, and that paradoxically, older adults relatively maintain their subjective well-being across old age However, how psychological adaptation to a decline in physical health functions and develops with aging remains to be elucidated. In order to reveal the psychologically adaptative process in old age including oldest-old age, the author aimed to capture the key concept by comparing the psycholog...

  15. Cognitive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widrow, Bernard; Aragon, Juan Carlos

    2013-05-01

    Regarding the workings of the human mind, memory and pattern recognition seem to be intertwined. You generally do not have one without the other. Taking inspiration from life experience, a new form of computer memory has been devised. Certain conjectures about human memory are keys to the central idea. The design of a practical and useful "cognitive" memory system is contemplated, a memory system that may also serve as a model for many aspects of human memory. The new memory does not function like a computer memory where specific data is stored in specific numbered registers and retrieval is done by reading the contents of the specified memory register, or done by matching key words as with a document search. Incoming sensory data would be stored at the next available empty memory location, and indeed could be stored redundantly at several empty locations. The stored sensory data would neither have key words nor would it be located in known or specified memory locations. Sensory inputs concerning a single object or subject are stored together as patterns in a single "file folder" or "memory folder". When the contents of the folder are retrieved, sights, sounds, tactile feel, smell, etc., are obtained all at the same time. Retrieval would be initiated by a query or a prompt signal from a current set of sensory inputs or patterns. A search through the memory would be made to locate stored data that correlates with or relates to the prompt input. The search would be done by a retrieval system whose first stage makes use of autoassociative artificial neural networks and whose second stage relies on exhaustive search. Applications of cognitive memory systems have been made to visual aircraft identification, aircraft navigation, and human facial recognition. Concerning human memory, reasons are given why it is unlikely that long-term memory is stored in the synapses of the brain's neural networks. Reasons are given suggesting that long-term memory is stored in DNA or RNA

  16. The Effects of a Brief Acceptance-Based Behavioral Treatment Versus Traditional Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Public Speaking Anxiety: An Exploratory Trial Examining Differential Effects on Performance and Neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Lisa H; Forman, Evan M; Herbert, James D; Bradley, Lauren E; Foster, Elizabeth E; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Ruocco, Anthony C

    2016-09-01

    Individuals with public speaking anxiety (PSA) experience fear and avoidance that can cause extreme distress, impaired speaking performance, and associated problems in psychosocial functioning. Most extant interventions for PSA emphasize anxiety reduction rather than enhancing behavioral performance. We compared the efficacy of two brief cognitive-behavioral interventions, a traditional cognitive-behavior treatment (tCBT) and an acceptance-based behavior treatment (ABBT), on public speaking performance and anxiety in a clinical sample of persons with PSA. The effects of treatment on prefrontal brain activation were also examined. Participants (n = 21) were randomized to 90 min of an ABBT or a tCBT intervention. Assessments took place at pre- and post-treatment and included self-rated anxiety and observer-rated performance measures, a behavioral assessment, and prefrontal cortical activity measurements using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Exploratory results indicated that participants in the ABBT condition experienced greater improvements in observer-rated performance relative to those in the tCBT condition, while those in the tCBT condition experienced greater reductions in subjective anxiety levels. Individuals in the ABBT condition also exhibited a trend toward greater treatment-related reductions in blood volume in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex relative to those who received tCBT. Overall, these findings preliminarily suggest that acceptance-based treatments may free more cognitive resources in comparison with tCBT, possibly resulting in greater improvements in objectively rated behavioral performances for ABBT interventions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Differential discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukhanov, V.I.; Mazurov, I.B.

    1981-01-01

    A principal flowsheet of a differential discriminator intended for operation in a spectrometric circuit with statistical time distribution of pulses is described. The differential discriminator includes four integrated discriminators and a channel of piled-up signal rejection. The presence of the rejection channel enables the discriminator to operate effectively at loads of 14x10 3 pulse/s. The temperature instability of the discrimination thresholds equals 250 μV/ 0 C. The discrimination level changes within 0.1-5 V, the level shift constitutes 0.5% for the filling ratio of 1:10. The rejection coefficient is not less than 90%. Alpha spectrum of the 228 Th source is presented to evaluate the discriminator operation with the rejector. The rejector provides 50 ns time resolution

  18. Differential topology

    CERN Document Server

    Margalef-Roig, J

    1992-01-01

    ...there are reasons enough to warrant a coherent treatment of the main body of differential topology in the realm of Banach manifolds, which is at the same time correct and complete. This book fills the gap: whenever possible the manifolds treated are Banach manifolds with corners. Corners add to the complications and the authors have carefully fathomed the validity of all main results at corners. Even in finite dimensions some results at corners are more complete and better thought out here than elsewhere in the literature. The proofs are correct and with all details. I see this book as a reliable monograph of a well-defined subject; the possibility to fall back to it adds to the feeling of security when climbing in the more dangerous realms of infinite dimensional differential geometry. Peter W. Michor

  19. Differential belongings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oldrup, Helene

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores suburban middle-class residents’ narratives about housing choice, everyday life and belonging in residential areas of Greater Copenhagen, Denmark, to understand how residential processes of social differentiation are constituted. Using Savage et al.’s concepts of discursive...... and not only to the area itself. In addition, rather than seeing suburban residential areas as homogenous, greater attention should be paid to differences within such areas....

  20. 50 Years of Cognitive Aging Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nicole D; Craik, Fergus I M

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this Introduction to the Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences special issue on "50 Years of Cognitive Aging Theory" are to provide a brief overview of cognitive aging research prior to 1965 and to highlight significant developments in cognitive aging theory over the last 50 years. Historical and recent theories of cognitive aging were reviewed, with a particular focus on those not directly covered by the articles included in this special issue. Prior to 1965, cognitive aging research was predominantly descriptive, identifying what aspects of intellectual functioning are affected in older compared with younger adults. Since the mid-1960s, there has been an increasing interest in how and why specific components of cognitive domains are differentially affected in aging and a growing focus on cognitive aging neuroscience. Significant advances have taken place in our theoretical understanding of how and why certain components of cognitive functioning are or are not affected by aging. We also know much more now than we did 50 years ago about the underlying neural mechanisms of these changes. The next 50 years undoubtedly will bring new theories, as well as new tools (e.g., neuroimaging advances, neuromodulation, and technology), that will further our understanding of cognitive aging. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Cognitive Function, Origin, and Evolution of Musical Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Perlovsky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive function of music, its origin, and evolution has been a mystery until recently. Here we discuss a theory of a fundamental function of music in cognition and culture. Music evolved in parallel with language. The evolution of language toward a semantically powerful tool required freeing from uncontrolled emotions. Knowledge evolved fast along with language. This created cognitive dissonances, contradictions among knowledge and instincts, which differentiated consciousness. To sustain evolution of language and culture, these contradictions had to be unified. Music was the mechanism of unification. Differentiated emotions are needed for resolving cognitive dissonances. As knowledge has been accumulated, contradictions multiplied and correspondingly more varied emotions had to evolve. While language differentiated psyche, music unified it. Thus the need for refined musical emotions in the process of cultural evolution is grounded in fundamental mechanisms of cognition. This is why today's human mind and cultures cannot exist without today's music.

  2. Vitamin C Status and Cognitive Function: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaj Travica

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C plays a role in neuronal differentiation, maturation, myelin formation and modulation of the cholinergic, catecholinergic, and glutaminergic systems. This review evaluates the link between vitamin C status and cognitive performance, in both cognitively intact and impaired individuals. We searched the PUBMED, SCOPUS, SciSearch and the Cochrane Library from 1980 to January 2017, finding 50 studies, with randomised controlled trials (RCTs, n = 5, prospective (n = 24, cross-sectional (n = 17 and case-control (n = 4 studies. Of these, 36 studies were conducted in healthy participants and 14 on cognitively impaired individuals (including Alzheimer’s and dementia. Vitamin C status was measured using food frequency questionnaires or plasma vitamin C. Cognition was assessed using a variety of tests, mostly the Mini-Mental-State-Examination (MMSE. In summary, studies demonstrated higher mean vitamin C concentrations in the cognitively intact groups of participants compared to cognitively impaired groups. No correlation between vitamin C concentrations and MMSE cognitive function was apparent in the cognitively impaired individuals. The MMSE was not suitable to detect a variance in cognition in the healthy group. Analysis of the studies that used a variety of cognitive assessments in the cognitively intact was beyond the scope of this review; however, qualitative assessment revealed a potential association between plasma vitamin C concentrations and cognition. Due to a number of limitations in these studies, further research is needed, utilizing plasma vitamin C concentrations and sensitive cognitive assessments that are suitable for cognitively intact adults.

  3. Cognition in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvo, P.; Keijzer, F.A.

    2009-01-01

    To what extent can plants be considered cognitive from the perspective of embodied cognition? Cognition is interpreted very broadly within embodied cognition, and the current evidence for plant intelligence might find an important theoretical background here. However, embodied cognition does stress

  4. Differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ciarlet, Philippe G

    2007-01-01

    This book gives the basic notions of differential geometry, such as the metric tensor, the Riemann curvature tensor, the fundamental forms of a surface, covariant derivatives, and the fundamental theorem of surface theory in a selfcontained and accessible manner. Although the field is often considered a classical one, it has recently been rejuvenated, thanks to the manifold applications where it plays an essential role. The book presents some important applications to shells, such as the theory of linearly and nonlinearly elastic shells, the implementation of numerical methods for shells, and

  5. Differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Tricomi, FG

    2013-01-01

    Based on his extensive experience as an educator, F. G. Tricomi wrote this practical and concise teaching text to offer a clear idea of the problems and methods of the theory of differential equations. The treatment is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students and addresses only questions that can be resolved with rigor and simplicity.Starting with a consideration of the existence and uniqueness theorem, the text advances to the behavior of the characteristics of a first-order equation, boundary problems for second-order linear equations, asymptotic methods, and diff

  6. Differential topology

    CERN Document Server

    Guillemin, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Differential Topology provides an elementary and intuitive introduction to the study of smooth manifolds. In the years since its first publication, Guillemin and Pollack's book has become a standard text on the subject. It is a jewel of mathematical exposition, judiciously picking exactly the right mixture of detail and generality to display the richness within. The text is mostly self-contained, requiring only undergraduate analysis and linear algebra. By relying on a unifying idea-transversality-the authors are able to avoid the use of big machinery or ad hoc techniques to establish the main

  7. Cognitive processes in CBT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, E.S.; Vrijsen, J.N.; Hofmann, S.G.; Asmundson, G.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Automatic cognitive processing helps us navigate the world. However, if the emotional and cognitive interplay becomes skewed, those cognitive processes can become maladaptive and result in psychopathology. Although biases are present in most mental disorders, different disorders are characterized by

  8. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Overview Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more-serious decline of dementia. It ...

  9. COGNITIVE COMPETENCE COMPARED TO COGNITIVE INDEPENDENCE AND COGNITIVE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina B. Shmigirilova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is aimed at identifying the essence of the cognitive competence concept in comparison with the concepts of cognitive independence and activity.Methods: The methodology implies a theoretical analysis of psychopedagogical and methodological materials on the cognitive competence formation; generalized teaching experience; empirical methods of direct observations of educational process in the secondary school classrooms; interviews with school teachers and pupils.Results: The research outcomes reveal a semantic intersection between the cognitive competence, independence and activity, and their distinctive features. The paper emphasizes the importance of cognitive competence as an adaptive mechanism in situations of uncertainty and instability.Scientific novelty: The author clarifies the concept of cognitive competence regarding it as a multi-component and systematic characteristic of a personality.Practical significance: The research findings can be used by specialists in didactics developing the teaching techniques of cognitive competence formation for schoolchildren.

  10. Infant Cognition: Going Full Factorial with Pupil Dilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Iain; Sirois, Sylvain

    2009-01-01

    The violation-of-expectation (VOE) paradigm and related methods are the main tools used to study high-level cognition in preverbal infants. Infants' differential looking to conceptually implausible/impossible events has been used as an index of early cognitive competence in many areas, including object knowledge, physics, language, and number.…

  11. The cognitive/affective distinction of job insecurity: Validation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kirstam

    emotional exhaustion were also gathered from employees in a variety of South African ... the cognitive and affective dimensions of job insecurity could be distinguished ...... from the perception of an external reality, whereas the affective response represents an internal .... 'Differentiating cognitive and affective job insecurity: ...

  12. Conceptions of cognition for cognitive engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive processes, cognitive psychology tells us, unfold in our heads. In contrast, several approaches in cognitive engineering argue for a shift of unit of analysis from what is going on in the heads of operators to the workings of whole socio-technical systems. This shift is sometimes presented...... as part of the development of a new understanding of what cognition is and where the boundaries of cognitive systems are. Cognition, it is claimed, is not just situated or embedded, but extended and distributed in the world. My main question in this article is what the practical significance...... is of this framing of an expanded unit of analysis in a cognitive vocabulary. I focus on possible consequences for how cognitive engineering practitioners think about function allocation in system design, and on what the relative benefits and costs are of having a common framework and vocabulary for talking about...

  13. Can cognitive science create a cognitive economics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, Nick

    2015-02-01

    Cognitive science can intersect with economics in at least three productive ways: by providing richer models of individual behaviour for use in economic analysis; by drawing from economic theory in order to model distributed cognition; and jointly to create more powerful 'rational' models of cognitive processes and social interaction. There is the prospect of moving from behavioural economics to a genuinely cognitive economics. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Cognitive dysfunction in pediatric multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suppiej A

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Agnese Suppiej,1 Elisa Cainelli1,2 1Child Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Pediatric University Hospital, Padua, Italy; 2Lifespan Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory (LCNL, Department of General Psychology, University of Padua, Italy Abstract: Cognitive and neuropsychological impairments are well documented in adult ­multiple sclerosis (MS. Research has only recently focused on cognitive disabilities in pediatric cases, highlighting some differences between pediatric and adult cases. Impairments in several functions have been reported in children, particularly in relation to attention, processing speed, visual–motor skills, and language. Language seems to be particularly vulnerable in pediatric MS, unlike in adults in whom it is usually preserved. Deficits in executive functions, which are considered MS-specific in adults, have been inconsistently reported in children. In children, as compared to adults, the relationship between cognitive dysfunctions and the two other main symptoms of MS, fatigue and psychiatric disorders, was poorly explored. Furthermore, data on the correlations of cognitive impairments with clinical and neuroimaging features are scarce in children, and the results are often incongruent; interestingly, involvement of corpus callosum and reduced thalamic volume differentiated patients identified as having a cognitive impairment from those without a cognitive impairment. Further studies about pediatric MS are needed in order to better understand the impact of the disease on brain development and the resulting effect on cognitive functions, particularly with respect to different therapeutic strategies. Keywords: central nervous system, child, deficit, IQ, inflammatory demyelination, neuropsychological

  15. Advances in cognitive theory and therapy: the generic cognitive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Aaron T; Haigh, Emily A P

    2014-01-01

    For over 50 years, Beck's cognitive model has provided an evidence-based way to conceptualize and treat psychological disorders. The generic cognitive model represents a set of common principles that can be applied across the spectrum of psychological disorders. The updated theoretical model provides a framework for addressing significant questions regarding the phenomenology of disorders not explained in previous iterations of the original model. New additions to the theory include continuity of adaptive and maladaptive function, dual information processing, energizing of schemas, and attentional focus. The model includes a theory of modes, an organization of schemas relevant to expectancies, self-evaluations, rules, and memories. A description of the new theoretical model is followed by a presentation of the corresponding applied model, which provides a template for conceptualizing a specific disorder and formulating a case. The focus on beliefs differentiates disorders and provides a target for treatment. A variety of interventions are described.

  16. Development and validation of a new cognitive screening test: The Hong Kong Brief Cognitive Test (HKBC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Helen F K; Zhong, Bao-Liang; Leung, Tony; Li, S W; Chow, Paulina; Tsoh, Joshua; Yan, Connie; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Wong, Mike

    2018-07-01

    To develop and examine the validity of a new brief cognitive test with less educational bias for screening cognitive impairment. A new cognitive test, Hong Kong Brief Cognitive Test (HKBC), was developed based on review of the literature, as well as the views of an expert panel. Three groups of subjects aged 65 or above were recruited after written consent: normal older people recruited in elderly centres, people with mild NCD (neurocognitive disorder), and people with major NCD. The brief cognitive test, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (MoCA), were administered to the subjects. The performance of HKBC in differentiating subjects with major NCD, mild NCD, and normal older people were compared with the clinical diagnosis, as well as the MMSE and MoCA scores. In total, 359 subjects were recruited, with 99 normal controls, 132 subjects with major NCD, and 128 with mild NCD. The mean MMSE, MoCA, and HKBC scores showed significant differences among the 3 groups of subjects. In the receiving operating characteristic curve analysis of the HKBC in differentiating normal subjects from those with cognitive impairment (mild NCD + major NCD), the area under the curve was 0.955 with an optimal cut-off score of 21/22. The performances of MMSE and MoCA in differentiating normal from cognitively impaired subjects are slightly inferior to the HKBC. The HKBC is a brief instrument useful for screening cognitive impairment in older adults and is also useful in populations with low educational level. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Music cognition and the cognitive sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Marcus; Rohrmeier, Martin

    2012-10-01

    Why should music be of interest to cognitive scientists, and what role does it play in human cognition? We review three factors that make music an important topic for cognitive scientific research. First, music is a universal human trait fulfilling crucial roles in everyday life. Second, music has an important part to play in ontogenetic development and human evolution. Third, appreciating and producing music simultaneously engage many complex perceptual, cognitive, and emotional processes, rendering music an ideal object for studying the mind. We propose an integrated status for music cognition in the Cognitive Sciences and conclude by reviewing challenges and big questions in the field and the way in which these reflect recent developments. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  18. The Ghent Psychotherapy Study (GPS) on the differential efficacy of supportive-expressive and cognitive behavioral interventions in dependent and self-critical depressive patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meganck, Reitske; Desmet, Mattias; Bockting, Claudi; Inslegers, Ruth; Truijens, Femke; De Smet, Melissa; De Geest, Rosa; Van Nieuwenhove, Kimberly; Hennissen, Vicky; Hermans, Goedele; Loeys, Tom; Norman, Ufuoma Angelica; Baeken, Chris; Vanheule, Stijn

    2017-03-14

    Major depressive disorder is a leading cause of disease burden worldwide, indicating the importance of effective therapies. Outcome studies have shown overall efficacy of different types of psychotherapy across groups, yet large variability within groups. Although patient characteristics are considered crucial in understanding outcome, they have received limited research attention. This trial aims at investigating the interaction between therapeutic approach (pre-structured versus explorative) and the personality style of patients (dependent versus self-critical), which is considered a core underlying dimension of depressive pathology. This study is a pragmatic stratified (dependent and self-critical patients) parallel trial with equal randomization (allocation 1:1) conducted in Flanders, Belgium. One hundred and four patients will be recruited and randomized to either 16-20 sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy for depression (pre-structured approach) or 16-20 sessions of short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy for depression (explorative approach) conducted by trained psychotherapists in private practices. The primary outcome is the severity of depression as measured by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression at completion of therapy. Secondary outcome measures include self-reported depressive and other symptoms, interpersonal functioning, idiosyncratic complaints, and the presence of the diagnosis of depression. Additional measures include biological measures, narrative material (sessions, interviews), and health care costs. This trial presents the test of an often-described, yet hardly investigated interaction between important personality dimensions and therapeutic approach in the treatment of depression. Results could inform therapists on how to match psychotherapeutic treatments to specific personality characteristics of their patients. Isrctn.com, ISRCTN17130982 . Registered on 2 February 2015.

  19. Symbiotic Cognitive Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Robert G.; Lenchner, Jonathan; Kephjart, Jeffrey O.; Webb, Alan M.; Muller, MIchael J.; Erikson, Thomas D.; Melville, David O.; Bellamy, Rachel K.E.; Gruen, Daniel M.; Connell, Jonathan H.; Soroker, Danny; Aaron, Andy; Trewin, Shari M.; Ashoori, Maryam; Ellis, Jason B.

    2016-01-01

    IBM Research is engaged in a research program in symbiotic cognitive computing to investigate how to embed cognitive computing in physical spaces. This article proposes 5 key principles of symbiotic cognitive computing.  We describe how these principles are applied in a particular symbiotic cognitive computing environment and in an illustrative application.  

  20. Differential Classification of Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mohr

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of biological markers, dementia classification remains complex both in terms of characterization as well as early detection of the presence or absence of dementing symptoms, particularly in diseases with possible secondary dementia. An empirical, statistical approach using neuropsychological measures was therefore developed to distinguish demented from non-demented patients and to identify differential patterns of cognitive dysfunction in neurodegenerative disease. Age-scaled neurobehavioral test results (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Revised and Wechsler Memory Scale from Alzheimer's (AD and Huntington's (HD patients, matched for intellectual disability, as well as normal controls were used to derive a classification formula. Stepwise discriminant analysis accurately (99% correct distinguished controls from demented patients, and separated the two patient groups (79% correct. Variables discriminating between HD and AD patient groups consisted of complex psychomotor tasks, visuospatial function, attention and memory. The reliability of the classification formula was demonstrated with a new, independent sample of AD and HD patients which yielded virtually identical results (classification accuracy for dementia: 96%; AD versus HD: 78%. To validate the formula, the discriminant function was applied to Parkinson's (PD patients, 38% of whom were classified as demented. The validity of the classification was demonstrated by significant PD subgroup differences on measures of dementia not included in the discriminant function. Moreover, a majority of demented PD patients (65% were classified as having an HD-like pattern of cognitive deficits, in line with previous reports of the subcortical nature of PD dementia. This approach may thus be useful in classifying presence or absence of dementia and in discriminating between dementia subtypes in cases of secondary or coincidental dementia.

  1. Cortical thickness changes correlate with cognition changes after cognitive training: Evidence from a Chinese community study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan eJiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether changes in cortical thickness correlated with cognitive function changes in healthy older adults after receiving cognitive training interventions. Moreover, it also aimed to examine the differential impacts of a multi-domain and a single-domain cognitive training interventions. Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scanning was performed on participants 65 to 75 years of age using the Siemens 3.0 T Trio Tim with the MPRAGE sequence. The cortical thickness was determined using FreeSurfer software. Cognitive functioning was evaluated using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS. There were significant group × time interaction effects on the left supramarginal, the left frontal pole cortical regions; and a marginal significant group × time interaction effects on visuospatial/constructional and delayed memory scores. In a multi-domain cognitive training group, a number of cortical region changes were significantly positively correlated with changes in attention, delayed memory, and the total score, but significantly negatively correlated with changes in immediate memory and language scores. In the single-domain cognitive training group, some cortical region changes were significantly positively associated with changes in immediate memory, delayed memory, and the total score, while they were significantly negatively associated with changes in visuospatial/constructional, language, and attention scores. Overall, multi-domain cognitive training offered more advantages in visuospatial/constructional, attention, and delayed memory abilities, while single-domain cognitive training benefited immediate memory ability more effectively. These findings suggest that healthy older adults benefit more from the multi-domain cognitive training than single-domain cognitive training. Cognitive training has impacted on cortical thickness changes in healthy elderly

  2. Cognitive Reserve in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment: The Importance of Occupational Complexity as a Buffer of Declining Cognition in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldberg Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive reserve is the ability to optimize performance through differential recruitment of brain networks, which may reflect the use of alternative cognitive strategies. Work is one of the most important sources of cognitive stimulation during adulthood. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI represents an intermediate status between normal aging and dementia. As a consequence, this is considered a risk group regarding cognition. In order to study the probable association between occupational complexity and cognitive performance in a group of patients with MCI, a non-probabilistic intentional sample was dispensed on a group of 80 patients. Occupational complexity was explored by the Questionnaire on Agency of Labor Activity (CAAL, according to its acronym in Spanish and a set of neuropsychological tests, which assessed cognitive performance in different areas: memory, attention, language and executive function, were administered. Results reveal that occupational complexity is associated to cognitive performance of elderly adults with MCI. With respect to working with Data, an increase in neuropsychological tests that demand high levels of attention and imply processing speed and working memory can be noted. Regarding the complexity of working with People, an association between the level of occupational complexity and an increase in verbal abilities and verbal reasoning can be seen. On the other hand, working with Things could be associated with better performance in specific areas of cognition such as visuospatial abilities. These results add up as empirical evidence to the fields of cognitive neurology and gerontology and to the cognitive reserve hypothesis, showing how complex environments can enhance cognition in old age. It adds evidence that help to understand which psychological, social and labor factors intervene in the cognitive reserve of an elder adult in cognitive risk.

  3. Concentrated Differential Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Dwork, Cynthia; Rothblum, Guy N.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Concentrated Differential Privacy, a relaxation of Differential Privacy enjoying better accuracy than both pure differential privacy and its popular "(epsilon,delta)" relaxation without compromising on cumulative privacy loss over multiple computations.

  4. Emotion Unchained: Facial Expression Modulates Gaze Cueing under Cognitive Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecchinenda, Anna; Petrucci, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Direction of eye gaze cues spatial attention, and typically this cueing effect is not modulated by the expression of a face unless top-down processes are explicitly or implicitly involved. To investigate the role of cognitive control on gaze cueing by emotional faces, participants performed a gaze cueing task with happy, angry, or neutral faces under high (i.e., counting backward by 7) or low cognitive load (i.e., counting forward by 2). Results show that high cognitive load enhances gaze cueing effects for angry facial expressions. In addition, cognitive load reduces gaze cueing for neutral faces, whereas happy facial expressions and gaze affected object preferences regardless of load. This evidence clearly indicates a differential role of cognitive control in processing gaze direction and facial expression, suggesting that under typical conditions, when we shift attention based on social cues from another person, cognitive control processes are used to reduce interference from emotional information.

  5. Varieties of Cognitive Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, William A.

    1974-01-01

    The author examines how students in three countries use four styles of cognitive integration (affective balance, affective-evaluative consistency, centralization, and image comparability) within the cognitive domains of nations, acquaintances, self-roles, and family relations. (DE)

  6. Informant-reported cognitive symptoms that predict amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek-Ahmadi Michael

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiating amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI from normal cognition is difficult in clinical settings. Self-reported and informant-reported memory complaints occur often in both clinical groups, which then necessitates the use of a comprehensive neuropsychological examination to make a differential diagnosis. However, the ability to identify cognitive symptoms that are predictive of aMCI through informant-based information may provide some clinical utility in accurately identifying individuals who are at risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD. Methods The current study utilized a case-control design using data from an ongoing validation study of the Alzheimer's Questionnaire (AQ, an informant-based dementia assessment. Data from 51 cognitively normal (CN individuals participating in a brain donation program and 47 aMCI individuals seen in a neurology practice at the same institute were analyzed to determine which AQ items differentiated aMCI from CN individuals. Results Forward stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis which controlled for age and education showed that 4 AQ items were strong indicators of aMCI which included: repetition of statements and/or questions [OR 13.20 (3.02, 57.66]; trouble knowing the day, date, month, year, and time [OR 17.97 (2.63, 122.77]; difficulty managing finances [OR 11.60 (2.10, 63.99]; and decreased sense of direction [OR 5.84 (1.09, 31.30]. Conclusions Overall, these data indicate that certain informant-reported cognitive symptoms may help clinicians differentiate individuals with aMCI from those with normal cognition. Items pertaining to repetition of statements, orientation, ability to manage finances, and visuospatial disorientation had high discriminatory power.

  7. Handbook of Spatial Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, David, Ed.; Nadel, Lynn, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial cognition is a branch of cognitive psychology that studies how people acquire and use knowledge about their environment to determine where they are, how to obtain resources, and how to find their way home. Researchers from a wide range of disciplines, including neuroscience, cognition, and sociology, have discovered a great deal about how…

  8. Interactive Team Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Nancy J.; Gorman, Jamie C.; Myers, Christopher W.; Duran, Jasmine L.

    2013-01-01

    Cognition in work teams has been predominantly understood and explained in terms of shared cognition with a focus on the similarity of static knowledge structures across individual team members. Inspired by the current zeitgeist in cognitive science, as well as by empirical data and pragmatic concerns, we offer an alternative theory of team…

  9. The tractable cognition thesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rooij, Iris

    2008-09-01

    The recognition that human minds/brains are finite systems with limited resources for computation has led some researchers to advance the Tractable Cognition thesis: Human cognitive capacities are constrained by computational tractability. This thesis, if true, serves cognitive psychology by constraining the space of computational-level theories of cognition. To utilize this constraint, a precise and workable definition of "computational tractability" is needed. Following computer science tradition, many cognitive scientists and psychologists define computational tractability as polynomial-time computability, leading to the P-Cognition thesis. This article explains how and why the P-Cognition thesis may be overly restrictive, risking the exclusion of veridical computational-level theories from scientific investigation. An argument is made to replace the P-Cognition thesis by the FPT-Cognition thesis as an alternative formalization of the Tractable Cognition thesis (here, FPT stands for fixed-parameter tractable). Possible objections to the Tractable Cognition thesis, and its proposed formalization, are discussed, and existing misconceptions are clarified. 2008 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. The Tractable Cognition Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, Iris

    2008-01-01

    The recognition that human minds/brains are finite systems with limited resources for computation has led some researchers to advance the "Tractable Cognition thesis": Human cognitive capacities are constrained by computational tractability. This thesis, if true, serves cognitive psychology by constraining the space of computational-level theories…

  11. The Tractable Cognition thesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, I.J.E.I. van

    2008-01-01

    The recognition that human minds/brains are finite systems with limited resources for computation has led some researchers to advance the Tractable Cognition thesis: Human cognitive capacities are constrained by computational tractability. This thesis, if true, serves cognitive psychology by

  12. The Cognitive Doppler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozoil, Micah E.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the learning needs of students in the concrete operational stage in mathematics. Identifies the phenomenon of reduced cognitive performance in an out-of-class environment as the "Cognitive Doppler." Suggests methods of reducing the pronounced effects of the Cognitive Doppler by capitalizing on the students' ability to memorize…

  13. Cultural constraints on music perception and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Steven J; Demorest, Steven M

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that music, like language, is both a biological predisposition and a cultural universal. While humans naturally attend to and process many of the psychophysical cues present in musical information, there is a great - and often culture-specific - diversity of musical practices differentiated in part by form, timbre, pitch, rhythm, and other structural elements. Musical interactions situated within a given cultural context begin to influence human responses to music as early as one year of age. Despite the world's diversity of musical cultures, the majority of research in cognitive psychology and the cognitive neuroscience of music has been conducted on subjects and stimuli from Western music cultures. From the standpoint of cognitive neuroscience, identification of fundamental cognitive and neurological processes associated with music requires ascertaining that such processes are demonstrated by listeners from a broad range of cultural backgrounds and in relation to various musics across cultural traditions. This chapter will review current research regarding the role of enculturation in music perception and cognition and the degree to which cultural influences are reflected in brain function. Exploring music cognition from the standpoint of culture will lead to a better understanding of the core processes underlying perception and how those processes give rise to the world's diversity of music forms and expressions.

  14. Clinical cognition and embodiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, John

    2004-01-01

    I first identify two different distinctions: between Cartesian cognition and embodied cognition, and between calculative rationality and intuitive know-how. I then suggest that, in the nursing literature, these two distinctions are run together, to create an opposition between 'Cartesian rationality' and 'embodied know-how'. However, it is vital to keep the two distinctions apart, because 'embodied knowing' is very frequently rational. In separating the idea of embodied cognition from non-rational intuition, I show how 'embodiment' leads to the concepts of distributed cognition and distributed expertise. This has extensive and important implications for how we understand clinical cognition in nursing.

  15. Cognitive Load and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Felix Sebastian; Piovesan, Marco; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2017-01-01

    We study the effect of intuitive and reflective processes on cooperation using cognitive load. Compared with time constraint, which has been used in the previous literature, cognitive load is a more direct way to block reflective processes, and thus a more suitable way to study the link between...... intuition and cooperation. Using a repeated public goods game, we study the effect of different levels of cognitive load on contributions. We show that a higher cognitive load increases the initial level of cooperation. In particular, subjects are significantly less likely to fully free ride under high...... cognitive load....

  16. Deconstructing and Reconstructing Cognitive Performance in Sleep Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Melinda L.; Gunzelmann, Glenn; Whitney, Paul; Hinson, John M.; Belenky, Gregory; Rabat, Arnaud; Van Dongen, Hans P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Mitigation of cognitive impairment due to sleep deprivation in operational settings is critical for safety and productivity. Achievements in this area are hampered by limited knowledge about the effects of sleep loss on actual job tasks. Sleep deprivation has different effects on different cognitive performance tasks, but the mechanisms behind this task-specificity are poorly understood. In this context it is important to recognize that cognitive performance is not a unitary process, but involves a number of component processes. There is emerging evidence that these component processes are differentially affected by sleep loss. Experiments have been conducted to decompose sleep-deprived performance into underlying cognitive processes using cognitive-behavioral, neuroimaging and cognitive modeling techniques. Furthermore, computational modeling in cognitive architectures has been employed to simulate sleep-deprived cognitive performance on the basis of the constituent cognitive processes. These efforts are beginning to enable quantitative prediction of the effects of sleep deprivation across different task contexts. This paper reviews a rapidly evolving area of research, and outlines a theoretical framework in which the effects of sleep loss on cognition may be understood from the deficits in the underlying neurobiology to the applied consequences in real-world job tasks. PMID:22884948

  17. Rostro-caudal and dorso-ventral gradients in medial and lateral prefrontal cortex during cognitive control of affective and cognitive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahm, Christoffer; Liberg, Benny; Wiberg-Kristoffersen, Maria; Aspelin, Peter; Msghina, Mussie

    2013-04-01

    Characterizing the anatomical substrates of major brain functions such as cognition and emotion is of utmost importance to the ongoing efforts of understanding the nature of psychiatric ailments and their potential treatment. The aim of our study was to investigate how the brain handles affective and cognitive interferences on cognitive processes. Functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation was performed on healthy individuals, comparing the brain oxygenation level dependent activation patterns during affective and cognitive counting Stroop tasks. The affective Stroop task activated rostral parts of medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and rostral and ventral parts of lateral PFC, while cognitive Stroop activated caudal parts of medial PFC and caudal and dorsal parts of lateral PFC. Our findings suggest that the brain may handle affective and cognitive interference on cognitive processes differentially, with affective interference preferentially activating rostral and ventral PFC networks and cognitive interference activating caudal and dorsal PFC networks. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  18. Extended spider cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japyassú, Hilton F; Laland, Kevin N

    2017-05-01

    There is a tension between the conception of cognition as a central nervous system (CNS) process and a view of cognition as extending towards the body or the contiguous environment. The centralised conception requires large or complex nervous systems to cope with complex environments. Conversely, the extended conception involves the outsourcing of information processing to the body or environment, thus making fewer demands on the processing power of the CNS. The evolution of extended cognition should be particularly favoured among small, generalist predators such as spiders, and here, we review the literature to evaluate the fit of empirical data with these contrasting models of cognition. Spiders do not seem to be cognitively limited, displaying a large diversity of learning processes, from habituation to contextual learning, including a sense of numerosity. To tease apart the central from the extended cognition, we apply the mutual manipulability criterion, testing the existence of reciprocal causal links between the putative elements of the system. We conclude that the web threads and configurations are integral parts of the cognitive systems. The extension of cognition to the web helps to explain some puzzling features of spider behaviour and seems to promote evolvability within the group, enhancing innovation through cognitive connectivity to variable habitat features. Graded changes in relative brain size could also be explained by outsourcing information processing to environmental features. More generally, niche-constructed structures emerge as prime candidates for extending animal cognition, generating the selective pressures that help to shape the evolving cognitive system.

  19. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy & Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Gulbrandsen, Knut Arild

    Coaching is an expanding area of professional work, and recent years have brought forward the notion of cognitive coaching (Costa, 2006; Oestrich, 2005) which adapts theory and techniques from cognitive therapy to serve self-enhancement in non-clinical populations. We suggest that a cognitive...... to monitor and evaluate the learning process. The course is embedded in a graduate programme of applied cognitive, developmental and neuropsychology, and includes 92 hours (17 days spanning one academic year) of lectures and workshops on cognitive behavioural therapy and coaching. Seven behaviour competence...... coaching module in the graduate curriculum for students of psychology is a rewarding introduction to cognitive behavioural approaches, since it allows combination of traditional lectures with “action-reflection-learning” workshops, during which students train cognitive behavioural techniques in their own...

  20. Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Vieira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several reviews of the literature support the idea that cognitive deficits observed in a large percentage of patients with schizophrenia are responsible for the cognitive performance deficit and functional disability associated with the disease. The grow- ing importance of neurocognition in Psychiatry, especially with regard to planning strategies and rehabilitative therapies to improve the prognosis of patients contrib- utes to the interest of achieving this literature review on cognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia. In this work, drawn from research in the areas of schizophrenia, cog- nition, cognitive rehabilitation and cognitive remediation (2000-2012 through PubMed and The Cochrane Collaboration, it is intended, to describe the types of psychological and behavioral therapies recommended in the treatment of cognitive disabilities in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. This review will also highlight the clinical and scientific evidence of each of these therapies, as their effect on cognitive performance, symptoms and functionality in patients with schizophrenia.

  1. Language and Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo

    The Ph.D dissertation “Language and Cognition” addresses the way social uses of language – e.g. on the media, or in conversation – shape the way we think and act. Cognitive sciences have started focusing on embodiment and joint cognition – the way in which cognitive processes are deeply shaped...... interacting, without making place for and relying upon the external world, for its structures, its resistances and its dynamics. Cognition is thus a relational process aimed at - perceiving the regularities and affordances (possibilities for further action, perception and, more generally, cognition...... to linguistic use, but also the effects of these processes on the coordination of other cognitive processes. It involved conceptual and experimental methodologies. Chapter 2 The cognitive study of metaphors largely focuses on showing how abstract thought and language uses are strongly shaped by embodied...

  2. Asymmetric Spatial Processing Under Cognitive Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naert, Lien; Bonato, Mario; Fias, Wim

    2018-01-01

    Spatial attention allows us to selectively process information within a certain location in space. Despite the vast literature on spatial attention, the effect of cognitive load on spatial processing is still not fully understood. In this study we added cognitive load to a spatial processing task, so as to see whether it would differentially impact upon the processing of visual information in the left versus the right hemispace. The main paradigm consisted of a detection task that was performed during the maintenance interval of a verbal working memory task. We found that increasing cognitive working memory load had a more negative impact on detecting targets presented on the left side compared to those on the right side. The strength of the load effect correlated with the strength of the interaction on an individual level. The implications of an asymmetric attentional bias with a relative disadvantage for the left (vs the right) hemispace under high verbal working memory (WM) load are discussed.

  3. Symposium on Differential Geometry and Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Marcel; Bryant, Robert

    1987-01-01

    The DD6 Symposium was, like its predecessors DD1 to DD5 both a research symposium and a summer seminar and concentrated on differential geometry. This volume contains a selection of the invited papers and some additional contributions. They cover recent advances and principal trends in current research in differential geometry.

  4. Social Class Differentiation in Cognitive Development Among Black Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Mark; And Others

    In a longitudinal study of 89 black children from different social classes, while there were no significant SES differences on the Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale at 18 and 24 months of age, there was a highly significant 23 point Mean IQ difference between children from welfare and middle class black families on the Stanford-Binet at 3 years of…

  5. Subcortical vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia : EEG global power independently predicts vascular impairment and brain symmetry index reflects severity of cognitive decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheorajpanday, Rishi V.A.; Mariën, Peter; Nagels, Guy; Weeren, Arie J.T.M.; Saerens, Jos; Van Putten, Michel J.A.M.; de Deyn, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia (vCIND) is a prevalent and potentially preventable disorder. Clinical presentation of the small-vessel subcortical subtype may be insidious, and differential difficulties can arise with mild cognitive impairment. We investigated EEG

  6. Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment, No Dementia : EEG Global Power Independently Predicts Vascular Impairment and Brain Symmetry Index Reflects Severity of Cognitive Decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheorajpanday, Rishi V. A.; Marien, Peter; Nagels, Guy; Weeren, Arie J. T. M.; Saerens, Jos; van Putten, Michel J. A. M.; De Deyn, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose:Vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia (vCIND) is a prevalent and potentially preventable disorder. Clinical presentation of the small-vessel subcortical subtype may be insidious, and differential difficulties can arise with mild cognitive impairment. We investigated EEG

  7. Automatic differentiation bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, G.F. [comp.

    1992-07-01

    This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

  8. Rapid cognitive decline: not always Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, A; Ellis, R; Hywel, B; Davies, R R; Alusi, S H; Larner, A J

    2015-01-01

    A patient with rapidly progressive cognitive decline over an approximately four month period was suspected to have sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Features thought to support this diagnosis included psychiatric symptoms (anxiety and depression), visual hallucinations and a visual field defect. However, the finding of papilloedema broadened the differential diagnosis. Although standard brain imaging and electroencephalography had shown only non-specific abnormalities, subsequent cerebral angiography disclosed an intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula. Following embolisation, the patient made a good functional recovery. Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula merits consideration in any patient with subacute cognitive decline, and should be included in the differential diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

  9. Embodied social cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Lindblom, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    This book clarifies the role and relevance of the body in social interaction and cognition from an embodied cognitive science perspective. Theories of embodied cognition have during the last decades offered a radical shift in explanations of the human mind, from traditional computationalism, to emphasizing the way cognition is shaped by the body and its sensorimotor interaction with the surrounding social and material world. This book presents a theoretical framework for the relational nature of embodied social cognition, which is based on an interdisciplinary approach that ranges historically in time and across different disciplines. It includes work in cognitive science, artificial intelligence, phenomenology, ethology, developmental psychology, neuroscience, social psychology, linguistics, communication, and gesture studies. The theoretical framework is illustrated by empirical work that provides some detailed observational fieldwork on embodied actions captured in three different episodes of spontaneous s...

  10. Cognitive wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Zhiyong; Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This brief examines the current research in cognitive wireless networks (CWNs). Along with a review of challenges in CWNs, this brief presents novel theoretical studies and architecture models for CWNs, advances in the cognitive information awareness and delivery, and intelligent resource management technologies. The brief presents the motivations and concepts of CWNs, including theoretical studies of temporal and geographic distribution entropy as well as cognitive information metrics. A new architecture model of CWNs is proposed with theoretical, functional and deployment architectures suppo

  11. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Moghaddam, Nima G.; Dawson, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is a generic term, encompassing both: (1) approaches underpinned by an assumption that presenting emotional and behavioural difficulties are cognitively mediated or moderated; and (2) atheoretical bricolages of cognitive and behavioural techniques. This latter category may include effective therapeutic packages (perhaps acting through mechanisms articulated in the first category) but, when theory is tacit, it becomes harder to make analytical generalisation...

  12. Assessment in Cognitive Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Gary P.; Clark, David A.

    2015-01-01

    This volume brings together leading experts to explore the state of the art of cognitive clinical assessment and identify cutting-edge approaches of interest to clinicians and researchers. The book highlights fundamental problems concerning the validity of assessments that are widely used in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Key directions for further research and development are identified. Updated cognitive assessment methods are described in detail, with particular attention to transdiag...

  13. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hong; He, Ri-Hui; Zheng, Yun-Rong; Tao, Ran

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the main method of psychotherapy generally accepted in the field of substance addiction and non-substance addiction. This chapter mainly introduces the methods and technology of cognitive-behavior therapy of substance addiction, especially in order to prevent relapse. In the cognitive-behavior treatment of non-substance addiction, this chapter mainly introduces gambling addiction and food addiction.

  14. The anchoring bias reflects rational use of cognitive resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieder, Falk; Griffiths, Thomas L; M Huys, Quentin J; Goodman, Noah D

    2018-02-01

    Cognitive biases, such as the anchoring bias, pose a serious challenge to rational accounts of human cognition. We investigate whether rational theories can meet this challenge by taking into account the mind's bounded cognitive resources. We asked what reasoning under uncertainty would look like if people made rational use of their finite time and limited cognitive resources. To answer this question, we applied a mathematical theory of bounded rationality to the problem of numerical estimation. Our analysis led to a rational process model that can be interpreted in terms of anchoring-and-adjustment. This model provided a unifying explanation for ten anchoring phenomena including the differential effect of accuracy motivation on the bias towards provided versus self-generated anchors. Our results illustrate the potential of resource-rational analysis to provide formal theories that can unify a wide range of empirical results and reconcile the impressive capacities of the human mind with its apparently irrational cognitive biases.

  15. COGNITIVE SYSTEMS. REDEFINING THE COOPERATION BETWEEN MAN AND SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Aderina MOISUC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive systems appeared as a response to the real challenges brought by the Big Data phenomenon. It was found that the solutions for solving difficult problems caused by this phenomenon could be brought by using artificial intelligence tools. In this context a convergence between Big Data and Artificial Intelligence happened, which determined the start of a new stage in system development, namely the era of cognitive systems. The potential of these systems is given by the characteristics that differentiate them from other systems. The cognitive systems offered solutions and were used with success in complex projects from the medical and financial sectors. The architecture of cognitive systems is complex. These systems are designed so that they use artificial intelligence tools when processing source content, producing analytical solutions which can be used in the decision process. In this paper base concepts, the characteristics and architecture of cognitive systems, the benefits brought by the development and use of them were presented.

  16. Simulating motivated cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevarter, William B.

    1991-01-01

    A research effort to develop a sophisticated computer model of human behavior is described. A computer framework of motivated cognition was developed. Motivated cognition focuses on the motivations or affects that provide the context and drive in human cognition and decision making. A conceptual architecture of the human decision-making approach from the perspective of information processing in the human brain is developed in diagrammatic form. A preliminary version of such a diagram is presented. This architecture is then used as a vehicle for successfully constructing a computer program simulation Dweck and Leggett's findings that relate how an individual's implicit theories orient them toward particular goals, with resultant cognitions, affects, and behavior.

  17. COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory conducts basic and applied human research studies to characterize cognitive performance as influenced by militarily-relevant contextual and physical...

  18. Assessing met and unmet needs in the oldest-old and psychometric properties of the German version of the Camberwell assessment of need for the elderly (CANE)--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Janine; Luppa, Melanie; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2014-02-01

    The current demographic and social developments in our society will lead to a significant increase in treatment and healthcare needs in the future, particularly in the elderly population. The Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE) was developed in the United Kingdom to measure physical-, psychological-, and environment-related treatment as well as healthcare needs of older people in order to identify their unmet needs. So far, the German version of the CANE has not been established in health services research. Major reasons for this are a lack of publications of CANE's German version and the missing validation of the instrument. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the currently available German version of the CANE in a sample of older primary care patients. Descriptive statistics and inference-statistical analyses were calculated. Patients reported unmet needs mostly in CANE's following sections: mobility/falls, physical health, continence, company, and intimate relationships. Agreement level between patients' and relatives' ratings in CANE was moderate to low. Evidence for the construct validity of CANE was found in terms of significant associations between CANE and other instruments or scores. The study results provide an important basis for studies aiming at the assessment of met and unmet needs in the elderly population. Using the German version of the CANE may substantially contribute to an effective and good-quality health and social care as well as an appropriate allocation of healthcare resources in the elderly population.

  19. Stress and Cognition: A Cognitive Psychological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Lyle E., Jr.; Yaroush, Rita A.

    2003-01-01

    Research in cognitive psychology has made a significant contribution to our understanding of how acute and chronic stress affect performance. It has done so by identifying some of the factors that contribute to operator error and by suggesting how operators might be trained to respond more effectively in a variety of circumstances. The major purpose of this paper was to review the literature of cognitive psychology as it relates to these questions and issues. Based on the existence of earlier reviews (e.g., Hamilton, & Warburton, 1979; Hockey, 1983) the following investigation was limited to the last 15 years (1988-2002) and restricted to a review of the primary peer-reviewed literature. The results of this examination revealed that while cognitive psychology has contributed in a substantive way to our understanding of stress impact on various cognitive processes, it has also left many questions unanswered. Concerns about how we define and use the term stress and the gaps that remain in our knowledge about the specific effects of stressors on cognitive processes are discussed in the text.

  20. Emotional engagements predict and enhance social cognition in young chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, Kim A; Bakeman, Roger; Boysen, Sarah T; Leavens, David A

    2014-09-01

    Social cognition in infancy is evident in coordinated triadic engagements, that is, infants attending jointly with social partners and objects. Current evolutionary theories of primate social cognition tend to highlight species differences in cognition based on human-unique cooperative motives. We consider a developmental model in which engagement experiences produce differential outcomes. We conducted a 10-year-long study in which two groups of laboratory-raised chimpanzee infants were given quantifiably different engagement experiences. Joint attention, cooperativeness, affect, and different levels of cognition were measured in 5- to 12-month-old chimpanzees, and compared to outcomes derived from a normative human database. We found that joint attention skills significantly improved across development for all infants, but by 12 months, the humans significantly surpassed the chimpanzees. We found that cooperativeness was stable in the humans, but by 12 months, the chimpanzee group given enriched engagement experiences significantly surpassed the humans. Past engagement experiences and concurrent affect were significant unique predictors of both joint attention and cooperativeness in 5- to 12-month-old chimpanzees. When engagement experiences and concurrent affect were statistically controlled, joint attention and cooperation were not associated. We explain differential social cognition outcomes in terms of the significant influences of previous engagement experiences and affect, in addition to cognition. Our study highlights developmental processes that underpin the emergence of social cognition in support of evolutionary continuity. © 2014 The Authors. Developmental Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Performance of low-educated elders with depression on Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ace-r) test

    OpenAIRE

    Beckert,Michele; Loureiro,Fernanda; Menta,Caroline; Mello,Elisa Fasolin; Nogueira,Eduardo L.; Gunten,Armin von; Gomes,Irênio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Along with cognitive disorders, depression has been a concern for mental health services due to its highly debilitating effect on the functioning and quality of life of the elderly. However, there is still little understanding of the cognitive alterations resulting from depression or of the difficult differential diagnosis with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). It is known that performance on cognitive tests is strongly influenced by education but few studies have been conducted invol...

  2. Sensorimotor and cognitive slowing in schizophrenia as measured by the Symbol Digit Substitution Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrens, M.; Hulstijn, W.; Hecke, J. van; Peuskens, J.; Sabbe, B.G.C.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives A vast amount of studies demonstrates the presence of psychomotor slowing in schizophrenia. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether this overall psychomotor slowing can be divided into distinct processes that differentially affect cognitive functioning in

  3. Cognitive training for dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konta, Brigitte

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the HTA report is to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive training methods to treat cognitive disorders of dementia and other diseases with cognitive deficits. For this purpose, a systematic literature search was carried out first based on the DIMDI superbase retrieval. The identified publications were judged and selected by two independent, methodically competent experts. 33 publications were included in the report. Based on the studies for a normal cognitive development in old age a theory that healthy older people have a considerable capacity reserve for an improved performance in abstract abilities of thinking can be assumed. The first symptoms for older people at risk for dementia are a reduced cognitive capacity reserve. Cognitive training methods therefore focus abilities of abstract memory. Apart from types of dementia another two groups of diseases with cognitive deficits were included in the HTA report: cerebral lesions and schizophrenic psychoses. Studies with mild as well as forms of dementia heavy forms including the Alzheimer disease were included. The described training methods were very heterogeneous with regard to their contents, the temporal sequence and the outcome parameter. The studies were methodically partly contestable. Approximately a third of the studies of all publications could show improvements in the cognitive achievements by the training. Three studies concerning cognitive training methods in case of cerebral lesions were included. All three studies demonstrated a significant improvement in the training group in some outcome parameters. Special cognitive training methods were used for the treatment of cognitive deficits at schizophrenic psychoses. The neurocognitive training (NET, the "Cognitive Remediation Therapy" as well as the strategic training with coaching proved to be effective. The studies, however, were hardly comparable and very heterogeneous in detail. Summarising the cognitive training

  4. Partial Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    The volume contains a selection of papers presented at the 7th Symposium on differential geometry and differential equations (DD7) held at the Nankai Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin, China, in 1986. Most of the contributions are original research papers on topics including elliptic equations, hyperbolic equations, evolution equations, non-linear equations from differential geometry and mechanics, micro-local analysis.

  5. Solving Linear Differential Equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, K.A.; Put, M. van der

    2010-01-01

    The theme of this paper is to 'solve' an absolutely irreducible differential module explicitly in terms of modules of lower dimension and finite extensions of the differential field K. Representations of semi-simple Lie algebras and differential Galo is theory are the main tools. The results extend

  6. Association between Cognitive Activity and Cognitive Function in Older Hispanics

    OpenAIRE

    Marquine, María J.; Segawa, Eisuke; Wilson, Robert S.; Bennett, David A.; Barnes, Lisa L.

    2012-01-01

    There is limited research on the association between participation in cognitively stimulating activity and cognitive function in older Hispanics. The main purpose of the present study was to explore whether frequency of cognitive activity and its association with cognitive function in Hispanics is comparable to that of non-Hispanics. In a multiethnic cohort of 1571 non-demented older adults, we assessed past and current cognitive activity, availability of cognitive resources in the home in ch...

  7. Culture and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggleton, Neil G; Banissy, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the nature and both environmental and cognitive origins of culturally associated differences in a range of behaviors. This special issue of Cognitive Neuroscience presents six empirical papers investigating diverse categories of potential culturally related effects as well as a review article, all of which provide timely updates of the current state of knowledge in this area.

  8. Cognitive task analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2000-01-01

    Cognitive task analysis is defined as the extension of traditional task analysis techniques to yield information about the knowledge, thought processes and goal structures that underlie observable task performance. Cognitive task analyses are conducted for a wide variety of purposes, including the

  9. Learning and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gr ver Aukrust, Vibeke, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This collection of 58 articles from the recently-published third edition of the International Encyclopedia of Education focuses on learning, memory, attention, problem solving, concept formation, and language. Learning and cognition is the foundation of cognitive psychology and encompasses many topics including attention, memory, categorization,…

  10. Functional and cognitive grammars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Siewierska

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive review of the functional approach and cognitive approach to the nature of language and its relation to other aspects of human cognition. The paper starts with a brief discussion of the origins and the core tenets of the two approaches in Section 1. Section 2 discusses the similarities and differences between the three full-fledged structural functional grammars subsumed in the functional approach: Halliday's Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG), Dik's Functional Grammar (FG), and Van Valin's Role and Reference Grammar (RRG). Section 3 deals with the major features of the three cognitive frameworks: Langacker's Cognitive Grammar (CG), Goldberg's Cognitive Construction Grammar (CCG), and Croft's Radical Construction Grammar (RCG). Section 4 compares the two approaches and attempts to provide a unified functional-cognitive grammar. In the last section, the author concludes the paper with remarks on the unidirectional shift from functional grammar to cognitive grammar that may indicate a reinterpretation of the traditional relationship between functional and cognitive models of grammar.

  11. Transcending Cognitive Individualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerubavel, Eviatar; Smith, Eliot R.

    2010-01-01

    Advancing knowledge in many areas of psychology and neuroscience, underlined by dazzling images of brain scans, appear to many professionals and to the public to show that people are on the way to explaining cognition purely in terms of processes within the individual's head. Yet while such cognitive individualism still dominates the popular…

  12. Towards Cognitive Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Ahrendt, Peter; Larsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive component analysis (COCA) is here defined as the process of unsupervised grouping of data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. We have earlier demonstrated that independent components analysis is relevant for representing...

  13. Cognitive Style: Individual Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    1989-01-01

    A literature review describes several dimensions of cognitive styles in an effort to illustrate individual stylistic differences. Discusses the field dependence-independence dimension, taking into account age, sex, and cultural differences. Suggests that cognitive style theory needs to be structured in a broader theoretical framework. (NH)

  14. [Cognitive deterioration after surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinmetz, J.; Rasmussen, L.S.

    2008-01-01

    Delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction are important and common complications after surgery. Risk factors are first of all increasing age and type of surgery, whereas the type of anaesthesia does not seem to play an important role. Mortality is higher among patients with cognitive...

  15. Documentary and Cognitive Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the benefits of using cognitive theory in documentary film studies. The article outlines general aspects of cognitive theory in humanities and social science, however the main focus is on the role of narrative, visual style and emotional dimensions of different types...

  16. Modeling Organizational Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secchi, Davide; Cowley, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    This article offers an alternative perspective on organizational cognition based on e-cognition whereby appeal to systemic cognition replaces the traditional computational model of the mind that is still extremely popular in organizational research. It uses information processing, not to explore...... inner processes, but as the basis for pursuing organizational matters. To develop a theory of organizational cognition, the current work presents an agent-based simulation model based on the case of how individual perception of scientific value is affected by and affects organizational intelligence...... units' (e.g., research groups', departmental) framing of the notorious impact factor. Results show that organizational cognition cannot be described without an intermediate meso scale - called here social organizing - that both filters and enables the many kinds of socially enabled perception, action...

  17. Cognitive Dynamic Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Miguel, Ignacio; Duran, Ramon J.; Jimenez, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    The use of cognition is a promising element for the control of heterogeneous optical networks. Not only are cognitive networks able to sense current network conditions and act according to them, but they also take into account the knowledge acquired through past experiences; that is, they include...... learning with the aim of improving performance. In this paper, we review the fundamentals of cognitive networks and focus on their application to the optical networking area. In particular, a number of cognitive network architectures proposed so far, as well as their associated supporting technologies......, are reviewed. Moreover, several applications, mainly developed in the framework of the EU FP7 Cognitive Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical Network (CHRON) project, are also described....

  18. Uncertainty and Cognitive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal eMushtaq

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A growing trend of neuroimaging, behavioural and computational research has investigated the topic of outcome uncertainty in decision-making. Although evidence to date indicates that humans are very effective in learning to adapt to uncertain situations, the nature of the specific cognitive processes involved in the adaptation to uncertainty are still a matter of debate. In this article, we reviewed evidence suggesting that cognitive control processes are at the heart of uncertainty in decision-making contexts. Available evidence suggests that: (1 There is a strong conceptual overlap between the constructs of uncertainty and cognitive control; (2 There is a remarkable overlap between the neural networks associated with uncertainty and the brain networks subserving cognitive control; (3 The perception and estimation of uncertainty might play a key role in monitoring processes and the evaluation of the need for control; (4 Potential interactions between uncertainty and cognitive control might play a significant role in several affective disorders.

  19. The social life of cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Joanna; Voiklis, John; Malle, Bertram F

    2015-02-01

    We begin by illustrating that long before the cognitive revolution, social psychology focused on topics pertaining to what is now known as social cognition: people's subjective interpretations of social situations and the concepts and cognitive processes underlying these interpretations. We then examine two questions: whether social cognition entails characteristic concepts and cognitive processes, and how social processes might themselves shape and constrain cognition. We suggest that social cognition relies heavily on generic cognition but also on unique concepts (e.g., agent, intentionality) and unique processes (e.g., projection, imitation, joint attention). We further suggest that social processes play a prominent role in the development and unfolding of several generic cognitive processes, including learning, attention, and memory. Finally, we comment on the prospects of a recently developing approach to the study of social cognition (social neuroscience) and two potential future directions (computational social cognition and social-cognitive robotics). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of montreal cognitive assessment and mini-mental state examination in evaluating cognitive domain deficit following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Kwok Chu Wong

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits are common after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH, and clinical evaluation is important for their management. Our hypothesis was that the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCa is superior to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE in screening for cognitive domain deficit in aSAH patients.We carried out a prospective observational and diagnostic accuracy study on Hong Kong aSAH patients aged 21 to 75 years who had been admitted within 96 hours of ictus. The domain-specific neuropsychological assessment battery, the MoCA and MMSE were administered 2-4 weeks and 1 year after ictus. A cognitive domain deficit was defined as a cognitive domain z score <-1.65 (below the fifth percentile. Cognitive impairment was defined as two or more cognitive domain deficits. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov of the US National Institutes of Health (NCT01038193.Both the MoCA and the MMSE were successful in differentiating between patients with and without cognitive domain deficits and cognitive impairment at both assessment periods. At 1 year post-ictus, the MoCA produced higher area under the curve scores for cognitive impairment than the MMSE (MoCA, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.97 versus MMSE, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.83, p = 0.009.Cognitive domain deficits and cognitive impairment in patients with aSAH can be screened with the MoCA in both the subacute and chronic phases.

  1. Cognitive deficits in heart failure: Re-cognition of vulnerability as a strange new world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Rebecca S; Pressler, Susan J

    2009-01-01

    Patients with chronic heart failure (HF) have impairment in memory, psychomotor speed, and executive function. The aim of this study was to describe how individuals with HF and cognitive deficits manage self-care in their daily lives. Using an interpretive phenomenology method, HF patients completed unstructured face-to-face interviews about their ability to manage complex health regimens and maintain their health-related quality of life. Analysis of data was aided by use of Atlas.ti computer software. The sample consisted of 12 patients (10 men; aged 43-81 years) who had previously undergone neuropsychological testing and were found to have deficits in 3 or more cognitive domains. Patients confirmed that they followed the advice of healthcare providers by adherence to medication regimens, dietary sodium restrictions, and HF self-care. One overarching theme was identified: "Re-cognition of Vulnerability: A Strange New World." This theme was further differentiated into 3 components: (1) not recognizing cognitive deficits; (2) recognizing cognitive deficits, described as (a) never could remember anything, (b) just old age, (c) HF-related change, and (d) making normal accommodations; and (3) recognizing vulnerability, explained by perception of (a) cognitive, (b) physical, and (c) social vulnerabilities, as well as perception of (d) the nearness of death. Although the study was designed to focus on the cognitive changes in HF patients, it was difficult to separate cognitive, physical, and social challenges. These changes are most useful when taken as a constellation. Healthcare professionals can use the knowledge to identify problems and interventions for HF patients.

  2. Gender Differences in the Maintenance of Response to Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felmingham, Kim L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine potential differential responses in men and women to cognitive behavior therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Fifty-two men and 56 women diagnosed with PTSD participated in randomized controlled trials of cognitive behavior therapy for PTSD. Participants were randomly allocated to either (a) exposure-only…

  3. Different Styles for Different Needs – The Effect of Cognitive Styles on Idea Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Lomberg, Carina; Kollmann, Tobias; Stockmann, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Researchers are engaged in finding the precursors for innovation. Drawing on Kirton's Adaption-Innovation (KAI) Inventory, we explicitly test Kirton's central premise that cognitive styles differentiate between preferences for producing ideas in a certain way. We argue that the generation of either a magnitude or original ideas is governed by different underlying cognitive styles. In a study with 191 individuals, we find that the cognitive style originality associates with ideational fluency ...

  4. Cognitive and memory training in adults at risk of dementia: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Effective non-pharmacological cognitive interventions to prevent Alzheimer's dementia or slow its progression are an urgent international priority. The aim of this review was to evaluate cognitive training trials in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and evaluate the efficacy of training in memory strategies or cognitive exercises to determine if cognitive training could benefit individuals at risk of developing dementia. Methods A systematic review of eligible trials was undertaken, followed by effect size analysis. Cognitive training was differentiated from other cognitive interventions not meeting generally accepted definitions, and included both cognitive exercises and memory strategies. Results Ten studies enrolling a total of 305 subjects met criteria for cognitive training in MCI. Only five of the studies were randomized controlled trials. Meta-analysis was not considered appropriate due to the heterogeneity of interventions. Moderate effects on memory outcomes were identified in seven trials. Cognitive exercises (relative effect sizes ranged from .10 to 1.21) may lead to greater benefits than memory strategies (.88 to -1.18) on memory. Conclusions Previous conclusions of a lack of efficacy for cognitive training in MCI may have been influenced by not clearly defining the intervention. Our systematic review found that cognitive exercises can produce moderate-to-large beneficial effects on memory-related outcomes. However, the number of high quality RCTs remains low, and so further trials must be a priority. Several suggestions for the better design of cognitive training trials are provided. PMID:21942932

  5. Mario Becomes Cognitive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrodt, Fabian; Kneissler, Jan; Ehrenfeld, Stephan; Butz, Martin V

    2017-04-01

    In line with Allen Newell's challenge to develop complete cognitive architectures, and motivated by a recent proposal for a unifying subsymbolic computational theory of cognition, we introduce the cognitive control architecture SEMLINCS. SEMLINCS models the development of an embodied cognitive agent that learns discrete production rule-like structures from its own, autonomously gathered, continuous sensorimotor experiences. Moreover, the agent uses the developing knowledge to plan and control environmental interactions in a versatile, goal-directed, and self-motivated manner. Thus, in contrast to several well-known symbolic cognitive architectures, SEMLINCS is not provided with production rules and the involved symbols, but it learns them. In this paper, the actual implementation of SEMLINCS causes learning and self-motivated, autonomous behavioral control of the game figure Mario in a clone of the computer game Super Mario Bros. Our evaluations highlight the successful development of behavioral versatility as well as the learning of suitable production rules and the involved symbols from sensorimotor experiences. Moreover, knowledge- and motivation-dependent individualizations of the agents' behavioral tendencies are shown. Finally, interaction sequences can be planned on the sensorimotor-grounded production rule level. Current limitations directly point toward the need for several further enhancements, which may be integrated into SEMLINCS in the near future. Overall, SEMLINCS may be viewed as an architecture that allows the functional and computational modeling of embodied cognitive development, whereby the current main focus lies on the development of production rules from sensorimotor experiences. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Midsagittal Brain Shape Correlation with Intelligence and Cognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Emiliano; Martin-Loeches, Manuel; Burgaleta, Miguel; Colom, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Brain shape might influence cognitive performance because of the relationships between functions, spatial organization, and differential volumetric development of cortical areas. Here we analyze the relationships between midsagittal brain shape variation and a set of basic psychological measures. Coordinates in 2D from 102 MRI-scanned young adult…

  7. Detecting cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson’s disease with a brief cognitive screening tool: the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination (ACE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chade, Anabel; Roca, María; Torralva, Teresa; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Fabbro, Nicolás; Arévalo, Gonzalo Gómez; Gershanik, Oscar; Manes, Facundo

    2008-01-01

    Detecting cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson’s disease is crucial for good clinical practice given the new therapeutic possibilities available. When full neuropsychological evaluations are not available, screening tools capable of detecting cognitive difficulties become crucial. Objective The goal of this study was to investigate whether the Spanish version of the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination (ACE) is capable of detecting cognitive difficulties in patients with Parkinson’s disease and discriminating their cognitive profile from patients with dementia. Methods 77 early dementia patients (53 with Alzheimer’s Disease and 24 with Frontotemporal Dementia), 22 patients with Parkinson’s disease, and 53 healthy controls were evaluated with the ACE. Results Parkinson’s disease patients significantly differed from both healthy controls and dementia patients on ACE total score. Conclusions This study shows that the Spanish version of the ACE is capable of detecting patients with cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease and is able to differentiate them from patients with dementia based on their general cognitive status. PMID:29213570

  8. The Cognitive Mobilization Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alaminos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article shows how the cognitive mobilization index, designed for use in observing potential political participation, can be used as an indicator of the political climate that a particular society is going through. Following a discussion of the theoretical elaborations (and their working definitions of the concept of cognitive mobilization, a longitudinal study of various European countries is used to consider the question of how political crises influence cognitive mobilization indexes and what effects they have on the political socialization process among the youngest cohorts.

  9. Aerobic and Cognitive Exercise (ACE) Pilot Study for Older Adults: Executive Function Improves with Cognitive Challenge While Exergaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Nicole; Shah, Nikita; Cohen, Katherine; Hogan, Michael J; Mulkerrin, Eamon; Arciero, Paul J; Cohen, Brian D; Kramer, Arthur F; Anderson-Hanley, Cay

    2015-11-01

    Dementia cases are increasing worldwide; thus, investigators seek to identify interventions that might prevent or ameliorate cognitive decline in later life. Extensive research confirms the benefits of physical exercise for brain health, yet only a fraction of older adults exercise regularly. Interactive mental and physical exercise, as in aerobic exergaming, not only motivates, but has also been found to yield cognitive benefit above and beyond traditional exercise. This pilot study sought to investigate whether greater cognitive challenge while exergaming would yield differential outcomes in executive function and generalize to everyday functioning. Sixty-four community based older adults (mean age=82) were randomly assigned to pedal a stationary bike, while interactively engaging on-screen with: (1) a low cognitive demand task (bike tour), or (2) a high cognitive demand task (video game). Executive function (indices from Trails, Stroop and Digit Span) was assessed before and after a single-bout and 3-month exercise intervention. Significant group × time interactions were found after a single-bout (Color Trails) and after 3 months of exergaming (Stroop; among 20 adherents). Those in the high cognitive demand group performed better than those in the low cognitive dose condition. Everyday function improved across both exercise conditions. Pilot data indicate that for older adults, cognitive benefit while exergaming increased concomitantly with higher doses of interactive mental challenge.

  10. Fundamentals of differential beamforming

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob; Pan, Chao

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a systematic study of the fundamental theory and methods of beamforming with differential microphone arrays (DMAs), or differential beamforming in short. It begins with a brief overview of differential beamforming and some popularly used DMA beampatterns such as the dipole, cardioid, hypercardioid, and supercardioid, before providing essential background knowledge on orthogonal functions and orthogonal polynomials, which form the basis of differential beamforming. From a physical perspective, a DMA of a given order is defined as an array that measures the differential acoustic pressure field of that order; such an array has a beampattern in the form of a polynomial whose degree is equal to the DMA order. Therefore, the fundamental and core problem of differential beamforming boils down to the design of beampatterns with orthogonal polynomials. But certain constraints also have to be considered so that the resulting beamformer does not seriously amplify the sensors’ self noise and the mism...

  11. Principles of minimal cognition : Casting cognition as sensorimotor coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijn, Marc van; Keijzer, F.A.; Franken, Daan

    2006-01-01

    Within the cognitive sciences, cognition tends to be interpreted from an anthropocentric perspective, involving a stringent set of human capabilities. Instead, we suggest that cognition is better explicated as a much more general biological phenomenon, allowing the lower bound of cognition to extend

  12. Occupational cognitive requirements and late-life cognitive aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Lindsay R.; Weuve, Jennifer; Wilson, Robert S.; Bultmann, Ute; Evans, Denis A.; de Leon, Carlos F. Mendes

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To examine whether occupational cognitive requirements, as a marker of adulthood cognitive activity, are associated with late-life cognition and cognitive decline.Methods:Main lifetime occupation information for 7,637 participants aged >65 years of the Chicago Health and Aging Project

  13. Vector Differential Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    HITZER, Eckhard MS

    2002-01-01

    This paper treats the fundamentals of the vector differential calculus part of universal geometric calculus. Geometric calculus simplifies and unifies the structure and notation of mathematics for all of science and engineering, and for technological applications. In order to make the treatment self-contained, I first compile all important geometric algebra relationships,which are necesssary for vector differential calculus. Then differentiation by vectors is introduced and a host of major ve...

  14. Differential models in ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barco Gomez, Carlos; Barco Gomez, German

    2002-01-01

    The models mathematical writings with differential equations are used to describe the populational behavior through the time of the animal species. These models can be lineal or no lineal. The differential models for unique specie include the exponential pattern of Malthus and the logistical pattern of Verlhust. The lineal differential models to describe the interaction between two species include the competition relationships, predation and symbiosis

  15. Culture and cognition in health systems change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jenna M; Baker, G Ross; Berta, Whitney; Barnsley, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale change involves modifying not only the structures and functions of multiple organizations, but also the mindsets and behaviours of diverse stakeholders. This paper focuses on the latter: the informal, less visible, and often neglected psychological and social factors implicated in change efforts. The purpose of this paper is to differentiate between the concepts of organizational culture and mental models, to argue for the value of applying a shared mental models (SMM) framework to large-scale change, and to suggest directions for future research. The authors provide an overview of SMM theory and use it to explore the dynamic relationship between culture and cognition. The contributions and limitations of the theory to change efforts are also discussed. Culture and cognition are complementary perspectives, providing insight into two different levels of the change process. SMM theory draws attention to important questions that add value to existing perspectives on large-scale change. The authors outline these questions for future research and argue that research and practice in this domain may be best served by focusing less on the potentially narrow goal of "achieving consensus" and more on identifying, understanding, and managing cognitive convergences and divergences as part of broader research and change management programmes. Drawing from both cultural and cognitive paradigms can provide researchers with a more complete picture of the processes by which coordinated action are achieved in complex change initiatives in the healthcare domain.

  16. Singular stochastic differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Cherny, Alexander S

    2005-01-01

    The authors introduce, in this research monograph on stochastic differential equations, a class of points termed isolated singular points. Stochastic differential equations possessing such points (called singular stochastic differential equations here) arise often in theory and in applications. However, known conditions for the existence and uniqueness of a solution typically fail for such equations. The book concentrates on the study of the existence, the uniqueness, and, what is most important, on the qualitative behaviour of solutions of singular stochastic differential equations. This is done by providing a qualitative classification of isolated singular points, into 48 possible types.

  17. Introduction to differentiable manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Auslander, Louis

    2009-01-01

    The first book to treat manifold theory at an introductory level, this text surveys basic concepts in the modern approach to differential geometry. The first six chapters define and illustrate differentiable manifolds, and the final four chapters investigate the roles of differential structures in a variety of situations.Starting with an introduction to differentiable manifolds and their tangent spaces, the text examines Euclidean spaces, their submanifolds, and abstract manifolds. Succeeding chapters explore the tangent bundle and vector fields and discuss their association with ordinary diff

  18. Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Namrata; Barletta, Justine A

    2014-12-01

    Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) has been recognized for the past 30 years as an entity showing intermediate differentiation and clinical behavior between well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas (ie, papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma) and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma; however, there has been considerable controversy around the definition of PDTC. In this review, the evolution in the definition of PDTC, current diagnostic criteria, differential diagnoses, potentially helpful immunohistochemical studies, and molecular alterations are discussed with the aim of highlighting where the diagnosis of PDTC currently stands. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Cognitive Processing Hardware Elements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Widrow, Bernard; Eliashberg, Victor; Kamenetsky, Max

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify and develop cognitive information processing systems and algorithms that can be implemented with novel architectures and devices with the goal of achieving...

  20. Anthropology in cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Andrea; Hutchins, Edwin; Medin, Douglas

    2010-07-01

    This paper reviews the uneven history of the relationship between Anthropology and Cognitive Science over the past 30 years, from its promising beginnings, followed by a period of disaffection, on up to the current context, which may lay the groundwork for reconsidering what Anthropology and (the rest of) Cognitive Science have to offer each other. We think that this history has important lessons to teach and has implications for contemporary efforts to restore Anthropology to its proper place within Cognitive Science. The recent upsurge of interest in the ways that thought may shape and be shaped by action, gesture, cultural experience, and language sets the stage for, but so far has not fully accomplished, the inclusion of Anthropology as an equal partner. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. Social cognitive radio networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xu

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents research results on social cognitive radio networks, a transformational and innovative networking paradigm that promotes the nexus between social interactions and cognitive radio networks. Along with a review of the research literature, the text examines the key motivation and challenges of social cognitive radio network design. Three socially inspired distributed spectrum sharing mechanisms are introduced: adaptive channel recommendation mechanism, imitation-based social spectrum sharing mechanism, and evolutionarily stable spectrum access mechanism. The brief concludes with a discussion of future research directions which ascertains that exploiting social interactions for distributed spectrum sharing will advance the state-of-the-art of cognitive radio network design, spur a new line of thinking for future wireless networks, and enable novel wireless service and applications.

  2. Cognitive load theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Paul A.; Kirschner, Femke; Paas, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Kirschner, P. A., Kirschner, F. C., & Paas, F. (2009). Cognitive load theory. In E. M. Anderman & L. H. Anderman (Eds.). Psychology of classroom learning: An encyclopedia, Volume 1, a-j (pp. 205-209). Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference.

  3. Curriculum and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, Joseph

    1971-01-01

    Paper presented at the Summer Meeting of the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf held in Philadelphia, June 24-27, 1970. Discussed are concepts of curriculum development, cognitive development, and educational methods with implications for the handicapped. (CB)

  4. Cognitive aspects of color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derefeldt, Gunilla A. M.; Menu, Jean-Pierre; Swartling, Tiina

    1995-04-01

    This report surveys cognitive aspects of color in terms of behavioral, neuropsychological, and neurophysiological data. Color is usually defined as psychophysical color or as perceived color. Behavioral data on categorical color perception, absolute judgement of colors, color coding, visual search, and visual awareness refer to the more cognitive aspects of color. These are of major importance in visual synthesis and spatial organization, as already shown by the Gestalt psychologists. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings provide evidence for an interrelation between cognitive color and spatial organization. Color also enhances planning strategies, as has been shown by studies on color and eye movements. Memory colors and the color- language connections in the brain also belong among the cognitive aspects of color.

  5. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    2003-05-20

    May 20, 2003 ... behaviour therapy approach, and a brief example of its use in depression. Cognitive .... dream, or recollection, leading to unpleasant emotion. DATE. SITUATION. EMOTION ... Write rational response to automatic thought(s). 2.

  6. Cognitive Computing for Security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debenedictis, Erik [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rothganger, Fredrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aimone, James Bradley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Marinella, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evans, Brian Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Warrender, Christina E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mickel, Patrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Final report for Cognitive Computing for Security LDRD 165613. It reports on the development of hybrid of general purpose/ne uromorphic computer architecture, with an emphasis on potential implementation with memristors.

  7. Role of cognitive reserve in progression from mild cognitive impairment to dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo F. Allegri

    Full Text Available Abstract Cognitive reserve is the ability to optimize performance through differential recruitment of brain networks, which may reflect the use of alternative cognitive strategies. Objectives: To identify factors related to cognitive reserve associated with progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI to degenerative dementia. Methods: A cohort of 239 subjects with MCI (age: 72.2±8.1 years, 58% women, education: 12 years was assessed and followed for five years (2001 to 2006. Results: In the first year, 13.7% of MCI converted to dementia and 34.7% converted within three years (78.3% converted to Alzheimer's dementia. Risk factors for those who converted were education less than 12 years, MMSE score less than 27, Boston naming test score less than 51, IQ (Intelligence Quotient less than 111, age over 75 years, lack of occupation at retirement, and presence of intrusions in memory recall (all account for 56% of the variability of conversion. Conclusions: MCI patients are a population at high risk for dementia. The study of risk factors (e.g. IQ, education and occupation, particularly those related to cognitive reserve, can contribute important evidence to guide the decision-making process in routine clinical activity and public health policy.

  8. Features of Social Cognition in Late Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melehin A.I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents outcomes of researches on the central component of social cognition — theory of mind in late adulthood. The outcomes show that, in normal aging, in advanced adulthood (55—74 years as well as in old age (75—90 years there are several qualitative changes in the affective (understanding and differentiation of emotions and cognitive (understanding irony and deceit components of theory of mind. Also, at these ages individuals may develop various forms of theory of mind deficits. They may encounter difficulties with reading facial expressions and recognizing other people’s emotions. It becomes harder for them to recognize negative emotions (such as sorrow, fear, anger than positive ones (joy. The paper describes features of pragmatic interpretation of events and understanding of deceit and irony in late adulthood.

  9. Validation of the Dutch version of the quick mild cognitive impairment screen (Qmci-D).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bunt, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Differentiating mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from dementia is important, as treatment options differ. There are few short (<5 min) but accurate screening tools that discriminate between MCI, normal cognition (NC) and dementia, in the Dutch language. The Quick Mild Cognitive Impairment (Qmci) screen is sensitive and specific in differentiating MCI from NC and mild dementia. Given this, we adapted the Qmci for use in Dutch-language countries and validated the Dutch version, the Qmci-D, against the Dutch translation of the Standardised Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE-D).

  10. Brain enhancement through cognitive training: a new insight from brain connectome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko eTaya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the recent advances in neurotechnology and the progress in understanding of brain cognitive functions, improvements of cognitive performance or acceleration of learning process with brain enhancement systems is not out of our reach anymore, on the contrary, it is a tangible target of contemporary research. Although a variety of approaches have been proposed, we will mainly focus on cognitive training interventions, in which learners repeatedly perform cognitive tasks to improve their cognitive abilities. In this review article, we propose that the learning process during the cognitive training can be facilitated by an assistive system monitoring cognitive workloads using EEG biomarkers, and the brain connectome approach can provide additional valuable biomarkers for facilitating leaners' learning processes. For the purpose, we will introduce studies on the cognitive training interventions, EEG biomarkers for cognitive workload, and human brain connectome. As cognitive overload and mental fatigue would reduce or even eliminate gains of cognitive training interventions, a real-time monitoring of cognitive workload can facilitate the learning process by flexibly adjusting difficulty levels of the training task. Moreover, cognitive training interventions should have effects on brain sub-networks, not on a single brain region, and graph theoretical network metrics quantifying topological architecture of the brain network can differentiate with respect to individual cognitive states as well as to different individuals' cognitive abilities, suggesting that the connectome is a valuable approach for tracking the learning progress. Although only a few studies have exploited the connectome approach for studying alterations of the brain network induced by cognitive training interventions so far, we believe that it would be a useful technique for capturing improvements of cognitive functions.

  11. Brain enhancement through cognitive training: a new insight from brain connectome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taya, Fumihiko; Sun, Yu; Babiloni, Fabio; Thakor, Nitish; Bezerianos, Anastasios

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the recent advances in neurotechnology and the progress in understanding of brain cognitive functions, improvements of cognitive performance or acceleration of learning process with brain enhancement systems is not out of our reach anymore, on the contrary, it is a tangible target of contemporary research. Although a variety of approaches have been proposed, we will mainly focus on cognitive training interventions, in which learners repeatedly perform cognitive tasks to improve their cognitive abilities. In this review article, we propose that the learning process during the cognitive training can be facilitated by an assistive system monitoring cognitive workloads using electroencephalography (EEG) biomarkers, and the brain connectome approach can provide additional valuable biomarkers for facilitating leaners' learning processes. For the purpose, we will introduce studies on the cognitive training interventions, EEG biomarkers for cognitive workload, and human brain connectome. As cognitive overload and mental fatigue would reduce or even eliminate gains of cognitive training interventions, a real-time monitoring of cognitive workload can facilitate the learning process by flexibly adjusting difficulty levels of the training task. Moreover, cognitive training interventions should have effects on brain sub-networks, not on a single brain region, and graph theoretical network metrics quantifying topological architecture of the brain network can differentiate with respect to individual cognitive states as well as to different individuals' cognitive abilities, suggesting that the connectome is a valuable approach for tracking the learning progress. Although only a few studies have exploited the connectome approach for studying alterations of the brain network induced by cognitive training interventions so far, we believe that it would be a useful technique for capturing improvements of cognitive functions.

  12. Emotion, Cognition, and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, R. J.

    2002-11-01

    Emotion is central to the quality and range of everyday human experience. The neurobiological substrates of human emotion are now attracting increasing interest within the neurosciences motivated, to a considerable extent, by advances in functional neuroimaging techniques. An emerging theme is the question of how emotion interacts with and influences other domains of cognition, in particular attention, memory, and reasoning. The psychological consequences and mechanisms underlying the emotional modulation of cognition provide the focus of this article.

  13. Corpora and Cultural Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2017-01-01

    Cultural cognition is, to a great extent, transmitted through language and, consequently, reflected and replicated in language use. Cultural cognition may be instantiated in various patterns of language use, such as the discursive behavior of constructions. Very often, such instantiations can be ...... is addressed. In the third part of the chapter, three case studies are presented – one from Danish and two from English – to illustrate the analysis of cultural conceptualization via corpus-linguistic techniques....

  14. Ritual and embodied cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.; Klocová, Eva Kundtová

    2017-01-01

    Dette kapitel introducerer et embodied cognition tilgang til studiet af religiøse ritualer. Da tilgangen rummer forskellige elementer fra forskellige discipliner bliver disse opsummeret i "4E approach", nemlig kognition som embodied, embedded, extended og enactive.......Dette kapitel introducerer et embodied cognition tilgang til studiet af religiøse ritualer. Da tilgangen rummer forskellige elementer fra forskellige discipliner bliver disse opsummeret i "4E approach", nemlig kognition som embodied, embedded, extended og enactive....

  15. Cognitive behavior therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Labanya Bhattacharya; Bhushan Chaudari; Daniel Saldanha; Preethi Menon

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is one of the most extensively researched psychotherapeutic modalities which is being used either in conjunction with psychotropic drugs or alone in various psychiatric disorders. CBT is a short-term psychotherapeutic approach that is designed to influence dysfunctional emotions, behaviors, and cognitions through a goal-oriented, systematic procedure. Recent advances in CBT suggest that there is a fresh look on a "third wave" CBT that has a greater impact and ...

  16. Cognitive Dynamic Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Miguel, Ignacio; Duran, Ramon J.; Lorenzo, Ruben M.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive networks are a promising solution for the control of heterogeneous optical networks. We review their fundamentals as well as a number of applications developed in the framework of the EU FP7 CHRON project.......Cognitive networks are a promising solution for the control of heterogeneous optical networks. We review their fundamentals as well as a number of applications developed in the framework of the EU FP7 CHRON project....

  17. Skew differential fields, differential and difference equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, M

    2004-01-01

    The central question is: Let a differential or difference equation over a field K be isomorphic to all its Galois twists w.r.t. the group Gal(K/k). Does the equation descend to k? For a number of categories of equations an answer is given.

  18. Osteoblastic cells: differentiation and trans-differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Abdallah, Basem; Saeed, Hamid

    2008-01-01

    The osteoblast is the bone forming cell and is derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) present among the bone marrow stroma. MSC are capable of multi-lineage differentiation into mesoderm-type cells such as osteoblasts and adipocytes. Understanding the mechanisms underlying osteoblast different...

  19. MUSCLE OR MOTIVATION? A STOP SIGNAL STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF SEQUENTIAL COGNITIVE CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde M. Huizenga

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Performance in cognitive control tasks deteriorates when these tasks are performed together with other tasks that also require cognitive control, that is, if simultaneous cognitive control is required. Surprisingly, this decrease in performance is also observed if tasks are preceded by other cognitive control tasks, that is, if sequential cognitive control is required. The common explanation for the latter finding is that previous acts of cognitive control deplete a common resource, just like a muscle becomes fatigued after repeated use. An alternative explanation however has also been put forward, namely that repeated acts of cognitive control reduce the motivation to match allocated resources to required resources. In this paper we formalize these two accounts, the muscle and the motivation account, and show that they yield differential predictions on the interaction between simultaneous and sequential cognitive control. Such an interaction is not predicted by the muscle account, whereas it is predicted by the motivation account.These predictions were tested in a paradigm where participants had to perform a series of stop-signal tasks, these tasks varied both in their demands on simultaneous control and in their demands on sequential control. This paradigm, combined with a multilevel analysis, offered the possibility to test the differential predictions directly. Results of two studies indicate that an interaction between simultaneous and sequential cognitive control is present. Therefore it is concluded that effects of sequential cognitive control are best explained by the motivation account.

  20. Insulin, cognition, and dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholerton, Brenna; Baker, Laura D.; Craft, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive disorders of aging represent a serious threat to the social and economic welfare of current society. It is now widely recognized that pathology related to such conditions, particularly Alzheimer’s disease, likely begins years or decades prior to the onset of clinical dementia symptoms. This revelation has led researchers to consider candidate mechanisms precipitating the cascade of neuropathological events that eventually lead to clinical Alzheimer’s disease. Insulin, a hormone with potent effects in the brain, has recently received a great deal of attention for its potential beneficial and protective role in cognitive function. Insulin resistance, which refers to the reduced sensitivity of target tissues to the favorable effects of insulin, is related to multiple chronic conditions known to impact cognition and increase dementia risk. With insulin resistance-associated conditions reaching epidemic proportions, the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and other cognitive disorders will continue to rise exponentially. Fortunately, these chronic insulin-related conditions are amenable to pharmacological intervention. As a result, novel therapeutic strategies that focus on increasing insulin sensitivity in the brain may be an important target for protecting or treating cognitive decline. The following review will highlight our current understanding of the role of insulin in brain, potential mechanisms underlying the link between insulin resistance and dementia, and current experimental therapeutic strategies aimed at improving cognitive function via modifying the brain’s insulin sensitivity. PMID:24070815

  1. Cognitive framing in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, John M; Potts, Cory Adam; Rosenbaum, David A

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive framing effects have been widely reported in higher-level decision-making and have been ascribed to rules of thumb for quick thinking. No such demonstrations have been reported for physical action, as far as we know, but they would be expected if cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. To test for such effects, we asked participants to reach for a horizontally-oriented pipe to move it from one height to another while turning the pipe 180° to bring one end (the "business end") to a target on the left or right. From a physical perspective, participants could have always rotated the pipe in the same angular direction no matter which end was the business end; a given participant could have always turned the pipe clockwise or counter-clockwise. Instead, our participants turned the business end counter-clockwise for left targets and clockwise for right targets. Thus, the way the identical physical task was framed altered the way it was performed. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. A tantalizing possibility is that higher-level decision heuristics have roots in the control of physical action, a hypothesis that accords with embodied views of cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cognition, emotion, and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Schulte, Tilman

    2014-01-01

    Deficits of attention, emotion, and cognition occur in individuals with alcohol abuse and addiction. This review elucidates the concepts of attention, emotion, and cognition and references research on the underlying neural networks and their compromise in alcohol use disorder. Neuroimaging research on adolescents with family history of alcoholism contributes to the understanding of pre-existing brain structural conditions and characterization of cognition and attention processes in high-risk individuals. Attention and cognition interact with other brain functions, including perceptual selection, salience, emotion, reward, and memory, through interconnected neural networks. Recent research reports compromised microstructural and functional network connectivity in alcoholism, which can have an effect on the dynamic tuning between brain systems, e.g., the frontally based executive control system, the limbic emotion system, and the midbrain-striatal reward system, thereby impeding cognitive flexibility and behavioral adaptation to changing environments. Finally, we introduce concepts of functional compensation, the capacity to generate attentional resources for performance enhancement, and brain structure recovery with abstinence. An understanding of the neural mechanisms of attention, emotion, and cognition will likely provide the basis for better treatment strategies for developing skills that enhance alcoholism therapy adherence and quality of life, and reduce the propensity for relapse. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cognitive outcome of surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Anne; Jambaqué, Isabelle; Lassonde, Maryse

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy surgery is now widely accepted as an effective therapeutic option for carefully selected children with medically refractory epilepsy. The surgical procedure may cause cognitive deficits or exacerbate existing impairments, but it may also improve cognitive abilities by the restoration of functions located in adjacent or contralateral areas that had been secondarily affected by the epilepsy or the underlying pathology. Compared to adults, better cognitive outcome has been reported in children, a finding probably due to the developing state of the brain, which possesses considerable structural and functional plasticity. More extensive and effective surgery such as hemispherectomy is more commonly used in the pediatric population, and this must also influence surgical outcome. However, studies related to cognitive outcome of epilepsy surgery in children are limited, and controversial results are often reported. In this chapter, we provide a current overview of the literature on cognitive outcomes in children who undergo different types of epilepsy surgery, including focal resections as well as corpus callosotomy and hemispherectomy. Early surgical intervention appears to be a rational option for the treatment of childhood epilepsy since many cognitive deficits are linked to the epileptic process and may disappear when seizures are controlled. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Postoperative cognitive deficits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalezić, Nevena; Dimitrijević, Ivan; Leposavić, Ljubica; Kocica, Mladen; Bumbasirević, Vesna; Vucetić, Cedomir; Paunović, Ivan; Slavković, Nemanja; Filimonović, Jelena

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunctions are relatively common in postoperative and critically ill patients. This complication not only compromises recovery after surgery, but, if persistent, it minimizes and compromises surgery itself. Risk factors of postoperative cognitive disorders can be divided into age and comorbidity dependent, and those related to anesthesia and surgery. Cardiovascular, orthopedic and urologic surgery carries high risk of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. It can also occur in other types of surgical treatment, especially in elderly. Among risk factors of cognitive disorders, associated with comorbidity, underlying psychiatric and neurological disorders, substance abuse and conditions with elevation of intracranial pressure are in the first place in postoperative patients. Preoperative and perioperative predisposing conditions for cognitive dysfunction and their incidence were described in our paper. These are: geriatric patients, patients with substance abuse, preexisting psychiatric or cognitive disorders, neurologic disease with high intracranial pressure, cerebrovascular insufficiency, epilepsia, preeclampsia, acute intermittent porphyria, operation type, brain hypoxia, changes in blood glucose level, electrolyte imbalance, anesthetic agents, adjuvant medication and intraoperative awareness. For each of these factors, evaluation, prevention and treatment strategies were suggested, with special regard on anesthetic technique.

  5. Motivated to do well: an examination of the relationships between motivation, effort, and cognitive performance in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foussias, G; Siddiqui, I; Fervaha, G; Mann, S; McDonald, K; Agid, O; Zakzanis, K K; Remington, G

    2015-08-01

    The uncertain relationship between negative symptoms, and specifically motivational deficits, with cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia is in need of further elucidation as it pertains to the interpretation of cognitive test results. Findings to date have suggested a possible mediating role of motivational deficits on cognitive test measures, although findings from formal examinations of effort using performance validity measures have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between motivation, effort exerted during cognitive testing, and cognitive performance in schizophrenia. Sixty-nine outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were evaluated for psychopathology, severity of motivational deficits, effort exerted during cognitive testing, and cognitive performance. Motivation and degree of effort exerted during cognitive testing were significantly related to cognitive performance, specifically verbal fluency, verbal and working memory, attention and processing speed, and reasoning and problem solving. Further, effort accounted for 15% of the variance in cognitive performance, and partially mediated the relationship between motivation and cognitive performance. Examining cognitive performance profiles for individuals exerting normal or reduced effort revealed significant differences in global cognition, as well as attention/processing speed and reasoning and problem solving. These findings suggest that cognitive domains may be differentially affected by impairments in motivation and effort, and highlight the importance of understanding the interplay between motivation and cognitive performance deficits, which may guide the appropriate selection of symptom targets for promoting recovery in patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Behavioral, Cognitive and Neural Markers of Asperger Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Faridi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Asperger syndrome (AS is a subtype of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD characterized by major problems in social and nonverbal communication, together with limited and repetitive forms of behavior and interests. The linguistic and cognitive development in AS is preserved which help us to differentiate it from other subtypes of ASD. However, significant effects of AS on cognitive abilities and brain functions still need to be researched. Although a clear cut pathology for Asperger has not been identified yet, recent studies have largely focused on brain imaging techniques to investigate AS. In this regard, we carried out a systematic review on behavioral, cognitive, and neural markers (specifically using MRI and fMRI studies on AS. In this paper, behavior, motor skills and language capabilities of individuals with Asperger are compared to those in healthy controls. In addition, common findings across MRI and fMRI based studies associated with behavior and cognitive disabilities are highlighted. 

  7. Lifting the Differentiation Embargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Anne-Louise; Holyoake, Tessa L

    2016-09-22

    Effective differentiation therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been restricted to a small subset of patients with one defined genetic abnormality. Using an unbiased small molecule screen, Sykes et al. now identify a mechanism of de-repression of differentiation in several models of AML driven by distinct genetic drivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lifting the differentiation embargo

    OpenAIRE

    Latif, Anne-Louise; Holyoake, Tessa

    2016-01-01

    Effective differentiation therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been restricted to a small subset of patients with one defined genetic abnormality. Using an unbiased small molecule screen, Sykes et al. now identify a mechanism of de-repression of differentiation in several models of AML driven by distinct genetic drivers.

  9. Calculus & ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Pearson, David

    1995-01-01

    Professor Pearson's book starts with an introduction to the area and an explanation of the most commonly used functions. It then moves on through differentiation, special functions, derivatives, integrals and onto full differential equations. As with other books in the series the emphasis is on using worked examples and tutorial-based problem solving to gain the confidence of students.

  10. Cognitive Load and Strategic Sophistication

    OpenAIRE

    Allred, Sarah; Duffy, Sean; Smith, John

    2013-01-01

    We study the relationship between the cognitive load manipulation and strategic sophistication. The cognitive load manipulation is designed to reduce the subject's cognitive resources that are available for deliberation on a choice. In our experiment, subjects are placed under a large cognitive load (given a difficult number to remember) or a low cognitive load (given a number which is not difficult to remember). Subsequently, the subjects play a one-shot game then they are asked to recall...

  11. Nonlinear differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresner, L.

    1988-01-01

    This report is the text of a graduate course on nonlinear differential equations given by the author at the University of Wisconsin-Madison during the summer of 1987. The topics covered are: direction fields of first-order differential equations; the Lie (group) theory of ordinary differential equations; similarity solutions of second-order partial differential equations; maximum principles and differential inequalities; monotone operators and iteration; complementary variational principles; and stability of numerical methods. The report should be of interest to graduate students, faculty, and practicing scientists and engineers. No prior knowledge is required beyond a good working knowledge of the calculus. The emphasis is on practical results. Most of the illustrative examples are taken from the fields of nonlinear diffusion, heat and mass transfer, applied superconductivity, and helium cryogenics.

  12. Differential equations for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Holzner, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The fun and easy way to understand and solve complex equations Many of the fundamental laws of physics, chemistry, biology, and economics can be formulated as differential equations. This plain-English guide explores the many applications of this mathematical tool and shows how differential equations can help us understand the world around us. Differential Equations For Dummies is the perfect companion for a college differential equations course and is an ideal supplemental resource for other calculus classes as well as science and engineering courses. It offers step-by-step techniques, practical tips, numerous exercises, and clear, concise examples to help readers improve their differential equation-solving skills and boost their test scores.

  13. Nonlinear differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, L.

    1988-01-01

    This report is the text of a graduate course on nonlinear differential equations given by the author at the University of Wisconsin-Madison during the summer of 1987. The topics covered are: direction fields of first-order differential equations; the Lie (group) theory of ordinary differential equations; similarity solutions of second-order partial differential equations; maximum principles and differential inequalities; monotone operators and iteration; complementary variational principles; and stability of numerical methods. The report should be of interest to graduate students, faculty, and practicing scientists and engineers. No prior knowledge is required beyond a good working knowledge of the calculus. The emphasis is on practical results. Most of the illustrative examples are taken from the fields of nonlinear diffusion, heat and mass transfer, applied superconductivity, and helium cryogenics

  14. How similar are fluid cognition and general intelligence? A developmental neuroscience perspective on fluid cognition as an aspect of human cognitive ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy

    2006-04-01

    This target article considers the relation of fluid cognitive functioning to general intelligence. A neurobiological model differentiating working memory/executive function cognitive processes of the prefrontal cortex from aspects of psychometrically defined general intelligence is presented. Work examining the rise in mean intelligence-test performance between normative cohorts, the neuropsychology and neuroscience of cognitive function in typically and atypically developing human populations, and stress, brain development, and corticolimbic connectivity in human and nonhuman animal models is reviewed and found to provide evidence of mechanisms through which early experience affects the development of an aspect of cognition closely related to, but distinct from, general intelligence. Particular emphasis is placed on the role of emotion in fluid cognition and on research indicating fluid cognitive deficits associated with early hippocampal pathology and with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress-response system. Findings are seen to be consistent with the idea of an independent fluid cognitive construct and to assist with the interpretation of findings from the study of early compensatory education for children facing psychosocial adversity and from behavior genetic research on intelligence. It is concluded that ongoing development of neurobiologically grounded measures of fluid cognitive skills appropriate for young children will play a key role in understanding early mental development and the adaptive success to which it is related, particularly for young children facing social and economic disadvantage. Specifically, in the evaluation of the efficacy of compensatory education efforts such as Head Start and the readiness for school of children from diverse backgrounds, it is important to distinguish fluid cognition from psychometrically defined general intelligence.

  15. Linking Diversity and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Rolf Gregorius

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Generally speaking, the term differentiation refers to differences between collections for the distribution of specified traits of their members, while diversity deals with (effective numbers of trait states (types. Counting numbers of types implies discrete traits such as alleles and genotypes in population genetics or species and taxa in ecology. Comparisons between the concepts of differentiation and diversity therefore primarily refer to discrete traits. Diversity is related to differentiation through the idea that the total diversity of a subdivided collection should be composed of the diversity within the subcollections and a complement called “diversity between subcollections”. The idea goes back to the perception that the mixing of differentiated collections increases diversity. Several existing concepts of “diversity between subcollections” are based on this idea. Among them, β-diversity and fixation (inadvertently called differentiation are the most prominent in ecology and in population genetics, respectively. The pertaining measures are shown to quantify the effect of differentiation in terms of diversity components, though from a dual perspective: the classical perspective of differentiation between collections for their type compositions, and the reverse perspective of differentiation between types for their collection affiliations. A series of measures of diversity-oriented differentiation is presented that consider this dual perspective at two levels of diversity partitioning: the overall type or subcollection diversity and the joint type-subcollection diversity. It turns out that, in contrast with common notions, the measures of fixation (such as FST or GST refer to the perspective of type rather than subcollection differentiation. This unexpected observation strongly suggests that the popular interpretations of fixation measures must be reconsidered.

  16. Short- and long-term benefits of cognitive training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeggi, Susanne M; Buschkuehl, Martin; Jonides, John; Shah, Priti

    2011-06-21

    Does cognitive training work? There are numerous commercial training interventions claiming to improve general mental capacity; however, the scientific evidence for such claims is sparse. Nevertheless, there is accumulating evidence that certain cognitive interventions are effective. Here we provide evidence for the effectiveness of cognitive (often called "brain") training. However, we demonstrate that there are important individual differences that determine training and transfer. We trained elementary and middle school children by means of a videogame-like working memory task. We found that only children who considerably improved on the training task showed a performance increase on untrained fluid intelligence tasks. This improvement was larger than the improvement of a control group who trained on a knowledge-based task that did not engage working memory; further, this differential pattern remained intact even after a 3-mo hiatus from training. We conclude that cognitive training can be effective and long-lasting, but that there are limiting factors that must be considered to evaluate the effects of this training, one of which is individual differences in training performance. We propose that future research should not investigate whether cognitive training works, but rather should determine what training regimens and what training conditions result in the best transfer effects, investigate the underlying neural and cognitive mechanisms, and finally, investigate for whom cognitive training is most useful.

  17. Socio-cognitive influences on the domain-specificity of prosocial behavior in the second year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärtner, Joscha; Schuhmacher, Nils; Collard, Jenny

    2014-11-01

    The main aim of this study was to explain the domain-specificity of early prosocial behavior in different domains (i.e., helping, comforting, and cooperation) by simultaneously assessing specific socio-cognitive factors (i.e., self-other-differentiation and joint attentional skills) that were hypothesized to be differentially related to the three domains of prosocial behavior. Based on a longitudinal study design, observational and parental report data were collected when toddlers (N=42) from German urban middle-class families were 15 and 18 months of age. At 15 months, regression analyses indicated differential relationships between socio-cognitive development and prosocial behavior (i.e., joint attentional skills were positively related with helping and, as hypothesized, both joint attentional skills and self-other differentiation were positively related with cooperation). Furthermore, self-other differentiation at 15 months predicted increases in coordination between 15 and 18 months. Finally, between 15 and 18 months, parental reports of socio-cognitive measures increased significantly while behavioral measures of both socio-cognitive concepts and prosocial behavior were stable across time. In sum, these results support the theoretical assumption of domain-specific socio-cognitive influences that constitute differential development of prosocial behavior. Implications of the results for theory and future studies are discussed from different perspectives with a focus on an interference interpretation calling for the integration of socialization approaches to the study of prosocial development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Different Styles for Different Needs – The Effect of Cognitive Styles on Idea Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomberg, Carina; Kollmann, Tobias; Stockmann, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Researchers are engaged in finding the precursors for innovation. Drawing on Kirton's Adaption-Innovation (KAI) Inventory, we explicitly test Kirton's central premise that cognitive styles differentiate between preferences for producing ideas in a certain way. We argue that the generation of either...... a magnitude or original ideas is governed by different underlying cognitive styles. In a study with 191 individuals, we find that the cognitive style originality associates with ideational fluency whereas the rule governance style associates with the generation of original ideas. By providing a cognitive...

  19. Nature and Elements of a Cognitive-Practical Conception of Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marta González

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the variety of approaches to the study of emotions, the purpose of this paper is twofold: on the one hand, to draw attention to the cultural assumptions of experimental approaches to emotion, and, on the other, to show the relevance of resorting to philosophical tradition in order to conceptually clarify the difference between cognitive and non-cognitive approaches to emotions, as well as the constitutive elements of a cognitive approach to emotion, which I describe as «practically cognitive » in order to differentiate it from the rationalist one, which was criticized by James

  20. Cognitive neuroscience: the troubled marriage of cognitive science and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard P; Shallice, Tim

    2010-07-01

    We discuss the development of cognitive neuroscience in terms of the tension between the greater sophistication in cognitive concepts and methods of the cognitive sciences and the increasing power of more standard biological approaches to understanding brain structure and function. There have been major technological developments in brain imaging and advances in simulation, but there have also been shifts in emphasis, with topics such as thinking, consciousness, and social cognition becoming fashionable within the brain sciences. The discipline has great promise in terms of applications to mental health and education, provided it does not abandon the cognitive perspective and succumb to reductionism. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. Sociolinguistic variables and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Erik R

    2011-11-01

    Sociolinguistics has examined mental organization of language only sporadically. Meanwhile, areas of linguistics that deal with cognitive organization seldom delve deeply into language variation. Variation is essential for understanding how language is structured cognitively, however. Three kinds of evidence are discussed to illustrate this point. First, style shifting demonstrates that language users develop detailed associations of when to produce specific linguistic forms, depending on the pragmatic context. Second, variation in fine-grained phonetic cues shows that cognitive organization applies to linguistic forms not otherwise known to be under speakers' control. Finally, experiments on dialect comprehension and identification demonstrate that listeners have detailed cognitive associations of language variants with groups of people, whether or not they can produce the same variants themselves. A model is presented for how sociolinguistic knowledge can be viewed in relation to other parts of language with regard to cognitive and neural representations. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 701-716 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.152 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Hyperbolic partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Matthew

    1986-01-01

    Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations III is a refereed journal issue that explores the applications, theory, and/or applied methods related to hyperbolic partial differential equations, or problems arising out of hyperbolic partial differential equations, in any area of research. This journal issue is interested in all types of articles in terms of review, mini-monograph, standard study, or short communication. Some studies presented in this journal include discretization of ideal fluid dynamics in the Eulerian representation; a Riemann problem in gas dynamics with bifurcation; periodic M

  3. Differential equations problem solver

    CERN Document Server

    Arterburn, David R

    2012-01-01

    REA's Problem Solvers is a series of useful, practical, and informative study guides. Each title in the series is complete step-by-step solution guide. The Differential Equations Problem Solver enables students to solve difficult problems by showing them step-by-step solutions to Differential Equations problems. The Problem Solvers cover material ranging from the elementary to the advanced and make excellent review books and textbook companions. They're perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies.The Differential Equations Problem Solver is the perfect resource for any class, any exam, and

  4. Differential Equations as Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    We extend a conventional action system with a primitive action consisting of a differential equation and an evolution invariant. The semantics is given by a predicate transformer. The weakest liberal precondition is chosen, because it is not always desirable that steps corresponding to differential...... actions shall terminate. It is shown that the proposed differential action has a semantics which corresponds to a discrete approximation when the discrete step size goes to zero. The extension gives action systems the power to model real-time clocks and continuous evolutions within hybrid systems....

  5. Beginning partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Peter V

    2011-01-01

    A rigorous, yet accessible, introduction to partial differential equations-updated in a valuable new edition Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Second Edition provides a comprehensive introduction to partial differential equations (PDEs) with a special focus on the significance of characteristics, solutions by Fourier series, integrals and transforms, properties and physical interpretations of solutions, and a transition to the modern function space approach to PDEs. With its breadth of coverage, this new edition continues to present a broad introduction to the field, while also addres

  6. Ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Richard K

    1982-01-01

    Ordinary Differential Equations is an outgrowth of courses taught for a number of years at Iowa State University in the mathematics and the electrical engineering departments. It is intended as a text for a first graduate course in differential equations for students in mathematics, engineering, and the sciences. Although differential equations is an old, traditional, and well-established subject, the diverse backgrounds and interests of the students in a typical modern-day course cause problems in the selection and method of presentation of material. In order to compensate for this diversity,

  7. Uncertain differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces readers to the basic concepts of and latest findings in the area of differential equations with uncertain factors. It covers the analytic method and numerical method for solving uncertain differential equations, as well as their applications in the field of finance. Furthermore, the book provides a number of new potential research directions for uncertain differential equation. It will be of interest to researchers, engineers and students in the fields of mathematics, information science, operations research, industrial engineering, computer science, artificial intelligence, automation, economics, and management science.

  8. Geriatric depression and its relation with cognitive impairment and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Carol; Tartaglini, María Florencia; Stefani, Dorina; Salgado, Pablo; Taragano, Fernando E; Allegri, Ricardo F

    2014-01-01

    Different subtypes of depressive syndromes exist in late life; many of them have cognitive impairment and sometimes it is difficult to differentiate them from dementia. This research aimed to investigate subtypes of geriatric depression associated with cognitive impairment, searched for differential variables and tried to propose a study model. A hundred and eighteen depressive patients and forty normal subjects matched by age and educational level were evaluated with an extensive neuropsychological battery, scales to evaluate neuropsychiatric symptoms and daily life activities (DLA). Depressive patients were classified in groups by SCAN 2.1: Major Depression Disorder (MDD) (n: 31), Dysthymia Disorder (DD) (n: 31), Subsyndromal Depression Disorder (SSD) (n: 29), Depression due to Dementia (n: 27) (DdD). Neuropsychological significant differences (pdepressive groups, demonstrating distinctive cognitive profiles. Moreover, significant differences (pdepression. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) were significant variables that helped to differentiate depressive groups. Significant correlations between BDI and Neuropsychological tests were found in MDD and DD groups. Depressive symptoms and its relation with neuropsychological variables, MMSE, cognitive profiles, DLA and age of onset of depression should be taken into consideration for the study of subtypes of geriatric depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The influence of motor imagery on postural sway: Differential effects of type of body movement and person perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stins, J.F.; Schneider, I.K.; Koole, S.L.; Beek, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the differential effects of kinesthetic imagery (first person perspective) and visual imagery (third person perspective) on postural sway during quiet standing. Based on an embodied cognition perspective, the authors predicted that kinesthetic imagery would lead to

  10. Cognitive approaches to emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oatley, Keith; Johnson-Laird, P N

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive approaches offer clear links between how emotions are thought about in everyday life and how they are investigated psychologically. Cognitive researchers have focused on how emotions are caused when events or other people affect concerns and on how emotions influence processes such as reasoning, memory, and attention. Three representative cognitive theories of emotion continue to develop productively: the action-readiness theory, the core-affect theory, and the communicative theory. Some principles are common to them and divergences can be resolved by future research. Recent explanations have included how emotions structure social relationships, how they function in psychological illnesses, and how they are central to music and fiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Issues in cognitive reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.D.; Hitchler, M.J.; Rumancik, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter examines some problems in current methods to assess reactor operator reliability at cognitive tasks and discusses new approaches to solve these problems. The two types of human failures are errors in the execution of an intention and errors in the formation/selection of an intention. Topics considered include the types of description, error correction, cognitive performance and response time, the speed-accuracy tradeoff function, function based task analysis, and cognitive task analysis. One problem of human reliability analysis (HRA) techniques in general is the question of what are the units of behavior whose reliability are to be determined. A second problem for HRA is that people often detect and correct their errors. The use of function based analysis, which maps the problem space for plant control, is recommended

  12. Cognitive Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation concerns the investigation of the consistency of statistical regularities in a signaling ecology and human cognition, while inferring appropriate actions for a speech-based perceptual task. It is based on unsupervised Independent Component Analysis providing a rich spectrum...... of audio contexts along with pattern recognition methods to map components to known contexts. It also involves looking for the right representations for auditory inputs, i.e. the data analytic processing pipelines invoked by human brains. The main ideas refer to Cognitive Component Analysis, defined...... as the process of unsupervised grouping of generic data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. Its hypothesis runs ecologically: features which are essentially independent in a context defined ensemble, can be efficiently coded as sparse...

  13. Sleep and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deak, Maryann C; Stickgold, Robert

    2010-07-01

    Sleep is a complex physiologic state, the importance of which has long been recognized. Lack of sleep is detrimental to humans and animals. Over the past decade, an important link between sleep and cognitive processing has been established. Sleep plays an important role in consolidation of different types of memory and contributes to insightful, inferential thinking. While the mechanism by which memories are processed in sleep remains unknown, several experimental models have been proposed. This article explores the link between sleep and cognition by reviewing (1) the effects of sleep deprivation on cognition, (2) the influence of sleep on consolidation of declarative and non-declarative memory, and (3) some proposed models of how sleep facilitates memory consolidation in sleep. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Spatiotemporal Gait Characteristics Associated with Cognitive Impairment: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study, the Intercontinental "Gait, cOgnitiOn & Decline" Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchet, Olivier; Blumen, Helena M; Callisaya, Michele L; De Cock, Anne-Marie; Kressig, Reto W; Srikanth, Velandai; Steinmetz, Jean-Paul; Verghese, Joe; Allali, Gilles

    2018-01-23

    The study aims to determine the spatiotemporal gait parameters and/or their combination(s) that best differentiate between cognitively healthy individuals (CHI), patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and those with mild and moderate dementia, regardless of the etiology of cognitive impairment. A total of 2099 participants (1015 CHI, 478 patients with MCI, 331 patients with mild dementia and 275 with moderate dementia) were selected from the intercontinental "Gait, cOgnitiOn & Decline" (GOOD) initiative, which merged different databases from seven cross-sectional studies. Mean values and coefficients of variation (CoV) of spatiotemporal gait parameters were recorded during usual walking with the GAITRite® system. The severity of cognitive impairment was associated with worse performance on all gait parameters. Stride velocity had the strongest association with cognitive impairment, regardless of cognitive status. High mean value and CoV of stride length characterized moderate dementia, whereas increased CoV of stride time was specific to MCI status. The findings support the existence of specific cognitive impairment-related gait disturbances with differences related to stages of cognitive impairment, which may be used to screen individuals with cognitive impairment. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Onzekerheden over het nut van behandeling van subklinische schildklierfunctiestoornissen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W. M.

    2006-01-01

    The Leiden 85-plus study in the oldest old has observed (a) no relationship between thyroid function and symptoms of depression, cognitive impairment or disabilities in daily life, and (b) increased mortality in subjects with TSH < 0.3 mU/l as well as longer survival in subjects with TSH > 4.8 mU/l.

  16. Current perspectives on cognitive diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eBender

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To what extent is cognition influenced by a person’s cultural background? This question has remained controversial in large fields of the cognitive sciences, including cognitive psychology, and is also underexplored in anthropology. In this perspective article, findings from a recent wave of cross-cultural studies will be outlined with respect to three aspects of cognition: perception and categorization, number representation and counting, and explanatory frameworks and beliefs. Identifying similarities and differences between these domains allows for general conclusions regarding cognitive diversity and helps to highlight the importance of culturally shaped content for a comprehensive understanding of cognition.

  17. Cognitive impairments in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Anatolyevich Kostylev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairments in epilepsy are a current problem in neurology. The basis of the idea on the pathogenesis of higher nervous system dysfunctions is the interaction of a few factors that include the form and duration of the disease, gender differences, and the impact of antiepileptic therapy. The role of interattack epileptiform changes in the development of cognitive deficit in adults and epileptic encephalopathies in children is discussed. Up-to-date neurophysiological and neuroimaging diagnostic methods allow the detection of new features in the course and progression of higher nervous system dysfunctions in epilepsy.

  18. Gratitude in cognitive psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia C. Moyano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gratitude is a cognitive-affective state caused by the recognition that one has received a benefit from an external agent, due to the good intentions of this agent. Despite the evidence that associate gratitude with subjective well being, psychological well being, physical health and copping with stressful events, it is not enough taken in consideration in an academic level and in its interaction with psychotherapy instruments as well. In this article, the central concepts and information provided by the research are revised, intending to analyze possible ways to include gratitude into Cognitive Psychotherapy. 

  19. Problems in differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Brenner, J L

    2013-01-01

    More than 900 problems and answers explore applications of differential equations to vibrations, electrical engineering, mechanics, and physics. Problem types include both routine and nonroutine, and stars indicate advanced problems. 1963 edition.

  20. Criticality in cell differentiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indrani Bose

    2017-11-09

    Nov 9, 2017 ... Differentiation is mostly based on binary decisions with the progenitor cells ..... accounts for the dominant part of the remaining variation ... significant loss in information. ..... making in vitro: emerging concepts and novel tools.

  1. Differentiation of subdural effusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterling, T.; Rama, B.

    1989-01-01

    Although X-ray computerized tomography facilitates the diagnosis of intracranial disorders, differentiation of the lesions like extracerebral effusions is often unsatisfactory. Epidural and acute subdural haematoma shown as hyperdensity in CT requires an emergency neurosurgical operation, so that differentiation of these hyperdense effusions may not be required. But the discrimination of the effusions shown as hypodensity in CT (chronic subdural haematoma, subdural hygroma, subdural empyema as well as arachnoid cysts) is urgent because of the different treatment of these effusions. The clinical differentiation is hampered by unspecific neurologic symptoms and the lack of adequate laboratory tests. Some aspects facilitating the diagnostic decision are presented. Recent magnetic resonance (MR) studies promise further progress in differentiating between subdural effusions. (orig.) [de

  2. On paragrassmann differential calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, A.T.; Isaev, A.P.; Kurdikov, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    The paper significantly extends and generalizes our previous paper. Here we discuss explicit general constructions for paragrassmann calculus with one and many variables. For one variable nondegenerate differentiation algebras are identified and shown to be equivalent to the algebra of (p+1)x(p+1) complex matrices. For many variables we give a general construction of the differentiation algebras. Some particular examples are related to the multiparametric quantum deformations of the harmonic oscillators. 18 refs

  3. Differential forms of supermanifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresin, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    The theory of differential and pseUdo-differential forms on supermanifolds is constructed. The definition and notations of superanalogy of the Pontryagin and Chern characteristic classes are given. The theory considered is purely local. The scheme suggested here generalizes the so-called Weil homomorphism for superspace which lays on the basis of the Chern and Potryagin characteristic class theory. The theory can be extended to the global supermanifolds

  4. Solving Ordinary Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, F. T.

    1987-01-01

    Initial-value ordinary differential equation solution via variable order Adams method (SIVA/DIVA) package is collection of subroutines for solution of nonstiff ordinary differential equations. There are versions for single-precision and double-precision arithmetic. Requires fewer evaluations of derivatives than other variable-order Adams predictor/ corrector methods. Option for direct integration of second-order equations makes integration of trajectory problems significantly more efficient. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  5. Ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Features a balance between theory, proofs, and examples and provides applications across diverse fields of study Ordinary Differential Equations presents a thorough discussion of first-order differential equations and progresses to equations of higher order. The book transitions smoothly from first-order to higher-order equations, allowing readers to develop a complete understanding of the related theory. Featuring diverse and interesting applications from engineering, bioengineering, ecology, and biology, the book anticipates potential difficulties in understanding the various solution steps

  6. Beginning partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    A broad introduction to PDEs with an emphasis on specialized topics and applications occurring in a variety of fields Featuring a thoroughly revised presentation of topics, Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Third Edition provides a challenging, yet accessible,combination of techniques, applications, and introductory theory on the subjectof partial differential equations. The new edition offers nonstandard coverageon material including Burger's equation, the telegraph equation, damped wavemotion, and the use of characteristics to solve nonhomogeneous problems. The Third Edition is or

  7. The poverty of embodied cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldinger, Stephen D; Papesh, Megan H; Barnhart, Anthony S; Hansen, Whitney A; Hout, Michael C

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, there has been rapidly growing interest in embodied cognition, a multifaceted theoretical proposition that (1) cognitive processes are influenced by the body, (2) cognition exists in the service of action, (3) cognition is situated in the environment, and (4) cognition may occur without internal representations. Many proponents view embodied cognition as the next great paradigm shift for cognitive science. In this article, we critically examine the core ideas from embodied cognition, taking a "thought exercise" approach. We first note that the basic principles from embodiment theory are either unacceptably vague (e.g., the premise that perception is influenced by the body) or they offer nothing new (e.g., cognition evolved to optimize survival, emotions affect cognition, perception-action couplings are important). We next suggest that, for the vast majority of classic findings in cognitive science, embodied cognition offers no scientifically valuable insight. In most cases, the theory has no logical connections to the phenomena, other than some trivially true ideas. Beyond classic laboratory findings, embodiment theory is also unable to adequately address the basic experiences of cognitive life.

  8. Cognitive load predicts point-of-care ultrasound simulator performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldekhyl, Sara; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo B; Naismith, Laura M

    2018-02-01

    The ability to maintain good performance with low cognitive load is an important marker of expertise. Incorporating cognitive load measurements in the context of simulation training may help to inform judgements of competence. This exploratory study investigated relationships between demographic markers of expertise, cognitive load measures, and simulator performance in the context of point-of-care ultrasonography. Twenty-nine medical trainees and clinicians at the University of Toronto with a range of clinical ultrasound experience were recruited. Participants answered a demographic questionnaire then used an ultrasound simulator to perform targeted scanning tasks based on clinical vignettes. Participants were scored on their ability to both acquire and interpret ultrasound images. Cognitive load measures included participant self-report, eye-based physiological indices, and behavioural measures. Data were analyzed using a multilevel linear modelling approach, wherein observations were clustered by participants. Experienced participants outperformed novice participants on ultrasound image acquisition. Ultrasound image interpretation was comparable between the two groups. Ultrasound image acquisition performance was predicted by level of training, prior ultrasound training, and cognitive load. There was significant convergence between cognitive load measurement techniques. A marginal model of ultrasound image acquisition performance including prior ultrasound training and cognitive load as fixed effects provided the best overall fit for the observed data. In this proof-of-principle study, the combination of demographic and cognitive load measures provided more sensitive metrics to predict ultrasound simulator performance. Performance assessments which include cognitive load can help differentiate between levels of expertise in simulation environments, and may serve as better predictors of skill transfer to clinical practice.

  9. Shift Work and Cognitive Flexibility: Decomposing Task Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Philip; Tallent, Gabriel; Bender, Thomas John; Tran, Kieulinh Michelle; Drake, Christopher L

    2017-04-01

    Deficits in cognitive functioning associated with shift work are particularly relevant to occupational performance; however, few studies have examined how cognitive functioning is associated with specific components of shift work. This observational study examined how circadian phase, nocturnal sleepiness, and daytime insomnia in a sample of shift workers ( N = 30) were associated with cognitive flexibility during the night shift. Cognitive flexibility was measured using a computerized task-switching paradigm, which produces 2 indexes of flexibility: switch cost and set inhibition. Switch cost represents the additional cognitive effort required in switching to a different task and can impact performance when multitasking is involved. Set inhibition is the efficiency in returning to previously completed tasks and represents the degree of cognitive perseveration, which can lead to reduced accuracy. Circadian phase was measured via melatonin assays, nocturnal sleepiness was assessed using the Multiple Sleep Latency Test, and daytime insomnia was assessed using the Insomnia Severity Index. Results indicated that those with an earlier circadian phase, insomnia, and sleepiness exhibited reduced cognitive flexibility; however, specific components of cognitive flexibility were differentially associated with circadian phase, insomnia, and sleepiness. Individuals with an earlier circadian phase (thus more misaligned to the night shift) exhibited larger switch costs, which was also associated with reduced task efficiency. Shift workers with more daytime insomnia demonstrated difficulties with cognitive inhibition, whereas nocturnal sleepiness was associated with difficulties in reactivating previous tasks. Deficits in set inhibition were also related to reduced accuracy and increased perseverative errors. Together, this study indicates that task performance deficits in shift work are complex and are variably impacted by different mechanisms. Future research may examine

  10. The effects of lifelong cognitive lifestyle on executive function in older people with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, John V; Martin-Forbes, Pamela A; Martyr, Anthony; Bastable, Alexandra J M; Pye, Kirstie L; Mueller Gathercole, Virginia C; Thomas, Enlli M; Clare, Linda

    2017-12-01

    Active lifelong cognitive lifestyles increase cognitive reserve and have beneficial effects on global cognition, cognitive decline and dementia risk in Parkinson's disease (PD). Executive function is particularly impaired even in early PD, and this impacts on quality of life. The effects of lifelong cognitive lifestyle on executive function in PD have not been studied previously. This study examined the association between lifelong cognitive lifestyle, as a proxy measure of cognitive reserve, and executive function in people with PD. Sixty-nine people diagnosed with early PD without dementia were recruited as part of the Bilingualism as a protective factor in Age-related Neurodegenerative Conditions study. Participants completed a battery of tests of executive function. The Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire was completed as a comprehensive assessment of lifelong cognitive lifestyle. Non-parametric correlations compared clinical measures with executive function scores. Cross-sectional analyses of covariance were performed comparing the performance of low and high cognitive reserve groups on executive function tests. Correlational analyses showed that better executive function scores were associated with younger age, higher levodopa dose and higher Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire scores. Higher cognitive reserve was associated with better motor function, but high and low cognitive reserve groups did not differ in executive function. Cognitive reserve, although associated with global cognition, does not appear to be associated with executive function. This differential effect may reflect the specific cognitive profile of PD. The long-term effects of cognitive reserve on executive function in PD require further exploration. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Cognitive psychophysiology: a window to cognitive development and brain maturation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, P.C.M.; van der Molen, M.W.; Dawson, G.; Fischer, K.W.

    1994-01-01

    Focus of this chapter is on cognitive psychophysiology as a bridge for two-way interaction between the study of cognitive development and research on the developing nervous system. Demonstrates how psychophysiological measures can be used to understand cognitive development in relation to brain

  12. Teasing Out Cognitive Development from Cognitive Style: A Training Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globerson, Tamar; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Tested whether or not cognitive development (as measured by mental capacity) and cognitive style (as measured by field-dependence/independence) are different dimensions. Results are discussed with regard to Pascual-Leone's model of cognitive development, relevance to stylistic dimension of reflection/impulsivity, and educational implications.…

  13. Asymmetric Spatial Processing Under Cognitive Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Naert

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Spatial attention allows us to selectively process information within a certain location in space. Despite the vast literature on spatial attention, the effect of cognitive load on spatial processing is still not fully understood. In this study we added cognitive load to a spatial processing task, so as to see whether it would differentially impact upon the processing of visual information in the left versus the right hemispace. The main paradigm consisted of a detection task that was performed during the maintenance interval of a verbal working memory task. We found that increasing cognitive working memory load had a more negative impact on detecting targets presented on the left side compared to those on the right side. The strength of the load effect correlated with the strength of the interaction on an individual level. The implications of an asymmetric attentional bias with a relative disadvantage for the left (vs the right hemispace under high verbal working memory (WM load are discussed.

  14. Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more: Key Types of Dementia , What Is Alzheimer's? , Alzheimer's Risk Factors Symptoms back to top Experts classify Mild cognitive ... in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy 2014 Thor Stein Genetic Risk Factors Underlying Chronic Trauma and Alzheimer's Disease Pathology 2014 Kun Ping Lu Validation of ...

  15. Conservatism and Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, Lazar

    2009-01-01

    Conservatism and cognitive ability are negatively correlated. The evidence is based on 1254 community college students and 1600 foreign students seeking entry to United States' universities. At the individual level of analysis, conservatism scores correlate negatively with SAT, Vocabulary, and Analogy test scores. At the national level of…

  16. From cognition to practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engerer, Volkmar Paul; Gudiksen, Jens Kristian Dahlgaard

    2016-01-01

    of this contribution is a deconstruction of the cognitive assumptions about learning and seeking/searching in the light of action-oriented approaches. We develop two types of action-oriented approach. The first approach, which comes from Critical Psychology, understands learning as a primarily social phenomenon...

  17. Cognition and Incomplete Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Tirole, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Thinking about contingencies, designing covenants, and seeing through their implications is costly. Parties to a contract accordingly use heuristics and leave it incomplete. The paper develops a model of limited cognition and examines its consequences for contractual design. (JEL D23, D82, D86, L22)

  18. Religion and cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2008-01-01

    This is an introductory article in a special issue of a bulletin for researchers and teachers in religion in the USA. The article sketches the main positions and recent trends in the cognitive science of religion, and it attempts to attract scholars of religion to this field. It also profiles...

  19. Social cognition in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frith, Christopher; Frith, Uta

    2007-01-01

    We review a diversity of studies of human social interaction and highlight the importance of social signals. We also discuss recent findings from social cognitive neuroscience that explore the brain basis of the capacity for processing social signals. These signals enable us to learn about...

  20. Modeling Organizational Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen; Secchi, Davide

    2018-01-01

    units' (e.g., research groups', departmental) framing of the notorious impact factor. Results show that organizational cognition cannot be described without an intermediate meso scale - called here social organizing - that both filters and enables the many kinds of socially enabled perception, action...